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Sample records for radioactive nuclide production

  1. Investigation on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products in Xi'an construction materials market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunlin; Han Feng; Shang Aiguo; Li Tiantuo; Guo Huiping; Yie Lichao; Li Guifang

    2001-01-01

    The author reports the investigation results on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products from Xi'an construction materials market. The products were classified according to the national standard. The results show that natural radioactive nuclide contents in sampled rock products are in normal radioactive background levels. The radio-activity ranges of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are 2.7 - 181.8, 0.92 - 271.0, 0.63 - 148.0, 1.8 - 1245 Bq·kg -1 , respectively. According to the national standard (JC 518-93), the application of some rock products must be limited

  2. Production of radioactive nuclides in inverse reaction kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traykov, E.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Bosswell, M.; Dammalapati, U.; Dendooven, P.; Dermois, O.C.; Jungmann, K.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Sohani, M.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W.; Young, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient production of short-lived radioactive isotopes in inverse reaction kinematics is an important technique for various applications. It is particularly relevant when the isotope of interest is only a few nucleons away from a stable isotope. In this article production via charge exchange and stripping reactions in combination with a magnetic separator is explored. The relation between the separator transmission efficiency, the production yield, and the choice of beam energy is discussed. The results of some exploratory experiments will be presented

  3. Radioactive nuclide adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the efficiency of a radioactive nuclide adsorption device by applying a nickel plating on a nickel plate to render the surface active. Constitution: A capturing device for radioactive nuclide such as manganese 54, cobalt 60, 58 and the like is disposed to the inside of a pipeway provided on the upper portion of fuel assemblies through which liquid sodium as the coolant for LMFBR type reactor is passed. The device comprises a cylindrical adsorption body and spacers. The adsorption body is made of nickel and applied with a nickel plating on the surface thereof. The surface of the adsorption body is unevened to result in disturbance in the coolant and thereby improve the adsorptive efficiency. (Kawakami, Y.)

  4. Apparatus for eliminating electrodeposition of radioactive nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Ichiro; Ishibe, Tadao; Matsunaga, Masaaki; Konuki, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Kazunori; Watanabe, Minoru; Tomoshige, Shozo; Kondo, Kozo.

    1990-01-01

    In a conventional device for eliminating by radioactive nuclides electrodeposition, a liquid containing radioactive nuclides is electrolyzed under a presence of non-radioactive heavy metals and removing radioactive nuclides by electrodepositing them together with the heavy metals. Two anode plates are opposed in an electrolysis vessel of this device. A plurality (4 to 6) of cathode plates are arranged between the anodes in parallel with them and the cathode surfaces opposed to the anodes are insulated. Further, such a plurality of cathode plates are grouped into respective units. Alternatively, the anode plate is made of platinum-plated titanium material and the cathode plate is made of stainless steel. In the thus constituted electrodeposition eliminating device, since the cathode surface directed to the anodes on both ends are insulated, all of electric current from the anode reach the core cathode after flowing around the cathodes at both ends. As a result, there is no substantial difference in the flowing length of the electrolyzing current to each of the cathodes and these is neither difference in the electrodeposition amount. The electrodeposited products are adhered uniformly and densely to the electrodes and, simultaneously, Co-60 and Mn-54, etc. are also electrodeposited. (I.S.)

  5. Radioactive nuclide production and isomeric state branching ratios in P + W reactions to 200 mev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.G.; Chadwick, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    Calculations of nuclide yields from spallation reactions usually assume that the products are formed in their ground states. We are performing calculations of product yields from proton reactions on tungsten isotopes that explicitly account for formation of the residual nuclei in excited states. The Hauser-Feshbach statistical/preequilibrium code GNASH, with full accounting for angular momentum conservation and electromagnetic transitions, is utilized in the calculations. We present preliminary results for isomer branching ratios for proton reactions to 200 MeV for several products including the 31-y, 16+ state in l78 Hf and the 25-d, 25/2- state in 179 Hf. Knowledge of such branching ratios, might be important for concepts such as accelerator production of tritium that utilize intermediate-energy proton reactions on tungsten

  6. Radioactive nuclides in the living environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Kaoru; Hoshi, Michio.

    1993-09-01

    There are several radioactive nuclides in the living environment, such as those existing since the creation of the earth, those coming from experimental nuclear explosions, and radiations of the cosmic rays. A lesson on these radioactive nuclides was considered useful for understanding the place of nuclear technology, and have been made on the title of 'Radioactive Nuclides in the Living Environment' in the general course of the Nuclear Engineering School of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. When the curriculum of the general course was modified in 1993, the lesson was left in a changed form. Thus, the textbook of the lesson is presented in this report. The contents are natural and artificial radioactive nuclides in the living environment and where they have come from etc. (author)

  7. Radioactive consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Otomaru

    1981-01-01

    Present situation of utilizing the radioactive consumer products and exposure dose were reviewed with published data. Practically, consumer products are divided into three categories, (1) radioactive nuclides intentionally incorporated into radioluminous dye, ionization chambers for smoke detector, eliminator of static electricity, and glow lamp (2) natural radioactive nuclides contained in false teeth, porcelain, glass, and gas mantle (3) natural radioactive nuclides accumulated as industrial waste at the consumption of coal, petroleum, and natural gas or in fertilizer and materials for construction. (Nakanishi, T.)

  8. Radioactive nuclides in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsu, Eiko

    1982-12-01

    In the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI, many courses are presented for the people working in and around nuclear reactors. The curricula of the courses contain also chemical subject materials. With reference to the foreign curricula, a plan of educational subject material of chemistry was considered for students of the school in the previous report (JAERI-M 9827), where the first part of the plan, ''Fundamentals of Reactor Chemistry'', was reviewed. This report is a review of the second part of the plan containing fission products chemistry, actinoids elements chemistry and activated reactor materials chemistry. (author)

  9. Modelling indoor exposure to natural radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.; Daschil, F.

    1986-01-01

    Radon enters buildings from several sources primarily from building materials and from the soil or rocks that underlie or surround building fundaments. A multicompartment model was developed which describes the fate of radon and attached or free radon decay products in a model room by a set of linear time-dependent differential equations. Time-dependent coefficients allow to model temporal parameter changes, e.g. the opening of windows, or a sudden pressure drop leading to enhanced exhalation. While steady-state models were used to study the effect of parameter changes on steady state nuclide concentrations, the time-dependent models provided additional information on the time scale of these changes. (author)

  10. Development of radioactivity estimation system considering radioactive nuclide movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumura, Nobuo; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    A radioactivity estimation system considering radioactive nuclide movement is developed to integrate the established codes and the code system for decommissioning of sodium cooled fast reactor (FBR). The former are the codes for estimation of radioactivity movement in sodium coolant of fast reactor which are named SAFFIRE, PSYCHE and TTT. The latter code system is to estimate neutron irradiation activity (COSMARD-RRADO). It is paid special attention to keep the consistency of input data used among these codes and also the simplification of their interface. A new function is added to the estimation system, to estimate minor FP inventory caused by the fission of impurities contained in the coolant and slight fuel material attached on the fuel cladding. To check the evaluation system, the system is applied with radioactivity data of the preceding FBR such as BN-350, JOYO and Monju. Agreement between the analysis results and the measurement is well satisfactory. The uncertainty of the code system is within several tens per cent for the activation of primary coolant (Na-22) and factor of 2-4 for the estimation of radioactivity inventory in sodium coolant. (author)

  11. Radioactive equilibria and disequilibria of U-series nuclides in the products from Izu arc volcanoes, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, Y.; Sato, J. [Meiji Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry; Takahashi, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan). Radiation Safety Research Center

    2011-07-01

    Activity ratios among {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th-{sup 226}Ra in the products from Izu arc volcanoes, Japan, were observed in order to estimate the time scale of magmatic processes and the magma generation for Izu arc volcanism. Activity ratios of {sup 238}U/{sup 230}Th and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th in the basaltic and andesitic products from Izu arc volcanoes were greater than unity, being enriched in {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra relative to {sup 230}Th. The {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th activity ratio versus {sup 238}U/{sup 230}Th activity ratio diagram for these products showed positive correlation, suggesting that the {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th-{sup 226}Ra disequilibria occurred during the magma genesis by the additions of U- and Ra-rich fluids derived from the subducting slab by dehydration to the mantle wedge. The {sup 230}Th-{sup 226226}Ra radioactive disequilibria observed in the basaltic and andesitic products imply a short period of time (<8000 years) between the magma genesis and the eruption. The majority of rhyolitic products was considered to be almost in equilibrium of {sup 238}U={sup 230}Th={sup 226}Ra. The observation that {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th-{sup 226}Ra for the rhyolite are in radioactive equilibrium suggested that the rhyolitic magma from Izu arc was generated in the partial melting of the earth crust heated by the basaltic magma of high temperature. (orig.)

  12. Measurements of neutron cross sections of radioactive waste nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Toshio [Gifu College of Medical Technology, Seki, Gifu (Japan); Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu; Hatsukawa, Yuichi

    1998-01-01

    Accurate nuclear reaction cross sections of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements are required for research on nuclear transmutation methods in nuclear waste management. Important fission products in the nuclear waste management are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I because of their large fission yields and long half-lives. The present authors have measured the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 99}Tc. The purpose of this study is to measure the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of nuclides, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs accurately. Preliminary experiments were performed by using Rikkyo University Reactor and JRR-3 reactor at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Then, it was decided to measure the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs by using the JRR-3 Reactor because this measurement required a high flux reactor. On the other hand, those of {sup 129}I were measured at the Rikkyo Reactor because the product nuclides, {sup 130}I and {sup 130m}I, have short half-lives and this reactor is suitable for the study of short lived nuclide. In this report, the measurements of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs are described. To obtain reliable values of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs(n, {gamma}){sup 136}Cs reaction, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for the mass analysis of nuclide in the sample. A progress report on the cross section of {sup 134}Cs, a neighbour of {sup 135}Cs, is included in this report. A report on {sup 129}I will be presented in the Report on the Joint-Use of Rikkyo University Reactor. (author)

  13. Radioactive nuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Aiji; Miyagawa, Naoto; Miyanaga, Naotake

    1984-01-01

    To investigate behaviour of 95 Zr, 95 Nb in the marine environment, various samples have been collected and measured by means of Ge(Li) γ-ray spectrometry and/or radiochemical analysis during a period from 1974 to 1982 at coastal area of Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture. Concentration of the nuclides in seaweeds increased remarkably after atmospheric nuclear detonation by P.R. of China, and the activity ratio between the nuclides changed by time was not fit well by the transient decay equation. Concentration variation in sea water was smaller than that in sea weeds, and the minimum change in sea sediment. Increase of concentration in these environmental samples was observed in chronological order of sea water, sea weeds then sediment after detonations, suggesting that the uptake of the nuclides by these sea weeds from sea water is faster than that via root. Observed concentration factors on the nuclides by sea weeds were calculated from the observed concentrations in sea water and sea weeds. Maximum values on 95 Zr and 95 Nb were 2110, 2150, respectively for Ecklonia cava and Eisenia bicyclis. (author)

  14. Radioactive-nuclide decay data in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, C.W.; Helmer, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The scope of ENDF/B has recently been expanded to include radioactive-nuclide decay data. In this paper, the content and organization of the decay data which are included in ENDF/B are presented and discussed. The application of decay data in a wide variety of nuclear-related activities is illustrated by a number of examples. Two items pointed up by the ENDF/B decay-data compilation effort are treated: the identification of deficiencies in the data; and the importance of a radioactive-nuclide metrology effort oriented toward supplying these needs in a systematic fashion. 3 figures, 2 tables

  15. Radioactive-nuclide decay data in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, C.W.; Helmer, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The scope of ENDF/B has recently been expanded to include radioactive-nuclide decay data. In this paper, the content and organization of the decay data which are included in ENDF/B are presented and discussed. The application of decay data in a wide variety of nuclear-related activities is illustrated by a number of examples. Two items pointed up by the ENDF/B decay-data compilation effort are treated: the identification of deficiencies in the data; and the importance of a radioactive-nuclide metrology effort oriented toward supplying these needs in a systematic fashion. (3 figures, 1 table)

  16. Reportable Nuclide Criteria for ORNL Radioactive Waste Management Activities - 13005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, Kip; Forrester, Tim; Saunders, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee generates numerous radioactive waste streams. Many of those streams contain a large number of radionuclides with an extremely broad range of concentrations. To feasibly manage the radionuclide information, ORNL developed reportable nuclide criteria to distinguish between those nuclides in a waste stream that require waste tracking versus those nuclides of such minimal activity that do not require tracking. The criteria include tracking thresholds drawn from ORNL onsite management requirements, transportation requirements, and relevant treatment and disposal facility acceptance criteria. As a management practice, ORNL maintains waste tracking on a nuclide in a specific waste stream if it exceeds any of the reportable nuclide criteria. Nuclides in a specific waste stream that screen out as non-reportable under all these criteria may be dropped from ORNL waste tracking. The benefit of these criteria is to ensure that nuclides in a waste stream with activities which meaningfully affect safety and compliance are tracked, while documenting the basis for removing certain isotopes from further consideration. (authors)

  17. Nuclide-specific monitoring of airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aures, R.; Neu, A.

    1996-01-01

    Since the end of the seventies the Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg ist operating two radioaerosol monitoring stations at the border in the opposite of foreign nuclear power plants. Since the end of the eighties six similar monitoring stations were built up for measuring activity in breathing air in the common environment in Baden-Wuerttemberg. A special filtersystem allows measuring the activity concentration of up to 99 nuclides. The measuring system was optimized by advanced PC-technology, a multitasking operating system and a special software for users and gamma-spectroscopy. These increased the average availability of all monitoring stations to 96% in 1996. (orig.) [de

  18. Modified microspheres for cleaning liquid wastes from radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilin, Lev; Drozhzhin, Valery

    2007-01-01

    An effective solution of nuclear industry problems related to deactivation of technological and natural waters polluted with toxic and radioactive elements is the development of inorganic sorbents capable of not only withdrawing radioactive nuclides, but also of providing their subsequent conservation under conditions of long-term storage. A successful technical approach to creation of sorbents can be the use of hollow aluminosilicate microspheres. Such microspheres are formed from mineral additives during coal burning in furnaces of boiler units of electric power stations. Despite some reduction in exchange capacity per a mass unit of sorbents the latter have high kinetic characteristics that makes it possible to carry out the sorption process both in static and dynamic modes. Taking into account large industrial resources of microspheres as by-products of electric power stations, a comparative simplicity of the modification process, as well as good kinetic and capacitor characteristics, this class of sorbents can be considered promising enough for solving the problems of cleaning liquid radioactive wastes of various pollution levels. (authors)

  19. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the `Mayak` region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasoedov, B F [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Novikov, A P [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  20. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the 'Mayak' region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasoedov, B.F.; Novikov, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  1. Final results of the 'Benchmark on computer simulation of radioactive nuclides production rate and heat generation rate in a spallation target'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janczyszyn, J.; Pohorecki, W.; Domanska, G.; Maiorino, R.J.; David, J.C.; Velarde, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    A benchmark has been organized to assess the computer simulation of nuclide production and heat generation in a spallation lead target. The physical models applied for the calculation of thick lead target activation do not produce satisfactory results for the majority of analysed nuclides, however one can observe better or worse quantitative compliance with the experimental results. Analysis of the quality of calculated results show the best performance for heavy nuclides (A: 170 - 190). For intermediate nuclides (A: 60 - 130) almost all are underestimated while for A: 130 - 170 mainly overestimated. The shape of the activity distribution in the target is well reproduced in calculations by all models but the numerical comparison shows similar performance as for the whole target. The Isabel model yields best results. As for the whole target heating rate, the results from all participants are consistent. Only small differences are observed between results from physical models. As for the heating distribution in the target it looks not quite similar. The quantitative comparison of the distributions yielded by different spallation reaction models shows for the major part of the target no serious differences - generally below 10%. However, in the most outside parts of the target front layers and the part of the target at its end behind the primary protons range, a spread higher than 40 % is obtained

  2. Nuclide radioactive decay data uncertainties library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanova, D S; Zherdev, G M

    2017-01-01

    The results of the developing the library of uncertainties of radioactive decay data in the ABBN data library format are described. Different evaluations of uncertainties were compared and their effects on the results of calculations of residual energy release were determined using the test problems and experiment. Tables were generated in the ABBN format with the data obtained on the basis of libraries in ENDF-6 format. 3821 isotopes from the ENDF/B-7 data library, 3852 isotopes from the JEFF-3.11 data library and 1264 isotopes from the JENDL-4.0 data library were processed. It was revealed that the differences in the evaluations accepted in different decay data libraries are not so big, although they sometimes exceed the uncertainties assigned to the data in the ENDF/B-7 and JEFF-3.11 libraries, which as a rule, they agree with each other. On the basis of developed method it is supposed to create a library of data uncertainties for radioactive decay within the constant data system in FSUE RFNC-VNIIEF with its further connection with CRYSTAL module. (paper)

  3. Long-term behaviour of radioactive nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M.

    1999-01-01

    Report of recent advances in Europe, regarding the long-term development of radioactive nuclides in the environment. The corresponding scientific findings from three projects - Peace, Landscape and Epora (involving 18 European laboratories) - have been collected together. These projects were managed by the IPSN for the European Commission (DG XII) in the framework of the programme 'Surete de la fission nucleaire' (Nuclear fission safety programme). (author)

  4. Accumulation and metabolism of radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku

    1981-01-01

    After the injection of RI into the mantle cavity of Iidako (Octopus ocellatus), changes of whole body radioactivity were examined. Both the inorganic and organic forms of cobalt were most heavily distributed in the branchial heart. Cyanocobalamin was distributed in an extremely small amount in the liver, but was more distributed in the arms, or gonad. Mn and Zn were almost equally distributed in most portions, but were scarcely accumulated in the branchial heart. Like Co, Fe was ubiquitous in the branchial heart. In relation to the gel filtration pattern of the branchial heart extract, Co-chloride mostly flowed out into the small molecular zone, and cyano-cobalamin into the heavy molecular zone. Mn, Zn and Fe flowed out into similar portions, and the outflux of protein in absorption spectrum was also similar. Only Co and Fe were concentrated in the branchial heart, suggesting not only that their forms of accumulation were similar, but also that Mn and Zn were present in similar forms. (Chiba, N.)

  5. Method of processing radioactive nuclide-containing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Masahide; Tomoshige, Shozo; Kondo, Kozo; Suzuki, Kazunori; Todo, Fukuzo; Yamanaka, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To solidify radioactive nuclides in to a much compact state and facilitate the storage. Method: Liquid wastes such as drain liquids generated from a nuclear power plant at a low density of 1 x 10 -6 - 10 -4 μCi/ml are previously brought into contact with a chelate type ion exchange resin such as of phenolic resin or ion exchange resin to adsorb the radioactive nuclides on the resin and the nuclides are eluted with sulfuric acid or the like to obtain liquid concentrates. The liquid concentrates are electrolyzed in an ordinary electrolytic facility using platinum or the like as the anode, Al or the like as the cathode, under the presence of 1 - 20 g/l of non-radioactive heavy metals such as Co and Ni in the liquid and while adjusting pH to 2 - 8. The electrolysis liquid residue is returned again to the electrolysis tank as it is or in the form of precipitates coagulated with a polymeric floculant. The supernatant liquid upon floculating treatment is processed with the chelate type ion exchange resin into hazardless liquid. (Sekiya, K.)

  6. Nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przyborowski, S.; Scheler, R.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure has been proposed for setting nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials. It consists in grading the radionuclides into 4 groups of radiotoxicity and assigning only one activity limit to each of them. Examples are given for about 200 radionuclides. The radiation exposures resulting from a continuous steady release of activity fractions or from short-period release of the entire activity were assessed to remain below 0.1 ALI in both of these borderline cases, thus justifying the license-free utilization of radioactive materials below the exemption limits. (author)

  7. NON-CONVENTIONAL PET NUCLIDES: PRODUCTION AND IMAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Laforest, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Medical cyclotrons are now commonly used for the production of PET nuclides by the (pn) reaction. These devices are typically capable of delivering 10-15 MeV protons beams at sufficiently high intensity for timely production of β+ decaying nuclides. Non-conventional PET nuclides have emerged recently and offers new opportunities for diagnostic and therapy drug discovery. In this paper, we will review the production capabilities for such nuclides at Washington University Medical Schoo...

  8. Water hyacinth : the suitable aquatic weed for radioactive nuclide absorption in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalermsuk, Somporn; Jungpattanawadee, Komgrid; Tongrong, Thanachai

    2003-06-01

    The experiment was set up to determine the quantities of radioactive nuclides which were absorbed by aquatic weeds in Khon Kaen Province. The best aquatic weed would be used to be sampled for study of radioactive nuclide quantities in natural water resources. Seven kinds of aquatic weeds in the same site were corrected and pretreated by ovening to be ash at 450 οC. Gamma-ray spectra of the samples were detected and analyzed for comparing the quantities of radioactive nuclides. Gamma-ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector was set up to detect radioactive nuclides and their quantities in ashes of aquatic weeds. According to this study, water hyacinth, from seven aquatic weeds, had the most quantities of radioactive nuclides. The water hyacinth with 30 cm leaves in length can absorb the most quantities of radioactive nuclides

  9. WIS decontamination factor demonstration test with radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbe, Hiromi; Mayuzumi, Masami; Ono, Tetsuo; Nagae, Madoka; Sekiguchi, Ryosaku; Takaoku, Yoshinobu.

    1987-01-01

    A radioactive Waste Incineration System (WIS) with suspension combustion is noticed as effective volume reduction technology of low level radiactive wastes that are increasing every year. In order to demonstrate the decontamination efficiency of ceramic filter used on WIS, this test has been carried out with the test facilities as joint research of Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. Miscellaneous combustible waste and power resin, to which 5 nuclides (Mn-54, Fe-59, Co-60, Zn-65, Cs-137) were added, were used as samples for incineration. As the result of the test, it was verified that Decontamination Factor (DF) of the single stage ceramic filter was usually kept over 10 5 for every nuclide, and from the results of above DF, over 10 8 is expected for real commercial plant as a total system. Therefore, it is realized that the off-gas clean up system of the WIS composed of only single stage of ceramic filter is capable of sufficiently efficient decontamination of exhaust gas to be released to stack. (author)

  10. Method of separating radioactive nuclides from ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazunori; Saikoku, Masami; Taneta, Daisuke; Yagi, Takuro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to safely process radioactive nuclides from spent ion exchange resins by using existent processing facilities. Method: Ion exchange resins in aqueous medium are at first placed to the ultrasonic wave irradiation site and put into such a state where clads and resins are easily separatable from each other by weakening the bonding force between them. Since the clads are magnetic material such as Fe 3 O 4 or NiFe 2 O 4 , the clads can be collected in the direction of the magnetic force by exerting the magnetic field simultaneously. The collected clads are transported by means of the aqueous medium to a collecting tank by removing the effect of magnetic field, for example, by interrupting the current supply to the electromagnet. Finally, they were subjected to stabilization and fixation into inorganic hardening agent such as cement hardener. Thus, processions can be made safely by using existent facilities. (Takahashi, M.)

  11. Radioactive fallout nuclides in a peat-bog ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pausch, G.; Hofmann, W.; Steger, F.; Tuerk, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Province of Salzburg belongs to the regions with the highest contamination from the Chernobyl-fallout outside the former USSR. The peat-bog investigated in this study is situated in Koppl, east of Salzburg. A peat-bog is a special example of an ecosystem, which is generally not disturbed by human activities because it is under strict nature-conservation and whose soil structure is not affected by animal activities from moles and earthworms. Peat-bogs are characterized by acidic soils which are high in organic material and low in clay mineral content. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that especially in peat-bogs and especially in the Koppl-peat-bog very high amounts of radioactive fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl accident and from the bomb-testings could be found

  12. Rapid screening of natually occurring radioactive nuclides({sup 2}'3{sup 8}U, {sup 232}Th) in raw materials and by-products samples using XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Young; Lim, Chung Sup [Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioiostope Science, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Myoung; Ji, Young Yong; Chung, Kun Ho; Lee, Wan No; Kang, Mun Ja [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Byung Uck [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    As new legislation has come into force implementing radiation safety management for the use of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), it is necessary to establish a rapid and accurate measurement technique. Measurement of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th using conventional methods encounter the most significant difficulties for pretreatment (e.g., purification, speciation, and dilution/enrichment) or require time-consuming processes. Therefore, in this study, the applicability of ED-XRF as a non-destructive and rapid screening method was validated for raw materials and by-product samples. A series of experiments was conducted to test the applicability for rapid screening of XRF measurement to determine activity of {sup 238}U and {sup 23{sup 2}}Th based on certified reference materials (e.g., soil, rock, phosphorus rock, bauxite, zircon, and coal ash) and NORM samples commercially used in Korea. Statistical methods were used to compare the analytical results of ED-XRF to those of certified values of certified reference materials (CRM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results of the XRF measurement for {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th showed under 20% relative error and standard deviation. The results of the U-test were statistically significant except for the case of U in coal fly ash samples. In addition, analytical results of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th in the raw material and by-product samples using XRF and the analytical results of those using ICP-MS (R{sup 2}≥0.95) were consistent with each other. Thus, the analytical results rapidly derived using ED-XRF were fairly reliable. Based on the validation results, it can be concluded that the ED-XRF analysis may be applied to rapid screening of radioactivities ({sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th) in NORM samples.

  13. A computer code for calculation of radioactive nuclide generation and depletion, decay heat and γ ray spectrum. FPGS90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Hitoshi; Katakura, Jun-ichi; Nakagawa, Tsuneo

    1995-11-01

    In a nuclear reactor radioactive nuclides are generated and depleted with burning up of nuclear fuel. The radioactive nuclides, emitting γ ray and β ray, play role of radioactive source of decay heat in a reactor and radiation exposure. In safety evaluation of nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel cycle, it is needed to estimate the number of nuclides generated in nuclear fuel under various burn-up condition of many kinds of nuclear fuel used in a nuclear reactor. FPGS90 is a code calculating the number of nuclides, decay heat and spectrum of emitted γ ray from fission products produced in a nuclear fuel under the various kinds of burn-up condition. The nuclear data library used in FPGS90 code is the library 'JNDC Nuclear Data Library of Fission Products - second version -', which is compiled by working group of Japanese Nuclear Data Committee for evaluating decay heat in a reactor. The code has a function of processing a so-called evaluated nuclear data file such as ENDF/B, JENDL, ENSDF and so on. It also has a function of making figures of calculated results. Using FPGS90 code it is possible to do all works from making library, calculating nuclide generation and decay heat through making figures of the calculated results. (author)

  14. A computer code for calculation of radioactive nuclide generation and depletion, decay heat and {gamma} ray spectrum. FPGS90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, Hitoshi; Katakura, Jun-ichi; Nakagawa, Tsuneo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1995-11-01

    In a nuclear reactor radioactive nuclides are generated and depleted with burning up of nuclear fuel. The radioactive nuclides, emitting {gamma} ray and {beta} ray, play role of radioactive source of decay heat in a reactor and radiation exposure. In safety evaluation of nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel cycle, it is needed to estimate the number of nuclides generated in nuclear fuel under various burn-up condition of many kinds of nuclear fuel used in a nuclear reactor. FPGS90 is a code calculating the number of nuclides, decay heat and spectrum of emitted {gamma} ray from fission products produced in a nuclear fuel under the various kinds of burn-up condition. The nuclear data library used in FPGS90 code is the library `JNDC Nuclear Data Library of Fission Products - second version -`, which is compiled by working group of Japanese Nuclear Data Committee for evaluating decay heat in a reactor. The code has a function of processing a so-called evaluated nuclear data file such as ENDF/B, JENDL, ENSDF and so on. It also has a function of making figures of calculated results. Using FPGS90 code it is possible to do all works from making library, calculating nuclide generation and decay heat through making figures of the calculated results. (author).

  15. Radioactive equilibria and disequilibria of U-series nuclides in erupting magmas from Izu arc volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Jun; Kurihara, Yuichi; Takahashi, Masaomi

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive disequilibria among U-series nuclides are observed in the magmas from volcanoes in the world. Basaltic products from Izu arc volcanoes, including Izu-Oshima and Fuji volcanoes, show 230 Th 238 U and 226 Ra> 230 Th disequilibria, indicating that the addition of U-and Ra-rich fluid from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge at the magma genesis. The disequilibria of 226 Ra> 230 Th in the erupting magmas suggest that the timescale from magma genesis to the eruption may be less than 8000 years. (author)

  16. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FINN,R.; SCHLYER,D.

    2001-06-25

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical.

  17. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FINN, R.; SCHLYER, D.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical

  18. Radioactivity nuclide identification based on BP and LM algorithm neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jihong; Sun Jian; Wang Lianghou

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides the method which can identify radioactive nuclide based on the BP and LM algorithm neural network. Then, this paper compares the above-mentioned method with FR algorithm. Through the result of the Matlab simulation, the method of radioactivity nuclide identification based on the BP and LM algorithm neural network is superior to the FR algorithm. With the better effect and the higher accuracy, it will be the best choice. (authors)

  19. Nuclide separation modeling through reverse osmosis membranes in radioactive liquid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byung-Sik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the transport mechanism of radioactive nuclides through the reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and to estimate its effectiveness for nuclide separation from radioactive liquid waste. An analytical model is developed to simulate the RO separation, and a series of experiments are set up to confirm its estimated separation behavior. The model is based on the extended Nernst–Plank equation, which handles the convective flux, diffusive flux, and electromigration f...

  20. Short-lived radioactive nuclides in meteorites and early solar system processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussidon, M.; Gounelle, M.

    2007-01-01

    Now extinct, short-lived radioactive nuclides, such as 7 Be (T 1/2 = 53 days), 10 Be (T 1/2 = 1.5 Ma), 26 Al (T 1/2 = 0.74 Ma), 36 Cl (T 1/2 = 0.3 Ma), 41 Ca (T 1/2 = 0.1 Ma), 53 Mn (T 1/2 = 3.7 Ma) and 60 Fe (T 1/2 = 1.5 Ma), were present in the proto-solar nebula when the various components of meteorites formed. The presence of these radioactive isotopes requires a 'last-minute' origin, either nucleosynthesis in a massive star dying close in space and time to the nascent solar system or production by local irradiation of part of the proto-solar disk by high-energy solar cosmic rays. In this review, we list: (i) the different observations indicating the existence of multiple origins for short-lived radioactive nuclides, namely 7 Be, 10 Be and 36 Cl for irradiation scenario and 60 Fe for injection scenario; (ii) the constraints that exist on their distribution (homogeneous or heterogeneous) in the accretion disk; (iii) the constraints they brought on the timescales of nebular processes (from Ca-Al-rich inclusions to chondrules) and of the accretion and differentiation of planetesimals. (authors)

  1. Cementification for radioactive waste including high-concentration sodium sulfate and high-concentration radioactive nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Shinya; Sato, Tatsuaki; Sasoh, Michitaka; Sakurai, Jiro; Takada, Takao

    2005-01-01

    For the cementification of radioactive waste that has large concentrations of sodium sulfate and radioactive nuclide, a way of fixation for sulfate ion was studied comprising the pH control of water in contact with the cement solid, and the removal of the excess water from the cement matrix to prevent hydrogen gas generation with radiolysis. It was confirmed that the sulfate ion concentration in the contacted water with the cement solid is decreased with the formation of ettringite or barium sulfate before solidification, the pH value of the pore water in the cement solid can control less than 12.5 by the application of zeolite and a low-alkali cement such as alumina cement or fly ash mixed cement, and removal of the excess water from the cement matrix by heating is possible with aggregate addition. Consequently, radioactive waste including high-concentration sodium sulfate and high-concentration radioactive nuclide can be solidified with cementitious materials. (author)

  2. Production and Separation of T = 1/2 Nuclides for {beta}--{nu} angular correlation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahaye, P.; Bajeat, O.; Saint Laurent, M. G.; Thomas, J. C.; Traykov, E. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); Couratin, C. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); LPC Caen, 6 bd Marechal Juin, 14050 CAEN Cedex (France); Lienard, E.; Ban, G.; Durand, D.; Flechard, X. [LPC Caen, 6 bd Marechal Juin, 14050 CAEN Cedex (France); Naviliat-Cuncic, O. [NSCL, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1321 (United States); Stora, T. [ISOLDE, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Collaboration: GANISOL Group

    2011-11-30

    The SPIRAL facility at GANIL, which uses the so-called ISOL method to produce radioactive ion beams, is being upgraded to extend its production capabilities to the metallic beams of neutron deficient isotopes. We discuss here the potentialities offered by this upgrade for the measurement of the {beta}--{nu} angular correlation in the {beta}--decay of mirror nuclides.

  3. Geographical distribution of radioactive nuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in eastern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Masanobu; Umetsu, Kohei; Sugimoto, Miyabi; Yamaguchi, Yuta; Yamazaki, Hideo; Nakagawa, Ryota

    2013-01-01

    The geographical distribution of radioactive nuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in metropolitan areas located in eastern Japan was investigated. The radioactive contamination of environmental samples, including soil and biological materials, was analyzed. The concentrations of 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs in the soil samples collected from Fukushima City were 122000, 11500 and 14000 Bq/kg on 19th March 2011 and 129000, 11000 and 13700 Bq/kg on 26th March 2011, for the three nuclides respectively. The concentrations of 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the soil samples collected from March-June 2011 from study sites ranged from 240 to 101000, 28 to 26200, and 14 to 33700 Bq/kg, respectively. In Higashiosaka City, it began to detect those radioactive nuclides in the atmospheric airborne dust from 25th March. Radioactive fission products 95 Zr- 95 Nb were detected on 18th April 2011. Biological samples collected from Tokyo Bay were studied. The maximum concentrations of 134 Cs and 137 Cs detected in the biological samples were 12.2 and 19.2 Bq/kg, which were measured in goby. 131 I was not detected in the biological samples however, trace amounts of the short half-life nuclide 110m Ag were found in the shellfish samples. (author)

  4. The protection of radioactive nuclide and nursing management in DSA room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guimin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the protection of radioactive nuclide and nursing management in DSA room. Methods: The clinical state of the protection of radioactive 131 I nuclide and nursing management in DSA room was retrospectively summarized. Results: The standard management for the protection of radioactive nuclide in DSA room was established. The main management schemas included the management of personnel, the management of professional skills and, specialty, the management of radioactive drugs and abandoned odds and ends, preoperative health education, etc. Conclusion: The standard management can ensure that the patients get a good radionuclide therapy in DSA room, and, at the same time, the working environment can be effectively protected and the professional nursing staff can be well trained. (authors)

  5. Novel reprocessing methods with nuclide separation for volume reduction of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed the reprocessing system with nuclide separation processes based on the chromatographic technique in the hydrochloric acid solution system. Our proposing system consists of the dissolution process, the reprocessing process, the MA separation process, and nuclide separation processes. In our proposing processes, the pyridine resin is used as a main separation media. We expect that our proposing will contribute to that volume reduction of high level radioactive waste by combining the transmutation techniques, usage of valuable elements, and so on. (author)

  6. A study on nuclide migration in buffer materials and rocks for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Haruo

    1998-01-01

    This thesis summarizes the results investigated in order to establish a basic theory on the predictive method of diffusion coefficients of nuclides in compacted sodium bentonite which is a candidate buffer material and in representative rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive waste by measuring the pore structural factors of the compacted bentonite and rocks such as porosity and tortuosity, measuring diffusion coefficients of nuclides in the bentonite and rocks, acquiring basic data on diffusion and developing diffusion models which can quantitatively predict nuclide migration in long-term. (J.P.N.). 117 refs

  7. Method Validation for the Gamma-ray Spectrometric Determination of Natural Radioactive Nuclides in NORM Samples - Method Validation for the Gamma-ray Spectrometric Determination of Natural Radionuclides in raw materials and by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Young-Yong; Lim, Jong-Myoung; Jang, Mee; Kim, Chang-Jong; Chung, Kun Ho; Kang, Mun Ja; Choi, Geun-Sik [Environmental Radioactivity Assessment Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111, Daedeok-daero 989, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    It has established the 'Act on safety control of radioactive rays around living environment' in Korea, since 2011, to protect the public from natural occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and their by-products. The increasing concerns regarding the radioactivity of those materials therefore dictate many demands for the radioactive analysis for them. There are several methods to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides, such as {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and so on, through a radiochemical analysis using an alpha spectrometer, mass spectrometer and liquid scintillation counter. However, gamma-ray spectroscopy still has an effect on the assessment of radioactive concentration for these nuclides and their progenies. To adapt a gamma spectrometer to the determination of natural radionuclides, the feasibility of their analysis methods should be first verified and validated with respect to accuracy and time and cost constraints. In general, one of the well-known processes in analyzing uranium with a gamma spectrometer is an indirect measurement using the secular equilibrium state with their progenies in a sample. This method, however, demands the time elapsed about 3 weeks to reach the equilibrium state between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn and the sufficient integrity of a sample bottle to prevent the leakage of radon isotopes which is a form of noble gas. The simple and quick method is to directly measure a full energy absorption peak of 186.2 keV from {sup 226}Ra without the secular equilibrium state between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn in the common sample bottle. However, this direct measurement also has difficulties about the interference with a full energy absorption peak of 185.7 keV from {sup 235}U. In this study, direct measurement with the interference correction technique, which uses several reference peaks for gamma-rays from {sup 235}U and {sup 234}Th, and indirect measurement, which means the identification of {sup

  8. Importance of individual fission nuclide to incontainment radioactive reading during PWR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junfeng; Shi Zhongqi

    2004-01-01

    Containment radiation level is one of the most important base for core damage assessment and protective actions recommendation during accidents. Incontainment radioactive reading calculations is the precondition of using this kind of method. Importance of individual nuclides were compared during normal coolant release, gap release and core melt. Conclusions are deduced that when the spray is off, the radioactive reading in containment is mainly from iodine and noble gas, and the spray is on, the radioactive reading is mainly from noble gas. (authors)

  9. Modelling the reactive-path between pyrite and radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Mingliang; Wu Shijun; Dou Shunmei; Chen Fanrong; Yang Yongqiang

    2008-01-01

    The mobility of redox sensitive nuclides is largely dependent on their valence state. The radionuclides that make the dominant contributions to final dose calculations are redox sensitive. Almost all the radionuclides (except 129 I) have higher mobility at high valence state, and correspond to immobilization at low valence state due to the much lower solubility. Pyrite is an ubiquitous and stable mineral in geological environment, and would be used as a low-cost long time reductant for the immobilization of radionuclides. However, pyrite oxidation is supposed to generate acid, which will enhance the mobility of nuclides. In this paper, the reaction path of the reactions between radionuclides (U, Se and Tc) and pyrite in the groundwater from Wuyi well in Beishan area of China has been simulated using geochemical modeling software. According to the results, pyrite can reduce high valence nuclides to a dinky-level effectively, with the pH slightly increasing under anaerobic condition that is common in deep nuclear waste repositories. (authors)

  10. Modeling for Colloid and Chelator Facilitated Nuclide Transport in Radioactive Waste Disposal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-08-01

    A modeling study and development of a total system performance assessment (TSPA) program template, by which assessment of safety and performance for a radioactive waste repository with normal and/or abnormal nuclide release cases can be made has been developed. Colloid and chelator facilitated transport that is believed to result for faster nuclide transport in various mediabothinthegeosphereandbiospherehas been evaluated deterministically and probabilistically to demonstrate the capability of the template developed through this study. To this end colloid and chelator facilitated nuclide transport has been modeled rather strainghtforwardly with assumed data through this study by utilizing some powerful function offered by GoldSim. An evaluation in view of apparent influence of colloid and chelator on the nuclide transport in the various media in and around a repository system with data assumed are illustrated

  11. Nuclide separation modeling through reverse osmosis membranes in radioactive liquid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Sik Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the transport mechanism of radioactive nuclides through the reverse osmosis (RO membrane and to estimate its effectiveness for nuclide separation from radioactive liquid waste. An analytical model is developed to simulate the RO separation, and a series of experiments are set up to confirm its estimated separation behavior. The model is based on the extended Nernst–Plank equation, which handles the convective flux, diffusive flux, and electromigration flux under electroneutrality and zero electric current conditions. The distribution coefficient which arises due to ion interactions with the membrane material and the electric potential jump at the membrane interface are included as boundary conditions in solving the equation. A high Peclet approximation is adopted to simplify the calculation, but the effect of concentration polarization is included for a more accurate prediction of separation. Cobalt and cesium are specifically selected for the experiments in order to check the separation mechanism from liquid waste composed of various radioactive nuclides and nonradioactive substances, and the results are compared with the estimated cobalt and cesium rejections of the RO membrane using the model. Experimental and calculated results are shown to be in excellent agreement. The proposed model will be very useful for the prediction of separation behavior of various radioactive nuclides by the RO membrane.

  12. Nuclide separation modeling through reverse osmosis membranes in radioactive liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Sik [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the transport mechanism of radioactive nuclides through the reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and to estimate its effectiveness for nuclide separation from radioactive liquid waste. An analytical model is developed to simulate the RO separation, and a series of experiments are set up to confirm its estimated separation behavior. The model is based on the extended Nernst-Plank equation, which handles the convective flux, diffusive flux, and electromigration flux under electroneutrality and zero electric current conditions. The distribution coefficient which arises due to ion interactions with the membrane material and the electric potential jump at the membrane interface are included as boundary conditions in solving the equation. A high Peclet approximation is adopted to simplify the calculation, but the effect of concentration polarization is included for a more accurate prediction of separation. Cobalt and cesium are specifically selected for the experiments in order to check the separation mechanism from liquid waste composed of various radioactive nuclides and nonradioactive substances, and the results are compared with the estimated cobalt and cesium rejections of the RO membrane using the model. Experimental and calculated results are shown to be in excellent agreement. The proposed model will be very useful for the prediction of separation behavior of various radioactive nuclides by the RO membrane.

  13. Leaching of radioactive nuclides from cement grouts. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, W.T.; Avgerinos, G.F.; Gonzalez, B.; Hemley, P.J.

    1974-01-01

    The determination of the leaching rate of radioactive 137 Cs from a cement grout should the grout be contacted by water is necessary for environmental protection. The effect of the leachant turnover rate on 137 Cs leaching rates was evaluated with batch and continuous (modified Soxhlet extractor) modes of experimentation. Three additives (Grundite, potter's clay, and Conasauga shale) were compared in terms of capability of radioactive isotope retention, while two leachants (tap and distilled water) were investigated. The Soxhlet extractor experiment resulted in the highest rate of leaching, and Conasauga shale was found the best additive for 137 Cs immobilization. Tap water used as leachant was more effective than distilled water. Data were analyzed using models involving isotopic diffusion in the grout and involving diffusion plus a time dependent boundary condition at the interface of grout specimen and leachant

  14. A prospect of the administration against problems of environmental contamination caused by radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osako, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    At first, focusing on the problem of radioactive contaminated wastes caused by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, the Author described an outline of the waste management policy based on the law on special measures against the environmental contamination by radioactive nuclides. Next, the Author discussed a prospect of the environmental administration against the radioactive contamination problem. The most important mission of the environmental administration for the future must be to establish a social basis for the sustainable development, in other words the building-up of a newly social value added, through the measures against this unprecedented disaster. (author)

  15. Production of heavy nuclides in nuclear devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccles, Samuel F [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Since the last Plowshare Symposium in 1964 a number of experiments have been carried out to study the production of heavy nuclei by rapid multiple neutron capture in specially designed nuclear devices. These experiments listed below were conducted underground at the Nevada Test Site and data were obtained radiochemically after sample recovery by drillback. The main characteristics of these experiments are 1) higher neutron fluxes than in the early events, 2) a variety of targets, including 238-U, 242-Pu, 237-Np, 243-Am, 232-Th, 3) the occurrence of an interesting 'reversal of the odd-even effect' in the mass yield curves, and 4) the absence of nuclei in the debris with (Z,A) greater than (100,257). Analysis of data from these experiments have led to capture cross sections for neutron-rich uranium isotopes (out to 249-U), and capture-to-fission ratios for the odd-A neutron-rich plutonium isotopes (out to 253-Pu). General studies of the fission process in neutron-rich nuclei have also been undertaken using the data from these experiments. The large amounts of 250Cm and 257Fm made in the recent Hutch experiment ({approx}1 x 10{sup 20} and {approx}5 x 10{sup 17} atoms, respectively) make it scientifically exciting, and economically feasible, to mine and recover enough material to produce laboratory targets of these isotopes. These targets would be used in investigations of yet-undiscovered, short-lived isotopes of Fm, Md, and No, as well as the possible production of new isotopes of element 104 and even element 105. (author)

  16. Production of heavy nuclides in nuclear devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccles, Samuel F.

    1970-01-01

    Since the last Plowshare Symposium in 1964 a number of experiments have been carried out to study the production of heavy nuclei by rapid multiple neutron capture in specially designed nuclear devices. These experiments listed below were conducted underground at the Nevada Test Site and data were obtained radiochemically after sample recovery by drillback. The main characteristics of these experiments are 1) higher neutron fluxes than in the early events, 2) a variety of targets, including 238-U, 242-Pu, 237-Np, 243-Am, 232-Th, 3) the occurrence of an interesting 'reversal of the odd-even effect' in the mass yield curves, and 4) the absence of nuclei in the debris with (Z,A) greater than (100,257). Analysis of data from these experiments have led to capture cross sections for neutron-rich uranium isotopes (out to 249-U), and capture-to-fission ratios for the odd-A neutron-rich plutonium isotopes (out to 253-Pu). General studies of the fission process in neutron-rich nuclei have also been undertaken using the data from these experiments. The large amounts of 250Cm and 257Fm made in the recent Hutch experiment (∼1 x 10 20 and ∼5 x 10 17 atoms, respectively) make it scientifically exciting, and economically feasible, to mine and recover enough material to produce laboratory targets of these isotopes. These targets would be used in investigations of yet-undiscovered, short-lived isotopes of Fm, Md, and No, as well as the possible production of new isotopes of element 104 and even element 105. (author)

  17. Cosmogenic nuclide production within the atmosphere and long period comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Andrew C.

    The Earth is constantly bombarded by cosmic rays. These high energy particles collide with target nuclei, producing a shower of secondary particles. These secondaries contribute significantly to the radiation background at sea level and in the atmosphere, as well as producing rare cosmogenic nuclides. This contribution is variable over long time scales as astrophysical events change the cosmic ray flux incident on the Earth. Our work re-examines a previously proposed climate effect of increased cosmic ray flux due to galactic location. Although our work does not support this effect, cosmic ray secondaries remain a threat to terrestrial biota. We calculate the cosmogenic neutron flux within the atmosphere as a function of primary spectrum. This work is pivotal in determining the radiation dose due to any arbitrary astrophysical event where the primary spectrum is known. Additionally, this work can be used to determine the cosmogenic nuclide production from such an event. These neutrons are the fundamental source of cosmogenic nuclides within our atmosphere and extraterrestrial matter. We explore the idea that excursions in 14C and 10Be abundances in the atmosphere may arise from direct deposition by long-period comet impacts, and those in 26Al from any bolide. We find that the amount of nuclide mass on large long-period comets entering the Earth's atmosphere may be sufficient for creating anomalies in the records of 14C and 10Be from past impacts. In particular, the estimated mass of the proposed Younger Dryas comet is consistent with its having deposited sufficient isotopes to account for recorded nuclide increases at that time. The 26Al/10Be ratio is much larger in extraterrestrial objects than in the atmosphere, and so, we note that measuring this ratio in ice cores is a suitable further test for the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis. This portion of our work may be used to find possible impact events in the geologic record as well as determination of a large

  18. Development of detection method for individual environmental particles containing alpha radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Konomi; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Nakayama, Shinichi

    2006-01-01

    Artificial radioactive nuclides have been emitted from various sources and have fallen on the surface of the earth as fine particles. Although the characterization of the individual fallout particles is very important, their analysis is difficult. The purpose of this study is to develop a new detection method for individual objective particles containing radioactive nuclides in the environment. The soil or sediment sample was confined in a plastic film and the locations of objective particles were identified with alpha tracks created in a solid-state detectors (BARYOTRAK, Fukuvi Chemical, Ltd) stuck to the both sides of the plastic film. A piece of the film containing the objective particle was cut with a nitrogen laser for following individual particle analysis. This procedure allowed us to detect the objective particle from innumerable number of particles in the environment and characterize the individual particles. (author)

  19. Programme of research into the management and storage of radioactive waste, nuclide migration studies, and mathematical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The progress of the work is reported under the headings: nuclide migration studies (nuclide-rock interactions; physico-chemical effects; field experiments; groundwater dating); mathematical modelling (calculation of steady groundwater flow using NAMMU; comparison of thermally and naturally driven flows near a radioactive waste repository; diffusion of radionuclides into a rock matrix; radionuclide migration). (U.K.)

  20. Interactive information system on the nuclear physics properties of nuclides and radioactive decay chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyaskin, V.I.; Kosilov, R.A.; Manturov, G.N.

    2001-01-01

    A brief review is given of a computerized information system on the nuclear physics properties of nuclides and radioactive decay chains. The main difference between the system presented here and those already in existence is that these evaluated databases of nuclear physics constants are linked to a set of programs, thus enabling analysis of a wide range of problems regarding various nuclear physics applications. (author)

  1. Research on the reliability of measurement of natural radioactive nuclide concentration of U-238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seok Ki; Kim, Gee Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear engineering, Univ. of SeJong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Sun Dong; Lee, Hoon [KoFONS, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Naturally occurred radioactive materials (NORM) can be found all around us and people are exposed to this no matter what they do or where they live. In this study, two indirect measurement methods of NORM U-238 has been reviewed; one that has used HPGe on the basis of the maintenance, and the other is disequilibrium theory of radioactive equilibrium relationships of mother and daughter nuclide at Decay-chain of NORM U-238. For this review, complicated pre-processing process (Breaking->Fusion->Chromatography->Electron deposit) has been used , and then carried out a comparative research with direct measurement method that makes use of and measures Alpha spectrometer. Through the experiment as above, we could infer the daughter nuclide whose radioactive equilibrium has been maintained with U-238. Therefore, we could find out that the daughter nuclide suitable to be applied to Gamma indirect measurement method was Th-234. Due to Pearson Correlation statistics, we could find out the reliability of the result value that has been analyzed by using Th-234.

  2. An innovative method for determining the diffusion coefficient of product nuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chih Lung [Dept. of Nuclear Back-end Management, Taiwan Power Company, Taipei (China); Wang, Tsing Hai [Dept. Biomedical Engineering and Environment Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2017-08-15

    Diffusion is a crucial mechanism that regulates the migration of radioactive nuclides. In this study, an innovative numerical method was developed to simultaneously calculate the diffusion coefficient of both parent and, afterward, series daughter nuclides in a sequentially reactive through-diffusion model. Two constructed scenarios, a serial reaction (RN{sub 1} → RN{sub 2} → RN{sub 3}) and a parallel reaction (RN{sub 1} → RN{sub 2}A + RN{sub 2}B), were proposed and calculated for verification. First, the accuracy of the proposed three-member reaction equations was validated using several default numerical experiments. Second, by applying the validated numerical experimental concentration variation data, the as-determined diffusion coefficient of the product nuclide was observed to be identical to the default data. The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. The significance of the proposed numerical method will be particularly powerful in determining the diffusion coefficients of systems with extremely thin specimens, long periods of diffusion time, and parent nuclides with fast decay constants.

  3. Selection of nuclide decay chains for use in the assessment of the radiological impact of geological repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, M.C.

    1982-12-01

    The criteria for selecting nuclide decay chains for use in the assessment of the radiological impact of geological repositories for radioactive waste are given. The reduced chains recommended for use with SYVAC are described. (author)

  4. Therapeutic result of radioactive nuclide 90Sr/90Y treatment in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hanchao; Li Yuying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of radioactive nuclide 90 Sr/ 90 Y treatment in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Methods: Sixty patients with BPH were treated with a course of transurethral radioactive nuclide 90 Sr/ 90 Y therapy. Results: The severity of BPH was assessed with four parameters: maximal flow rate (MFR), volume of residual urine (VRU), international prostatic symptom score (IPSS) and volume (size) of prostate. In this series, the total effective rate was 93.33% with no treatment- related mortality. Favorable changes of the parameters after a course of radioactive nuclide therapy were significant. Conclusion: Radioactive nuclide 90 Sr/ 90 Y therapy for patients with BPH was safe, easily performed and quite effective. This procedure is worth popularizing in appropriate patients. (authors)

  5. Radioactive nuclides in sewage sludges and problems associated with their utilisation or dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Brunner, P.; Tiefenbrunner, F.; Dierich, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    In a sewage plant with radioactively contaminated sewage an accumulation of radionuclides was found in the sewage sludge. The specific activities are in inverse proportion to the water content of the sewage sludge, the dehydrated sewage sludge having the highest specific activities. The retained radionuclides seem to be firmly accumulated in the sludge. Nevertheless, they are in a form which can be utilised by plants. This was demonstrated in experiments with Trifolium Repens and Secale Cereale where the rate of absorption was 15-33% (in Ci/kg dry weight per plant: nCi/kg dry weight soil x 100). Thus there are problems associated with using radioactively contaminated sewage sludge as a fertiliser. In further experiments to extract radioactive nuclides from ashed sewage sludge it was shown that acidifying the aqueous phase results in an increase in the level of radioactivity in the eluated fractions. (author)

  6. The production of residual nuclides in Pb irradiated by 400 MeV/u carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, H.L. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ma, F., E-mail: mf@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, X.Y.; Ju, Y.Q.; Zhang, H.B.; Chen, L.; Luo, P. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhou, B. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Y.B.; Li, J.Y.; Xu, J.K. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liang, T.J. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, S.L. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Y.W.; Yang, L. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-10-15

    The experiment was performed by irradiating a Pb foil with 400 MeV/u carbon beam at the HIRFL-CSR in Lanzhou, China. The experimental data was acquired by the off-line γ-spectroscopy method. 32 radioactive residual nuclides had been observed and their cross sections were determined. The measured results were compared with the results simulated by Monte Carlo code MCNPX2.7.0. The comparison shows that the simulated cross sections were underestimated for the fragments from A = 20 to 41 and A = 110 to 175. By fitting the measured and simulated cross sections to Rudstams semi-empirical formula, it was found that the charge distribution of products was asymmetric for the residual nuclides with a high mass number.

  7. 600 MeV Simulation of the Production of Cosmogenic Nuclides in Meteorites by Galactic Protons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A large variety of stable and radioactive nuclides is produced by the interaction of solar and galactic cosmic rays with extraterrestrial matter. Measurements of such cosmogenic nuclides provide information about the constancy of cosmic ray fluxes in space and time and about the irradiation history of individual extraterrestrial objects provided that there exist reliable models describing the production process. For the calculation of the depth dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites no satisfactory Therefore, the irradiation of small stony meteorites (radii~$<$~40~cm) by galactic protons is simulated in a series of thick target irradiation experiments at the 600~MeV proton beam of the SC. \\\\ \\\\ The thick targets are spheres (R = 5, 15, 25 cm) and are made out of diorite because of its low water content, its high density (3.0~g/cm|3) and because it provides a good approximation of the chemical composition of some common meteorite clas These spheres will also contain a wide variety of pure...

  8. Migration studies of fission product nuclides in rocks. Pt.5: Diffusion and permeability of nuclide 125I in marble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Ruiyuan; Gao Hongcheng; Wang Xiangyun

    1996-01-01

    The migration behaviour of nuclide 125 I, as a simulation of the long lived fission product 129 I, in marble is studied in self-designed cells. A series of the most important parameters of diffusion and permeability (e.g., intrinsic diffusion coefficient, dispersion coefficient and interstitial flow velocity, etc.) are determined. Based on the differential equation of the nuclide migration, the distribution function and numerical solution of 125 I in marble are presented. The results show that the migration velocity of 125 I in marble is fast, indicating that it is not suitable to dispose nuclear waste in marble

  9. Capturing device for radioactive corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Kiyoshi.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To render the flow channel area uniform for each of coolants over the entire capturing device and reduce the corrosion of capturing materials due to coolants. Constitution: Most of radioactivity caused by radioactive corrosion products are due to Mn-54 radioactive nuclides and it has been known that the nuclides are readily deposited to the surface of nickel material in sodium at high temperature. It is difficult in a conventional capturing device constituted by winding a nickel plate fabricated with protrusions in a multiple-coaxial configuration, that the flow channel area is reduced in a portion of the flow channel and it is difficult to make the flow of the coolants uniform. In view of the above, by winding a nickel plate having a plurality of protrusions at the surface formed integrally by way of an electrolytic process into a multiple-coaxial or spiral shape, those having high resistance to the coolant corrosion can be obtained. (Takahashi, M.)

  10. Radioactivity in consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

  11. Estimate of the intensities of the radioactive nuclides produced at the super-FRS at the future GSI facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricciardi, M.V.

    2004-11-01

    The principal goal of the new facility is the construction of a worldwide unique and technically innovative accelerator system that will provide an extensive range of particle beams. Proton and antiproton beams will be available and ion beams of all chemical elements up to uranium will be produced with world-record intensities. The main employ of the high-intensity ion beams is the production of energetic beams of short-lived (radioactive) nuclei, in the following referred to as exotic or Rare Isotope Beams (RIBs). RIBs are produced in nuclear reactions experienced by the primary beams of stable particles. We report on the study of the production of radioactive nuclides and of their propagation through the Super-FRS. The study was performed by means of a nuclear-reaction Monte-Carlo code, ABRABLA, opportunely implemented for the above-described purpose. This work offers an overview of the radioactivity production in the Super-FRS area; the latter is the required starting knowledge for the design of the shielding structure. (orig.)

  12. PRODUCTION AND RECOIL LOSS OF COSMOGENIC NUCLIDES IN PRESOLAR GRAINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trappitsch, Reto; Leya, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Presolar grains are small particles that condensed in the vicinity of dying stars. Some of these grains survived the voyage through the interstellar medium (ISM) and were incorporated into meteorite parent bodies at the formation of the Solar System. An important question is when these stellar processes happened, i.e., how long presolar grains were drifting through the ISM. While conventional radiometric dating of such small grains is very difficult, presolar grains are irradiated with galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) in the ISM, which induce the production of cosmogenic nuclides. This opens the possibility to determine cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) ages, i.e., how long presolar grains were irradiated in the ISM. Here, we present a new model for the production and loss of cosmogenic 3 He, 6,7 Li, and 21,22 Ne in presolar SiC grains. The cosmogenic production rates are calculated using a state-of-the-art nuclear cross-section database and a GCR spectrum in the ISM consistent with recent Voyager data. Our findings are that previously measured 3 He and 21 Ne CRE ages agree within the (sometimes large) 2 σ uncertainties and that the CRE ages for most presolar grains are smaller than the predicted survival times. The obtained results are relatively robust since interferences from implanted low-energy GCRs into the presolar SiC grains and/or from cosmogenic production within the meteoroid can be neglected.

  13. Method Development for Rapid Analysis of Natural Radioactive Nuclides Using Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J.M.; Ji, Y.Y.; Lee, H.; Park, J.H.; Jang, M.; Chung, K.H.; Kang, M.J.; Choi, G.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    As an attempt to reduce the social costs and apprehension arising from radioactivity in the environment, an accurate and rapid assessment of radioactivity is highly desirable. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are widely spread throughout the environment. The concern with radioactivity from these materials has therefore been growing for the last decade. In particular, radiation exposure in the industry when handling raw materials (e.g., coal mining and combustion, oil and gas production, metal mining and smelting, mineral sands (REE, Ti, Zr), fertilizer (phosphate), and building materials) has been brought to the public's attention. To decide the proper handling options, a rapid and accurate analytical method that can be used to evaluate the radioactivity of radionuclides (e.g., {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 40}K) should be developed and validated. Direct measuring methods such as alpha spectrometry, a liquid scintillation counter (LSC), and mass-spectrometry are usually used for the measurement of radioactivity in NORM samples, and they encounter the most significant difficulties during pretreatment (e.g., purification, speciation, and dilution/enrichment). Since the pretreatment process consequently plays an important role in the measurement uncertainty, method development and validation should be performed. Furthermore, a-spectrometry has a major disadvantage of a long counting time, while it has a prominent measurement capability at a very low activity level of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 226}Ra. Contrary to the α-spectrometry method, a measurement technique using ICP-MS allow radioactivity in many samples to be measured in a short time period with a high degree of accuracy and precision. In this study, a method was developed for a rapid analysis of natural radioactive nuclides using ICP-MS. A sample digestion process was established using LiBO{sub 2} fusion and Fe co-precipitation. A magnetic

  14. Uncertainties in the production of p nuclides in thermonuclear supernovae determined by Monte Carlo variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, N.; Rauscher, T.; Hirschi, R.; Murphy, A. St J.; Cescutti, G.; Travaglio, C.

    2018-03-01

    Thermonuclear supernovae originating from the explosion of a white dwarf accreting mass from a companion star have been suggested as a site for the production of p nuclides. Such nuclei are produced during the explosion, in layers enriched with seed nuclei coming from prior strong s processing. These seeds are transformed into proton-richer isotopes mainly by photodisintegration reactions. Several thousand trajectories from a 2D explosion model were used in a Monte Carlo approach. Temperature-dependent uncertainties were assigned individually to thousands of rates varied simultaneously in post-processing in an extended nuclear reaction network. The uncertainties in the final nuclear abundances originating from uncertainties in the astrophysical reaction rates were determined. In addition to the 35 classical p nuclides, abundance uncertainties were also determined for the radioactive nuclides 92Nb, 97, 98Tc, 146Sm, and for the abundance ratios Y(92Mo)/Y(94Mo), Y(92Nb)/Y(92Mo), Y(97Tc)/Y(98Ru), Y(98Tc)/Y(98Ru), and Y(146Sm)/Y(144Sm), important for Galactic Chemical Evolution studies. Uncertainties found were generally lower than a factor of 2, although most nucleosynthesis flows mainly involve predicted rates with larger uncertainties. The main contribution to the total uncertainties comes from a group of trajectories with high peak density originating from the interior of the exploding white dwarf. The distinction between low-density and high-density trajectories allows more general conclusions to be drawn, also applicable to other simulations of white dwarf explosions.

  15. Calculation of radioactivity of β-nuclides by CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Fujun; Zhang Shengdong; Ding Youqian; Sun Hongqing; Tang Peijia

    2010-01-01

    CIEMAT/NIST method for calculating radioactivity of β-nuclides was introduced in this paper. The influences of KB value and quenching parameter on the radioactivity computation of 241 Pu, 106 Ru/ 106 Rh, 63 Ni, 151 Sm and 14 C were studied by CIEMAT/NIST method with 3 H tracing. It is shown that the effect of KB value can be ignored if it varies in a proper range; Except for 106 Ru/ 106 Rh, the discrepancy between prediction and actual activity is lower than 2% in low quenching extent. However, it increases with quenching extent, and the largest discrepancy soars to nearly 13%. In addition, the reason for bad agreement of 106 Ru/ 106 Rh between prediction and actual activity was discussed. Efficiency calibration curves of 79 Se, 93 Zr and 107 Pd were also computed by CIEMAT/NIST method, compared with approximate replacement method or fitting and interpolation method. It is shown that CIEMAT/NIST method is no more accurate and suitable than the other two techniques. (authors)

  16. Study on the environmental movements and distributions of natural radioactive nuclides on the granite area (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko

    1999-03-01

    The natural radionuclides as K-40, uranium decay series and thorium decay series etc. are widely distributed on environment, but are not uniformly. These have various forms as the sources of terrestrial environmental γ radiation and of radon and make wide fluctuation seasonal and spatially on the environment. We have selected Ikeda mineral spring district, Shimane pref., Misasa spa district, Tottori pref., Muro district, Hachibuse district, Nara pref. and Arima spa district, Hyogo-pref. for HBRA, and Kawanishi-shi, Hyogo pref. and Higashi-osaka-shi, Osaka pref. as CA. We have carried out the study on the environmental movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides containing radon and decay nuclides. Radon measurements have been carried using cup typed radon and thoron monitors, pico-rad method by active charcoal sampling and Pilon scintillation-cell by grub sampling. Accumulated radon monitors have been used with cellulose nitrate as solid state track detector. Rn-222 concentrations in air at Misasa spa ranged 2 - 150 Bq/m 3 outdoor and 8 - 194 Bq/m 3 indoor. Rn-222 concentrations on Misasa district, Asahi district and Takeda district geologically formed from granite strata are high, and those on Osika district and Mitoku district formed from volcanic rocks (Andesite and Basalt) are low level. Rn-222 concentration variations in well water used as drinking water were 2 - 138 Bq/l (mean value 31 Bq/l) and those in ground waters varied from non detectable to 4620 Bq/l (mean 875 Bq/l) on sampling time and places. Mean Rn-222 concentration in the spring water at Arima spa area, Hyogo prefecture is 26 Bq/l at Tansan spring source and the other spring sources are comparatively low level. (J.P.N.)

  17. Method for the reprocessing of liquid wastes containing boric acid, radioactive antimony and other radioactive nuclides and similar, especially of the evaporator concentrates of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, A.

    1978-01-01

    The liquid wastes are evaporated, H 2 SO 4 and methanol are added, and the formed boric acid methylester is distilled off. The residue with Sb-124, Cs, Co and Mn is then stored two years until the activity of Sb-124 has decayed. Afterwards the radioactive nuclides are precipitated. (DG) [de

  18. Radioactive contamination of honey and other bee-keeping products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsevich, L.I.; Komissar, A.D.; Levchenko, I.A.

    1990-01-01

    Great amount of dust is collected in propolis under emergency atmospheric fallouts. Specific coefficient of the product migration amounts to several m 2 per 1 kg. Propolis is a good biological indicator of radioactive fallouts. The propolis collection is inadmissible after radioactive fallouts. Cocoon residuals obtained during bees-wax separation contain many radionuclides and should be disposed in special places. Nuclides are absent in bees-wax. Nuclides accumulated absent in a bee organism migrate into honey and queen milk, the honey is contaminated mainly via biogenic path

  19. Calculation of total number of disintegrations after intake of radioactive nuclides using the pseudo inverse matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Si Wan; Sol, Jeong; Lee, Jai Ki; Lee, Jong Il; Kim, Jang Lyul

    2012-01-01

    Calculation of total number of disintegrations after intake of radioactive nuclides is indispensable to calculate a dose coefficient which means committed effective dose per unit activity (Sv/Bq). In order to calculate the total number of disintegrations analytically, Birch all's algorithm has been commonly used. As described below, an inverse matrix should be calculated in the algorithm. As biokinetic models have been complicated, however, the inverse matrix does not exist sometime and the total number of disintegrations cannot be calculated. Thus, a numerical method has been applied to DCAL code used to calculate dose coefficients in ICRP publication and IMBA code. In this study, however, we applied the pseudo inverse matrix to solve the problem that the inverse matrix does not exist for. In order to validate our method, the method was applied to two examples and the results were compared to the tabulated data in ICRP publication. MATLAB 2012a was used to calculate the total number of disintegrations and exp m and p inv MATLAB built in functions were employed

  20. The terrestrial environmental dynamics of radioactive nuclides released by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Research into environmental dynamics of radioactive nuclides released by the Fukushima nuclear accident, especially radiocesium 137 Cs (half-life, 30.1 years), is highly focused especially on diffusion processes of radiocesium into ecosystems, which is high-priority knowledge. Because of relatively sparse knowledge about the reallocation of radiocesium contained in organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems, the effects of diffused rediocesium into ecosystem cannot be accurately estimated. In this article, the terrestrial environmental dynamics of radiocesium mainly in the processes of plant uptake and the possibility of release from plants will be discussed. Plants uptake minerals from soil and these minerals are likewise ingested by animals that feed on plants, including humans. Therefore one of the main gateways of radiocesium into ecosystem is via plants. From the viewpoint of human dietary consumption, rice contamination with radiocesium has been energetically investigated and useful data are accumulating. Processes of radiocesium uptake mechanisms by plants are being researched using legumes, e.g. soybean. Speculation on the possibility of radiocesium release into forest atmosphere via plant activity will be introduced. (author)

  1. Calculated nuclide production yields in relativistic collisions of fissile nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benlliure, J.; Schmidt, K.H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Grewe, A.; Jong, M. de [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Zhdanov, S. [AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    1997-11-01

    A model calculation is presented which predicts the complex nuclide distribution resulting from peripheral relativistic heavy-ion collisions involving fissile nuclei. The model is based on a modern version of the abrasion-ablation model which describes the formation of excited prefragments due to the nuclear collisions and their consecutive decay. The competition between the evaporation of different light particles and fission is computed with an evaporation code which takes dissipative effects and the emission of intermediate-mass fragments into account. The nuclide distribution resulting from fission processes is treated by a semiempirical description which includes the excitation-energy dependent influence of nuclear shell effects and pairing correlations. The calculations of collisions between {sup 238}U and different reaction partners reveal that a huge number of isotopes of all elements up to uranium is produced. The complex nuclide distribution shows the characteristics of fragmentation, mass-asymmetric low-energy fission and mass-symmetric high-energy fission. The yields of the different components for different reaction partners are studied. Consequences for technical applications are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Adopted: February 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials Everything we encounter in our daily lives contains some radioactive material, ...

  3. Measurement of Natural Radioactive Nuclide Concentrations and the Dose Estimation of Workers Originated from Radon in Manganese Ore Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, N.A.; Hassan, N.M.; Blasy, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Manganese ore is widely used in many industries. Such as ore contain natural radioactive nuclides at various concentrations. If this ore contain high concentrations of natural radioactive nuclides, workers handling them might be exposed to significant levels of radiation. Therefore it is important to determine the radioactive nuclides in this ore. Also the regulation of radon concentration at workplaces has gained an accentuated importance in all countries. Nevertheless, at this time there is no globally accepted workplace protocol that sets out safe radon concentration values. In this study the radon concentration measured by using an Alpha Guard radon monitor, the equilibrium factor which was greater than the value given in literature, effective radiation dose, which are necessary for the exact estimation of the radiation dose originating from radon. The regulation of radon concentration at workplaces has gained an accentuated importance in all countries. Approach: The natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K) contents of manganese ore samples collected from Umm Bogma, southwest Sinai and from the mountain access Hamid South Eastern Desert, Egypt have been determined by low background spectroscopy using hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) detector. Results: The mean activities due to the three radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K) were found to be 1500±65, 490±65 and 364±45 Bqkg -1 , respectively. The absorbed dose rate due to the natural radioactivity in samples under investigation ranged from 1522±45 → 1796±43 nGyh -1 . The radium equivalent activity varied from 3807±114→ 4446±133 Bqkg -1 .The representative external hazard index values for the corresponding samples are also estimated. Conclusion: The results of this assessment obtained by the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis, have indicated that the levels of natural radioactivity were lower than the international recommended limits.

  4. Model for GCR-particle fluxes in stony meteorites and production rates of cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is presented for the differential fluxes of galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles with energies above 1 MeV inside any spherical stony meteorite as a function of the meteorite's radius and the sample's depth. This model is based on the Reedy-Arnold equations for the energy-dependent fluxes of GCR particles in the moon and is an extension of flux parameters that were derived for several meteorites of various sizes. This flux is used to calculate the production rates of many cosmogenic nuclides as a function of radius and depth. The peak production rates for most nuclides made by the reactions of energetic GCR particles occur near the centers of meteorites with radii of 40 to 70 g cm -2 . Although the model has some limitations, it reproduces well the basic trends for the depth-dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in stony meteorites of various radii. These production profiles agree fairly well with measurements of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites. Some of these production profiles are different than those calculated by others. The chemical dependence of the production rates for several nuclides varies with size and depth. 25 references, 8 figures

  5. Study on the environmental movements and distributions of natural radioactive nuclides on the granite area (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko

    2000-03-01

    The natural radionuclides as K-40, uranium decay series and thorium decay series etc. are widely distributed on environment, but are not uniformly. These have influences various forms as the sources of terrecial environmental γ radiation and of radon in to the human life environment and make wide fluctuation seasonal and spatially on the environment. The environmental radiation is higher than that of the other on the west Japan where generally consist rich of granite strata. We deeply appreciate in regard to natural radiation and would carry the studies on the movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides on high background radiation area consisted rich granite strata. We have selected and observed on Ikeda mineral spring district Ota-shi Shimane pref., Misasa spa district, Tohaku-gun, Tottori pref. on Chugoku area, Muro district Uda-gun, Hachibuse district, Nafa-shi Nara pref., and Arima spa district, Hyogo-pref., Kawanishi-shi, Hyogo pref. on Kinki area and Masutomi spa, Koma-gun, Yamanashi pref., for HBRA, and Higashi-osaka-shi, Osaka pref., for CA. We have carried out the study on the environmental movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides containing radon and decay nuclides, and reported these results on following; (1) Radon measurements have been carried using cup typed radon and thoron monitors which are easy handling in spite of need of long sampling period, pico-rad method by active charcoal sampling and Pilon scintillation-cell with 300 ml volume by grub sampling. Accumulated radon monitors have been used cellulose nitrate (LR-115 type II, Kodak Co.) as solid state track detector. Among these characteristics of radon monitors, though minimum detectable limit of cup method for 3 months sampling is higher than those by the other method, it is able to measure mean Rn-222 concentration for 3 months. Rn-222 concentration by pico-rad method is able to get briefly mean concentration for 24 hours, is small detector and many sample are

  6. From the HINDAS Project: Excitation Functions for Residual Nuclide Production by Proton-Induced Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, R.; Gloris, M.; Protoschill, J.; Uosif, M.A.M.; Weug, M.; Herpers, U.; Kuhnhenn, J.; Kubik, P.-W.; Schumann, D.; Synal, H.-A.; Weinreich, R.; Leya, I.; David, J.C.; Leray, S.; Duijvestijn, M.; Koning, A.; Kelic, A.; Schmidt, K.H.; Cugnon, J.

    2005-01-01

    A survey is given about efforts undertaken during the HINDAS project to investigate the energy dependence of residual nuclide production by proton-induced reactions from thresholds up to 2.6 GeV. For proton-induced reactions, our experiments aimed to further develop and complete the cross-section database that was established by our collaboration in recent years. It was extended to the heavy-target elements Ta, W, Pb, and Bi for energies up to 2.6 GeV. In addition, new measurements for the target element iron were performed up to 2.6 GeV and for natural uranium for energies from 21 MeV to 69 MeV. For the target element lead, a comprehensive set of excitation functions published recently was completed by AMS-measurements of cross sections for the production of the long-lived radionuclides Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, and I-129 and by mass spectrometric measurements for stable and radioactive rare gas isotopes of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Comprehensive tests of the nuclear-reaction codes TALYS and INCL4+ABLA, which were developed within the HINDAS project, were performed with the new experimental results over the entire energy range

  7. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  8. Map of calculated radioactivity of fission product, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tsuneo

    1977-02-01

    In this work, the radioactivities of fission products were calculated and summarized in contour maps and tables depending on irradiation and cooling times. The irradiation condition and other parameters used for the present calculation are shown in the followings. Neutron flux (N sub(th)): 3x10 13 n/sec/cm 2 Atom number of uranium: 1 mole (6x10 23 , ca. 271 gUO 2 ) Enrichment of U-235: 2.7% Range of irradiation time: 60-6x10 7 sec (ca. 1.9 y) Range of cooling time: 60-6x10 7 sec (ca. 1.9 y). Values of the neutron flux and the enrichment treated here are representative for common LWRs. The maps and tables of 560 nuclides are divided and compiled into the following three volumes. Vol. I: Maps of radioactivity of overall total, element total and each nuclide (Ni - Zr), Vol. II: Maps of radioactivity of each nuclide (Nb - Sb), Vol. III: Maps of radioactivity of each nuclide (Te - Tm). (auth.)

  9. Map of calculated radioactivity of fission product, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tsuneo

    1977-02-01

    In this work, the radioactivities of fission products were calculated and summarized in contour maps and tables depending on irradiation and cooling times. The irradiation condition and other parameters used for the present calculation are shown in the followings. Neutron flux (N sub(th)): 3x10 13 n/sec/cm 2 Atom number of uranium: 1 mole (6x10 23 , ca. 271 gUO 2 ) Enrichment of U-235: 2.7% Range of irradiation time: 60-6x10 7 sec (ca. 1.9 y) Range of cooling time: 60-6x10 7 sec (ca. 1.9 y). Values of the neutron flux and the enrichment treated here are representative for common LWRs. The maps and tables of 560 nuclides are divided and compiled into the following three volumes. Vol. I Maps of radioactivity of overall total, element total and each nuclide (Ni - Zr) Vol. II Maps of radioactivity of each nuclide (Nb - Sb) Vol. III Maps of radioactivity of each nuclide (Te - Tm) (auth.)

  10. Map of calculated radioactivity of fission product, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tsuneo

    1977-02-01

    In this work, the radioactivities of fission products were calculated and summarized in contour maps and tables depending on irradiation and cooling times. The irradiation condition and other parameters used for the present calculation are shown in the followings. Neutron flux (N sub(th)): 3x10 13 n/sec/cm 2 Atom number of uranium: 1 mole (6x10 23 , ca. 271 gUO 2 ) Enrichment of U-235: 2.7% Range of irradiation time: 60-6x10 7 sec (ca. 1.9 y) Range of cooling time: 60-6x10 7 sec (ca. 1.9 y). Values of the neutron flux and the enrichment treated here are representative for common LWRs. The maps and tables of 560 nuclides are divided and compiled into the following three volumes. Vol. I: Maps of radioactivity of overall total, element total and each nuclide (Ni - Zr), Vol. II: Maps of radioactivity of each nuclide (Nb - Sb), Vol. III: Maps of radioactivity of each nuclide (Te - Tm). (auth.)

  11. Some nuclear chemical aspects of medical generator nuclide production at the Los Alamos hot cell facility

    CERN Document Server

    Fassbender, M; Heaton, R C; Jamriska, D J; Kitten, J J; Nortier, F M; Peterson, E J; Phillips, D R; Pitt, L R; Salazar, L L; Valdez, F O; 10.1524/ract.92.4.237.35596

    2004-01-01

    Generator nuclides constitute a convenient tool for applications in nuclear medicine. In this paper, some radiochemical aspects of generator nuclide parents regularly processed at Los Alamos are introduced. The bulk production of the parent nuclides /sup 68/Ge, /sup 82/Sr, /sup 109/Cd and /sup 88/Zr using charged particle beams is discussed. Production nuclear reactions for these radioisotopes, and chemical separation procedures are presented. Experimental processing yields correspond to 80%-98% of the theoretical thick target yield. Reaction cross sections are modeled using the code ALICE-IPPE; it is observed that the model largely disagrees with experimental values for the nuclear processes treated. Radionuclide production batches are prepared 1-6 times yearly for sales. Batch activities range from 40MBq to 75 GBq.

  12. Some nuclear chemical aspects of medical generator nuclide production at the Los Alamos hot cell facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, M.; Nortier, F.M.; Phillips, D.R.; Hamilton, V.T.; Heaton, R.C.; Jamriska, D.J.; Kitten, J.J.; Pitt, L.R.; Salazar, L.L.; Valdez, F.O.; Peterson, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Generator nuclides constitute a convenient tool for applications in nuclear medicine. In this paper, some radiochemical aspects of generator nuclide parents regularly processed at Los Alamos are introduced. The bulk production of the parent nuclides 68 Ge, 82 Sr, 109 Cd and 88 Zr using charged particle beams is discussed. Production nuclear reactions for these radioisotopes, and chemical separation procedures are presented. Experimental processing yields correspond to 80%-98% of the theoretical thick target yield. Reaction cross sections are modeled using the code ALICE-IPPE; it is observed that the model largely disagrees with experimental values for the nuclear processes treated. Radionuclide production batches are prepared 1-6 times yearly for sales. Batch activities range from 40 MBq to 75 GBq. (orig.)

  13. Phase II Nuclide Partition Laboratory Study Influence of Cellulose Degradation Products on the Transport of Nuclides from SRS Shallow Land Burial Facilities; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Degradation products of cellulosic materials (e.g., paper and wood products) can significantly influence the subsurface transport of metals and radionuclides. Codisposal of radionuclides with cellulosic materials in the E-Area slit trenches at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is, therefore, expected to influence nuclide fate and transport in the subsurface. Due to the complexities of these systems and the scarcity of site-specific data, the effects of cellulose waste loading and its subsequent influence on nuclide transport are not well established

  14. Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

    2015-01-01

    Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50 y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Accelerator based production of fissile nuclides, threshold uranium price and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djordjevic, D.; Knapp, V.

    1988-01-01

    Accelerator breeder system characteristics are considered in this work. One such system which produces fissile nuclides can supply several thermal reactors with fissile fuel, so this system becomes analogous to an uranium enrichment facility with difference that fissile nuclides are produced by conversion of U-238 rather than by separation from natural uranium. This concept, with other long-term perspective for fission technology on the basis of development only one simpler technology. The influence of basic system characteristics on threshold uranium price is examined. Conditions for economically acceptable production are established. (author)

  16. Vertical oceanic transport of alpha-radioactive nuclides by zooplankton fecal pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.; Cherry, R.D.; Heyraud, M.; Fowler, S.W.; Beasley, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives the results of research to explain the role played by marine plankton metabolism in the vertical oceanic transport of the alpha-emitting nuclides. The common Mediterranean euphausiid, Meganyctiphanes norvegica, was selected as the typical zooplanktonic species that is the focus of this work. Measurements of 239 240 Pu, 238 U, 232 Th, and 210 Po are reported in whole euphausiids and in euphausiid fecal pellets and molts. The resulting data are inserted into a simple model that describes the flux of an element through a zooplanktonic animal. Concentrations of the nuclides concerned are high in fecal pellets, at levels which are typical of geological rather than biological material. It is suggested that zooplanktonic fecal pellets play a significant role in the vertical oceanic transport of plutonium, thorium, and polonium

  17. Radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Radon. Fission product aerosols. Radioiodine. Tritium. Plutonium. Mass transfer of radioactive vapours and aerosols. Studies with radioactive particles and human subjects. Index. This paper explores the environmental and health aspects of radioactive aerosols. Covers radioactive nuclides of potential concern to public health and applications to the study of boundary layer transport. Contains bibliographic references. Suitable for environmental chemistry collections in academic and research libraries

  18. Radioactive nuclides formed by irradiation of the natural elements with thermal neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, Kim

    1959-05-15

    For each natural element up to Bi this report gives: the 2200 m/sec neutron absorption cross section; the nuclides formed by thermal neutron activation; the saturation activity per gram natural element for a certain flux; half life and 'tenth life' of the activity; {beta}-energy and/or type of decay; mean {gamma} energy per disintegration; energy and abundance of {gamma} quanta.

  19. Radioactive nuclides formed by irradiation of the natural elements with thermal neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, Kim

    1959-05-15

    For each natural element up to Bi this report gives: the 2200 m/sec neutron absorption cross section; the nuclides formed by thermal neutron activation; the saturation activity per gram natural element for a certain flux; half life and 'tenth life' of the activity; {beta}-energy and/or type of decay; mean {gamma} energy per disintegration; energy and abundance of {gamma} quanta.

  20. Radioactivity of 137Cs in papers and migration of the nuclide in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobashi, Asaya

    2009-01-01

    The 137 Cs contents of papers such as magazines and newspapers printed in Japan were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. The average 137 Cs content of weekly general interest magazines was 0.95 Bq kg -1 and far higher than those of other kinds of samples. The result of pholorogluinol color test showed that the main printed pages of the weekly general interest magazines were chiefly made of mechanical pulp. Possibly the pages held 137 Cs brought by wood, raw material of paper, and that accounted for the high 137 Cs content of the magazines. The experimental result suggested that 137 Cs was removed from wood into aqueous solution in the production of chemical pulp. Cesium-137 radioactivity removed during paper manufacturing in the year 2000 in Japan was estimated to be 15 GBq, and the influence of paper manufacturing on the migration of 137 Cs in the environment was discussed. (author)

  1. Radioactivity of long-lived nuclides in the primary circuit of the reactor BOR-60 during operation with defective fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryazev, V.M.; Kizin, V.D.; Lisitsyn, E.S.; Polyakov, V.I.; Chechetkin, Y.V.

    1978-06-01

    The summarized results of measurements of the enrichment and distribution of radioactive nuclides from corrosion and of fission products during the four years of operation of BOR-60, including a longer period of operation with detective fuel elements in the core, are presented. It is shown that for operation with approximately 1% leaking fuel rods radiation exposure becomes worse manily because of release and enrichment of cesium isotopes in the coolant. Of the other fission products, the largest contribution to the dose rate in pipework and components is given by 140 Ba / 140 La and 95 Nb. On operation with 0.1 to 0.2% of leaking fuel rods, this contribution is comparable to that of the corrosion products 60 Co and 54 Mn. The radioactivity of corrosion products in the circuit has not increased within the last three years and was about one order of magnitude lower than the theoretical values. The corrosion and fission products are nonuniformly distributed over the circuit. Concentration of 95 Nb and 60 Co in the pipe for 'cold' sodium is larger by a factor of 2 - 5 and of 140 Ba and 54 Mn by a factor of 10-20 than in the pipes for 'hot' sodium. Most of the cobalt was found to deposit in the heat exchanges. The effectiveness of emptying the pipes from coolant in order to reduce the dose sate is assessed. (orig.) [de

  2. Development and application of the generator for the short-living nuclides production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsejner, A.

    1979-01-01

    The results are stated of investigations by means of radioisotopes on the substance transfer in technological equipment. For these purposes, in most cases, nuclides with high gamma-activity are used and, if possible, having short half-life because the short half-life gives certain advantages in the cases when it is impossible to store radioactive substances in the technological equipment for a long time. It is noted that in connection with short half-life of the nucludes used for labelling and for the economic and radiation safety reasons, activity of these nuclides can not be high. It has been established that the most suitable nuclide for the labelling purpose is lanthanum-140 produced either in a nuclear reactor, or by means of separation from barium=-140 transforming into lanthanum-140 in an isotopic generator. Some methods of lanthanum separation from barium are described, in particular, in the isotopic generator described, barium is adsorbed on the cation-exchanger KPS-200 having high enough stability with respect to the ionozing radiations. As an eluent the 10 -2 M solution of the complexone (Na 2 - EDTA) was used. The complexone solution can be easely obtained and, because of the hydrolysis, it serves as a buffer solution. The data are given for radiation purity and yield of lanthanum-=140 [ru

  3. Nuclides and isotopes. Twelfth edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This explanatory booklet was designed to be used with the Chart of the Nuclides. It contains a brief history of the atomic theory of matter: ancient speculations, periodic properties of elements (Mendeleev table), radioactivity, early models of atomic structure, the Bohr atom, quantum numbers, nature of isotopes, artificial radioactivity, and neutron fission. Information on the pre-Fermi (natural) nuclear reactor at Oklo and the search for superheavy elements is given. The booklet also discusses information presented on the Chart and its coding: stable nuclides, metastable states, data display and color, isotopic abundances, neutron cross sections, spins and parities, fission yields, half-life variability, radioisotope power and production data, radioactive decay chains, and elements without names. The Periodic Table of the Elements is appended. 3 figures, 3 tables

  4. Hazards of radioactive nuclide and their migration and repair research status in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yuting

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives a systematic and comprehensive introduction of the source of the radionuclides in the environment and the harm it brings to human and ecological environment. Furthermore, It summarizes the basic nature and environmental characteristics of three typical nuclides, which are 235 U, 131 I, 90 Sr respectively. In the end, a review of the migration and repairmen of the radionuclides in the environment is given. This paper provides a reference for further study of the radionuclide migration and the phytoremediation of low level radionuclide contamination. (author)

  5. Radioactivity of fishes contaminated by nuclear-bomb test explosions with special reference to the nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T; Saiki, M

    1957-01-01

    The nuclides formerly found in contaminated fish are /sup 89/Sr, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 90/Y, /sup 32/P, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 106/Ru in bones and scales and /sup 137/Cs, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 144/Pr, /sup 95/Zr, and /sup 95/Nb in viscera and muscles. Moreover the following were found newly by M. and S.: /sup 65/Zn, /sup 113m, 115/Cd, /sup 55/ /sup 59/Fe, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 140/Ba, and /sup 140/La in viscera and muscles.

  6. Production of gallium-66, positron emitting nuclide for radioimmumotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Chu, Yung Yee

    1991-01-01

    Excitation functions for production of 66 Ga via α-induced nuclear reactions on enriched 66 Zn have been measured with E α ≤27.3 MeV and E α ≤43.7 MeV employing the stack-thin target technique. In addition, the induced activity of 67 Ga in the same sets of targets allowed an evaluation of the excitation functions of the corresponding nuclear reactions. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Scaling in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates using analytical approximations to atmospheric cosmic-ray fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, Nathaniel; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Dunai, Tibor J.

    2014-01-01

    Several models have been proposed for scaling in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates from the relatively few sites where they have been measured to other sites of interest. Two main types of models are recognized: (1) those based on data from nuclear disintegrations in photographic emulsions combined with various neutron detectors, and (2) those based largely on neutron monitor data. However, stubborn discrepancies between these model types have led to frequent confusion when calculating surface exposure ages from production rates derived from the models. To help resolve these discrepancies and identify the sources of potential biases in each model, we have developed a new scaling model based on analytical approximations to modeled fluxes of the main atmospheric cosmic-ray particles responsible for in situ cosmogenic nuclide production. Both the analytical formulations and the Monte Carlo model fluxes on which they are based agree well with measured atmospheric fluxes of neutrons, protons, and muons, indicating they can serve as a robust estimate of the atmospheric cosmic-ray flux based on first principles. We are also using updated records for quantifying temporal and spatial variability in geomagnetic and solar modulation effects on the fluxes. A key advantage of this new model (herein termed LSD) over previous Monte Carlo models of cosmogenic nuclide production is that it allows for faster estimation of scaling factors based on time-varying geomagnetic and solar inputs. Comparing scaling predictions derived from the LSD model with those of previously published models suggest potential sources of bias in the latter can be largely attributed to two factors: different energy responses of the secondary neutron detectors used in developing the models, and different geomagnetic parameterizations. Given that the LSD model generates flux spectra for each cosmic-ray particle of interest, it is also relatively straightforward to generate nuclide-specific scaling

  8. Production, study and use of short-lived nuclides in pure and applied nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.

    1986-01-01

    The thesis which is based on 17 published papers, reports on the on-line performance of the fast radiochemical separation system SISAK, technical devlopment in the preparation of sources for beta-particles and neutrons, and on important SISAK system improvements concerning liquid hold-up time. It further reports on the development of new production targets at ISOLDE for 600 MeV proton and 910 MeV 3 He-particle irradiations, on tests with a heavy ion beam of 1 GeV 12 C-particles, and on the present availability of mass-separated beams of the halogen elements through new ion source development. Some results from nuclear spectroscopic studies of nuclides in selected mass regions when using such new or improved techniques are given. Examples of techniques for practical application of short-lived nuclides in radiochemical analysis and for radiochemical production for medical purposes are presented

  9. Inventories of radioactive fission products in the core of thermal nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, N.

    1977-01-01

    As a part of the analysis concerning radiological consequences of a major LWR accident, inventories of the most significant radioactive nuclides and stable fission gases in the core of a PWR type reactor have been calculated. Calculations were performed by the DELFIN code using nuclide data and neutron flux data earlier obtained by the METHUSELAH code. Comparison with simplified calculation method show that it is quite rough for certain nuclides but the accuracy may be sufficient for safety analysis purposes recalling the inaccuracies in the later parts of fission product transport process (author)

  10. Nuclides Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    consideration should be prognosis of all political, social, environmental and infra-structural consequences. Understanding of this necessity turned us to use the formalism of so called techno-dynamics and represent of resources needed for nuclear technology development as dynamic categories. The basic ideas of the methodology of innovative project assessment have been applied for holistic analysis of the development of the nuclear systems. This methodology has been developed for innovative proposals analysis in frame of IAEA INPRO project and it was a consensus product of the wide international expert's society discussions. All aspects of application of radioactivity in the industry and medicine had not been presented because the main ideas are quite evident but scale factor of their using has too big uncertainties. But cyclic character of organizing fuel management for the future development of nuclear technologies was added by cycles of structure materials as well. It has obtained that asymptotically the nuclear technology generates their specific compositions of structure materials. Thus wide scale using of the nuclear power will make new kind of metals that will be materials of nuclear quality. Development of new technologies and their penetration on the market will be accompanied by the several kinds of critical events. Crisis of resource's supplying is only most well known of them. But it is not both the single and not the most important. The model of corporation development made on Marshall's theory unambiguously demonstrates that transition from one technology to another can be made only in conditions of falling of the market. This result does not allow us to predict of time of the optimal transition from one technology basis onto the nets generation but it gives an indicator of readiness for changing of the mainstream. For the analysis of new innovative initiative it has been used the scale factor. Thus it shows that required installed capacity of G.N.E.P. systems will

  11. Development of monitor for multiple beta-ray nuclides in liquid radioactive waste (IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Nam, Uk Won; Seon, K. I.; Kong, K. N.; Son, J. D.; Chin, H.; Park, J. H.; Yuk, I. S.; Han, W. Y. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    In the 4{sup th} fiscal year, the performance of the system developed in previous year have been stablilized. An automatic mixer system to mix the liquid radioactive waste with the liquid scintillator was designed and manufactured to make continuous monitoring possible. Mechanical systems for the automatic transfer, injection of radioactive samples, and for sealing sample bottle and its attachment on detector system have been designed and developed for completely integrated system, The experimental has been performed for the radioactive analysis by using the system. The measured data are transferred to central computer, which controls the monitoring system, through the RS-232 communication protocol. A software for host personal computer was developed for the control and analysis of the integrated system.

  12. The Study on Radioactive Nuclide Distributions within a Fuel Rod by Tomographic Gamma Scanning Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quanhu, Zhang; Lee, H. K.; Hong, K. P.; Choo, Y. S.; Kim, D. S.

    2005-06-01

    Based on the specified need of the IMEF, the feasibility of Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS) technique has been investigated for its potential for non-destructive gamma scanning measurements of irradiated fuel rods. TGS technique has been developed for determining some radioactive isotopes' distributions of a fuel rod in hot cell. The results obtained from the simulation model extracting from real gamma scanning experimental condition in this work by new developed computer simulation codes confirmed that the gamma emission TGS technique has potential for determination of radioactive isotopes' distributions of a fuel rod. In order to verify the simulation codes, we have designed several computation schemes for both 3 by 3 and 10 by 10 fuel rod model under present situation at M1 hot cell in IMEF. The results which relative errors are less than 10% show that we have simulated and implemented determination of radioactive isotopes' distributions on simulated fuel rod by TGS technique successfully

  13. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 21. Ground water movement and nuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This volume, TM-36/21 Ground Water Movement and Nuclide Transport, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The studies presented in this volume consider the effect of the construction of the repository and the consequent heat generation on the ground water movement. Additionally, the source concentrations and leach rates of selected radionuclides were studied in relation to the estimated ground water inflow rates. Studies were also performed to evaluate the long term migration of radionuclides as affected by the ground water flow. In all these studies, three geologic environments are considered; granite, shale and basalt.

  14. Neutron cross sections of 28 fission product nuclides adopted in JENDL-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yasuyuki; Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Igarasi, Sin-iti; Matsunobu, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Masayoshi; Iijima, Shungo.

    1981-02-01

    This is the final report concerning the evaluated neutron cross sections of 28 fission product nuclides adopted in the first version of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-1). These 28 nuclides were selected as being most important for fast reactor calculations, and are 90 Sr, 93 Zr, 95 Mo, 97 Mo, 99 Tc, 101 Ru, 102 Ru, 103 Rh, 104 Ru, 105 Pd, 106 Ru, 107 Pd, 109 Ag, 129 I, 131 Xe, 133 Cs, 135 Cs, 137 Cs, 143 Nd, 144 Ce, 144 Nd, 145 Nd, 147 Pm, 147 Sm, 149 Sm, 151 Sm, 153 Eu and 155 Eu. The status of the experimental data was reviewed over the whole energy range. The present evaluation was performed on the basis of the measured data with the aid of theoretical calculations. The optical and statical models were used for evaluation of the smooth cross sections. An improved method was developed in treating the multilevel Breit-Wigner formula for the resonance region. Various physical parameters and the level schemes, adopted in the present work are discussed by comparing with those used in the other evaluations such as ENDF/B-IV, CEA, CNEN-2 and RCN-2. Furthermore, the evaluation method and results are described in detail for each nuclide. The evaluated total, capture and inelastic scattering cross sections are compared with the other evaluated data and some recent measured data. Some problems of the present work are pointed out and ways of their improvement are suggested. (author)

  15. Map of calculated radioactivity of fission product, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tsuneo

    1978-07-01

    The overall radioactivities of fission products depending on irradiation time and cooling time were calculated for 18 different neutron fluxes, which are presented in contour maps and tables. Irradiation condition etc. are the followings: neutron flux (n sub(th)) 1 x 10 12 - 6.8 x 10 14 n/cm 2 /sec, uranium quantity 1 mole (6 x 10 23 atoms, ca. 271 g UO 2 ), U-235 enrichment 2.7%, irradiation time 60. - 6 x 10 7 sec (1 min - 1.9 y), cooling time 0. and 60. - 6 x 10 7 sec (1 min - 1.9 y). The enrichment value represents those for LWRs. To calculate the overall radioactivities, 595 fission product nuclides were introduced. Overall radioactivities calculations were made for 68,000 combinations of irradiation time, cooling time and neutron flux. The many complex decay chains of fission products were treated with CODAC-No.6 computer code. (author)

  16. Uranium, thorium and potassium contents and radioactive equilibrium states of the uranium and thorium series nuclides in phosphate rocks and phosphate fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komura, K; Yanagisawa, M; Sakurai, J; Sakanoue, M

    1985-10-01

    Uranium, thorium and potassium contents and radioactive equilibrium states of the uranium and thorium series nuclides have been studied for 2 phosphate rocks and 7 phosphate fertilizers. Uranium contents were found to be rather high (39-117 ppm) except for phosphate rock from Kola. The uranium series nuclides were found to be in various equilibration states, which can be grouped into following three categories. Almost in the equilibrium state, 238U approximately 230Th greater than 210Pb greater than 226Ra and 238U greater than 230Th greater than 210Pb greater than 226Ra. Thorium contents were found to be, in general, low and appreciable disequilibrium of the thorium series nuclides was not observed except one sample. Potassium contents were also very low (less than 0.3% K2O) except for complex fertilizers. Based on the present data, discussions were made for the radiation exposure due to phosphate fertilizers.

  17. ENDF/B-IV fission-product files: summary of major nuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, T.R.; Schenter, R.E.

    1975-09-01

    The major fission-product parameters [sigma/sub th/, RI, tau/sub 1/2/, E-bar/sub β/, E-bar/sub γ/, E-bar/sub α/, decay and (n,γ) branching, Q, and AWR] abstracted from ENDF/B-IV files for 824 nuclides are summarized. These data are most often requested by users concerned with reactor design, reactor safety, dose, and other sundry studies. The few known file errors are corrected to date. Tabular data are listed by increasing mass number

  18. Complex nuclear-structure phenomena revealed from the nuclide production in fragmentation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricciardi, M.V.; Kelic, A.; Napolitani, P.; Schmidt, K.H.; Yordanov, O.; Ignatyuk, A.V.; Rejmund, F.

    2003-12-01

    Complex structural effects in the nuclide production from the projectile fragmentation of 1 A GeV 238 U nuclei in a titanium target are reported. The structure seems to be insensitive to the excitation energy induced in the reaction. This is in contrast to the prominent structural features found in nuclear fission and in transfer reactions, which gradually disappear with increasing excitation energy. Using the statistical model of nuclear reactions, relations to structural effects in nuclear binding and in the nuclear level density are demonstrated. (orig.)

  19. Microdosimetric implications of the nonuniformity of deposition patterns of inhaled radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashazy, I.; Palfalvi, J.; Hofmann, W.

    2000-01-01

    local inhomogeneities for all particle sizes and flow rates considered here (except for nanometer-sized particles at very low flow rates). The maximum values of the enhancement factors in a bifurcation strongly increased with decreasing patch size, thus illustrating the high degree of inhomogeneities of the deposition patterns in upper human airways. The computed maximum enhancement factors were as high as several hundreds, suggesting that epithelial cells located at these sites will receive massive doses relative to the assumption of a uniform nuclide distribution. Since the prevalent philosophy of inhalation risk assessment is based upon the assumption of a uniform particle deposition pattern, the incorporation of deposition enhancement factors within airway bifurcations will provide more realistic estimates of radiation doses and resulting carcinogenic risk. Such microdosimetric considerations are particularly important for inhaled alpha-emitting radionuclides, such as the short-lived radon progeny, where cellular doses are strongly correlated with the emission sites of alpha particles. (author)

  20. Monte Carlo modelling and comparison with experiment of the nuclide production in thick stony targets isotropically irradiated with 600 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aylmer, D.; Herzog, G.F.; Kruse, T.H.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; Moniot, R.K.; Signer, P.; Wieler, R.; Tuniz, C.

    1987-05-01

    Depth profiles for the production of stable and radioactive nuclides have been measured for a large variety of target elements in three thick spherical stony targets with radii of 5, 15 and 26 cm isotropically irradiated with 600 MeV protons at the CERN synchrocyclotron. These irradiation experiments (CERN SC96) were intended to simulate the irradiation of meteoroids by galactic cosmic ray protons. In order to combine this experimental approach with a theoretical one the intra- and internuclear cascades were calculated using Monte Carlo techniques via the high energy transport code HET/KFA 1. Together with transport calculations for low energy neutrons by the MORSE-CG code the depth dependent spectra of primary and secondary protons and of secondary neutrons were derived. On the basis of these spectra and a set of evaluated experimental excitation functions for p-induced reactions and of theoretical ones for n-induced reactions, calculated by the code ALICE LIVERMORE 82, theoretical depth profiles for the production of stable and radioactive nuclides in the three thick targets were calculated. This report is a comprehensive survey on all those target/product combination for which both experimental and theoretical data are available. It provides the basis for a detailed discussion of the various production modes of residual nuclides and on the depth and size dependence of their production rates in thick stony targets, serving as a simulation of the galactic cosmic ray irradiation of meteoroids in space. On the other hand the comparison of the experimental and theoretical depth profiles validates the high energy transport calculations, making them a promissing tool for further model calculations of the interactions of cosmic rays with matter. (orig.)

  1. NUCLIDES 2000: an electronic chart of the nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galy, J.; Magill, J.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclides have many applications in agriculture, medicine, industry and research. For basic information on such radioactive materials, the Chart of the Nuclides has proved to be an indispensable tool for obtaining data on radionuclides and working out qualitatively decay schemes and reaction paths. These Charts are, however, of limited use when one requires quantitative information on the decaying nuclide and its daughters. This was the motivation for the development of the NUCLIDES 2000 software package. The radioactive decay data used in NUCLIDES 2000 is based on the Joint Evaluated File (Jeff) version 2.2. The present version of the program contains decay data on approximately 2700 radionuclides. (authors)

  2. Removal of Radioactive Nuclides by Multi-Functional Microcapsules Enclosing Inorganic Ion-Exchangers and Organic Extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, H.; Akiba, K.; Onodera, Y.

    2002-02-26

    The microcapsules enclosing two kinds of functional materials, inorganic ion-exchangers and organic extractants, were prepared by taking advantage of the high immobilization ability of alginate gel polymer. The fine powders of inorganic ion-exchanger and oil drops of extractant were kneaded with sodium alginate (NaALG) solution and the kneaded sol readily gelled in a salt solution of CaCl2, BaCl2 or HCl to form spherical gel particles. The uptake properties of various nuclides, 137Cs, 85Sr, 60Co, 88Y, 152Eu and 241Am, for thirty-four specimens of microcapsules in the presence of 10-1-10-4 M HNO3 were evaluated by the batch method. The distribution coefficient (Kd) of Cs+ above 103 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules enclosing CuFC or AMP. The Kd of Sr2+ around 102 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules containing clinoptilolite, antimonic acid, zeolite A, zeolite X or titanic acid. The microcapsules enclosing DEHPA exhibited relatively large Kd values of trivalent metal ions above 103 cm3/g; for example, the Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for a favorable microcapsule (CuFC/clinoptilolite/DEHPA/CaALG) were 1.1x104, 7.5x10, 1.1x10, 1.0x104, 1.4x104, 3.4x103 cm3/g, respectively. The uptake rates of Cs+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for this microcapsule were rather fast; the uptake percentage above 90% was obtained after 19 h-shaking and the uptake equilibrium was attained within 1 d. The AMP/CaALG exhibited high uptake ability for Cs+ even after irradiation of 188 kGy, and DEHPA/CaALG microcapsule had similar Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ ions before and after irradiation. The microcapsules with various shapes such as spherical, columnar, fibrous and filmy forms were easily prepared by changing the way of dipping kneaded sol into gelling salt solution. The microcapsules enclosing inorganic ion-exchangers and extractants have a potential possibility for the simultaneous removal of various radioactive nuclides from waste solutions.

  3. WWW chart of the nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaolong; Zhou Chunmei; Zhuang Youxiang; Zhao Zhixiang; Golashvili, T.V.; Chechev, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    WWW chart of the nuclides was established on the basis of the latest evaluations of nuclear structure and decay data. By viewing WWW chart of the nuclides, one can retrieve the fundamental data of nuclide such as atomic mass, abundance, spin and parity; the decay mode, branching ratio, half-life and Q-value of radioactive nuclide, energy and intensity of strong γ-ray, etc. The URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of WWW chart of the nuclides is: http://myhome.py.gd.cn/chart/index,asp

  4. Radioactivity in Dutch consumer products

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, M P M

    2002-01-01

    This study took place within the framework of a general update of the average radiation dose for the Dutch population. It focuses on consumer products in which radionuclides have been intentionally incorporated and on radiation-emitting devices that can be supplied to members of the public without special surveillance. Eleven consumer products were studied in more detail. The radiation from these products determined 90% of the total collective dose due to consumer products in the Netherlands in 1988. Individual and collective doses are presented here for each product. The total collective dose has decreased from 130 personSv in 1988 to 4.6 personSv at present. This reduction was attributed to: a decrease in the number of radioactive products (gas mantles), lower estimates of the number of radioactive products present in the Netherlands thanks to new information (camera lenses, smoke detectors containing Ra-226), replacement of radioactive by non-radioactive products (gas mantles, dental protheses), and a lowe...

  5. Cosmic-ray-produced stable nuclides: various production rates and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The rates for a number of reactions producing certain stable nuclides, such as 3 He and 4 He, and fission in the moon are calculated for galactic-cosmic-ray particles and for solar protons. Solar-proton-induced reactions with bromine usually are not an important source of cosmogenic Kr isotopes. The 130 Ba(n,p) reaction cannot account for the undercalculation of 130 Xe production rates. Calculated production rates of 15 N, 13 C, and 2 H agree fairly well with rates inferred from measured excesses of these isotopes in samples with long exposure ages. Cosmic-ray-induced fission of U and Th can produce significant amounts of fission tracks and of 86 Kr, 134 Xe, and 136 Xe, especially in samples with long exposures to cosmic-ray particles

  6. On scaling cosmogenic nuclide production rates for altitude and latitude using cosmic-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desilets, Darin; Zreda, Marek

    2001-11-01

    The wide use of cosmogenic nuclides for dating terrestrial landforms has prompted a renewed interest in characterizing the spatial distribution of terrestrial cosmic rays. Cosmic-ray measurements from neutron monitors, nuclear emulsions and cloud chambers have played an important role in developing new models for scaling cosmic-ray neutron intensities and, indirectly, cosmogenic production rates. Unfortunately, current scaling models overlook or misinterpret many of these data. In this paper, we describe factors that must be considered when using neutron measurements to determine scaling formulations for production rates of cosmogenic nuclides. Over the past 50 years, the overwhelming majority of nucleon flux measurements have been taken with neutron monitors. However, in order to use these data for scaling spallation reactions, the following factors must be considered: (1) sensitivity of instruments to muons and to background, (2) instrumental biases in energy sensitivity, (3) solar activity, and (4) the way of ordering cosmic-ray data in the geomagnetic field. Failure to account for these factors can result in discrepancies of as much as 7% in neutron attenuation lengths measured at the same location. This magnitude of deviation can result in an error on the order of 20% in cosmogenic production rates scaled from 4300 m to sea level. The shapes of latitude curves of nucleon flux also depend on these factors to a measurable extent, thereby causing additional uncertainties in cosmogenic production rates. The corrections proposed herein significantly improve our ability to transfer scaling formulations based on neutron measurements to scaling formulations applicable to spallation reactions, and, therefore, constitute an important advance in cosmogenic dating methodology.

  7. Radioactive materials production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The Radiochemical Processing Plant (RPP) at ORNL has served as the national repository and distribution center for 233 U for > 20 years. Several hundred kilograms of uranium, containing approximately 90 to 98% 233 U, are stored there in the form of metal, oxides, and nitrate solutions. All of these uranium materials contain small, but significant, concentrations of 232 U, ranging from 2 to 225 ppm. Most of the radioactivity associated with the 233 U comes from the decay daughters of 232 U (74-year half-life). The 252 Cf Industrial Sales/Loan Program involves loans of 252 Cf neutron sources to agencies of the US Government and sales of 252 Cf as the bulk oxide and as palladium-californium alloy pellets and wires. The program has been operated since 1968 in temporary facilities at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). The obsolete hot-cell facilities at SRL are now being decommissioned, and the program activities are being transferred to ORNL's Californium Facility in Bldg. 7930, which is managed by the staff of the Transuranium Processing Plant

  8. A survey of radioactive levels of agricultural products in Saitama prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motegi, Misako; Miyake, Sadaaki; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki [Saitama Inst. of Public health, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    Past atmospheric nuclear testing which have been conducted frequently, have caused environmental pollution due to the diffusion of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and from the radioactive fallout. The environmental pollution from nuclear testing into the atmosphere has resulted in the radioactive contamination in agricultural products and has continued for a long time. The radioactive contamination of agricultural products occurs through air, water and soil which were contaminated by radioactive fallout. In this paper, for the purpose of analyzing the extent of the radioactive contamination levels in the agricultural products of Saitama Prefecture, spinach, green soybeans, dried shiitake and welsh onion, were selected among products, as the amount of the harvest is abundant in all of Japan. Radioactivity concentration was investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry and radiochemical analysis. The radioactivity concentrations of artificial radioactive nuclides, cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr), were detected in the range which is considered to be the result of radioactive fallout. Moreover, in order to examine the effect on radioactivity concentrations in agricultural products by culinary processing, the raw agricultural products were boiled, and their radioactivity concentrations were compared with the raw produce. The radioactivity concentrations in the boiled were lower than those in the raw produce. (author)

  9. A survey of radioactive levels of agricultural products in Saitama prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motegi, Misako; Miyake, Sadaaki; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki

    1997-01-01

    Past atmospheric nuclear testing which have been conducted frequently, have caused environmental pollution due to the diffusion of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and from the radioactive fallout. The environmental pollution from nuclear testing into the atmosphere has resulted in the radioactive contamination in agricultural products and has continued for a long time. The radioactive contamination of agricultural products occurs through air, water and soil which were contaminated by radioactive fallout. In this paper, for the purpose of analyzing the extent of the radioactive contamination levels in the agricultural products of Saitama Prefecture, spinach, green soybeans, dried shiitake and welsh onion, were selected among products, as the amount of the harvest is abundant in all of Japan. Radioactivity concentration was investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry and radiochemical analysis. The radioactivity concentrations of artificial radioactive nuclides, cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and strontium-90 ( 90 Sr), were detected in the range which is considered to be the result of radioactive fallout. Moreover, in order to examine the effect on radioactivity concentrations in agricultural products by culinary processing, the raw agricultural products were boiled, and their radioactivity concentrations were compared with the raw produce. The radioactivity concentrations in the boiled were lower than those in the raw produce. (author)

  10. Validation of cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling factors through direct measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, I.J. E-mail: i.graham@gns.cri.nz; Barry, B.J.; Ditchburn, R.G.; Whitehead, N.E

    2000-10-01

    {sup 7}Be produced in water targets by nuclear interactions of cosmic rays has been measured to determine cosmogenic nuclide production rates as a function of altitude (sea level to 2 km) and geomagnetic latitude (20-79 deg. S). Relative intensities of low energy cosmic ray neutrons have at the same time been measured using neutron monitors based on IGY/NM-64 designed to efficiently thermalise ca. 2-30 MeV neutrons. The research is on-going and we present here preliminary data from the past two years. Water target and neutron flux results are in general agreement, and are consistent with the altitude-dependent scaling factors of Lal [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104 (1991) 4241]. Significant differences between the sea level, latitude-dependent neutron flux data and Lal's predictions are possibly related to the response function of the detector.

  11. Validation of cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling factors through direct measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, I J; Ditchburn, R G; Whitehead, N E

    2000-01-01

    sup 7 Be produced in water targets by nuclear interactions of cosmic rays has been measured to determine cosmogenic nuclide production rates as a function of altitude (sea level to 2 km) and geomagnetic latitude (20-79 deg. S). Relative intensities of low energy cosmic ray neutrons have at the same time been measured using neutron monitors based on IGY/NM-64 designed to efficiently thermalise ca. 2-30 MeV neutrons. The research is on-going and we present here preliminary data from the past two years. Water target and neutron flux results are in general agreement, and are consistent with the altitude-dependent scaling factors of Lal [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104 (1991) 4241]. Significant differences between the sea level, latitude-dependent neutron flux data and Lal's predictions are possibly related to the response function of the detector.

  12. Cosmic-ray produced nuclides in ground level air and in precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, G.; Roedel, W.; Stoeppler, M.

    1963-11-15

    There are mainly three kinds of radioactive substances in the atmosphere: emanations from the ground and their daughters, nuclides produced in the atmosphere by cosmic rays, and artificial products originating from nuclear weapon tests (and in a very small amount from other nuclear technical applications). This paper deals in particular with some of the cosmic-ray produced nuclides.

  13. Accelerator based production of fissile nuclides, threshold uranium price and perspectives; Akceleratorska proizvodnja fisibilnih nuklida, granicna cijena urana i perspektive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djordjevic, D [INIS-Inzenjering, Sarajevo (Yugoslavia); Knapp, V [Elektrotehnicki fakultet, zagreb (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    Accelerator breeder system characteristics are considered in this work. One such system which produces fissile nuclides can supply several thermal reactors with fissile fuel, so this system becomes analogous to an uranium enrichment facility with difference that fissile nuclides are produced by conversion of U-238 rather than by separation from natural uranium. This concept, with other long-term perspective for fission technology on the basis of development only one simpler technology. The influence of basic system characteristics on threshold uranium price is examined. Conditions for economically acceptable production are established. (author)

  14. Production of residual nuclides by proton-induced reactions on target W at the energy of 72 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Moazzem Hossain [Univ. of Chittagong, Dept. of Physics, Chittagong (Bangladesh); Kuhnhenn, Jochen; Herpers, Ulrich [Univ. of Cologne, Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, Cologne (Germany); Michel, Rolf [University of Hannover, Centre for Radiation Protection and Radioecology (Germany); Kubik, Peter [Paul Scherrer Inst., c/o Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2002-08-01

    Investigations of cross-sections for residual nuclide production on the target element W by proton-induced reactions were performed by irradiating the target with 72 MeV protons using the cyclotron facilities at Paul-Scherrer Institute, Zurich, Switzerland. Residual nuclides were measured by gamma-spectrometry of HpGe detectors calibrated with standard gamma sources. The measured data contains 104 individual cross-sections for 20 identified nuclides in the proton energies between 52.5 - 68.9 MeV. These nuclear data is important in the study of spallation neutron source and in accelerator driven technologies such as waste transmutation and energy amplification. The present data are compared with the shape of the excitation functions of earlier only one measurement at higher energies and they are in good agreement to each other. (author)

  15. A New Approach for the Determination of Dose Rate and Radioactivity for Detected Gamma Nuclides Using an Environmental Radiation Monitor Based on an NaI(Tl) Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Young-Yong; Kim, Chang-Jong; Lim, Kyo-Sun; Lee, Wanno; Chang, Hyon-Sock; Chung, Kun Ho

    2017-10-01

    To expand the application of dose rate spectroscopy to the environment, the method using an environmental radiation monitor (ERM) based on a 3' × 3' NaI(Tl) detector was used to perform real-time monitoring of the dose rate and radioactivity for detected gamma nuclides in the ground around an ERM. Full-energy absorption peaks in the energy spectrum for dose rate were first identified to calculate the individual dose rates of Bi, Ac, Tl, and K distributed in the ground through interference correction because of the finite energy resolution of the NaI(Tl) detector used in an ERM. The radioactivity of the four natural radionuclides was then calculated from the in situ calibration factor-that is, the dose rate per unit curie-of the used ERM for the geometry of the ground in infinite half-space, which was theoretically estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. By an intercomparison using a portable HPGe and samples taken from the ground around an ERM, this method to calculate the dose rate and radioactivity of four nuclides using an ERM was experimentally verified and finally applied to remotely monitor them in real-time in the area in which the ERM had been installed.

  16. New approaches investigating production rates of in-situ produced terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchel, Silke [CEREGE, CNRS-IRD-Universite Aix-Marseille, Aix-en-Provence (France); FZD, Dresden (Germany); Braucher, Regis; Benedetti, Lucilla; Bourles, Didier [CEREGE, CNRS-IRD-Universite Aix-Marseille, Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2010-07-01

    In-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides have proved to be valuable tools for environmental and Earth sciences. However, accurate application of this method is only possible, if terrestrial production rates in a certain environment over a certain time period and their depth-dependence within the exposed material are exactly known. Unfortunately, the existing data and models differ up to several tens of percent. Thus, one of the European project CRONUS-EU goals is the high quality calibration of the {sup 36}Cl production rate by spallation at independently dated surfaces. As part of fulfilling this task we have investigated calcite-rich samples from four medieval landslide areas in the Alps: Mont Granier, Le Claps, Dobratsch, and Veliki Vrh (330-1620 m, 1248-1442 AD). For investigating the depth-dependence of the different nuclear reactions, especially, the muon- and thermal neutron-induced contributions, we have analysed mixtures of carbonates and siliceous conglomerate samples - for {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, and {sup 36}Cl - exposed at different shielding depths and taken from a core drilled in 2005 at La Ciotat, France (from surface to 11 m shielding). AMS of {sup 36}Cl was performed at LLNL and ETH, {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al at ASTER.

  17. [Radioactive nuclides in the marine environment--distribution and behaviour of 95Zr, 95Nb originated from fallout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, A; Miyagawa, N; Miyanaga, N

    1984-07-01

    To investigate behaviour of 95Zr, 95Nb in the marine environment, various samples have been collected and measured by means of Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometry and/or radiochemical analysis during a period from 1974 to 1982 at coastal area of Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture. Concentration of the nuclides in seaweeds increased remarkably after atmospheric nuclear detonation by P.R. of China, and the activity ratio between the nuclides changed by time was not fit well by the transient decay equation. Concentration variation in sea water was smaller than that in sea weeds, and the minimum change in sea sediment. Increase of concentration in these environmental samples was observed in chronological order of sea water, sea weeds then sediment after detonations, suggesting that the uptake of the nuclides by these sea weeds from sea water is faster than that via root. Observed concentration factors on the nuclides by sea weeds were calculated from the observed concentrations in sea water and sea weeds. Maximum values on 95Zr and 95Nb were 2110, 2150, respectively for Ecklonia cava and Eisenia bicyclis.

  18. Comparative uptake of gamma-emitting fission product nuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1974-01-01

    The comparative uptake of long-lived gamma-emitting fission product nuclides 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 137 Cs and 144 Ce, present in global fallout from nuclear explosions, by maize (Zea mays L) plants was examined in water culture experiments. Over identical duration of plant growth, the extent of accumulation of the radionuclides in aerial tissues was in the following decreasing order: 137 Cs >, 125 Sb >, 106 Ru > and 144 Ce. In roots, however, the retention of 144 Ce and 106 Ru was greater than that of 137 Cs and 125 Sb. Complementary studies with maize and rice (Oryza sativa L) grown on two contrasting soil types, namely, laterite and black clay loam indicated that 137 Cs uptake by plants was markedly greater than that of the other radionuclides in both soil types. Plant uptake of 106 Ru and 125 Sb was significantly higher than that of 144 Ce in the black soil. In the laterite, however, 144 Ce uptake far exceeded that of 106 Ru and 125 Sb. In general, maize removed higher amounts of the radionuclides than rice from both soil types. (author)

  19. Efficiency Of Transuranium Nuclides Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansky, Yu.A.; Klinov, D.A.; Semenov, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    One of the ways to create a wasteless nuclear power is based on transmutation of spent fuel nuclides. In particular, it is considered that the radioactivity of the nuclear power wastes should be the same (or smaller), than radioactivity of the uranium and the thorium extracted from entrails of the Earth. The problem of fission fragments transmutation efficiency was considered in article, where, in particular, the concepts of transmutation factor and the ''generalised'' index of biological hazard of the radioactive nuclides were entered. The transmutation efficiency has appeared to be a function of time and, naturally, dependent on nuclear power activity scenario, from neutron flux, absorption cross-sections of the nuclides under transmutation and on the rate of their formation in reactors. In the present paper the efficiency of the transmutation of transuranium nuclides is considered

  20. Radioactivity transfer to animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Information on the behaviour of strontium, caesium, ruthenium, plutonium and americium in a range of domestic animals is reviewed to form a basis for the specification of time-dependent mathematical models describing uptake, distribution and retention in various domestic animals. Transfer factors relating concentration in animal product to daily radioactivity intake are derived after 100 d continuous intake and at equilibrium. These transfer factors are compared with the available published literature and used as a basis for the derivation of feedingstuff conversion factors relating limiting concentrations in animal feedingstuffs to limiting concentrations in human foodstuffs for application to animals receiving commercial feedingstuffs after a nuclear accident. Recommended transfer factors for animal products in conditions of continuous discharge and models for application to field conditions after a nuclear accident are also presented. Transfer of caesium to animal products is more effective than that for the other elements considered here. Transfer to meat of lamb, fattening pig, and chickens is generally more effective than that for other animals and other products

  1. Cross Sections for the Production of Residual Nuclides by Proton-Induced Reactions with Uranium at Medium Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, S.A.M.; Michel, R.; Uosif, M.A.M.; Issa, S.A.M.; Flamentc, J.L.; David, J.C.; Leray, S.

    2009-01-01

    The production of residual nuclides by proton-induced reactions on uranium is investigated using activated targets from irradiation experiments at Saturne II synchrocyclotron at the Laboratory National Saturne/Saclay. These investigations contribute to the European research project NUDATRA within the IP EUROTRANS in which the feasibility of accelerator-driven transmutation of nuclear waste is evaluated. Experimental cross sections are derived from gamma-spectrometric measurements. A total of 1894 cross-section was deter-mined covering 44 residual nuclides in the energy range from 211 MeV to 2530 MeV. The experimental data together with those of earlier work of our group are discussed in the context of theoretical excitation functions calculated by the newly developed INCL4 + ABLA and the TALYS codes

  2. Alpha-emitting nuclides in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentreath, R. J.

    1984-06-01

    The occurrence of alpha-emitting nuclides and their daughter products in the marine environment continues to be a subject of study for many reasons. Those nuclides which occur naturally, in the uranium, thorium and actinium series, are of interest because of their value in determining the rates of geological and geochemical processes in the oceans. Studies of them address such problems as the determination of rates of transfer of particulate matter, deposition rates, bioturbation rates, and so on. Two of the natural alpha-series nuclides in which a different interest has been expressed are 210Po and 226Ra, because their concentrations in marine organisms are such that they contribute to a significant fraction of the background dose rates sustained both by the organisms themselves and by consumers of marine fish and shellfish. To this pool of naturally-occurring nuclides, human activities have added the transuranium nuclides, both from the atmospheric testing of nuclear devices and from the authorized discharges of radioactive wastes into coastal waters and the deep sea. Studies have therefore been made to understand the chemistry of these radionuclides in sea water, their association with sedimentary materials, and their accumulation by marine organisms, the last of these being of particular interest because the transuranics are essentially "novel" elements to the marine fauna and flora. The need to predict the long-term behaviour of these nuclides has, in turn, stimulated research on those naturally-occurring nuclides which may behave in a similar manner.

  3. Estimated effects of radioactive fallout on agricultural production in Sweden. Contamination of crop products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Aake; Loensjoe, H.; Karlstroem, F.

    1994-01-01

    The study is part of a research project, 'Radioactivity problems within the food sector' performed in 1991-94 at the request of the National Board of Agriculture in Sweden by The National Research Establishment, Dept. of NBC Defence, and the Dept. of Radioecology and the Dept. of Biosystems and Technology, the latter two belonging to the Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences. The aim of the study was to investigate the contamination levels that may occur in agricultural crop products in Sweden in a situation of radioactive fallout from the use of nuclear weapons. There is a risk for a major nuclide transport in agricultural systems by the feeds, mainly by pasture grass and silage and hay crops but also to some extent by grain crops. For that reason, cattle are expected to be important vectors of the fallout nuclides to the human diet, particularly in milk from dairy cattle but also in beef. The activity transport by grain to pig products may also be of some importance. 8 refs, 7 figs, 25 tabs

  4. Method of reprocessing radioactive asphalt solidification products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Iwao; Murakami, Tadashi; Miyake, Takafumi; Inagaki, Yuzo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain heat-stable solidification products and decrease the total volume thereof by modifying the solidified form by the reprocessing of existent radioactive asphalt solidification products. Method: Radioactive asphalt solidification products are heated into a fluidized state. Then, incombustible solvents such as perchloroethylene or trichloroethylene are added to a dissolving tank to gradually dissolve the radioactive asphalt solidification products. Thus, organic materials such as asphalts are transferred into the solvent layer, while inorganic materials containing radioactive materials remain as they are in the separation tank. Then, the inorganic materials containing the radioactive materials are taken out and then solidified, for example, by converting them into a rock or glass form. (Kawakami, Y.)

  5. Timing of Expansions of the Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru, and Implications for Cosmogenic Nuclide Production Rate Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, T. V.; Kelly, M. A.; Applegate, P. J.; Smith, C. A.; Phillips, F. M.; Hudson, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    We calibrate the production rate of the cosmogenic nuclide beryllium-10 (10Be) at a low-latitude, high-elevation site, using nuclide concentrations measured in moraine boulders and an independent chronology determined with bracketing radiocarbon dates. The measurement of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) concentrations in earth surface materials has been an important development for understanding a host of earth surface processes. Uncertainty in cosmogenic nuclide production rates has hampered application of this method. Here, we contribute to the estimation of 10Be production rates by reporting both preliminary 10Be concentrations and independent radiocarbon dates from a low latitude, high elevation site. Our study site in the southeastern Peruvian Andes (~13.9°S, 70.9°W, 4850 m asl) is centered on a moraine set, known as the Huancané II moraines, that represents a ~4 km expansion of Quelccaya Ice Cap during late glacial time. At this location, organic material situated both stratigraphically below and above moraines in two adjacent valleys provide material for radiocarbon dating. Based on geomorphic arguments, we correlate results from the two valleys. The timing of ice cap margin advance is bracketed by 13 radiocarbon ages on organic material within the outermost Huancané II moraines that range from 13.6 to 12.5 ka. Two stratigraphic sections upvalley from the moraines yield 6 radiocarbon ages from 11.3 to 12.4 ka, indicating the time of retreat . We computed the probability density function that lies between these two sets of dates, and assign an age of 12.4 ka (+/-???) for the formation of the Huancané II moraines. Calculating beryllium-10 exposure dates from the measured concentrations yield exposure dates that significantly underestimate the independently determined age of the moraine (~8-30%), if existing production rate estimates are used. We suggest that the radiocarbon age for the moraines can be used as a robust independent calibration for 10Be

  6. Determination of the Concentration of Radioactive Nuclides of Surface Soils of some Hadhramout's Valleys in Yemen Using Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazohair, A. O.; Bayashoot, A. K.; AL-Shamy, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    In this research five surface soil samples have been taken from some Hadhramout's valleys in Yemen (Khrid , Arf , Huwayrah , Buwaish, Khirba ) in the years from (1999) to (2002) and analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometry. The spectra of samples were measured using multichannel analyzer (MCA) that was connected with measurement system for this purpose.A high purity germanium(Hp Ge) detector with resolution of (2.11 keV) at gamma-line(1332 keV) of radioactive source(Co-60) used for detecting ( U 238 , Th 232 , K 40 , Cs 137 ) in the samples. The results showed that the average concentration of radioactive nuclides in the samples of uranium ranged from(37.56 Bq/Kg) to(46.58 Bq/Kg) and for thorium ranged from(37.93 Bq/Kg) to(47.28 Bq/Kg) and for potassium ranged from(347.57 Bq/Kg) to(850.10 Bq/Kg) and for cesium ranged from(6.94 Bq/Kg) to(15.86 Bq/Kg) and the measured precision of samples ranged from(4.71%) to (9.23%). (authors)

  7. NNDC Chart of Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A.

    2008-01-01

    The National Nuclear Data Center has recently developed an interactive chart of nuclides, http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/chart/, that provides nuclear structure and decay data. Since its implementation, it has proven to be one of the most popular web products. The information presented is derived from the ENSDF and Nuclear Wallet Card databases. Experimentally known nuclides are represented by a cell in chart with the number of neutrons on the horizontal axis and the number of protons on the vertical axis. The color of the cell is used to indicate the ground state half-life or the ground state predominant decay mode. (author)

  8. Statistical effects in beta-delayed neutron emission from fission product nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, R.D. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The delayed neutron spectra for the precursors Rb-93, 94, 95, 96, 97 and Cs-145 were measured by use of the on-line isotope separator facility TRISTAN and a time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer. Flight paths were used that provided, for energies below 70 keV, a FWHM energy resolution between 2 and 4 percent. Each spectrum showed discrete neutron peaks below 156 keV, with as many as 26 in the Rb-95 spectra. Level densities near the neutron binding energy in the neutron-emitting nuclide were deduced using a missing-level indicator based on a Porter-Thomas distribution of neutron peak intensities. The resulting level density data were compared to the predictions of the Gilbert and Cameron formulism and to those of Dilg, Schantl, Vonach and Uhl. Comparisons were made between the empirically-based level parameter a and the values predicted by each model for Sr-93, 94, 95, 97 and Ba-145. The two models appear, within the uncertainties, to be equally capable of describing these neutron-rich nuclides and equally as capable for them as they are for nuclides in the valley of beta stability. Measurements of the neutron strength function are sometimes possible with the present TOF system for neutron decays with competing neutron branches to levels in the grandchild nucleus. A value for the d-wave strength function of Sr-96 is found to be (4.2 +- 1.1)/10 4 . Improvements in the TOF system, allowing the measurement of the neutron strength function for the more general case, are discussed. 72 refs., 56 figs., 16 tabs

  9. Cyclotrons for the production of radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics and design choices for modern cyclotrons. Cyclotrons can be used in 3 areas in the radioactive beam field: the production of high energy heavy ion beams for use in fragmentation, the spallation of targets with high energy protons, and the acceleration of radioactive beams from low energy to the MeV/u range. 16 refs., 6 figs

  10. Production of high intensity radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    The production of radioactive nuclear beams world-wide is reviewed. The projectile fragmentation and the ISOL approaches are discussed in detail, and the luminosity parameter is used throughout to compare different production methods. In the ISOL approach a thin and a thick target option are distinguished. The role of storage rings in radioactive beam research is evaluated. It is concluded that radioactive beams produced by the projectile fragmentation and the ISOL methods have complementary characteristics and can serve to answer different scientific questions. The decision which kind of facility to build has to depend on the significance and breadth of these questions. Finally a facility for producing a high intensity radioactive beams near the Coulomb barrier is proposed, with an expected luminosity of ∼10 39 cm -2 s -1 , which would yield radioactive beams in excess of 10 11 s -1 . 9 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Method for the transmutation of nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the systematic and optimal manufacture of nuclides with beneficial properties as well as for the transmutation of noxious nuclides into innocuous ones, e.g. radioactive wastes. For that purpose, use is made of the periodic system of atoms and of the so-called twin-subshell model of nuclear structure, in order to trace the possible transformations of the nuclide through irradiation with appropriate particles or radiation. (G.J.P.)

  12. Radiological testing of products containing radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.W.; Knight, A.

    1980-01-01

    Consumer products containing radioactive substances are tested by NRPB to determine how much radioactive material is likely to be released from a product if it is misused or accidentally damaged. Such testing is briefly described with particular reference to ionisation chamber smoke detectors, liquid crystal display watches illuminated with gaseous tritium light sources and anti-static brushes containing polonium-210 in the form of ceramic microspheres. (U.K.)

  13. Development of gas-jet transport systems for fission products and coupling these with methods for continuous separation of short-lived product nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stender, E.

    1979-01-01

    The development of gas-jet transport systems for fission products as well as the coupling of these with continuous separation methods from aqueous solutions (SISAK) and with a mass separator for on-line separation of neutron-rich nuclides are described in this work. Nuclides from the fission of 235 U or other fission materials can be transported using gas-jet systems with thermal neutrons over larger distances (100 m and over). Aerosols (clusters) of either organic (e.g. ethylene) or inorganic nature (e.g. potassium chloride) serve as carrier for the nuclides. The clusters are passed through 1 mm capillaries with a transport gas (nitrogen, helium etc.) under laminar flow conditions. The diameter of the cluster fluctuates between 10 -7 and 10 -6 m. The time required from the production of a nuclide to its detection at the end of a 8 m long capillary tube is 0.8 s for the ethylene/nitrogen and potassium chloride/helium gas-jet systems. By coupling various gas-jet systems with the continuous extraction technique SISAK working with H centrifuges, the elements lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, zirconium, niobium and technetium can be separated out of the complex fission product mixtures. The on-line technetium chemistry was used with neutron-rich 106 Tc (36 s), 107 Tc (21 s) and 108 Tc (5 s) for γγ(t) measurements. The coupling of a potassium chloride/helium gas jet with a mass separator equiped with a plasma ion source is described. The dependence of the transmission rate of various test parameters is investigated to optimize the system. (orig.) [de

  14. Induced radioactive nuclides of 10-MeV radiotherapy accelerators detected by using a portable Hp-Ge survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibuchi, T.; Obara, S.; Yamaguchi, I.; Oyama, M.; Watanabe, H.; Sakae, T.; Katoh, K.

    2012-01-01

    The radioactivation of linear accelerator components for radiation therapy is interest for radiation protection in general, and particularly, when decommissioning these structures. The energy spectra of gamma rays emitted from the heads of two accelerator models, EXL-15SP and Clinac iX, after 10-MeV X-ray irradiation, were measured using a high-purity germanium semiconductor survey meter. After spectrum analyses, activities of 24 Na, 28 Al, 54 Mn, 56 Mn, 57 Ni, 58 Co, 60 Co, 64 Cu, 65 Zn, 122 Sb, 124 Sb, 181 W, 187 W, 196 Au, and 198 Au were detected. One centimetre deep dose-equivalent rate of the heads of the linear accelerator was measured using the survey meter. The dose rate decreased to ∼10 % of its initial rate after 1 week. Long-term activations were few, the radioactivity level was low, and a cooling time of several days was effective for reducing dose rate to an acceptable level for decommissioning. (authors)

  15. Measurement of radioactive nuclides present in soil samples of district Ganderbal of Kashmir Province for radiation safety purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroz A. Mir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of radioactive elements in the residential area is very important from different points of view especially for human health. The aim of present survey was focused on determining the current radon exhalation rate and radium concentration in soil samples collected from some areas of the Ganderbal district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. “Can technique” has been employed for the measurement of radon exhalation rate and radium concentration in soil samples collected from under study areas. The Uranium concentration in these soil samples where estimated by using the fission track registration technique (using LR-115 plastic track detectors.The uranium concentration was found to varies between 2.03 and 3.52 ppm. The radon exhalation rate in these samples has been found to vary from 5.05 to 21.89 m Bq kg−1 h−1. Radium concentration in soil samples varies from 6.43 to 18.89 Bq kg−1. The calculated values of Uranium concentration in these soil/rock samples are quite lower than the risk level. Radon and radium values found in these samples are also lower than that of optimum value. Hence these areas can be considered as risk free zones from human health point of view.

  16. Experimental and theoretical study of the residual nuclide production in 40-2600 MeV proton-irradiated thin targets of ads structure materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titarenko, Yu.E.; Batyaev, V.F.; Belonozhenko, A.A.; Borovlev, S.P.; Butko, M.A.; Florya, S.N.; Pavlov, K.V.; Rogov, V.I.; Tikhonov, R.S.; Titarenko, A.Yu.; Zhivun, V.M.

    2011-10-01

    The Project is aimed at experimental and theoretical studying the independent and cumulative yields of residual radioactive nuclei produced in high-energy proton-irradiated structure materials intended for constructing the high-power Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) with a high-current proton accelerator. The Project is an extension of the researches carried out earlier under the ISTC Projects #017, #839, and #2002 which provided more 10000 residual nuclide production cross sections mainly in materials intended to use as target materials of the ADS. This Project includes 57 measurement runs carried out using the 97 targets made only of the ADS structural materials of both monoisotopic ( 56 Fe, 93 Nb, 181 Ta) and natural ( nat Cr, nat Ni, nat W) compositions within minutely fractionated proton energy range, namely, at 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, 0.15, 0.25, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and 2.6GeV. All the targets were irradiated using the ITEP U-10 proton synchrotron. The experimental nuclide yields are determined by the direct γ-spectrometry and α-spectrometry methods. As a result, 3839 cumulative and independent yields of residual β-radioactive product nuclei with lifetimes range from 6 minutes to 10 years as well as 12 cumulative yields of α- radioactive 148 Gd whose lifetime is 74.6 years have been measured. Besides, the cross sections for the 27 Al(p,x) 22 Na , 27 Al(p,x) 24 Na and 27 Al(p,x) 7 Be monitor reactions have been measured at the same proton energies with the use of the current transformer technique. The γ-spectrometer resolution is 1.8 keV in the 1332 keV 60 Co γ-line. The experimental γ-spectra were processed by the GENIE2000 code. The γ-lines were identified, and the cross sections calculated, by the ITEP-developed SIGMA code using the PCNUDAT database. The proton fluence was monitored by the 27 Al(p,x) 22 Na reaction. Measurement data have been compared with the calculation results of the BERTINI and ISABEL models of MCNPX code, CEM03.02, INCL 4.2, INCL4

  17. Nuclide inventories of spent fuels from light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Okamoto, Tsutomu

    2012-02-01

    Accurate information on nuclide inventories of spent fuels from Light Water Reactors (LWRs) is important for evaluations of criticality, decay heat, radioactivity, toxicity, and so on, in the safety assessments of storage, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal of the spent fuels. So, a lot of lattice burn-up calculations were carried out for the possible fuel specifications and irradiation conditions in Japanese commercial LWRs by using the latest nuclear data library JENDL-4.0 and a sophisticated lattice burn-up calculation code MOSRA-SRAC. As a result, burn-up changes of nuclide inventories and their possible ranges were clarified for 21 heavy nuclides and 118 fission products, which are important from the viewpoint of impacts to nuclear characteristics and nuclear fuel cycle and environment. (author)

  18. The future implications of some long-lived fission product nuclides discharged to the environment in fuel reprocessing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.M.; Jones, J.A.

    1972-12-01

    Current reprocessing practice leads to the discharge to the environment of virtually all the krypton-85 and tritium, and a large fraction of the iodine-129, formed as fission products in reactor fuel. As nuclear power programmes expand the global inventory of these long-lived nuclides is increasing. The radiological significance of these discharges is assessed in terms of radiation exposure of various population groups during the next few decades. The results of this assessment show that krypton-85 will give higher dose rates than tritium or iodine-129, but that on conventional radiological protection criteria these do not justify taking action to remove krypton-85 from reprocessing plant effluents before the 21st century. (author)

  19. The radioactive contamination of milk and milk products due to the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.

    1987-01-01

    The situation in the area around the town of Kiel in a given period of time is taken as the example to explain the radioactive contamination of milk and milk products due to the Chernobyl fallout. The measured data reported refer to the nuclides I-131 and Cs-137 in milk, and are compared with data on the I-131 and Cs-137 activity measured in raw milk collected in southern Bavaria, and in other Lands of the F.R.G. (DG) [de

  20. High energy muon induced radioactive nuclides in nickel plate and its use for 2-D muon-beam image profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurebayashi, Y.; Sakurai, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Doshita, N.; Kikuchi, S.; Tokanai, F.; Horiuchi, K.; Tajima, Y.; Oe, T.; Sato, T.; Gunji, S.; Inui, E.; Kondo, K.; Iwata, N.; Sasaki, N.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kunieda, S.

    2015-01-01

    Target materials were exposed to a muon beam with an energy of 160 GeV/c at the COMPASS experiment line in CERN-SPS to measure the production cross-sections for muon-induced radionuclides. A muon imager containing four nickel plates, each measuring 100 mm×100 mm, exposed to the IP plate successfully detected the muon beam image during an irradiation period of 33 days. The contrasting density rate of the nickel plate was (5.2±0.7)×10 –9 PSL/muon per one-day exposure to IP. The image measured 122 mm and 174 mm in horizontal and vertical lengths, respectively, in relation to the surface of the base, indicating that 50±6% of the muon beam flux is confined to an area of 18% of the whole muon beam. The number of muons estimated from the PSL value in the total beam image area (0.81±0.1)×10 13 was comparable to the total muon counts of the ion-chamber at the M2 beam line in the CERN-SPS. The production cross-sections of Cr-51, Mn-54, Co-56, Co-57, and Co-58 in nickel were 0.19±0.08, 0.34±0.06, 0.5±0.05, 3.44±0.07, 0.4±0.03 in the unit of mb, respectively, reducing muon associated particles effects. They are approximately 10 times smaller than that a proceeding study by Heisinger et al

  1. HETC-3STEP calculations of proton induced nuclide production cross sections at incident energies between 20 MeV and 5 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Ishibashi, Kenji

    1996-08-01

    For the OECD/NEA code intercomparison, nuclide production cross sections of {sup 16}O, {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Fe, {sup 59}Co, {sup nat}Zr and {sup 197}Au for the proton incidence with energies of 20 MeV to 5 GeV are calculated with the HETC-3STEP code based on the intranuclear cascade evaporation model including the preequilibrium and high energy fission processes. In the code, the level density parameter derived by Ignatyuk, the atomic mass table of Audi and Wapstra and the mass formula derived by Tachibana et al. are newly employed in the evaporation calculation part. The calculated results are compared with the experimental ones. It is confirmed that HETC-3STEP reproduces the production of the nuclides having the mass number close to that of the target nucleus with an accuracy of a factor of two to three at incident proton energies above 100 MeV for {sup nat}Zr and {sup 197}Au. However, the HETC-3STEP code has poor accuracy on the nuclide production at low incident energies and the light nuclide production through the fragmentation process induced by protons with energies above hundreds of MeV. Therefore, further improvement is required. (author)

  2. Complete gas production data library for nuclides from Mg to Bi at neutron incident energies up to 200 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konobeyev, A.Yu.; Fischer, U.

    2015-07-01

    An evaluation of proton-, deuteron-, triton-, {sup 3}He-, and α-particles- production cross-sections was performed for 262 stable nuclides with atomic number from 12 to 83 at the energies of primary neutrons up to 200 MeV. The data were compiled in ENDF formatted data files.

  3. HETC-3STEP calculations of proton induced nuclide production cross sections at incident energies between 20 MeV and 5 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Ishibashi, Kenji.

    1996-08-01

    For the OECD/NEA code intercomparison, nuclide production cross sections of 16 O, 27 Al, nat Fe, 59 Co, nat Zr and 197 Au for the proton incidence with energies of 20 MeV to 5 GeV are calculated with the HETC-3STEP code based on the intranuclear cascade evaporation model including the preequilibrium and high energy fission processes. In the code, the level density parameter derived by Ignatyuk, the atomic mass table of Audi and Wapstra and the mass formula derived by Tachibana et al. are newly employed in the evaporation calculation part. The calculated results are compared with the experimental ones. It is confirmed that HETC-3STEP reproduces the production of the nuclides having the mass number close to that of the target nucleus with an accuracy of a factor of two to three at incident proton energies above 100 MeV for nat Zr and 197 Au. However, the HETC-3STEP code has poor accuracy on the nuclide production at low incident energies and the light nuclide production through the fragmentation process induced by protons with energies above hundreds of MeV. Therefore, further improvement is required. (author)

  4. Migration studies of the fission product nuclides in rocks: Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiyuan, Wen; Hongcheng, Gao; Chenghua, Jiang; Yuanfang, Liu [Beijing Univ., BJ (China). Dept. of Technical Physics

    1991-11-01

    A most promising way being considered for the disposal of radioactive waste is deep geological in rocks, such as granite and limestone. Different measurements have been made on granite and limestone sampled from the suburbs of Beijing. {sup 75}Se(SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) is used as a tracer simulating the long-lived {sup 79}Se. The diffusion experiment is carried out in a diffusion cell which is designed and fabricated in the laboratory of Department of Technical Physics, Peking University. Details of the experimental technique and method of analysis are described and the most important diffusion parameters, namely, intrinsic diffusion coefficient D{sub i9} rock capacity factor and sorption coefficient K are given. The implications of the results are discussed.

  5. Migration studies of the fission product nuclides in rocks: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Ruiyuan; Gao Hongcheng; Jiang Chenghua; Liu Yuanfang

    1991-01-01

    A most promising way being considered for the disposal of radioactive waste is deep geological in rocks, such as granite and limestone. Different measurements have been made on granite and limestone sampled from the suburbs of Beijing. 75 Se(SeO 3 2- ) is used as a tracer simulating the long-lived 79 Se. The diffusion experiment is carried out in a diffusion cell which is designed and fabricated in the laboratory of Department of Technical Physics, Peking University. Details of the experimental technique and method of analysis are described and the most important diffusion parameters, namely, intrinsic diffusion coefficient D i9 rock capacity factor and sorption coefficient K are given. The implications of the results are discussed

  6. Device of capturing for radioactive corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Atsushi; Fukushima, Kimichika.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the area of contact between the capturing materials for the radioactive corrosion products contained in the coolants and the coolants by producing stirred turbulent flows in the coolant flow channel of LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: Constituent materials for the nuclear fuel elements or the reactor core structures are activated under the neutron irradiation, corroded and transferred into the coolants. While capturing devices made of pure metal nickel are used for the elimination of the corrosion products, since the coolants form laminar flows due to the viscosity thereof near the surface of the capturing materials, the probability that the corrosion products in the coolants flowing through the middle portion of the channel contact the capturing materials is reduced. In this invention, rotating rolls and flow channels in which the balls are rotated are disposed at the upstream of the capturing device to forcively disturb the flow of the liquid sodium, whereby the radioactive corrosion products can effectively be captured. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Method of storing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Toshio; Hiratake, Susumu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the radiation doses externally irradiated from treated radioactive waste and also reduce the separation of radioactive nuclide due to external environmental factors such as air, water or the like. Method: Radioactive waste adhered with radioactive nuclide to solid material is molten to mix and submerge the radioactive nuclide adhered to the surface of the solid material into molten material. Then, the radioactive nuclide thus mixed is solidified to store the waste in solidified state. (Aizawa, K.)

  8. NEANDC specialists meeting on yields and decay data of fission product nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.; Burrows, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 29 papers presented. Workshop reports on decay heat, fission yields, beta- and gamma-ray spectroscopy, and delayed neutrons are included. An appendix contains a survey of the most recent compilations and evaluations containing fission product yield, fission product decay data, and delayed neutron yield information

  9. NEANDC specialists meeting on yields and decay data of fission product nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrien, R.E.; Burrows, T.W. (eds.)

    1983-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 29 papers presented. Workshop reports on decay heat, fission yields, beta- and gamma-ray spectroscopy, and delayed neutrons are included. An appendix contains a survey of the most recent compilations and evaluations containing fission product yield, fission product decay data, and delayed neutron yield information. (WHK)

  10. Transmutation Studies of Radioactive Nuclides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, Jindřich

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2007), s. 125-150 ISSN 1310-0157 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : transmutation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics , Colliders

  11. Product control of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, E.; Giller, H.

    1989-09-01

    The aim of the seminar was to give a survey of product quality control and to find out whether the producers/conditioners of waste set and fulfil requirements for the quality of the waste. The program included the following main areas: Random sample tests; Container tests; Process qualification and inspection, and Inspections of waste from fuel element reprocessing abroad. In other lectures, there are reports on measures for producers of waste for guaranteeing the final storage requirements, on quality assurance measurements in the conditioning of waste from large research establishments and from fuel element manufacture. The calling up of waste containers and the documentation of waste data is also introduced. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Status of recent fast capture cross section evaluations for important fission product nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruppelaar, H.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison is made between recent evaluations of fission-product cross sections as given in the CNEN/CEA, ENDF/B-IV, ENDF/V-V, JENDL-1, RCN-2 and RCN-3 data libraries. The intercomparison is restricted to 24 important fission products in a fast power reactor. The evaluation methods used to obtain the various data files are reviewed and possible shortcomings are indicated. A survey is given of the experimental data based used in the various evaluations. Some graphs are included showing the new ENDF/B-V and RCN-3 fastcapture cross-section evaluations. Further intercomparisons are made by means of multi-group and one-group cross sections. It is shown that lumped fission-product cross sections calculated from the most recent versions of the data files are in quite good agreement with each other. This review concludes with a discussion on observed discrepancies and requests for new measurements. 78 references

  13. Decay and Transmutation of Nuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Aarnio, Pertti A

    1999-01-01

    We present a computer code DeTra which solves analytically the Bateman equations governing the decay, build-up and transmutation of radionuclides. The complexity of the chains and the number of nuclides are not limited. The nuclide production terms considered include transmutation of the nuclides inside the chain, external production, and fission. Time dependent calculations are possible since all the production terms can be re-defined for each irradiation step. The number of irradiation steps and output times is unlimited. DeTra is thus able to solve any decay and transmutation problem as long as the nuclear data i.e. decay data and production rates, or cross sections, are known.

  14. Further development of semiconductography for low energy beta nuclides and its application for standard radioactive sources and in chemistry and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tykva, R.

    1975-05-01

    A method called semiconductography has been developed and applied to determine distribution of radionuclides emitting corpuscular radiation. This method is fully automated and is based on a programmed detection of the distribution of radionuclides by means of a special surface barrier silicon detector. Simultaneously with the record of the distribution of activity the contour of the sample can also be determined. A special technology has been developed for production of semiconductor detectors permitting detection of low-energy electrons at room temperature and under normal pressure. In comparison to the detectors from Ortec, U.S.A. and diffused silicon detectors from General Electric, U.S.A., the detectors developed by investigators under the research contract are superior in performance in determining the distribution of radionuclides including the low-energy beta-nuclides in tracer experiments in the life sciences. Compared to current ionisation, scintillation, spark chamber, and autoradiographic methods, semiconductography exhibits several special features. It has a high energy resolution permitting discrimination between radionuclides of energies close to each other (e.g., 14 C and 35 S) and determination of the volume distribution of radionuclides in a non-destructive manner. The results obtained under the contract show that in various life-sciences (biochemistry, molecular biology, embryology, teratology, botany, pharmacology), semiconductography with radionuclide-labelled compounds can offer better means to solve such problems which are difficult to approach by usual isotopic methods. The semiconductography has also been successfully used in the determination of non-homogeneity of planar reference sources and in production of labelled substances

  15. Natural radio-nuclides in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflorin, O.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the presence of radio-nuclides in Switzerland's drinking water. The article describes research done into the natural radioactivity to be found in various drinking water samples taken from the public water supply in the Canton of Grisons in eastern Switzerland. The various natural nuclides to be expected are listed and the methods used to take the samples are described. The results of the analysis are presented in the form of sketches showing the geographical distribution of the nuclide samples. Diagrams of the cumulative frequency of the quantities of nuclides found are presented, as are such diagrams for the yearly radioactive doses that the population is exposed to. The results and their consequences for the water supply are discussed in detail and further investigations to be made in the region are proposed

  16. Radioactive waste products 2002 (RADWAP 2002). Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odoj, R.; Baier, J.; Brennecke, P.; Kuehn, K.

    2003-01-01

    The 4 th International Seminar on Radioactive Waste Products was organised by the Forschungszentrum Juelich in co-operation with the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz and the European Commission. On behalf of the Bundesamt, I would like to welcome all participants of this scientific-technical meeting. I very much appreciate the participation not only of numerous German scientists, engineers and technicians as well as governmental and industrial representatives, but would particularly express my gratitude for the participation of many colleagues from abroad. Radioactive waste management and disposal is a worldwide issue and international co-operation to support national programmes is therefore much appreciated. The international organisations provide, among other things, guidance to member countries on safe, economic and environmentally acceptable solutions for radioactive waste disposal. On a national basis respective programmes are developed, modified or successfully realized. Nevertheless, the challenge of radioactive waste management and disposal is no longer a scientific and technical exclusivity. The importance of ethical and social aspects, the dialogue with the public and transparency in decision-making processes increase more and more. Thus, when addressing safety-related key questions one needs to be as open as possible on scientific-technical aspects and to consider the involvement of the public requiring a clear, open-minded and transparent communication. (orig.)

  17. Calculated cross sections for production and destruction of some long-lived nuclides of importance in fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, M.A.; Gardner, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    Knowledge of the production and destruction of long-lived species via neutrons, photons, and charged-particles is required in many fusion energy applications, such as reactor first-wall and blanket design, radioactive waste management, etc. Here we describe our calculational results for the production, via the (n,2n) reaction, of the following long-lived species: 150 Eu(t 1/2 = 36 y), 152 Eu(t 1/2 = 13 y), and 192m2 Ir(t 1/2 = 241 y). Some comments on calculations that we've made for destruction reactions of these species are also included

  18. Radioactivity in New Zealand meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Full text: New Zealand has no nuclear power programme of radioactive waste disposal programme. The only artificial radioactivity detectable in the New Zealand environment is global fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted mainly in the northern hemisphere before 1964. This fallout in New Zealand is currently at its lowest level since environmental monitoring began in 1960. The total beta activity deposited in rain during 1985, for example, averaged 76 MBQ/km 2 , with most of that being due to naturally occurring radionuclides, principally lead-210/Bismuth-210. Levels of artificial radioactivity in New Zealand dairy products reflect this very low deposition rate. During 1985, for example, Strontium-90 and Caesium-137 levels in cow's milk averaged 0.035 BG/GCA and 0.27BQ/QK respectively. Those levels were similar to, or less than, levels reported in northern hemisphere countries during 1985. No change in environmental contamination levels has been recorded in New Zealand during 1985. The very low deposition rate and milk contamination levels indicate that fallout contamination levels generally are insignificant in New Zealand and monitoring of other foodstuffs such as meat products is not warranted. (author)

  19. Radioactivity in New Zealand meat products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    Full text: New Zealand has no nuclear power programme of radioactive waste disposal programme. The only artificial radioactivity detectable in the New Zealand environment is global fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted mainly in the northern hemisphere before 1964. This fallout in New Zealand is currently at its lowest level since environmental monitoring began in 1960. The total beta activity deposited in rain during 1985, for example, averaged 76 MBQ/km{sup 2}, with most of that being due to naturally occurring radionuclides, principally lead-210/Bismuth-210. Levels of artificial radioactivity in New Zealand dairy products reflect this very low deposition rate. During 1985, for example, Strontium-90 and Caesium-137 levels in cow's milk averaged 0.035 BG/GCA and 0.27BQ/QK respectively. Those levels were similar to, or less than, levels reported in northern hemisphere countries during 1985. No change in environmental contamination levels has been recorded in New Zealand during 1985. The very low deposition rate and milk contamination levels indicate that fallout contamination levels generally are insignificant in New Zealand and monitoring of other foodstuffs such as meat products is not warranted. (author)

  20. Treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing appreciable concentration of TBP degraded products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsala, T P; Sonavane, M S; Kore, S G; Sonar, N L; De, Vaishali; Raghavendra, Y; Chattopadyaya, S; Dani, U; Kulkarni, Y; Changrani, R D

    2011-11-30

    The acidic and alkaline low level radioactive liquid waste (LLW) generated during the concentration of high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) prior to vitrification and ion exchange treatment of intermediate level radioactive liquid waste (ILW), respectively are decontaminated by chemical co-precipitation before discharge to the environment. LLW stream generated from the ion exchange treatment of ILW contained high concentrations of carbonates, tributyl phosphate (TBP) degraded products and problematic radio nuclides like (106)Ru and (99)Tc. Presence of TBP degraded products was interfering with the co-precipitation process. In view of this a modified chemical treatment scheme was formulated for the treatment of this waste stream. By mixing the acidic LLW and alkaline LLW, the carbonates in the alkaline LLW were destroyed and the TBP degraded products got separated as a layer at the top of the vessel. By making use of the modified co-precipitation process the effluent stream (1-2 μCi/L) became dischargeable to the environment after appropriate dilution. Based on the lab scale studies about 250 m(3) of LLW was treated in the plant. The higher activity of the TBP degraded products separated was due to short lived (90)Y isotope. The cement waste product prepared using the TBP degraded product was having good chemical durability and compressive strength. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Basic facts about the transport of packaged radioactive products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The pamphlet on the ''basic facts about the transport of packaged radioactive products'' was prepared by Amersham International for the Advisory Committee on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Details of the regulations that apply to transport, the handling of radioactive materials and the precautions to be taken are all outlined, along with what should be done if a package of radioactive materials is damaged and how packages of radioactive materials can be recognised. (UK)

  2. Radioactive beam production at the Bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.; Feinberg, B.; Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; McMahan, M.A.; Tanihata, I.

    1989-10-01

    At the Bevalac radioactive beams are routinely produced by the fragmentation process. The effectiveness of this process with respect to the secondary beam's emittance, intensity and energy spread depends critically on the nuclear reaction kinematics and the magnitude of the incident beam energy. When this beam energy significantly exceeds the energies of the nuclear reaction process, many of the qualities of the incident beam can be passed on to the secondary beam. Factors affecting secondary beam quality are discussed along with techniques for isolating and purifying a specific reaction product. The on-going radioactive beam program at the Bevalac is used as an example with applications, present performance and plans for the future. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. Evaluation of radiation exposure from shoe-deodorants as radioactive consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Etsuko; Yokota, Shigeaki; Aburai, Tamaru; Yoshizawa, Yukio

    2007-01-01

    Six shoe-deodorants on the market were analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy and radionuclide imaging techniques. The results reveal that at least three deodorants were 'radioactive consumer products' containing radionuclides of thorium (Th) series, uranium series, and potassium-40 that were added intentionally. Equivalent dose rates and effective dose rates were calculated using the activities in these deodorants. There were no samples breaking the nuclear reactor and fuel regulation law. Radioactive concentration of the deodorant for a shoe-shelf is higher than other deodorants, and the total concentrations of daughter nuclides of Th which are radioactive equilibrium with 224 Ra exceeded 90 Bq·g -1 . The effective dose rate at one meter from the shoe-shelf-deodorant is 8.6x10 -4 μSv·h -1 . Another type of shoe-deodorants is an insole that causes the surface dose of plantar skin. The equivalent dose was calculated as 1.9 μSv·h -1 at one millimeter from the insole. This study suggested that it needs to watch severely over the deodorants because many kinds of deodorants are used in home and some deodorants are radioactive consumer products. (author)

  4. Nuclide release from the near-field of a L/ILW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, L.G.; Hoeglund, L.O.; Pers, K.

    1986-12-01

    For Project Gewaehr 1985, the release of nuclides from a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste is calculated. The calculations are made for a reference design repository located in the marl host rock at the Oberbauen Stock reference site. The results are limited to the release of the nuclides from the waste through the engineered barriers into the surrounding host rock and will, therefore, constitute a source term for the far-field and biosphere calculations. The most probable nuclide transport mechanism is diffusion and releases are thus influenced by the nuclide diffusivities in the barriers, nuclide sorption and nuclide solubility limits. Degradation of the engineered concrete barriers is taken into account. The effects of convective flow through the barriers are described elsewhere. A near-field release model is presented. It consists of a set of computer programs suited to handel different repository designs, solubility limitations and the different waste categories. The release calculations were made for a base case in which best estimates of the parameters were used. Sensitivity to the choice of the most important parameters was tested by parameter variations. The numerical models used were checked by comparative calculations with different codes and similar data. The results of the base calculations show that near-field barriers will cause both a delay of the release to the far-field and a reduced rate of release. The sorbed nuclides, comprising the actinides and some activation and fission products, will be delayed by 10'000 years and have a maximum release rate of less than 10 -3 Ci/a each. The non-sorbed nuclides are delayed by only about 100 years and the maximum release rate is less than 10 -2 Ci per year and nuclide. The parameter variations and the design model tests gave only limited deviations from the base case results. (author)

  5. Radioactive demonstration of DWPF product control strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, M.K.; Bibler, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of the product and process control strategies that will be utilized by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was demonstrated during a campaign in the Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). The remotely operated process included the preparation of the melter feed, vitrification in a slurry-fed 1/100th scale melter and analysis of the glass product both for its composition and durability. The campaign processed approximately 10 kg (on a dry basis) of radioactive sludge from Tank 51. This sludge is representative of the first batch of sludge that will be sent to the DWPF for immobilization into borosilicate glass. Additions to the sludge were made based on calculations using the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Analysis of the glass produced during the campaign showed that a durable glass was produced with a composition similar to that predicted using the PCCS

  6. Nuclide content in reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Certain corrosion and fission products of importance in reactor waste management cannot be measured by gammaspectrometric techniques. In this study, a method is suggested by which the occurence of such nuclides can be quantitatively related to suitable gamma-emitters of similar origin. The method is tested by statistical analysis on the waste data recorded from two Swedish nuclear power plants. As this method is not applicable for Carbon-14, this nuclide was measured directly in spent ion exchange resins from three Finnish and Swedish power plants. (author)

  7. Nuclides 2000: an electronic chart of the nuclides on CD-ROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magill, J.

    2000-01-01

    The 'Nuclides 2000' software package is an electronic chart of the nuclides, available on CD-ROM for Microsoft Windows operating systems, which offers extensive basic information on physics and radiology of the familiar nuclides. Moreover, 'Nuclides 2000' contains codes for a number of applications which allow the required data to be computed quickly and reliably by means of interactive user guidance. The data and codes are supplemented by information in the format of contributions on the history of radioactivity and radiochemistry, and on subjects of interest in physics, such as C-14 dating and the generation of Ti-44 in a supernova, and by a link collection of Internet addresses. As a detailed database, 'Nuclides 2000' can be used for teaching, research, and for practical applications. (orig.) [de

  8. Radioactive demonstration of DWPF product control strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, M.K.; Bibler, N.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will vitrify high-level nuclear waste into borosilicate glass. The waste will be mixed with properly formulated glass-making frit and fed to a melter at 1150 degrees C. Process reliability and product quality are ensured by proper control of the melter feed composition. The effectiveness of the product and process control strategies that will be utilized by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was demonstrated during a campaign in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). The remotely operated process included the preparation of the melter feed, vitrification in a slurry-fed 1/100th scale melter an analysis of the glass product both for its composition an durability. The campaign processed approximately 10 kg (on a dry basis) of radioactive sludge from Tank 51. This sludge is representative of the first batch of sludge that will be sent to the DWPF for immobilization into borosilicate glass. Additions to the sludge were made based on calculations using the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Analysis of the glass produced during the campaign showed that a durable glass was produced with a composition very close to that predicted using the PCCS. 10 refs., 4 tabs

  9. Measurement and evaluation of radioactive corrosion product behaviour in primary sodium circuits of JOYO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, K.; Iizawa, K.; Takahashi, K.; Zulquarnain, M.A.; Suzuki, S.; Kinjo, K.

    1992-01-01

    In the experimental fast reactor JOYO, the radioactive corrosion product (CP) measurement has been conducted in the primary sodium circuits during each annual inspection. The measured data has been analyzed by the computer code 'PSYCHE', which has been developed by PNC. Main results obtained from the measurements and/or calculations are as follows; (1) The dominant CP nuclide is 54 Mn followed by 60 Co and 58 Co. (2) Average surface gamma dose rate around the primary piping system at the 8th annual inspection is 0.96 mSv/h. The increasing rate of this value is 0.25 (mSv/h)/EFPY. (3) The calculated deposition densities of 54 Mn and 60 Co agree with measured ones within factor of 0.7 ∼ 1.7. (author)

  10. The production of accelerated radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    During the last few years, substantial work has been done and interest developed in the scientific opportunities available with accelerated radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for nuclear physics, astrophysics, and applied research. This interest has led to the construction, development, and proposed development of both first- and second-generation RIB facilities in Asia, North America, and Europe; international conferences on RIBs at Berkeley and Louvain-la-Neuve; and many workshops on specific aspects of RIB production and science. This paper provides a discussion of both the projectile fragmentation, PF, and isotope separator on-line, ISOL, approach to RIB production with particular emphasis on the latter approach, which employs a postaccelerator and is most suitable for nuclear structure physics. The existing, under construction, and proposed facilities worldwide are discussed. The paper draws heavily from the CERN ISOLDE work, the North American IsoSpin Laboratory (ISL) study, and the operating first-generation RIB facility at Louvain-la-Neuve, and the first-generation RIB project currently being constructed at ORNL

  11. Radioactive Contamination of Agricultural Products in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muszynski, W.; Grabowski, D.; Rubel, B.; Kurowski, W.; Swietochowska, J.; Smagala, G.

    2003-01-01

    Radiological contamination of the environment is caused by nuclear activities on the globe: nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The transfer of radionuclides to the organism via ingestion is one of the sources of doses obtained by people. To assess the doses received by humans the intake of isotopes with daily diet was defined. The concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs was determined. The network of Service for Measurement of Radioactive Contamination systematically controls all kinds of important agricultural products such as milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals and forest products: mushrooms, blueberries etc. Measurement stations involved in food monitoring act within Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations, Veterinary Hygiene Units and Chemical-Agricultural Stations. All activities are co-ordinated by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The level of activity of caesium isotopes has regularly been monitored in collected samples originating from different administrative districts of Poland. Since 1994 the 134 Cs concentration has been below the detection limit. The activity of 137 Cs has been measured to determine long-term effect of the accident on the contamination of milk, meat and other foodstuffs. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of radioactivity in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachtendonk, H.-J. von; Luengen, S.; Wilke, N.

    1999-01-01

    Even after the control of scrap deliveries, there remains a small risk that the radioactive contaminated scrap passes the detecting devices. Therefore, the chemical laboratory takes a role to measure each heat for the absence of artificial radioactive nuclides with a gamma spectrometer equipped with NaI-detector. As the measurement must be performed in sequence with the steel production process, the allowable time for the measurement is quite limited. On the other hand, there could be still some possibility that background radiation might be present as the samples may contain some natural radioactivity. The task is how to differentiate the nature of radioactivity between naturally remaining radioactivity within safe limit and artificial nuclides present in the sample at a low level even though a very small amount of radioactivity could be detected in short time in both cases. We have set the alarm limit to 0.1 Bq/g for Co-60 as indicating nuclide. This limit is set more than 4 s (s = standard deviation) from the average background radiation. Therefore, false alarms are quite improbable. Strategy: The NaI gamma spectrometer performs a gross gamma measurement but it can not differentiate the nature of the nuclides present. If the alarm limit is hurt, the sample is measured on a high resolution gamma spectrometer with Ge-detector for identification of the gamma emitting nuclides. Calibration: Even though no appropriate international standards are adapted and no commercial measuring equipment is commercially available, the desired standard should contain Co-60 in the order of 1 to 100 Bq/g. The presence of other gamma emitting nuclides is desirable. In the Workshop we will present how to surmount this difficulty. (author)

  13. Chart of the nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Y.; Horiguchi, T.; Yamada, M.

    1980-01-01

    In this chart, four colors are use to classify nuclides according to their half-lives. The different symbols are also to show the decay modes and their percentage in each nuclide. Four tables are provided on the back of the chart. Table 1 is the ordinary periodic Table. Table 2 provides fundamental constants used for nuclear physics. Tables 3 lists the physical constants (mean density, ionization potential, melting point, and boiling point) of all elements. Table 4 provides the gamma-ray intensity standards. Half-lives, energy, relative intensity, and intensity per decay are list for 33 nuclides. (J.P.N.)

  14. Behavior of nuclides at plasma melting of TRU wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amakawa, Tadashi; Adachi, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Arc plasma heating technique can easily be formed at super high temperature, and can carry out stable heating without any effect of physical and chemical properties of the wastes. By focussing to these characteristics, this technique was experimentally investigated on behavior of TRU nuclides when applying TRU wastes forming from reprocessing process of used fuels to melting treatment by using a mimic non-radioactive nuclide. At first, according to mechanism determining the behavior of TRU nuclides, an element (mimic nuclide) to estimate the behavior was selected. And then, to zircaloy with high melting point or steel can simulated to metal and noncombustible wastes and fly ash, the mimic nuclide was added, prior to melting by using the arc plasma heating technique. As a result, on a case of either melting sample, it was elucidated that the nuclides hardly moved into their dusts. Then, the technique seems to be applicable for melting treatment of the TRU wastes. (G.K.)

  15. Studies of natural radioactivity in cement products using gamma ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.; Periasamy, V.

    2000-01-01

    Evidence from our earlier study on several types of building materials has shown that cement contains a substantial amount of natural occurring radioactive materials. There are many brands of cement products available in Malaysia. Although the basic ingredients of cement are similar across brand, their proportion varies. In this study we have selected twelve brands of cement products which are analysed for natural radioactivity (U,Th,K) using gamma ray spectrometry. The gamma energies of interest are 583.1 keV, 609.3 keV and 1460 keV for nuclides 208 Tl, 214 Bi and 40 K respectively. Our findings show a relatively high activity of 40 K for all cement brands, ranging from 33 Bq/kg to as high as 3010 Bq/kg. Uranium activity ranges from 9Bq/kg to 672 Bq/kg while thorium activity was found range from 6Bq/kg to 94 Bq/kg. The radium equivalent activity is calculated for all brands and the values obtained range between 24 Bq/kg to 879 Bq/kg. Eight out of twelve products possess radium equivalent greater than 370 Bq/kg, a threshold limit for radiation dose equivalent to 1.5 mSv per annum. (author)

  16. Production and use of radioactive nuclear beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanihata, Isao

    1994-01-01

    Two different production method of radioactive nuclear beams (RNB) are reviewed, in this paper. One is the secondary beam method that use a high-energy heavy-ion reaction and a separator and the other is the reacceleration method. The RNB is also expected to have following properties that are useful to the application in wider research and technical usage; 1. any elements and isotopes can be used as a beam. 2. it is easy to control a position and a depth of the implantation. 3. an extremely sensitive detection is possible because they emit radiations. 4. one can select the lifetime among the isotopes suitable for a specific phenomenon. 5. one can select a spin among the isotopes for specific selectivity to the phenomenon. These useful properties of the RNB and a few recent examples of study are discussed. Among them are the discovery of the neutron skin and the neutron halo in nuclei near the limit of existence, the first determinations of reactions relevant to the synthesis of the heavy elements in the universe, and an application to the PET. (J.P.N.)

  17. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelet, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The beginning of this book explains the why and how of the radioactivity, with a presentation of the different modes of disintegration. Are tackled the reports between radioactivity and time before explaining how the mass-energy equivalence appears during disintegrations. Two chapters treat natural radioisotopes and artificial ones. This book makes an important part to the use of radioisotopes in medicine (scintigraphy, radiotherapy), in archaeology and earth sciences (dating) before giving an inventory of radioactive products that form in the nuclear power plants. (N.C.)

  18. Precaution against radioactive contamination of steel products in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewers, E.; Schulz-Klemp, V.; Steffen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Regulations for handling of radioactive materials in Germany. Engagement of the Germany Iron and Steel Institute (VDEh) since the end of the eighties and measures taken. Level of radioactivity in uncontaminated steel products. Agreements between steel industry and scrap supplying industry as well as terms of delivery. Actual status of equipment for detection of radioactivity in the German steel plants. Demands of steel users for clean steel. (author)

  19. Process for final storage of high level radioactive fission product solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.R.B.; Fries, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    In this process for the storage of an aqueous solution of radioactive nuclides, the solution is diluted with system water, which is obtained from a reservoir below the bottom of the sea in a porous geological stratum. After dilution, the diluted solution is injected into the same geological stratum under the bottom of the sea. (orig.) [de

  20. Separation of actinides and long-lived fission products from high-level radioactive wastes (a review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolarik, Z.

    1991-11-01

    The management of high-level radioactive wastes is facilitated, if long-lived and radiotoxic actinides and fission products are separated before the final disposal. Especially important is the separation of americium, curium, plutonium, neptunium, strontium, cesium and technetium. The separated nuclides can be deposited separately from the bulk of the high-level waste, but their transmutation to short-lived nuclides is a muchmore favourable option. This report reviews the chemistry of the separation of actinides and fission products from radioactive wastes. The composition, nature and conditioning of the wastes are described. The main attention is paid to the solvent extraction chemistry of the elements and to the application of solvent extraction in unit operations of potential partitioning processes. Also reviewed is the behaviour of the elements in the ion exchange chromatography, precipitation, electrolysis from aqueous solutions and melts, and the distribution between molten salts and metals. Flowsheets of selected partitioning processes are shown and general aspects of the waste partitioning are shortly discussed. (orig.) [de

  1. Study of the on line radioactive multicharged ion production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecesne, N.

    1997-01-01

    This work is directly related to the SPIRAL project (Systeme de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Acceleres en Ligne) which will start at GANIL at the end of 1998. The aim of the thesis was to study the on line radioactive multicharged ion beam production stages, i.e. the production and diffusion of the radioactive nuclei in a thick target, their possible transfer up to an ECR ion source and their ionisation. Production cross sections of radioactive neutron rich nuclei, formed by fragmentation of a heavy ion beam in a thick target, were measured. An external target-ECR source system, dedicated to the radioactive noble gases production, and two internal target-ECR source systems, dedicated to the radioactive condensable element production, were built and tested on the SIRa tests bench (Separateur d'Ions Radioactifs). Different detection configurations were elaborated in order to identify the radioactive nuclei and estimate their production yields. Finally, a new method for measuring the overall efficiency of the separator was developed and allowed to study the diffusion properties of radioactive noble gases in various targets. (author)

  2. Process for reducing radioactive contamination in waste product gypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, P.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for reducing the radioactive contamination in waste product gypsum in which waste product gypsum is reacted with a dilute sulfuric acid containing barium sulfate to form an acid slurry at an elevated temperature, the slurry is preferably cooled, the acid component is separated from the solid, and the resulting solid is separated into a fine fraction and a coarse fraction. The fine fraction predominates in barium sulfate and radioactive contamination. The coarse fraction predominates in a purified gypsum product of reduced radioactive contamination

  3. Introducing radioactivity monitoring systems in the production of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofilic, T.; Marjanovic, T.; Rastovcan-Mioc, A.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, a significant number of cases of radioactive pollution has been recorded in metallurgical processes. However, it is not certain whether the pollution was caused by increased uncontrolled disposal of waste containing radionuclides or whether it was the result of increased radioactivity monitoring and control of metallic scrap. Many metal producers in the world have therefore implemented systematic monitoring of radioactivity in their production processes. Special attention was given to monitoring radioactivity in steel making processes, which is still the most applied construction material with an annual output of over billion tonnes all over the world. Drawing on the experience of the best known steel producers in Europe and world, Croatian steel mills find it necessary and justified to introduce radioactivity monitoring and control systems of radioactive elements in steel scrap, semi-finished and finished products. The aim of this paper is to point out the need to introduce the radioactivity monitoring and control in steel and steel-casting production, and to inform experts in Croatian steel mills and foundries about potential solutions and current systems. At the same time, we wanted to demonstrate how implementation of monitoring equipment can improve quality management and environmental management systems. This would render Croatian products competitive on the European market both in terms of physical and chemical properties and in terms of product quality certificates and radioactivity information. Since we lack our own standards and regulations to control both domestic and imported steel scrap, semi-finished products (crude steel, hot and cold rolled strip) and finished products, we need apply current international recommendations and guidelines, until we design our own monitoring system and adopt relevant legislation on the national level. This paper describes basic types of radioactivity monitoring and control systems, the most

  4. Deposition of naturally occurring radioactivity in oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysebo, I.; Strand, T.

    1997-01-01

    This booklet contains general information about naturally occurring radioactive materials, NORM, in production of oil and natural gas, occupational doses, radiation protection procedures and measures, and classification methods of contaminated equipment. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Radioactive material handling for radiopharmaceutical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar Abd Rahman; Rosli Darmawan; Mohd Khairi Mohd Said; Mohd Arif Hamzah; Mohd Fadil Ismail; Mohd Nor Atan; Mohd Azam Safawi Omar; Zulkifli Hashim; Wan Anuar Wan Awang

    2005-01-01

    Construction of clean room at Block 21 had changed the flow of radioactive material Moly-99 into the hotcell. The existing flow which use the transport cask cannot be used in order to prevent the clean room from contamination. Therefore, the new technique which consist of robotic, pneumatic and transfer box system had been introduced to transfer the radioactive source into the hotcell without going through the clean room.This technique that has been introduced provides safety where the radiation workers control the transfer process by using remote system. (Author)

  6. Radioactive waste management in sealed sources laboratory production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Gilberto

    2001-01-01

    The laboratory of sealed sources production, of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, was created in 1983 and since then, has produced radioactive sources for industry and engineering in general, having specialization in assembly of radiation sources for non destructive testings, by gammagraphy, with Iridium-192, that represents 98% of the production of laboratory and 2% with the Cobalt-60, used in nuclear gages. The aim of this work, is to quantify and qualify the radioactive wastes generated annually, taking into account, the average of radioactive sources produced, that are approximately 220 sources per year

  7. Radioactive waste products - suitability for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.; Odoj, R.; Warnecke, E.

    1985-06-01

    48 papers were read at the conference. Separate records are available for all of them. The main problem in radioactive waste disposal was the long-term sealing to prevent pollution of the biosphere. Problems of conditioning, acceptance, and safety measures were discussed. Final disposal models and repositories were presented. (PW) [de

  8. Method of processing solidification product of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daime, Fumiyoshi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the long-time stability of solidification products by providing solidification products with liquid tightness, gas tightness, abrasion resistance, etc., of the products in the course of the solidification for the treatment of radioactive wastes. Method: The surface of solidification products prepared by mixing solidifying agents with powder or pellets is entirely covered with high molecular polymer such as epoxy resin. The epoxy resin has excellent properties such as radiation-resistance, heat resistance, water proofness and chemical resistance, as well as have satisfactory mechanical properties. This can completely isolate the solidification products of radioactive wastes from the surrounding atmosphere. (Yoshino, Y.)

  9. Radioactive ion beam production by the ISOL method for SPIRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landre-Pellemoine, Frederique

    2001-01-01

    This work is directly related to the SPIRAL project (Systeme de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Acceleres en Lignes) of which the start up will begin in September 2001 at GANIL (Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds) in Caen. This thesis primarily concerns the development of radioactive ion production systems (target/ion source) by the thorough study of each production stage of the ISOL (Isotopic Separation On Line) method: target and/or projectile fragmentation production, diffusion out of target material, effusion into the ion source and finally the ionization of the radioactive atoms. A bibliographical research and thermal simulations allowed us to optimize materials and the shape of the production and diffusion targets. A first target was optimized and made reliable for the radioactive noble gases production (argon, neon...). A second target dedicated to the radioactive helium production was entirely designed and realised (from the specifications to the 'off line' and 'on line' tests). Finally, a third target source system was defined for singly-charged radioactive alkaline production. The intensities of secondary beams planned for SPIRAL are presented here. A detailed study of the diffusion effusion efficiency for these various targets showed that the use of a fine microstructure carbon (grain size of 1 μm) improved the diffusion and showed the importance of thickness of the lamella for the short lived isotope effusion. (author) [fr

  10. The sorption of 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po on montmorillonite: a study with emphasis on reversibility aspects and on the effect of the radioactive decay of adsorbed nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, H.J.; Degueldre, C.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of the ionic strength and of pH on the adsorption/desorption processes of Pb, Bi and Po on montmorillonite has been investigated. For Pb, a strong dependence of the adsorption and desorption processes on the ionic strength was observed at pH d ) are measured. They range from 10 3 to 10 5 ml . g -1 for Pb and from 10 4 to 10 7 ml . g -1 for 210 Bi and 210 Po. When adsorption and desorption coefficients are compared, an agreement is found for both adsorption/desorption R d 's of Pb, whereas, for Bi and Po adsorption R d 's were several orders of magnitude lower than those obtained for desorption. The chemical activities of free Bi and Po in the liquid phase are limited by the formation of Bi and Po-colloids prior to the sorption step. This fact could explain the differences in the R d values. While the adsorption of Pb was reversible, only very small amounts of BI and Po could be desorbed from the montmorillonite (quasi-irreversible adsorption). The radioactive decay of adsorbed 210 Pb to 210 Bi, which in turn decays to 210 Po, can lead to significant changes in the desorption behaviour of the daughter nuclides. Whereas the sorption is nearly irreversible if Bi and Po adsorb on montmorillonite from the aqueous phase, they desorb more easily if they are generated by the radioactive decay of adsorbed 210 Pb. The difference in the distribution coefficients R d is approximately one order of magnitude in the case of Po, and more than 2 orders of magnitude in the case of Bi. (orig.)

  11. Transfer of radioactive contamination from milk to commercial dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, L.G.; Sutton, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The fate of radioactive contamination resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl accident was studied during milk processing. A range of commercial dairy products was produced on a pilot-laboratory scale and the radiocaesium contents were measured by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. The results show that the radiocaesium partitioned with the water phase and therefore butter, cream and cheese had relatively low levels of radioactivity. Ion exchange demineralization was effective in removing radiocaesium from whey. Ultrafiltration of whey resulted in a reduction of radioactivity relative to retentate solids. (author)

  12. State-of-the-art of NORM nuclide determination in samples from oil and gas production : Validation of potential standardization methods through an interlaboratory test programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaepen, WAI; Bergwerf, W; Lancee, PJF; vanDijk, W; Jansen, JFW; Janssen, RGC; Kiezenberg, WHT; vanSluijs, R; Tijsmans, MH; Voors, PI

    1995-01-01

    Gas and oil companies frequently encounter build-up of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in their production and processing facilities. In the Netherlands NORM is subject to strict national regulations and, consequently, installations have to be screened on a regular basis. The

  13. Terms and definitions in the field of radiological technique. Radioactivity. Draft. Begriffe und Benennungen in der radiologischen Technik. Radioaktivitaet. Entwurf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    Nuclides and their symbols: Nuclide, symbol for nuclides; Nuclear processes: Nuclear transformation, isomeric transition; Radioactive substances; Radiation of radioactive substances: Alpha radiation, beta radiation, k radiation, gamma radiation, conversion electrons, annihilation radiation, neutron radiation; Activity, specific activity, and activity concentration; Characteristic constants of radio nuclides: Decay constant, lifetime, half-life, specific gamma-ray constant, conversion coefficient; Decay series: Radioactive decay series, radioactive equilibrium; Nuclides with special names and symbols: Hydrogen isotopes, nuclides of the natural decay series.

  14. Radioactivity and Natural Radio nuclides Distribution in River Water, Coastal Water, Sediment and Eichornia Crassipes (Mart) Sloms and Their Accumulation Factor at Surabaya Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Taftazani; Sumining; Muzakky

    2002-01-01

    Distribution of radioactivity and natural radionuclide in water, sediment and eichornia crassipes (mart) sloms from Surabaya river and coastal area have been evaluated. Five sampling locations were selected to represent fresh water and coastal water environment. The samples consist of water (fresh and coastal), bottom surface sediment and eichornia crassipes (mart) sloms The result showed that the gross-β activity from water environment were lower than the threshold value of Environmental Minister Act. Kep.02/MENKLH/I/1988 (1000 mBq/L) and indicated that β-radioecological quality of water were still good. But the activity of the gross-α of water environment were higher than the threshold value of Environmental Minister Act. Kep.02/MENKLH/I/1988 (100 mBq/L). The eichornia crassipes (mart) sloms (gross) activity were higher than water and sediment activities and indicated that transfer of radionuclides from water to sediment and organism can be detected in water environment. Two natural radionuclides can be identified by γ-Spectrometric technique, they were K-40 and TI-208. Generally the distribution factor F D were smaller than bioaccumulation factor F B . (author)

  15. On the radioactive pollution of fishery products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsukawa, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi accident discharged highly concentrated polluted water to the ocean from late in March to early in April, which lead to discover highly contaminated sand lances around. Polluted water was taken into the Kurile Current and radioactive materials were diluted with surrounding seawater on their pathway. Marine monitoring around showed iodine and cesium in the ocean were almost not detected in May and completely not detected later in the middle of June. However discharged radioactive materials were taken by plankton with seawater and then taken by upper eaters through food chain that meant the level of contamination in the food is added to the level of contamination already in their body as upper bigger ones eat lower smaller ones. Bioaccumulation took time such as one year for freshwater fish around Chernobyl and half or one year for sea bass or cod in Japanese waters after Chernobyl accident. Radiation monitoring was mainly targeted to confirm the safety of fishes caught by fishermen and not to know ecological contamination. Radioecological investigation should be planned to known geographic distribution of cesium contamination and ratio of cesium to strontium with sampling of eligible seaweeds such as wakame around off Fukushima. Scientist and consumer's viewpoints were highly desired for establishment of more rational and transparent inspection system. (T. Tanaka)

  16. Radioactivity in consumer products : radiation safety and regulatory appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, B.K.S.; Venkataraman, G.; Subrahmanym, P.

    1993-01-01

    Use of radioactive materials in consumer products is in vogue almost since the discovery of radioactivity. There has been a rapid growth in the use of radioactive material in various consumer products such as Ionization Chamber Smoke Detectors (ICSD), Static eliminators, etc. In addition, there are certain manufacturing processes wherein the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) get incorporated in the consumer products. Certain phosphatic fertilizers, titanium dioxide pigments, phospho gypsum plaster boards are some examples in this category. The manufacture and use of these products result in radiation dose to the public apart from radiation exposure to the personnel involved in the manufacturing process. Appropriate radiation control measures have to be taken in the design, manufacture and use of consumer products to ensure that the radiation doses to the public and the population at large do not exceed the relevant limits. While appropriate regulatory controls and surveillance are established for manufacture and use of certain products, these are still to be recognised and established in respect of certain other processes and products. The current status of radiation safety and regulatory control and the lack of these in respect of some products are discussed in this paper. (author). 5 refs

  17. Evaluation of radioactivity concentrations from the Fukushima nuclear accident in fish products and associated risk to fish consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the Pacific Ocean following the Fukushima nuclear accident has raised public concerns about seafood safety(1, 2). Many people are wondering whether fish products from the Pacific Ocean and Japan are safe to eat 2 y after the accident. There is also some concern about seafood caught locally, outside of Japan. Based on monitoring data reported in July 2013, radioactive caesium concentrations in fish products from Fukushima and adjacent prefectures are evaluated. Resulting radiation doses from annual consumption at average contamination levels and occasional fish meals at much higher levels of caesium are calculated. To put radiation doses from caesium intake in perspective, comparisons are made to doses from naturally occurring radioactive polonium commonly found in fish. Discussion and conclusions are given subsequently. The Tokyo Electric Power Company has conducted routine radioactivity measurements ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) of various marine fish and shellfish in the ocean area within a 20-km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). Based on their posted summary on 16 August 2013(3), a total of 100 fish samples were collected from 7 to 23 July, offshore of the FDNPS and outside of its port area. The nuclide analysis report showed that 134 Cs was detected in 64 samples with concentrations varying from 3.5 to 130 Bq kg -1 . 137 Cs was detected in 79 samples and the concentration varied from 3.6 to 260 Bq kg -1 . On average, fish and shellfish caught within 20-km offshore of the FDNPS contain 12 Bq kg -1 of 134 Cs and 26 Bq kg -1 of 137 Cs. The Japanese Fisheries Agency (JFA), in cooperation with the relevant prefectural governments and organisations, has conducted sampling and inspections of fishery products at the major fishing ports in Fukushima and adjacent prefectures on a weekly basis to examine the possible contamination of fishery products by radioactive materials released from the FDNPS. (authors)

  18. Radioactivity Measurement in the Detergent Products by Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksouri, Abir

    2009-01-01

    Our study focuses on the evaluation of the level of radioactivity in the detergents. We have determined the specific activities of gamma emitting radionuclides belonging to the natural families of uranium, thorium and potassium using gamma spectrometry. The activities of radionuclides ( 235 U, 238U , 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40K) and their descendants are below the minimum detectable activity for dishwasher products, soaps, bleaches and shampoos, whereas they are found to levels considered very low (between 0,2 and 13 Bq/kg on average) in the products washes linens. These values are always lower than those of raw materials, what is explained by the conservation of radioactive material throughout the manufacturing process. The effective dose due to external exposure estimated below the regulatory standard recommended (<1 mSv / year), allows us to show that detergent products are not contaminated by radioactivity, are healthy and do not have harmful radiological impact on the consumer.

  19. Chart of nuclides relating to neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Minoru

    1981-09-01

    This chart is for frequent use in the prediction of the product species of neutron activation. The first edition of the chart has been made in 1976 after the repeated trial preparation. It has the following good points. (1) Any letter in chart is as large as one can read easily. [This condition has been obtained by the selection of items to be shown in chart. They are the name (the symbol of element, mass number, and half-life) of nuclide or of isomer, and the type of decay.]. (2) Decay product has been shown indirectly for branchings with two-step decay via short-lived daughter in an excited state. [This matter has been realized by use of the new mode of indication.] (3) Nuclides shown in chart are (a) naturally occurring nuclides and (b) nuclides formed from naturally occurring nuclides through one of the following reactions: (n, γ), (n, n'), (n, p), (n, α), (n, 2n), (n, pn), (n, 3n), (n, αn), (n, t), (n, 3 He), (n, 2p), and (n, γ)(n, γ). In the revision of the first edition, some modes of indication have become a little simpler, and the isomers of shorter half-lives (0.1 - 1 μs) have been added. (author)

  20. Advantages of Production of New Fissionable Nuclides for the Nuclear Power Industry in Hybrid Fusion-Fission Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulskiy, V. F.; Andrianova, E. A.; Davidenko, V. D.; Rodionova, E. V.; Tsibulskiy, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    A concept of a large-scale nuclear power engineering system equipped with fusion and fission reactors is presented. The reactors have a joint fuel cycle, which imposes the lowest risk of the radiation impact on the environment. The formation of such a system is considered within the framework of the evolution of the current nuclear power industry with the dominance of thermal reactors, gradual transition to the thorium fuel cycle, and integration into the system of the hybrid fusion-fission reactors for breeding nuclear fuel for fission reactors. Such evolution of the nuclear power engineering system will allow preservation of the existing structure with the dominance of thermal reactors, enable the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) with low burnup, and prevent the dangerous accumulation of minor actinides. The proposed structure of the nuclear power engineering system minimizes the risk of radioactive contamination of the environment and the SNF reprocessing facilities, decreasing it by more than one order of magnitude in comparison with the proposed scheme of closing the uranium-plutonium fuel cycle based on the reprocessing of SNF with high burnup from fast reactors.

  1. Quality control of radioactive waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, B.R.; Warnecke, E.; Odoj, R.

    1986-01-01

    The variety of incoming untreated wastes, treatment methods, waste forms and containers requires a great variety of controlling methods and principles to be applied both during waste treatment and on the final product. The paper describes product control schemes and methods, sampling systems and transportable testing equipment for waste drums, and equipment for waste cementation using in-drum stirring and subsequent fixation of solid wastes in the flowable product. (DG) [de

  2. A guide for controlling consumer products containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Consumer products are considered regardless of the purpose for which the radionuclide is added. For example, the purpose may be to make use of the ionising radiation emitted by the substance in the product itself (e.g. radioluminescent devices antistatic devices and ionisation chamber smoke detectors), or to make use of some other property of the material where the presence of radiation in the final product is merely adventitious (e.g. thorium gas mantles, ceramics with uranium glazes, and products containing radioactive tracers added to facilitate manufacturing and inspection processes). The Guide does not cover some products containing natural radioactive substances which have not been intentionally added, such as building materials. The Guide does not cover medicinal products and pharmaceuticals, nuclear powered cardiac pacemakers, or electronic equipment, such as television receivers, that emit X-rays. Unlike the 1970 Guide, this Guide does not consider those products, such as EXIT signs, containing gaseous tritium light sources, that would not be supplied directly to members of the public. The Guide is concerned mainly with the exposure arising from consumer products of those persons who are not subject to any regulatory controls for purposes of radiation protection in normal circumstances. Members of the public come under this heading, but not workers involved in the manufacture of consumer products. These workers will normally be subject to separate control. Radiological protection concepts and policy for the control of radioactive consumer products and licensing and post-licensing surveillance are developed

  3. Fuel cycle of fast reactor Brest with non-proliferation, transmutation of long-lived nuclides and equivalent disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatkin, A.V.; Orlov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The declared objectives in the fuel cycle of fast reactor BREST achieved by the following measures. Proliferation resistance of the fuel cycle being developed for BREST reactors is provided along two lines: reactors physics and design features; spent fuel reprocessing technology excluding plutonium separation at all process stages. Surplus neutrons produced in a chain reaction in a fast reactor without uranium blanket and the high flux of fast neutrons, allow efficient transmutation of not only all actinides in the core but also long-lived fission products (I, Te) in lead blanket by leakage neutrons without detriment to the inherent safety of this reactor. (author)

  4. Production of neutron-rich nuclides in the vicinity of N = 126 shell closure in multinucleon transfer reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multinucleon transfer in low-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is widely discussed as a method of production of yet-unknown neutron-rich nuclei hardly accessible (or inaccessible by other methods. Modeling of complicated dynamics of nuclear reactions induced by heavy ions is done within a multidimensional dynamical model of nucleus-nucleus collisions based on the Langevin equations. The model gives a continuous description of the system evolution starting from the well-separated target and projectile in the entrance channel of the reaction up to the formation of final reaction products. In this paper, rather recent sets of experimental data for the 136Xe+198Pt,208Pb reactions are analyzed together with the production cross sections for neutron-rich nuclei in the vicinity of the N = 126 magic shell.

  5. Contribution of some food categories on intakes of U, Th and other nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio

    1999-01-01

    The assessment of radiation dose in human from radioactive 232 Th, 238 U, 137 Cs, and 90 Sr are important because those nuclides are the largest contributors to committed internal doses. A market basket study was conducted to clarify the food pathways of the nuclides in Japanese subjects. Foodstuffs of 336 were purchased from markets in the vicinity of Mito-City during 1994-1995. Statistical consumption data were used for collection of the food samples. Thorium-232, 238 U, and stable isotope ( 133 Cs) in eighteen food groups were determined by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Radioisotopes ( 137 Cs) was analyzed by γ-spectrometry. Stable strontium ( 88 Sr) was also analyzed by inductively coupled atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Big contributors to the nuclide intakes in Japanese were as follows: 232 Th fishes and shellfishes (44%) and green vegetables (11%); 238 U seaweeds (50%) and fishes and shellfishes (26%); 88 Sr seaweeds (53%) and fishes and shellfishes (14%); 137 Cs mushrooms (17%), fishes and shell fishes (15%), milk products (11%), meats (9%), and potatoes (7%). The food categories of oil and fats, eggs and cooked meals were minor contributors in those nuclides. Dietary intake studies by using eighteen or more food categories should be effective procedure to resolve critical food and critical pathway for Japanese. Furthermore, critical pathways of radionuclides could be estimated by the analyses of stable isotopes. (author)

  6. Radioactive sealed sources production process for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Paulo de S.; Ngunga, Daniel M.G.; Camara, Julio R.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S.

    2017-01-01

    providing products and services to the private and governmental Brazilian users of industrial radiography and nucleonic control systems. Radioactive sealed sources are commonly used in nondestructive tests as radiography to make inspections and verify the internal structure and integrity of materials and in nucleonic gauges to control level, density, viscosity, etc. in on-line industrial processes. One of the most important activities carried out by this laboratory is related to the inspection of source projectors devices used in industrial radiography and its constituent parts as well as remote handle control assembly drive cable and guide tube systems. The laboratory also provide for the users iridium-192, cobalt-60 and selenium-75 sealed sources and performs quality control tests replacing spent or contaminated radiative sources. All discard of radioactive source is treated as radioactive waste. Additionally, administrative and commercial processes and protocols for exportation and transport of radioactive material are developed by specialized departments. In this work are presented the mean processes and procedures used by the Sealed Source Production Laboratory such as the arrival of the radioactive material to the laboratory and the source projectors, mechanical inspections, source loading, source leaking tests, etc. (author)

  7. Radioactive sealed sources production process for industrial radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paulo de S.; Ngunga, Daniel M.G.; Camara, Julio R.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S., E-mail: psantos@ipen.br, E-mail: hobeddaniel@gmail.com, E-mail: jrcamara@ipen.br, E-mail: pavsalva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energética s e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    providing products and services to the private and governmental Brazilian users of industrial radiography and nucleonic control systems. Radioactive sealed sources are commonly used in nondestructive tests as radiography to make inspections and verify the internal structure and integrity of materials and in nucleonic gauges to control level, density, viscosity, etc. in on-line industrial processes. One of the most important activities carried out by this laboratory is related to the inspection of source projectors devices used in industrial radiography and its constituent parts as well as remote handle control assembly drive cable and guide tube systems. The laboratory also provide for the users iridium-192, cobalt-60 and selenium-75 sealed sources and performs quality control tests replacing spent or contaminated radiative sources. All discard of radioactive source is treated as radioactive waste. Additionally, administrative and commercial processes and protocols for exportation and transport of radioactive material are developed by specialized departments. In this work are presented the mean processes and procedures used by the Sealed Source Production Laboratory such as the arrival of the radioactive material to the laboratory and the source projectors, mechanical inspections, source loading, source leaking tests, etc. (author)

  8. Study of radioactive nuclides of very short half-life produced by fast neutrons; Etude de corps radioactifs a vie tres breve produits par neutrons rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnand, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Several radionuclides, already known, with half-lives ranging from 5 10{sup -5} to 1 second were observed by pulsed irradiations of C - Mg - Al - Y - In - Tl - Pb - Bi with 14.3 MeV neutrons. These radionuclides are: {sup 12}B (20 {+-} 0.4 ms) - {sup 24m}Na (20 {+-} 0.6 ms) - {sup 88m1}Y (0.332 {+-} 0.012 ms) - {sup 88m2}Y (14.6 {+-} 0.4 ms) - {sup 114m}In (43.5 {+-} 2 ms) - {sup 202m}Tl (0.570 {+-} 0.010 ms) - {sup 204m}Tl (0.063 {+-} 0.002 ms) - {sup 205m}Pb (5.5 {+-}0.3 ms) - {sup 206m}Pb (0.126 {+-} 0.006 ms) - {sup 207m}Pb (830 {+-} 30 ms) - {sup 208m}Bi (2.56 {+-} 0.1 ms). Their half-life, the {beta} and {gamma} rays energies and the production cross sections were measured. (author) [French] Plusieurs radionucleides deja connus, de periode comprise entre 5 10{sup -5} et 1 seconde ont ete observes par irradiation pulsee avec des neutrons de 14,3 MeV, des elements suivants: C - Mg - Al - Y - In - Tl - Pb - Bi. Ces radionucleides sont: {sup 12}B (20 {+-} 0.4 ms) - {sup 24m}Na (20 {+-} 0.6 ms) - {sup 88m1}Y (0.332 {+-} 0.012 ms) - {sup 88m2}Y (14.6 {+-} 0.4 ms) - {sup 114m}In (43.5 {+-} 2 ms) - {sup 202m}Tl (0.570 {+-} 0.010 ms) - {sup 204m}Tl (0.063 {+-} 0.002 ms) - {sup 205m}Pb (5.5 {+-}0.3 ms) - {sup 206m}Pb (0.126 {+-} 0.006 ms) - {sup 207m}Pb (830 {+-} 30 ms) - {sup 208m}Bi (2.56 {+-} 0.1 ms). Leur periode, l'energie des rayonnements {beta} et {gamma} emis, et la section efficace de production ont ete mesurees. (auteur)

  9. Radioactivity of raw materials, metallurgical and casting products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hons, J.

    2000-01-01

    At present, the radioactive contamination of metallurgical products and initial materials represent a potential obstacle in foreign and domestic trade. It is of course an undesirable threat o the living environment on the one side and, at the same time, a new incorrectly used means for suppressing competition and forming a protection 'umbrella' of the national market to desirable imports on the other hand

  10. Artificial radioactive products in the atmosphere at Paris. [In French

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abribat, M; Pouradier, J; Venet, A M

    1952-01-01

    The radioactivity of solid matter in rain water and air collected near Paris in November 1951, and in April and May 1952, follows the same decay law as that observed for fission products after a nuclear detonation in Nevada in November 1951.

  11. Protection against radioactive contamination of foods and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Kovacs, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Methods suitable for diminishing radioactive contamination of foods and agricultural products and reducing at the same time the irradiation hazards for the human organism are dealt with. The possibilities for the decontamination of foods vegetal and of animal origin are discussed separately. (author)

  12. Modelling and simulation the radioactive source-term of fission products in PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porfirio, Rogilson Nazare da Silva

    1996-01-01

    The source-term was defined with the purpose the quantify all radioactive nuclides released the nuclear reactor in the case of accidents. Nowadays the source-term is limited to the coolant of the primary circuit of reactors and may be measured or modelled with computer coders such as the TFP developed in this work. The calculational process is based on the linear chain techniques used in the CINDER-2 code. The TFP code considers forms of fission products release from the fuel pellet: Recoil, Knockout and Migration. The release from the gap to the coolant fluid is determined from the ratio between activity measured in the coolant and calculated activity in the gap. Considered the operational data of SURRY-1 reactor, the TFP code was run to obtain the source=term of this reactor. From the measured activities it was verified the reliability level of the model and the employed computational logic. The accuracy of the calculated quantities were compared to the measured data was considered satisfactory. (author)

  13. Disposal method of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetake, Naoto; Fukazawa, Tetsuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of underground disposal of radioactive wastes for a long period of time by surrounding the periphery of the radioactive wastes with materials that can inhibit the migration of radioactive nuclides and are physically and chemically stable. Method: Hardening products prepared from a water-hardenable calcium silicate compound and an aqueous solution of alkali silicate have compression strength as comparable with that of concretes, high water tightness and adsorbing property to radioactive isotopes such as cobalt similar to that of concretes and they also show adsorption to cesium which is not adsorbed to concretes. Further, the kneaded slurry thereof is excellent in the workability and can be poured even into narrow gaps. Accordingly, by alternately charging granular radioactive wastes and this slurry before hardening into the ground, the radioactive wastes can be put to underground disposal stably with simple procedures. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Development of simple and rapid radioactivity analysis for thorium series in the products containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Ryong; Park, Se Young; Yoon, Seok Won; Ha, Wi Ho [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Kook; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    It is necessary to analyze radioactivity of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in products to ensure radiological safety required by Natural Radiation Safety Management Act. The pretreatments for the existing analysis methods require high technology and time. Such destructive pretreatments including grinding and dissolution of samples make impossible to reuse products. We developed a rapid and simple procedure of radioactivity analysis for thorium series in the products containing NORM. The developed method requires non-destructive or minimized pretreatment. Radioactivity of the product without pretreatment is initially measured using gamma spectroscopy and then the measured radioactivity is adjusted by considering material composition, mass density, and geometrical shape of the product. The radioactivity adjustment can be made using scaling factors, which is derived by radiation transport Monte Carlo simulation. Necklace, bracelet, male health care product, and tile for health mat were selected as representative products for this study. The products are commonly used by the public and directly contacted with human body and thus resulting in high radiation exposure to the user. The scaling factors were derived using MCNPX code and the values ranged from 0.31 to 0.47. If radioactivity of the products is measured without pretreatment, the thorium series may be overestimated by up to 2.8 times. If scaling factors are applied, the difference in radioactivity estimates are reduced to 3-24%. The developed procedure in this study can be used for other products with various materials and shapes and thus ensuring radiological safety.

  15. Authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio signatures of the cosmogenic nuclide production linked to geomagnetic dipole moment variation since the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Quentin; Thouveny, Nicolas; Bourlès, Didier L; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Bassinot, Franck; Ménabréaz, Lucie; Guillou, Valéry; Choy, Sandrine; Beaufort, Luc

    2016-11-01

    Geomagnetic dipole moment variations associated with polarity reversals and excursions are expressed by large changes of the cosmogenic nuclide beryllium-10 ( 10 Be) production rates. Authigenic 10 Be/ 9 Be ratios (proxy of atmospheric 10 Be production) from oceanic cores therefore complete the classical information derived from relative paleointensity (RPI) records. This study presents new authigenic 10 Be/ 9 Be ratio results obtained from cores MD05-2920 and MD05-2930 collected in the west equatorial Pacific Ocean. Be ratios from cores MD05-2920, MD05-2930 and MD90-0961 have been stacked and averaged. Variations of the authigenic 10 Be/ 9 Be ratio are analyzed and compared with the geomagnetic dipole low series reported from global RPI stacks. The largest 10 Be overproduction episodes are related to dipole field collapses (below a threshold of 2 × 10 22  Am 2 ) associated with the Brunhes/Matuyama reversal, the Laschamp (41 ka) excursion, and the Iceland Basin event (190 ka). Other significant 10 Be production peaks are correlated to geomagnetic excursions reported in literature. The record was then calibrated by using absolute dipole moment values drawn from the Geomagia and Pint paleointensity value databases. The 10 Be-derived geomagnetic dipole moment record, independent from sedimentary paleomagnetic data, covers the Brunhes-Matuyama transition and the whole Brunhes Chron. It provides new and complementary data on the amplitude and timing of millennial-scale geomagnetic dipole moment variations and particularly on dipole moment collapses triggering polarity instabilities.

  16. Survey of product quality control of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, E.

    1989-01-01

    The PTB has developed basic procedures with regard to deriving final storage conditions and product quality control. After this, requirements for radioactive waste are derived via safety analysers, in which information about the radioactive waste, the geological overall situation of the site and the layout of the final storage mine, in particular, are included as basic data. The final storage conditions are only determined with the awarding of the planning decision. Compliance with them can be proved by random sample tests on waste containers or via a qualification and inspection of the conditioning process. (DG) [de

  17. Determination of radioactivity in petroleum products and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrichi, Hajer

    2009-01-01

    At this end engineering study, we determined the activities of gamma- emitting radionuclides belonging to the families of 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th and 40K in the petroleum products and wastes of the refinery S.T.I.R. The activities of radionuclides which exceed that of crude oil prove that it's a technologically enhanced natural radioactivity since several chemical products were injected during the refining process. (Author)

  18. Treatment of short-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Chiri

    1976-01-01

    Recently short life nuclides have come to be utilized increasingly as diagnostic radioisotopes, and Tc-99m (half-life; 6.05 hours) and Ga-67 (half-life 7.79 hours) are replacing the most nuclides fomerly used in vivo test. Such development of radioactive products inevitably causes the rapid increase of their wastes. At present, the radioactive wastes produced by hospitals and university laboratories in Japan are collected by the Japan Radioisotope Association, and treated by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. These wastes are divided into combustibles and incombustibles to store in the store house in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The present law in Japan contains the contradiction which treats the matter with one several millionth of radioactivity after decay same as the original radioactive matter. Thus solid must be stored permanently, while gas and liquid can be discharged after dilution. (Kobatake, H.)

  19. INC Model interpretation of the proton induced residual nuclide production cross sections below 2 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divadeenam, M.; Ward, T.E.; Spergel, M.S.; Lakatos, S.; Manche, E.P.

    1991-01-01

    For the purposes of interpreting the abundances of various isotopes in meteorites or on lunar and planetary surfaces exposed to fragmentation by cosmic rays, Webber et al. recently reported the measured total elemental and isotopic cross sections with heavy ions as projectiles on H, He, and C targets with beam energies of 0.33 - 1.7 GeV/nucleon. We employ the INC model to predict the fragmentation of the heavy ions in a hydrogen target with the inverse reaction process: proton bombardment of a heavy-ion nucleus leading to spallation products. Charge-changing and mass-changing cross sections are calculated for proton bombardment of an 56 Fe target with beam energies ranging from 0.33 to 1.88 GeV. Total Z-changing and A-changing cross sections in the energy range 0.6 to 1.88 GeV are in excellent agreement with the corresponding experimental data of Webber et al. and Westfall at al., while the agreement below 0.6 GeV proton energy is not as good. The general trend of the Z-changing cross sections are reproduced by the model calculations at each proton incident energy. The interaction of 200-MeV protons with synthetic Stony Meteorite samples was undertaken to explain radionuclide production in a cosmic-ray environment. The BNL Linac 200-MeV-proton beam was used to irradiate synthetic Stony Meteorites to simulate cosmic-ray exposures corresponding to 6.4 and 16.4 million years. Each irradiated sample was analyzed with the help of a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer for long-lived radioisotopes. The intranuclear cascade code HETC was employed to simulate the 200-MeV proton bombardment on the meteorite samples to predict the radionuclides 7 Be, 22 Na, 46 Mn, and 56 Co produced in the experimental investigation

  20. Thin and thick targets for radioactive ion beam production at SPIRAL1 facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, P.; Bajeat, O.; Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Kuchi, V.; Maunoury, L.

    2018-05-01

    The upgrade of the Système de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Accélérés en Ligne (SPIRAL1) facility will deliver its new Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) by summer 2017. The goal of the upgrade is an improvement of the performances of the installation in terms of isotopes species and ion charge states [1]. Ion beams are produced using the Isotope Separator On Line Method, consisting in an association of a primary beam of stable ions, a hot target and an ion source. The primary beam impinges on the material of the target. Radioactive isotopes are produced by nuclear reactions and propagate up to the source, where they are ionized and accelerated to create a RIB. One advantage of SPIRAL1 driver is the variety of its available primary beams, from carbon to uranium with energies up to 95 MeV/A. Within the SPIRAL1 upgrade, they will be combined with targets made of a large choice of materials, extending in this way the number of possible nuclear reactions (fusion-evaporation, transfer, fragmentation) for producing a wider range of isotopes, up to regions of the nuclide chart still scarcely explored. Depending on the reaction process, on the collision energy and on the primary beam power, thin and thick targets are used. As their functions can be different, their design must cope with specific constraints which will be described. After a presentation of the goals of present and future SPIRAL1 Target Ion Source System, the main target features, studies and designs under progress are presented.

  1. Natural radioactivity product from coal burning in PLTU Pacitan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukirno; Sri Murniasih; Rosidi; Sutanto WW

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of radioactivity in the coal-fired power plant has been carried out in the CAST-NAA laboratory at 2015. Monitoring includes analysis of soil, water, fly ash, bottom ash and coal. The basic purpose of this work is the investigation of natural radionuclide contents in coal and the actual product samples in the Pacitan power plant as a first step to estimate the radioactive in the vicinity. This paper presents the results of the analysis of radioactivity in samples of coal, fly ash and bottom ash as well as environment samples of soil and water. Ra-226, Th-232, K-40, U-235, U-238, and Pb-210 Natural radionuclides are determined by gamma spectrometry with HPGe detector. Natural radionuclide in fine grain coal, bottom ash and fly ash have concentrations range (162.182 to 0.057) Bq/kg. Radioactivity contained in soil ranges (0.041 to 169.34) Bq/kg, whereas in water ranges (0.003 to 0.045) Bq/L. According Perka BAPETEN. No. 7 of 2013. On Boundary Value Environmental Radioactivity, the results of measurement analysis contained water around the power plant Pacitan still below the limit values allowed by BAPETEN. (author)

  2. Artificially radioactive products in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, G

    1956-01-01

    The by-product activity arising from atom bomb test was investigated in Heidelberg by a filtration method during March 1953. The measurement of the activity on the filter was accomplished by a cylindrical ..beta..-counter. The decay was proportional to t/sup -/(1 + x), where x is of the order of magnitude of 0.1, and thus approaches t/sup -1/. The time of explosion can be determined by extrapolation of the reciprocal activity as a function of time.

  3. Recent developments and on-line tests of uranium carbide targets for production of nuclides far from

    CERN Document Server

    V.N. Panteleev et al.

    The capacity of uranium carbide target materials of different structure and density for production of neutron-rich and heavy neutron-deficient isotopes have been investigated at the IRIS facility (PNPI) in the collaboration with Legnaro – GANIL – Orsay laboratories. The yields and release times of the species produced in the targets by the reactions induced by a 1 GeV proton beam of the PNPI synchrocyclotron have been measured. For the purpose to elaborate the most efficient and fast uranium carbide target prototype three kinds of the target materials were studied: a) a high density UC target material having ceramic-like structure with the density of 11 g/cm3 and the grain dimensions of about 200 microns; b) a high density UC target material with the density of 12 g/cm3 and the grain dimensions of about 20 microns prepared by the method of the powder metallurgy; c) a low density UCx target material with the density 3g/cm3 and the grain dimensions of about 20 microns prepared by the ISOLDE method. The comp...

  4. Production of the entire range of r-process nuclides by black hole accretion disc outflows from neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ru; Fernández, Rodrigo; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel; Metzger, Brian D.

    2016-12-01

    We consider r-process nucleosynthesis in outflows from black hole accretion discs formed in double neutron star and neutron star-black hole mergers. These outflows, powered by angular momentum transport processes and nuclear recombination, represent an important - and in some cases dominant - contribution to the total mass ejected by the merger. Here we calculate the nucleosynthesis yields from disc outflows using thermodynamic trajectories from hydrodynamic simulations, coupled to a nuclear reaction network. We find that outflows produce a robust abundance pattern around the second r-process peak (mass number A ˜ 130), independent of model parameters, with significant production of A spike at A = 132 that is absent in the Solar system r-process distribution. The spike arises from convection in the disc and depends on the treatment of nuclear heating in the simulations. We conclude that disc outflows provide an important - and perhaps dominant - contribution to the r-process yields of compact binary mergers, and hence must be included when assessing the contribution of these systems to the inventory of r-process elements in the Galaxy.

  5. Age determination of meteorites using radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimizu, Masaharu

    2002-01-01

    Recently, the precise isotope ratios of some refractory elements in meteorites have been reported using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The in situ decay of 182 Hf (T 1/2 =9 Myr), which was produced at the latest nucleosynthesis, is recognized in many meteorites as isotopic anomalies of its daughter isotope, 182 W. The degrees of relative 182 W isotopic deviation in extra-terrestrial and terrestrial silicate samples vary from +0.3% to ±0% related to the size of their parent bodies. One ready interpretation of its correlation is the difference in timing of metal-silicate separation in the parent bodies. Between the earth and meteorite parent bodies, the difference is calculated to be about four times of the half-life of 182 Hf, equivalent to 36 Myr. (author)

  6. Accumulation and metabolism of radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Shigeki

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of 90 Sr and 137 Cs with a long effective half life showing relatively simple behaviors, into the fish was examined from the data of field work. 137 Cs tended to show higher coefficients of concentration in the order of shellfish, crustaceans and fishes in accordance with the food chain. If the concentration caused by the food chain was neglected, the biological half life was influenced by the body weight even among the same species of fish, and the coefficient of concentration showed differences due to growth and metabolic function. In comparison with stable Cs, the 137 Cs showed a coefficient of concentration 1.5 times that of 133 Cs in the fish muscle. With the exception of seaweeds, the distribution rate of 90 Sr was not so high, but its coefficient of concentration was higher than that of stable Sr in the fish muscle. However, the coefficient of concentration of stable Sr was higher in bones because of its slower metabolism. (Chiba, N.)

  7. Cross sections for nuclide production in proton- and deuteron-induced reactions on 93Nb measured using the inverse kinematics method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakano Keita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic production cross sections were measured for proton- and deuteron-induced reactions on 93Nb by means of the inverse kinematics method at RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. The measured production cross sections of residual nuclei in the reaction 93Nb + p at 113 MeV/u were compared with previous data measured by the conventional activation method in the proton energy range between 46 and 249 MeV. The present inverse kinematics data of four reaction products (90Mo, 90Nb, 88Y, and 86Y were in good agreement with the data of activation measurement. Also, the model calculations with PHITS describing the intra-nuclear cascade and evaporation processes generally well reproduced the measured isotopic production cross sections.

  8. Refilling material for underground disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Tatsuya; Kato, Hiroyasu.

    1995-01-01

    Generally, the underground circumstance where radioactive wastes are to be processed is in high pH and highly ionized state due to ingredients leached out of cement of a concrete pit and solidifying products. A refilling material for underground disposal are demanded to adsorb radioactive nuclides such as 137 Cs even in such a state. As the refilling material, a mixture of bentonite and sintered vermiculite, preferably, comprising 10 to 40wt% of vermiculite is used. The refilling material has a high water hold out barrier performance of bentonite and a high radioactive nuclide adsorbing performance of vermiculite. In a state of highly ionized state when the adsorbing performance of bentonite is reduced, the nuclide-absorbing performance is improved by vermiculite and since the content of the vermiculite is not more than 40wt%, the water hold out barrier performance of the bentonite is not deteriorated. (N.H.)

  9. Determination of the nuclide vector for decommissioning projects at PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, Maya; Eikenberg, J. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Labor fuer Radioanalytik; Ehrlicher, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Sektion Rueckbau und Entsorgung

    2012-06-15

    In the context of two reactor decommissioning projects, radioactive slurry from concrete cutting was collected in the retention pond (RHB) at the Paul Scherrer Institute, along with radioactive drain outlets. Additionally, there are active residues from former operations. The task was to determine the nuclide vector of the radioactive slurry before final disposal. Due to the slurry from neutron-activated concrete, activation products, like {sup 55}Fe, {sup 60}Co, {sup 63}Ni, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 154}Eu and {sup 155}Eu can be expected. Accumulated drain outlets from laboratories, where work with radioactive substances is being done, were expected to contain {sup 22}Na, {sup 60}Co, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 155}Eu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, {sup 244}Cm, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th and {sup 90}Sr. For further clarification, {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C in the water and in the organic phase had to be measured as well. This work gives an overview about the slurry dissolution techniques, the radiochemical separation methods and activity concentrations of the nuclide vector. Further processing of the slurry is also discussed. (orig.)

  10. Results of radioactivity surveys in Miyagi Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The results of radioactivity surveys carried out in Miyagi Prefecture in fiscal 1981 (from April, 1981, to March, 1982), entrusted by the Science and Technology Agency, are presented in tables: total β radioactivity in rainwater, in rainwater and dust collected by large basins, in daily foods, in land water, in dairy products and vegetables, in marine products and in soil, 131 I nuclide in cow's milk, air γ-ray dose rate by survey meters, and air γ-ray counting, rate by a monitoring post were examined. The total β radioactivity was measured by a GM counting apparatus with an automatic sample changer, the nuclide analysis by a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer, the air γ-ray dose rate by a NaI(Tl) scintillation survey meter, and the γ-ray counting rate by a NaI(Tl) scintillation type monitoring post. (Mori, K.)

  11. IDGAM. A PC code and database to help nuclide identification in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviotti Corcuera, R.; Moraes Cunha, M. de; Jayanthi, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    The document describes a PC diskette containing a code and database which helps researchers to identify the nuclides in a radioactive sample. Data can be retrieved by gamma-ray energy, nuclide or element. The PC diskette is available, costfree, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, upon request. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs

  12. Process for ultimate storage of radioactive fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baukal, W.; Gruenthaler, K.H.; Neumann, K.

    1980-01-01

    In order to exclude cracking in the cooling phase during sealing of radioactive oxidic fission products in glass melts, metallic filling elements - e.g. wires, tissues - are proposed to be incorporated in the mould before the glass melt is poured in. Especially nickel alloys with corrosion proof surface layers, e.g. titanium nitride, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminium oxide, suit best. These elements reduce thermal stresses and effect high thermal conductance towards the mould wall. (UWI) [de

  13. Nuclides.net: A computational environment for nuclear data and applications in radioprotection and radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthou, V.; Galy, J.; Leutzenkirchen, K.

    2004-01-01

    An interactive multimedia tool, Nuclides.net, has been developed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements. The Nuclides.net 'integrated environment' is a suite of computer programs ranging from a powerful user-friendly interface, which allows the user to navigate the nuclides chart and explore the properties of nuclides, to various computational modules for decay calculations, dosimetry and shielding calculations, etc. The product is particularly suitable for environmental radioprotection and radioecology. (authors)

  14. The Calculation Of Total Radioactivity Of Kartini Reactor Fuel Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budisantoso, Edi Trijono; Sardjono, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The total radioactivity of Kartini reactor fuel element has been calculated by using ORIGEN2. In this case, the total radioactivity is the sum of alpha, beta, and gamma radioactivity from activation products nuclides, actinide nuclides and fission products nuclides in the fuel element. The calculation was based on irradiation history of fuel in the reactor core. The fuel element no 3203 has location history at D, E, and F core zone. The result is expressed in graphics form of total radioactivity and photon radiations as function of irradiation time and decay time. It can be concluded that the Kartini reactor fuel element in zone D, E, and F has total radioactivity range from 10 Curie to 3000 Curie. This range is for radioactivity after decaying for 84 days and that after reactor shut down. This radioactivity is happened in the fuel element for every reactor operation and decayed until the fuel burn up reach 39.31 MWh. The total radioactivity emitted photon at the power of 0.02 Watt until 10 Watt

  15. Validation of cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling factors through direct measurement. Part 2, Production of 7Be and 10Be in water targets deployed in the Southern Hemisphere, 1997-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, I.J.; Barry, B.J.; Ditchburn, R.G.; Zondervan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sealed containers of de-ionised water were exposed to cosmic-rays at seven sites in Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica, covering a range of altitudes and geomagnetic latitudes, over time periods of six months to three years (1997-2001). After isotopic analysis by gamma counting (for 7 Be) and accelerator mass spectrometry (for 10 Be), the data obtained were corrected to obtain relative production factors (i.e., 'k' values). This report presents a full description of the target design, isotope extraction, and measurement procedures employed. It thus provides the raw data from which cosmogenic nuclide production rates for the Southern Hemisphere can be calculated, and scaling factors used in surface exposure dating can be independently validated. (author). 35 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Toxicology of thorium cycle nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the biological hazards associated with uranium-thorium breeder fuels and fuel recycle process solutions. Initial studies emphasize the metabolism and long-term biological effects of inhaled 233 U- 232 U nitrate and oxide fuel materials and of 231 Pa, a major, long-lived, radioactive waste product. 1 figure, 3 tables

  17. Protection against radioactive contamination of food and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Kovacs, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Due to contaminating effects from nuclear explosions and nuclear power plants, the systematic investigation of environmental radioactive contamination is absolutely necessary. In order to reduce the artificial radiation dose to which the human body is exposed, isotope content of foods and agricultural products should be known. The authors evaluate the decontamination possibilities of food produced from vegetable and animal products, starting from the contamination of some products. For vegetable product decontamination the use of suitable fertilizers, thorough scrubbing in excess water and, for cereals, milling is proposed. As the most effective preventive measure of radiation contamination of food products of animal origin, appropriate packing is proposed. The storage and preservation problems are emphasized for short half-life radiation contamination. (P.J.)

  18. Validation of spent nuclear fuel nuclide composition data using percentage differences and detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Cheol [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Energy Systems Engineering

    2017-06-15

    Nuclide composition data of spent nuclear fuels are important in many nuclear engineering applications. In reactor physics, nuclear reactor design requires the nuclide composition and the corresponding cross sections. In analyzing the radiological health effects of a severe accident on the public and the environment, the nuclide composition in the reactor inventory is among the important input data. Nuclide composition data need to be provided to analyze the possible environmental effects of a spent nuclear fuel repository. They will also be the basis for identifying the origin of unidentified spent nuclear fuels or radioactive materials.

  19. Sealed radioactive sources and method of their production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benadik, A.; Tympl, M.; Stopek, K.

    1985-01-01

    The active layer of the proposed sources consists of an inorganic sorbent activated with a radioactive component in form of gel, xerogel or glass. The active particles of the inorganic sorbent have the shape of spheres 2 to 2000 μm in diameter. The sources have a tubular, cylindrical or needle shape and are compact with low leachability. They feature minimal radionuclide leakage, they are reliable and safe. Their production technology is proposed. The inorganic sorbent is put in contact with the sollution of the radioactive compound, then separated from the liquid phase, filled into containers, dried, calcined or sintered or otherwise heat-processed into glass at temperatures of 250 -1800 degC. (M.D.)

  20. Nuclide transfer test device in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-01-01

    The device comprises a pressure-proof vessel having a perforated port, a compression vessel having a sample-containing chamber with circumferential walls having a plurality of small holes being gastightly engaged to the perforated port, a mechanically pressurizing means for vertically compressing the compression chamber, a pressurizing gas supply system for supplying a pressurizing gas to compress the soil specimen in a lateral direction and a sample water-supply system for supplying sample water to the sample containing chamber. The soil sample is pressurized so that the sample water is caused to permeate by isotropic pressure due to equilibrium of vertical compression by mechanical force and lateral compression by the pressurizing gas. The transfer state of radioactive nuclides in the soil can be tested easily in a state where the sample water is caused to permeate in a vertical direction in parallel, to simulate an actual processing circumstance. Namely, since the sample water is caused to permeate to the soil sample in the pressure-proof vessel, a desired test can easily be conducted in a restricted space without undergoing influences of the kind and the dose rate of the radioactive nuclides. (N.H.)

  1. Numeric determination and validation of neutron induced radioactive nuclide inventories for decommissioning and dismantling of light water reactors; Rechnerische Bestimmung und Validierung von Aktivierungsaktivitaeten fuer die Rueckbau- und Entsorgungsplanung von Leichtwasserreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phlippen, Peter W.; Schloemer, Luc; Vallentin, Roger [WTI Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Lukas, Bernard [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg (Germany); Palm, Stefan [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH Kernkraftwerk Neckarwestheim (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    The deconstruction of nuclear power plants requires project planning and budgeting both during the project and in advance, as well as the secured provision of financial and human resources. When a facility is free from irradiated fuel, the reactor pressure vessel with the nuclear components as well as the biological shield determine the activity inventory of the facility, which almost exclusively consists of activated radionuclides located in the respective structures. Knowledge of the activity distribution and nuclide vectors of the involved components is of vital importance for deconstruction planning. In this context, the development of a computation procedure is described coupling the Monte Carlo method for the determination of neutron flux densities with a procedure to perform activation calculations for the determination of nuclide vectors. For this purpose, detailed knowledge of the material composition, particularly the trace-element concentrations of nitrogen and cobalt in steel and additionally of europium and caesium in concrete structures, considerably impacts the accuracy of the calculated activities. Extensive validation using data collected from various reactor facilities, such as nuclide activities, neutron flux densities, and neutron and gamma dose rates, demonstrates the reliability of the computed nuclide distributions showing ratios of computed over measured values of typically between 0.9 and 3. The practicality of the developed method as well as the convenient use of the results have already been demonstrated analysing several German BWR and PWR facilities and developing packaging strategies based on the produced results.

  2. Development of carrier usage for the treatment of radioactive effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, A [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul (Turkey)

    1997-02-01

    Low level radioactive liquid wastes are produced in many nuclear applications. Their physico-chemical characteristics may very considerably. Chemical precipitation is a convenient treatment method for the liquid streams of high salinity or solid content containing different radionuclide types. Generally, the concentrations of nuclides in liquid wastes are extremely low. For example, 1000 Bq of {sup 137}Cs makes about 3{center_dot}10{sup -10} g of caesium. Therefore conventional precipitation cannot be applied since the solubility product value is not exceeded. The carriers which are capable to adsorb the nuclides are used to achieve the nuclide removal. Stable isotopes of the nuclide are usually added as the carriers but any reagent which has similar chemical specifications with the nuclide can also be used as the carrier. Precipitation of these non-radioactive carriers ion together with the radionuclide is called co-precipitation. The operational steps of the chemical precipitation process should be established and applied in a treatment facility. Thus, the most suitable carrier for a particular nuclide and its usage conditions are required to be determined. In this study, the carriers for removal of {sup 137}Cs and uranium, their accurate amounts and usage conditions to achieve highest decontamination factors (DF) have been investigated. Residual sludge volumes were evaluated for cementation purposes. The cement composite samples were prepared for each set of experiments and hardening times were measured. 9 refs, 9 figs.

  3. Development of carrier usage for the treatment of radioactive effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahraman, A.

    1997-01-01

    Low level radioactive liquid wastes are produced in many nuclear applications. Their physico-chemical characteristics may very considerably. Chemical precipitation is a convenient treatment method for the liquid streams of high salinity or solid content containing different radionuclide types. Generally, the concentrations of nuclides in liquid wastes are extremely low. For example, 1000 Bq of 137 Cs makes about 3·10 -10 g of caesium. Therefore conventional precipitation cannot be applied since the solubility product value is not exceeded. The carriers which are capable to adsorb the nuclides are used to achieve the nuclide removal. Stable isotopes of the nuclide are usually added as the carriers but any reagent which has similar chemical specifications with the nuclide can also be used as the carrier. Precipitation of these non-radioactive carriers ion together with the radionuclide is called co-precipitation. The operational steps of the chemical precipitation process should be established and applied in a treatment facility. Thus, the most suitable carrier for a particular nuclide and its usage conditions are required to be determined. In this study, the carriers for removal of 137 Cs and uranium, their accurate amounts and usage conditions to achieve highest decontamination factors (DF) have been investigated. Residual sludge volumes were evaluated for cementation purposes. The cement composite samples were prepared for each set of experiments and hardening times were measured. 9 refs, 9 figs

  4. [The main directions of improving the system of state accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive waste products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a modification of the basic directions of state accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive waste products, whose implementation will significantly improve the efficiency of its operation at the regional level. Selected areas are designed to improve accounting and control system for the submission of the enterprises established by the reporting forms, the quality of the information contained in them, as well as structures of information and process for collecting, analyzing and data processing concerning radioactive substances and waste products.

  5. Transuranium nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Projected development of nuclear power up to the year 2000 entails a substantial increase in the number of nuclear power reactors, of irradiated fuel reprocessing plants and of various other supporting facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. In this period, transuranium elements, especially plutonium, will be produced in substantial quantities as by-products of the fission process and for use as fuel in present and future nuclear power reactors; these elements will have other peaceful applications as well. Growing world-wide interest and a natural desire to protect man and his environment have led to increasing concern in public, scientific and governmental sectors about the, release of such radionuclides into the environment. Although releases of transuranium nuclides from existing nuclear facilities can be controlled to very low levels, it is essential, in view of their long half-lives and high relative radiotoxicities, that their fate in the environment be understood well enough to permit associated potential impacts to be assessed and hence effective control to be provided. Extensive studies for many years have investigated the distribution and behaviour of these elements and potential detriments resulting from their release to the environment. More recently, scientists have begun to make projections for evaluating the degree of control necessary if such materials are to enter the complex chain of commercial activities associated with nuclear power production

  6. Evaluation of CRUDTRAN code to predict transport of corrosion products and radioactivity in the PWR primary coolant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.B.

    2002-01-01

    CRUDTRAN code is to predict transport of the corrosion products and their radio-activated nuclides such as cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 in the PWR primary coolant system. In CRUDTRAN code the PWR primary circuit is divided into three principal sections such as the core, the coolant and the steam generator. The main driving force for corrosion product transport in the PWR primary coolant comes from coolant temperature change throughout the system and a subsequent change in corrosion product solubility. As the coolant temperature changes around the PWR primary circuit, saturation status of the corrosion products in the coolant also changes such that under-saturation in steam generator and super-saturation in the core. CRUDTRAN code was evaluated by comparison with the results of the in-reactor loop tests simulating the PWR primary coolant system and PWR plant data. It showed that CRUDTRAN could predict variations of cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 radioactivity with time, plant cycle and coolant chemistry in the PWR plant. (author)

  7. Production of radioactive molecular beams for CERN-ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiffert, Christoph

    2015-06-15

    ISOLDE, the Isotope Separation On-Line facility, at CERN is a leading facility for the production of beams of exotic radioactive isotopes. Currently over 1000 different isotopes with half lives down to milliseconds can be extracted with beam intensities of up to 10{sup 11} ions per second. However, due to the reactive target environment not all isotopes are extractable in sufficient amounts. In this work the extraction of short lived carbon and boron isotopes is investigated. Therefore a variety of experimental and computational techniques have been used.

  8. Production of radioactive molecular beams for CERN-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)703149; Kröll, Thorsten

    SOLDE, the Isotope Separation On-Line facility, at CERN is a leading facility for the production of beams of exotic radioactive isotopes. Currently over 1000 different isotopes with half lives down to milliseconds can be extracted with beam intensities of up to 10^11 ions per second. However, due to the reactive target environment not all isotopes are extractable in sufficient amounts. In this work the extraction of short lived carbon and boron isotopes is investigated. Therefore a variety of experimental and computanional techniques have been used.

  9. Nuclear reactor structural material forming less radioactive corrosion product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Hiroshi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide nuclear reactor structural materials forming less radioactive corrosion products. Constitution: Ni-based alloys such as inconel alloy 718, 600 or inconel alloy 750 and 690 having excellent corrosion resistance and mechanical property even in coolants at high temperature and high pressure have generally been used as nuclear reactor structural materials. However, even such materials yield corrosion products being attacked by coolants circulating in the nuclear reactor, which produce by neutron irradiation radioactive corrosion products, that are deposited in primary circuit pipeways to constitute exposure sources. The present invention dissolves dissolves this problems by providing less activating nuclear reactor structural materials. That is, taking notice on the fact that Ni-58 contained generally by 68 % in Ni changes into Co-58 under irradiation of neutron thereby causing activation, the surface of nuclear reactor structural materials is applied with Ni plating by using Ni with a reduced content of Ni-58 isotopes. Accordingly, increase in the radiation level of the nuclear reactor structural materials can be inhibited. (K.M.)

  10. Interim report on research between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute on neutron-capture cross sections by long-lived fission product nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furutaka, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Shoji; Harada, Hideo

    2004-03-01

    Neutron capture cross sections of long-lived fission products (LLFP) are important quantities as fundamental data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes. Previously obtained thermal-neutron capture gamma-ray data were analyzed to deduce the partial neutron-capture cross sections of LLFPs including 99 Tc, 93 Zr, and 107 Pd for thermal neutrons. By comparing the decay gamma-ray data and prompt gamma-ray data for 99 Tc, the relation between the neutron-capture cross section deduced by the two different methods was studied. For the isotopes 93 Zr and 107 Pd, thermal neutron-capture gamma-ray production cross sections were deduced for the first time. The level schemes of 99 Tc, 93 Zr, and 107 Pd have also been constructed form the analyzed data and compared with previously reported levels. This work has been done under the cooperative program 'Neutron Capture Cross Sections of Long-Lived Fission products (LLFPs)' by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). (author)

  11. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate

  12. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate.

  13. Library correlation nuclide identification algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, William R.

    2007-01-01

    A novel nuclide identification algorithm, Library Correlation Nuclide Identification (LibCorNID), is proposed. In addition to the spectrum, LibCorNID requires the standard energy, peak shape and peak efficiency calibrations. Input parameters include tolerances for some expected variations in the calibrations, a minimum relative nuclide peak area threshold, and a correlation threshold. Initially, the measured peak spectrum is obtained as the residual after baseline estimation via peak erosion, removing the continuum. Library nuclides are filtered by examining the possible nuclide peak areas in terms of the measured peak spectrum and applying the specified relative area threshold. Remaining candidates are used to create a set of theoretical peak spectra based on the calibrations and library entries. These candidate spectra are then simultaneously fit to the measured peak spectrum while also optimizing the calibrations within the bounds of the specified tolerances. Each candidate with optimized area still exceeding the area threshold undergoes a correlation test. The normalized Pearson's correlation value is calculated as a comparison of the optimized nuclide peak spectrum to the measured peak spectrum with the other optimized peak spectra subtracted. Those candidates with correlation values that exceed the specified threshold are identified and their optimized activities are output. An evaluation of LibCorNID was conducted to verify identification performance in terms of detection probability and false alarm rate. LibCorNID has been shown to perform well compared to standard peak-based analyses

  14. Cosmogenic nuclides in the Martian surface: constraints for sample recovery and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, P.A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Stable and radioactive cosmogenic nuclides and radiation damage effects such as cosmic ray tracks can provide information on the surface history of Mars. A recent overview on developments in cosmogenic nuclide research for historical studies of predominantly extraterrestrial materials was published previously. The information content of cosmogenic nuclides and radiation damage effects produced in the Martian surface is based on the different ways of interaction of the primary galactic and solar cosmic radiation (GCR, SCR) and the secondary particle cascade. Generally the kind and extent of interactions as seen in the products depend on the following factors: (1) composition, energy and intensity of the primary SCR and GCR; (2) composition, energy and intensity of the GCR-induced cascade of secondary particles; (3) the target geometry, i.e., the spatial parameters of Martian surface features with respect to the primary radiation source; (4) the target chemistry, i.e., the chemical composition of the Martian surface at the sampling location down to the minor element level or lower; and (5) duration of the exposure. These factors are not independent of each other and have a major influence on sample taking strategies and techniques

  15. Fukushima-derived fission nuclides monitored around Taiwan: Free tropospheric versus boundary layer transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Chih-An; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Chuan-Yao

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan was the worst nuclear disaster following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. Fission products (nuclides) released from the Fukushima plant site since March 12, 2011 had been detected around the northern hemisphere in about two weeks and also in the southern hemisphere about one month later. We report here detailed time series of radioiodine and radiocesium isotopes monitored in a regional network around Taiwan, including one high-mountain and three ground-level sites. Our results show several pulses of emission from a sequence of accidents in the Fukushima facility, with the more volatile 131I released preferentially over 134Cs and 137Cs at the beginning. In the middle of the time series, there was a pronounced peak of radiocesium observed in northern Taiwan, with activity concentrations of 134Cs and 137Cs far exceeding that of 131I during that episode. From the first arrival time of these fission nuclides and their spatial and temporal variations at our sampling sites and elsewhere, we suggest that Fukushima-derived radioactive nuclides were transported to Taiwan and its vicinity via two pathways at different altitudes. One was transported in the free troposphere by the prevailing westerly winds around the globe; the other was transported in the planetary boundary layer by the northeast monsoon wind directly toward Taiwan.

  16. Nuclide Importance and the Steady-State Burnup Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Atsushi

    2000-01-01

    Conventional methods for evaluating some characteristic values of nuclides relating to burnup in a given neutron spectrum are reviewed in a mathematically systematic way, and a new method based on the importance theory is proposed. In this method, these characteristic values of a nuclide are equivalent to the importances of the nuclide. By solving the equation adjoint to the steady-state burnup equation with a properly chosen source term, the importances for all nuclides are obtained simultaneously.The fission number importance, net neutron importance, fission neutron importance, and absorbed neutron importance are evaluated and discussed. The net neutron importance is a measure directly estimating neutron economy, and it can be evaluated simply by calculating the fission neutron importance minus the absorbed neutron importance, where only the absorbed neutron importance depends on the fission product. The fission neutron importance and absorbed neutron importance are analyzed separately, and detailed discussions of the fission product effects are given for the absorbed neutron importance

  17. ZZ REAC-2, Nuclide Activation and Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    abundances, decay rates, dose rates, heating rates, etc. in a user-specified file format. SLIB converts one or more card-image format libraries into binary form for program use. Two auxiliary codes, LISTCRS and LISTDCY, are included to edit the cross section and decay binary data files, respectively. 2 - Method of solution: The spectrum-averaged cross section is obtained by collapsing the multigroup cross sections with the multigroup flux. The equations used assume that the cross sections are for a point in space and ignore the spatial transport of material and the time dependence of the cross sections. In order to provide a fast, stable solution to the transmutation equation, REAC2 lessens the couplings between nuclides implied by the transmutation equation. The code assumes that during any time period of arbitrary length (1) the flux is constant as a function of time, (2) no reaction occurs on a reaction product or a decay product, and (3) at most six decays can occur for a reaction product or the initial nuclide. Using these assumptions, REAC2 calculates exactly the resulting distribution of nuclides. Once the distribution is known, other quantities of interest such as the decay rate, dose rate, transmutations, etc. can be calculated from a linear combination of the nuclide amounts. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: REAC2 is not optimized for problems where fission products are important

  18. Waste processing system for product contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotoyama, Koichi; Takaya, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Suehiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to processing contaminated products while separating them into metals at high contamination level and non-metals at low contamination level. Constitution: Pulverized radioactive wastes conveyed on a conveyor belt are uniformly irradiated by a ring-illumination device and then they are picked-up by a television camera or the like. The picked-up signals are sent to an image processing device, applied with appropriate binarization and metal objects are separated by utilizing the light absorbing property of non-metal and light reflection property of metals. The graviational center for the metal object is calculated from the binarized image, the positional information is provided to a robot controller and the metal object is transferred to another position by a robot. Since only the metal object at high radioactive contamination level can be taken out separately, it is no more necessary to process the entire wastes as the high level decontamination products, to thereby provide an economical advantage. (Sekiya, K.)

  19. Method of producing solidification product of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Shunji; Iwami, Etsuji; Kadota, Keishi.

    1989-01-01

    Layers of thermosetting resin composition capable of curing at normal temperature are formed to a thickness of 2 to 5 mm at the bottom of a container. As the thermosetting resin composition capable of curing at normal temperature, there can be mentioned, for example, unsaturated polyester resin comprising a polymerizable monomer and an unsaturated polyester. After the layers are cured, a mixture of radioactive wastes and the thermosetting resin composition capable of curing at normal temperature is filled on the layer. After curing, thermosetting resin composition capable of curing at normal temperature is filled so as to fill gaps between the curing product and the container caused by curing shrinkage and at the upper surface of the curing products. After curing, plastic layers are formed at the surface. This can avoid residual bubbles in the layers or development of cracks. Further, leaching rate of Na ions is low and water proofness can be improved as well. (T.M.)

  20. Radioactive Ions Production Ring for Beta-Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, E; Wehner, J

    2010-01-01

    Within the FP7 EUROnu program, Work Package 4 addresses the issues of production and acceleration of 8Li and 8B isotopes through the Beta-Beam complex, for the production of electron-neutrino. One of the major critical issues is the production of a high enougth ion ßux, to fulÞll the requirements for physics. In alternative to the direct ISOL production method, a new ap- proach is proposed in [1]. The idea is to use a compact ring for Litium ions at 25 MeV and an internal He or D target, in which the radioactive-isotopes production takes place. The beam is expected to survive for several thousands of turns, therefore cooling in 6D is required and, according this scheme, the ionization cooling provided by the target itself and a suitable RF system would be sufÞcient. We present some preliminary work on the Production ring lat- tice design and cooling issues, for the 7Li ions, and propose plans for future studies, within the EUROnu program.

  1. Evaluation of the increasing of radioactive wastes production at the Instituto de Energia Atomica, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawakuchi, R.S.; Sordi, G.A.A.

    1976-01-01

    This evaluation has the purpose of selecting a new method for radioactive waste disposal at the IEA (Brazil). A production growth pattern for radioactive waste was established. The growth of radioactive wastes produced at the IEA was estimated for the next ten years

  2. Radioactive certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Outline of radioactive certified reference materials (CRM) for the analysis of nuclear materials and radioactive nuclides were described. The nuclear fuel CRMs are supplied by the three institutes: NBL in the US, CETAMA in France and IRMM in Belgium. For the RI CRMs, the Japan Radioisotope Association is engaged in activities concerning supply. The natural-matrix CRMs for the analysis of trace levels of radio-nuclides are prepared and supplied by NIST in the US and the IAEA. (author)

  3. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  4. Nuclide Inventory Calculation Using MCNPX for Wolsung Unit 1 Reactor Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabir, Mohamad Hairie; Noh, Kyoung Ho; Hah, Chang Joo [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The CINDER90 computation process involves utilizing linear Markovian chains to determine the time dependent nuclide densities. The CINDER90 depletion algorithm is implemented the MCNPX code package. The coupled depletion process involves a Monte-Carlo steady-state reaction rate calculation linked to a deterministic depletion calculation. The process is shown in Fig.1. MCNPX runs a steady state calculation to determine the system eigenvalue collision densities, recoverable energies from fission and neutrons per fission events. In order to generate number densities for the next time step, the CINDER90 code takes the MCNPX generated values and performs a depletion calculation. MCNPX then takes the new number densities and caries out a new steady-stated calculation. The process repeats itself until the final time step. This paper describe the preliminary source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel using MCNPX, as a part of the activities to support the equilibrium core model development and decommissioning evaluation process of a Candu reactor. The aim of this study was to apply the MCNPX code for source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel. Nuclide inventories as a function of burnup will be used to model an equilibrium core for Candu reactor. The core lifetime neutron fluence obtained from the model is used to estimate radioactivity at the stage of decommisioning. In general, as expected, the actinides and fission products build up increase with increasing burnup. Despite the fact that the MCNPX code is still in development we can conclude that the code is capable of obtaining relevant results in burnup and source term calculation. It is recommended that in the future work, the calculation has to be verified on the basis of experimental data or comparison with other codes.

  5. Radioactive environmental impact assessment for a production project of titanium dioxide by chlorination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Based on the analysis of shifting direction of radionuclide in production process and the environmental investigation and monitoring, the radioactive environmental impact from a production project of titanium dioxide by chlorination process has been analyzed and assessed. The result of radioactive environmental investigation shows that values of assessment factors are in the range of environmental radioactive background. The radioactive environmental sensitive spot has been delineated. The results of radioactive environmental prediction show that the additional doses to workers and residents are 0.59 mSv/a and 9.28 × 10-4 mSv/a respectively which are less than the annual dose limits of administration. The radioactive environmental impact of the production project of the titanium dioxide by chlorination process will meet the needs of national regulations and standards if radiation protection and environmental protection measures are implemented and radioactive environmental monitoring are strengthened. (author)

  6. PKA distributions: Contributions from transmutation products and from radioactive decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Gilbert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The neutrons generated in fusion plasmas interact with materials via nuclear reactions. The resulting transmutations and atomic displacements have life-limiting consequences for fusion reactor components. A detailed understanding of the production, evolution and material consequences of the damage created by cascades of atomic displacements requires, as a vital primary input, a complete description of the energy-spectrum of initial (prompt atomic displacement events (the primary knock on atoms or PKAs produced by direct neutron nuclear interactions. There is also the possibility that the radionuclides produced under transmutation will create further PKAs as they decay, and so the rate of these must also be quantified. This paper presents the latest results from the analysis of PKA spectra under neutron irradiation, focussing particularly on the variation in PKA distributions due to changes in composition under transmutation, but also on the PKA contributions from radioactive decay of materials that become activated under irradiation.

  7. Amount, disposal and relative toxicity of long-lived fission products and actinides in the radioactive wastes of the nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, H.O.

    1975-11-01

    A review is presented on the magnitude of the long-term problems of radioactive wastes from the nuclear power industry of the FRG (and Western Europe). The production of long-lived fission products and actinides has been calculated for several fuel types of the uranium-plutonium and thorium-uranium fuel cycles and related to a prediction of the development and share of LWR, FBR and HTGR. The quantities and concentrations of actinides, the radioactivity and relative toxicity index of the wastes of reprocessing (and fuel refabrication) and their changes by radioactive decay are presented. The radiotoxicity of the nuclide inventory of the solidified high-level wastes have been compared with naturally occuring uranium ores. On the long term (>10 3 years) the radiotoxicity level of the total area of the final repository in deep geological formation does not result in a significantly higher radiotoxicity level than an uranium ore deposit of low uranium content. Also discussed have been the chemical separation of the actinides from high-level wastes and recycling in fission reactors. (orig.) [de

  8. A GoldSim Model for Colloid Facilitated Nuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-01-01

    Recently several total system performance assessment (TSPA) programs, called 'template' programs, ready for the safety assessment of radioactive waste repository systems which are conceptually modeled have been developed by utilizing GoldSim and AMBER at KAERI. It is generally believed that chelating agents (chelators) that could be disposed of together with radioactive wastes in the repository and natural colloids available in the geological media affect on nuclides by enhancing their transport in the geological media. A simple GoldSim module to evaluate such quantitative effects, by which colloid and chelator-facilitated nuclide release cases could be modeled and evaluated is introduced. Effects of the chelators alone are illustrated with the case associated with well pumping scenario in a hypothetical repository system

  9. The nuclide inventory in SFR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingemansson, Tor

    2001-10-01

    This report is an account for a project carried out on behalf of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI): 'Nuclide inventory in SFR-1' (The Swedish underground disposal facility for low and intermediate level reactor waste). The project comprises the following five sub-projects: 1) Measuring methods for nuclides, difficult to measure, 2) The nuclide inventory in SFR-1, 3) Proposal for nuclide library for SFR-1 and ground disposal, 4) Nuclide library for exemption, and 5) Characterising of the nuclide inventory and documentation for SFL waste. In all five sub-projects long-lived activity, including Cl-36, has been considered

  10. Biodegradation of bituminous products from processing liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibensky, L.; Krejci, F.; Hladky, E.; Halama, D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the possible ways of disturbing the stability of bituminous products from liquid radioactive waste processing, is biodegradation caused by common microorganisms. Pseudomonas bacteria and a Bacillus cereus culture were selected for experimental study of cultivation of microorganisms. Experiments with mixed cultures were also performed. Pitches, ajatin and imidazoline were used as inhibitors. The thin layer and the emulsion methods were used in assessing biological corrosion. The results of the experiments are discussed with respect to the dependence of bacterial growth on bitumen biodegradation, the effect of pH on bitumen degradation and the effect of inhibitors on bitumen biodegradation. The salts contained in bituminous products were not found to significantly affect the rate of destruction. The degree of degradation was found to mainly depend on the bitumen, its chemical composition, and on the conditions of storage. It was also found that inhibitor additions in some cases modified the properties of the matrix such that it became more liquid. The coefficient of extractibility thus increased of matrix salts. The recultivation of bacteria on a full-value medium resulted in the loss of the inhibitory effect. In some cases, the inhibitor even stimulated the growth of microorganisms. The use of inhibitors in an effort to achieve biostability of bituminous products thus did not solve the problem. (Z.M.). 2 tabs., 9 refs

  11. Toxicity of thorium cycle nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the biological hazards associated with uranium-thorium breeder fuels and fuel recycle process solutions. Initial studies emphasize the metabolism and long-term biological effects of inhaled 233 U- 232 U nitrate and oxide fuel materials and of 231 Pa, a major, long-lived, radioactive waste product. Rats were used as test animals. Dose-response relationships for malignant lung-tumor and bone-tumor induction after 232 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 inhalation are discussed. 2 figures, 1 table

  12. Analytical approach to the evaluation of nuclide transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukadin, Z.; Osmokrovic, P.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical approach to the evaluation of nuclide concentrations in a transmutation chain is presented. Non singular Bateman coefficients and depletion functions are used to overcome numerical difficulties when applying well-known Bateman solution of a simple radioactive decay. Method enables evaluation of complete decay chains without elimination of short lived radionuclides. It is efficient and accurate. Practical application of the method is demonstrated by computing the neptunium series inventory in used Candu TM fuel. (author)

  13. Nuclides for radiotherapy: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, R.Y.; Blattmann, H.

    1986-02-01

    With the emergence of new, biological vehicles of great organ specificity (e.g. steroid hormones, antibodies) the concept of systemic tumor therapy with the aid of radiotherapeutica has gained new momentum. In order to assess the options open for optimal adaptation of the radiation properties to the pharmacocinetics of a vehicle, a search was done to identify potentially useful therapeutic radionuclides. Main criteria for selection were half life, low gamma-yield and stable daughter nuclide. The resulting possibilities fall into 4 categories: 1) alpha-emitters (At-211); 2) beta/sup -/-emitters that can be prepared in a carrierfree fashion (P-32, S-35, As-77, Y-90, Ag-111, Pm-149, Tb-161, Lu-177), 3) beta/sup -/-emitters with carrier added (Pd-109, Pr-142, Gd-159, Er-169, Tm-172, Yb-175, Re-188, Ir-194, Pt-197) and 4) electron capture nuclides, emitting Auger-cascades (Cr-51, Ga-67, Ge-71, Br-77, Ru-97, Sb-119, I-123, Cs-129, Nd-140, Er-165, Ta-177, Hg-197, Tl-201). Among the 4th group some well known, diagnostically used nuclides are found. Their therapeutic use necessitates the precise localisation in or very near the genetic material of the cell to be killed; only there the destructive power of the very short range Auger-electrons can be used. For each of the selected nuclides a summary of decay data, possibilities of preparation and chemical reactivity for labelling of vehicles is given. (author)

  14. Nuclide identifier and grat data reader application for ORIGEN output file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif Isnaeni

    2011-01-01

    ORIGEN is a one-group depletion and radioactive decay computer code developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORIGEN takes one-group neutronics calculation providing various nuclear material characteristics (the buildup, decay and processing of radioactive materials). ORIGEN output is a text-based file, ORIGEN output file contains only numbers in the form of group data nuclide, nuclide identifier and grat. This application was created to facilitate data collection nuclide identifier and grat, this application also has a function to acquire mass number data and calculate mass (gram) for each nuclide. Output from these applications can be used for computer code data input for neutronic calculations such as MCNP. (author)

  15. Titan's Radioactive Haze : Production and Fate of Radiocarbon On Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Jull, A. J. T.; Swindle, T. D.; Lunine, J. I.

    Just as cosmic rays interact with nitrogen atoms in the atmosphere of Earth to gener- ate radiocarbon (14C), the same process should occur in Titan`s nitrogen-rich atmo- sphere. Titan`s atmosphere is thick enough that cosmic ray flux, rather than nitrogen column depth, limits the production of 14 C. Absence of a strong magnetic field and the increased distance from the sun suggest production rates of 9 atom/cm2/s, approx- imately 4 times higher than Earth. On Earth the carbon is rapidly oxidised into CO2. The fate and detectability of 14C on Titan depends on the chemical species into which it is incorporated in Titan's reducing atmosphere : as methane it would be hopelessly diluted even in only the atmosphere (ignoring the other, much more massive carbon reservoirs likely to be present on Titan, like hydrocarbon lakes.) However, in the more likely case that the 14C attaches to the haze that rains out onto the surface (as tholin, HCN or acetylene and their polymers - a much smaller carbon reservoir) , haze in the atmosphere or recently deposited on the surface would therefore be quite intrinsically radioactive. Such activity may modify the haze electrical charging and hence its coag- ulation. Measurements with compact instrumentation on future in-situ missions could place useful constraints on the mass deposition rates of photochemical material on the surface and identify locations where surface deposits of such material are `freshest`.

  16. Characteristics of solidified products containing radioactive molten salt waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Cho, Yong-Zun; Eun, Hee-Chul; Kim, Joon-Hyung

    2007-11-01

    The molten salt waste from a pyroprocess to recover uranium and transuranic elements is one of the problematic radioactive wastes to be solidified into a durable wasteform for its final disposal. By using a novel method, named as the GRSS (gel-route stabilization/solidification) method, a molten salt waste was treated to produce a unique wasteform. A borosilicate glass as a chemical binder dissolves the silicate compounds in the gel products to produce one amorphous phase while most of the phosphates are encapsulated by the vitrified phase. Also, Cs in the gel product is preferentially situated in the silicate phase, and it is vitrified into a glassy phase after a heat treatment. The Sr-containing phase is mainly phosphate compounds and encapsulated by the glassy phase. These phenomena could be identified by the static and dynamic leaching test that revealed a high leach resistance of radionuclides. The leach rates were about 10(-3) - 10(-2) g/m2 x day for Cs and 10(-4) - 10(-3) g/m2 x day for Sr, and the leached fractions of them were predicted to be 0.89% and 0.39% at 900 days, respectively. This paper describes the characteristics of a unique wasteform containing a molten salt waste and provides important information on a newly developed immobilization technology for salt wastes, the GRSS method.

  17. Karlsruhe nuclide chart - new 9. edition 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soti, Zsolt [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, DE-76125 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Magill, Joseph; Pfennig, Gerda; Derher, Raymond [Nucleonica GmbH, c/o European Commission, Postfach 2340, DE-76125 Karlsruhe, (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Following the success of the 8. Edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart 2012, a new edition is planned for 2015. Since the 2012 edition, more than 100 nuclides have been discovered and about 1400 nuclides have been updated. In summary, the new 9. edition contains decay and radiation data on approximately 3230 ground state nuclides and 740 isomers from 118 chemical elements. The accompanying booklet provides a detailed explanation of the nuclide box structure used in the Chart. An expanded section contains many additional nuclide decay schemes to aid the user to interpret the highly condensed information in the nuclide boxes. The booklet contains - in addition to the latest values of the physical constants and physical properties - a periodic table of the elements, tables of new and updated nuclides, and a difference chart showing the main changes in the Chart graphically. (authors)

  18. Karlsruhe nuclide chart - new 9. edition 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soti, Zsolt; Magill, Joseph; Pfennig, Gerda; Derher, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Following the success of the 8. Edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart 2012, a new edition is planned for 2015. Since the 2012 edition, more than 100 nuclides have been discovered and about 1400 nuclides have been updated. In summary, the new 9. edition contains decay and radiation data on approximately 3230 ground state nuclides and 740 isomers from 118 chemical elements. The accompanying booklet provides a detailed explanation of the nuclide box structure used in the Chart. An expanded section contains many additional nuclide decay schemes to aid the user to interpret the highly condensed information in the nuclide boxes. The booklet contains - in addition to the latest values of the physical constants and physical properties - a periodic table of the elements, tables of new and updated nuclides, and a difference chart showing the main changes in the Chart graphically. (authors)

  19. Radioactivity distribution in phosphate products, by-products, effluents, and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimond, R.J.; Windham, S.T.

    1975-08-01

    Phosphate rock throughout the world contains uranium in concentrations ranging from a few ppM to a few hundred ppM. In the United States, phosphate rock normally contains between 100 to 150 ppM uranium. Mining and processing of these ores redistributes much of the uranium daughters among the various products, by-products, and wastes. These materials are then widely dispersed throughout the environment. This redistribution may lead to increased exposure of the public to these naturally-occurring radionuclides. In determining the magnitude of the population exposure caused by this redistribution and in developing environmental standards and controls to prevent contamination of the biosphere from these naturally-occurring radionuclides it is necessary to determine the concentrations and total quantities of these radionuclides in the products, by-products, effluents and wastes of phosphate mining and manufacturing. Samples of phosphate ores, products, by-products, effluents, and wastes were obtained and analyzed for their radioactivity content. Quantities of radioactivity entering the environment through various products, by-products, effluents, and wastes were estimated

  20. Analytical method for solving radioactive transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vudakin, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Analytical method for solving radioactive transformations is presented in this paper. High accuracy series expansion of the depletion function and nonsingular Bateman coefficients are used to overcome numerical difficulties when applying well-known Bateman solution of a simple radioactive decay. Generality and simplicity of the method are found to be useful in evaluating nuclide chains with one hundred or more nuclides in the chain. Method enables evaluation of complete chain, without elimination of short-lives nuclides. It is efficient and accurate

  1. International chart of the nuclides. 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golashvili, T.V.; Kupriyanov, V.M.; Lbov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The International Chart of Nuclides - 2001 has been developed taking into account the data obtained in 1998-2001. Unlike widespread nuclide charts the present Chart of Nuclides contains EVALUATED values of the main characteristics. These values are supplied with the standard deviations. (author)

  2. A Monte Carlo code to optimize the production of Radioactive Ion Beams by the ISOL technique

    CERN Document Server

    Santana-Leitner, M

    2005-01-01

    Currently the nuclear chart includes around 3000 nuclides, distributed as ${\\beta}^+$, ${\\beta}^-$ and $\\alpha$-emitters, stable and spontaneously fissioning isotopes. A similar amount of unknown nuclei belongs to the so-called \\textit{terra incognita}, the uncertain region contained also within the proton, neutron and (fast) fission driplines and thereby stable against nucleon emission. The exploration of this zone is to be assisted by the use of radioactive ion beams (RIB) and could provide a new understanding of several nuclear properties. Moreover, besides pointing at crucial questions such as the validity of the shell model, the dilute matter and the halo structure, challenging experiments outside nuclear physics are also attended, e.g., explanations of the nucleosythesis processes that may justify why the matter in the universe has evolved to present proportions of elements, and which represents a major challenge to nuclear physics. These, together with other fascinating research lines in particle physi...

  3. Difficulty in the usage of nuclides in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Hideo

    1980-01-01

    In Japan, the uses of radioisotopes in hospitals are increasing year after year. Therefore, the problems of the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes are important. The liquid and gaseous wastes with radioactivity concentrations below the maximum permissible levels are allowed to be disposed of on the sites by the law. However, high-level liquid wastes and solid wastes cannot be disposed of on the sites. These wastes stored in steel drums are collected by Japan Radioisotope Association, and finally treated and disposed of on the site of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The nuclides used in hospitals are principally Tc-99m, and also 131 I, 198 Au, 125 I and 3 H. The following matters are described: the present situation, radioactive wastes from medical treatments, and the management of radioactive solid, liquid and gaseous wastes from hospitals. (J.P.N.)

  4. Low-energy radioactive ion beam production of 22Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duy, N.N.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Kwon, Y.K.; Khiem, L.H.; Kim, Y.H.; Song, J.S.; Hu, J.; Ayyad, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The 22 Mg nucleus plays an important role in nuclear astrophysics, specially in the 22 Mg(α,p) 25 Al and proton capture 22 Mg(p,γ) 23 Al reactions. It is believed that 22 Mg is a waiting point in the αp-process of nucleosynthesis in novae. We proposed a direct measurement of the 22 Mg+α resonance reaction in inverse kinematics using a radioactive ion (RI) beam. A 22 Mg beam of 3.73 MeV/u was produced at CRIB (Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) low-energy RI Beam) facility of the University of Tokyo located at RIKEN (Japan) in 2011. In this paper we present the results about the production of the 22 Mg beam used for the direct measurement of the scattering reaction 22 Mg(α,α) 22 Mg, and the stellar reaction 22 Mg(α,p) 25 Al in the energy region concerning an astrophysical temperature of T 9 =1–3 GK

  5. Evaluation of Nuclide Release Scenarios for a Hypothetical LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-11-01

    A program for the safety assessment and performance evaluation of a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) repository system has been developed. Utilizing GoldSim (GoldSim, 2006), the program evaluates nuclide release and transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various disruptive natural and manmade events and scenarios that can occur after a waste package failure. We envisaged and illustrated these events and scenarios as occurring after the closure of a hypothetical LILW repository, and they included the degradation of various manmade barriers, pumping well drilling, and natural disruptions such as the sudden formation of a preferential flow pathway in the far-field area of the repository. Possible enhancement of nuclide transport facilitated by colloids or chelating agents is also dealt with. We used the newly-developed GoldSim template program, which is capable of various nuclide release scenarios and is greatly suited for simulating a potential repository given the geological circumstances in Korea, to create the detailed source term and near-field release scheme, various nuclide transport modes in the far-field geosphere area, and the biosphere transfer. Even though all parameter values applied to the hypothetical repository were assumed, the illustrative results, particularly the probabilistic calculations and sensitivity studies, may be informative under various scenarios

  6. IVO's nuclide removal system takes to the road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusa, E.H.

    1995-01-01

    The successful and routine use of IVO's treatment system for the removal of cesium from the evaporator concentrates at the Loviisa WER plant in Finland is described. The system uses a granular inorganic hexacyanoferate-based ion exchanger to separate cesium from liquid radioactive wastes. The compactness of the original systems at Loviisa suggested the development of a transportable unit. A combined nuclide removal system was created which included a highly efficient ultrafiltration unit to separate nearly all particulate material carrying radionuclides, as well as the cesium removal capability. A 20ft long container carrying the removal package was completed in 1994. This NUclide REmoval System (NURES) was used for the first time in January 1995 to purify liquid waste accumulating at training reactors in Estonia and has performed well. As an extension of nuclide removal, a process has been created to recover boron from liquid wastes. A system for boron recovery and nuclide removal has been designed for use at the Paks plant in Hungary. The removal process has been shown to improve the safety of final waste disposal compared with the alternative treatment by cementation because the cesium is very tightly bound into the ion exchange material. (UK)

  7. CINDER, Depletion and Decay Chain Calculation for Fission Products in Thermal Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, T.R.; Gorrell, T.C.; Hightower, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: CINDER is a four-group, one- point depletion and fission product program based on the evaluation of a general analytical solution of nuclides coupled in any linear sequence of radioactive decays and neutron absorptions in a specified neutron flux spectrum. The desired depletion and fission product chains and all physical data are specified by the problem originator. The program computes individual nuclide number densities, activities, nine energy-group disintegration rates, and macroscopic and barns/fission poisons at each time-step as well as selected summaries of these data. 2 - Method of solution: Time-dependent variations in nuclide cross sections and neutron fluxes are approximated by a user-specified sequential set of values which are considered constant during the duration of the user-specified associated time-increments. When a nuclide concentration is independent of the concentration of any of its progeny, it is possible to resolve the couplings so as to obtain nuclides fed by a single parent. These chains are referred to as linear. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program is limited to 500 total nuclides formed in up to 240 chains of 20 or fewer nuclides each. Up to 10 nuclides may act as fission product sources, contributing to power, and as many as 99 time-steps of arbitrary length are permitted. All stable nuclides must have a cross section if zero power time-increments are anticipated

  8. Design and production of activimeters verification sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, R.; Hernandez Rivero, A. T.; Oropesa, P.; Rapado, M.; Falcon, L.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement in a radionuclide calibrator (activimeter) of the doses to be administered to a patient for diagnosis or radiotherapeutic treatment is an essential element in Nuclear Medicine practice. To assure that patient will receive the optimal doses that guarantee the necessary quality of the image to be studied or optimum radiotherapeutic effect, the activity determination should fulfil established accuracy requirements. To this aim, the overall uncertainty in activity determination must not surpass a preestablished limit of about 10 % for the expanded uncertainty of the activity value (with a coverage factor k = 3). To have suitable equipment, periodically calibrated for specialized and authorized specialists and frequently verified in inter calibration periods to guarantee detection of any malfunctioning, are essential requirements to assure the compliance with the prescribed regulations and limiting values. This paper describes the design and production of two models of 137 Cs activimeters verification sealed radioactive sources elaborated with this aim at the Radionuclide Metrology Department of the Isotope Centre of Cuba. Taking into account the international experience in this field was defined 3 -10 MBq as convenient activity range, the 137 Cs as a suitable radionuclide, and a classification ISO/99/C22212 (ISO 2919:1999) for the sealed sources to be obtained. In designed and produced models the activity is bonded in a hydrogel copolymer obtained by gamma irradiation, in a 60 Co irradiator, of a mixture of a 137 Cs aqueous solution with an approximate activity of 5 MBq with two proper monomers (acrylamide and methacrylic acid). The density of obtained copolymer is similar to that of the radioactive solutions employed in nuclear medicine departments for diagnosis and therapy. The obtained sources have appropriate physical stability for a temperature range between 40 o C below zero and 80 o C, as well as for defined activity range. The stability of the

  9. Measurement of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Meteorites are rocks and pieces of iron-nickel alloy which fall to earth from time to time. They were formed about 4.6 billion years ago when our solar system was started. Thus it has been said that meteorites are the Rosetta stones of our solar system. We use the long-lived radioactive nuclides produced by cosmic ray bombardment, to study the history of the meteorites and also the history of the cosmic rays. When we have these historical facts in our hads, we hope we will be able to understand better how the solar system works, and how it got started. We can also learn more about the nature and origin of the cosmic rays. The accelerator mass spectrometry method helps not only reduce sample size, in most cases by two or three orders of magnitude, but opens another set of cosmogenic nuclides which have not been measured yet. Already 10 Be (t/sub 1/2 = 1.6 x 10 6 y), 36 Cl (3.0 x 10 5 y) and 129 I (1.6 x 10 7 y) in meteorites have been measured by accelerator mass spectrometry [3, 4, 7, 10]. Possible new candidates for measurement in extraterrestrial materials are 26 Al (7.2 x 10 5 y), 41 Ca (1.3 x 10 5 y), 60 Fe (approx. 10 5 y) and 59 Ni (7.6 x 10 4 y). We hope also to measure 146 Sm (1.0 x 10 8 y) and 92 Nb

  10. The determination of critical nuclides in PWR waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centner, B.

    1993-01-01

    A current method for the determination of critical nuclides in the waste streams produced by a nuclear power reactor consists in applying correlation factors or scaling factors between those critical nuclides and so called key radionuclides, which can be easily measured and are representatives for the occurrence of activation products (Co-60) and fission products (Cs-137) in the waste streams. BELGATOM (BA) has developed a code (low level waste Activity Assessment-LLWAA code). The use of the code can clarify the analytical technique lower detection level that has to be achieved for each critical nuclide, in order to accurately measure it's activity in the different types of waste. (1 tab., 1 fig.)

  11. Accelerator produced nuclides for use in biology and medicine. A bibliography: January 1974--June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlstrom, K.I.; Christman, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography (Volume II) follows the format of the first bibliography. Nuclides used therapeutically have not been included. References to medical application of the various nuclides of iodine, gallium, and indium have been excluded as being beyond the scope of this bibliography (and to keep its size to manageable proportions). For nuclides having fifteen or fewer references there is no breakdown into subcategories. For the others they have been subdivided as follows: (1) Production methods, (2) Compound syntheses, and (3) Medical uses. The first part of the bibliography contains references of general interest of various types. Where specific nuclides are involved, these references are also cross-indexed to each nuclide. The original reference number is always used for cross-indexing. The nuclide section is arranged in alphabetical order, and within each section alphabetically by first author. The author index lists each reference once for each author, with no indication of cross-referencing given

  12. From the discovery of radioactivity to the production of radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of the projectiles used to explore the nucleus influenced strongly the development of Nuclear Physics. The alpha particles from radioactivity were the projectiles mostly used up to the second world war. This period was marked by fundamental discoveries, as those of artificial radioactivity and of fission. From the 1930's to 1070, light accelerated particles (electrons, protons, deuterons, isotopes of helium) became universally used. A third period began in the 1960's with the emergence of heavy ion accelerators, the use of which led to a true revolution in the study of nuclear matter. Finally, the fourth period started in 1985 when the first secondary beams of radioactive nuclei were produced, and opened new ways in physics. (authors)

  13. Prospects for studies of ground-state proton decays with the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, K.S.

    1994-01-01

    By using radioactive ions from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory it should be possible to identify many new ground-state proton emitters in the mass region from Sn to Pb. During this production and search process the limits of stability on the proton-rich side of the nuclidic chart will be delineated for a significant fraction of medium-weight elements and our understanding of the proton-emission process will be expanded and improved

  14. Sodalite-type radioactive waste solidification product and method of synthesizing the same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Masashi; Yoshida, Takumasa.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive waste solidification products formed by solidifying radioactive wastes comprising halides such as chlorides of alkali metal elements, alkaline earth metal elements, rare earth elements, noble metal elements generated upon dry-type reprocessing of nuclear fuels and separation of dry-type high level liquid wastes, are solidified to stable products by incorporating radioactive wastes in the form of halides into a cavity of sodalite condensation cage of aluminosilicates having three dimensional skeleton structure. Alternatively, NaOH, Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 are mixed and heated to 600 to 900degC to form an intermediate reaction products, and then the reaction products are mixed with the halides and heated to form sodalite-type radioactive water solidification products. Thus, the halides in fission products can be held by the three dimensional skeleton structure similar with that of sodalite which is a sort of natural minerals containing chlorides, thereby enabling to solidify them stably. (N.H.)

  15. Method of preparing initial multilayer radioactive pellets in production of planar radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stopek, K.; Satorie, Z.

    1982-01-01

    A compact radioactive foil is placed into a press mould on a thin surface layer of compacted or powder metal and is covered with powder metal. In order to achieve the required dimension and activity the radioactive foil is cut from a large sheet. The multilayer pellet is compacted and rolled using routine methods applied in powder metallurgy. This method excludes the possibility of destroying the active pellet during handling, improves its mechanical properties and is seven times less time demanding than methods used so far. (M.D.)

  16. Gamma spectrometric determination of radioactivity in milk, milk products and breast-milk after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raics, Peter; Gyarmati, Edit

    1988-01-01

    Ge(Li) spectrometer was used to determine specific activities for nuclides 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 129 Te m , 132 Te, 131 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 La. Measurements lasted for 70 days. Maximum specific activities of commercial milk and breast-milk for 131 I were 225, and 133 Bq/l, respectively. Milk samples of cows stalled by different feeds, of scalded, unscalded milk, and of milk products were compared. Radioacitivity of powdered milk, parsley and red currant was also measured. Detailed results for nuclides as a function of time are listed in five tables. (author) 10 refs.; 5 tabs

  17. Study on technology for radioactive waste treatment and management from uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu Hung Trieu; Vu Thanh Quang; Nguyen Duc Thanh; Trinh Giang Huong; Tran Van Hoa; Hoang Minh Chau; Ngo Van Tuyen; Nguyen Hoang Lan; Vuong Huu Anh

    2007-01-01

    There is some solid and liquid radioactive waste created during producing Uranium that needs being treated and managed to keep our environment safe. This radioactive waste contains Uranium (U-238), Thorium (Th-232), Radium (Ra-226) and some heavy metals and mainly is low radioactive waste. Our project has researched and built up appropriate technology for treating and managing the radioactive waste. After researching and experimenting, we have built up four technology processes as follows: Technology for separating Radium from liquid waste; Technology for treating and managing solid waste containing Ra; Technology for separating Thorium from liquid waste after recovering radium; Technology for stabilizing solid waste from Uranium production. (author)

  18. Inspection method for solidification product of radioactive waste and method of preparing solidification product of radiation waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumida, Tatsuo; Tamada, Shin; Matsuda, Masami; Kamata, Shoji; Kikuchi, Makoto.

    1993-01-01

    A powerful X-ray generation device using an electron-ray accelerator is used for inspecting presence or absence of inner voids in solidification products of radioactive wastes during or after solidification. By installing the X-ray CT system and the radioactive waste solidifying facility together, CT imaging for solidification products is conducted in a not-yet cured state of solidifying materials during or just after the injection. If a defect that deteriorates the durability of the solidification products should be detected, the solidification products are repaired, for example, by applying vibrations to the not-yet cured solidification products. Thus, since voids or cracks in the radioactive wastes solidification products, which were difficult to be measured so far, can be measured in a short period of time accurately thereby enabling to judge adaptability to the disposal standards, inspection cost for the radioactive waste solidification product can be saved remarkably. Further, the inside of the radioactive waste solidification products can be evaluated correctly and visually, so that safety in the ground disposal storage of the radioactive solidification products can be improved remarkably. (N.H.)

  19. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Fission Products in Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A. J. [Pohang Univ. Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    The environmental factors that can affect microbial growth and activity include moisture, temperature, ph, Eh, availability of organic and inorganic nutrients, and radiation. The microbial activity in a specific repository is influenced by the ambient environment of the repository, and the materials to be emplaced. For example, a repository in unsaturated igneous rock formations such as volcanic tuff rocks at Yucca Mountain is generally expected to be oxidizing; a repository in a hydrologically expected to be oxidizing; a repository in a hydrologically saturated zone, especially in sedimentary rocks, could be reducing. Sedimentary rocks contain a certain amount of organic matter, which may stimulate microbial activities and, thus maintain the repository and its surrounding areas at reducing conditions. Although the impacts of microbial activity on high-level nuclear waste and the long-term performance of the repository have not fully investigated, little microbial activity is expected in the near-field because of the radiation, lack of nutrients and the harsh conditions. However in the far-field microbial effects could be significant. Much of our understanding of the microbial effects on radionuclides stems from studies conducted with selected transuranic elements and fission products and limited studies with low-level radioactive wastes. Significant aerobic- and anaerobic-microbial activity is expected to occur in the waste because of the presence of electron donors and acceptors. The actinides initially may be present as soluble- or insoluble-forms but, after disposal, may be converted from one to the other by microorganisms. The direct enzymatic or indirect non-enzymatic actions of microbes could alter the speciation, solubility, and sorption properties of the actinides, thereby increasing or decreasing their concentrations in solution.

  20. Analyzing relation between the radioactivity in lanthanum products and the origins of RE chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Rongsheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the relation between the radioactivity in Lanthanum products and the origins of RE Chlorides. Methods: Using JY-38 plus sequential ICP spectrometer to examine the content of the uranium in the RE Chlorides. Using FJ-2603 low background alpha, beta measurement apparatus to measure total alpha and total beta activities of Lanthanum products. Results: The content of the uranium in the RE Chlorides is much lower in Baotou's than Hunan's. The radioactivity in Lanthanum products are made from the RE Chlorides of Baotou is much lower than that in Hunan's too. The radioactivity in Lanthanum products depends on the origins of RE Chlorides. Conclusion: The basic data were provided for radioactivity in Lanthanum products which are made from RE Chlorides of different places of China. The mathematical model was founded for the reasonable use of resource RE Chlorides

  1. Constraining local subglacial bedrock erosion rates with cosmogenic nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsig, Christian; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Christl, Marcus; Reitner, Jürgen; Reindl, Martin; Bichler, Mathias; Vockenhuber, Christof; Akcar, Naki; Schlüchter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The constant buildup of cosmogenic nuclides, most prominently 10Be, in exposed rock surfaces is routinely employed for dating various landforms such as landslides or glacial moraines. One fundamental assumption is that no cosmogenic nuclides were initially present in the rock, before the event to be dated. In the context of glacially formed landscapes it is commonly assumed that subglacial erosion of at least a few meters of bedrock during the period of ice coverage is sufficient to remove any previously accumulated nuclides, since the production of 10Be ceases at a depth of 2-3 m. Insufficient subglacial erosion leads to overestimation of surface exposure ages. If the time since the retreat of the glacier is known, however, a discordant concentration of cosmogenic nuclides delivers information about the depth of subglacial erosion. Here we present data from proglacial bedrock at two sites in the Alps. Goldbergkees in the Hohe Tauern National Park in Austria and Gruebengletscher in the Grimsel Pass area in Switzerland. Samples were taken inside as well as outside of the glaciers' Little Ice Age extent. Measured nuclide concentrations are analyzed with the help of a MATLAB model simulating periods of exposure or glacial cover of user-definable length and erosion rates.

  2. Determination of the contamination of biosphere by products from nuclear test. Symposium. Opredelenie zagryaznenii biosfery productami yadernykh ispytani. Sbornik statei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvedov, V P [ed.

    1959-01-01

    Topics considered in the symposium include monitoring the concentration of radioactive product in the atmosphere; the density of fall-out products; concentrations of radioactive nuclides in the air; various methods for measuring ..beta.. activity, including studies by means of ..gamma.. spectrometers; determination of the age of products by the rate of ..beta.. activity; measuring the radioactivity for the years 1955 to 1958 in the Neva River; and radiochemical analysis and dosimety of /sup 90/Sr in soil and food.

  3. Fuel burn-up distribution and transuranic nuclide contents produced at the first cycle operation of AP1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jati Susilo; Jupiter Sitorus Pane

    2016-01-01

    AP1000 reactor core was designed with nominal power of 1154 MWe (3415 MWth), operated within life time of 60 years and cycle length of 18 months. For the first cycle, the AP1000 core uses three kinds of UO 2 enrichment, they are 2.35 w/o, 3.40 w/o and 4.45 w/o. Absorber materials such as ZrB 2 , Pyrex and Boron solution are used to compensate the excess reactivity at the beginning of cycle. In the core, U-235 fuels are burned by fission reaction and produce energy, fission products and new neutron. Because of the U-238 neutron absorption reaction, the high level radioactive waste of heavy nuclide transuranic such as Pu, Am, Cm and Np are also generated. They have a very long half life. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the result of fuel burn-up distribution and heavy nuclide transuranic contents produced by AP1000 at the end of first cycle operation (EOFC). Calculation of ¼ part of the AP1000 core in the 2 dimensional model has been done using SRAC2006 code with the module of COREBN/HIST. The input data called the table of macroscopic cross section, is calculated using module of PIJ. The result shows that the maximum fuel assembly (FA) burn-up is 27.04 GWD/MTU, that is still lower than allowed maximum burn-up of 62 GWD/MTU. Fuel loading position at the center/middle of the core will produce bigger burn-up and transuranic nuclide than one at the edges the of the core. The use of IFBA fuel just give a small effect to lessen the fuel burn-up and transuranic nuclide production. (author)

  4. The Calculation of Self-Disposal Date by Analyzing the Radioactive Contamination of Air Filters Disused in Radioisotope Production Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Bu Hyung; Kwon, Soo Il

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to decrease the diffusion of air contamination which occurred in radiation work places handle radioisotope under the permissible level. Accordingly, we replaced used air filter with a new one at the appropriate time , and computed disposal dates for disposing used air filters by calculate radioactive contamination. Air filter contaminated by radioactivity is possible to be self-disposed on condition that all detected nuclides is below permissible level according to Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) notification No. 2014-003. Radioisotope, produced by 30, 50 MeV cyclotron and carried from other institutions, is used to treat patients, diagnose diseases, and research technology in Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). With unsealed sources generate radioactive contamination in air, it is important to use fume hood or hot cell. The accurate date needs to be calculated by the equation for calculation of self disposal date. If disposal date is in 1000 days, disposal for external institution is required. With increasing the number of medical institute which was related to use the radioisotopes, the importance of radioactive safety management was increased. As disposing radioactive waste, in particular, is the procedure of inspecting for releasing radioactive waste to outside, appropriate action and continuous research are required at a radioactive safety management.

  5. Measurement of soluble nuclide dissolution rates from spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.; Gray, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the potential release behavior of water-soluble radionuclides is the focus of new laboratory spent fuel dissolution studies being planned in support of the Yucca Mountain Project. Previous studies have suggested that maximum release rates for actinide nuclides, which account for most of the long-term radioactivity in spent fuel, should be solubility-limited and should not depend on the characteristics or durability of the spent fuel waste form. Maximum actinide concentrations should be sufficiently low to meet the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) annual release limits. Potential release rates for soluble nuclides such as 99 Tc, 135 Cs, 14 C and 129 I, which account for about 1-2% of the activity in spent fuel at 1,000 years, are less certain and may depend on processes such as oxidation of the fuel in the repository air environment. Dissolution rates for several soluble nuclides have been measured from spent fuel specimens using static and semi-static methods. However, such tests do not provide a direct measurement of fuel matrix dissolution rates that may ultimately control soluble-nuclide release rates. Flow-through tests are being developed as a potential supplemental method for determining the matrix component of soluble-nuclide dissolution. Advantages and disadvantages of both semi-static and flow-through methods are discussed. Tests with fuel specimens representing a range of potential fuel states that may occur in the repository, including oxidized fuel, are proposed. Preliminary results from flow-through tests with unirradiated UO 2 suggesting that matrix dissolution rates are very sensitive to water composition are also presented

  6. Experimental and theoretical study of the yields of residual product nuclei produced in thin targets irradiated by 100-2600 MeV protons

    CERN Document Server

    Titarenko, Y E; Karpikhin, E I

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the project is measurements and computer simulations of independent and cumulative yields of residual product nuclei in thin targets relevant as target materials and structure materials for hybrid accelerator-driven systems coupled to high-energy proton accelerators. The yields of residual product nuclei are of great importance when estimating such basic radiation-technology characteristics of hybrid facility targets as the total target activity, target 'poisoning', buildup of long-lived nuclides that, in turn, are to be transmuted, product nuclide (Po) alpha-activity, content of low-pressure evaporated nuclides (Hg), content of chemically-active nuclides that spoil drastically the corrosion resistance of the facility structure materials, etc. In view of the above, radioactive product nuclide yields from targets and structure materials were determined by an experiment using the ITEP U-10 proton accelerator in 51 irradiation runs for different thin targets: sup 1 sup 8 sup 2 sup , sup 1 sup 8 ...

  7. Destructive and non-destructive tests for radioactive waste packages Task 3 Characterization of radioactive waste forms. A series of final reports (1985-89) No 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odoj, R.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of preliminary waste acceptance requirements quality control of radioactive waste has to be performed prior to interim storage or final disposal. The quality control can either be achieved by random tests on conditioned radioactive waste packages or by process qualification of the conditioning processes. One of the most important criteria is the activity of the radioactive waste product or packages. To get some first information on the waste package γ-spectrometric measurement is performed as non-destructive test. Besides the γ-emitting nuclides the α and β-emitting nuclides can be estimated by calculation if the waste was generated in nuclear power plants and the nuclide relations are known. If the non-destructive determination of nuclides is not sufficient or the non-radioactive content of the waste packages has to be identified sampling from the waste packages has to be performed. This can best be done by core drilling. To avoid the need of water for cooling the drill head, air cooled core drilling is investigated. As mixed wastes is not allowed for final disposal the determination of possible organic toxic materials like PCB, dioxin and furane-compounds in cemented wastes is conducted by GC-MS-investigations. For getting more knowledge in the field of process qualification concerning super compaction, instrumentation of the super compaction process is investigated and tested

  8. Determination of lead and radioactivity in cosmetics products: Hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat Moustafa E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed work, an investigation on hazard assessment by lead element and natural radioactivity in cosmetic samples collected from various countries is presented. These samples were face powder, eyebrow paint and henna. The lead element in cosmetic samples was determined using particle-induced X-ray emission. Maximum natural radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra and 40K were found in khol and make-up cosmetic samples, respectively. The qualitative analysis of cosmetic samples showed that lead is the most toxic element found in eyebrow paint samples.

  9. FISPIN - a computer code for nuclide inventory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstall, R.F.

    1979-10-01

    The code is used for assessment of three groups of nuclides, the actinides, the fission products, and structural materials. The methods of calculation are described, together with the input and output of the code and examples of both. Recommendations are given for the best use of the code. (author)

  10. Radioactive sources production in the Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radosavljevic, B.; Nemoda, Dj.; Memedovic, T.; Bircanin, LJ.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1960, in the Laboratory for radioisotopes production of the Institute isotopes were produced for industrial, medical and research purposes. From the beginning, this activity was developed in two directions: 1. sealed sources, for industrial radiography, teletherapy Cobalt, later for lightning arresters, level meters, densitometers etc., 2. radioactive sources that need chemical treatment for different applications in industry and research. This paper lists the types of radioactive sources and methods for production [sr

  11. Chemical durability of glasses containing radioactive fission product waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Ross, W.A.

    1974-04-01

    Measurements made to determine the chemical durability of glasses for disposal of radioactive waste are discussed. The term glass covers materials varying from true glass with only minute quantities of crystallites, such as insoluble RuO 2 , to quasi glass-ceramics which are mostly crystalline. Chemical durability requirements and Soxhlet extractor leach tests are discussed

  12. Preparation of tracing source layer in simulation test of nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yingjie; Ni Shiwei; Li Weijuan; Yamamoto, T.; Tanaka, T.; Komiya, T.

    1993-01-01

    In cooperative research between CIRP and JAERI on safety assessment for shallow land disposal of low level radioactive waste, a laboratory simulation test of nuclide migration was carried out, in which the undisturbed loess soil column sampled from CIRP' s field test site was used as testing material, three nuclides, Sr-85, Cs-137 and Co-60 were used as tracers. Special experiment on tracing method was carried out, which included measuring pH value of quartz sand in HCl solution, determining the eligible water content of quartz sand as tracer carrier, measuring distribution uniformity of nuclides in the tracing quartz sand, determining elution rate of nuclides from the tracing quartz sand and detecting activity uniformity of tracing source layer. The experiment results showed that the tracing source layer, in which fine quartz sand was used as tracer carrier, satisfied expected requirement. (1 fig.)

  13. Role of geochemical factors in the assessment and regulation of geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kelley, G.D.; Meyer, R.E.

    1984-03-01

    It is generally agreed that in a deep repository for high-level radioactive waste, the agent most likely to mobilize radionuclides and disperse them into the accessible environment is groundwater. Analyses of the performance of a high-level waste repository will require a detailed study of the chemical factors involved in the interaction of water-mobilized nuclides with the host rock. These chemical factors include sorption phenomena, redox processes, the roles of hydrolysis and complexation in the determination of speciation, solubility, and the formation of polymeric and colloidal forms of the nuclides. A discussion and review of these factors is given along with their pertinence to the migration of the nuclides and the development of computer codes for the prediction of this migration. Of particular interest are the formation of negatively charged species of the nuclides, which tend to exhibit very low adsorption, and the formation of insoluble products through redox processes. Knowledge of the different chemical factors must be used to postulate geochemical scenarios for the release of nuclides. Much of the chemistry of the nuclides is very sensitive to pH and redox conditions and, in general, increase of acidity and oxidizing power of the groundwater could have serious consequences with respect to mobilization of the nuclides. 33 references

  14. Thin, Conductive, Pyrrolyc film production for radioactive sources backings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Arcos, J.M. los

    1993-01-01

    A procedure for electro polymerization of pyrrole has been set up in order to produce thin, (> 15 μg/cm2) homogeneous (thickness variation < 2%) films, with no need for additional metallization to be used as backings of radioactive sources, having 10-0,4 Kfl/sample, for 35-70 μg/cm . The experimental equipment, reagent and procedure utilized is described as well as the characterization of Pyrrolyc films produced. (Author) 28 refs

  15. Influence of radioactive contamination to agricultural products by rainfall during a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W. T.; Han, M. H.; Choi, Y. H.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, C. W.

    2001-01-01

    For the consideration of the effects on radioactive contamination of agricultural products by rainfall during a nuclear accident, the wet interception coefficients for the plants were derived, and the previous dynamic food chain model was also modified. From the results, radioactive contamination of agricultural products was greatly decreased by rainfall, and it decreased dramatically according to increase of rainfall amount. It means that the predictive contamination in agricultural products using the previous dynamic food chain model, in which dry interception to the plants is only considered, can be overestimated. Influence of rainfall on the contamination of agricultural products was the most sensitive for 131 I, and the least sensitive for 90 Sr

  16. Hydrogen production during processing of radioactive sludge containing noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.; Ferrara, D.M.; Bibler, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen was produced when radioactive sludge from Savannah River Site radioactive waste containing noble metals was reacted with formic acid. This will occur in a process tank in the Defense Waste Facility at SRS when waste is vitrified. Radioactive sludges from four tanks were tested in a lab-scale apparatus. Maximum hydrogen generation rates varied from 5 x10 -7 g H 2 /hr/g of sludge from the least reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 51) to 2 x10 -4 g H 2 /hr/g of sludge from the most reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 11). The time required for the hydrogen generation to reach a maximum varied from 4.1 to 25 hours. In addition to hydrogen, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were produced and the pH of the reaction slurry increased. In all cases, the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were generated before the hydrogen. The results are in agreement with large-scale studies using simulated sludges

  17. A product designed for final disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baboescu, E.; Popescu, I. V.

    2001-01-01

    The product 'metallic barrel - concrete - low level radioactive wastes - 1' (ABBD - 1) was certified according to the company's standard SF ICN/1994, updated 1. The product ABBD -1 is produced according to the following certified technologies: - technology for processing and conditioning of low level radioactive solid wastes; - technology for processing and conditioning of waste ion exchangers from the TRIGA reactor; - technology for conditioning the β - γ radioactive compacts. The product is constituted of a protection shield, the concrete block - radioactive waste, securing high mechanical strength and a high degree of radionuclides retaining, thus ensuring the necessary condition for long time disposal and, finally, the metallic container fulfilling the National Standards of Nuclear Safety for Radioactive Materials Transportation. The metallic container is made of pickled slab, with a 220 l capacity, according to STAS 7683/88 standards. The main characteristics of the product 'ABBD - 1' are: - size: height, 915 ± 10 mm, diameter, 600 ± 5 mm; - mass, 300 - 600 kg; - maximum permissible activity, 6 x 10 9 Bq/ barrel (0.164 Ci/barrel); - equivalent dose rate for gamma radiation at barrel's wall, max. 1 mSv/h (200 mrem/h); - unfixed external contamination, 2 ; - compression strength of concrete block alone, > 5 x 10 6 N/m 2 ; - lixiviation rate, -3 cm/day; - the compact concrete block-radioactive waste is leak-proof and crack-free. The final product is transferred from INR Pitesti to National Repository for Radioactive Waste by railway and road transportation according to the provisions of the National Commission for Nuclear Activity Control as stipulated in the National Standards of Nuclear Safety of Radioactive Materials Transportation

  18. Bioaccumulation and food chain transfer of corrosion products from radioactive stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.S.

    1986-07-01

    Two sets of experiments were conducted to determine if corrosion products from radioactive Type 347 stainless steel could be biologically transferred from sediment through a marine food chain, and whether corrosion products dissolved in seawater could be bioaccumulated and then eliminated. Corrosion products containing 60 Co and 63 Ni from the radioactive stainless steel were introduced into marine sediments. Infaunal polychaete worms exposed to these sediments bioaccumulated the radionuclides. The feeding of these worms to shrimp and fish resulted in a trophic transfer of the radioactive products across a one-step food chain. The magnitude of the transfers are described in terms of transfer factors. Dissolved corrosion products as measured by the radionuclides were also bioaccumulated by shrimp and fish concentrating more than fish. Concentration factors were calculated

  19. Cosmic-ray interactions and dating of meteorite stranding surfaces with cosmogenic nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    A wide variety of products from cosmic-ray interactions have been measured in terrestrial or extraterrestrial samples. These ''cosmogenic'' products include radiation damage tracks and rare nuclides that are made by nuclear reactions. They often have been used to determine the fluxes and composition of cosmic-ray particles in the past, but they are usually used to study the history of the ''target'' (such as the time period that it was exposed to cosmic-ray particles). Products made by both the high-energy galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles emitted irregularly from the Sun have been extensively studied. Some of these cosmogenic products, especially nuclides, have been or can be applied to studies of Antarctic meteorite stranding surfaces, the ice surfaces in Antarctica where meteorites have been found. Cosmogenic nuclides studied in samples from Antarctica and reported by others elsewhere in this volume include those in meteorites, especially radionuclides used to determine terrestrial ages, and those made in situ in terrestrial rocks. Cosmogenic nuclides made in the Earth's atmosphere or brought in with cosmic dust have also been studied in polar ice, and it should also be possible to measure nuclides made in situ in ice. As an introduction to cosmogenic nuclides and their applications, cosmic rays and their interactions will be presented below and production systematics of cosmogenic nuclides in these various media will be discussed later. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Cosmic-ray interactions and dating of meteorite stranding surfaces with cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    A wide variety of products from cosmic-ray interactions have been measured in terrestrial or extraterrestrial samples. These ''cosmogenic'' products include radiation damage tracks and rare nuclides that are made by nuclear reactions. They often have been used to determine the fluxes and composition of cosmic-ray particles in the past, but they are usually used to study the history of the ''target'' (such as the time period that it was exposed to cosmic-ray particles). Products made by both the high-energy galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles emitted irregularly from the Sun have been extensively studied. Some of these cosmogenic products, especially nuclides, have been or can be applied to studies of Antarctic meteorite stranding surfaces, the ice surfaces in Antarctica where meteorites have been found. Cosmogenic nuclides studied in samples from Antarctica and reported by others elsewhere in this volume include those in meteorites, especially radionuclides used to determine terrestrial ages, and those made in situ in terrestrial rocks. Cosmogenic nuclides made in the Earth's atmosphere or brought in with cosmic dust have also been studied in polar ice, and it should also be possible to measure nuclides made in situ in ice. As an introduction to cosmogenic nuclides and their applications, cosmic rays and their interactions will be presented below and production systematics of cosmogenic nuclides in these various media will be discussed later. 20 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Soil nuclide distribution coefficients and their statistical distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, M.I.; Beals, D.I.; Thibault, D.H.; O'Connor, P.

    1984-12-01

    Environmental assessments of the disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock formations require analysis of the migration of nuclides from the disposal vault to the biosphere. Analyses of nuclide migration via groundwater through the disposal vault, the buffer and backfill, the plutonic rock, and the consolidated and unconsolidated overburden use models requiring distribution coefficients (Ksub(d)) to describe the interaction of the nuclides with the geological and man-made materials. This report presents element-specific soil distribution coefficients and their statistical distributions, based on a detailed survey of the literature. Radioactive elements considered were actinium, americium, bismuth, calcium, carbon, cerium, cesium, iodine, lead, molybdenum, neptunium, nickel, niobium, palladium, plutonium, polonium, protactinium, radium, samarium, selenium, silver, strontium, technetium, terbium, thorium, tin, uranium and zirconium. Stable elements considered were antimony, boron, cadmium, tellurium and zinc. Where sufficient data were available, distribution coefficients and their distributions are given for sand, silt, clay and organic soils. Our values are recommended for use in assessments for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

  2. Radioactive cesium content in selected food products. Pt. 2. Radioactive cesium in daily food rations of selected population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skibniewska, K.; Smoczynski, S.S.; Wisniewska, I.

    1993-01-01

    The content of radioactive cesium isotopes emitting beta radiation was studied in daily food rations analysed in diets of working-class and non-working-class families from food products from the regions of Olsztyn, Poznan, Lublin, Warsaw and Wroclaw in 1987 and 1988. In 1987 the highest level of radioactive cesium was found in the food rations in Olsztyn, and lowest in the rations in Poznan (3.32 and 0.65 Bq/kg respectively). In 1988 higher radiocesium content was found in rations composed according to the data on the diet consumed daily in non-working-class families. In that case the highest content was in the daily food rations composed in Warsaw - 2.35 Bq/kg and lowest in Poznan - 1.19 Bq/kg in the daily food rations of working-class families about one half of that value was found. The calculated means values of both analysed rations were: 1.35 for Olsztyn, 0.89 for Poznan, and 1.86 Bq/kg for Warsaw. The calculated mean value of the contamination with radioactive cesium was in 1988 0.93 Bq/kg for the rations in working-class families (in 1987 it was 1.80 Bq/kg). (author). 15 refs, 1 tab

  3. Release of radioactive fission products from BN-600 reactor untight fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, S.L.; Tsikunov, A.G.; Lisitsin, E.C.

    1996-01-01

    The experimental data on the release of radioactive fission products from BN-600 reactor untight fuel elements are given in the report. Various groups of radionuclides: inert gases Xe, Kr, volatile Cs, J, non-volatile Nb, and La are considered. The results of calculation-experimental study of transfer and distribution of radionuclides in the reactor primary circuit, gas system and sodium coolant are considered. It is shown that some complex radioactivity transfer processes can be described by simple mathematical models. (author)

  4. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV-electron irradiated spices, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Katayama, Tadashi; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Matsunami, Tadao; Shibata, Setsuko; Toratani, Hirokazu; Takeda, Atsuhiko.

    1994-01-01

    Black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric were irradiated with 10 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy and radioactivity was measured in order to estimate induced radioactivity in the irradiated foods. Induced radioactivity could not be detected significantly by γ-ray spectrometry in the irradiated samples except for spiked samples which contain some photonuclear target nuclides in the list of photonuclear reactions which could produce radioactivity below 10 MeV. From the amount of observed radioactivities of short-lived photonuclear products in the spiked samples and calculation of H 50 according to ICRP Publication 30, it was concluded that the induced radioactivity and its biological effects in the 10 MeV electron-irradiated natural samples were negligible in comparison with natural radioactivity from 40 K contained in the samples. (author)

  5. Nuclear power technology system with molten salt reactor for transuranium nuclides burning in closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.N.; Dudnikov, A.A.; Ignatiev, V.V.; Prusakov, V.N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N.N.; Subbotin, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    A concept of nuclear power technology system with homogeneous molten salt reactors for burning and transmutation of long-lived radioactive toxic nuclides is considered in the paper. Disposition of such reactors in enterprises of fuel cycle allows to provide them with power and facilitate solution of problems with rad waste with minimal losses. (Authors)

  6. Deposits of naturally occurring radioactivity in production of oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Lysebo, I.; Kristensen, D.; Birovljev, A.

    1997-01-01

    Deposits of naturally occurring radioactive materials is an increasing problem in Norwegian oil and gas production. Activity concentration in solid-state samples and production water, and doses to workers involved in different operations off-shore, have been measured. The report also includes a discussion of different methods of monitoring and alternatives for final disposal of wastes. 154 refs

  7. Production of calibration sources and/or radioactive tracers with the cyclotron CV-28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    1995-01-01

    The present stage of production of calibration sources and radioactive tracers with the Cyclotron CV-28 is described. Among the methods already developed special attention is given to the production of 57 Co, 109 Cd and 111 In. (author). 3 refs

  8. Advice on the disposal of radioactive by-products arising in the use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyermann, M.; Goergner, D.

    1989-01-01

    Based on the current legislation in the GDR advice is given on the classification and disposal of radioactive by-products from the utilization of nuclear energy with special emphasis on the different procedures for products which require a disposal licence by the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection and those which do not need such an authorization. (author)

  9. PLAN 2003. Costs for management of the radioactive waste products from nuclear power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The companies that own nuclear power plants in Sweden are responsible for adopting measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The so-called Financing Act (1992:1537) is linked to this responsibility and prescribes that a reactor owner, in consultation with other reactor owners, shall calculate the cost for management and disposal of the spent fuel and radioactive waste and for decommissioning and dismantling of the reactor plant. The reactor owner shall annually submit to the regulatory authority the cost data that are required for calculation of the fees to be imposed on electricity production during the ensuing year and of the guarantees that must be given as security for costs not covered by paid-in fees. The reactor owners have jointly commissioned SKB to calculate and compile these costs. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The cost calculations are based on the plan for management and disposal of the radioactive waste that has been prepared by SKB and is described in this report. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products; Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB; Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1. Plans also exist for: Canister factory and encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel; Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel; Final repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste; Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants. This report is based on the proposed strategy for the activities which is presented in SKB's RD and D-Programme 2001 and in the supplementary account to RD and D-Programme 98 which SKB submitted to the regulatory authority

  10. PLAN 2003. Costs for management of the radioactive waste products from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The companies that own nuclear power plants in Sweden are responsible for adopting measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The so-called Financing Act (1992:1537) is linked to this responsibility and prescribes that a reactor owner, in consultation with other reactor owners, shall calculate the cost for management and disposal of the spent fuel and radioactive waste and for decommissioning and dismantling of the reactor plant. The reactor owner shall annually submit to the regulatory authority the cost data that are required for calculation of the fees to be imposed on electricity production during the ensuing year and of the guarantees that must be given as security for costs not covered by paid-in fees. The reactor owners have jointly commissioned SKB to calculate and compile these costs. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The cost calculations are based on the plan for management and disposal of the radioactive waste that has been prepared by SKB and is described in this report. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products; Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB; Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1. Plans also exist for: Canister factory and encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel; Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel; Final repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste; Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants. This report is based on the proposed strategy for the activities which is presented in SKB's RD and D-Programme 2001 and in the supplementary account to RD and D-Programme 98 which SKB submitted to the regulatory authority. The

  11. Production of adsorbent from palm shell for radioactive iodine scrubbing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa; Ku Halim Ku Hamid; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Mohamad Puad Abu; Abdul Halim Badaruddin; Mohammad Nizammudin Abd Aziz; Muhd Ridwan Abdul Rahim

    2010-01-01

    The biggest biomass source in Malaysia comes from oil palm industry. According to the statistic of year 2004, Malaysia produced 40 million tones per year of biomass which 30 million tones of biomass originated from the oil palm industries. Therefore, the biomass waste such as palm kernel shell can be used to produce granular adsorbent for radioactive materials. For that reason, a newly system, called Rocking Kiln - Fluidized Bed (RK - FB) was developed to utilize large amount of the biomass to produce high value added product. Charcoal or chemically produced activated carbon could be produced by using the kiln. Washing process was introduced to remove particles, minerals and volatile matters from charcoal produced and then would create more surface area in the adsorbent by creating more active sites. In this research, the adsorbent produced was used to scrub iodine 131. In nuclear power reactor, iodine isotope 131 is produced during nuclear fission, and this elementary radioactive iodine may pollute exhaust air streams that could cause thyroid cancer. For removal of radioactive iodine, normally a potassium iodide - impregnated activated carbon (KI - AC) is used. Thus, a process will be developed to produce KI - AC and this product will be used to calculate the efficiency to remove the radioactive iodine 131.The results obtain show that adsorbent produced has a high potential to be used in radioactive adsorbing and likely more economics. This paper will elaborate further the experimental set-up of in Kiln - Fluidized Bed (RK - FB), adsorbent quality and radioactive scrubbing process. (author)

  12. Radioactive wastes from reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppert, K.L.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture deals with definition, quantity and type of radioactive waste products occurring in a fuel reprocessing plant. Solid, liquid and gaseous fission and activation products are formed during the dissolution of the fuel and during the extraction process, and they must be separated from the fissionalble uranium and plutonium not spent. The chemical behaviour of these products (Zr, Ru, Np, gaseous substances, radiolysis products), which is sometimes very problematic, necessitates careful process control. However, the lifetime of nuclides is just as important for the conditions of the reprocessing procedure. The types of waste obtained after reprocessing are classified according to their state of aggregation and level of activity and - on the basis of the operational data of a prototype plant - they are quantitatively extrapolated for the operation of a large-scale facility of 1,400 tons of fuel annually. (RB) [de

  13. Study of air purification in the production of radioactive compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradin, J.; Desroches, J.

    1958-12-01

    As the fabrication of radio-elements takes place in almost airtight enclosures in which a frequent air renewal is required, and while taking the purification rate into account (1.000 to 5.000 m 3 /h), the authors report the study of wet purification in conjunction with dry purification through paper filters, in order to capture dusts. An apparatus has been implemented which allows high gas flow rates. A radioactive aerosol has been introduced in this apparatus and its efficiency has been measured by different means. The authors describe the instrumentation (column, aerosol generator), operation, rate adjustment, and losses. Aerosols of manganese and sodium have been used. Their particle granulometry has been determined. The authors report several types of tests [fr

  14. The transfer of radio-active products through food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    The food chain mechanism on dry land is considered. The deposition of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are compared and a fuller investigation of 90 Sr deposition on soils. Calculated values of annual mean deposition of 90 Sr, in mCi/Km 2 , and content of milk, in pCi/gCa, from world wide fallout, 1958-75, in the UK agrees well with those observed by within 10%. The significance of radiation doses received through the food chain are discussed. The total estimated average exposure of members of the UK to natural background radiation in 1977 was 1100μSv, of which 0.2% was due to the discharge of radioactive materials into the environment. (U.K.)

  15. CACAO: A project for a laboratory for the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacri, C.O., E-mail: bacri@ipno.in2p3.f [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, 91406 Orsay Cedex, CNRS (UMR8608-IN2P3), Universite Paris-Sud (Paris XI) (France); Petitbon, V.; Pierre, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, 91406 Orsay Cedex, CNRS (UMR8608-IN2P3), Universite Paris-Sud (Paris XI) (France)

    2010-02-11

    CACAO, Chimie des Actinides et Cibles radioActives a Orsay (actinide chemistry and radioactive targets at Orsay), is a project under construction that consists of the installation of a hot laboratory dedicated to the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers. The project aims to be a joint CNRS-CEA national laboratory to overcome difficulties related mainly to safety issues and to the lack of knowledge and potential manpower. The first goal is to fulfill, at least, the needs of the whole French community, and to be able to coordinate the different activities related to radioactive targets. For this purpose, itis important to be complementary to already existing international installations. Inside this framework, it will of course be possible to produce and/or characterize targets for other users.

  16. CACAO: A project for a laboratory for the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacri, C. O.; Petitbon, V.; Pierre, S.; Cacao Group

    2010-02-01

    CACAO, Chimie des Actinides et Cibles radioActives à Orsay (actinide chemistry and radioactive targets at Orsay), is a project under construction that consists of the installation of a hot laboratory dedicated to the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers. The project aims to be a joint CNRS-CEA national laboratory to overcome difficulties related mainly to safety issues and to the lack of knowledge and potential manpower. The first goal is to fulfill, at least, the needs of the whole French community, and to be able to coordinate the different activities related to radioactive targets. For this purpose, itis important to be complementary to already existing international installations. Inside this framework, it will of course be possible to produce and/or characterize targets for other users.

  17. CACAO: A project for a laboratory for the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacri, C.O.; Petitbon, V.; Pierre, S.

    2010-01-01

    CACAO, Chimie des Actinides et Cibles radioActives a Orsay (actinide chemistry and radioactive targets at Orsay), is a project under construction that consists of the installation of a hot laboratory dedicated to the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers. The project aims to be a joint CNRS-CEA national laboratory to overcome difficulties related mainly to safety issues and to the lack of knowledge and potential manpower. The first goal is to fulfill, at least, the needs of the whole French community, and to be able to coordinate the different activities related to radioactive targets. For this purpose, itis important to be complementary to already existing international installations. Inside this framework, it will of course be possible to produce and/or characterize targets for other users.

  18. Instant release of fission products in leaching experiments with high burn-up nuclear fuels in the framework of the Euratom project FIRST- Nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmens, K., E-mail: klemmens@sckcen.be [Waste and Disposal Expert Group, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); González-Robles, E.; Kienzler, B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (KIT-INE), PO Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Curti, E. [Laboratory for Waste Management, Nuclear Energy and Safety Dept., Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Serrano-Purroy, D. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre - JRC, Directorate G - Nuclear Safety & Security, Department G.III, PO Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sureda, R.; Martínez-Torrents, A. [CTM Centre Tecnològic, Plaça de la Ciència 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Roth, O. [Studsvik, Nuclear AB, 611 82 Nyköping (Sweden); Slonszki, E. [Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Energiatudományi Kutatóközpont (MTA EK), PO Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Mennecart, T. [Waste and Disposal Expert Group, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Günther-Leopold, I. [Laboratory for Waste Management, Nuclear Energy and Safety Dept., Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Hózer, Z. [Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Energiatudományi Kutatóközpont (MTA EK), PO Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-02-15

    The instant release of fission products from high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuels and one MOX fuel was investigated by means of leach tests. The samples covered PWR and BWR fuels at average rod burn-up in the range of 45–63 GWd/t{sub HM} and included clad fuel segments, fuel segments with opened cladding, fuel fragments and fuel powder. The tests were performed with sodium chloride – bicarbonate solutions under oxidizing conditions and, for one test, in reducing Ar/H{sub 2} atmosphere. The iodine and cesium release could be partially explained by the differences in sample preparation, leading to different sizes and properties of the exposed surface areas. Iodine and cesium releases tend to correlate with FGR and linear power rating, but the scatter of the data is significant. Although the gap between the fuel and the cladding was closed in some high burn-up samples, fissures still provide possible preferential transport pathways. - Highlights: • Leach tests were performed to study the instant release of fission products from high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuels and one MOX fuel. • In these tests, the fission gas release given by the operator was a pessimistic estimator of the iodine and cesium release. • Iodine and cesium release is proportional to linear power rating beyond 200 W cm{sup −1}. • Closure of the fuel-cladding gap at high burn-up slows down the release. • The release rate decreases following an exponential equation.

  19. Studies on the separation of rare earth elements and the nuclear decay properties of short lived rare-earth nuclides in U-235 fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyoshi, Akira; Ohyoshi, Emiko.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of a complex-forming agent, with which rare earths consecutively form the complexes, on the separation of a pair of adjacent rare earths by electromigration has been investigated. The relation between the separation factor for two complexes and the ligand-ion concentration was examined in the separation of La-Ce and Ce-Pr pairs with nitrilotriacetic acid. Rare earths were able to be isolated rapidly at the optimum ligand-ion concentration in lower one, and this method was applied to study the nuclear decay properties of the short lived isotopes of La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Yt formed in the fission of U-235. This method permits the direct measurement of the decay of La-144 without the interference from the radiation of other fission products. The gamma-ray spectrum of La-144 was measured with a high resolution Ge(Li) detector, and the gamma-transition was observed. From the decay plots of two strong photopeaks, the half-life of La-144 was determined. In the case of Ce fraction, the photopeaks assigned to respective isotopes were observed. In the studies on the decay properties of Pr-148 and Pr-149, the decay plot of the strong photopeak showed good linearity, and the accurate half-life of Pr-148 was determined. Similarly, the half-life of Pr-149 was longer than the previously reported value. (Kako, I.)

  20. Transuranium nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanoue, Masanobu

    1987-01-01

    Many countries are presently concerned with problems relating to the safe disposal of nuclear waste containing various levels of transuranium nuclides. In this context, a review on the distribution and behaviour of transuranium elements in the environment studied at Kanazawa University in Japan is presented. About 17 years ago, a high degree of accumulation of 239 Pu in the surface soil of Nagasaki was found in the Nishiyama area, where 'black rain' occured just after the nuclear bomb explosion. The introduction of newly developed radiochemical methods and instrumentation has enabled studies to be carried out on environmental plutonium isotopes, americium-241 and more recently neptunium-237 with respect to distribution depth profile, variation with time and relationship with organic materials. Valuable information has been obtained on the basis of samples collected from various locations in Japan, including surface soil, sea and lake sediments, atmospheric aerosol, water from the Japan Sea and the Pacific Ocean, and from material related with the 'Bikini Event' of 1954. (orig.)

  1. Latest developments at GANIL for stable and radioactive ion beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, P.; Barue, C.; Bajeat, O.; Canet, C.; Clement, E.; Cornell, J. C.; Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Dupuis, M.; Flambard, J. L.; Fraanberg, H.; Frigot, R.; Leboucher, C.; Lecesne, N.; Lecomte, P.; Leherissier, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Leroy, R.; Maunoury, L.; Mery, A.

    2010-01-01

    In the frame of the SPIRAL II (Systeme de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Acceleres en Ligne Partie II) project, several developments of stable and radioactive ion production systems have been started up. In parallel, GANIL has the ambition to preserve the existing stable and radioactive beams and also to increase its range by offering new ones. In order to identify the best directions for this development, a new group called GANISOL has been formed. Its preliminary conclusions and the latest developments at GANIL are presented.

  2. The prospect for recycle of radioactive scrap metals to products for restricted and unrestricted use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liby, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Large quantities of radioactive scrap metals will arise from decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear power plants and DOE facilities. Much of this metal can be easily decontaminated and released to the existing secondary metals industry for recycling. For metal that can not be readily released, recycle into restricted-use end products is an economically attractive alternative to burial as low level radioactive waste. This paper will examine sources and types of scrap metal, technical approaches, potential products, and economics of metals recycle. Construction, licensing, environmental compliance, and possible reuse of existing nuclear facilities for metals recycling will be discussed. (author)

  3. Measurements of the radioactivity of power plant by-products processed into construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcinkowski, S.A.; Dudelewski, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of the recycling of residual products comprising, inter alia, fly ash and slags accuring from the combustion of black and brown coal in modern coal dust boilers in the power industry has been topical for a number of years. Numerous discussions and articles in technical periodicals and the daily press have revolved around the problem of the radioactivity of construction materials or construction elements obtained from fly ash or slags of power plant. In Poland, this was a forbidden subject until the publication in 1980 by the Warsaw institute of construction technology of standard no. 234 entitled: 'Recommendations for establishing the natural radioactivity of products processed into construction materials'. (orig.) [de

  4. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Shuji.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid wastes are supplied to a ceramic filter to conduct filtration. In this case, a device for adding a powdery inorganic ion exchanger is disposed to the upstream of the ceramic filter. When the powdery inorganic ion exchanger is charged to the addition device, it is precoated to the surface of the ceramic filter, to conduct separation of suspended matters and separation of ionic nuclides simultaneously. Liquid wastes returned to a collecting tank are condensed while being circulated between the ceramic filter and the tank and then contained in a condensation liquid waste tank. With such a constitution, both of radioactive nuclides accompanied by suspended matters in the radioactive liquid wastes and ionic nuclides can be captured efficiently. (T.M.)

  5. Development of improved leaching techniques for vitrified radioactive waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaswani, G.A.; Yeotikar, R.G.; Rastogi, R.C.; Sunder Rajan, N.S.

    1979-01-01

    A critical review of the current techniques for evaluating the leach resistance of vitrified radioactive wastes has been made. Inadequacy of the available leaching techniques, with respect to their adoption as standard technique on an international scale, has been brought out for the three broad catagories of aqueous attack viz., (i) simple contact with leachant at a particular temperature, (ii) once-through or recirculatory flow of leachant at variable temperatures and flow rates, and (iii) contact with freshly distilled hot water in soxhelet type of extractor. In an effort to evolve a standard leaching technique in the latter two categories of aqueous attack, development of two leaching units viz., 'Dynamic Leaching Unit' and 'Modified Soxhlet Unit' is described. Both these units offer good control and wide flexibility on the important parameters affecting leaching such as leachant temperature, flow rate of residence time of leachant and ratio of leachant volume to sample surface area. The dynamic leaching units also offers a good control and flexibility on the two additional parameters viz., the composition and pH of the leachant. In the modified soxhlet unit the composition and pH of the leachant remains near to that of distilled water. The leach rate results have been found to be reproducible. A need for framing the set of standard conditions for adoption of these units in evolution of standard leaching techniques has been indicated. (auth.)

  6. Production of light radioactive ion beams (RIB) using inverse kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, J.J.; Sugathan, P.; Madhavan, N.; Madhusudhana Rao, P.V.; Jhingan, A.; Varughese, T.; Barua, S.; Nath, S.; Sinha, A.K.; Kumar, B.; Zacharias, J.

    2005-01-01

    At Nuclear Science Centre (NSC), New Delhi, we have implemented a facility to produce low energy light radioactive ion beams (RIBs) using (p,n) type of reactions in inverse kinematics. For this purpose primary beams from the 15-UD Pelletron accelerator impinged on a thin polypropylene foil mounted on a rotating/linearly moving target assembly. For efficiently separating the secondary beam from primary beam, the existing recoil mass spectrometer (RMS) HIRA was operated with new ion optics. Suitable hardware modifications were also made. Using this facility, we have extracted a 7 Be beam of purity better than 99% and spot-size ∼4 mm in diameter. This 7 Be beam has been utilized in a variety of experiments in the energy range of 15-22 MeV. Typical beam parameters are: intensity 10 4 pps, angular spread ±30 mrad and energy spread ±0.5 MeV. Development of appropriate detector setup/target arrangement were also made to perform these experiments. In this paper, we describe the implementation of this project

  7. Quality control of radioactive products in the hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizollon, Ch.A.; Galy, G.

    1986-01-01

    A classification is given of the radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes followed by the verification procedures required for each category of radiopharmaceutical to check whether or not a product is usable. (UK)

  8. Natural radioactivity and estimated dose in Brazilian tobacco products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Aline S.G.R. de; Damatto, Sandra R.

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco products contain significant concentrations of natural radionuclides from 238 U and 232 Th series. The consumption of these products increases the internal dose of radiation due to the inhalation of the natural radionuclides. Studies from literature emphasize that tobacco products have measurable concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb, and may contribute significantly to the increase of internal radiation dose and a large number of lung cancer in smokers. The objectives of this work were to determine the concentrations (Bq/kg) of the radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po and calculate the internal doses of radiation due to the consumption of these products. In the present work 71 samples were analyzed, consisting of cigars, unflavored and flavored cigarettes, straw cigarettes, cigars and roll smoke. The samples were purchased in Brazilian popular commercial establishments. The analytical techniques employed were the gross alpha and beta measurement after radiochemical separation for the radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb and alpha spectrometry for 210 Po. The internal radiation doses were calculated with the activity concentrations determined and using the ICRP Publication 119 dose coefficients. An annual consumption of 3,650 kg of tobacco products was considered. The inhalation rates of each radionuclide followed the rates of the current literature. The estimated mean annual dose varied from 76 to 263μSv/y for the tobacco product studied in this work. (author)

  9. Natural radioactivity and estimated dose in Brazilian tobacco products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Aline S.G.R. de; Damatto, Sandra R., E-mail: aline.oliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Tobacco products contain significant concentrations of natural radionuclides from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series. The consumption of these products increases the internal dose of radiation due to the inhalation of the natural radionuclides. Studies from literature emphasize that tobacco products have measurable concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, and may contribute significantly to the increase of internal radiation dose and a large number of lung cancer in smokers. The objectives of this work were to determine the concentrations (Bq/kg) of the radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po and calculate the internal doses of radiation due to the consumption of these products. In the present work 71 samples were analyzed, consisting of cigars, unflavored and flavored cigarettes, straw cigarettes, cigars and roll smoke. The samples were purchased in Brazilian popular commercial establishments. The analytical techniques employed were the gross alpha and beta measurement after radiochemical separation for the radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and alpha spectrometry for {sup 210}Po. The internal radiation doses were calculated with the activity concentrations determined and using the ICRP Publication 119 dose coefficients. An annual consumption of 3,650 kg of tobacco products was considered. The inhalation rates of each radionuclide followed the rates of the current literature. The estimated mean annual dose varied from 76 to 263μSv/y for the tobacco product studied in this work. (author)

  10. Investigation of Nuclide Importance to Functional Requirements Related to Transport and Long-Term Storage of LWR Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadhead, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    The radionuclide characteristics of light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuel play key roles in the design and licensing activities for radioactive waste transportation systems, interim storage facilities, and the final repository site. Several areas of analysis require detailed information concerning the time-dependent behavior of radioactive nuclides including (1) neutron/gamma-ray sources for shielding studies, (2) fissile/absorber concentrations for criticality safety determinations, (3) residual decay heat predictions for thermal considerations, and (4) curie and/or radiological toxicity levels for materials assumed to be released into the ground/environment after long periods of time. The crucial nature of the radionuclide predictions over both short and long periods of time has resulted in an increased emphasis on thorough validation for radionuclide generation/depletion codes. Current radionuclide generation/depletion codes have the capability to follow the evolution of some 1600 isotopes during both irradiation and decay time periods. Of these, typically only 10 to 20 nuclides dominate contributions to each analysis area. Thus a quantitative ranking of nuclides over various time periods is desired for each of the analysis areas of shielding, criticality, heat transfer, and environmental dose (radiological toxicity). These rankings should allow for validation and data improvement efforts to be focused only on the most important nuclides. This study investigates the relative importances of the various actinide, fission-product, and light-element isotopes associated with LWR spent fuel with respect to five analysis areas: criticality safety (absorption fractions), shielding (dose rate fractions), curies (fractional curies levels), decay heat (fraction of total watts), and radiological toxicity (fraction of potential committed effective dose equivalent). These rankings are presented for up to six different burnup/enrichment scenarios and at decay times from 2 to

  11. Local tissue distribution of fissile nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Conventional tissue-section autoradiography of alpha-emitting actinide elements may require prohibitively long exposure times. Neutron-induced or fission-track autoradiography can be used for fissile nuclides such as 233 U, 235 U, and 239 Pu to circumvent this difficulty. The detection limit for these nuclides is about 4 x 10 -13 (weight fraction). This paper describes a specific technique for determining their microdistribution with histologically stained tissue sections

  12. Radiation protection and ambient radioactivity monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Stippler, R.

    2002-01-01

    The measuring activities for radiological monitoring in the mine and the surrounding area have been continued as usual, in compliance with the relevant programmes. As in previous years, low amounts of the nuclides H 3, C 14, Pb 210 and Rn 222, including Rn 220, and the short-life radon daughter products have been detected. In some cases, the nuclide-specific concentrations in ambient air derived from the annual average were below the mean natural concentrations of those nuclides. The relevant exposure data at the most affected measuring points remained far below the maximum permissible doses given in the Radiation Protection Ordinance. As compared to the natural and anthropogenic ambient radiation levels, the radiation exposure of the population in the area and the personnel on site, emanating from radioactive waste storage and performance of research projects in the Asse mine, represent an unsignificant contribution. (orig./CB) [de

  13. Radiation protection and ambient radioactivity monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Stippler, R.

    2001-01-01

    The measuring activities for radiological monitoring in the mine and the surrounding area have been continued as usual, in compliance with the relevant programmes. As in previous years, low amounts of the nuclides H 3, C 14, Pb 210 and Rn 222, including Rn 220, and the short-life radon daughter products have been detected. In some cases, the nuclide-specific concentrations in ambient air derived from the annual average were below the mean natural concentrations of those nuclides. The relevant exposure data at the most affected measuring points remained far below the maximum permissible doses given in the Radiation Protection Ordinance. As compared to the natural and anthropogenic ambient radiation levels, the radiation exposure of the population in the area and the personnel on site, emanating from radioactive waste storage and performance of research projects in the Asse mine, represent an unsignificant contribution. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Radiation protection and ambient radioactivity monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Stippler, R.

    2000-01-01

    The measuring activities for radiological monitoring in the mine and the surrounding area have been continued as usual, in compliance with the relevant programmes. As in previous years, low amounts of the nuclides H 3, C 14, Pb 210 and Rn 222, including Rn 220, and the short-life radon daughter products have been detected. In some cases, the nuclide-specific concentrations in ambient air derived from the annual average were below the mean natural concentrations of those nuclides. The relevant exposure data at the most affected measuring points remained far below the maximum permissible doses given in the Radiation Protection Ordinance. As compared to the natural and anthropogenic ambient radiation levels, the radiation exposure of the population in the area and the personnel on site, emanating from radioactive waste storage and performance of research projects in the Asse mine, represent an insignificant contribution. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV-electron irradiated spices, (1); [gamma]-ray measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Katayama, Tadashi; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Matsunami, Tadao; Shibata, Setsuko; Toratani, Hirokazu (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology); Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1994-02-01

    Black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric were irradiated with 10 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy and radioactivity was measured in order to estimate induced radioactivity in the irradiated foods. Induced radioactivity could not be detected significantly by [gamma]-ray spectrometry in the irradiated samples except for spiked samples which contain some photonuclear target nuclides in the list of photonuclear reactions which could produce radioactivity below 10 MeV. From the amount of observed radioactivities of short-lived photonuclear products in the spiked samples and calculation of H[sub 50] according to ICRP Publication 30, it was concluded that the induced radioactivity and its biological effects in the 10 MeV electron-irradiated natural samples were negligible in comparison with natural radioactivity from [sup 40]K contained in the samples. (author).

  16. Treatment of Radioactive Waste Generated from the Production of Molybdenum-99 Radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisyah; Herlan Martono

    2007-01-01

    The 99 Mo is produced as the parent radionuclide for 99m Tc radioisotope which is used as medical radiodiagnostic for certain disease. In Indonesia 99 Mo is produced by irradiating target of high enriched U in the reactor. The characteristics of radioactive waste from the production of 99 Mo depend on the U enrichment of the target and the irradiation time. The characteristic of the radioactive waste can be directly determined by laboratory analysis or by ORIGEN 2 code. Producing 99 Mo from high enriched uranium target will produce radioactive waste containing 235 U, 238 U and fission product, while from low enriched uranium target will produce radioactive waste containing large amount of 239 Pu. Plutonium-239 is a long half life actinide that need to be separated from the fission product due to a different treatment is required. The fission product, after it is allowed to decay then needs to be categorized as low or medium level waste, while 239 Pu are categorized as transuranic waste. The disposal of low and medium level waste are stored in near surface disposal, while the disposal of transuranic waste is stored in a geologic formation. (author)

  17. IAEA coordinated research program on the evaluation of solidified high-level radioactive waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, J.R.; Schneider, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A coordinated research program on the evaluation of solidified high-level radioactive waste products has been active with the IAEA since 1976. The program's objectives are to integrate research and to provide a data bank on an international basis in this subject area. Results and considerations to date are presented

  18. Residual Nuclides Induced in Cu Target by a 250 MeV Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong-Bin; Zhang Xue-Ying; Ma Fei; Ju Yong-Qin; Ge Hong-Lin; Chen Liang; Zhang Yan-Bin; Li Yan-Yan; Luo Peng; Wang Jian-Guo; Wan Bo; Xu Xiao-Wei; Wei Ji-Fang; Zhou Bin

    2015-01-01

    Residual nuclide production is studied experimentally by bombarding a Cu target with a 250 MeV proton beam. The data are measured by the off-line γ-spectroscopy method. Six nuclides are identified and their cross sections are determined. The corresponding calculated results by the MCNPX and GEANT4 codes are compared with the experimental data to check the validity of the codes. A comparison shows that the MCNPX simulation has a better agreement with the experiment. The energy dependence of residual nuclide production is studied with the aid of MCNPX simulation, and it is found that the mass yields for the nuclides in the light mass region increase significantly with the proton energy. (paper)

  19. Monitoring of Radio-nuclides in the Vicinities of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants in 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Klemola, S.; Vartti, V.-P.; Mattila, J.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.

    2000-03-01

    The monitoring of radioactive substances round Finnish nuclear power plants continued in 2002-2004 in accordance with the regular environmental monitoring programmes. Altogether, some 1000 samples are analysed annually from the terrestrial and aquatic environs of the two power plants. Trace amounts of activation products originating from airborne releases from the local power plants were detected in several air and deposition samples taken from the close vicinities of the power plants. At Loviisa, observations were made in two; at Olkiluoto in three aerosol samples during the reporting period. Except for the naturally occurring beryllium-7, the concentrations of all radionuclides in the air samples were very low; from few microbequerels to few tens of microbequerels per cubic metre. A similar pattern was tenable for the deposition samples as well. The activity concentrations of cobalt-60 of local origin were at their highest 0.3 bequerels per square metre in one sample taken from Loviisa and in one sample taken from Olkiluoto. No traces of local discharge nuclides were detected in foodstuffs, drinking water or garden products. In mushrooms and wild berries picked up in 2004 from the Loviisa area, only Chernobyl-derived caesium isotopes and natural potassium-40 were detected. Local discharge nuclides were more abundant in the aquatic environment, especially in samples of indicator organisms, sinking matter and sediments, which effectively accumulate radioactive substances. Besides tritium originating from local discharges, the most significant artificial radionuclide in the samples taken from the aquatic environs of the power plants was still caesium-137 originating from the Chernobyl accident (potassium-40 is a naturally occurring radionuclide). Elevated tritium concentrations were more frequent in the water samples from Loviisa. In indicator organisms and sinking matter, the observed concentrations of local discharge nuclides were generally somewhat higher and

  20. Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries. Specific Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-09-01

    Accidents involving orphan sources and other radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries have resulted in serious radiological accidents as well as in harmful environmental, social and economic impacts. This Safety Guide provides recommendations, the implementation of which should prevent such accidents and provide confidence that scrap metal and recycled products are safe. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Responsibilities; 4. Monitoring for radioactive material; 5. Response to the discovery of radioactive material; 6. Remediation of contaminated areas; 7. Management of recovered radioactive material; Annex I: Review of events involving radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries; Annex II: Categorization of radioactive sources; Annex III: Some examples of national and international initiatives.

  1. Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Accidents involving orphan sources and other radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries have resulted in serious radiological accidents as … well as in harmful environmental, social and economic impacts. This Safety Guide provides recommendations, the implementation of which should prevent such accidents and provide confidence that scrap metal and recycled products are safe. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Responsibilities; 4. Monitoring for radioactive material; 5. Response to the discovery of radioactive material; 6. Remediation of contaminated areas; 7. Management of recovered radioactive material; Annex I: Review of events involving radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries; Annex II: Categorization of radioactive sources; Annex III: Some examples of national and international initiatives

  2. Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries. Specific Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Accidents involving orphan sources and other radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries have resulted in serious radiological accidents as well as in harmful environmental, social and economic impacts. This Safety Guide provides recommendations, the implementation of which should prevent such accidents and provide confidence that scrap metal and recycled products are safe. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Responsibilities; 4. Monitoring for radioactive material; 5. Response to the discovery of radioactive material; 6. Remediation of contaminated areas; 7. Management of recovered radioactive material; Annex I: Review of events involving radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries; Annex II: Categorization of radioactive sources; Annex III: Some examples of national and international initiatives

  3. Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Accidents involving orphan sources and other radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries have resulted in serious radiological accidents as well as in harmful environmental, social and economic impacts. This Safety Guide provides recommendations, the implementation of which should prevent such accidents and provide confidence that scrap metal and recycled products are safe. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Responsibilities; 4. Monitoring for radioactive material; 5. Response to the discovery of radioactive material; 6. Remediation of contaminated areas; 7. Management of recovered radioactive material; Annex I: Review of events involving radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries; Annex II: Categorization of radioactive sources; Annex III: Some examples of national and international initiatives.

  4. Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries. Specific Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Accidents involving orphan sources and other radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries have resulted in serious radiological accidents as well as in harmful environmental, social and economic impacts. This Safety Guide provides recommendations, the implementation of which should prevent such accidents and provide confidence that scrap metal and recycled products are safe. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Responsibilities; 4. Monitoring for radioactive material; 5. Response to the discovery of radioactive material; 6. Remediation of contaminated areas; 7. Management of recovered radioactive material; Annex I: Review of events involving radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries; Annex II: Categorization of radioactive sources; Annex III: Some examples of national and international initiatives

  5. Legal and practical aspects of radioactivity in comsumer products in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, F.

    1978-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, the use of consumer products that contain radioactive substances is primarily controlled by the first radiation protection ordinance, the second radiation protection ordinance, and the ordinance on the approval of drugs that have been treated with ionizing radiation or that contain radioactive subtances. In October 1976, a new radiation protection ordinance was published. This new ordinance replaced the regulations of the first and second radiation protection ordinances. In this paper, the old regulations and the most important changes according to the new radiation protection ordinance are discussed

  6. Investigation of the environmental radioactivity around the mooring port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    Here are the main data for radioactivity examination performed in 1975 at Mutsu port, the mooring port of atomic energy vessel ''Mutsu''. No abnormality were observed in space γ ray dose ratio, and integrated doses measured by the thermofluorescence dosimeter at three monitoring posts in the port (G M tube) and three monitoring station in Mutsu City. A serial measurement of radioactivity concentration in sea water did not show any abnormality, either. Samples were taken from the surface soil of the ground, the bottom of the rivers, river water, drinking water, and milk and measured the total radioactivity by a gas flow counter. The measurement of the total β-radioactivity and radio nuclides analysis were carried out in sea water, the soil from the bottom of the sea and sea products. Abnormality considered to be caused by ''Mutsu'' did not observed at all. (Kobatake, H.)

  7. Ministerial Order concerning radioactive contamination of agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this Order is to implement at national level Articles 1 and 3 of the Council of the European Communities' Regulation No. 1707/86 of 30th May 1986, as amended by Commission Regulation No. 1762/86 of 5th June 1986 (Official Journal of the European Communities 1986 Nos. L 146 and L 152), on conditions for the import of agricultural products from non-European Community States after the Chernobyl accident [fr

  8. Diffusion of disintegration products of radioactive gases in circular and flat channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of steady state diffusion of the decaying products resulting from the disintegration of a radioactive gas flowing through circular and flat channels is presented. Axial diffusion is neglected and a small diffusion parameter is assumed. Results are obtained for the axial displacement and density distribution of atoms deposited on the walls when the laminar flow is Poiseuille and plug. These results can be used to determine diffusion coefficients of disintegration products. (author)

  9. Targets for production of high-intensity radioactive ion-beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagebo, E.; Hoff, P.; Steffensen, K.

    1991-01-01

    The recent developments of target systems for production of high intensity radioactive ion-beams at the ISOLDE mass separators is described. Methods for chemically selective production through separation of molecular ions are outlined and the effects of the addition of reactive gases has been studied. Results and further possible applications in the light element region are discussed. (author) 10 refs.; 9 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Management of radioactive waste from 99Mo production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    99m Tc used for labelling different pharmaceuticals is the most important radionuclide in nuclear medicine practice, and probably will continue to play this important role for the foreseeable future. 99m Tc is the short lived daughter product of the parent 99 Mo, which is mainly produced by the nuclear fission of 235 U. Recognizing the importance of the waste management issue associated with 99 Mo production the IAEA initiated preparation of this report to provide Member States and existing and potential producers of 99 Mo with practical approaches and the available information on the subject. Waste management in the context of this report encompasses all waste-related aspects, for example, handling, treatment, conditioning, storage, transport, and disposal. The document is organized in several chapters giving the following information: short description of the basic nuclear and physical properties of 99 Mo and 99m Tc; an overview of past, present and possible future production methods; characteristics of the various waste streams produced in the aforementioned processes; description of the necessary waste management practices needed to handle the relevant waste streams in a responsible and internationally-accepted manner; conclusion and recommendations

  11. Methods of Increasing the Performance of Radionuclide Generators Used in Nuclear Medicine: Daughter Nuclide Build-Up Optimisation, Elution-Purification-Concentration Integration, and Effective Control of Radionuclidic Purity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van So Le

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine radiotherapy and SPECT/PET imaging were developed and detailed for 99Mo/99mTc and 68Ge/68Ga radionuclide generators as the cases. Optimisation methods of the daughter nuclide build-up versus stand-by time and/or specific activity using mean progress functions were developed for increasing the performance of radionuclide generators. As a result of this optimisation, the separation of the daughter nuclide from its parent one should be performed at a defined optimal time to avoid the deterioration in specific activity of the daughter nuclide and wasting stand-by time of the generator, while the daughter nuclide yield is maintained to a reasonably high extent. A new characteristic parameter of the formation-decay kinetics of parent/daughter nuclide system was found and effectively used in the practice of the generator production and utilisation. A method of “early elution schedule” was also developed for increasing the daughter nuclide production yield and specific radioactivity, thus saving the cost of the generator and improving the quality of the daughter radionuclide solution. These newly developed optimisation methods in combination with an integrated elution-purification-concentration system of radionuclide generators recently developed is the most suitable way to operate the generator effectively on the basis of economic use and improvement of purposely suitable quality and specific activity of the produced daughter radionuclides. All these features benefit the economic use of the generator, the improved quality of labelling/scan, and the lowered cost of nuclear medicine procedure. Besides, a new method of quality control protocol set-up for post-delivery test of radionuclidic purity has been developed based on the relationship between gamma ray spectrometric detection limit, required limit of impure radionuclide activity and its measurement

  12. Natural radioactivity of raw materials and products of cement manufacturing and of power plant fly ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallyas, Miklos

    1984-01-01

    The natural radioactivity was investigated for several building materials used in Hungary, including cement, concrete, glasses, fine ceramic products, insulation materials, and also for some industrial wastes utilized as building material aggregates like slags, fly ashes etc., from their radiation health aspect. The dose commitments of the population from building materials standardized in several countries are presented. The 232 Th, 226 Ra, and 40 K contents of building materials were measured by gamma spectrometry, using NaI/Tl/scintillation detectors. The results were used to qualify cement materials and fly ash aggregates according to their origin in Hungary, from the point of view of their natural radioactivity. It was concluded that the radioactivity level of the majority of Hungarian cements are below the adopted international standards. (R.P.)

  13. Radioactive solid waste management study of generated in the source production laboratory for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Nayane K.O.; Carvalho, Vitória S.; Marques, José R.O.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Baptista, Tatyana S.; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, M.E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Souza, Daiane C.B.

    2017-01-01

    A management system for radioactive solid wastes generated during seed production in the Laboratório de Produção de Fontes para Radioterapia (LPFRT) was developed. For this, the volume and the mass of each item of solid wastes generated in Glove box were estimated. It is possible to estimate, per week, how much reject will enter the warehouse, what space it will occupy and also its weight. In the final step of the characterization, the decay calculation is applied to define the time the reject will be stored for later disposal in the collection system. After the characterization process, it is noticed that the rate of volume and radioactivity decreases as the retention time of the rejects increases due to the release of the materials, and also, there is the decay of the radioactivity present in the reservoir. It is also observed that the rate of entry and exit of the wastes is proportional

  14. A study of production of radioactive environmental reference materials used for proficiency testing program in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, En-Chi; Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-01-01

    To realise radioactive environmental reference materials in Taiwan, seven environmental materials of soil, water, vegetation, meat, airborne particles (filter paper), milk and mushroom samples that are frequently encountered were used to establish the preparation of the reference materials. These seven environmental materials were collected, checked for freedom from radioactivity and prepared according to their properties. The preparation was carried out by using activity about 10–100 times that of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) in routine measurements in the radioactive standard used to spike the inactive material and this standard is traceable to national ionising radioactivity standards (TAF, 2004). To demonstrate sample traceability to the added standard, each sample was carefully measured and its uncertainty evaluated. Based on the recommendations of ISO Guide 35 for evaluation of reference materials and with the above assessment and verification procedures, the uncertainties (k=1) of the spike activity used in making reference materials were: 60 Co≤4.6%, 134 Cs≤4.7%, 137 Cs≤5.0%, total β≤0.6% and 3 H≤1.3%. - Highlights: • Seven kinds environmental materials were used to establish the production of the RMs. • Spiking the traceable standard radioactive source to the blank substance. • Each sample was carefully evaluated for its uncertainty. • The performance of the RMs was estimated with the Proficiency Testing program report. • The ability of the environment RMs in the configuration is quite good

  15. Radioactive Waste Management Produced from the Generator Tc-99m Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaedi Muhammad; Rimin Sumantri; Affan Ahmad; Tuyono

    2012-01-01

    Generator Tc-99m product is used in hospitals will result in radioactive waste both solid waste in the form of a column compacted Tc-99m Generator, bottles vials and bottles of saline fluid path series: burning of solid waste in the form of paper straw, hand gloves, and cardboard (vial packing boxes and wrapping Generator) and liquid waste form leaching results lead pot and enclosure. So that these wastes pose no radiological consequences for both humans and the environment, it must be properly managed in accordance with the provisions. In order to realize these expectations should be made so that the radioactive waste management system can be handled effectively, optimal, economical, safe and secure and in accordance with applicable regulations. Management system is in it include: procedures for handling radioactive waste, solid waste compacted, burning of solid waste management, liquid waste handling, shipment of radioactive waste and determination of the amount of radiation doses received by workers who handle radioactive waste. (author)

  16. The effect of radioactive aerosols on fog formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, G.; Khan, E.U.; Ali, N.; Khan, H.A.; Waheed, A.

    2011-01-01

    This research study has been carried out to explore the dependence of fog formation on radioactive aerosols. The aerosols containing radioactive nuclides are called radioactive aerosols. A large number of radioactive nuclides are present in the atmosphere among which the two most important nuclides, 7Be and 210Pb are considered here in this study. Results for Activity Concentrations of these radio-nuclides in air samples in clear and foggy conditions were comparatively analyzed. About 19% increase in Activity concentration for 210Pb and about 23% increase in Activity Concentration for 7Be was recorded during fog as compared to clear conditions. This increase in Activity Concentration during fog indicates that the presence of aerosols laden with these radio-nuclides is also one of the so many factors responsible for fog formation

  17. News from the Library: The 8th edition Karlsruhe nuclide chart has been released

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    The 8th edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart contains new data not found in the 7th edition.   Since 1958, the well-known Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart has provided scientists with structured, valuable information on the half-lives, decay modes and energies of radioactive nuclides. The chart is used in many disciplines in physics (health physics, radiation protection, nuclear and radiochemistry, astrophysics, etc.) but also in the life and earth sciences (biology, medicine, agriculture, geology, etc.). The 8th edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart contains new data on 737 nuclides not found in the 7th edition. In total, nuclear data on 3847 experimentally observed ground states and isomers are presented. A new web-based version of this chart is in the final stages of development for use within the Nucleonica Nuclear Science Portal - a portal for which CERN has an institutional license. The chart is also available in paper format.   If you want to buy a paper version of the chart, ple...

  18. Status of determining transuranic nuclides speciation in aqueous solution with laser spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Liu Dejun; Yao Jun; Chen Xi; Long Haoqi; Zeng Jishu; Su Xiguang; Fan Xianhua

    2007-01-01

    The knowledge about speciation of transuranic nuclides in aqueous solution is a basis for understanding the chemical and migration behavior of transuranic nuclides in aqueous solution. The speciation of transuranic nuclides with trace concentration is complicated in near neutral aqueous solutions, including change of oxidation state, complexation and colloid generation, etc. The concentrations of transuranium in near neutral aqueous solution usually below the sensitivity range of method such as conventional absorption spectroscopy. The radioactive analysis method has a very low detection limits for radionuclides, however, it wouldn' t allow the direct measurement of the transuranic species. In contrast with these methods, laser spectroscopy is an ideal method with high sensitivity, and non-contact and non-destructive for determining the speciation of transuranic nuclides. This paper summarizes the status and application of LIPAS (Laser-induced Photoacoustic Spectrometry), LIBD (Laser-induced Breakdown Detection) and TRLFS (Time-resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectrometry) to determine the speciation of transuranic nuclides with trace concentration in aqueous solutions. (authors)

  19. The MacNuclide nuclear data environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    Advance in technology have produced intriguing tools that can be applied to problems in nuclear science. Information management in nuclear science is an example of how technology is not quickly exploited. The U.S. Department of Energy supports an extensive program to evaluate published nuclear properties and store them in an electronic data base. Much of the evaluation effort has focused on producing the journal Nuclear Data Sheets and the publication Table of Isotopes. Although the electronic data base can itself be a valuable source of information, the software used to access is was designed using decades-old technologies. The authors of this paper have developed a novel data-base management system for nuclear properties. The application is known as MacNuclide. It is a nuclear data-base environment that uses the highly interactive and intuitive windowing environmentsof desk-top computers. The environment is designed around that image of the chart of nuclides. Questions are posed to the data base by placing constraints on properties and defining collections of nuclides to be used in data-base seraches. Results are displayed either as a simple list of nuclides that meet the imposed constraints or as a color chart of nuclides

  20. Constraints due to the production of radioactive ion beams in the SPIRAL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, R.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Marry, C.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Villari, A.C.C.

    1997-01-01

    The radioactive ion beams that will be delivered by the SPIRAL facility will be produced by the interaction of a stable high energy and high intensity primary ion beam delivered by the GANIL cyclotrons with a carbon target heated to 2000 deg C. During this interaction, some radioactive atoms will be created and will diffuse out of the target before entering into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source where they will be ionized and extracted. The production of radioactive ion beams with this method implies high radiation fields that activate and can damage materials located in the neighborhood of the target. Therefore, the production system which is composed of the permanent magnet ECR ion source coupled to a graphite target will be changed after two weeks of irradiation. As this ensemble will be very radioactive, this operation has to be supervised by remote control. The radiation levels around the target-ion source system and a detailed description of the different precautions that have been taken for safety and for prevention of contamination and irradiation are presented. (author)

  1. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in atomic beams of radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebel, H.; Schatz, G.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the resonant scattering of light from CW tunable dye lasers, by a well collimated atomic beam, enable hyperfine splittings and optical isotope shifts to be determined with high precision and high sensitivity. Recent off-line atomic beam experiments with minute samples, comprising measurements with stable and unstable Ba, Ca and Pb isotopes are reviewed. The experimental methods and the analysis of the data are discussed. Information on the variation of the rms charge radii and on electromagnetic moments of nuclei in long isotopic chains is presented. (orig.) [de

  2. Effects of radioactive nuclides on the reproduction of aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egami, N.

    1979-01-01

    Among various organisms in aquatic environments, fishes are more radiosensitive and critical creatures in terms of the biological effects of radionuclides on the ecosystem. The hatchability of fish eggs is not very sensitive criterion for radiation injury. The differentiation and development of the germ cells of fish embryos are inhibited by the small dose of radiation, and there is some possibility that they are more sensitive indicators of radiation effects. Chromosome aberration is used as an indicator of the effect of small dose of radiation in both cultured cells and cleaved egg cells of fishes. The late effects of radiation have been seen in fishes one or more years after the exposure to the relatively small dose of radiation. The biological materials for detecting the effect of radiation on the quantitative base in future in vitro and in vivo have been established. Current studies are directed toward finding more sensitive indicators of radiation effects, estimating more quantitatively the late effects of radiation on fishes, and analyzing the mechanism of radiation injuries. (Yamashita, S.)

  3. Radioactivity Content in Phosphoric Acid Used for Fertilizer Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahiem, N.M.; Hamed, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Uranium content in phosphoric acid used fertilizer production was measured by alpha spectrometry, laser fluorimetry high resolution gamma spectrometry. Also, polonium-210 content was determined in phosphoric acid by alpha spectrometry. Uranium-234 and uranium-238 concentrations, measured by alpha spectroscopy, were found to be 601 and 507 Bq I -1 , respectively. Total uranium content obtained by laser fluorimetry was about 545 BqI - (45.4ppm). Gamma spectroscopy analysis gave the concentrations of 40 K, 238 U, 235 U, 214 Pb, 214 Bi and 208 TI, as 17,644,19.5, 1.2,1.3 and 9.4 Bq I -1 , respectively. Polonium-210 concentration was found to be about 3.1 Bq I -1 . Uranium-232 and polonium-208 were used as yield tracers, for alpha measurements of uranium and polonium, respectively. Samples of the tri-super phosphate (TSP) and single-super phosphate (SSP) fertilizers and the phosphogypsum produced were also analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. Uranium content in both phosphate fertilizers was 3205 and 1440 Bq Kg -1 for 238 U and 83 and 35 Bq Kg -1 for, 235 U respectively

  4. Selection of exception limits for all actinide nuclides based on revised criteria for safe international transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavarenne, C.; Rouyer, V.; Sert, G.; Mennerdahl, D.; Dean, C.; Barton, N.; Jean, F.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1998, there have been some speculations about future transport of significant quantities and concentrations of other actinide nuclides than the four currently listed in the regulation for the safe transport of the radioactive material. Therefore, it raised a need to specify exception limits for such actinides. Additionally, the total fissile nuclide mass per consignment of excepted packages was limited in the 1996 edition of the regulations (a conveyance limit is preliminary supported in the 2003 revision). The proposed changes of the rules have to take this new control into account. The European Community (DGTREN) decided to fund a project related to this subject. In order to define credible exception limits, it was necessary to have reasonably accurate data for all actinide nuclides. Then the authors of the study decided to perform calculations with different codes (MONK, MCNP, CRISTAL, SCALE) and different cross-section libraries (JEF2.2, ENDFB, JENDL, etc.). This article presents the work achieved and gives propositions of modification for the IAEA requirements for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material related to, firstly, the list of the fissile materials, and secondly, the rule to determine the quantities of actinide nuclides that can be excepted from the requirements for the packages containing fissile materials. The participants acknowledge the DGTREN who made this work possible due to its support. (author)

  5. Radioactivity metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, J.

    1979-01-01

    Some aspects of the radioactivity metrology are reviewed. Radioactivity primary references; absolute methods of radioactivity measurements used in the Laboratoire de Metrologie des Rayonnements Ionisants; relative measurement methods; traceability through international comparisons and interlaboratory tests; production and distribution of secondary standards [fr

  6. Special actinide nuclides: Fuel or waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Rao, K.S.; Dingankar, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The special actinide nuclides such as Np, Cm, etc. which are produced as byproducts during the operation of fission reactors are presently looked upon as 'nuclear waste' and are proposed to be disposed of as part of high level waste in deep geological repositories. The potential hazard posed to future generations over periods of thousands of years by these long lived nuclides has been a persistent source of concern to critics of nuclear power. However, the authors have recently shown that each and every one of the special actinide nuclides is a better nuclear fuel than the isotopes of plutonium. This finding suggests that one does not have to resort to exotic neutron sources for transmuting/incinerating them as proposed by some researchers. Recovery of the special actinide elements from the waste stream and recycling them back into conventional fission reactors would eliminate one of the stigmas attached to nuclear energy

  7. Regulatory requirements for the use of consumer products containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.C.; Paynter, R.A.; Schmitt-Hannig, A.; Sztanyik, L.B.

    1996-01-01

    In almost 100 years since the discovery of radioactivity, the properties of radioactive materials have been exploited in products such as clocks and watches incorporating luminous paint which are freely available to members of the public. Over time, regulatory authorities have felt it necessary to apply some degree of control to the supply and use of such products in order to protect public health. In many areas of radiation protection, national authorities take note of international recommendations when developing national standards, but the existing detailed guidance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for consumer products is incomplete and out of date. Recently, a thorough revision of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) has occurred, which has prompted a review and revision of the related guidance published by the IAEA. A draft Guide on Regulatory Requirements for the Use of Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Substances has now been completed and is currently under review within the IAEA's system for development of documents in its Safety Series of publications. (author)

  8. Nuclide creation and annealing reactor waste in neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, V.N.; Kadenko, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    We consider chemical elements in the Universe (their properties and transmutations) as a fuel powering an evolution of stars, galaxies, etc. The nuclear fusion reactions represent an energy source of stars and, in particular, the Sun fitting the life on the Earth. This brings a question on an origin and conditions for creation of life. We discuss some specific features of nuclear reaction chains at the hydrostatic burning of nuclides in stars and treaties for development of thermonuclear fusion reactors at the Earth based environment. The nova and supernova give promising astrophysical site candidates for synthesis of heavy atomic nuclei and renewing other nuclear components. Such an explosive nucleosynthesis yields the actinides containing basic fuel for nuclear fission reactors, among others. We briefly outline the e-, s-, and r-processes while accounting for ultra-strong stellar magnetization, and discuss some ideas for annealing the radioactive toxic nuclear waste

  9. The medical effects of radioactive fall-out: role of stable end-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, B.A.; Cardarelli, J.C.; Boling, E.A.; Sinex, F.M.

    1980-01-01

    To summarize, from preliminary observations on the possible effects of radioactive fall-out, it may be inferred that in addition to the secondary products of ionizing irradiation per se, the stable end-products of the transmutation of certain radionuclides may adversely influence cellular metabolism, including mutagenesis. The discussion of the possible role of intracellular barium as an end-product of 137Cs decay is offered as an example of an unpredictable number of broad ecological, as well as the more limited medical, effects that may be of both clinical and climatological significance

  10. Investigation of pharmaceuticals and medical devices containing 90Y extracted from high radioactive liquid waste in spent-fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoma, Takashi

    2012-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals and medical devices containing radioactive 90 Y are realized, approved and placed on the international market where three products are available in Europe and the United States, and one product in Japan. These products are used not for diagnosis but for treatment by internal irradiation. It was estimated from the deliberative report of the approval in Japan that 90 Y was extracted in Europe from high radioactive liquid waste (HALW) yielded in spent-fuel reprocessing. In this report, products placed on the market and physical properties were reviewed, reasons of the realization and conditions to realize succeeding products were estimated, extraction method was compared with other methods, technical subjects, and relevant regulations were investigated. Although a medical device containing radioactive 90 Y has been studied in Japan and one pharmaceutical product was approved, a breakthrough would be necessary to put 90 Y utilization beyond alternative treatments. The breakthrough would become be promising; for example, if conventional treatments could be supported by technical development to deliver 90 Y more sharply to the target with shorter serum half-life. Extraction of 90 Y nuclide from HALW has advantages over thermal neutron irradiation of natural nuclide, a system is envisioned where 90 Sr as a parent nuclide is separated in the reprocessing then transported to and stored in a factory of radiopharmaceuticals followed by 90 Y extraction on demand. (author)

  11. Radioactive waste generated from JAERI partitioning-transmutation cycle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinichi, Nakayama; Yasuji, Morita; Kenji, Nishihara [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Production of lower-level radioactive wastes, as well as the reduction in radioactivity of HLW, is an important performance indicator in assessing the viability of a partitioning-transmutation system. We have begun to identify the chemical compositions and to quantify the amounts of radioactive wastes that may be generated by JAERI processes. Long-lived radionuclides such as {sup 14}C and {sup 59}Ni and spallation products of Pb-Bi coolants are added to the existing inventory of these nuclides that are generated in the current fuel cycle. Spent salts of KCl-LiCl, which is not generated from the current fuel cycle, will be introduced as a waste. (author)

  12. Radioactive Wastes Generated From JAERI Partitioning-Transmutation Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Morita, Yasuji; Nishihara, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Production of lower-level radioactive wastes, as well as the reduction in radioactivity of HLW, is an important performance indicator in assessing the viability of a partitioning-transmutation system. We have begun to identify the chemical compositions and to quantify the amounts of radioactive wastes that may be generated by JAERI's processes. Long-lived radionuclides such as 14 C and 59 Ni and spallation products of Pb-Bi coolants are added to the existing inventory of these nuclides that are generated in the current fuel cycle. Spent salts of KCl-LiCl, which is not generated from the current fuel cycle, will be introduced as a waste. (authors)

  13. Behaviour of transuranic nuclides in coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, K.C.; Mathew, E.; Matkar, V.M.; Dey, N.N.; Abani, M.C.; Chhapgar, B.F.; Mullay, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    In view of the nuclear technological developments, the potential for contamination of marine environment with transuranic nuclides has increased. In this context it is necessary to know not only the current levels of these artificial nuclides but there is also a need to understand the physico-chemical, biological and geochemical behaviour of transuranics to evaluate their significance in the marine environment. Studies on these aspects have been carried out in the coastal environment of the west coast of India, near Bombay. The results obtained and conclusions drawn from the various investigations carried out are given in this document

  14. Method of conversion of caustic liquid radioactive wastes containing sodium nitrates into solid insoluble products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.; Brownell, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    A proposal is made to convert caustic, liquid, radioactive wastes containing sodium nitrate into a solid product by reaction with powdered aluminium silicate at temperatures between 30 0 and 100 0 C, which is practically insoluble (10 -7 to 10 -10 g/cm 2 -day) and is thermally stable. A cancrinite is formed which binds the radioactive salts in the cage-like structure of its crystal lattice. The method is also suitable for liquid wastes from the Purex method as well as for wastes containing fission products of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in concentrations of 0.37 M to 0.01 M. Numerous detailed examples explain the invention. (UW/LH) [de

  15. The control of radioactivity in the working environment in the factories for production of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdacic, B.N.; Gnjatovic, S.S.; Vujovic, P.V.

    1980-01-01

    The results of dosimetric control in factories for the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers in Serbia, and of the measurement of the total beta radioactivity of samples collected in these factories, are presented. An increase in the radiation dose, even up to 1000 times background, has been found at certain places in the plant. These results serve as a basis for conclusions on the existence, variation and collection of the radioactive component in particular phases of the technological process for the production of phosphate fertilizers. An attempt is made on the basis of the results obtained in three plants to evaluate the degree of danger in the working environment and in the area surrounding the factories and to propose protective measures. (Author)

  16. Colloquium C.L.I. operators and others... the becoming of radioactive products after use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, G.; Artus, J.C.; Atteia, M.; Audebert, P.; Ballat, J.; Balle, St.; Bardols, M.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Baylet, J.M.; Bazot, G.; Beaufils, B.; Benech, R.; Bongiovanni, J.; Bontoux, J.; Boueilh, M.; Brunet, F.; Calafat, A.; Cartier, M.; Cavereau, S.; Cavereau, G.; Chambon, B.; Chouchan, M.; Criton, P.; Coudre-Genetti, S.; Bretesche, O. de la; Delcourt, R.; Delibes, J.L.; Diaham, A.; Dupouis, N.; Dutil, V.; Eimer, M.; Fauvre, D.; Figueredo, G.; Fongaro, G.; Gaillard, P.; Gazal, S.; Graschaire, G.; Grenier, St.; Ibert, J.; Jacob, E.; Kozlowski, E.; Laroche, D.; Le Bars, Y.; Linfort, J.M.; Sabatier, M.A.; Sasseigne, Ph.; Saut, C.; Sornein, J.F.; Terrenne, J.P.; Donzac, M. de; Thiese, I.; Tfibel, V.; Vidal, J.; Vieillard-Baron, B.; Vincent, D.

    2006-01-01

    Colloquium to Golfech on September 17. and 18., 2003. The 3. colloquium of the A.N.C.L.I. took place to Golfech, to Alexis Calafat invitation, President of the C.L.I. of Golfech. The reserved subject was ' the C.L.I., the developers and the others: than can bring the various bodies of the nuclear power to the C.L.I.? ' A half-day was dedicated in particular to the future of the radioactive products after use, where the question of the transport of radioactive products was approached. 80 persons participated. The titles of the approached subjects were: dimensions of the expertise and the construction of the information; the C.L.I and its various interlocutors; C.L.I.N., the developer, the others and the transparency of the information; waste and radioactive waste in a hospital environment; safety of the transport of radioactive material; the relations of the Golfech C.N.P.E. with the C.L.I.; the new institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety; the national agency for the management of the radioactive waste, what projects; Implementation of municipal protection plans on the C.L.I. initiative; Socio-economic effects from the installation of Paluel and Penly C.N.P.E.; The case of the Garonne: the iodine 131 contamination; Analysis of the environment in contact with the secondary school of Bar-sur-Aube; C.L.I., the developer and the others: what relations. (N.C.)

  17. Concept of an immersive assistance system with augmented reality for the support of manual activities in radioactive production environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eursch, Andreas A.

    2010-01-01

    The thesis on an immersive assistance system concept with augmented reality for the support of manual activities in radioactive production environments covers the following topics: analysis of the situation: production and use of radioactive materials, problem analysis of the work in the production facilities, necessity of manual activities, automation, prediction in hot cells; status of research and development; assistance system concept, immersive camera system; augmented reality support in hot cells; economic evaluation and generalization.

  18. Behaviour of Aluminosilicate Inorganic Matrix Sial During and After Solidification of Radioactive Sludge And Radioactive Spent Resins and Their Mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichvar, P.; Rozloznik, M.; Sekely, S.

    2013-01-01

    SIAL matrix is the product of inorganic compounds by polycondensation. The inorganic SIAL matrix was subject of study from the atomic level to the level of technological application. Infrared spectroscopy measurement and X-ray analysis confirmed that SIAL matrix is mostly formed by amorphous phase. This satisfies the required criteria for disposal of immobilized radioactive waste of appropriate properties into surface repository (Slovak and Czech Republic). First of all, leaching of radioactive nuclide Cs-137 and compressive strength of the final product were found. Various remotely operated devices have been designed, manufactured and successfully used for the radioactive sludge and sludge/resins mixture solidification at the Nuclear power plant (NPP) A-1, V-2 in Jaslovske Bohunice, at Mochovce NPP (Slovak Republic), at Dukovany NPP and at Temelin NPP (Czech Republic). The SIAL matrix was approved for waste package for sludge/resins mixture by the Slovak and Czech Nuclear Regulatory Authorities. (author)

  19. Behaviour of Aluminosilicate Inorganic Matrix Sial During and After Solidification of Radioactive Sludge And Radioactive Spent Resins and Their Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichvar, P.; Rozloznik, M.; Sekely, S. [Amec Nuclear Slovakia, 919 31 Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia)

    2013-09-15

    SIAL matrix is the product of inorganic compounds by polycondensation. The inorganic SIAL matrix was subject of study from the atomic level to the level of technological application. Infrared spectroscopy measurement and X-ray analysis confirmed that SIAL matrix is mostly formed by amorphous phase. This satisfies the required criteria for disposal of immobilized radioactive waste of appropriate properties into surface repository (Slovak and Czech Republic). First of all, leaching of radioactive nuclide Cs-137 and compressive strength of the final product were found. Various remotely operated devices have been designed, manufactured and successfully used for the radioactive sludge and sludge/resins mixture solidification at the Nuclear power plant (NPP) A-1, V-2 in Jaslovske Bohunice, at Mochovce NPP (Slovak Republic), at Dukovany NPP and at Temelin NPP (Czech Republic). The SIAL matrix was approved for waste package for sludge/resins mixture by the Slovak and Czech Nuclear Regulatory Authorities. (author)

  20. Attainment of radiation equivalency in nuclear power plant radioactive product management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Ganev, I.Kh.; Orlov, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Basic provisions for radiation equivalent radioactive waste disposal are formulated and conditions for its realization are considered. They include simultaneous removal of uranium and long-living products of its decay from the ore, separation of actinides from the fuel in the course of chemical reprocessing for burning in reactors, and possibly strontium and cesium with the purpose of their useful utilization and long-term controlled waste storage in the near-surface facilities

  1. Quality assurance in production and use of special form radioactive material - focal points in BAM approvals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, A.; Buhlemann, L.

    2004-01-01

    BAM as the competent authority for approval of special form radioactive material attaches great importance to a detailed audit of the required quality assurance programs for design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection. Applicants have to submit, together with application documentation information on general arrangements for quality assurance, as well as on quality assurance in production and in operation. Fields where BAM has often found deficiencies are leak test methods, weld seam quality and the safety level after use

  2. Nuclides.net: An integrated environment for computations on radionuclides and their radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galy, J.; Magill, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclides.net computational package is of direct interest in the fields of environment monitoring and nuclear forensics. The 'integrated environment' is a suite of computer programs ranging from a powerful user-friendly interface, which allows the user to navigate the nuclide chart and explore the properties of nuclides, to various computational modules for decay calculations, dosimetry and shielding calculations, etc. The main emphasis in Nuclides.net is on nuclear science applications, such as health physics, radioprotection and radiochemistry, rather than nuclear data for which excellent sources already exist. In contrast to the CD-based Nuclides 2000 predecessor, Nuclides.net applications run over the internet on a web server. The user interface to these applications is via a web browser. Information submitted by the user is sent to the appropriate applications resident on the web server. The results of the calculations are returned to the user, again via the browser. The product is aimed at both students and professionals for reference data on radionuclides and computations based on this data using the latest internet technology. It is particularly suitable for educational purposes in the nuclear industry, health physics and radiation protection, nuclear and radiochemistry, nuclear physics, astrophysics, etc. The Nuclides.net software suite contains the following modules/features: a) A new user interface to view the nuclide charts (with zoom features). Additional nuclide charts are based on spin, parity, binding energy etc. b) There are five main applications: (1) 'Decay Engine' for decay calculations of numbers, masses, activities, dose rates, etc. of parent and daughters. (2) 'Dosimetry and Shielding' module allows the calculation of dose rates from both unshielded and shielded point sources. A choice of 10 shield materials is available. (3) 'Virtual Nuclides' allows the user to do decay and dosimetry and shielding calculations on mixtures of

  3. Problems concerning food production, supply and use caused by radioactive deposition: A study directed towards needs for early decision making after radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, R.

    1995-12-01

    The primary aim of this study is to analyze and describe how a radioactive deposition after nuclear weapons employment outside Sweden would affect the domestic food production in a short time perspective and in the sequence of events from primary production over processing and transport to food consumption. The study is an attempt at a comprehensive treatment of knowledge needed as a basis for decisions on operative issues, often of a time-urgent nature. Actions to alleviate the problems pertinent to the food supply in the event of radioactive fallout are also discussed, although without any claim of exhaustive coverage. Other aspects, as the economical consequences of the disturbances due to the fallout situation (or of possible counteractions) are not dealt with, however. With certain restrictions mentioned in the text the results are also applicable in connection with radioactive deposition caused by accidental release from a nuclear power plant. 60 refs, 32 figs

  4. Status of ecosystems in radioactive waste reservoirs of the Mayak Production Association in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryakhin, Evgeny A; Tryapitsina, Galina A; Deryabina, Larisa V; Atamanyuk, Natalia I; Stukalov, Pavel M; Ivanov, Ivan A; Kostyuchenko, Vladimir A; Akleyev, Alexander V

    2012-07-01

    Liquid radioactive waste from the Mayak Production Association (Chelyabinsk Region, Russia) is contained in industrial reservoirs (R-11, R-10, R-4, R-17, and R-9) that have different levels of radioactive contamination, increased from R-11 to R-17. A study of the ecosystems in these reservoirs was performed in 2009 to determine if there was any association with the level of contamination. No significant change in the status of biota was found in the reservoir with the lowest radionuclide concentrations (R-11) in comparison to other reservoirs in the region with a similar geography that are unaffected by radioactive contamination. In reservoir R-10, changes in the zoobenthos indices were registered. In reservoir R-4, changes in the zoobenthos and zooplankton communities were registered. In reservoir R-17, there was no ichthyofauna, but strong changes in the phytoplankton, zooplankton, and zoobenthos communities were registered. In reservoir R-9, under the conditions of the heaviest radioactive contamination of water ecosystems in the biosphere, there was no ichthyofauna, and phytoplankton and zooplankton consisted of almost a monoculture of cyanobacteriae and rotifers.

  5. Man-made radioactivity of surface air and precipitation Munich-Neuherberg 1970-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1976-07-01

    The activity concentration of a number of artificial radionuclides and of Be 7 in surface air and the deposition of these nuclides to the ground by the precipitation is measured since 1970 resp. 1971 at Neuherberg near Munich. Air dust filters are compressed to give a pellet and precipitation is evaporated to a small volume before γ-spectrometry using a Ge(Li)-detector. After ashing of the samples Pusup(238, 239, 240) and Fe 55 are separated radiochemically and measured by alpha respectively X-ray spectrometry. The results, presented as monthly mean resp. sum values, are discussed and compared with results published by other authors (HASL, UKAEA, PTB, DWD a.o.). The contribution of artificial radioactivity to the radiation exposure from fallout nuclides during the years 1970 to 1975 was very low. Their concentration levels led to values of the annual intake, which are far beyond the admissible values according to the new Radiation Protection Ordinance of the FRG. With regard to the intake by inhalation Pu 239 is the most important of all observed nuclides, whereas in the case of ingestion Sr 90 is the critical nuclide. At this time the level of the activity concentration is mainly represented by the residual radioactivity from nuclear bomb tests. A continuous control is necessary because of the growth of nuclear power production and the increasing use of radionuclides. (orig.) [de

  6. An introduction to in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, K.P.

    2012-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides are produced through interactions between cosmic rays and target nuclei in Earth's atmosphere and surface materials. Those which are produced in Earth's atmosphere are termed 'meteoric' while the nuclides produced in surface material are known as in-situ cosmogenic nuclides. The past two decades have seen a proliferation of applications for cosmogenic nuclides. This is primarily due to a revolution in accelerator mass spectrometry, AMS, measurement techniques which has allowed the measurement of very small amounts of nuclides. The following is a brief introduction to the theory and application of in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclide methods. (author). 17 refs., figs., 1 tab.

  7. The nuclide inventory in SFR-1; Nuklidinventariet i SFR-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, Tor [ALARA Engineering, Skultuna (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    This report is an account for a project carried out on behalf of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI): 'Nuclide inventory in SFR-1' (The Swedish underground disposal facility for low and intermediate level reactor waste). The project comprises the following five sub-projects: 1) Measuring methods for nuclides, difficult to measure, 2) The nuclide inventory in SFR-1, 3) Proposal for nuclide library for SFR-1 and ground disposal, 4) Nuclide library for exemption, and 5) Characterising of the nuclide inventory and documentation for SFL waste. In all five sub-projects long-lived activity, including Cl-36, has been considered.

  8. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV-Electron irradiated spices, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Tadashi; Furuta, Masakazu; Shibata, Setsuko; Matsunami, Tadao; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Toratani, Hirokazu; Takeda, Atsuhiko.

    1994-01-01

    In order to check radioactivity of beta-emmitters produced by (γ, n) reactions which could occur at energies up to 10 MeV, black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric were irradiated with 10 MeV electron from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy. Beta-rays were counted using a 2π gas flow counter and a liquid scintillation counter. Any induced radioactivity could not be detected in irradiated samples. When inorganic compounds containing the nuclides in the list were artificially added in the samples and were irradiated, the β-activities were detected. From the amount of observed radioactivities of β-emmitters produced in the compounds as photonuclear products, it is concluded that the induced radioactivity in natural samples by 10 MeV-electron irradiation were far smaller than natural radioactivity from 40 K contained in the samples and, hence, its biological effects should be negligible. (author)

  9. Influence of Groundwater Flow Rate on Nuclide Releases from Pyro-processed Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 2000s several template programs for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste repository as well as a low- and intermediate level radioactive waste repository systems have been developed by utilizing GoldSim and AMBER at KAERI. Very recently, another template program for a conceptual hybrid-typed repository system, called 'A-KRS' in which two kinds of pyroprocessed radioactive wastes, low-level metal wastes and ceramic high-level wastes that arise from pyroprocessing of PWR nuclear spent fuels has been developed and are to be disposed of by separate disposal strategies. The A-KRS is considered to be constructed at two different depths in geological media: 200m depth, at which a possible human intrusion is considered to be limited after closure, for the pyroprocessed metal wastes with lower or no decay heat producing nuclides, and 500m depth, believed to be in the reducing condition for nuclides with a rather higher radioactivity and heat generation rate. This program is ready for total system performance assessment which is able to evaluate nuclide release from the repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal, disruptive natural and manmade events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste package and canister. To quantify a nuclide release and transport through the possible various pathways especially in the near-fields of the A-KRS repository system, some illustrative evaluations have been made through the study. Even though all parameter values associated with the A-KRS were assumed for the time being, the illustrative results should be informative since the evaluation of such releases is very important not only in view of the safety assessment of the repository, but also for design feedback of its performance

  10. Radioactivity measurements in the vicinity of the mine waste heap at Crossen and radiation dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulzer, R.

    1998-01-01

    The radiation dose to the population living in the vicinity of the mine waste heap is assessed. The measurements carried out were to verify the dose relevance of ambient radioactivity on site, in particular the ingestion and inhalation pathways and the external exposure pathways. The nuclide Pb-210 was used as an indicator because of its large dose factor for assessment of ingestion and its airborne dispersion as an Rn-222 daughter product. The waste heap material releases large quantities of this nuclide. Ingestion of radioactivity from the waste heap may be caused by wind-borne erosion and activity deposition on plants in the area. Therefore, the specific activities of Pb-210 and Ra-226 have been measured in soil and plant specimens sampled at various distances from the waste heap. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Chart of the nuclides - Strasbourg 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Data were compiled for a nuclide chart over the last two years. The compilation is complete to the end of September 1990. The chart includes about 30000 data. Decay modes are represented by colours. Announcement capabilities and prices are given. (G.P.) 3 refs

  12. Recalculation of measured fuel nuclide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, W.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations and concentration ratios of heavy fuel nuclides determined in the Central Institute for Nuclear Research Rossendorf on the basis of destructive burnup measurements are compared with the results of microburnup calculations. The possibility is discussed to improve the results by taking into account the spectral characteristics at the positions of the measuring samples. (author)

  13. Sampling soils for transuranic nuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to the sampling of soils for radionuclides is presented; emphasis is placed on transuranic nuclides. Sampling of soils is discussed relative to systems of heterogeneous distributions and varied particle sizes encountered in certain environments. Sampling methods that have been used for two different sources of contamination, global fallout, and accidental or operational releases, are included

  14. Power production from radioactively contaminated biomass and forest litter in Belarus - Phase 1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Jørn; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Fogh, C.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has led to radioactive contamination of vast Belarussian forest areas. A total scheme for remediation of contaminated forest areas and utilisation of the removed biomass in safe energy production is being investigated in aBelarussian-American-Danish collaborative project....... Here the total radiological impact of the scheme is considered. This means that not only the dose reductive effect of the forest decontamination is taken into account, but also the possible adverse healtheffects in connection with the much needed bio-energy production. This report presents the results...

  15. Development of scaling factor prediction method for radionuclide composition in low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak

    1995-02-01

    Low-level radioactive waste management require the knowledge of the natures and quantities of radionuclides in the immobilized or packaged waste. U. S. NRC rules require programs that measure the concentrations of all relevant nuclides either directly or indirectly by relating difficult-to-measure radionuclides to other easy-to-measure radionuclides with application of scaling factors. Scaling factors previously developed through statistical approach can give only generic ones and have many difficult problem about sampling procedures. Generic scaling factors can not take into account for plant operation history. In this study, a method to predict plant-specific and operational history dependent scaling factors is developed. Realistic and detailed approach are taken to find scaling factors at reactor coolant. This approach begin with fission product release mechanisms and fundamental release properties of fuel-source nuclide such as fission product and transuranic nuclide. Scaling factors at various waste streams are derived from the predicted reactor coolant scaling factors with the aid of radionuclide retention and build up model. This model make use of radioactive material balance within the radioactive waste processing systems. Scaling factors at reactor coolant and waste streams which can include the effects of plant operation history have been developed according to input parameters of plant operation history

  16. Radioactive characteristics of spent fuels and reprocessing products in thorium fueled alternative cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Mitsuru

    1978-09-01

    In order to provide one fundamental material for the evaluation of Th cycle, compositions of the spent fuels were calculated with the ORIGEN code on following fuel cycles: (1) PWR fueled with Th- enriched U, (2) PWR fueled with Th-denatured U, (3) CANDU fueled with Th-enriched U and (4) HTGR fueled with Th-enriched U. Using these data, product specifications on radioactivity for their reprocessing were calculated, based on a criterion that radioactivities due to foreign elements do not exceed those inherent in nuclear fuel elements, due to 232 U in bred U or 228 Th in recovered Th, respectively. Conclusions are as the following: (1) Because of very high contents of 232 U and 228 Th in the Th cycle fuels from water moderated reactors, especially from PWR, required decontamination factors for their reprocessing will be smaller by a factor of 10 3 to 10 4 , compared with those from U-Pu fueled LWR cycle. (2) These less stringent product specifications on the radioactivity of bred U and recovered Th will justify introduction of some low decontaminating process, with additional advantage of increased proliferation resistance. (3) Decontamination factors required for HTGR fuel will be 10 to 30 times higher than for the other fuels, because of less 232 U and 228 Th generation, and higher burn-up in the fuel. (author)

  17. Radioactive decay pattern of actinides present in waste from Mo-99 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiromoto, Goro; Dellamano, José Claudio, E-mail: hiromoto@ipen.br, E-mail: jcdellam@ipen.br [Instituto de PesquisasEnergéticas e Nucleares (GRR/IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerência de Rejeitos Radioativos

    2017-07-01

    Brazil is currently planning to produce {sup 99}Mo from fission of LEU targets to meet the present national demand of {sup 99m}Tc. The {sup 99}Mo activity planned at the end of irradiation is 5000 Ci (185 TBq) per weekly cycle, in order to meet the present demand of 1000 Ci (37 TBq) per week, after target cooling and processing. To predict the activities that will be handled in the waste treatment facility, the computational code SCALE 6.0 was used to simulate the irradiation of the uranium targets and the decay of radioactive products. This study presents the findings of this research, mainly focused on the actinides activity that will be present in the waste and the respective radioactive decay pattern over a period of one hundred thousand years. (author)

  18. Radioactive wastes from Angra-1 plant and radioisotope production to medical and industrial uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldonian, Nelson L.; Mattos, Luis A.T. de

    1997-01-01

    Based on false premises, critics point of view have frequently lead part of Brazilian public opinion to impeach the validity of nuclear energy applications.The critics allege that social implications discredit those applications. In this context, treated as if not known theirs diverse characteristics, great noise has been created about radioactive wastes related to diverse nuclear industry processes. Due to the great misunderstanding on the subject, this paper presents the characteristics and destinations of radioactive wastes related to nucleoelectric generation and to radioisotopes production in Brazil. Even so someone could point out that those characteristics are diverse, we discuss in a comparative way the benefits of those two kinds of nuclear applications. (author). 5 refs., 6 tabs

  19. Production of radioisotopic gamma radiation sources in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Hisashi; Kogure, Hiroto; Suzuki, Kyohei

    1980-04-01

    The present state of production of gamma radiation sources in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is described. Sources of 192 Ir, 60 Co and 170 Tm for industrial and 198 Au and 192 Ir for medical applications are produced and delivered routinely by JAERI. Prefabricated assembly targets are irradiated in JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 or JMTR. The irradiated targets are disassembled in a heavy density concrete cave or a lead-shielded cell, depending on the level of radioactivity. The yield of radioactivity in each target is measured with the aid of an ionization chamber. Where necessary, irradiated targets are encapsulated hermetically in capsules of aluminium, stainless steel or other material. The yield of radioactivity is estimated in relation with the burn-up of target nuclide and product nuclide. (author)

  20. Study of the accumulation and distribution of the radioactivity in the cooling circuit of the BOR-60 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizin, V.D.; Konyashov, V.V.; Lisitsyn, E.S.; Polyakov, V.I.; Chechetkin, Yu.V.

    1976-04-01

    The results of measurements of the radioactivity of the coolant and the deposits in the primary circuit of the BOR-60 reactor during its five years of operation are discussed. The values calculated for the exposure dose rate from the piping system and the contribution of the γ-radiation from the corrosion and fission product nuclides are given. The efficiency of coolant draining from the pipes in reducing the dose rate is estimated. (orig.) [de

  1. Handbook of radioactive medicine standard. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Now, the radioactive medicine standard has been instituted (the Ministry of Health and Welfare announcement No. 28, March 13, 1979) but this is the total revision of the old standard. While the radioactive medicines are used for the treatment of malignant tumors and others, the accuracy and fastness as the diagnostic medicines have been regarded as important. Recently, more safe and convenient medicines have appeared. Since these emit radiation, prudent consideration must be given to their handling. In order to make the properties and qualities of radioactive medicines appropriate, the standard is instituted for all of them based on the Drugs, Cosmetics and Medical Instruments Act. Since the medicines which do not accord with the standard cannot be produced, imported and sold according to the Act, the users must be familiar with the contents of the standard. The Ministry of Health and Welfare announcement No. 28 and the notice concerning it by the director of the Pharmaceutical and Supply Bureau to prefectural governors are reprinted. The standard comprises common rules, the general rules on medicine production, the provisions for individual medicines (94 kinds), 14 general testing methods, and the attached table showing the characteristics of 20 radioactive nuclides contained in the radioactive medicines described in this standard. (Kako, I.)

  2. Management of radioactive waste from 99Mo production by nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, Maria Eugenia de Melo

    2013-01-01

    Brazil intends to build a facility for the 99 Mo production through 235 U fission, once this radioisotope is largely used in nuclear medicine. This study aimed at estimating the physical, chemical and radiological characteristics of radioactive waste expected to be generated in that facility, and to provide theoretical subsides that can be used on the definition of a proper waste management system. Two production scenarios were established and the radioisotope inventories of the wastes were calculated by Scale®. From the chemical processing of the uranium targets the wastes were characterized on their chemical and radiological features. MicroShield® was used to determine the activity concentrations up to three months of 99 Mo production. In addition, this work presents dose rate calculation for several sizes of shielding and different amount of wastes, collected in a proper package for in-site transportation. Radionuclides responsible for higher doses were identified in order to facilitate choosing the most appropriate method for managing the wastes after their chemical separation and before their storage. These results are part of what is expected on radioactive wastes at a 99 Mo production facility and might help on the development of the waste management planning for that facility. (author)

  3. Method of inhibiting concentration of radioactive corrosion products in cooling water or nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takabayashi, Jun-ichi; Hishida, Mamoru; Ishikura, Takeshi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the increase in the concentration of the radioactive corrosion products in cooling water, which increase is accompanied by the transference of the corrosion products activated and accumulated in the core due to dissolution and exfoliation into the core water, and inhibit the flowing of said products out of the core and the diffusion thereof into the cooling system, thereby to prevent the accumulation of said products in the cooling system and prevent radioactive contaminations. Method: In a nuclear power plant of a BWR type light water reactor, when the temperature of the pile water is t 0 C, hydrogen is injected in cooling water in a period of time from immediately before starting of the drive stopping operation of the nuclear power plant to immediately after the termination of restarting operation, whereby the concentration of hydrogen in the reactor water through said period is maintained at a value more than 2exp (0.013 t) cm 3 N.T.P./kg H 2 O. (Aizawa, K.)

  4. User manual of nuclide dispersion in phreatic aquifers model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rives, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    The Nuclide Dispersion in Phreatic Aquifers (DRAF) model was developed in the 'Division Estudios Ambientales' of the 'Gerencia de Seguridad Radiologica y Nuclear, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica' (1991), for the Safety Assessment of Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. Afterwards, it was modified in several opportunities, adapting it to a number of application conditions. The 'Manual del usuario del codigo DRAF' here presented is a reference document for the use of the last three versions of the code developed for the 'Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear' between 1995 and 1996. The DRAF model solves the three dimension's solute transport equation for porous media by the finite differences method. It takes into account the advection, dispersion, radioactive decay, and retention in the solid matrix processes, and has multiple possibilities for the source term. There are three versions of the model, two of them for the saturated zone and one for the unsaturated zone. All the versions have been verified in different conditions, and have been applied in exercises of the International Atomic Energy Agency and also in real cases. (author)

  5. Biodegradation of the alkaline cellulose degradation products generated during radioactive waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Simon P; Radford, Jessica; Laws, Andrew P; Sweeney, Francis; Elmekawy, Ahmed; Gillie, Lisa J; Humphreys, Paul N

    2014-01-01

    The anoxic, alkaline hydrolysis of cellulosic materials generates a range of cellulose degradation products (CDP) including α and β forms of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) and is expected to occur in radioactive waste disposal sites receiving intermediate level radioactive wastes. The generation of ISA's is of particular relevance to the disposal of these wastes since they are able to form complexes with radioelements such as Pu enhancing their migration. This study demonstrates that microbial communities present in near-surface anoxic sediments are able to degrade CDP including both forms of ISA via iron reduction, sulphate reduction and methanogenesis, without any prior exposure to these substrates. No significant difference (n = 6, p = 0.118) in α and β ISA degradation rates were seen under either iron reducing, sulphate reducing or methanogenic conditions, giving an overall mean degradation rate of 4.7 × 10(-2) hr(-1) (SE ± 2.9 × 10(-3)). These results suggest that a radioactive waste disposal site is likely to be colonised by organisms able to degrade CDP and associated ISA's during the construction and operational phase of the facility.

  6. Biodegradation of the alkaline cellulose degradation products generated during radioactive waste disposal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Rout

    Full Text Available The anoxic, alkaline hydrolysis of cellulosic materials generates a range of cellulose degradation products (CDP including α and β forms of isosaccharinic acid (ISA and is expected to occur in radioactive waste disposal sites receiving intermediate level radioactive wastes. The generation of ISA's is of particular relevance to the disposal of these wastes since they are able to form complexes with radioelements such as Pu enhancing their migration. This study demonstrates that microbial communities present in near-surface anoxic sediments are able to degrade CDP including both forms of ISA via iron reduction, sulphate reduction and methanogenesis, without any prior exposure to these substrates. No significant difference (n = 6, p = 0.118 in α and β ISA degradation rates were seen under either iron reducing, sulphate reducing or methanogenic conditions, giving an overall mean degradation rate of 4.7 × 10(-2 hr(-1 (SE ± 2.9 × 10(-3. These results suggest that a radioactive waste disposal site is likely to be colonised by organisms able to degrade CDP and associated ISA's during the construction and operational phase of the facility.

  7. Production of chemically reactive radioactive ion beams through on-line separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joinet, A.

    2003-10-01

    The ISOL (isotope separation on line) allows the production of secondary radioactive ion beams through spallation or fragmentation or fission reactions that take place in a thick target bombarded by a high intensity primary beam. The challenge is to increase the intensity and purity of the radioactive beam. The optimization of the system target/source requires the right choice of material for the target by taking into account the stability of the material, its reactivity and the ionization method used. The target is an essential part of the system because radioactive elements are generated in it and are released more or less quickly. Tests have been made in order to select the best fitted material for the release of S, Se, Te, Ge and Sn. Materials tested as target filling are: ZrO 2 , Nb, Ti, V,TiO 2 , CeO x , ThO 2 , C, ZrC 4 and VC). Other molecules such as: COSe, COS, SeS, COTe, GeS, SiS, SnS have been studied to ease the extraction of recoil nuclei (Se, S, Te, Ge and Sn) produced inside the target

  8. Plan 96 - Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes from the Swedish nuclear power reactors. The cost calculations include costs for R,D and D as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants etc. The following facilities and systems are already in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products, Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, Final repository for radioactive operational wastes. Plans exist for: Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel, Deep repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste, Final repository for decommissioning waste. The total future costs, in Jan 1996 prices, for the Swedish waste system from 1997 have been calculated to be 42.2 billion SEK (about 6.4 billion USD). The total costs apply for the waste obtained from 25 years of operation of all Swedish reactors. It is estimated that 10.6 billion SEK in current money has been spent through 1996. Costs based on waste quantities from operation of the reactors for 40 years are also reported. 6 refs

  9. DIRECTIONS FOR THE RECOVERY OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION ON RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED LANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kustovska O.V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective management of agricultural production in the Polesie Ukraine traditionally was complicated through the low natural land fertility, their high acidity, perevolotsky valley. During the centrally planned economic system that the natural contrast of the Polesie land had been somewhat neglected by the state through differentiation of purchase prices for agricultural products, which gave the possibility of redistribution of the rent in favor of the farms with poorer land. With transition to market relations the role of the state, and hence the possibility of its influence on this situation has changed dramatically. Economic conditions have become more profitable for the farmers that are occupying the best lands. However, the situation in the regions has not yet been investigated systematically taking into account the modern complex socio-economic processes and phenomena caused by increased environmental stress on land resources. One of the most pernicious environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident was radioactive contamination of agricultural land, defined in the final stage of transfer of radionuclides in the human body and further irradiation. The main danger of the accumulation by plants of radionuclides lies in the fact that they are a major link in the migratory chain of transmission of radionuclides to the more radiosensitive species and, above all, human. Economic feature of agricultural production in the study area is insufficient pricesambien, transformation of land use, violations of industrial-economic relations, the structure of agricultural production, changes in the natural-cost structure commodity products, the reform of the organizational structure of agricultural production. In the farms located in contaminated areas, the necessary conversion of dairy cattle for meat. In conditions of high pollution, the production of milk requires a serious sanitary objections in that time, as meat production is more environmentally

  10. An overview of technical requirements on durable concrete production for near surface disposal facilities for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolentino, Evandro; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste can be generated by a wide range of activities varying from activities in hospitals to nuclear power plants, to mines and mineral processing facilities. General public have devoted nowadays considerable attention to the subject of radioactive waste management due to heightened awareness of environmental protection. The preferred strategy for the management of all radioactive waste is to contain it and to isolate it from the accessible biosphere. The Federal Government of Brazil has announced the construction for the year of 2014 and operation for the year of 2016 of a near surface disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of technical requirements related to production of durable concrete to be used in near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste concrete structures. These requirements have been considered by researchers dealing with ongoing designing effort of the Brazilian near surface disposal facility. (author)

  11. Modeling study on nuclide transport in ocean - an ocean compartment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Kyoung Won

    1991-01-01

    An ocean compartment model simulating transport of nuclides by advection due to ocean circulation and interaction with suspended sediments is developed, by which concentration breakthrough curves of nuclides can be calculated as a function of time. Dividing ocean into arbitrary number of characteristic compartments and performing a balance of mass of nuclides in each ocean compartment, the governing equation for the concentration in the ocean is obtained and a solution by the numerical integration is obtained. The integration method is specially useful for general stiff systems. For transfer coefficients describing advective transport between adjacent compartments by ocean circulation, the ocean turnover time is calculated by a two-dimensional numerical ocean method. To exemplify the compartment model, a reference case calculation for breakthrough curves of three nuclides in low-level radioactive wastes, Tc-99, Cs-137, and Pu-238 released from hypothetical repository under the seabed is carried out with five ocean compartments. Sensitivity analysis studies for some parameters to the concentration breakthrough curves are also made, which indicates that parameters such as ocean turnover time and ocean water volume of compartments have an important effect on the breakthrough curves. (Author)

  12. Product consistency leach tests of Savannah River Site radioactive waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Bates, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    The product consistency test (PCT) is a glass leach test developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to confirm the durability of radioactive nuclear waste glasses that will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The PCT is a seven day, crushed glass leach test in deionized water at 90C. Final leachates are filtered and acidified prior to analysis. To demonstrate the reproducibility of the PCT when performed remotely, SRS and Argonne National Laboratory have performed the PCT on samples of two radioactive glasses. The tests were also performed to compare the releases of the radionuclides with the major nonradioactive glass components and to determine if radiation from the glass was affecting the results of the PCT. The test was performed in triplicate at each laboratory. For the major soluble elements, B, Li, Na, and Si, in the glass, each investigator obtained relative precisions in the range 2-5% in the triplicate tests. This range indicates good precision for the PCT when performed remotely with master slave manipulators in a shielded cell environment. When the results of the two laboratories were compared to each other, the agreement was within 20%. Normalized concentrations for the nonradioactive and radioactive elements in the PCT leachates measured at both facilities indicated that the radionuclides were released from the glass slower than the major soluble elements in the glass. For both laboratories, the normalized releases for both glasses were in the general order Li ∼ B ∼ Na > Si > Cs - 137 > Sb - 125 < Sr - 90. The normalized releases for the major soluble elements and the final pH values in the tests with radioactive glass are consistent with those for nonradioactive glasses with similar compositions. This indicates that there was no significant effect of radiation on the results of the PCT

  13. Radioactive ion beam production challenges at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigs, M.J.; Alton, G.D.; Dowling, D.T.; Haynes, D.L.; Jones, C.M.; Juras, R.C.; Lane, S.N.; Mills, G.D.; Mosko, S.W.; Olsen, D.K.; Tatum, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    The radioactive ion beam (RIB) project at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) will provide for reconfiguration of the HHIRF accelerator system to enable provision of low-intensity RIBs for nuclear and astrophysics research. As we have progressed with the design of the reconfiguration, we have encountered several challenges that were not immediately obvious when first contemplating the project. The challenges do not seem insurmountable but should keep life interesting for those of us doing the work. A brief review of the project will allow a better understanding of the challenges in RIB production. Radioactive ion beams will be produced with the Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) postacceleration technique. In particular, radioactive atoms will be produced by reactions in the thick stopping target of an ISOL-type target-ion source assembly using intense beams from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron equipped with a light-ion internal source. This ISOL target-ion source assembly will be mounted on a high-voltage platform with a mass separator. The target ion source will operate at potentials up to 50 kV with respect to the high voltage platform. The radioactive atoms produced by nuclear reactions in the target diffuse to the surface of the heated target material, desorb from this surface, and effuse through a heated transfer tube into an ion source where ionization and extraction take place. Two types of ion sources will be initially considered. A Forced Electron Beam Induced Arc Discharge source, similar to those used by the ISOLDE facility at CERN and by the UNISOR facility at ORNL, will be built to produce positive ions. These positive ions will be focused through an alkali vapor charge-exchange canal to produce negative ions for tandem injection. In addition, a direct negative surface ionization addition or modification to the above source will be built and investigated

  14. Corrosion Tests of LWR Fuels - Nuclide Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.A. Finn; Y. Tsai; J.C. Cunnane

    2001-01-01

    Two BWR fuels [64 and 71 (MWd)/kgU], one of which contained 2% Gd, and two PWR fuels [30 and 45 (MWd)/kgU], are tested by dripping groundwater on the fuels under oxidizing and hydrologically unsaturated conditions for times ranging from 2.4 to 8.2 yr at 90 C. The 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 97 Mo, and 90 Sr releases are presented to show the effects of long reaction times and of gadolinium on nuclide release. This investigation showed that the five nuclides at long reaction times have similar fractional release rates and that the presence of 2% Gd reduced the 99 Tc cumulative release fraction by about an order of magnitude over that of a fuel with a similar burnup

  15. Overview of Task 4 nuclide transport data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    A multi-year program plan is presented to collect the necessary data on nuclide sorption-desorption interactions with geologic media. Detailed activities which need to be performed in each of the six subtasks are described. The general areas in which each subcontractor performed work in FY 77 were presented in the overview. Detailed technical discussions of each subcontractor's work will be presented in ensuing presentations

  16. Transmutation of long-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Tongxiang; Tang Chunhe

    2003-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation of long-lived nuclides have profound benefits for economic development, global political stability and the environment. This technology would reduce nuclear waste disposal requirements, prevent proliferation and eliminate a major hurdle to the development of nuclear power. This paper reviews the advanced fuel cycle process and development of ATW in the world, and some suggestions about the R and D of nuclear power in China are proposed

  17. A high-intensity He-jet production source for radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.J.; Kimberly, H.J.; Grisham, D.L.; Talbert, W.L.; Wouters, J.M.; Rosenauer, D.; Bai, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The use of a thin-target, He-jet transport system operating with high primary beam intensities is explored as a high-intensity production source for radioactive beams. This method is expected to work well for short-lived, non-volatile species. As such the thin-target, He-jet approach represents a natural complement to the thick-target ISOL method in which such species are not, in general, rapidly released. Highlighted here is a thin-target, He-jet system that is being prepared for a 500 + μA, 800-MeV proton demonstration experiment at LAMPF this summer

  18. Freedom: a transient fission-product release model for radioactive and stable species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, L.D.; Lewis, B.J.; Iglesias, F.C.

    1989-05-01

    A microstructure-dependent fission-gas release and swelling model (FREEDOM) has been developed for UO 2 fuel. The model describes the transient release behaviour for both the radioactive and stable fission-product species. The model can be applied over the full range of operating conditions, as well as for accident conditions that result in high fuel temperatures. The model accounts for lattice diffusion and grain-boundary sweeping of fusion products to the grain boundaries, where the fission gases accumulate in grain-face bubbles as a result of vacancy diffusion. Release of fission-gas to the free void of the fuel element occurs through the interlinkage of bubbles and cracks on the grain boundaries. This treatment also accounts for radioactive chain decay and neutron-induced transmutation effects. These phenomena are described by mass balance equations which are numerically solved using a moving-boundary, finite-element method with mesh refinement. The effects of grain-face bubbles on fuel swelling and fuel thermal conductivity are included in the ELESIM fuel performance code. FREEDOM has an accuracy of better than 1% when assessed against an analytic solution for diffusional release. The code is being evaluated against a fuel performance database for stable gas release, and against sweep-gas and in-cell fission-product release experiments at Chalk River for active species

  19. Experiments on the nuclear fragmentation and on the production of radioactive beams for direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.

    1993-06-01

    In April 1992 at the GSI a prototype experiment on the production and study of the double-magic radioactive nucleus 56 Ni was successfully performed with proton scattering in inverse kinematics. A 350 MeV/u 56 Ni primary beam from the heavy ion synchrotron SIS was fragmented in a 4/g/cm 2 thick beryllium target. The separation of the formed isotopes ensued in the fragment separator FRS, which was operated in the achromatic mode with a degrader. Production cross sections for a whole series of fragments in the range 29≥Z≥19 and 57≥A≥41 were obtained. It succeeded to detect proton-rich isotopes at the boundary of the stability as for instance 52 Co, 51 Co, 50 Co, or 52 Ni and to determine for the first time their production cross sections. A further part of this thesis with regard to experiments with radioactive beams were first test experiments at the experimental storage ring ESR. The spotlight held luminosity measurements at the internal gas target with cooled, stable proton beam. For this the elastic scattering was stuided in inverse kinematics in the Rutherford range. Studied were different projectile beams (Ne, Xe) at energies of 150 MeV/u respectively 250 MeV/u and gas jets of nitrogen, argon, and hydrogen. The measured energy spectra of the recoils are in agreement with simulation calculations

  20. Radioactivity inspection of Taiwan for food products imported from Japan after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Huang-Sheng; Huang, Ping-Ji; Wuu, Jyi-Lan; Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-01-01

    The 3–11 Earthquake occurred in Japan last year had greatly damaged the lives and properties and also caused the core meltdown accident in the Fukushima nuclear power plant followed by the leakage of radioactive materials into biosphere. In order to protect against the detriment of radiation from foods which were imported from Japan, the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) in Taiwan started to conduct radioactivity inspection of food products from Japan after the accident. A total of about 20,000 samples had been tested from March 24 2011 to March 31 2012. - Highlights: • About 20,000 food products imported from Japan were tested by low-background HPGe detectors. • In total, 46 food products had been found to be contaminated by I-131, Cs-134 or Cs-137, however, the radiation levels were all below the limit of Taiwanese regulations. • The measurement techniques described in this study can be used as a fast screening tool to ensure safety of food supplied

  1. Population exposure resulting from the presence of radioactivity in consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.

    1978-01-01

    Population exposure to radiation resulting from the manufacture and use of consumer products has been the subject of a recent symposium and an NCRP report along with numerous papers and reports. This paper contains updated data on this subject and is based on the papers presented at a symposium entitled 'Public Health Aspects of Radioactivity in Consumer Products' in Atlanta, Georgia, February 2-4,1977. The paper concludes that the population exposure from consumer products is small but significant. A more important conclusion relates to large fluctuations in the exposure resulting from changes in the market, raw materials and regulations. Since this type of population exposure is unnecessary and proper data is not available to determine the population exposure, it is suggested by the authors that a monitoring program could be instituted to provide the necessary information. (author)

  2. Power production from radioactively contaminated biomass and forest litter in Belarus - Phase 1b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, K.G.; Fogh, C.L. [and others

    2000-03-01

    The Chernobyl accident has led to radioactive contamination of vast Belarussian forest areas. A total scheme for remediation of contaminated forest areas and utilisation of the removed biomass in safe energy production is being investigated in a Belarussian-American-Danish collaborative project. Here the total radiological impact of the scheme is considered. This means that not only the dose reductive effect of the forest decontamination is taken into account, but also the possible adverse health effects in connection with the much needed bio-energy production. This report presents the results of an in-country, commercial-scale investigation of the effect of a baghouse filter in retaining contaminants so that they are not released to the atmosphere in the biomass energy production process. Approximately 99,5 % of the activity of a commercially representative, dust-laden boiler flue gas was removed from the stream by using a combination of a cyclone and a baghouse filter. (au)

  3. Study on the calculation method of source term from fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jing; Gong Quan; Qiu Haifeng

    2014-01-01

    As a major part of radioactive nuclides, fission products play an important role in nuclear power plant design. The paper analyzes the calculation model of core activity inventory, the model of fission products releasing from the pellets to RCS, the balance model of fission products in RCS, and then proves them by calculation of the typical pressurized water reactor. The model is proved applicable for calculating fission products of pressurized water reactors. (authors)

  4. Mass measurement of radioactive isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, H J; Scheidenberger, C

    2004-01-01

    The highest precision in mass measurements on short-lived radionuclides is obtained using trapping and cooling techniques. Here, the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI/Darmstadt and the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN play an important role. Status and recent results on mass measurements of radioactive nuclides with ESR and ISOLTRAP are summarized.

  5. Measurement of radioactivity in rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eivindson, T.

    1985-01-01

    The report gives a description of an ion-exchange surveillance- sampler for routine measurements of radioactivity in rain, and how the measurements are performed. Using the nuclides 85 Sr, 131 I and 137 Cs as tracers, experiments have been performed to determine the distribution of radioactivity in the ion-exchange column and the effectiveness of the column as a function of elutriation rate and temperature

  6. PLAN 98 - Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The nuclear utilities in Sweden are responsible for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The most important measures are to plan, build and operate the facilities and systems needed, and to conduct related R and D. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products. Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB. Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR I. Plans also exist for: Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel. Deep repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste. Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants etc. At the end of 1995, certain amendments were made in the Financing Act which influence the calculations presented in this report. The most important amendment is that the reactor owners, besides paying a fee or charge on nuclear energy production, must also give guarantees as security for remaining costs. In this way the fee can be based on a probable cost for waste management. This cost includes uncertainties and variations that are normal for this type of project. Cost increases as a consequence of major changes, disruptions etc. can instead be covered via the given guarantees. The total future costs, in January 1998 prices, for the Swedish waste management system from 1999 onward has been calculated to be SEK 45.8 billion. The total costs apply for the waste obtained from 25 years of operation of all Swedish reactors. They will fall due over a total period of approximately 50 years up to the middle of the 2l st century, but the greater part will fall due during the next 20 years. It is estimated that SEK 12.1 billion in current money terms

  7. Radioactive isotope production for medical applications using Kharkov electron driven subcritical assembly facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-05-15

    , the parent isotopes with high reaction rate were explicitly modeled in the calculations. For the nuclides with a very high capture microscopic cross section, such as iridium, rhenium, and samarium, their specific activities are reduced by a factor of 30 when the self-shielding effect is included. Four irradiation locations were considered in the analyses to maximize the medical isotope production rate. The results show the self-shield effect reduces the specific activity values and changes the irradiation location for obtaining the maximum possible specific activity. The axial and radial distributions of the specific activity were used to define the irradiation sample size for producing each isotope.

  8. Radioactive isotope production for medical applications using Kharkov electron driven subcritical assembly facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.

    2007-01-01

    isotopes with high reaction rate were explicitly modeled in the calculations. For the nuclides with a very high capture microscopic cross section, such as iridium, rhenium, and samarium, their specific activities are reduced by a factor of 30 when the self-shielding effect is included. Four irradiation locations were considered in the analyses to maximize the medical isotope production rate. The results show the self-shield effect reduces the specific activity values and changes the irradiation location for obtaining the maximum possible specific activity. The axial and radial distributions of the specific activity were used to define the irradiation sample size for producing each isotope

  9. Analysis of radioactive cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This is a manual published by Science and Technology Agency, Japan, which prescribes on the analysis method for radioactive cobalt which is a typical indexing nuclide among the radioactive nuclides released from nuclear facilities. Since the released cobalt is mainly discharged to coastal region together with waste water, this manual is written for samples of sea water, sea bottom sediments and marine organisms. Radioactive cobalt includes the nuclides of 57 co, 58 Co, 60 Co, etc., the manual deals with them as a whole as 60 Co of long half life. Though 60 Co analysis has become feasible comparatively simply due to scintillation or semi-conductor spectrometry, trace 60 Co analysis is performed quantitatively by co-precipitation or collection into alumina and scintillation spectrometry. However, specific collecting operation and γ-γ coincidence measurement have been required so far. This manual employs 60 Co collection by means of ion-exchange method and measurement with low background GM counting system, to analyze quantitatively and rapidly low level 60 Co. It is primarily established as the standard analyzing method for the survey by local autonomous bodies. It is divided into 4 chapters including introduction sea water, marine organisms, and sea bottom sediments. List of required reagents is added in appendix. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  10. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in 10 MeV-Electron irradiated spices, (2); [beta]-ray counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Tadashi; Furuta, Masakazu; Shibata, Setsuko; Matsunami, Tadao; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Toratani, Hirokazu (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology); Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1994-02-01

    In order to check radioactivity of beta-emmitters produced by ([gamma], n) reactions which could occur at energies up to 10 MeV, black pepper, white pepper, red pepper, ginger and turmeric were irradiated with 10 MeV electron from a linear accelerator to a dose of 100 kGy. Beta-rays were counted using a 2[pi] gas flow counter and a liquid scintillation counter. Any induced radioactivity could not be detected in irradiated samples. When inorganic compounds containing the nuclides in the list were artificially added in the samples and were irradiated, the [beta]-activities were detected. From the amount of observed radioactivities of [beta]-emmitters produced in the compounds as photonuclear products, it is concluded that the induced radioactivity in natural samples by 10 MeV-electron irradiation were far smaller than natural radioactivity from [sup 40]K contained in the samples and, hence, its biological effects should be negligible. (author).

  11. Application of the permeation to the production of low radioactive calibrated gas flows. Low radioactive tritium measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot, Guy.

    1979-12-01

    The permeation of compounds (HT, HTO, 131 ICH 3 , and 129 ICH 3 ) through organic membranes in view of producing low radioactive calibrated gas flows has been studied. This process of which the diffusion is the main stage enables respecting certain conditions (choice of the membrane, temperature, partial pressure differential) our aims to be reached with a good accuracy. In order to measure radioactivity of tritiated standard gases, a detector was built. This detector is an Oeschger type proportional counter with a total volume of 17.4 dm 3 and an useful volume of 3.9 dm 3 . In the conditions of operation, the background is of 1.7.10 -6 I s -1 cm -3 . The counter coupled with a feed-rack enables various samples to be measured and it is possible in the best conditions to detect some 10 -11 μCi cm -3 NTP [fr

  12. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.J.; Tate, R.L. III; Colombo, P.

    1982-05-01

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches

  13. Production of medical radioactive isotopes using KIPT electron driven subcritical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2008-01-01

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a plan to construct an electron accelerator driven subcritical assembly. One of the facility objectives is the production of medical radioactive isotopes. This paper presents the ANL collaborative work performed for characterizing the facility performance for producing medical radioactive isotopes. First, a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Then, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes have been considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n, γ), (n, 2n), (n, p), and (γ, n). In the second part, the parent isotopes with high reaction rate were explicitly modeled in the calculations. Four irradiation locations were considered in the analyses to study the medical isotope production rate. The results show the self-shielding effect not only reduces the specific activity but it also changes the irradiation location that maximizes the specific activity. The axial and radial distributions of the parent capture rates have been examined to define the irradiation sample size of each parent isotope

  14. Production of medical radioactive isotopes using KIPT electron driven subcritical facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: alby@anl.gov; Gohar, Yousry [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a plan to construct an electron accelerator driven subcritical assembly. One of the facility objectives is the production of medical radioactive isotopes. This paper presents the ANL collaborative work performed for characterizing the facility performance for producing medical radioactive isotopes. First, a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Then, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes have been considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n, {gamma}), (n, 2n), (n, p), and ({gamma}, n). In the second part, the parent isotopes with high reaction rate were explicitly modeled in the calculations. Four irradiation locations were considered in the analyses to study the medical isotope production rate. The results show the self-shielding effect not only reduces the specific activity but it also changes the irradiation location that maximizes the specific activity. The axial and radial distributions of the parent capture rates have been examined to define the irradiation sample size of each parent isotope.

  15. Production of medical radioactive isotopes using KIPT electron driven subcritical facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2008-05-01

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a plan to construct an electron accelerator driven subcritical assembly. One of the facility objectives is the production of medical radioactive isotopes. This paper presents the ANL collaborative work performed for characterizing the facility performance for producing medical radioactive isotopes. First, a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Then, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes have been considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n, gamma), (n, 2n), (n, p), and (gamma, n). In the second part, the parent isotopes with high reaction rate were explicitly modeled in the calculations. Four irradiation locations were considered in the analyses to study the medical isotope production rate. The results show the self-shielding effect not only reduces the specific activity but it also changes the irradiation location that maximizes the specific activity. The axial and radial distributions of the parent capture rates have been examined to define the irradiation sample size of each parent isotope.

  16. Upgrade of the facility EXOTIC for the in-flight production of light Radioactive Ion Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzocco, M., E-mail: marco.mazzocco@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Torresi, D.; Strano, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Boiano, A. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Boiano, C. [INFN-Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Costa, L. [INFN-LNL, Viale dell’Università 2, I-35020 Legnaro, PD (Italy); Glodariu, T. [NIPNE, 407 Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Guglielmetti, A. [INFN-Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica,Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); La Commara, M. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università di Napoli, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Parascandolo, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Pierroutsakou, D. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Signorini, C.; Soramel, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Stroe, L. [NIPNE, 407 Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Production of in-flight Radioactive Ion Beams via two-body reactions. • Development of a cryogenic gas target. • Event-by-event tracking via Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPACs). -- Abstract: The facility EXOTIC for the in-flight production of light weakly-bound Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) has been operating at INFN-LNL since 2004. RIBs are produced via two-body reactions induced by high intensity heavy-ion beams impinging on light gas targets and selected by means of a 30°-dipole bending magnet and a 1-m long Wien filter. The facility has been recently upgraded (i) by developing a cryogenic gas target, (ii) by replacing the power supplies of the middle lenses of the two quadrupole triplets, (iii) by installing two y-steerers and (iv) by placing two Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters upstream the secondary target to provide an event-by-event reconstruction of the position hit on the target. So far, RIBs of {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}B and {sup 17}F in the energy range 3–5 MeV/u have been produced with intensities about 3 × 10{sup 5}, 1.6 × 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 5} pps, respectively. Possible light RIBs (up to Z = 10) deliverable by the facility EXOTIC are also reviewed.

  17. Immobilization of low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes using some industrial by-product materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, N.M.; EI-Dessouky, M.I.; Abou EI-Nour, F.H.; Abdel-Khalik, M.

    2006-01-01

    Immobilization of low and intermediate level.radioactive liquid wastes in different matrices: ordinary Portland cement and cement mixed with some industrial byproduct: by-pass kiln cement dust, blast furnace slag and ceramic sludge was studied. The effect of these industrial by-product materials on the compressive strength, water immersion, radiation effect and teachability were investigated. The obtained results showed that, these industrial by-product improve the cement pastes where they increase the compressive strength, decrease the leaching rate for radioactive cesium-137 and cobalt-60 ions through the solidified waste forms and increase resistance for y-radiation. It is found that, solidified waste forms of intermediate level liquid waste (ILLW) had high compressive strength values more than those obtained from low level liquid waste (LLLW). The compressive strength increased after immersion in different leachant for one and three months for samples with LLLW higher than those obtained for ILLW. The cumulative fractions released of cesium-137 and cobalt-60 of solidified waste forms of LLLW was lower than those obtained for ILLW

  18. Radioactivity handbook. Volume 2: radioactive disintegrations, radiations-matter interactions, applications of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.; Bonfand, E.; Rimbert, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This volume is the second one of a group of three. The first one exposed nuclides, with neutrons and protons in a stable building: atomic nucleus. Here is the second one with unstable, radioactive nucleus. After the description of different kinds of disintegrations, it is justified to follow radiations in matter and modifications attached to them; different uses of radioactivity are developed in medicine, age determination, industrial utilization and biology

  19. Influence of radioactive contamination to agricultural products due to dry and wet deposition processes during a nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Moon Hee; Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Chang Woo

    2002-01-01

    Combined with deposition model onto the ground of radionuclides, the influence of radioactive contamination to agricultural products was analyzed due to wet deposition as well as dry deposition from radioactive air concentration during a nuclear emergency. The previous dynamic food chain model, in which initial input parameter is only radionuclide concentrations on the ground, was improved for the evaluating of radioactive contamination to agricultural products from either radionuclide concentrations in air or radionuclide concentrations on the ground. As the results, in case of deposition onto the ground, wet deposition was more dominant process than dry deposition. While the contamination levels of agricultural products were dependent on the a variety of factors such as radionuclides and rainfall rate. It means that the contamination levels of agricultural products are determined from which is more dominant process between deposition on the ground and interception onto agricultural plants

  20. Light nuclides produced in the proton-induced spallation of {sup 238}U at 1 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardi, M.V.; Armbruster, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Benlliure, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (ES)] [and others

    2005-09-01

    The production of light and intermediate-mass nuclides formed in the reaction {sup 1}H+{sup 238}U at 1 GeV was measured at the fragment separator (FRS) at GSI, Darmstadt. The experiment was performed in inverse kinematics, shooting a 1 A GeV {sup 238}U beam on a thin liquid-hydrogen target. 254 isotopes of all elements in the range 7{<=}Z{<=}37 were unambiguously identified, and the velocity distributions of the produced nuclides were determined with high precision. The results show that the nuclides are produced in a very asymmetric binary decay of heavy nuclei originating from the spallation of uranium. All the features of the produced nuclides merge with the characteristics of the fission products as their mass increases. (orig.)

  1. Assesment of systemic exposure form a wound contaminated by radioactive products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechowski, Jean; Menoux, Bernadette; Chaptinel, Yves

    1992-03-01

    Wound contamination may occur in case of accidental exposure of workers handling radioactive products. In order to operate radio-toxicological follow-up, a fairly general model must be able to apply to the various injuries and products involved. Some principles and their applications are developed to make it possible for physicians to set up a monitoring program relevant to the assessment of the systemic burden. Only the dosimetry relative to the activity passing through the cutaneous mucous barrier into the blood flow is considered. Local doses at the wound level are not considered. For the interpretation of the measurements, both retention and excretion curves and dosimetric factors are given for the most common radionuclides. (authors) [fr

  2. Heat production rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, Adel G.E.; El-Arabi, A.M.; Abbady, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive heat-production data of Igneous and Metamorphic outcrops in the Eastern Desert are presented. Samples were analysed using a low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The heat-production rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 μW m -3 (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite ) to 0.91 μW m -3 (metagabbro). The contribution due to U is about 51%, as that from Th is 31% and 18% from K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%, 19% and 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values except in some areas containing granites

  3. Observation of Two-Proton Radioactivity of 19Mg by Tracking the Decay Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukha, I.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Espino, J.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Suemmerer, K.; Chatillon, A.; Geissel, H.; Hoffmann, J.; Kurz, N.; Litvinov, Yu.; Nociforo, C.; Ott, W.; Roeckl, E.; Weick, H.; Acosta, L.; Garcia-Ramos, J. E.; Martel, I.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.

    2007-01-01

    We have observed the two-proton radioactivity of the previously unknown 19 Mg ground state by tracking the decay products in-flight. For the first time, the trajectories of the 2p-decay products, 17 Ne+p+p, have been measured by using tracking microstrip detectors which allowed us to reconstruct the 2p-decay vertices and fragment correlations. The half-life of 19 Mg deduced from the measured vertex distribution is 4.0(15) ps in the system of 19 Mg. The Q value of the 2p decay of the 19 Mg ground state inferred from the measured p-p- 17 Ne correlations is 0.75(5) MeV

  4. Heat production rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, A G.E.; Arabi, A.M.; Abbay, A.

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive heat - production data of igneous and metamorphic rocks cropping out from the eastern desert are presented. Samples were analysed using low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The heat-production rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 Μ Wm-3 (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite) to 0.91 (metagabroo) Μ W.m-3. The contribution due to U is about (51%), whereas that of Th (31%) and (18%) by K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%: 19%: 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values expect in some areas contained granite rocks

  5. Interleukin-2 stimulates osteoclastic activity: Increased acid production and radioactive calcium release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ries, W.L.; Seeds, M.C.; Key, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) was studied to determine effects on acid production by individual osteoclasts in situ on mouse calvarial bones. This analysis was performed using a microspectrofluorimetric technique to quantify acid production in individual cells. Radioactive calcium release was determined using calvarial bones in a standard tissue culture system. This allowed us to correlate changes in acid production with a measure of bone resorption. IL-2 stimulated acid production and bone resorbing activity. Both effects were inhibited by calcitonin. No stimulation of bone resorption occurred when IL-2-containing test media was incubated with a specific anti-IL-2 antibody and ultrafiltered. Our data demonstrated a correlation between acid production and bone resorbing activity in mouse calvaria exposed to parathyroid hormone (PTH). The data obtained from cultured mouse calvaria exposed to IL-2 demonstrated similar stimulatory effects to those seen during PTH exposure. These data suggest that calvaria exposed to IL-2 in vitro have increased osteoclastic acid production corresponding with increased bone resorption. (author)

  6. Production of multicharged radioactive ion beams for spiral: studies and realization of the first target-ion source system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maunoury, L.

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of the SPIRAL project, which concerns the production and the acceleration of a multicharged radioactive ions beam, the following part has been studied: production and ionization of the radioactive ions beam. A first target-source (nanogan II), devoted exclusively to the production of multicharged radioactive ions gas type beams, has been studied and tested. The diffusion efficiency has been deduced from the diffusion equations (Fick laws). This efficiency is governed by the following parameters: the temperature, the grains size of the target, the Arrhenius parameters and the radioactive period. Another study concerning the production targets is presented. It deals with the temperature distribution allowing an utilization of more than one month at a temperature of 2400 K. Another development (SPIRAL II) is devoted to the production of high neutron content radioactive atoms created by the uranium fission, from fast neutrons. The neutrons beam is produced by the ''stripping break-up'' of a deutons beam in a converter. (A.L.B.)

  7. Physics with radioactive nuclear beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.N.; Tanihata, I.

    1992-01-01

    Recently developed facilities allow a wide range of new investigations of the reactions and properties of short-lived nuclei. These studies may help to solve puzzles of nuclear structure and the Big Bang. The purpose of nuclear physics is to measure properties of specific nuclides and infer from them global properties common to all nuclides. One goal, for example, is to understand nuclear sizes and matter distributions in terms of basic nuclear forces. Another is to understand the variation throughout the periodic table of the dominant quantum states, which are known as the open-quotes nuclear shell modelclose quotes states and are characterized, much as are atomic states, by a principal quantum number and by orbital and total angular momentum quantum numbers. In turn other nuclear phenomena, such as the collective excitations known as giant resonances, can be understood in terms of the shell-model configurations and basic nuclear parameters. Radioactive nuclear beam studies of reactions of short-lived nuclides have already yielded results with important ramifications in both nuclear physics and astrophysics. Nuclear physicists expect unstable nuclides to exhibit unusual structures or features that may test their understanding of known nuclear phenomena at extreme conditions, and perhaps even to reveal previously unknown nuclear phenomena, Astrophysicists, for their part, have known for several decades that processes in both Big Bang nucleosynthesis and stellar nucleosynthesis involve short-lived nuclides. Indeed, the original motivation for developing radioactive nuclear beams was astrophysical. 25 refs., 7 figs

  8. Physics with radioactive nuclear beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.N.

    1995-01-01

    Recently developed facilities allow a wide range of new investigations of the reactions and properties of short-lived nuclei. These studies may help to solve puzzles of nuclear structure and the Big Bang. The purpose of nuclear physics is to measure properties of specific nuclides and infer from them global properties common to all nuclides, for example, is to understand nuclear sizes and matter distributions in terms of basic nuclear forces. Another is to understand the variation throughout the periodic table of the dominant quantum states, which are known as the open-quotes nuclear shell model close quotes states and are characterized, much as are atomic states, by a principal quantum number and by orbital and total angular momentum quantum numbers. In turn other nuclear phenomena, such as the collective excitations known as giant resonances, can be understood in terms of the shell-model configurations and basic nuclear parameters. Radioactive nuclear beam studies of reactions of short-lived nuclides have already yielded results with important ramifications in both nuclear physics and astrophysics. Nuclear physicists expect unstable nuclides to exhibit unusual structures or features that may test their understanding of known nuclear phenomena at extreme conditions, and perhaps even to reveal previously unknown nuclear phenomena, Astrophysicists, for their part, have known for several decades that processes in both Big Bang nucleosynthesis and stellar nucleosynthesis involve short-lived nuclides. Indeed, the original motivation for developing radioactive nuclear beams was astrophysical. (author). 25 refs., 7 figs

  9. Identification of tetraphenylborate radiolysis products in a simulated feedstock for radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibling, R.E.; Bartlett, M.G.; Carlson, R.E.; Testino, S.A. Jr.; Kunkel, G.J.; Browner, R.F.; Busch, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    The first step towards immobilization of the soluble radioactive species in borosilicate glass is the addition of sodium tetraphenylborate (TPB) and sodium titanate to the radioactive aqueous solution. Initial studies of the TPB hydrolysis process have found that some component of the radiolysis mixture inactivates the Cu catalyst. The interaction of organic materials with the catalyst, and the subsequent interference with the hydrolysis process, would have presented problems with the use of the vitrification process. Prevention of the catalyst deactivation is obtained by washing the irradiated TPB precipitate in the Late Wash Facility prior to hydrolysis to remove the soluble radiolysis products. Identification of the organic radiolysis products, their distribution in the Late Wash Facility, and their interactions with the Cu catalyst has become an important analytical issue. To further investigate the reaction products of the TPB precipitation process, a simulated feedstock was created from compounds known to be present in the starting materials. This simulated feedstock was precipitated with sodium TPB and then exposed to Co-60 gamma radiation to simulate two years of additional storage time prior to the hydrolysis process. The irradiated product was divided into two parts, the filtered supernatant liquid and the precipitate slurry, which contains the TPB and the solid sodium titanate. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry, ion chromatography, and high performance liquid chromatography, over 50 organic and inorganic species have been identified in the aqueous portion of a simulated feedstock for TPB hydrolysis. The major organic species present are benzene, phenol, benzamide and a variety of substituted phenylphenols. The major inorganic species present are sodium, nitrite, and oxalate ions

  10. High Accuracy mass Measurement of the very Short-Lived Halo Nuclide $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    Le scornet, G

    2002-01-01

    The archetypal halo nuclide $^{11}$Li has now attracted a wealth of experimental and theoretical attention. The most outstanding property of this nuclide, its extended radius that makes it as big as $^{48}$Ca, is highly dependent on the binding energy of the two neutrons forming the halo. New generation experiments using radioactive beams with elastic proton scattering, knock-out and transfer reactions, together with $\\textit{ab initio}$ calculations require the tightening of the constraint on the binding energy. Good metrology also requires confirmation of the sole existing precision result to guard against a possible systematic deviation (or mistake). We propose a high accuracy mass determintation of $^{11}$Li, a particularly challenging task due to its very short half-life of 8.6 ms, but one perfectly suiting the MISTRAL spectrometer, now commissioned at ISOLDE. We request 15 shifts of beam time.

  11. Deposits of naturally occurring radioactivity in production of oil and natural gas; Radioaktive avleiringer i olje- og gassproduksjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, T; Lysebo, I; Kristensen, D; Birovljev, A

    1997-01-01

    Deposits of naturally occurring radioactive materials is an increasing problem in Norwegian oil and gas production. Activity concentration in solid-state samples and production water, and doses to workers involved in different operations off-shore, have been measured. The report also includes a discussion of different methods of monitoring and alternatives for final disposal of wastes. 154 refs.

  12. Radioactivity in food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for 241 Am, 7 Be, 60 Co, 55 Fe, 3 H, 131 I, 54 Mn, 95 Nb, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 228 Th, 232 Th, and 95 Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g -1 (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins

  13. Radioactivity in food crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  14. Manufacturing radioactive material for medical, research and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Hospitals, clinics and other medical complexes are among the most extensive users of radioactive material. Nuclear medicine uses radioactive solutions of Tc-99m, Tl-201, Ga-67, I-123, Xe-133 and other radiopharmaceuticals as diagnostic tools to evaluate dynamic functions of various organs in the body, detect cancerous tumors, sites of infection or other bodily dysfunctions. Examples of monitoring blood flow to the brain of a cocaine addict will be shown. Many different radionuclides are also produced for life science research and industrial applications. Some require long irradiations and are needed only periodically. Radiopharmaceutical manufactures look for reliable suppliers that can produce quality product at a reasonable cost. Worldwide production of the processed and unprocessed radionuclides and the enriched stable nuclides that are the target materials used in the accelerators and reactors around the world will be discussed. (author)

  15. A Probabilistic Consideration on Nuclide Releases from a Pyro-processed Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Very recently, a GoldSim template program, GSTSPA, for a safety assessment of a conceptual hybrid-typed repository system, called 'A-KRS,' in which two kinds of pyroprocessed radioactive wastes, low-level metal wastes and ceramic high-level wastes that arise from the pyroprocessing of PWR nuclear spent fuels, has been developed and is to be disposed of by 'separate disposal' strategies. The A-KRS is considered to be constructed at two different depths in geological media: at a 200m depth, at which a possible human intrusion is considered to be limited after closure, for the pyroprocessed metal wastes with lower or no decay heat producing nuclides, and at a 500m depth, believed to be the reducing condition for nuclides with a rather higher radioactivity and heat generation rate. This program is ready for a probabilistic total system performance assessment (TSPA) which is able to evaluate nuclide release from the repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal, disruptive natural and manmade events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of a waste package and canister with associated uncertainty. To quantify the nuclide release and transport through the various possible pathways in the near- and far-fields of the A-KRS repository system under a normal groundwater flow scenario, some illustrative evaluations have been made through this study. Even though all parameter values associated with the A-KRS were assumed for the time being, the illustrative results should be informative since the evaluation of such releases is very important not only in view of the safety assessment of the repository, but also for design feedback of its performance

  16. A Probabilistic Consideration on Nuclide Releases from a Pyro-processed Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2012-01-01

    Very recently, a GoldSim template program, GSTSPA, for a safety assessment of a conceptual hybrid-typed repository system, called 'A-KRS,' in which two kinds of pyroprocessed radioactive wastes, low-level metal wastes and ceramic high-level wastes that arise from the pyroprocessing of PWR nuclear spent fuels, has been developed and is to be disposed of by 'separate disposal' strategies. The A-KRS is considered to be constructed at two different depths in geological media: at a 200m depth, at which a possible human intrusion is considered to be limited after closure, for the pyroprocessed metal wastes with lower or no decay heat producing nuclides, and at a 500m depth, believed to be the reducing condition for nuclides with a rather higher radioactivity and heat generation rate. This program is ready for a probabilistic total system performance assessment (TSPA) which is able to evaluate nuclide release from the repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal, disruptive natural and manmade events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of a waste package and canister with associated uncertainty. To quantify the nuclide release and transport through the various possible pathways in the near- and far-fields of the A-KRS repository system under a normal groundwater flow scenario, some illustrative evaluations have been made through this study. Even though all parameter values associated with the A-KRS were assumed for the time being, the illustrative results should be informative since the evaluation of such releases is very important not only in view of the safety assessment of the repository, but also for design feedback of its performance

  17. [Nationwide survey on radioactive waste management related to positron emission tomography in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Kida, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Shinji

    2009-12-20

    A clearance system for medical radioactive solid waste has not yet been implemented in Japan. Since 2004 new regulations have allowed institutions using positron emission tomography(PET)to handle totally decayed radioactive waste as non-radioactive waste after decay-in-storage. It was expected that this new regulation would mediate the installation of clearance systems in Japan. In order to assess the current situation of radiation safety management in PET institutions, we conducted a nationwide survey. The study design was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted by questionnaire. The subjects of this survey were all the PET institutions in Japan. Among 224 institutes, 128 institutes are equipped with cyclotrons and 96 institutes are not. The number of returned questionnaires was 138. Among institutes that are using delivered radiopharmaceuticals, 80% treat their waste as non-radioactive according to the new regulation. The impact of new regulations for reducing radioactive waste in PET institutes without a cyclotron was estimated at about $400 thousand per year. The main concern of medical institutes was assessment of the contamination caused by by-products of radioactive nuclides generated in target water during the operation of a cyclotron. It was thought that a rational rule based on scientific risk management should be established because these by-products of radioactive nuclides are negligible for radiation safety. New regulation has had a good influence on medical PET institutes, and it is expected that a clearance system for medical radioactive waste will be introduced in the near future, following these recent experiences in PET institutes.

  18. Comparison measure of natural radioactivity in environment specimen using HPGe and NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunlin; Han Feng; Li Tiantuo; Ma Wenyan; Di Yuming; Guo Huiping; Wu Yuelei

    2000-01-01

    The author reports the comparison results on natural radioactive nuclide contents of soil specimen from an uranium diggings with HPGe and NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometer. Relative method and athwart matrix method are used to analyze natural radioactive nuclide contents in samples of soil. The results are compared and are proven to be in accordance with each other

  19. Application of electromagnetic fields to improve the removal rate of radioactive corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Tae Young; Lee, Kun Jai; Song, Min Chul

    2004-01-01

    To comply with increasingly strict regulations for protection against radiation exposure, many nuclear power plants have been working ceaselessly to reduce and control both the radiation sources within power plants and the radiation exposure experienced by operational and maintenance personnel. Many research studies have shown that deposits of irradiated corrosion products on the surfaces of coolant systems are the main cause of occupational radiation exposure in nuclear power plants. These corrosion product deposits on the fuel-clad surface are also known to be main factors in the onset of Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA). Hence, there is a great deal of ongoing research on water chemistry and corrosion processes. In this study, a magnetic filter with permanent magnets was devised to remove the corrosion products in the coolant stream by taking advantage of the magnetic properties of the corrosion particles. Experiments using permanent magnets to filter the corrosion products demonstrated a removal efficiency of over 90% for particles above 5 μm. This finding led to the construction of an electromagnetic device that causes the metallic particulates to flocculate into larger aggregates of about 5 μm in diameter by using a novel application of electromagnetic flocculation on radioactive corrosion products

  20. Instant detection of incorporated radio-nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgirev, E.I.; Porozov, N.V.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for rapid estimation of radionuclides both in the whole human body and in individual human organs beginning from levels equal to 0.1-0.01 of the maxium permissible value of annual absorption by personnel. In post-accident radiation exposure surveys, the whole-body content of gamma-emitting nuclides is monitored by measuring the flow of gamma quanta by use of a gas-discharge counter cassette placed at a distance of 0.5 m from the subject. Relationships for determining radionuclides in the human body are presented