WorldWideScience

Sample records for radioactive discharge control

  1. Discharges of radioactive materials to the environment in Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Curti, A R

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is creating a database of information on radioactive discharges to atmospheric and aquatic environments from nuclear and radioactive installations, and from facilities using radionuclides in medicine, industry and research. The database is expected to facilitate the analysis of worldwide trends in discharge levels and provide a basis for assessing the impact of the discharges on humans and on the environment. In November 2002 took place the first meeting of national contact points and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN in Spanish) was present as the counterpart for the provision of discharge data from Argentina. This paper, presented in the above mentioned meeting, is a general overview of the radioactive discharges control in Argentina including the legal infrastructure, the population dose assessment methodology and the main characteristics of the facilities in the country with radioactive discharges to the environment. It is mentioned their location, release...

  2. File: radioactive discharge in France; Dossier: les rejets radioactifs en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niel, J.Ch.; Rudant, G.; Stoltz, M.; Chartier, M.; Garnier-Laplace, J.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Gilbin, R.; Gariel, J.Ch.; Hemidy, P.Y.; Siclet, F.; Hartmann, Ph.; Dubest, A.; Schmitt, A.; Marchandise, X.; Devries, Th.; Rennesson, M.; Messier, A.; Devin, P.; Le Bar, S.; Ramirez, F.; Bonnet, Ph.; Chauvet, Ch.; Roussel-Debet, S.; Pierrard, O.; Renaud, Ph.; Delmont, D.; Granier, R.; Mouchet, Ch.; Artus, J.C.; Guillemette, A.; Lochard, J.; Schneider, Th.; Miserey, Y.; Sugier, A.; Bonnemains, J.; Courtois, S.; Herzeele, M.; Van der Stricht, St

    2007-11-15

    Applying recent legislative and regulatory changes, the action of Asn forms part of a continuous progress approach aimed at further reducing the health and environmental impact of nuclear installations and activities and at providing information on radioactive discharges in France and their monitoring which corresponds as closely as possible the concerns of the citizens. The different subjects tackled in this issue are as follow: the issues of a good management; make sure license assumes its responsibility and answer the concerns of the public; radiological impact of routine releases: realistic approach or conservative approach; assessing the impact of radioactive discharges on environment: present situation and prospects; monitoring of the radioecological impact of radioactive discharges from EDF nuclear power plants; impact of effluent discharges from disused uranium mines in the Limousin; medical radioactive discharges; the continuous improvement approach of A.R.E.V.A. N.C. applied to radioactive discharge/experience of A.R.E.V.A. N.C. La Hague; Standardisation of the radioactive effluents in France; Inspection with sampling: the view of the license of the Civaux nuclear power plant; tritium, carbon-14: myth or reality; discharges from secret basic nuclear installations under the responsibility of the minister for industry; C.L.I. (local information, committee) actions and expectations- how to communicate to the public - the point of view of the Gard C.L.I. regarding Marcoule nuclear site; consultation of public inquiry dossiers/practical exercise on the application to amend the discharge licenses of the Flamanville power plant, March 2007; Discharge management and public perception; a misunderstood and unclear monitoring system; the Nord-Cotentin radioecology group ten years on; chemical and radioactive deposits: the case of the Rhone; O.S.P.A.R. international action for the protection of the marine environment; monitoring by the European Commission. (N.C.)

  3. Radioactive liquid wastes discharged to ground in the 200 Areas during 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J. D.; Poremba, B. E.

    1979-03-26

    This document is issued quarterly for the purpose of summarizing the radioactive liquid wastes that have been discharged to the ground in the 200 Areas. In addition to data for 1978, cumulative data since plant startup are presented. Also, in this document is a listing of decayed activity to the various plant sites.

  4. Predicting the environmental risks of radioactive discharges from Belgian nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, H; Sweeck, L; Vives I Batlle, J; Wannijn, J; Van Hees, M; Camps, J; Olyslaegers, G; Miliche, C; Lance, B

    2013-12-01

    An environmental risk assessment (ERA) was performed to evaluate the impact on non-human biota from liquid and atmospheric radioactive discharges by the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) of Doel and Tihange. For both sites, characterisation of the source term and wildlife population around the NPPs was provided, whereupon the selection of reference organisms and the general approach taken for the environmental risk assessment was established. A deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems was performed using the ERICA assessment tool and applying the ERICA screening value of 10 μGy h(-1). The study was performed for the radioactive discharge limits and for the actual releases (maxima and averages over the period 1999-2008 or 2000-2009). It is concluded that the current discharge limits for the Belgian NPPs considered do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment and that the actual discharges, which are a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Management and control of radioactive wastes in Ghana | Gbadago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Actions taken to educate the public, industrialists, health workers and other users of radioactive materials on the national system of control of radioactive wastes are presented. The roles of NRWMC as the institution responsible for collection, treatment and safe disposal of spent and disused radio-active materials are ...

  6. A procedure for estimating site specific derived limits for the discharge of radioactive material to the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Hallam, J; Jones, J A

    1983-01-01

    Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs) for the discharge of radioactive material to the atmosphere are evaluated using parameter values to ensure that the exposure of the critical group is unlikely to be underestimated significantly. Where the discharge is greater than about 5% of the GDL, a more rigorous estimate of the derived limit may be warranted. This report describes a procedure for estimating site specific derived limits for discharges of radioactivity to the atmosphere taking into account the conditions of the release and the location and habits of the exposed population. A worksheet is provided to assist in carrying out the required calculations.

  7. 10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radioactive contamination control. 39.69 Section 39.69... Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive contamination control. (a) If the licensee detects evidence that a sealed source has ruptured or licensed materials have caused contamination, the licensee...

  8. Recent UK Experience of Involving the Public in Decisions on Radioactive Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E. [Environment Agency, London (United Kingdom); Weedon, C.J. [Environment Agency, Penrith (United Kingdom); McGoff, A.; Bower, M. [Environment Agency, Bedford (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    In January 1998 BNFL applied to the Agency for authorisations to dispose of gaseous, liquid, combustible and solid radioactive wastes in respect of each of Magnox Electric's power stations. The Agency is currently considering BNFL's applications. This is the first time that authorisations for radioactive waste disposal have been considered for all these stations together as a package. It has been a major task for BNFL to assemble all the relevant information and for the Agency to drive the process forward through public consultation to the decision-making stage. As part of its role of protecting and improving the environment, the Agency is committed to progressive reductions in radioactive discharges where practicable, seeking to achieve this through the limits and conditions of any authorisation it issues. It aims to review nuclear site authorisations on a four-yearly cycle and has used BNFL's applications as the basis for its review of the Magnox power station sites. The Agency carefully scrutinised the applications and obtained additional detailed information and clarification from BNFL in response to six rounds of questions. The applications and responses from the company to Agency questions were made publicly available. They include information on: the benefits and detriments of continued operation/decommissioning (as appropriate); the sources and amounts of radioactive waste associated with continued operation/decommissioning; the current levels of discharge of radioactive waste to the environment; and the application of best practicable means (BPM) to minimise discharges. The Agency is considering all the application information and must decide, separately for each power station, whether an authorisation should be issued to BNFL. It has consulted publicly to assist its decision making, the objective being to enable people and organisations to draw to the Agency's attention any matters they would wish it to consider when reaching its

  9. Liquid discharges from the Ringhals and Barsebaeck nuclear power plants. Report to the OSPAR commission in accordance with PARCOM recommendation 91/4 on radioactive discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    With regard to the general objectives of the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention), the contracting parties have agreed, as stated in PARCOM Recommendation 91/4 on Radioactive Discharges, to apply best available technique (BAT) to reduce radioactive releases from the nuclear industry. Progress in implementing BAT shall be reported to the OSPAR Commission every four years. This report contains the Swedish submission for the third round of implementation reporting according to PARCOM Recommendation 91/4. The data provided are relevant to the Ringhals NPP which discharge into Convention waters, and the Barsebaeck NPP which discharge into waters close to the Convention area. The report was submitted to the Commission in December 1999.

  10. Controlled emptying with whole-area dischargers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Franke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available While emptying complex bulk solids apparatuses and silos, the discharger at container bottom can significantly affect the energy demand of the process and the product quality. At practice, a variety of discharge devices has been developed which differ in the closing mechanism and the design of their fixed inserts. Experimental studies with wheat have shown that some whole-area dischargers cause a distinctive flow profile. Due to their design, these systems offer an unexploited potential to locally influence the bulk solids motion and to realize a controlled emptying. Based on a prototype, a new type of discharge device has been developed at the Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy e.V. (ATB. First results show that fixed baffles at the walls lead to a decelerated emptying at the sides of the discharge device. On the other hand, a complete renunciation of these installations results in a significant acceleration in the same regions. In future, it is intended to locally control the bulk solids movement by using an optimized design of the fixed inserts of the closing mechanism. Furthermore, it is intended to investigate how the drying process in mixed-flow grain dryers can be influenced and homogenized by using the newly developed discharge device.

  11. Controlled Containment, Radioactive Waste Management in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codee, H.

    2002-02-26

    All radioactive waste produced in The Netherlands is managed by COVRA, the central organization for radioactive waste. The Netherlands forms a good example of a country with a small nuclear power program which will end in the near future. However, radioisotope production, nuclear research and other industrial activities will continue to produce radioactive waste. For the small volume, but broad spectrum of radioactive waste, including TENORM, The Netherlands has developed a management system based on the principles to isolate, to control and to monitor the waste. Long term storage is an essential element of the management system and forms a necessary step in the strategy of controlled containment that will ultimately result in final removal of the waste. Since the waste will remain retrievable for long time new technologies and new disposal options can be applied when available and feasible.

  12. Probabilistic Prognosis of Environmental Radioactivity Concentrations due to Radioisotopes Discharged to Water Bodies from Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás Zerquera, Juan; Mora, Juan C; Robles, Beatriz

    2017-11-15

    Due to their very low values, the complexity of comparing the contribution of nuclear power plants (NPPs) to environmental radioactivity with modeled values is recognized. In order to compare probabilistic prognosis of radioactivity concentrations with environmental measurement values, an exercise was performed using public data of radioactive routine discharges from three representative Spanish nuclear power plants. Specifically, data on liquid discharges from three Spanish NPPs: Almaraz, Vandellós II, and Ascó to three different aquatic bodies (river, lake, and coast) were used. Results modelled using generic conservative models together with Monte Carlo techniques used for uncertainties propagation were compared with values of radioactivity concentrations in the environment measured in the surroundings of these NPPs. Probability distribution functions were inferred for the source term, used as an input to the model to estimate the radioactivity concentrations in the environment due to discharges to the water bodies. Radioactivity concentrations measured in bottom sediments were used in the exercise due to their accumulation properties. Of all the radioisotopes measured in the environmental monitoring programs around the NPPs, only Cs-137, Sr-90, and Co-60 had positive values greater than their respective detection limits. Of those, Sr-90 and Cs-137 are easily measured in the environment, but significant contribution from the radioactive fall-out due to nuclear explosions in the atmosphere exists, and therefore their values cannot be attributed to the NPPs. On the contrary, Co-60 is especially useful as an indicator of the radioactive discharges from NPPs because its presence in the environment can solely be attributed to the impact of the closer nuclear facilities. All the modelled values for Co-60 showed a reasonable correspondence with measured environmental data in all cases, being conservative in two of them. The more conservative predictions obtained with

  13. Probabilistic Prognosis of Environmental Radioactivity Concentrations due to Radioisotopes Discharged to Water Bodies from Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tomás Zerquera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to their very low values, the complexity of comparing the contribution of nuclear power plants (NPPs to environmental radioactivity with modeled values is recognized. In order to compare probabilistic prognosis of radioactivity concentrations with environmental measurement values, an exercise was performed using public data of radioactive routine discharges from three representative Spanish nuclear power plants. Specifically, data on liquid discharges from three Spanish NPPs: Almaraz, Vandellós II, and Ascó to three different aquatic bodies (river, lake, and coast were used. Results modelled using generic conservative models together with Monte Carlo techniques used for uncertainties propagation were compared with values of radioactivity concentrations in the environment measured in the surroundings of these NPPs. Probability distribution functions were inferred for the source term, used as an input to the model to estimate the radioactivity concentrations in the environment due to discharges to the water bodies. Radioactivity concentrations measured in bottom sediments were used in the exercise due to their accumulation properties. Of all the radioisotopes measured in the environmental monitoring programs around the NPPs, only Cs-137, Sr-90, and Co-60 had positive values greater than their respective detection limits. Of those, Sr-90 and Cs-137 are easily measured in the environment, but significant contribution from the radioactive fall-out due to nuclear explosions in the atmosphere exists, and therefore their values cannot be attributed to the NPPs. On the contrary, Co-60 is especially useful as an indicator of the radioactive discharges from NPPs because its presence in the environment can solely be attributed to the impact of the closer nuclear facilities. All the modelled values for Co-60 showed a reasonable correspondence with measured environmental data in all cases, being conservative in two of them. The more conservative

  14. Radioactive discharges and environmental monitoring at the Swedish nuclear facilities 2001; Utslaepps- och omgivningskontroll vid de kaerntekniska anlaeggningarna 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandwall, Johanna

    2002-11-01

    This report contains an evaluation of the discharge and environmental programme for the Swedish nuclear facilities. It also contains the work on quality control performed by SSI. This is done as random sampling of discharge water and environmental samples.

  15. Evaluating future detriment from radioactive discharges Judgements and implications for optimisation of protection

    CERN Document Server

    Fleishman, A B

    1982-01-01

    For long-lived nuclides released into the environment, it is possible to calculate dose commitments extending over thousands or millions of years. The inclusion of this detriment to future populations in present day decision-making is not a technical matter, but represents an area where judgement must be applied. This report shows how different judgements on the relative valuation of future doses can have significant implications for the management of radioactive effluents. A quantitative framework for the expression of such judgements is proposed for optimisation studies, to clarify for decision-makers these implications in the assessment of alternative management options. This is based on the economic principles of discounting, but is related to the use of incomplete collective dose commitments (truncated in time), and includes a zero discount rate which assigns the same weight to doses whenever received. The framework is applied to a series of potential management options for the control of carbon-14, kryp...

  16. Environmental risks of radioactive discharges from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Dessel, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle, J Vives I; Sweeck, L; Wannijn, J; Vandenhove, H

    2016-10-01

    The potential radiological impact of releases from a low-level radioactive waste (Category A waste) repository in Dessel, Belgium on the local fauna and flora was assessed under a reference scenario for gradual leaching. The potential impact situations for terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora considered in this study were soil contamination due to irrigation with contaminated groundwater from a well at 70 m from the repository, contamination of the local wetlands receiving the highest radionuclide flux after migration through the aquifer and contamination of the local river receiving the highest radionuclide flux after migration through the aquifer. In addition, an exploratory study was carried out for biota residing in the groundwater. All impact assessments were performed using the Environmental Risk from Ionising Contaminants: Assessment and Management (ERICA) tool. For all scenarios considered, absorbed dose rates to biota were found to be well below the ERICA 10 μGy h-1 screening value. The highest dose rates were observed for the scenario where soil was irrigated with groundwater from the vicinity of the repository. For biota residing in the groundwater well, a few dose rates were slightly above the screening level but significantly below the dose rates at which the smallest effects are observed for those relevant species or groups of species. Given the conservative nature of the assessment, it can be concluded that manmade radionuclides deposited into the environment by the near surface disposal of category A waste at Dessel do not have a significant radiological impact to wildlife. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [The main directions of improving the system of state accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive waste products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a modification of the basic directions of state accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive waste products, whose implementation will significantly improve the efficiency of its operation at the regional level. Selected areas are designed to improve accounting and control system for the submission of the enterprises established by the reporting forms, the quality of the information contained in them, as well as structures of information and process for collecting, analyzing and data processing concerning radioactive substances and waste products.

  18. Non-Destructive Testing for Control of Radioactive Waste Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumeri, S.; Carrel, F.

    2015-10-01

    Characterization and control of radioactive waste packages are important issues in the management of a radioactive waste repository. Therefore, Andra performs quality control inspection on radwaste package before disposal to ensure the compliance of the radwast characteristics with Andra waste disposal specifications and to check the consistency between Andra measurements results and producer declared properties. Objectives of this quality control are: assessment and improvement of producer radwaste packages quality mastery, guarantee of the radwaste disposal safety, maintain of the public confidence. To control radiological characteristics of radwaste package, non-destructive passive methods (gamma spectrometry and neutrons counting) are commonly used. These passive methods may not be sufficient, for instance to control the mass of fissile material contained inside radwaste package. This is particularly true for large concrete hull of heterogeneous radwaste containing several actinides mixed with fission products like 137Cs. Non-destructive active methods, like measurement of photofission delayed neutrons, allow to quantify the global mass of actinides and is a promising method to quantify mass of fissile material. Andra has performed different non-destructive measurements on concrete intermediate-level short lived nuclear waste (ILW-SL) package to control its nuclear material content. These tests have allowed Andra to have a first evaluation of the performance of photofission delayed neutron measurement and to identify development needed to have a reliable method, especially for fissile material mass control in intermediate-level long lived waste package.

  19. Management and control of radioactive wastes in Ghana | Gbadago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is responsible for monitoring and tracking all radioactive materials imported, stored or exported. The profile of radioactive sources in active use are also presented, in addition to spent radioactive sources currently in the custody of the NRWMC as part of the inventory for creating databases on radioactive wastes in Ghana.

  20. Control of radioactive waste in nuclear medicine; Controle de rejeitos radioativos em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staevie, G.L.G.; Gattringer, D.K.; Tessmann, M.; Dal Mas, C.R. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital Sao Lucas

    1996-12-31

    A collection of data about the control of waste in nuclear medicine of Hospital Sao Lucas of PUCRS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil) is presented. Better procedures of storing and decrease radioactive waste and improve the service are proposed

  1. Experimental Verification on Remote Detectability of Concealed Radioactive Material Based on the Plasma Discharge Delay Time using High-Power Millimeter-Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsung; Yu, Dongho; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Ingeun; Choi, Eunmi

    2016-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a remote detection method of a radioactive source by plasma breakdown using high-power millimeter-wave source, gyrotron. A number of free electrons near the radioactive source are much higher than those of without the radioactive source (roughly 10 particles/cm3) owing to the interaction of air molecules and strong gamma rays generated by radioactive material. The RF wave beam is focused in ambient air, and the plasmas discharge occurs involving random delay time which means a time interval between the RF wave and a fluorescent light caused by the plasma. We observed that the delay time decreased significantly due to the high density of free electrons in Ar plasma with an existence of Co60 radioactive material. This technique of delay time measurement shows 1000 times more sensitive than a method of detectable mass equation to identify the existence of radioactive source remotely. It is the first experimental verification of radioactive material detection using a high power gyrotron. This study shows that a remote detection of radioactive material based on analysis of precise delay time measurement could be feasible by using a high power millimeter/THz wave gyrotron. NRF-2013R1A1A2061062, NRF-2012-Global Ph.D. Fellowship Program.

  2. [Automatic adjustment control system for DC glow discharge plasma source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhen-zhen; Wang, Yong-qing; Li, Xiao-jia; Wang, Hai-zhou; Shi, Ning

    2011-03-01

    There are three important parameters in the DC glow discharge process, the discharge current, discharge voltage and argon pressure in discharge source. These parameters influence each other during glow discharge process. This paper presents an automatic control system for DC glow discharge plasma source. This system collects and controls discharge voltage automatically by adjusting discharge source pressure while the discharge current is constant in the glow discharge process. The design concept, circuit principle and control program of this automatic control system are described. The accuracy is improved by this automatic control system with the method of reducing the complex operations and manual control errors. This system enhances the control accuracy of glow discharge voltage, and reduces the time to reach discharge voltage stability. The glow discharge voltage stability test results with automatic control system are provided as well, the accuracy with automatic control system is better than 1% FS which is improved from 4% FS by manual control. Time to reach discharge voltage stability has been shortened to within 30 s by automatic control from more than 90 s by manual control. Standard samples like middle-low alloy steel and tin bronze have been tested by this automatic control system. The concentration analysis precision has been significantly improved. The RSDs of all the test result are better than 3.5%. In middle-low alloy steel standard sample, the RSD range of concentration test result of Ti, Co and Mn elements is reduced from 3.0%-4.3% by manual control to 1.7%-2.4% by automatic control, and that for S and Mo is also reduced from 5.2%-5.9% to 3.3%-3.5%. In tin bronze standard sample, the RSD range of Sn, Zn and Al elements is reduced from 2.6%-4.4% to 1.0%-2.4%, and that for Si, Ni and Fe is reduced from 6.6%-13.9% to 2.6%-3.5%. The test data is also shown in this paper.

  3. The Physiologic Effects of Multiple Simultaneous Electronic Control Device Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Donald M.; Ho, Jeffrey D.; Reardon, Robert F.; Sweeney, James D.; Miner, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Law enforcement and military personnel use electronic control devices to control non-compliant and actively resistive subjects. The TASER® Shockwave is a new electronic control device designed specifically as an area denial device capable of delivering multiple simultaneous discharges. This is the first study to examine the effects of multiple simultaneous device discharges in humans. Methods: Volunteers were exposed to multiple (two to three), simultaneous 5-second discharges from the Shockwave device to the chest, back, chest to abdomen, or thighs. Blood was analyzed before and after discharge for pH, lactate, potassium, creatine kinase (CK), and troponin. Continuous spirometry was performed before, during, and after the discharge. In addition, electrocardiograms (ECGs) before and after discharge were recorded, and echocardiography was used to determine the rhythm during discharge. Results: Small elevations of lactate occurred. Moderate increases in CK at 24 hours occurred and appeared to be related to the number of simultaneous discharges. There was a trend to a decrease in minute ventilation in the volunteers exposed to two simultaneous discharges, but it did not reach statistical significance. ECG changes only reflected an increase in vagal tone, and there was no evidence of capture by echocardiography. Five-second, simultaneous, multiple exposures to the TASER Shockwave device were reasonably tolerated by our human volunteers. Conclusion: Our study suggests that this device may have a reasonable risk/benefit ratio when used to protect an area from a threat. PMID:20411076

  4. Radioactive discharges and environmental monitoring at the Swedish nuclear facilities 2002-2004; Utslaepps- och omgivningskontroll vid de kaerntekniska anlaeggningarna 2002-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luening, Maria

    2005-11-15

    According to Swedish regulations the effective dose to an individual in the critical group, from one year of releases of radioactive substances to air and water from all facilities located in the same geographically delimited area, shall not exceed 0.1 mSv. The effective dose, which concerns the dose from external radiation and the committed effective dose from internal radiation, shall be integrated over a period of 50 years. When calculating the dose to individuals in the critical group, both children and adults shall be taken into consideration. If the calculated dose exceeds 0.01 mSv per calendar year, realistic calculations of radiation doses shall be conducted for the most affected area. SSI has not defined any radionuclide specific discharge limits. Limitation of releases is being implemented through the restriction of dose to the critical group members. For each nuclear facility, e.g. each reactor, and for each radionuclide that may be released, specific release-to-dose factors have been calculated. The factors have been calculated for hypothetical critical groups, and take into consideration local dispersion conditions in air and in the environment, local settlements, local production of food-stuffs as well as moderately conservative assumptions on diet and contribution of locally produced food-stuff to the diet of the group. For nuclear power reactors, release-to-dose factors (mSv/Bq) have been calculated for 97 radionuclides that may be discharged to the marine environment and 159 radionuclides that may be emitted to air. Discharges shall be controlled through the measurement of representative samples for each release pathway. The analyses shall include nuclide-specific measurements of gamma and alpha-emitting radioactive substances as well as, where relevant, strontium-90 and tritium. The discharges of radioactive substances from the Swedish NPPs result in very low doses well below the limits issued by SSI. Even so, the concentration of radionuclides in

  5. USING STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TO MONITOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AT A RADIOACTIVE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WESTCOTT, J.L.; JOCHEN; PREVETTE

    2007-01-02

    Two facilities for storing spent nuclear fuel underwater at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State are being removed from service, decommissioned, and prepared for eventual demolition. The fuel-storage facilities consist of two separate basins called K East (KE) and K West (KW) that are large subsurface concrete pools filled with water, with a containment structure over each. The basins presently contain sludge, debris, and equipment that have accumulated over the years. The spent fuel has been removed from the basins. The process for removing the remaining sludge, equipment, and structure has been initiated for the basins. Ongoing removal operations generate solid waste that is being treated as required, and then disposed. The waste, equipment and building structures must be characterized to properly manage, ship, treat (if necessary), and dispose as radioactive waste. As the work progresses, it is expected that radiological conditions in each basin may change as radioactive materials are being moved within and between the basins. It is imperative that these changing conditions be monitored so that radioactive characterization of waste is adjusted as necessary.

  6. USING STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TO MONITOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AT A RADIOACTIVE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WESTCOTT, J.L.

    2006-11-15

    Two facilities for storing spent nuclear fuel underwater at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State being removed from service, decommissioned, and prepared for eventual demolition. The fuel-storage facilities consist of two separate basins called K East (KE) and K West (KW) that are large subsurface concrete pools filled with water, with a containment structure over each. The basins presently contain sludge, debris, and equipment that have accumulated over the years. The spent fuel has been removed from the basins. The process for removing the remaining sludge, equipment, and structure has been initiated for the basins. Ongoing removal operations generate solid waste that is being treated as required, and then disposed. The waste, equipment and building structures must be characterized to properly manage, ship, treat (if necessary), and dispose as radioactive waste. As the work progresses, it is expected that radiological conditions in each basin may change as radioactive materials are being moved within and between the basins. It is imperative that these changing conditions be monitored so that radioactive characterization of waste is adjusted as necessary.

  7. Radioactive waste tank ventilation system incorporating tritium control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, P.D. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a ventilation system for radioactive waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The unique design of the system is aimed at cost-effective control of tritiated water vapor. The system includes recirculation ventilation and cooling for each tank in the facility and a central exhaust air clean-up train that includes a low-temperature vapor condenser and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME). A one-seventh scale pilot plant was built and tested to verify predicted performance of the low-temperature tritium removal system. Tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of the removal of condensable vapor and soluble and insoluble aerosols and to estimate the operating life of the mist eliminator. Definitive design of the ventilation system relied heavily on the test data. The unique design features of the ventilation system will result in far less release of tritium to the atmosphere than from conventional high-volume dilution systems and will greatly reduce operating costs. NESHAPs and TAPs NOC applications have been approved, and field construction is nearly complete. Start-up is scheduled for late 1996. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. The Physiologic Effects of Multiple Simultaneous Electronic Control Device Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawes, Donald M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Law enforcement and military personnel use electronic control devices to control non-compliant and actively resistive subjects. The TASER® Shockwave is a new electronic control device designed specifically as an area denial device capable of delivering multiple simultaneous discharges. This is the first study to examine the effects of multiple simultaneous device discharges in humans.Methods: Volunteers were exposed to multiple (two to three, simultaneous 5-second discharges from the Shockwave device to the chest, back, chest to abdomen, or thighs. Blood was analyzed before and after discharge for pH, lactate, potassium, creatine kinase (CK, and troponin. Continuous spirometry was performed before, during, and after the discharge. In addition, electrocardiograms (ECGs before and after discharge were recorded, and echocardiography was used to determine the rhythm during discharge.Results: Small elevations of lactate occurred. Moderate increases in CK at 24 hours occurred and appeared to be related to the number of simultaneous discharges. There was a trend to a decrease in minute ventilation in the volunteers exposed to two simultaneous discharges, but it did not reach statistical significance. ECG changes only reflected an increase in vagal tone, and there was no evidence of capture by echocardiography. Five-second, simultaneous, multiple exposures to the TASER Shockwave device were reasonably tolerated by our human volunteers.Conclusion: Our study suggests that this device may have a reasonable risk/benefit ratio when used to protect an area from a threat. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:49-56].

  9. Real-time control for long ohmic alternate current discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Gomes, Rui B.

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • 40 Alternate plasma current (AC) semi-cycles without loss of ionization, more than 1 s of operation. • AC discharges automatic control: feedback loops, time-windows control strategy, goal oriented time-windows and exception handling. • Energy deposition and Carbon radiation evolution during the AC discharges. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak has a long tradition on alternate plasma current (AC) discharges, but the old control system was limiting and lacked full system integration. In order to improve the AC discharges performance the ISTTOK fast control system was updated. This control system developed on site based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard now integrates the information gathered by all the tokamak real-time diagnostics to produce an accurate observation of the plasma parameters. The real-time actuators were also integrated, allowing a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) control environment with several synchronization strategies available. The control system software was developed in C++ on top of a Linux system with the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) Framework to synchronize the real-time code execution under a 100μs control cycle. In addition, to simplify the discharge programming, a visual Human–Machine Interface (HMI) was also developed using the BaseLib2 libraries included in the MARTe Framework. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the optimizations that extended the AC current discharges duration to more than 1 s, corresponding to 40 semi-cycles without apparent degradation of the plasma parameters. This upgrade allows ISTTOK to be used as a low-cost material testing facility with long time exposures to nuclear fusion relevant plasmas, comparable (in duration) with medium size tokamaks.

  10. Radioactive Iodine and Krypton Control for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nicolas R.; Garn, Troy; Greenhalgh, Mitchell; Law, Jack; Jubin, Robert T.; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2013-07-22

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing. These can evolve in volatile species in the reprocessing facility off-gas streams, depending on the separations and reprocessing technologies that are used. Radionuclides that have been identified as “volatile radionuclides” are noble gases (most notably isotopes of Kr and Xe); 3H; 14C; and 129I. Radionuclides that tend to form volatile species that evolve into reprocessing facility off-gas systems are more challenging to efficiently control compared to radionuclides that tend to stay in solid or liquid phases. Future used fuel reprocessing facilities in the United States can require efficient capture of some volatile radionuclides in their off-gas streams to meet regulatory emission requirements. In aqueous reprocessing, these radionuclides are most commonly expected to evolve into off-gas streams in tritiated water [3H2O (T2O) and 3HHO (THO)], radioactive CO2, noble gases, and gaseous HI, I2, or volatile organic iodides. The fate and speciation of these radionuclides from a non-aqueous fuel reprocessing facility is less well known at this time, but active investigations are in progress. An Off-Gas Sigma Team was formed in late FY 2009 to integrate and coordinate the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities directed towards the capture and sequestration of the these volatile radionuclides (Jubin 2012a). The Sigma Team concept was envisioned to bring together multidisciplinary teams from across the DOE complex that would work collaboratively to solve the technical challenges and to develop the scientific basis for the capture and immobilization technologies such that the sum of the efforts was greater than the individual parts. The Laboratories currently participating in this effort are Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific

  11. Next generation discharge control system for ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raupp, G.; Behler, K. [Association Euratom-Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Cole, R.; Lueddecke, K. [Unlimited Computer Systems, Neuried (Germany); Mertens, V.; Neu, G.; Treutterer, W.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    Based on present achievements in tokamak control and considering requirements for reactor-oriented research, a next generation discharge control system is presented. Decomposition of control functions mapped onto dedicated controllers and diagnostics gives a distributed system integrated with a common real-time network to publish process and reference values. Basic mechanisms for cycle administration, data exchange and process management of the prototype system currently being implemented are shown. (orig.)

  12. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...

  13. The adequacy of current import and export controls on sealed radioactive sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longley, Susan W.; Cochran, John Russell; Price, Laura L. (Beta Corporation, Glendale, AZ); Lipinski, Kendra J.

    2003-10-01

    Millions of sealed radioactive sources (SRSs) are being used for a wide variety of beneficial purposes throughout the world. Security experts are now concerned that these beneficial SRSs could be used in a radiological dispersion device to terrorize and disrupt society. The greatest safety and security threat is from those highly radioactive Category 1 and 2 SRSs. Without adequate controls, it may be relatively easy to legally purchase a Category 1 or 2 SRS on the international market under false pretenses. Additionally, during transfer, SRSs are particularly susceptible to theft since the sources are in a shielded and mobile configuration, transportation routes are predictable, and shipments may not be adequately guarded. To determine if government controls on SRS are adequate, this study was commissioned to review the current SRS import and export controls of six countries. Canada, the Russian Federation, and South Africa were selected as the exporting countries, and Egypt, the Philippines, and the United States were selected as importing countries. A detailed review of the controls in each country is presented. The authors found that Canada and Russia are major exporters, and are exporting highly radioactive SRSs without first determining if the recipient is authorized by the receiving country to own and use the SRSs. Available evidence was used to estimate that on average there are tens to possibly hundreds of intercountry transfers of highly radioactive SRSs each day. Based on these and other findings, this reports recommends stronger controls on the export and import of highly radioactive SRSs.

  14. Computer-based supervisory control and data acquisition system for the radioactive waste evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, N.G.; Schreiber, S.B.; Yarbro, S.L.; Gomez, B.G.; Nekimken, H.L.; Sanchez, D.E.; Bibeau, R.A.; Macdonald, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    The evaporator process at TA-55 reduces the amount of transuranic liquid radioactive waste by separating radioactive salts from relatively low-level radioactive nitric acid solution. A computer-based supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system has been installed on the process that allows the operators to easily interface with process equipment. Individual single-loop controllers in the SCADA system allow more precise process operation with less human intervention. With this system, process data can be archieved in computer files for later analysis. Data are distributed throughout the TA-55 site through a local area network so that real-time process conditions can be monitored at multiple locations. The entire system has been built using commercially available hardware and software components.

  15. Storage of low-level radioactive waste and regulatory control of sealed sources in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahola, T.; Markkanen, M. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    This paper is concentrated on the non nuclear low-level radioactive waste. The cornerstone for maintaining radioactive sources under control in Finland is that all practices involving sources are subject to authorization and all licensing information, including information on each individual source, are entered into a register which is continuously updated based on applications and notifications received from the licenses. Experiences during the past twenty years have shown that source-specific records of sources combined with regular inspections at the places of use have prevented efficiency losing control over sealed radioactive sources. The current capacity in the interim storage for State owned waste is not adequate for all used sealed sources and other small user waste which are currently kept in the possession of the licensees. Thus, expansion of the storage capacity and other options for taking care of the small user waste is under consideration. (N.C.)

  16. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator for flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaits, Dmitry Florievich

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) and magnetohydrodynamic phenomena are being widely studied for aerodynamic applications. The major effects of these phenomena are heating of the gas, body force generation, and enthalpy addition or extraction, [1, 2, 3]. In particular, asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators are known to be effective EHD device in aerodynamic control, [4, 5]. Experiments have demonstrated their effectiveness in separation control, acoustic noise reduction, and other aeronautic applications. In contrast to conventional DBD actuators driven by sinusoidal voltages, we proposed and used a voltage profile consisting of nanosecond pulses superimposed on dc bias voltage. This produces what is essentially a non-self-sustained discharge: the plasma is generated by repetitive short pulses, and the pushing of the gas occurs primarily due to the bias voltage. The advantage of this non-self-sustained discharge is that the parameters of ionizing pulses and the driving bias voltage can be varied independently, which adds flexibility to control and optimization of the actuators performance. Experimental studies were conducted of a flow induced in a quiescent room air by a single DBD actuator. A new approach for non-intrusive diagnostics of plasma actuator induced flows in quiescent gas was proposed, consisting of three elements coupled together: the Schlieren technique, burst mode of plasma actuator operation, and 2-D numerical fluid modeling. During the experiments, it was found that DBD performance is severely limited by surface charge accumulation on the dielectric. Several ways to mitigate the surface charge were found: using a reversing DC bias potential, three-electrode configuration, slightly conductive dielectrics, and semi conductive coatings. Force balance measurements proved the effectiveness of the suggested configurations and advantages of the new voltage profile (pulses+bias) over the traditional sinusoidal one at relatively low

  17. Radioactive Iodine and Krypton Control for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Nick R. Soelberg; Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law; Robert Jubin; Denis M. Strachan; Praveen K. Thallapally

    2013-01-01

    The removal of volatile radionuclides generated during used nuclear fuel reprocessing in the US is almost certain to be necessary for the licensing of a reprocessing facility in the US. Various control technologies have been developed, tested, or used over the past 50 years for control of volatile radionuclide emissions from used fuel reprocessing plants. The US DOE has sponsored, since 2009, an Off-gas Sigma Team to perform research and development focused on the most pressing volatile radio...

  18. Radioactive Iodine and Krypton Control for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nick R. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415, USA; Garn, Troy G. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415, USA; Greenhalgh, Mitchell R. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415, USA; Law, Jack D. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415, USA; Jubin, Robert [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA; Strachan, Denis M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99252, USA; Thallapally, Praveen K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99252, USA

    2013-01-01

    The removal of volatile radionuclides generated during used nuclear fuel reprocessing in the US is almost certain to be necessary for the licensing of a reprocessing facility in the US. Various control technologies have been developed, tested, or used over the past 50 years for control of volatile radionuclide emissions from used fuel reprocessing plants. The US DOE has sponsored, since 2009, an Off-gas Sigma Team to perform research and development focused on the most pressing volatile radionuclide control and immobilization problems. In this paper, we focus on the control requirements and methodologies for85Kr and129I. Numerous candidate technologies have been studied and developed at laboratory and pilot-plant scales in an effort to meet the need for high iodine control efficiency and to advance alternatives to cryogenic separations for krypton control. Several of these show promising results. Iodine decontamination factors as high as 105, iodine loading capacities, and other adsorption parameters including adsorption rates have been demonstrated under some conditions for both silver zeolite (AgZ) and Ag-functionalized aerogel. Sorbents, including an engineered form of AgZ and selected metal organic framework materials (MOFs), have been successfully demonstrated to capture Kr and Xe without the need for separations at cryogenic temperatures.

  19. Radioactive Iodine and Krypton Control for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of volatile radionuclides generated during used nuclear fuel reprocessing in the US is almost certain to be necessary for the licensing of a reprocessing facility in the US. Various control technologies have been developed, tested, or used over the past 50 years for control of volatile radionuclide emissions from used fuel reprocessing plants. The US DOE has sponsored, since 2009, an Off-gas Sigma Team to perform research and development focused on the most pressing volatile radionuclide control and immobilization problems. In this paper, we focus on the control requirements and methodologies for 85Kr and 129I. Numerous candidate technologies have been studied and developed at laboratory and pilot-plant scales in an effort to meet the need for high iodine control efficiency and to advance alternatives to cryogenic separations for krypton control. Several of these show promising results. Iodine decontamination factors as high as 105, iodine loading capacities, and other adsorption parameters including adsorption rates have been demonstrated under some conditions for both silver zeolite (AgZ and Ag-functionalized aerogel. Sorbents, including an engineered form of AgZ and selected metal organic framework materials (MOFs, have been successfully demonstrated to capture Kr and Xe without the need for separations at cryogenic temperatures.

  20. Control of high-level radioactive waste-glass melters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.; Coleman, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will immobilize Savannah River Site High Level Waste as a durable borosilicate glass for permanent disposal in a repository. The DWPF will be controlled based on glass composition. The following discussion is a preliminary analysis of the capability of the laboratory methods that can be used to control the glass composition, and the relationships between glass durability and glass properties important to glass melting. The glass durability and processing properties will be controlled by controlling the chemical composition of the glass. The glass composition will be controlled by control of the melter feed transferred from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT). During cold runs, tests will be conducted to demonstrate the chemical equivalence of glass sampled from the pour stream and glass removed from cooled canisters. In similar tests, the compositions of glass produced from slurries sampled from the SME and MFT will be compared to final product glass to determine the statistical relationships between melter feed and glass product. The total error is the combination of those associated with homogeneity in the SME or MFT, sampling, preparation of samples for analysis, instrument calibration, analysis, and the composition/property model. This study investigated the sensitivity of estimation of property data to the combination of variations from sampling through analysis. In this or a similar manner, the need for routine glass product sampling will be minimized, and glass product characteristics will be assured before the melter feed is committed to the melter.

  1. A model for automation of radioactive dose control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Carlos Henrique Calazans; Zambon, Jose Waldir; Bitelli, Ricardo; Honaiser, Eduardo Henrique Rangel [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: calazans@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, e-mail: zambon@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, e-mail: bitelli@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, e-mail: honaiser@ctmsp.mar.mil.br

    2009-07-01

    The paper presents a proposal for automation of the personnel dose control system to be used in nuclear medicine environments. The model has considered the Standards and rules of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) and of the Health Ministry. The advantages of the model is a robust management of the integrated dose and technicians qualification status. The software platform selected to be used was the Lotus Notes and an analysis of the advantages, disadvantages of the use of this platform is also presented. (author)

  2. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuator for Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaits, Dmitry, F.

    2012-01-01

    This report is Part II of the final report of NASA Cooperative Agreement contract no. NNX07AC02A. It includes a Ph.D. dissertation. The period of performance was January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010. Part I of the final report is the overview published as NASA/CR-2012- 217654. Asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators driven by nanosecond pulses superimposed on dc bias voltage are studied experimentally. This produces non-self-sustained discharge: the plasma is generated by repetitive short pulses, and the pushing of the gas occurs primarily due to the bias voltage. The parameters of ionizing pulses and the driving bias voltage can be varied independently, which adds flexibility to control and optimization of the actuators performance. The approach consisted of three elements coupled together: the Schlieren technique, burst mode of plasma actuator operation, and 2-D numerical fluid modeling. During the experiments, it was found that DBD performance is severely limited by surface charge accumulation on the dielectric. Several ways to mitigate the surface charge were found: using a reversing DC bias potential, three-electrode configuration, slightly conductive dielectrics, and semi conductive coatings. Force balance measurements proved the effectiveness of the suggested configurations and advantages of the new voltage profile (pulses+bias) over the traditional sinusoidal one at relatively low voltages. In view of practical applications certain questions have been also addressed, such as electrodynamic effects which accompany scaling of the actuators to real size models, and environmental effects of ozone production by the plasma actuators.

  3. High-energy molecular lasers self-controlled volume-discharge lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonov, V V

    2016-01-01

    This book displays the physics and design of high-power molecular lasers. The lasers described are self-controlled volume-discharge lasers. The book explains self-sustained discharge lasers, self-initiated discharge lasers and technical approaches to laser design. Important topics discussed are laser efficiency, laser beam quality and electric field homogeneity. The book contains many new innovative applications.

  4. Corrosion Control Measures For Liquid Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks At The Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B. J.; Subramanian, K. H.

    2012-11-27

    The Savannah River Site has stored radioactive wastes in large, underground, carbon steel tanks for approximately 60 years. An assessment of potential degradation mechanisms determined that the tanks may be vulnerable to nitrate- induced pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Controls on the solution chemistry and temperature of the wastes are in place to mitigate these mechanisms. These controls are based upon a series of experiments performed using simulated solutions on materials used for construction of the tanks. The technical bases and evolution of these controls is presented in this paper.

  5. Demolition and removal of radioactively contaminated concrete soil: Aerosol control and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.; Grace, A.C. III

    1995-12-01

    From 1963 to 1985, two concrete-lined ponds were used to reduce the volume of radioactive liquids from the Institute`s research programs. Following withdrawal of the {open_quotes}hot ponds{close_quotes} from active use, the residual sludges and plastic liners of the ponds were removed and shipped to a radioactive waste disposal site. From 1987 to 1994, the concrete structures remained undisturbed pending environmental restoration on the site. Restoration began in 1994 and was completed in 1995. Restoration involved mechanical breakup and removal of the concrete structures and removal of areas of contaminated soils from the site. This report describes the design and results of the aerosol control and monitoring program that was conducted to ensure protection of workers and the environment during the restoration process. The aerosol control and monitoring strategy developed for remediation of the ITRI hot ponds was successful both in preventing dispersion of radioactive dusts and in demonstrating that exposures of workers and offsite releases were within statutory limits.

  6. Characterizations of the radioactive waste by the remotely-controlled collimated spectrometric system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, Vyacheslav E.; Potapov, Victor N.; Smirnov, Sergey V.; Ivanov, Oleg P. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of the research reactors MR (Testing Reactor) and RFT (Reactor of Physics and Technology) has recently been initiated in the National Research Center (NRC) 'Kurchatov institute', Moscow. In the building, neighboring to the reactor, the storage of HLRW is located. The storage is made of monolithic concrete in which steel cells depth 4 m are located. In cells of storage the HLRW packed into cases are placed. These the radioactive waste are also subject to export on long storage in the specialized organization. For characterization of the radioactive waste in cases the remote-controlled collimated spectrometer system was used. The system consists of a spectrometric collimated gamma-ray detector, a color video camera and a control unit, mounted on a rotator, which are mounted on a tripod with the host computer. For determination of specific activity of radionuclides in cases, it is developed programs of calculation of coefficients of proportionality of specific activity to the corresponding speeds of the account in peaks of full absorption at single specific activity of radionuclides in cases. For determination of these coefficients the mathematical model of spectrometer system based on the Monte-Carlo method was used. Dependences of calibration coefficients for various radionuclides from distance between the detector and a case at various values of the radioactive waste density in cases are given. Measurements of specific activity in cases are taken and are discussed. By results of measurements decisions on the appeal of the radioactive waste being in cases are made. (authors)

  7. Characterization of a dielectric barrier discharge in controlled atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelheide, Friederike; Offerhaus, Björn; Bibinov, Nikita; Bracht, Vera; Smith, Ryan; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Awakowicz, Peter; Stapelmann, Katharina; Bimap Team; Aept Team

    2016-09-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas are advantageous for various biomedical applications as they make a contact- and painless therapy possible. Due to the potential medical relevance of such plasma sources further understanding of the chemical and physical impact on biological tissue regarding the efficacy and health-promoting effect is necessary. The knowledge of properties and effects offers the possibility to configure plasmas free of risk for humans. Therefore, tailoring the discharge chemistry in regard to resulting oxidative and nitrosative effects on biological tissue by adjusting different parameters is of growing interest. In order to ensure stable conditions for the characterization of the discharge, the used dielectric barrier discharge was mounted in a vessel. Absolutely calibrated optical emission spectroscopy was carried out to analyze the electron density and the reduced electric field. The rather oxygen-based discharge was tuned towards a more nitrogen-based discharge by adjusting several parameters as reactive nitrogen species are known to promote wound healing. Furthermore, the impact of an ozone-free discharge has to be studied. This work was funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) with the packet grant PAK 816 `Plasma Cell Interaction in Dermatology'.

  8. Hydrogeological controls on spatial patterns of groundwater discharge in peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Hare

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peatland environments provide important ecosystem services including water and carbon storage, nutrient processing and retention, and wildlife habitat. However, these systems and the services they provide have been degraded through historical anthropogenic agricultural conversion and dewatering practices. Effective wetland restoration requires incorporating site hydrology and understanding groundwater discharge spatial patterns. Groundwater discharge maintains wetland ecosystems by providing relatively stable hydrologic conditions, nutrient inputs, and thermal buffering important for ecological structure and function; however, a comprehensive site-specific evaluation is rarely feasible for such resource-constrained projects. An improved process-based understanding of groundwater discharge in peatlands may help guide ecological restoration design without the need for invasive methodologies and detailed site-specific investigation. Here we examine a kettle-hole peatland in southeast Massachusetts historically modified for commercial cranberry farming. During the time of our investigation, a large process-based ecological restoration project was in the assessment and design phases. To gain insight into the drivers of site hydrology, we evaluated the spatial patterning of groundwater discharge and the subsurface structure of the peatland complex using heat-tracing methods and ground-penetrating radar. Our results illustrate that two groundwater discharge processes contribute to the peatland hydrologic system: diffuse lower-flux marginal matrix seepage and discrete higher-flux preferential-flow-path seepage. Both types of groundwater discharge develop through interactions with subsurface peatland basin structure, often where the basin slope is at a high angle to the regional groundwater gradient. These field observations indicate strong correlation between subsurface structures and surficial groundwater discharge. Understanding these general patterns

  9. Hydrogeological controls on spatial patterns of groundwater discharge in peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Danielle K.; Boutt, David F.; Clement, William P.; Hatch, Christine E.; Davenport, Glorianna; Hackman, Alex

    2017-11-01

    Peatland environments provide important ecosystem services including water and carbon storage, nutrient processing and retention, and wildlife habitat. However, these systems and the services they provide have been degraded through historical anthropogenic agricultural conversion and dewatering practices. Effective wetland restoration requires incorporating site hydrology and understanding groundwater discharge spatial patterns. Groundwater discharge maintains wetland ecosystems by providing relatively stable hydrologic conditions, nutrient inputs, and thermal buffering important for ecological structure and function; however, a comprehensive site-specific evaluation is rarely feasible for such resource-constrained projects. An improved process-based understanding of groundwater discharge in peatlands may help guide ecological restoration design without the need for invasive methodologies and detailed site-specific investigation. Here we examine a kettle-hole peatland in southeast Massachusetts historically modified for commercial cranberry farming. During the time of our investigation, a large process-based ecological restoration project was in the assessment and design phases. To gain insight into the drivers of site hydrology, we evaluated the spatial patterning of groundwater discharge and the subsurface structure of the peatland complex using heat-tracing methods and ground-penetrating radar. Our results illustrate that two groundwater discharge processes contribute to the peatland hydrologic system: diffuse lower-flux marginal matrix seepage and discrete higher-flux preferential-flow-path seepage. Both types of groundwater discharge develop through interactions with subsurface peatland basin structure, often where the basin slope is at a high angle to the regional groundwater gradient. These field observations indicate strong correlation between subsurface structures and surficial groundwater discharge. Understanding these general patterns may allow resource

  10. Cerebellar output controls generalized spike-and-wave discharge occurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Kros (Lieke); S.J. Eelkman Rooda; J.K. Spanke (Jochen); P. Alva (Parimala); M. van Dongen (Marijn); A. Karapatis (Athanasios); E.A. Tolner (Else A.); C. Strydis (Christos); N. Davey (Neil); B.H.J. Winkelman (Beerend); M. Negrello (Mario); W. Serdijn (Wouter); V. Steuber (Volker); A.M.J.M. Maagdenberg (Arn); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); F.E. Hoebeek (Freek)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective Disrupting thalamocortical activity patterns has proven to be a promising approach to stop generalized spike-and-wave discharges (GSWDs) characteristic of absence seizures. Here, we investigated to what extent modulation of neuronal firing in cerebellar nuclei (CN), which are

  11. Cerebellar Output Controls Generalized Spike-and-Wave Discharge Occurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, L.; Eelkman Rooda, O.H.J.; Spanke, J.K.; Alva, P.; Van Dongen, M.N.; Karapatis, A.; Tolner, E.A.; Strydis, C.; Davey, N.; Winkelman, B.H.J.; Negrello, M.; Serdijn, W.A.; Steuber, V.; Van den Maagdenberg, A.M.J.M.; De Zeeuw, C.I.; Hoebeek, F.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Disrupting thalamocortical activity patterns has proven to be a promising approach to stop generalized spike-and-wave discharges (GSWDs) characteristic of absence seizures. Here, we investigated to what extent modulation of neuronal firing in cerebellar nuclei (CN), which are anatomically

  12. Cerebellar output controls generalized spike-and-wave discharge occurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, Lieke; Eelkman Rooda, Oscar H J; Spanke, Jochen K; Alva, Parimala; van Dongen, Marijn N; Karapatis, Athanasios; Tolner, Else A; Strydis, Christos; Davey, Neil; Winkelman, Beerend H J; Negrello, Mario; Serdijn, Wouter A; Steuber, Volker; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Hoebeek, Freek E

    OBJECTIVE: Disrupting thalamocortical activity patterns has proven to be a promising approach to stop generalized spike-and-wave discharges (GSWDs) characteristic of absence seizures. Here, we investigated to what extent modulation of neuronal firing in cerebellar nuclei (CN), which are anatomically

  13. Nonlocal control of electron temperature in short direct current glow discharge plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, V. I. [Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Stepanova, O. M. [Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Kurlyandskaya, I. P. [International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg University of State Fire Service of EMERCOM RF, Murmansk Branch, Murmansk 183040 (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-15

    To demonstrate controlling the electron temperature in nonlocal plasma, experiments have been performed on a short (without positive column) dc glow discharge with a cold cathode by applying different voltages to the conducting discharge wall. The experiments have been performed for low-pressure noble gas discharges. The applied voltage can modify trapping the energetic electrons emitted from the cathode sheath and arising from the atomic and molecular processes in the plasma within the device volume. This phenomenon results in the energetic electrons heating the slow plasma electrons, which consequently modifies the electron temperature. Furthermore, a numerical model of the discharge has demonstrated the electron temperature modification for the above case.

  14. Initial demonstration of DWPF process and product control strategy using actual radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, M.K.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.; Beam, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will vitrify high-level nuclear waste into borosilicate glass. The waste will be mixed with properly formulated glass-making frit and fed to a melter at 1150{degrees}C. Process control and product quality are ensured by proper control of the melter feed composition. Algorithms have been developed to predict the processability of the melt and the durability of the final glass based on this feed composition. To test these algorithms, an actual radioactive waste contained in a shielded facility at SRS was analyzed and a frit composition formulated using a simple computer spreadsheet which contained the algorithms. This frit was then mixed with the waste and the resulting slurry fed to a research scale joule-heated melter operated remotely. Approximately 24 kg of glass were successfully prepared. This paper will describe the frit formulation, the vitrification process, and the glass durability.

  15. Initial demonstration of DWPF process and product control strategy using actual radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, M.K.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.; Beam, D.C.

    1991-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will vitrify high-level nuclear waste into borosilicate glass. The waste will be mixed with properly formulated glass-making frit and fed to a melter at 1150{degrees}C. Process control and product quality are ensured by proper control of the melter feed composition. Algorithms have been developed to predict the processability of the melt and the durability of the final glass based on this feed composition. To test these algorithms, an actual radioactive waste contained in a shielded facility at SRS was analyzed and a frit composition formulated using a simple computer spreadsheet which contained the algorithms. This frit was then mixed with the waste and the resulting slurry fed to a research scale joule-heated melter operated remotely. Approximately 24 kg of glass were successfully prepared. This paper will describe the frit formulation, the vitrification process, and the glass durability.

  16. Dose control in road transport of radioactive material; Controle de dose em transporte rodoviario de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerulis, Eduardo

    2013-07-01

    The radiation doses to workers in the transport of radioactive material should be as low as reasonably achievable. The average doses of drivers and loaders, sampled in this thesis should be decreased. The demonstration of doses control in a road vehicle with radioactive material required by the current Brazilian regulation, CNEN NE 5.01 should be written in its own printed form with exposure values obtained in normally occupied positions from workers and members of the public, even when the consignment does not need 'exclusive use' (⅀IT ≤50). Through bibliographic research, modeling and field research, this research work shows that this demonstration of the control should be done by writing the registration accumulation of load, limited (⅀IT ≤50), also in the own printed form. It is for a better control method, in order to avoid the use of measuring equipment, to build standardization with foreign regulations, to the current occupational doses of radioprotection technicians, the costs and time, (important for consignment with radiopharmaceuticals short half-life) would be all smaller. Exposure values of the parameters used with this method are smaller than regulatory limits. The segregation distances between loads and the cabins of vehicles shall be showed by Brazilian regulation updated to contribute to these aims. (author)

  17. Experience from ASDEX upgrade discharge control management for long pulse operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raupp, G.; Behler, K.; Neu, G.; Treutterer, W.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany). EURATOM-IPP Association

    1999-01-01

    Preprogrammed discharge control method and static experiment scheduling traditionally used with short-pulse experiment operation cycles are not compatible with requirements aiming at (near) steady state operation. An event-driven discharge control method is needed to handle deviations from the experiment programme without terminating the discharge. A dynamic experiment scheduling method is required to insert or take away experiments in a running discharge. To support these methods to operate the machine, data acquisition needs a close integration into the control, supporting calculation and exchange of processed quantities and state information, and into the experiment operation, supporting self-monitoring and exchange of resource availability and configuration information. These functions must be performed in parallel with the concurrent execution of the data acquisitions front-end control, data sampling, data processing and reduction and archiving. (orig.) 6 refs.

  18. Radioactive Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  19. Calculation of the inventory and near-field release rates of radioactivity from neutron-activated metal parts discharged from the high flux isotope reactor and emplaced in solid waste storage area 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelmers, A.D.; Hightower, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    Emplacement of contaminated reactor components involves disposal in lined and unlined auger holes in soil above the water table. The radionuclide inventory of disposed components was calculated. Information on the composition and weight of the components, as well as reasonable assumptions for the neutron flux fueling use, the time of neutron exposure, and radioactive decay after discharge, were employed in the inventory calculation. Near-field release rates of /sup 152/Eu, /sup 154/Eu, and /sup 155/Eu from control plates and cylinders were calculated for 50 years after emplacement. Release rates of the europium isotopes were uncertain. Two release-rate-limiting models were considered and a range of reasonable values were assumed for the time-to-failure of the auger-hole linear and aluminum cladding and europium solubility in SWSA-6 groundwater. The bounding europium radionuclide near-field release rates peaked at about 1.3 Ci/year total for /sup 152,154,155/Eu in 1987 for the lower bound, and at about 420 Ci/year in 1992 for the upper bound. The near-field release rates of /sup 55/Fe, /sup 59/Ni, /sup 60/Co, and /sup 63/Ni from stainless steel and cobalt alloy components, as well as of /sup 10/Be, /sup 41/Ca, and /sup 55/Fe from beryllium reflectors, were calculated for the next 100 years, assuming bulk waste corrosion was the release-rate-limiting step. Under the most conservative assumptions for the reflectors, the current (1986) total radionuclide release rate was calculated to be about 1.2 x 10/sup -4/ Ci/year, decreasing by 1992 to a steady release of about 1.5 x 10/sup -5/ Ci/year due primarily to /sup 41/Ca. 50 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters. Part 5, Modelling of complex redox effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

    1991-12-31

    Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  1. 40 CFR 1700.4 - Discharges requiring control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and the Secretary have determined that it is reasonable and practicable to require use of a Marine Pollution Control Device for at least one class of vessel to mitigate adverse impacts on the marine... fuel to maintain the stability of the vessel. (f) Controllable Pitch Propeller Hydraulic Fluid: the...

  2. Control of the surface radioactive contamination in the field of biological research; Control de la contaminacion radiactiva superficial en el ambito de la investigacion biologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, S.; Encina, A. de la; Gaspar, J.; Macias, M. T.; Sanchez, A.; Usera, F.

    2012-11-01

    The manipulation of unsealed sources in biomedical research involves significant risk of radioactive contamination. the aim of this study has been to analyze the radioactive contamination occurring in the field of biomedical research, assessing its magnitude, identifying the equipment that can be contaminated with higher probability and monitoring the evolution of the contaminations production taking into account the radioisotopes and the activities uses, and the radiation protection control applied. The data used for this study correspond to a very lengthy period of time and it have been collected in the radioactive facility, of the Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia (CSIC), a very large biological research centre that can be used perfectly as a reference for this area. The results obtained show a gradual and significant decrease in the incidence of the radioactive contamination. This is due to the optimization of radiation protection standards applied and the implementation or a systematic operational radiation protection program. (Author) 13 refs.

  3. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators for Aerodynamic Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flow control is critical to the effective operation of space vehicles where high velocities must be achieved with minimum power consumption. Recent studies at...

  4. Numerical Simulation of Non-Equilibrium Plasma Discharge for High Speed Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Ramakrishnan; Anandhanarayanan, Karupannasamy; Krishnamurthy, Rajah; Chakraborty, Debasis

    2017-06-01

    Numerical simulation of hypersonic flow control using plasma discharge technique is carried out using an in-house developed code CERANS-TCNEQ. The study is aimed at demonstrating a proof of concept futuristic aerodynamic flow control device. The Kashiwa Hypersonic and High Temperature wind tunnel study of plasma discharge over a flat plate had been considered for numerical investigation. The 7-species, 18-reaction thermo-chemical non-equilibrium, two-temperature air-chemistry model due Park is used to model the weakly ionized flow. Plasma discharge is modeled as Joule heating source terms in both the translation-rotational and vibrational energy equations. Comparison of results for plasma discharge at Mach 7 over a flat plate with the reference data reveals that the present study is able to mimic the exact physics of complex flow such as formation of oblique shock wave ahead of the plasma discharge region with a resultant rise in surface pressure and vibrational temperature up to 7000 K demonstrating the use of non-equilibrium plasma discharge for flow control at hypersonic speeds.

  5. Supersonic Cavity-Based Flow Control Using a Quasi-DC Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, A.; Leonov, S.; Hedlund, B.; Ombrello, T.; Carter, C.

    2017-10-01

    The Quasi-DC (Q-DC) discharge is studied as an active flow control authority on a rear-facing cavity in a supersonic duct by creating an oblique shockwave that impinges the cavity. This geometry simulates the geometry of a typical scramjet flameholding scheme. The tests were performed at the University of Notre Dame in the SBR-50 supersonic blowdown rig with dried air at M=2. Schlieren imaging is used to view the flow field with and without the Q-DC discharge in operation. A significant change in the flow field structure is observed. Pressure sensors detect a pressure increase throughout the entire rear-facing cavity while the Q-DC discharge is operating. This reveals that the cavity redistributes the pressure increase from the shockwave as a result of the flow within the cavity being subsonic. As a result of this pressure absorption and redistribution, the impinging shockwave created by the Q-DC is almost completely absorbed. This absorption is confirmed by the schlieren images. The data reveal that the discharge power is the dominating influence, as compared to electrode/discharge geometry, on the pressure increase produced in the cavity. There is a nearly linear correlation between the power of the discharge and the pressure increase produced directly behind the discharge, in the cavity, and on the ramp of the cavity (to varying magnitudes). It is suggested that the 11 electrode system may be slightly more effective than the 7 electrode system.

  6. Integrating discharge control and data acquisition at ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raupp, G. E-mail: raupp@ipp.mpg.de; Behler, K.; Neu, G.; Merkel, R.; Treutterer, W.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, Th

    2002-06-01

    ASDEX Upgrade is being equipped with new plasma controllers and advanced diagnostics. These will be integrated into a distributed system, exchanging process data and plasma state information via a real-time network. Infrastructure tasks on dedicated nodes represent a functional framework for embedding of applications. Any type of hardware or operating systems may implement these, as long as the general rules on I/O timing and signal exchange methods are observed. To avoid temporal uncertainties in the measurement process a new time system was designed. Time becomes a measurement quantity sampled with data and process values.

  7. Modular glovebox connector and associated good practices for control of radioactive and chemically toxic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, M D; Mewhinney, C J; Newton, G J

    1999-01-01

    Design and associated good practices are described for a modular glovebox connector to improve control of radioactive and chemically toxic materials. The connector consists of an anodized aluminum circular port with a mating spacer, gaskets, and retaining rings for joining two parallel ends of commercially available or custom-manufactured glovebox enclosures. Use of the connector allows multiple gloveboxes to be quickly assembled or reconfigured in functional units. Connector dimensions can be scaled to meet operational requirements for access between gloveboxes. Options for construction materials are discussed, along with recommendations for installation of the connector in new or retrofitted systems. Associated good practices include application of surface coatings and caulking, use of disposable glovebags, and proper selection and protection of gasket and glove materials. Use of the connector at an inhalation toxicology research facility has reduced the time and expense required to reconfigure equipment for changing operational requirements, the dispersion of contamination during reconfigurations, and the need for decommissioning and disposal of contaminated enclosures.

  8. Modelling and Control of Stepper Motors for High Accuracy Positioning Systems Used in Radioactive Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Picatoste Ruilope, Ricardo; Masi, Alessandro

    Hybrid Stepper Motors are widely used in open-loop position applications. They are the choice of actuation for the collimators in the Large Hadron Collider, the largest particle accelerator at CERN. In this case the positioning requirements and the highly radioactive operating environment are unique. The latter forces both the use of long cables to connect the motors to the drives which act as transmission lines and also prevents the use of standard position sensors. However, reliable and precise operation of the collimators is critical for the machine, requiring the prevention of step loss in the motors and maintenance to be foreseen in case of mechanical degradation. In order to make the above possible, an approach is proposed for the application of an Extended Kalman Filter to a sensorless stepper motor drive, when the motor is separated from its drive by long cables. When the long cables and high frequency pulse width modulated control voltage signals are used together, the electrical signals difer greatl...

  9. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE OPERATION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.; Hansen, A.

    2013-11-13

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The majority of the waste is confined in double shell tanks, which have a primary shell, where the waste is stored, and a secondary shell, which creates an annular region between the two shells, that provides secondary containment and leak detection capabilities should leakage from the primary shell occur. Each of the DST is equipped with a purge ventilation system for the interior of the primary shell and annulus ventilation system for the secondary containment. Administrative flammability controls require continuous ventilation to remove hydrogen gas and other vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Should a leak from the primary to the annulus occur, the annulus ventilation would also serve this purpose. The functionality of the annulus ventilation is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of the primary shell and the secondary. An administrative corrosion control program is in place to ensure integrity of the tank. Given the critical functions of the purge and annulus ventilation systems, engineering controls are also necessary to ensure that the systems remain robust. The system consists of components that are constructed of metal (e.g., steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, etc.) and/or polymeric (polypropylene, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, etc.) materials. The performance of these materials in anticipated service environments (e.g., normal waste storage, waste removal, etc.) was evaluated. The most aggressive vapor space environment occurs during chemical cleaning of the residual heels by utilizing oxalic acid. The presence of NO{sub x} and mercury in the vapors generated from the process could potentially accelerate the degradation of aluminum, carbon steel, and copper. Once identified, the most susceptible materials were either replaced and/or plans for discontinuing operations

  10. Controlled cytotoxicity of plasma treated water formulated by open-air hybrid mode discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P.; Boehm, D.; Cullen, P.; Bourke, P.

    2017-06-01

    Plasma treated liquids (PTLs) provide a means to convey a broad range of effects of relevance for food, environmental, or clinical decontamination, plant growth promotion, and therapeutic applications. Devising the reactive species ingredients and controlling the biological response of PTLs are of great interest. We demonstrate an approach by using an open-air hybrid mode discharge (HMD) to control the principal reactive species composition within plasma treated water (PTW), which is then demonstrated to regulate the cytotoxicity of PTW. The cytotoxicity of HMD produced PTW demonstrates a non-monotonic change over the discharge time. Although hydrogen peroxide and nitrite are not the sole effectors for cell death caused by PTW, using them as principal reactive species indicators, cytotoxicity can be removed and/or enhanced by formulating their concentrations and composition through adjusting the discharge mode and time on-line during PTW generation without the addition of additional working gas or chemical scavengers. This work demonstrates that a hybrid mode discharge can be employed to generate a PTW formulation to control a biological response such as cytotoxicity. This provides insights into how plasma treated liquids may be harnessed for biological applications in a specific and controllable manner.

  11. Institutional Control Policies and Implementation for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vefa Yucel, Greg Shott, Denise Wieland, et al.

    2007-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has implemented varying institutional control policies in performance assessment/composite analysis (PA/CA) calculations for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (Shott et al., 1998; 2000; Bechtel Nevada [BN] and Neptune and Company Inc. [Neptune], 2006). The facilities are within the actively maintained boundaries of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that are enforced by NNSA/NSO. Under current policies, access required for exposure of the member of public (MOP) or the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) is prohibited. Uncertainties affecting institutional control policies are the duration and effectiveness of the controls during the post-closure period. Implementing a uniform set of institutional control policies for the RWMSs that encompasses waste management and environmental restoration programs and is consistent with the end-state vision for the environmental management programs for the NTS (DOE, 2006) is a primary goal of the maintenance program. The NNSA/NSO Performance Management Plan (DOE, 2002) complies with DOE Policy P455.1, 'Use of Risk-Based End States' (DOE, 2003a). Expected future land uses are a driver in selecting acceptable end state conditions and clean-up goals for the NTS. NNSA/NSO Environmental Management's (EM's) land management assumptions and framework for Environmental Management activities are as follows: The NTS will remain under federal control in perpetuity as an NNSA test site, and the large buffer zone surrounding the NTS (the Nevada Test and Training Range) is assumed to remain under the control of the U.S. Air Force. There are no plans for transfer of any NTS lands to other agencies or public entities. Access will continue to be restricted to the NTS and the surrounding areas. For management purposes, NNSA/NV EM activities have been established based on the source of contamination and

  12. River discharge controls phytoplankton dynamics in the northern San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.; Alpine, A.E.; Cole, B.E.; Wong, R.L.J.; Arthur, J.F.; Ball, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    Phytoplankton dynamics in the upper reach of the northern San Francisco Bay estuary are usually characterized by low biomass dominated by microflagellates or freshwater diatoms in winter, and high biomass dominated by neritic diatoms in summer. During two successive years of very low river discharge (the drought of 1976-77), the summer diatom bloom was absent. This is consistent with the hypothesis that formation of the diatom population maximum is a consequence of the same physical mechanisms that create local maxima of suspended sediments in partially-mixed estuaries: density-selective retention of particles within an estuarine circulation cell. Because the estuary is turbid, calculated phytoplankton growth rates are small in the central deep channel but are relatively large in lateral shallow embayments where light limination is less severe. When river discharge falls within a critical range (100-350 m3 s-1) that positions the suspended particulate maximum adjacent to the productive shallow bays, the population of neritic diatoms increases. However, during periods of high discharge (winter) or during periods of very low discharge (drought), the suspended particulate maximum is less well-defined and is uncoupled (positioned downstream or upstream) from the shallow bays of the upper estuary, and the population of neritic diatoms declines. Hence, the biomass and community composition of phytoplankton in this estuary are controlled by river discharge. ?? 1983.

  13. Measuring the absolute disintegration rate of a radioactive gas with a moveable endplate discharge counter (MEP) and theoretical calculation of wall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffey, A.H.; Gray, J.; Bentley, W.C.; Lerner, J.L.

    1987-09-01

    A precision built moveable endplate Geiger-Mueller counter was used to measure the absolute disintegration rate of a beta-emitting radioactive gas. A Geiger-Mueller counter used for measuring gaseous radioactivity has <100% counting efficiency owing to two factors: (1) ''end effect,'' due to decreased and distorted fields at the ends where wire-insulator joints are placed, and (2) ''wall effect,'' due to non-ionization by beta particles emitted near to and heading into the wall. The end effect was evaluated by making one end of the counter movable and measuring counting rates at a number of endplate positions. Much of the wall effect was calculated theoretically, based on known data for primary ionization of electrons as a function of energy and gas composition. Corrections were then made for the ''shakeoff'' effect in beta decay and for backscattering of electrons from the counter wall. Measurements and calculations were made for a sample of /sup 85/Kr (beta energy, 0.67 MeV). The wall effect calculation is readily extendable to other beta energies.

  14. Correspondence between radioactive and functional methods in the quality control of DNA restriction and modifying enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trujillo, L E; Pupo, E; Miranda, F

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the use of two radiolabeled lambda DNA/Hpa II substrates to detect 5'-->3', 3'-->5' single and double stranded DNA dependent exonuclease and phosphatase activities found as contaminants in restriction and modifying enzyme preparations. Looking for the meaning of the radioactive assay...

  15. Mastectomy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast removal surgery - discharge; Nipple-sparing mastectomy - discharge; Total mastectomy - discharge; Simple mastectomy - discharge; Modified radical mastectomy - discharge; Breast cancer - mastectomy -discharge

  16. A New Servo Control Drive for Electro Discharge Texturing System Industrial Applications Using Ultrasonic Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new ultrasonic servo control drive for electro discharge texturing system industrial applications. The new drive is aiming to overcome the current teething issues of the existing electro discharge texturing system, servo control drive level of precision, processing stability, dynamic response and surface profile of the machined products. The new ultrasonic servo control drive consists of three main apparatuses, an ultrasonic motor, electronic driver and control unit. The ultrasonic motor consists of three main parts, the stator, rotor and sliding element. The motor design process, basic configuration, principles of motion, finite element analysis and experimental examination of the main characteristics is discussed in this paper. The electronic driver of the motor consists of two main stages which are the booster and piezoelectric amplifier. The experimental test and validation of the developed servo control drive in electro discharge texturing platform is also discussed and presented in this paper. The initial results showed that the ultrasonic servo control drive is able to provide: a bidirectional of motion, a resolution of <50μm and a dynamic response of <10msec. The electron microscopic micro examination into the textured samples showed that: a clear improvement in machining stability, products surface profile, a notable reduction in the processing time, arcing and short-circuiting teething phenomena.

  17. A monitoring network of the radioactive releases control due to Garigliano nuclear power plant decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbarese, C.; Esposito, A.M.; Visciano, L.; D' onofrio, A.; Lubritto, C.; Terrasi, F. [Napoli Univ., Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali (Italy); Roca, V. [Napoli Univ. Federico 2, Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche (Italy); Alfieri, S.; Migliore, G. [Centrale Nucleare del Garigliano, SoGIN, Sessa Aurunca (Caserta) (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    The present study is the second part of a program of characterization of the site surrounding the SoGIN Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant (South Italy). The operation of the reactor was stopped in 1978 and it is currently involved in decommissioning activities. In the first phase of the project, the reference groups of the population were established on the basis of a socio-economical study of the site. The radiological doses due to the assumed radioactive releases during the decommissioning phase were calculated in reference to the characterization of the studied area by collection of environmental parameters, such as climatological, hydrological, geomorphological ones. The implementation of transport and diffusion specific models of some radionuclides in the environment was another step for the dose calculation using specific evaluation software: VADOSCA (an Italian software used for Italian NPPs), PC-PREAM (by English NRPB), FRAMES (by American NPL). The second part of the study focuses on the project of an environmental network designed in order to ensure the continuous monitoring of the radioactive release concentrations. All the criteria for the choice of grid points, on the basis of specific paths of transfer in the environment, were established for all the environmental compartments. This study was supported by a field campaign, with the aim to assess the 'zero level' due to the natural radioactivity and past anthropogenic activities, and by laboratory measurements (gamma detection by HPGe for different natural and anthropogenic gamma-emitters), so that the measured radioactive concentrations can be compared to the calculated ones. This work is an example of applied radioecological study on contaminated sites focused on the project of a planned monitoring grid for all environmental compartments (i.e. atmospheric, marine, freshwater and terrestrial) that will be used during the decommissioning release activities, but it could also be the basis for

  18. The prediction of discharge from in-patient psychiatric rehabilitation: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mountain Debbie A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At any time, about 1% of people with severe and enduring mental illness such as schizophrenia require in-patient psychiatric rehabilitation. In-patient rehabilitation enables individuals with the most challenging difficulties to be discharged to successful and stable community living. However, the length of rehabilitation admission that is required is highly variable and the reasons for this are poorly understood. There are very few case-control studies of predictors of outcome following hospitalisation. None have been carried out for in-patient rehabilitation. We aimed to identify the factors that are associated with achieving discharge from in-patient rehabilitation by carrying out a case-control study. Methods We compared two groups: 34 people who were admitted to the Rehabilitation Service at the Royal Edinburgh Hospital and discharged within a six year study period, and 31 people who were admitted in the same period, but not discharged. We compared the groups on demographic, illness, treatment and risk variables that were present at the point of their admission to rehabilitation. We used independent t tests and Pearson Chi-Square tests to compare the two groups. Results We found that serious self harm and suicide attempts, treatment with high dose antipsychotics, antipsychotic polypharmacy and previous care in forensic psychiatric services were all significantly associated with non-discharge. The non-discharged group were admitted significantly later in the six year study period and had already spent significantly longer in hospital. People who were admitted to rehabilitation within the first ten years of developing psychosis were more likely to have achieved discharge. Conclusions People admitted later in the study period required longer rehabilitation admissions and had higher rates of serious self harm and treatment resistant illness. They were also more likely to have had previous contact with forensic services. This

  19. Radioactive Ion Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Stora, T

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the basic requirements for ion sources designed and operated in radioactive ion beam facilities. The facilities where these sources are operated exploit the isotope separation online (ISOL) technique, in which a target is combined with an ion source to maximize the secondary beam intensity and chemical element selectivity. Three main classes of sources are operated, namely surface-type ion sources, arc discharge-type ion sources, and finally radio-frequenc...

  20. Coordinated Secondary Control for Balanced Discharge Rate of Energy Storage System in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    current and unintentional outage of DGs. Thus, the stability and reliability of islanded MG can be improved. The eigenvalues and root locus with the proposed controller are presented to design the parameters as well as analyzing the system stability. Simulation results based on Matlab......A coordinated secondary control based on a novel autonomous currents sharing control strategy for balanced discharge rate of energy storage systems in islanded microgrid (MG) is proposed in this paper. The coordinated secondary controller is able to regulate the output power of distributed...... generating (DG) systems according to their state-of-charge by adjusting the virtual resistances of their voltage controlled inverters. This controller can not only provide the faster response and accurate output current sharing control, but also avoid the potential operation failure resulting from the over...

  1. Coordinated Secondary Control for Balanced Discharge Rate of Energy Storage System in Islanded AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    A coordinated secondary control approach based on an autonomous current-sharing control strategy for balancing the discharge rates of energy storage systems (ESSs) in islanded AC microgrids is proposed in this paper. The coordinated secondary controller can regulate the power outputs of distributed...... generation (DG) units according to their states-of-charge (SoCs) and ESS capacities by adjusting the virtual resistances of the paralleled voltage-controlled inverters. Compared with existing controllers, the proposed control strategy not only effectively prevents operation failure caused by overcurrent...... incidents and unintentional outages in DG units, but also aims to provide a fast transient response and an accurate output-current-sharing performance. A complete root locus analysis is given in order to achieve system stability and parameter sensitivity. Experimental results are presented to show...

  2. Control of radioactive waste in dismantling of a nuclear facility; Control de residuos radiactivos en desmantelamiento de una instalacion nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campayo, E.

    2014-07-01

    In the dismantling of a nuclear facility are generated radioactive waste that must be suitably processed. The overall process, in a simplified manner, contemplates the characterization in origin, their segregation on the basis of physical, mechanical, and radiological characteristics and their packaging. (Author)

  3. Automated system of control of radioactive liquid effluents of patients submitted to therapy in hospitals of nuclear medicine (SACEL); Sistema automatizado de control de efluentes liquidos radiactivos de pacientes sometidos a terapia en hospitales de medicina nuclear (SACEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz C, M.A.; Rivero G, T.; Celis del Angel, L.; Sainz M, E.; Molina, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: marc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    Different hospitals of nuclear medicine require of the technical attendance for the design, construction and instrumentation of an effluents retention system coming from the room dedicated to the medical application of iodine 131, with the one object of giving execution to the normative requirements of radiological protection, settled down in the General Regulation of Radiological Safety (RGSR) emitted by the CNSNS in November, 1988 and in the corresponding official standards. An automatic system of flow measurement, the activity concentration of the effluents to the drainage, the discharges control and the automated report it will allow the execution of the national regulations, also the elimination of unhealthy activities as the taking of samples, analysis of those same and the corresponding paperwork, its will allow that the SACEL is capable of to carry out registrations that are to consult in an automated way. The changes in the demands of the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards in relation to the liberation of radioactive material in hospitals by medical treatments, it has created the necessity to develop a system that quantifies and dose the liquid effluents of people under thyroid treatment with iodine-131 to the drainage. The Automated System of Control of radioactive liquids effluents generated in Hospitals of Nuclear Medicine (SACEL) developed in the National Institute of Nuclear Research, it fulfills this regulation, besides improving the work conditions for the medical and technical personnel of the hospital in that are installed, since this system has the advantage of to be totally automated and to require of a minimum of attendance. The SACEL is an electro-hydraulic system of effluents control, based in the alternate operation of two decay deposits of the activity of the material contaminated with iodine-131. The system allows to take a registration of those volumes and liberated dose, besides being able to be monitoring in remote

  4. Follow-up services for stroke survivors after hospital discharge--a randomized control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hanne Elkjaer; Eriksen, Karen; Brown, Anne

    2002-01-01

    ) follow-up home visits by a physician, (2) physiotherapist instruction in the patient's home, or (3) standard aftercare. SUBJECTS: Stroke patients with persisting impairment and disability who, after completing inpatient rehabilitation, were discharged to their homes. OUTCOME MEASURES: Six months after...... were given instructions by a physiotherapist in their home and 48 received standard aftercare only. No statistically significant differences in functional outcome six months after discharge were demonstrated between the three groups. However, all measurements showed a tendency towards higher scores...... indicating better function in both interventions groups compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Follow-up services after stroke may be a way of improving functional outcome. The results of the present study should be evaluated in future trials. More research in this field is needed, especially studies...

  5. Meals Enhancing Nutrition After Discharge: Findings from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, David R; Campbell, Anthony D; Godfryd, Alice; Flood, Kellie; Kitchin, Elizabeth; Kilgore, Meredith L; Allocca, Sally; Locher, Julie L

    2017-04-01

    After older adults experience episodes of poor health or are hospitalized, they may not return to premorbid or prehospitalization eating behaviors. Furthermore, poor nutrition increases hospital readmission risk, but evidence-based interventions addressing these risks are limited. This pilot study's objective was to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial assessing a post-discharge home-delivered meal program's impact on older adults' nutritional intake and hospital readmissions and to assess patient acceptability and satisfaction with the program. The aims of the study were to evaluate successful recruitment, randomization, and retention of at least 80% of the 24 participants sought; to compare the outcomes of hospital readmission and total daily caloric intake between participants in the intervention and control groups; and to assess patient acceptability and satisfaction with the program. This study used a two-arm randomized controlled trial design, and baseline data were collected at enrollment; three 24-hour food recalls were collected during the intervention period; and health services utilization and intervention satisfaction was evaluated 45 days post-discharge. Twenty-four patients from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital's Acute Care for Elders (ACE) Unit were enrolled from May 2014 to June 2015. They were 65 years or older; at risk for malnutrition; cognitively intact; able to communicate; discharged to a place where the patient or family was responsible for preparing meals; and diagnosed with congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute myocardial infarction, or pneumonia. Final analysis included 21 participants. The intervention group received 10 days of home-delivered meals and nutrition education; the control group received usual care and nutrition education. The main outcome was intervention feasibility, measured by recruitment and retention goals. Hospital readmissions, caloric

  6. Event detection and exception handling strategies in the ASDEX Upgrade discharge control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treutterer, W., E-mail: Wolfgang.Treutterer@ipp.mpg.de; Neu, G.; Rapson, C.; Raupp, G.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Event detection and exception handling is integrated in control system architecture. •Pulse control with local exception handling and pulse supervision with central exception handling are strictly separated. •Local exception handling limits the effect of an exception to a minimal part of the controlled system. •Central Exception Handling solves problems requiring coordinated action of multiple control components. -- Abstract: Thermonuclear plasmas are governed by nonlinear characteristics: plasma operation can be classified into scenarios with pronounced features like L and H-mode, ELMs or MHD activity. Transitions between them may be treated as events. Similarly, technical systems are also subject to events such as failure of measurement sensors, actuator saturation or violation of machine and plant operation limits. Such situations often are handled with a mixture of pulse abortion and iteratively improved pulse schedule reference programming. In case of protection-relevant events, however, the complexity of even a medium-sized device as ASDEX Upgrade requires a sophisticated and coordinated shutdown procedure rather than a simple stop of the pulse. The detection of events and their intelligent handling by the control system has been shown to be valuable also in terms of saving experiment time and cost. This paper outlines how ASDEX Upgrade's discharge control system (DCS) detects events and handles exceptions in two stages: locally and centrally. The goal of local exception handling is to limit the effect of an unexpected or asynchronous event to a minimal part of the controlled system. Thus, local exception handling facilitates robustness to failures but keeps the decision structures lean. A central state machine deals with exceptions requiring coordinated action of multiple control components. DCS implements the state machine by means of pulse schedule segments containing pre-programmed waveforms to define discharge goal and control

  7. Partial discharge measurements on 110kV current transformers. Setting the control value. Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, C.; Morar, R.

    2017-05-01

    The case study presents a series of partial discharge measurements, reflecting the state of insulation of 110kV CURRENT TRANSFORMERS located in Sibiu county substations. Measurements were performed based on electrical method, using MPD600: an acquisition and analysis toolkit for detecting, recording, and analyzing partial discharges. MPD600 consists of one acquisition unit, an optical interface and a computer with dedicated software. The system allows measurements of partial discharge on site, even in presence of strong electromagnetic interferences because it provides synchronous acquisition from all measurement points. Therefore, measurements, with the ability to be calibrated, do render: - a value subject to interpretation according to IEC 61869-1:2007 + IEC 61869-2:2012 + IEC 61869-3:2011 + IEC 61869-5:2011 and IEC 60270: 2000; - the possibility to determine the quantitative limit of PD (a certain control value) to which the equipment can be operated safely and repaired with minimal costs (relative to the high costs implied by eliminating the consequences of a failure) identified empirically (process in which the instrument transformer subjected to the tests was completely destroyed).

  8. Preparation of Ag/Cu/Ti Nanofluids by Spark Discharge System and Its Control Parameters Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsiung Tseng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study selected silver, copper, and titanium as the research objects to explore the relationship between nanofluids properties and electrical discharge machining (EDM processes. Regarding the products, UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis was applied to measure the concentration distribution of nanofluids; zeta-size analysis is applied for measuring nanometal particles’ Zeta-Potential and the size distribution of metallic particles in the fluid. Finally, various instruments, including scanning electron microscope (SEM, were applied to observe the shape, size, and composition ratio of metal particles after processing. According to the experimental results, the control of the discharge pulse time, in addition to affecting the concentration of metallic liquid and temperature in the process, affects the size of the metal particles after the process. As the resistivity of silver and copper is very low, at about 15×10-9 Ω·m, if TON is set to between 10~50 μs, good preparation efficiency can be obtained. The resistivity of titanium is 420×10-9 Ω·m, which is much larger than that of silver or copper. Hence, TON should be set to approximately 100 μs to achieve a good discharge success rate.

  9. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  10. Simulated Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  11. Wind tunnel experiments on flow separation control of an Unmanned Air Vehicle by nanosecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chen; Hua, Liang

    2016-02-01

    Plasma flow control (PFC) is a new kind of active flow control technology, which can improve the aerodynamic performances of aircrafts remarkably. The flow separation control of an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) by nanosecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation (NDPAA) is investigated experimentally in this paper. Experimental results show that the applied voltages for both the nanosecond discharge and the millisecond discharge are nearly the same, but the current for nanosecond discharge (30 A) is much bigger than that for millisecond discharge (0.1 A). The flow field induced by the NDPAA is similar to a shock wave upward, and has a maximal velocity of less than 0.5 m/s. Fast heating effect for nanosecond discharge induces shock waves in the quiescent air. The lasting time of the shock waves is about 80 μs and its spread velocity is nearly 380 m/s. By using the NDPAA, the flow separation on the suction side of the UAV can be totally suppressed and the critical stall angle of attack increases from 20° to 27° with a maximal lift coefficient increment of 11.24%. The flow separation can be suppressed when the discharge voltage is larger than the threshold value, and the optimum operation frequency for the NDPAA is the one which makes the Strouhal number equal one. The NDPAA is more effective than the millisecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation (MDPAA) in boundary layer flow control. The main mechanism for nanosecond discharge is shock effect. Shock effect is more effective in flow control than momentum effect in high speed flow control. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61503302, 51207169, and 51276197), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M562446), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2015JM1001).

  12. Silicon Carbide Semiconductor Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge (SSDBD) Device for Turbulent Skin Friction Drag Reduction and Flow Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research effort explores the use of a nanosecond pulse driven offset semiconducting surface dielectric barrier discharge (SSDBD) device for the control...

  13. Early assisted discharge with generic community nursing for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: Results of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M.A. Utens (Cecile); L.M.A. Goossens (Lucas); F.W.J.M. Smeenk (Frank); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen); M. van Vliet (Monique); M.W. Braken (Maria); L. van Eijsden (Loes); O.C.P. Schayck (Onno)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To determine the effectiveness of early assisted discharge for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, with home care provided by generic community nurses, compared with usual hospital care. Design: Prospective, randomised controlled and multicentre trial

  14. Method for improving the electrostatics perforation pattern using power controlled discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, C; Miranda, E; GarcIa-Garcia, J [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Martinez-Cisneros, C; Alonso, J, E-mail: carolina.garzon@uab.cat [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-06-23

    The aims of this work are to show the influence of adding a series resistance at the output of a discharge generator circuit and to point out that this component can be used to control the spark energy in electrostatic perforation systems. Analysis of the experimental results reveals that there exists a close connection between the resistor value and the obtained perforation pattern both in hole density and size. The use of a series resistor has a strong influence on the material porosity, which is an important industrial parameter for assessing the pattern perforation quality.

  15. Global model for active control of capacitive radio frequency magnetron discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Dennis; Krueger, Dennis; Woelfel, Christian; Oberberg, Moritz; Lunze, Jan; Awakowicz, Peter; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2016-09-01

    Sputtering technologies have a widespread of applications in modern industries. Up to now, no appropriate model is available for active control of these processes. Controlling inhibits the drift of process parameters and therefore helps to improve the quality of deposited thin films. The aim of this work is to develop a global model for radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma (RF-CCP) magnetron discharges. Several global models for RF-CCPs have been proposed, but most of them neglect the existence of a magnetic field inside the plasma. This work builds on existing models but takes into account the underlying magnetic field. Therefore a lumped circuit model with its corresponding system of differential equations is formulated and the influence of the magnetic field is analysed. The proposed model is used to investigate several parameters such as neutral gas pressure, magnetic field strength or applied voltage, to be able to actively control thin film growth.

  16. Does adding a dietician to the liaison team after discharge of geriatric patients improve nutritional outcome: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, A; Andersen, U T; Leedo, E; Jensen, L L; Martins, K; Quvang, M; Rask, K Ø; Vedelspang, A; Rønholt, F

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to test whether adding a dietician to a discharge Liaison-Team after discharge of geriatric patients improves nutritional status, muscle strength and patient relevant outcomes. Twelve-week randomized controlled trial. Geriatric patients (70 + years and at nutritional risk) at discharge. Participants were randomly allocated to receive discharge Liaison-Team vs. discharge Liaison-Team in cooperation with a dietician. The dietician performed a total of three home visits with the aim of developing and implementing an individual nutritional care plan. The first visit took place at the day of discharge together with the discharge Liaison-Team while the remaining visits took place approximately three and eight weeks after discharge and were performed by a dietician alone. Nutritional status (weight, and dietary intake), muscle strength (hand grip strength, chair-stand), functional status (mobility, and activities of daily living), quality of life, use of social services, re-/hospitalization and mortality. Seventy-one patients were included (34 in the intervention group), and 63 (89%) completed the second data collection after 12 weeks (31 in the intervention group). Odds ratios for hospitalization and mortality 6 months after discharge were 0.367 (0.129; 1.042) and 0.323 (0.060; 1.724). Nutritional status improved and some positive tendencies in favour of the intervention group were observed for patient relevant outcomes, i.e. activities of daily living, and quality of life. Almost 100% of the intervention group received three home visits by a dietician. Adding a dietician to the discharge Liaison-Team after discharge of geriatric patients can improve nutritional status and may reduce the number of times hospitalized within 6 months. A larger study is necessary to see a significant effect on other patient relevant outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Quantifying opportunities for hospital cost control: medical device purchasing and patient discharge planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James C; Brown, Timothy T

    2014-09-01

    To quantify the potential reduction in hospital costs from adoption of best local practices in supply chain management and discharge planning. We performed multivariate statistical analyses of the association between total variable cost per procedure and medical device price and length of stay, controlling for patient and hospital characteristics. Ten hospitals in 1 major metropolitan area supplied patient-level administrative data on 9778 patients undergoing joint replacement, spine fusion, or cardiac rhythm management (CRM) procedures in 2008 and 2010. The impact on each hospital of matching lowest local market device prices and lowest patient length of stay (LOS) was calculated using multivariate regression analysis controlling for patient demographics, diagnoses, comorbidities, and implications. Average variable costs ranged from $11,315 for joint replacement to $16,087 for CRM and $18,413 for spine fusion. Implantable medical devices accounted for a large share of each procedure's variable costs: 44% for joint replacement, 39% for spine fusion, and 59% for CRM. Device prices and patient length-of-stay exhibited wide variation across hospitals. Total potential hospital cost savings from achieving best local practices in device prices and patient length of stay are 14.5% for joint replacement, 18.8% for spine fusion;,and 29.1% for CRM. Hospitals have opportunities for cost reduction from adoption of best local practices in supply chain management and discharge planning.

  18. Acceleration optimization of real-time equilibrium reconstruction for HL-2A tokamak discharge control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, MA; Fan, XIA; Fei, LING; Jiaxian, LI

    2018-02-01

    Real-time equilibrium reconstruction is crucially important for plasma shape control in the process of tokamak plasma discharge. However, as the reconstruction algorithm is computationally intensive, it is very difficult to improve its accuracy and reduce the computation time, and some optimizations need to be done. This article describes the three most important aspects of this optimization: (1) compiler optimization; (2) some optimization for middle-scale matrix multiplication on the graphic processing unit and an algorithm which can solve the block tri-diagonal linear system efficiently in parallel; (3) a new algorithm to locate the X&O point on the central processing unit. A static test proves the correctness and a dynamic test proves the feasibility of using the new code for real-time reconstruction with 129 × 129 grids; it can complete one iteration around 575 μs for each equilibrium reconstruction. The plasma displacements from real-time equilibrium reconstruction are compared with the experimental measurements, and the calculated results are consistent with the measured ones, which can be used as a reference for the real-time control of HL-2A discharge.

  19. Variation in reach-scale bankfull discharge of the Jingjiang Reach undergoing upstream and downstream boundary controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junqiang; Zhou, Meirong; Lin, Fenfen; Deng, Shanshan; Lu, Jinyou

    2017-04-01

    Remarkable channel degradation has occurred in the Jingjiang Reach of the Middle Yangtze River, since the operation of the Three Gorges Project, which has caused significant geomorphic adjustments, including the variation in bankfull discharge. Bankfull discharge is a key indicator of flood-discharge capacity in the Jingjiang Reach, which can adjust in response to the altered water and sediment conditions and local base-level changes. Therefore, it is important to investigate the variation in reach-scale bankfull discharge, because of longitudinal variability in channel geometry and bankfull discharge in the study reach. In this study, a general method to calculate the section-scale bankfull discharge using the simulated stage-discharge relation is outlined briefly, and an integrated method is then presented for estimating the reach-scale bankfull discharge. The post-flood reach-scale bankfull discharges in the study reach from 2002 to 2015 were calculated, using the proposed method, based on surveyed post-flood profiles at 171 sections and measured hydrological data at three hydrometric sections and eight water gauge sections. The calculated results indicate that: (i) the reach-scale bankfull discharge in the Jingjiang Reach ranged between 32,731 and 38,949 m3/s over this period, with the average bankfull discharge in the Upper Jingjiang Reach being generally greater than the value in the Lower Jingjiang Reach; (ii) the magnitude of the reach-scale bankfull discharge responded well to the cumulative effect of incoming flow and sediment conditions at the inlet boundary, as well as the change of local base level at the outlet boundary; and (iii) the flood-discharge capacity of the reach was controlled by both the upstream and downstream boundary conditions, and the reach-scale bankfull discharge was expressed by an empirical function of the previous five-year average fluvial erosion intensity during flood seasons at Zhicheng, and the difference between the flood

  20. Partial oxidation of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming

    2015-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of the reduced field intensity and the background reaction temperature in the partial oxidation of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor. We obtained important mechanistic insight from studying high-temperature and low-pressure conditions with similar reduced field intensities. In the tested range of background temperatures (297 < T < 773 K), we found that the conversion of methane and oxygen depended on both the electron-induced chemistry and the thermo-chemistry, whereas the chemical pathways to the products were overall controlled by the thermo-chemistry at a given temperature. We also found that the thermo-chemistry enhanced the plasma-assisted partial oxidation process. Our findings expand our understanding of the plasma-assisted partial oxidation process and may be helpful in the design of cost-effective plasma reformers. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  1. Radioactivity measurements principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Spernol, A

    2012-01-01

    The authors have addressed the basic need for internationally consistent standards and methods demanded by the new and increasing use of radioactive materials, radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds. Particular emphasis is given to the basic and practical problems that may be encountered in measuring radioactivity. The text provides information and recommendations in the areas of radiation protection, focusing on quality control and the precautions necessary for the preparation and handling of radioactive substances. New information is also presented on the applications of both traditiona

  2. Control of the nutrient pollution discharge from the Vistula River Basin in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, B.; Hallmans, B. [VBB VIAK-SWECO, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-09-01

    This paper is based on a pre-feasibility study of the Vistula River Basin and Baltic Coast of Poland, financed by the World Bank and prepared by the SWECO-COWI consult - VKI Vistula Joint Venture in association with the Polish consulting companies Hydroproject and Stolica. The objective of the study has been to prepare a priority action programme to pre-feasibility level to control and reduce the present pollution of the Baltic Sea from the Vistula River Basin and Baltic Coast of Poland in line with the 1990 Baltic Sea Declaration. This includes a target objective of the adoption of measures by the countries in the region to reduce the 1987 emission levels by 50% by 1995. The municipal wastewater from about 1/3 of the population in Poland is not treated at all, and most of the existing treatment is of low efficiency. Also most of the industrial plants have high pollution discharge loads. Nitrogen runoff is the most obvious problem from agriculture. The yearly discharge of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea is in the order of magnitude 100,000 tons. Phosphorus is also discharged in large quantities, as most of the sewage treatment plants are not constructed for chemical or biological phosphorus removal. Actions proposed for implementation to the year 2000 are described, primarily for protection of the Baltic Sea. These actions include mainly treatment plants for removal of phosphorus, nitrogen and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), but also heavy metals and persistent organic substances. All major polluting industries, including coal mining, should also take steps in order not to exceed accepted pollution levels. Finally, economic instruments and investment programmes are discussed. 2 maps. 3 tabs.

  3. Radioactive syringes measurement before injection: failure and monitoring of an activity meter; La mesure des seringues radioactives avant injection: defaillance et controles d`un activimetre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitaux, F.; Guerre, M.L.; Foucault, C. [Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal, 93 - Montfermeil (France)

    1994-05-01

    Activity meters are used routinely in nuclear medicine. Thus, the eluates from technetium (Tc) generators are measured daily, as are syringes prepared extemporaneously just before injection in the patient for scintiscanning. We have observed a malfunctioning of the instrument we use in measurements of preparations around 15-25 millicuries. We have verified the existence of this defect by measuring the decay of three radioactive Tc-99m sources over seven hours. There is a definite measurement instability between 15 and 25 mCi for the measurements with this unit. Thus, a reading of 18 mCi can correspond to a true value of 18 mCi or a true value of 25 mCi. These results led us to verify the limits of our measurement scale. For low activities (of the order of 200 {mu}Ci), the theoretical and measured radioactive decays are superimposable in the two systems of units, {mu}Ci and Bq. For high activities (of the order of 700 mCi), the values of the first elutions of fifteen Tc-99m generators were recorded and compared with the theoretical values established by a calibration provided by the supplier. The agreement is very acceptable. This work has made it possible to specify a defect in the measurement region of the activity meter, which is limited, but is the most often used. Thus, there is a primordial need for the verification of the instruments in nuclear medicine for measurement of the activity injected in patients. (authors). 6 figs.

  4. Droop-Control-Based State-of-Charge Balancing Method for Charging and Discharging Process in Autonomous DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a droop control based state-of-charge (SoC) balancing method in autonomous DC microgrids is proposed. Both charging and discharging process have been considered. In particular, in the charging process, the droop coefficient is set to be proportional to SoCn, and in the discharging ......C and injected/output power. It is demonstrated that with higher exponent n, the balancing speed is higher. Simulation model comprised of three ESUs is implemented by using MATLAB/Simulink. The proposed method is verified by the simulation results.......In this paper, a droop control based state-of-charge (SoC) balancing method in autonomous DC microgrids is proposed. Both charging and discharging process have been considered. In particular, in the charging process, the droop coefficient is set to be proportional to SoCn, and in the discharging...

  5. Control of plasma properties in a short direct-current glow discharge with active boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S. F. [Air Force Research Laboratory, WPAFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Demidov, V. I., E-mail: vladimir.demidov@mail.wvu.edu [Air Force Research Laboratory, WPAFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Bogdanov, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. A. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Koepke, M. E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kurlyandskaya, I. P. [St. Petersburg University of State Fire Service of EMERCOM RF, Murmansk Branch, Murmansk 183040 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    To demonstrate controlling electron/metastable density ratio and electron temperature by applying negative voltages to the active (conducting) discharge wall in a low-pressure plasma with nonlocal electron energy distribution function, modeling has been performed in a short (lacking the positive-column region) direct-current glow discharge with a cold cathode. The applied negative voltage can modify the trapping of the low-energy part of the energetic electrons that are emitted from the cathode sheath and that arise from the atomic and molecular processes in the plasma within the device volume. These electrons are responsible for heating the slow, thermal electrons, while production of slow electrons (ions) and metastable atoms is mostly due to the energetic electrons with higher energies. Increasing electron temperature results in increasing decay rate of slow, thermal electrons (ions), while decay rate of metastable atoms and production rates of slow electrons (ions) and metastable atoms practically are unchanged. The result is in the variation of electron/metastable density ratio and electron temperature with the variation of the wall negative voltage.

  6. Copper induced hollow carbon nanospheres by arc discharge method: controlled synthesis and formation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Alexandru Ciolan, Mihai; Wang, Xiangke; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-08-01

    Hollow carbon nanospheres with controlled morphologies were synthesized via the copper-carbon direct current arc discharge method by alternating the concentrations of methane in the reactant gas mixture. A self-healing process to keep the structural integrity of encapsulated graphitic shells was evolved gradually by adding methane gas from 0% to 20%. The outer part of the coated layers expanded and hollow nanospheres grew to be large fluffy ones with high methane concentrations from 30% to 50%. A self-repairing function by the reattachment of broken graphitic layers initiated from near-electrode space to distance was also distinctly exhibited. By comparing several comparable metals (e.g. copper, silver, gold, zinc, iron and nickel)-carbon arc discharge products, a catalytic carbon-encapsulation mechanism combined with a core-escaping process has been proposed. Specifically, on the basis of the experimental results, copper could be applied as a unique model for both the catalysis of graphitic encapsulation and as an adequate template for the formation of hollow nanostructures.

  7. Electron-induced dry reforming of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming

    2013-09-23

    Dry reforming of methane has the potential to reduce the greenhouse gases methane and carbon dioxide and to generate hydrogen-rich syngas. In reforming methane, plasma-assisted reforming processes may have advantages over catalytic processes because they are free from coking and their response time for mobile applications is quick. Although plasma-assisted reforming techniques have seen recent developments, systematic studies that clarify the roles that electron-induced chemistry and thermo-chemistry play are needed for a full understanding of the mechanisms of plasma-assisted reformation. Here, we developed a temperature-controlled coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) apparatus to investigate the relative importance of electron-induced chemistry and thermo-chemistry in dry reforming of methane. In the tested background temperature range 297-773 K, electron-induced chemistry, as characterized by the physical properties of micro-discharges, was found to govern the conversions of CH4 and CO2, while thermo-chemistry influenced the product selectivities because they were found to depend on the background temperature. Comparisons with results from arc-jet reformation indicated that thermo-chemistry is an efficient conversion method. Our findings may improve designs of plasma-assisted reformers by using relatively hotter plasma sources. However, detailed chemical kinetic studies are needed. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. Cost efficiency of transferable discharge permit markets for control of multiple pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lence, Barbara J.; Eheart, J. Wayland; Brill, E. Downey, Jr.

    1988-07-01

    Transferable discharge permit (TDP) programs for managing multiple pollutants may be complicated by interdependent treatment costs. Under such systems pollutants may be managed as several individual commodities or grouped together and managed as a single commodity. This paper presents an approach for evaluating the cost efficiency of TDP programs in which permits for several pollutants are traded as individual commodities. Two market scenarios, representing simultaneous and sequential TDP markets, are developed to provide high and low benchmarks for cost efficiency, respectively. The scenarios demonstrate the control of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), phosphorus, and nitrogen discharges in a typical river basin. A method for estimating feasible transfer payments under the market scenarios is also described and demonstrated for markets for BOD and phosphorus permits. The costs of these scenarios are compared with each other and with that of a uniform treatment approach. These comparisons suggest that a TDP program that manages several pollutants on an individual basis is a cost effective management strategy for conventional municipal pollutants and that any interdependencies that exist among these pollutants in terms of waste treatment costs do not limit the effectiveness of this simple program.

  9. Radioactive Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, T

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the basic requirements for ion sources designed and operated in radioactive ion beam facilities. The facilities where these sources are operated exploit the isotope separation online (ISOL) technique, in which a target is combined with an ion source to maximize the secondary beam intensity and chemical element selectivity. Three main classes of sources are operated, namely surface-type ion sources, arc discharge-type ion sources, and finally radio-frequency-heated plasma-type ion sources.

  10. A Review of Control Strategy of the Large-scale of Electric Vehicles Charging and Discharging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingyu; Han, Jiming; Xiong, Wenting; Wang, Hao; Shen, Yaqi; Li, Ying

    2017-05-01

    Large scale access of electric vehicles will bring huge challenges to the safe operation of the power grid, and it’s important to control the charging and discharging of the electric vehicle. First of all, from the electric quality and network loss, this paper points out the influence on the grid caused by electric vehicle charging behaviour. Besides, control strategy of electric vehicle charging and discharging has carried on the induction and the summary from the direct and indirect control. Direct control strategy means control the electric charging behaviour by controlling its electric vehicle charging and discharging power while the indirect control strategy by means of controlling the price of charging and discharging. Finally, for the convenience of the reader, this paper also proposed a complete idea of the research methods about how to study the control strategy, taking the adaptability and possibility of failure of electric vehicle control strategy into consideration. Finally, suggestions on the key areas for future research are put up.

  11. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Structure-dependent behaviors of diode-triggered silicon controlled rectifier under electrostatic discharge stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Zhong; Wang, Yuan; He, Yan-Dong

    2016-12-01

    The comprehensive understanding of the structure-dependent electrostatic discharge behaviors in a conventional diode-triggered silicon controlled rectifier (DTSCR) is presented in this paper. Combined with the device simulation, a mathematical model is built to get a more in-depth insight into this phenomenon. The theoretical studies are verified by the transmission-line-pulsing (TLP) test results of the modified DTSCR structure, which is realized in a 65-nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. The detailed analysis of the physical mechanism is used to provide predictions as the DTSCR-based protection scheme is required. In addition, a method is also presented to achieve the tradeoff between the leakage and trigger voltage in DTSCR. Project supported by the Beijing Municipal Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 4162030) and the National Science and Technology Major Project of China (Grant No. 2013ZX02303002).

  13. Direct Current Magnetron Glow Discharge Plasma Characteristics Study for Controlled Deposition of Titanium Nitride Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Moni Borah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the study of direct current (DC magnetron glow discharge plasma characteristics in a cylindrical magnetron system in argon-nitrogen. Presence of nitrogen gas makes the plasma environment reactive, and it results in significant changes of the plasma properties—number density, electron temperature, floating potential, and sheath thickness. Applied magnetic field is a parameter which is closely related to proper deposition of thin film. Cylindrical Langmuir probe and Emissive probe are used as diagnostics for the estimation of various plasma parameters indicated earlier. Controlled titanium nitride (TiN thin film deposition on bell-metal at different argon-nitrogen gases ratio is another important study reported.

  14. The relation between invertebrate drift and two primary controls, discharge and benthic densities, in a large regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Theodore A.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Grams, Paul E.; Yard, Michael D.; Copp, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    1. Invertebrate drift is a fundamental process in streams and rivers. Studies from laboratory experiments and small streams have identified numerous extrinsic (e.g. discharge, light intensity, water quality) and intrinsic factors (invertebrate life stage, benthic density, behaviour) that govern invertebrate drift concentrations (# m−3), but the factors that govern invertebrate drift in larger rivers remain poorly understood. For example, while large increases or decreases in discharge can lead to large increases in invertebrate drift, the role of smaller, incremental changes in discharge is poorly described. In addition, while we might expect invertebrate drift concentrations to be proportional to benthic densities (# m−2), the benthic–drift relation has not been rigorously evaluated. 2. Here, we develop a framework for modelling invertebrate drift that is derived from sediment transport studies. We use this framework to guide the analysis of high-resolution data sets of benthic density and drift concentration for four important invertebrate taxa from the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam (mean daily discharge 325 m3 s−1) that were collected over 18 months and include multiple observations within days. Ramping of regulated flows on this river segment provides an experimental treatment that is repeated daily and allowed us to describe the functional relations between invertebrate drift and two primary controls, discharge and benthic densities. 3. Twofold daily variation in discharge resulted in a >10-fold increase in drift concentrations of benthic invertebrates associated with pools and detritus (i.e. Gammarus lacustris and Potamopyrgus antipodarum). In contrast, drift concentrations of sessile blackfly larvae (Simuliium arcticum), which are associated with high-velocity cobble microhabitats, decreased by over 80% as discharge doubled. Drift concentrations of Chironomidae increased proportional to discharge. 4. Drift of all four taxa was

  15. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, E.B.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables.

  16. Discharge rate balancing control strategy based on dynamic consensus algorithm for energy storage units in AC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Meng, Lexuan; Li, Chendan

    2017-01-01

    A dynamic consensus algorithm-based coordinated secondary control with an autonomous current-sharing control strategy is proposed in this paper for balancing discharge rate of energy storage systems (ESSs) in an islanded AC microgrid. The dynamic consensus algorithm is applied for information sha...

  17. Land cover controls on summer discharge and runoff solution chemistry of semi-arid urban catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Erika L.; Brooks, Paul D.; Lohse, Kathleen A.; McLain, Jean E. T.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryRecharge of urban runoff to groundwater as a stormwater management practice has gained importance in semi-arid regions where water resources are scarce and urban centers are growing. Despite this trend, the importance of land cover in controlling semi-arid catchment runoff quantity and quality remains unclear. Here we address the question: How do land cover characteristics control the amount and quality of storm runoff in semi-arid urban catchments? We monitored summertime runoff quantity and quality from five catchments dominated by distinct urban land uses: low, medium, and high density residential, mixed use, and commercial. Increasing urban land cover increased runoff duration and the likelihood that a rainfall event would result in runoff, but did not increase the time to peak discharge of episodic runoff. The effect of urban land cover on hydrologic responses was tightly coupled to the magnitude of rainfall. At distinct rainfall thresholds, roads, percent impervious cover and the stormwater drainage network controlled runoff frequency, runoff depth and runoff ratios. Contrary to initial expectations, runoff quality did not vary in repose to impervious cover or land use. We identified four major mechanisms controlling runoff quality: (1) variable solute sourcing due to land use heterogeneity and above ground catchment connectivity; (2) the spatial extent of pervious and biogeochemically active areas; (3) the efficiency of overland flow and runoff mobilization; and (4) solute flushing and dilution. Our study highlights the importance of the stormwater drainage systems characteristics in controlling urban runoff quantity and quality; and suggests that enhanced wetting and in-stream processes may control solute sourcing and retention. Finally, we suggest that the characteristics of the stormwater drainage system should be integrated into stormwater management approaches.

  18. Leading edge vortex control on a delta wing with dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lu; Wen, Chih-yung

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the application of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators on a slender delta wing to control the leading edge vortices (LEVs). The experiments are conducted in a wind tunnel with a Reynolds number of 50 000 based on the chord length. The smoke flow visualization reveals that the DBD plasma actuators at the leading edges significantly modify the vortical flow structure over the delta wing. It is noted that symmetric control at both semi-spans and asymmetric control at a single semi-span leads to opposite effects on the local LEVs. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) indicates that the shear layer is deformed by the actuators. Therefore, both the strength and the shape of the LEV cores are deeply affected. The six-component force measurement shows that the DBD plasma actuators have a limited effect on lift and drag while inducing relatively large moments. This suggests that the DBD plasma actuator is a promising technique for delta wing maneuvering.

  19. Radioactive transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive Transformations describes Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize-winning investigations into the mysteries of radioactive matter. In this historic work, Rutherford outlines the scientific investigations that led to and coincided with his own research--including the work of Wilhelm Rӧntgen, J. J. Thomson, and Marie Curie--and explains in detail the experiments that provided a glimpse at special relativity, quantum mechanics, and other concepts that would shape modern physics. This new edition features a comprehensive introduction by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek which engagingly explains how Rutherford's early research led to a better understanding of topics as diverse as the workings of the atom's nucleus, the age of our planet, and the fusion in stars.

  20. Radioactive alchemy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2014-07-15

    For any entity involved in radioactive waste management, turning lead into gold means succeeding with minimising the volumes and optimizing the long-term containment of ultimate waste to be disposed of. With this purpose, they perform R and D on different sorting, treatment and disposal technology, as explained by Frederic Plas from Andra (France), Jan Deckers from Belgoprocess (Belgium) and Wilhelm Bollingerfehr from DBE Technology (Germany). (orig.)

  1. Disposal of radioactive wastes arising in the United Kingdom from the peaceful uses of atomic energy

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, P M

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes United Kingdom policy in relation to radioactive waste and summarises the relevant legislation ad methods of control. Data are given on the amounts of radioactivity discharged as waste from establishments of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the nuclear power stations operated by the Electricity Generating Boards and other users of radioactive materials. Studies of the behaviour of radioactivity in the environment are reported with particular reference to food chains and other potential sources of irradiation of the public. The results of environmental monitoring are presented and estimates are made of radiation doses received by individual members of the public and larger population groups as a result of waste disposal. It is concluded that the doses received are all within the appropriate limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and in most cases are trivial.

  2. Transient spark: a dc-driven repetitively pulsed discharge and its control by electric circuit parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Mario; Martišovitš, Viktor; Machala, Zdenko

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents an analysis of electrical characteristics of streamer-to-spark transition discharge in air at atmospheric pressure named transient spark (TS). The TS is applicable for flue gas cleaning or bio-decontamination and has potential in plasma shielding, combustion and flow control applications. Despite the dc applied voltage, TS has a pulsed character with short (~10-100 ns) high current (>1 A) pulses, with repetitive frequencies 1-20 kHz. Estimation of the temporal evolution of electron density shows that ne ≈ 1016 cm-3 at maximum and ~1011 cm-3 on average are reached using relatively low power delivered to the plasma (0.2-3 W). Thanks to the high repetition frequency, ne between two current pulses does not fall below a critical value and therefore plasma exists during the whole time. A detailed analysis of the TS control by electrical circuit parameters is presented. With appropriate circuit components, the current pulse tail (>1 mA) can be extended and the electron density can be held above ~1013 cm-3 for several tens of μs.

  3. Transient spark: a dc-driven repetitively pulsed discharge and its control by electric circuit parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janda, Mario; Martisovits, Viktor; Machala, Zdenko, E-mail: janda@fmph.uniba.sk [Division of Environmental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F2, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents an analysis of electrical characteristics of streamer-to-spark transition discharge in air at atmospheric pressure named transient spark (TS). The TS is applicable for flue gas cleaning or bio-decontamination and has potential in plasma shielding, combustion and flow control applications. Despite the dc applied voltage, TS has a pulsed character with short ({approx}10-100 ns) high current (>1 A) pulses, with repetitive frequencies 1-20 kHz. Estimation of the temporal evolution of electron density shows that n{sub e} {approx} 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} at maximum and {approx}10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} on average are reached using relatively low power delivered to the plasma (0.2-3 W). Thanks to the high repetition frequency, n{sub e} between two current pulses does not fall below a critical value and therefore plasma exists during the whole time. A detailed analysis of the TS control by electrical circuit parameters is presented. With appropriate circuit components, the current pulse tail (>1 mA) can be extended and the electron density can be held above {approx}10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} for several tens of {mu}s.

  4. A nested case-control study of the risk of suicide attempts after discharge from psychiatric care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge

    2008-01-01

    The literature suggests that the risk of suicide is high within the first weeks after discharge from psychiatric care, but practically no studies have estimated the risk of suicide attempt after discharge from psychiatric care. The aim of this study was to examine the risk level for suicide attempt...... after discharge from psychiatric care, and to control for effects from psychiatric diagnoses, number and length of previous admission. An analysis of the role of co-morbid substance use disorder in suicide attempts risk was completed. The study is a Danish register-based nested case-control study; 3037...... cases were identified from Register for Suicide Attempts, and 60,295 individuals, matched by gender and age, were identified for comparison. Retrospective personal data on psychiatric care was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Risk of suicide attempts was estimated by the use...

  5. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-10-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  6. Pancreatitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  7. An experimental system for controlled exposure of biological samples to electrostatic discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovič, Igor; Kotnik, Tadej

    2013-12-01

    Electrostatic discharges occur naturally as lightning strokes, and artificially in light sources and in materials processing. When an electrostatic discharge interacts with living matter, the basic physical effects can be accompanied by biophysical and biochemical phenomena, including cell excitation, electroporation, and electrofusion. To study these phenomena, we developed an experimental system that provides easy sample insertion and removal, protection from airborne particles, observability during the experiment, accurate discharge origin positioning, discharge delivery into the sample either through an electric arc with adjustable air gap width or through direct contact, and reliable electrical insulation where required. We tested the system by assessing irreversible electroporation of Escherichia coli bacteria (15 mm discharge arc, 100 A peak current, 0.1 μs zero-to-peak time, 0.2 μs peak-to-halving time), and gene electrotransfer into CHO cells (7 mm discharge arc, 14 A peak current, 0.5 μs zero-to-peak time, 1.0 μs peak-to-halving time). Exposures to natural lightning stroke can also be studied with this system, as due to radial current dissipation, the conditions achieved by a stroke at a particular distance from its entry are also achieved by an artificial discharge with electric current downscaled in magnitude, but similar in time course, correspondingly closer to its entry. © 2013.

  8. Control of stationary crossflow modes in swept Hiemenz flows with dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhefu; Wang, Liang; Fu, Song

    2017-09-01

    Sensitivity analyses and non-linear parabolized stability equations are solved to provide a computational assessment of the potential use of a Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuator for a prolonging laminar region in swept Hiemenz flow. The derivative of the kinetic energy with respect to the body force is deduced, and its components in different directions are defined as sensitivity functions. The results of sensitivity analyses and non-linear parabolized stability equations both indicate that the introduction of a body force as the plasma actuator at the bottom of a crossflow vortex can mitigate instability to delay flow transition. In addition, the actuator is more effective when placed more upstream until the neutral point. In fact, if the actuator is sufficiently close to the neutral point, it is likely to act as a strong disturbance over-riding the natural disturbance and dominating transition. Different operating voltages of the DBD actuators are tested, resulting in an optimal practice for transition delay. The results demonstrate that plasma actuators offer great potential for transition control.

  9. The pacemaker role of thalamic reticular nucleus in controlling spike-wave discharges and spindles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Denggui; Liao, Fucheng; Wang, Qingyun

    2017-07-01

    Absence epilepsy, characterized by 2-4 Hz spike-wave discharges (SWDs), can be caused by pathological interactions within the thalamocortical system. Cortical spindling oscillations are also demonstrated to involve the oscillatory thalamocortical rhythms generated by the synaptic circuitry of the thalamus and cortex. This implies that SWDs and spindling oscillations can share the common thalamocortical mechanism. Additionally, the thalamic reticular nucleus (RE) is hypothesized to regulate the onsets and propagations of both the epileptic SWDs and sleep spindles. Based on the proposed single-compartment thalamocortical neural field model, we firstly investigate the stimulation effect of RE on the initiations, terminations, and transitions of SWDs. It is shown that the activations and deactivations of RE triggered by single-pulse stimuli can drive the cortical subsystem to behave as the experimentally observed onsets and self-abatements of SWDs, as well as the transitions from 2-spike and wave discharges (2-SWDs) to SWDs. In particular, with increasing inhibition from RE to the specific relay nucleus (TC), rich transition behaviors in cortex can be obtained through the upstream projection path, RE → TC → Cortex . Although some of the complex dynamical patterns can be expected from the earlier single compartment thalamocortical model, the effect of brain network topology on the emergence of SWDs and spindles, as well as the transitions between them, has not been fully investigated. We thereby develop a spatially extended 3-compartment coupled network model with open-/closed-end connective configurations, to investigate the spatiotemporal effect of RE on the SWDs and spindles. Results show that the degrees of activations of RE 1 can induce the rich spatiotemporal evolution properties including the propagations from SWDs to spindles within different compartments and the transitions between them, through the RE 1 → TC 1 → Cortex 1 and Cortex 1 → Cortex 2

  10. Dissipated power and induced velocity fields data of a micro single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator for active flow control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pescini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD plasma actuators have gained great interest among all the active flow control devices typically employed in aerospace and turbomachinery applications [1,2]. Compared with the macro SDBDs, the micro single dielectric barrier discharge (MSDBD actuators showed a higher efficiency in conversion of input electrical power to delivered mechanical power [3,4]. This article provides data regarding the performances of a MSDBD plasma actuator [5,6]. The power dissipation values [5] and the experimental and numerical induced velocity fields [6] are provided. The present data support and enrich the research article entitled “Optimization of micro single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator models based on experimental velocity and body force fields” by Pescini et al. [6].

  11. Dissipated power and induced velocity fields data of a micro single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator for active flow control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescini, E; Martínez, D S; De Giorgi, M G; Francioso, L; Ficarella, A

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuators have gained great interest among all the active flow control devices typically employed in aerospace and turbomachinery applications [1,2]. Compared with the macro SDBDs, the micro single dielectric barrier discharge (MSDBD) actuators showed a higher efficiency in conversion of input electrical power to delivered mechanical power [3,4]. This article provides data regarding the performances of a MSDBD plasma actuator [5,6]. The power dissipation values [5] and the experimental and numerical induced velocity fields [6] are provided. The present data support and enrich the research article entitled "Optimization of micro single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator models based on experimental velocity and body force fields" by Pescini et al. [6].

  12. Efficacy of a universal smoking cessation intervention initiated in inpatient psychiatry and continued post-discharge: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metse, Alexandra P; Wiggers, John; Wye, Paula; Wolfenden, Luke; Freund, Megan; Clancy, Richard; Stockings, Emily; Terry, Margarett; Allan, John; Colyvas, Kim; Prochaska, Judith J; Bowman, Jenny A

    2017-04-01

    Interventions are required to redress the disproportionate tobacco-related health burden experienced by persons with a mental illness. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a universal smoking cessation intervention initiated within an acute psychiatric inpatient setting and continued post-discharge in reducing smoking prevalence and increasing quitting behaviours. A randomised controlled trial was undertaken across four psychiatric inpatient facilities in Australia. Participants ( N = 754) were randomised to receive either usual care ( n = 375) or an intervention comprising a brief motivational interview and self-help material while in hospital, followed by a 4-month pharmacological and psychosocial intervention ( n = 379) upon discharge. Primary outcomes assessed at 6 and 12 months post-discharge were 7-day point prevalence and 1-month prolonged smoking abstinence. A number of secondary smoking-related outcomes were also assessed. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on psychiatric diagnosis, baseline readiness to quit and nicotine dependence. Seven-day point prevalence abstinence was higher for intervention participants (15.8%) than controls (9.3%) at 6 months post-discharge (odds ratio = 1.07, p = 0.04), but not at 12 months (13.4% and 10.0%, respectively; odds ratio = 1.03, p = 0.25). Significant intervention effects were not found on measures of prolonged abstinence at either 6 or 12 months post-discharge. Differential intervention effects for the primary outcomes were not detected for any subgroups. At both 6 and 12 months post-discharge, intervention group participants were significantly more likely to smoke fewer cigarettes per day, have reduced cigarette consumption by ⩾50% and to have made at least one quit attempt, relative to controls. Universal smoking cessation treatment initiated in inpatient psychiatry and continued post-discharge was efficacious in increasing 7-day point prevalence smoking cessation

  13. Oculomotor control after hemidecortication: a single hemisphere encodes corollary discharges for bilateral saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath-Wilson, Kate; Guitton, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Patients who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed as adults can generate accurate leftward and rightward saccadic eye movements, a task classically thought to require two hemispheres each controlling contralateral saccades. Here, we asked whether one hemisphere can generate sequences of saccades, the success of which requires the use of corollary discharges. Using a double-step saccade paradigm, we tested two hemidecorticate subjects who, by definition, are contralesionally hemianopic. In experiment 1, two targets, T1 and T2, were flashed in their seeing hemifield and subjects had to look in the dark to T1, then T2. In experiment 2, only one target was flashed; before looking at it, the subject had first to saccade voluntarily elsewhere. Both subjects were able to complete the tasks, independent of first and second saccade direction and whether the saccades were voluntarily or visually triggered. Both subjects displayed a strategy, typical in hemianopia, of making multiple-step saccades and placing, at overall movement-end, the recalled locations of T1 and T2 on off-foveal locations in their seeing hemifield, in a retinal area typically spanning a 5-15° window, depending on the subject, trial type and target eccentricity. In summary, a single hemisphere monitored the amplitude and direction of the first multiple-step saccade sequence bilaterally, and combined this information with the recalled initial retinotopic location of T2 (no longer visible) to generate a correct target-directed second saccade sequence in the dark. Unexpectedly, our hemidecorticate subjects performed better on the double-step task than subjects with isolated unilateral parietal lesions, reported in the literature to have marked deficiencies in monitoring contralesional saccadic eye movements. Thus, plasticity-dependent mechanisms that lead to recovery of function after hemidecortication are different than those deployed after smaller lesions. This implies a reconsideration of

  14. Discharge rate balancing control strategy based on dynamic consensus algorithm for energy storage units in AC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Meng, Lexuan; Li, Chendan

    2017-01-01

    A dynamic consensus algorithm-based coordinated secondary control with an autonomous current-sharing control strategy is proposed in this paper for balancing discharge rate of energy storage systems (ESSs) in an islanded AC microgrid. The dynamic consensus algorithm is applied for information...... linearized state-space model in z-domain, both the system stability and parameter sensitivity were analyzed. A comparison between experimental results obtained from using the conventional power sharing control and those obtained from the proposed coordinated control using a setup with three 2.2 kW DG units...

  15. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, R

    1966-01-01

    The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials is a handbook that details the safety guidelines in transporting radioactive materials. The title covers the various regulations and policies, along with the safety measures and procedures of radioactive material transport. The text first details the 1963 version of the IAEA regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials; the regulation covers the classification of radionuclides for transport purposes and the control of external radiation hazards during the transport of radioactive materials. The next chapter deals with concerns in the im

  16. The Radioactive Waste Management at Studsvik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedlund, R.; Lindskog, A.

    1966-04-15

    The report was originally prepared as a contribution to the discussions in an IAEA panel on economics of radioactive waste management held in Vienna from 13 - 17 December 1965. It contains the answers and comments to the questions of a questionnaire for the panel concerning the various operations associated with the management (collection, transport, treatment, discharge, storage, and operational monitoring) of: - radioactive liquid wastes, except high-level effluents from reactor fuel recovering operations; - solid wastes, except those produced from treatment of high level wastes; - gaseous wastes produced from treatment of the foregoing liquid and solid wastes; - equipment decontamination facilities and radioactive laundries.

  17. Enhancing DC Glow Discharge Tube Museuum Displays using a Theremin Controlled Helmholtz Coil to Demonstrate Magnetic Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Theodore; Wissel, Stephanie; Guttadora, Larry; Liao, Susan; Zwicker, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    Since their discovery in the mid 1800's, DC glow discharge apparatuses have commonly been used for spectral analysis, the demonstration of the Frank-Hertz experiment, and to study plasma breakdown voltages following from the Paschen Curve. A DC glow discharge tube museum display was outfitted with a Helmholtz Coil electromagnet in order to demonstrate magnetic confinement for a science museum display. A device commonly known as a ``theremin'' was designed and built in order to externally control the Helmholtz Coil current and the plasma current. Originally a musical instrument, a theremin has two variable capacitors connected to two radio frequency oscillators which determine pitch and volume. Using a theremin to control current and ``play'' the plasma adds appeal and durability by providing a new innovative means of interacting with a museum exhibit. Educationally, students can use the display to not only learn about plasma properties but also electronic properties of the human body.

  18. Comparative Effectiveness of Post-Discharge Strategies for Hospitalized Smokers: study protocol for the Helping HAND 2 randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Zachary Z; Regan, Susan; Kelley, Jennifer H K; Streck, Joanna M; Ylioja, Thomas; Tindle, Hilary A; Chang, Yuchiao; Levy, Douglas E; Park, Elyse R; Singer, Daniel E; Carpenter, Kelly M; Reyen, Michele; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2015-02-07

    Smoking cessation interventions for hospitalized smokers are effective in promoting smoking cessation, but only if the tobacco dependence treatment continues after the patient leaves the hospital. Sustaining tobacco dependence treatment after hospital discharge is a challenge for health care systems. Our previous single-site randomized controlled trial demonstrated the effectiveness of an intervention that facilitated the delivery of comprehensive tobacco cessation treatment, including both medication and counseling, after hospital discharge. We subsequently streamlined the intervention model to increase its potential for dissemination. This new model is being tested in a larger multi-site trial with broader eligibility criteria in order to enroll a more representative sample of hospitalized smokers. This paper describes the trial design and contrasts it with the earlier study. A 2-arm, 3-site randomized controlled trial is testing the hypothesis that a multi-component Sustained Care intervention is more effective than Standard Care in helping hospitalized cigarette smokers stop smoking after hospital discharge. The trial enrolls adult daily cigarette smokers who are admitted to 1 of 3 participating hospitals in Massachusetts or Pennsylvania. Participants receive the same smoking cessation intervention in the hospital. They are randomly assigned to receive either Standard Care or Sustained Care after hospital discharge. Participants in the Sustained Care arm receive a free 3-month supply of FDA-approved smoking cessation medication and 5 interactive voice response calls that provide tailored motivational messages, medication refills, and access to a live tobacco treatment counselor. Participants in the Standard Care arm receive a smoking cessation medication recommendation and information about community resources. Outcomes are assessed at 1, 3, and 6 months after discharge. The primary outcome is biochemically-validated tobacco abstinence for the past 7 days at 6

  19. Deflagration-to-detonation transition control by high voltage nanosecond discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starikovskii, Andrei; Rakitin, Aleksandr

    2008-10-01

    A smooth square detonation tube with a transverse size of 20 mm and a single-cell discharge chamber has been assembled to study DDT mechanisms under initiation by high-voltage nanosecond discharges. Stoichiometric propane-oxygen mixture was used at initial pressures of 0.3 and 1 bar. Two general mechanisms of DDT initiation have been observed and explained under the experimental conditions. When initiated by a spark, the mixture ignites simultaneously over the volume of the discharge channel, producing a shock wave with Mach number over 2 and a flame wave. The waves then form an accelerating complex, and, after it reaches a certain velocity, an adiabatic explosion occurs resulting in DDT. At 1 bar of initial pressure, the DDT length and time do not exceed 50 mm and 50 μs, respectively. Under streamer initiation, the mixture inside the discharge channel is excited non-uniformly. The mixture is first ignited at the hottest spot with the shortest ignition delay, which is at the high voltage electrode tip. Originating at this point, the ignition wave starts propagating along the channel and accelerates up to the CJ velocity value. The initiation energy is by an order of magnitude lower for the streamer-gradient mode when compared to the spark initiation.

  20. Microwave method for synthesis of micro- and nanostructures with controllable composition during gyrotron discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batanov, German M.; Borzosekov, Valentin D.; Golberg, Dmitri; Iskhakova, Ludmila D.; Kolik, Leonid V.; Konchekov, Evgeny M.; Kharchev, Nikolai K.; Letunov, Alexander A.; Malakhov, Dmitry V.; Milovich, Filipp O.; Obraztsova, Ekaterina A.; Petrov, Alexander E.; Ryabikina, Irina G.; Sarksian, Karen A.; Stepakhin, Vladimir D.; Skvortsova, Nina N.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an approach toward the synthesis of micro- and nanostructures under nonequilibrium microwave discharges within metal-dielectric powder mixtures induced by powerful microwave gyrotron radiation. A new plasma-chemical reactor capable of sustaining a discharge regime with an afterglow phase of an order of magnitude longer than the gyrotron pulse duration was constructed for these experiments. In the nonequilibrium conditions of such a discharge, plasma-induced exothermic chemical reactions leading to the synthesis of various compounds were initiated. The synthesized structures were deposited on the reactor walls and on the impurity particles within the reactor. This method was tested under gyrotron-initiated discharges within various metal-dielectric powder mixtures of titanium-boron, molybdenum-boron, titanium-silicon-boron, molybdenum-boron nitride, molybdenum-tungsten-boron nitride, and so on. Depending on the powder mixture composition, reactor atmosphere, and other parameters, micro- and nanosized particles of boron nitride, titanium diboride, molybdenum boride, titanium boride, molybdenum, and molybdenum oxide, were synthesized, detected, and analyzed.

  1. Numerical Modeling of Pulsed Electrical Discharges for High-Speed Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    compute the electric potential: r2 = =0 (6) where 0 is the permittivity of free space. B. Gas Properties and Boundary Conditions The 15-species, 42...Density Measurements in Air and Air/ Fuel Nanosecond Pulse Discharges by Laser Induced Fluorescence," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 42

  2. Age-related decreases in motor unit discharge rate and force control during isometric plantar flexion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, J; Søgaard, Karen; Avela, J

    2012-01-01

    Aging is related to multiple changes in muscle physiology and function. Previous findings concerning the effects of aging on motor unit discharge rate (DR) and fluctuations in DR and force are somewhat contradictory. Eight YOUNG and nine OLD physically active males performed isometric ramp (RECR)...

  3. Characterization of nanosecond pulse driven dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators for aerodynamic flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Robert; Little, Jesse

    2013-03-01

    Positive polarity nanosecond pulse driven dielectric barrier discharge (ns-DBD) plasma actuators are studied experimentally in quiescent atmosphere. Pulse energy and instantaneous pulse power (hereafter referred to as energy and power) are calculated using simultaneous voltage and current measurements. Electrical characteristics are evaluated as a function of peak voltage, pulse frequency, discharge length, and dielectric thickness. Schlieren imaging is used to provide a relative estimate of discharge energy that is coupled to the near surface gas as heat for the same parameters. Characteristics of the DBD load have a substantial effect on the individual voltage and current traces which are reflected in the energy and power values. Power is mainly dependent on actuator length which is inconsistent with schlieren data as expected. Higher per unit length energy indicates a stronger compression wave for a given actuator geometry, but this is not universally true across different actuators suggesting some constructions more efficiently couple energy to the gas. Energy and compression wave strength are linearly related. Higher pulse frequency produces higher energy but is primarily attributed to heating of the actuator and power supply components and not to an optimal discharge frequency. Both energy and wave strength increase as peak voltage to the power of approximately 3.5 over a substantial range similar to ac-DBD plasma actuators.

  4. Landscape controls on spatiotemporal variability of specific discharge in a boreal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, R.; Grabs, T.; Bishop, K. H.; Laudon, H.; Seibert, J.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of specific discharge is rarely measured at the small-catchment-scale and is commonly ignored by most studies which instead assume spatially uniform specific discharge. This assumption is convenient but can lead to fundamentally wrong results, e.g., when calculating solute fluxes at the catchment scale. Pioneering work on 14, partly nested, sub-catchments in a boreal meso-scale (67 km2) catchment in Northern Sweden revealed substantial spatial and temporal variations in both the magnitude and timing of specific discharge. We explore the structure of this variability and its connection to the landscape characteristics using a 5-year gap filled time series of continuous flow records.For the long term (5 years) flow magnitudes for the various sub-catchments varied between 73 % and 132 % relative to the flow at the main outlet, with higher flows from wetland dominated catchments (Spearman rank correlation R=0.81). Looking at seasonal and short term flows, both more pronounced variability and stronger links to different landscape properties are seen. Spring flood magnitudes were correlated (R=0.61 to 0.80) with wet areas, while summer flows were negatively correlated to catchment tree volumes (R=-0.61 to -0.75) and potential evaporation (R=-0.48 to -0.78).On shorter timescales, from daily to monthly, also other catchment properties explained the observed spatial discharge variability. During dry periods of low summer baseflows, sub-catchments with deep fluvial deposits maintained a higher discharge than catchments with shallow soils. This pattern was reversed during summer stormflow events.The results show that there is a spatial structure in the specific discharge and that this structure is temporally variable. Different landscape characteristics influence the flows at different time scales, and the spatiotemporal discharge variability depends on seasonal climatic variability. The observed structure does not only influence mass balance

  5. Test preparation and lifetime measurement of very thin carbon stripper foils made by a controlled DC arc-discharge method

    CERN Document Server

    Sugai, I; Oyaizu, M; Kawakami, H; Hattori, Y; Kawasaki, K; Hayashizaki, N

    2002-01-01

    We have prepared very thin plastic supported carbon stripper foils (1.2+-0.3 mu g/cm sup 2) using a controlled DC arc-discharge (CDAD) method. The lifetime of these foils was measured with 3.2 MeV Ne sup + ions. These foils recorded lifetimes about four times longer at the maximum and three times longer on the average than those commercially available foils produced by evaporation-condensation.

  6. Controlling the Electrostatic Discharge Ignition Sensitivity of Composite Energetic Materials Using Carbon Nanotube Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-10

    Electrostatic discharge Ignition Aluminum Thermites Energetic materials a b s t r a c t Powder energetic materials are highly sensitive to electrostatic...Fundamentals, in: Heat Conduction, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2012. [12] Davin G. Piercey, Thomas M. Klapotke, Nanoscale aluminum metal oxide ( thermite ) reactions for...propagation velocity in thermites with a nanoscale oxidizer, Propellants Explos. Pyrotechn. 39 (3) (2014) 407 415. [18] Kevin Moore, Michelle L

  7. Preparation of Ag/Cu/Ti Nanofluids by Spark Discharge System and Its Control Parameters Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Kuo-Hsiung; Chiu, Juei-Long; Lee, Heng-Lin; Liao, Chih-Yu; Lin, Hong-Shiou; Kao, Yi-Syuan

    2015-01-01

    This study selected silver, copper, and titanium as the research objects to explore the relationship between nanofluids properties and electrical discharge machining (EDM) processes. Regarding the products, UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) was applied to measure the concentration distribution of nanofluids; zeta-size analysis is applied for measuring nanometal particles’ Zeta-Potential and the size distribution of metallic particles in the fluid. Finally, various instruments, including scanni...

  8. Parametric Investigation of Nanosecond Pulse Driven Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators for Aerodynamic Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Robert; Little, Jesse

    2012-11-01

    Nanosecond pulse driven dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators are studied experimentally in quiescent atmosphere. Per unit length peak energy and instantaneous peak power are calculated using simultaneous voltage and current measurements. Electrical characteristics are evaluated as a function of peak voltage, pulse frequency, discharge length and dielectric thickness. Schlieren imaging of compression waves is used to provide a relative measure of discharge energy that is coupled to the near surface gas as heat for the same parameters. Characteristics of the DBD load have a substantial effect on voltage and current traces which are reflected in the peak energy and peak power. Both peak energy and compression wave strength depend primarily on dielectric thickness and secondarily on actuator length although this is not universal in the case of energy necessitating examination of alternative calculation strategies. Peak power is mainly dependent on actuator length which is inconsistent with schlieren data as expected. Higher pulse frequency produces higher pulse energy, but is primarily attributed to heating of the actuator and power supply components. This effect is mainly observed for short actuators. Pulse energy increases as peak voltage to the power 3.5. This behavior is similar to observations of energy and thrust for ac-DBD plasma actuators suggesting that aspects of lumped-element circuit models may be applicable for optimizing ns-DBD performance.

  9. Methodology for the characterization and radioactive tracing of a reference to the control of radioactive material in steel mills; Metodologia para la caracterizacion y trazado radiactivo de un material de referencia para el control radiactivo en acerias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejuto Mendieta, M.; Crespo Vazquez, M. T.; Peyres Medina, V.; Garcia-Torano, E.; Perez del Villar, L.

    2013-07-01

    One of the tasks which corresponded you to the Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation CIEMAT, consists of the preparation of the reference standards of a black slag from steel making drawn {sup 2}26Ra, {sup 1}37Cs, {sup 6}0Co. This work summarizes the steps followed for the preparation of the reference standards of the slag, including the physical sample preparation, chemical, mineralogical and radioactive characterization as well as the development of the method of path with the above listed radionuclides. (Author)

  10. Mozart K.448 listening decreased seizure recurrence and epileptiform discharges in children with first unprovoked seizures: a randomized controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of reports show the beneficial effects of listening to Mozart music in decreasing epileptiform discharges as well as seizure frequency in epileptic children. There has been no effective method to reduce seizure recurrence after the first unprovoked seizure until now. In this study, we investigated the effect of listening to Mozart K.448 in reducing the seizure recurrence rate in children with first unprovoked seizures. Methods Forty-eight children who experienced their first unprovoked seizure with epileptiform discharges were included in the study. They were randomly placed into treatment (n = 24) and control (n = 24) groups. Children in the treatment group listened to Mozart K.448 daily before bedtime for at least six months. Two patients in the treatment group were excluded from analysis due to discontinuation intervention. Finally, forty-six patients were analyzed. Most of these patients (89.1%) were idiopathic in etiology. Seizure recurrence rates and reduction of epileptiform discharges were compared. Results The average follow-up durations in the treatment and control groups were 18.6 ± 6.6 and 20.1 ± 5.1 months, respectively. The seizure recurrence rate was estimated to be significantly lower in the treatment group than the control group over 24 months (37.2% vs. 76.8%, p = 0.0109). Significant decreases in epileptiform discharges were also observed after 1, 2, and 6 months of listening to Mozart K.448 when compared with EEGs before listening to music. There were no significant differences in gender, mentality, seizure type, and etiology between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups. Conclusions Although the case number was limited and control music was not performed in this study, the study revealed that listening to Mozart K.448 reduced the seizure recurrence rate and epileptiform discharges in children with first unprovoked seizures, especially of idiopathic etiology. We believe that Mozart K.448

  11. Mozart K.448 listening decreased seizure recurrence and epileptiform discharges in children with first unprovoked seizures: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Lee, Mei-Wen; Wei, Ruey-Chang; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2014-01-13

    Increasing numbers of reports show the beneficial effects of listening to Mozart music in decreasing epileptiform discharges as well as seizure frequency in epileptic children. There has been no effective method to reduce seizure recurrence after the first unprovoked seizure until now. In this study, we investigated the effect of listening to Mozart K.448 in reducing the seizure recurrence rate in children with first unprovoked seizures. Forty-eight children who experienced their first unprovoked seizure with epileptiform discharges were included in the study. They were randomly placed into treatment (n = 24) and control (n = 24) groups. Children in the treatment group listened to Mozart K.448 daily before bedtime for at least six months. Two patients in the treatment group were excluded from analysis due to discontinuation intervention. Finally, forty-six patients were analyzed. Most of these patients (89.1%) were idiopathic in etiology. Seizure recurrence rates and reduction of epileptiform discharges were compared. The average follow-up durations in the treatment and control groups were 18.6 ± 6.6 and 20.1 ± 5.1 months, respectively. The seizure recurrence rate was estimated to be significantly lower in the treatment group than the control group over 24 months (37.2% vs. 76.8%, p = 0.0109). Significant decreases in epileptiform discharges were also observed after 1, 2, and 6 months of listening to Mozart K.448 when compared with EEGs before listening to music. There were no significant differences in gender, mentality, seizure type, and etiology between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups. Although the case number was limited and control music was not performed in this study, the study revealed that listening to Mozart K.448 reduced the seizure recurrence rate and epileptiform discharges in children with first unprovoked seizures, especially of idiopathic etiology. We believe that Mozart K.448 could be a promising alternative treatment in patients with

  12. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  13. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2007. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  14. Regularity of the wear control of radioactive sources from the nuclear measurers; Regularidad del control del desgaste de fuentes radioactivas de los medidores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira L, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN-SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242 - Cidade Universitaria -CEP(ZC) 05508-900, tel: (005511) 3816-9215, Sao Paulo, (Brazil)]. e-mail: mflima@ipen.br

    2006-07-01

    The control of radioactive sources in Brazil is regulated by the CNEN (National Comissao of Nuclear Energy). The Laboratory of Descontaminacao of the IPEN (Institute of Energy Y Nuclear Investigations) it offers to the companies that work with nuclear measurers, essays for control of the source wear according to the ISO 9978/1992 through the smear tests Y of leakage. The analyses are taken in alpha Y beta detectors of low bottom radiation with annual detection limits around 1 Bq. Certificates of the accepted analyses by the CNEN for sources that already passed its time of validity assured by the makers, but its continue operational are emitted. The smear test is repeated the whole year, while the leakage test repeats to every two years. A balance of the last two years of the activities of the laboratory shows the regularity of the clients Y the growth of companies specialized in radioprotection with official of radioprotection, credited by the regulatory authority that its act as intermediaries in the process, contacting the clients, gathering the samples next to the proprietors of sources Y hiring our services. Overalls, proves that the inspection activities by part of the regulatory authority are fulfil. In 2004, 192 sources were analyzed by the smear method Y 86 sources by leakage. In 2005, 232 sources were analyzed by the smear method Y 60 sources by leakage. All the leakage tests was made in sources of Americium of oneself Y only client that brings the sources so that they dismantle them to him in the Sources production laboratory of the IPEN. By the quantity Y age of the sources that were analyzed in those two years, it is proven that the number of sources without use conditions (total activity measured by the two added methods smaller than 180Bq) it doesn't arrive to 2%. (Author)

  15. Principles of Product Quality Control of German Radioactive Waste Forms from the Reprocessing of Spent Fuel: Vitrification, Compaction and Numerical Simulation - 12529

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietze-Jaensch, Holger; Schneider, Stephan; Aksyutina, Yuliya; Bosbach, Dirk [Product Quality Control Office for Radioactive Waste (PKS) at the Institute of Energy- and Climate Research, Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety Research, IEK-6, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Gauthier, Rene; Eissler, Alexander [WAK Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs- GmbH, Post Box 1263, 76339 Eggenstein- Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The German product quality control is inter alia responsible for control of two radioactive waste forms of heat generating waste: a) homogeneous vitrified HLW and b) heterogeneous compacted hulls, end-pieces and technological metallic waste. In either case, significantly different metrology is employed at the site of the conditioning plant for the obligatory nuclide inventory declaration. To facilitate an independent evaluation and checking of the accompanying documentation numerical simulations are carried out. The physical and chemical properties of radioactive waste residues are used to assess the data consistency and uncertainty margins, as well as to predict the long-term behavior of the radioactive waste. This is relevant for repository acceptance and safety considerations. Our new numerical approach follows a bottom-up simulation starting from the burn-up behavior of the fuel elements in the reactor core. The output of these burn-up calculations is then coupled with a program that simulates the material separation in the subsequent dissolution and extraction processes normalized to the mass balance. Follow-up simulations of the separated reprocessing lines of a) the vitrification of highly-active liquid and b) the compaction of residual intermediate-active metallic hulls remaining after fuel pellets dissolution, end-pieces and technological waste, allows calculating expectation values for the various repository relevant properties of either waste stream. The principles of the German product quality control of radioactive waste residues from the spent fuel reprocessing have been introduced and explained. Namely, heat generating homogeneous vitrified HLW and heterogeneous compacted metallic MLW have been discussed. The advantages of a complementary numerical property simulation have been made clear and examples of benefits are presented. We have compiled a new program suite to calculate the physical and radio-chemical properties of common nuclear waste

  16. The magnetic field application for the gas discharge plasma control in processes of surface coating and modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullin, T. Ya; Galeev, I. G.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the method of magnetic field application to control the gas discharge plasma effect on the various surfaces in processes of surface coating and modification is considered. The magnetic field directed perpendicular to the direction of electric current in the gas discharge plasma channel is capable to reject this plasma channel due to action of Lorentz force on the moving electrically charged particles [1,2]. The three-dimensional spatial structure of magnetic field is created by system of necessary quantity of the magnets located perpendicular to the direction of course of electric current in the gas-discharge plasma channel. The formation of necessary spatial distribution of magnetic field makes possible to obtain a required distribution of plasma parameters near the processed surfaces. This way of the plasma channel parameters spatial distribution management is the most suitable for application in processes of plasma impact on a surface of irregular shape and in cases when the selective impact of plasma on a part of a surface of a product is required. It is necessary to apply automated computer management of the process parameters [3] to the most effective plasma impact.

  17. Dissolved metals and associated constituents in abandoned coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania, USA. Part 2: Geochemical controls on constituent concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Water-quality data for discharges from 140 abandoned mines in the Anthracite and Bituminous Coalfields of Pennsylvania reveal complex relations among the pH and dissolved solute concentrations that can be explained with geochemical equilibrium models. Observed values of pH ranged from 2.7 to 7.3 in the coal-mine discharges (CMD). Generally, flow rates were smaller and solute concentrations were greater for low-pH CMD samples; pH typically increased with flow rate. Although the frequency distribution of pH was similar for the anthracite and bituminous discharges, the bituminous discharges had smaller median flow rates; greater concentrations of SO4, Fe, Al, As, Cd, Cu, Ni and Sr; comparable concentrations of Mn, Cd, Zn and Se; and smaller concentrations of Ba and Pb than anthracite discharges with the same pH values. The observed relations between the pH and constituent concentrations can be attributed to (1) dilution of acidic water by near-neutral or alkaline ground water; (2) solubility control of Al, Fe, Mn, Ba and Sr by hydroxide, sulfate, and/or carbonate minerals; and (3) aqueous SO4-complexation and surface-complexation (adsorption) reactions. The formation of AlSO4+ and AlHSO42 + complexes adds to the total dissolved Al concentration at equilibrium with Al(OH)3 and/or Al hydroxysulfate phases and can account for 10-20 times greater concentrations of dissolved Al in SO4-laden bituminous discharges compared to anthracite discharges at pH of 5. Sulfate complexation can also account for 10-30 times greater concentrations of dissolved FeIII concentrations at equilibrium with Fe(OH)3 and/or schwertmannite (Fe8O8(OH)4.5(SO4)1.75) at pH of 3-5. In contrast, lower Ba concentrations in bituminous discharges indicate that elevated SO4 concentrations in these CMD sources could limit Ba concentrations by the precipitation of barite (BaSO4). Coprecipitation of Sr with barite could limit concentrations of this element. However, concentrations of dissolved Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn

  18. The syndromic management of vaginal discharge using single-dose treatments: a randomized controlled trial in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépin, Jacques; Sobela, François; Khonde, Nzambi; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Diakité, Soumaila; Deslandes, Sylvie; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Sylla, Mohamed; Asamoah-Adu, Comfort; Frost, Eric

    2006-09-01

    To evaluate whether single-dose treatments are as effective as standard therapy in the syndromic management of vaginal discharge. A randomized controlled effectiveness trial compared single-dose tinidazole plus fluconazole (TF) with treatment for 7 days with metronidazole plus 3 days of treatment with vaginal clotrimazole (MC) among 1570 women presenting with vaginal discharge at primary health care institutions in Ghana, Guinea, Mali and Togo. Participants were randomly allocated to one of the two treatments by research nurses or physicians using precoded envelopes. Effectiveness was assessed by symptomatic response on day 14. CLINICAL IDENTIFIER ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00313131. The two treatment regimens had similar effectiveness: complete resolution was seen in 66% (TF) and 64% (MC) and partial resolution in 33% (TF) and 34% (MC) of participants (P = 0.26). Effectiveness was similar among subgroups with vulvovaginal candidiasis, Trichomonas vaginalis vaginitis or bacterial vaginosis. The two treatment regimens had a similar effectiveness among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (TF: n = 76, 71% complete resolution, 28% partial; MC: n = 83, 72% complete resolution, 25% partial, P = 0.76) and HIV-uninfected women (TF: n = 517, 68% complete, 32% partial; MC: n = 466, 65% complete, 33% partial, P = 0.20). Cervical infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium were uncommon among women not involved in sex work, were associated with bacterial vaginosis or T. vaginalis vaginitis, and did not alter response to treatment with agents active against vaginal infections. Four-fifths of women not relieved by a single dose of TF had a favourable response when MC was administered as second-line treatment. Single-dose TF is as effective as multiple-dose MC in the syndromic management of vaginal discharge, even among women with HIV-infection. Given its low price and easier adherence, TF should be considered as a first

  19. Model-guided control of hippocampal discharges by local direct current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Faten; Modolo, Julien; Recher, Fanny; Dieuset, Gabriel; Biraben, Arnaud; Benquet, Pascal; Wendling, Fabrice

    2017-05-10

    Neurostimulation is an emerging treatment for drug-resistant epilepsies when surgery is contraindicated. Recent clinical results demonstrate significant seizure frequency reduction in epileptic patients, however the mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect are largely unknown. This study aimed at gaining insights into local direct current stimulation (LDCS) effects on hyperexcitable tissue, by i) analyzing the impact of electrical currents locally applied on epileptogenic brain regions, and ii) characterizing currents achieving an "anti-epileptic" effect (excitability reduction). First, a neural mass model of hippocampal circuits was extended to accurately reproduce the features of hippocampal paroxysmal discharges (HPD) observed in a mouse model of epilepsy. Second, model predictions regarding current intensity and stimulation polarity were confronted to in vivo mice recordings during LDCS (n = 8). The neural mass model was able to generate realistic hippocampal discharges. Simulation of LDCS in the model pointed at a significant decrease of simulated HPD (in duration and occurrence rate, not in amplitude) for cathodal stimulation, which was successfully verified experimentally in epileptic mice. Despite the simplicity of our stimulation protocol, these results contribute to a better understanding of clinical benefits observed in epileptic patients with implanted neurostimulators. Our results also provide further support for model-guided design of neuromodulation therapy.

  20. Heart bypass surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass - discharge; OPCAB - discharge; Beating heart surgery - discharge; Bypass surgery - heart - discharge; CABG - discharge; Coronary artery bypass graft - discharge; Coronary artery ...

  1. Development of radioactive standards in epoxy matrix for the control of quality of activimeters; Desenvolvimento de padroes radioativos em matriz epoxi para controle da qualidade de ativimetros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Monteiro, Luciane Carollyne de Oliveira Reis; Oliveira, Marcia Liane de, E-mail: mcfragoso@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, a new approach for development of the standards for positron emitting radionuclides in epoxy matrix is presented. Different formulations were prepared using epoxy resin (bisphenol A diglycidyl ether - DGEBA) and curing agents, to immobilize the radioactive material. The efficiency curve and standard sample methods were applied for activity determination of a long-lived positron emitter ({sup 22}Na). Satisfactory results were obtained in the 3{sup rd} combination. Thus, these radioactive standards can be used to evaluate the metrological behavior of the systems used for the measurement of the radiopharmaceuticals (activimeters) in the production centers and in nuclear medicine services. (author)

  2. Control of discharge conditions to reduce hydrogen content in low Z films produced with DC glow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsir, M.; Sagara, A.; Tsuzuki, K.; Tsuchiya, B.; Hasegawa, Y.; Motojima, O.

    1995-09-01

    Boronization at near room temperature has been performed in plasma processing teststand (PPT) by using a 5 % diborane gases B{sub 2}H{sub 6} in He on electrically floating or unfloating Al samples under various conditions on DC glow discharge power or total gas pressure. The hydrogen concentration was analyzed by using elastic recoil detection method (ERD) and a new modified normalizing technique with Rutherford back scattering (RBS). Results showed that a high growth rate of film formation and floating surface were effective in reducing hydrogen concentration in B films. This result was in good agreement with earlier measurements of H with flash filament (FF) desorption method. In particular the H/B ratio was reduced by decreasing ions but increasing radicals for B film formation. (author).

  3. Bronchiolitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV bronchiolitis - discharge; Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis - discharge ... Your child has bronchiolitis , which causes swelling and mucus to build up in the smallest air passages of the lungs. In the hospital, ...

  4. Angina - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also learn how to take care of your heart disease . Diet and lifestyle Try to limit how much alcohol ... surgery - discharge Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge Heart disease - risk ... Review Date 8/2/2016 Updated by: Michael ...

  5. Radioactivity in consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

  6. Management of used channels and control rods as radioactive wastes; Gestion de canales usados y barras de control como redisuos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Alvarez, L.; Duque, J.; Serrano, G.

    2014-07-01

    During the operation of a nuclear power plant, are generated different types of radioactive wastes. A number of features which include the activity and life average of different radioisotopes present in the material, determine the waste management measures during preparation, transport and temporary or permanent storage. (Author)

  7. Design and Control of a Buck–Boost Charger-Discharger for DC-Bus Regulation in Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Ramos-Paja

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In DC and hybrid microgrids (MG, the DC-bus regulation using Energy Storage Devices (ESD is important for the stable operation of both the generators and loads. There are multiple commercial voltage levels for both ESD and DC-bus; therefore, the ESD voltage may be higher, equal or lower than the DC-bus voltage depending on the application. Moreover, most of the ESD converter controllers are linear-based, hence they ensure stability in a limited operation range. This paper proposes a system to regulate the DC-bus voltage of an MG accounting for any voltage relation between the ESD and the DC-bus voltage. The proposed system is formed by an ESD connected to a DC-bus through a bidirectional Buck–Boost converter, which is regulated by a Sliding-Mode Controller (SMC to ensure the system stability in the entire operation range. The SMC drives the Buck–Boost charger–discharger to regulate the DC-bus voltage, at the desired reference value, by charging or discharging the ESD. This paper also provides detailed procedures to design the parameters of both the SMC and the charger–dischager. Finally, simulation and experimental results validate the proposed solution and illustrate its performance.

  8. Discharge permit market and farm management nexus: an approach for eutrophication control in small basins with low-income farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Somaye; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Jamshidi, Shervin; Abbaspour, Karim C

    2017-07-01

    The economic concerns of low-income farmers are barriers to nutrient abatement policies for eutrophication control in surface waters. This study brings up a perspective that focuses on integrating multiple-pollutant discharge permit markets with farm management practices. This aims to identify a more economically motivated waste load allocation (WLA) for non-point sources (NPS). For this purpose, we chose the small basin of Zrebar Lake in western Iran and used the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) for modeling. The export coefficients (ECs), effectiveness of best management practices (BMPs), and crop yields were calculated by using this software. These variables show that low-income farmers can hardly afford to invest in BMPs in a typical WLA. Conversely, a discharge permit market presents a more cost-effective solution. This method saves 64% in total abatement costs and motivates farmers by offering economic benefits. A market analysis revealed that nitrogen permits mostly cover the trades with the optimal price ranging from $6 to $30 per kilogram. However, phosphorous permits are limited for trading, and their price exceeds $60 per kilogram. This approach also emphasizes the establishment of a regional institution for market monitoring, dynamic pricing, fair fund reallocation, giving information to participants, and ensuring their income. By these sets of strategies, a WLA on the brink of failure can turn into a cost-effective and sustainable policy for eutrophication control in small basins.

  9. Simple DCM or CRM analog peak current controller for HV capacitor charge-discharge applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Dimopoulos, Emmanouil; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simple analog current controller suitable for buck and boost converter topologies. The controller operates in DCM or CRM, depending on the setup. The experimental results are presented to validate the proposed controller functionality for a high voltage capacitor charge...

  10. Cardiac catheterization - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - cardiac - discharge; Heart catheterization - discharge: Catheterization - cardiac; Heart catheterization; Angina - cardiac catheterization discharge; CAD - cardiac catheterization discharge; Coronary ...

  11. Control of the electrical operating point of an electric discharge by mean of its power supply; Controle du point de fonctionnement des decharges electriques par l'intermediaire de leur alimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salanne, J.Ph.

    2005-11-15

    The operating points obtained by the coupling of the power supply with the electric discharge system can be unstable because of the dynamical behaviour of the discharge or because of a change in its length. In this work, the different possible couplings existing between the discharge and the characteristics of its power supply are analyzed in order to optimize the design and control of the power supply and to control the operating point. Analytical and numerical modeling of the system are proposed which allow to simulate the couplings between the power supply and the discharge. This approach is completed by experimental investigations allowing to consider the cases of peak/peak discharges, dielectric barrier discharges (DBD), and gliding arcs. (J.S.)

  12. Control of the UV flux of a XeCl dielectric barrier discharge excilamp through its current variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piquet, H; Bhosle, S; Diez, R; Cousineau, M; Djibrillah, M; Le Thanh, D; Dagang, A N; Zissis, G

    2012-02-28

    The efficiency of the electrical power transfer to the gas mixture of a XeCl dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) exciplex lamp is analysed. An equivalent circuit model of the DBD is considered. It is shown that the excilamp power can be controlled by applying current to the lamp. This highly desired property is ensured by means of a specific power supply topology, whose concepts and design are discussed. The experimental prototype of a current-mode converter operating in the pulsed regime at pulse repetition rate of 50 kHz is presented and its capability to control the amount of energy transferred during each current pulse is demonstrated. The capability of this power supply to maintain specific operating conditions for the DBD lamp, with a very stable behaviour (even at a very low current, in the regime of a single discharge channel), is illustrated. The experimental results of a combined use of this converter and a XeCl excilamp are presented. The influence of the supply parameters on the 308-nm XeCl excilamp is analysed. The shape of the UV pulse of the lamp is experimentally shown to be similar to that of the current, which actually flows into the gas mixture. The UV radiation power is demonstrated to be tightly correlated to the current injected into the gas and controlled by the available degrees of freedom offered by the power supply. The measured UV output characteristics and performance of the system are discussed. Time resolved UV imaging of a XeCl DBD excilamp is used to analyse the mechanisms involved in the production of exciplexes at various power supply regimes. It is shown that a pulsed voltage source leads to formation of short high intensity UV peaks, while current pulses lead to formation of sustained discharge filaments. Based on the results of modelling of the above-mentioned operation conditions, the two power supply regimes are compared and analysed from the point of view of the UV power and radiative control.

  13. Storm Event Suspended Sediment-Discharge Hysteresis and Controls in Agricultural Watersheds: Implications for Watershed Scale Sediment Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie C; Rowan, John S; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Philip; Melland, Alice R; Mellander, Per-Erik; hUallacháin, Daire Ó

    2016-02-16

    Within agricultural watersheds suspended sediment-discharge hysteresis during storm events is commonly used to indicate dominant sediment sources and pathways. However, availability of high-resolution data, qualitative metrics, longevity of records, and simultaneous multiwatershed analyses has limited the efficacy of hysteresis as a sediment management tool. This two year study utilizes a quantitative hysteresis index from high-resolution suspended sediment and discharge data to assess fluctuations in sediment source location, delivery mechanisms and export efficiency in three intensively farmed watersheds during events over time. Flow-weighted event sediment export was further considered using multivariate techniques to delineate rainfall, stream hydrology, and antecedent moisture controls on sediment origins. Watersheds with low permeability (moderately- or poorly drained soils) with good surface hydrological connectivity, therefore, had contrasting hysteresis due to source location (hillslope versus channel bank). The well-drained watershed with reduced connectivity exported less sediment but, when watershed connectivity was established, the largest event sediment load of all watersheds occurred. Event sediment export was elevated in arable watersheds when low groundcover was coupled with high connectivity, whereas in the grassland watershed, export was attributed to wetter weather only. Hysteresis analysis successfully indicated contrasting seasonality, connectivity and source availability and is a useful tool to identify watershed specific sediment management practices.

  14. Toroidal current profile control during low confinement mode plasma discharges in DIII-D via first-principles-driven model-based robust control synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Justin E.; Boyer, Mark D.; Shi, Wenyu; Schuster, Eugenio; Luce, Tim C.; Ferron, John R.; Walker, Michael L.; Humphreys, David A.; Penaflor, Ben G.; Johnson, Robert D.

    2012-12-01

    In order for ITER to be capable of operating in advanced tokamak operating regimes, characterized by a high fusion gain, good plasma confinement, magnetohydrodynamic stability and a non-inductively driven plasma current, for extended periods of time, several challenging plasma control problems still need to be solved. Setting up a suitable toroidal current density profile in the tokamak is key for one possible advanced operating scenario characterized by non-inductive sustainment of the plasma current. At the DIII-D tokamak, the goal is to create the desired current profile during the ramp-up and early flat-top phases of the plasma discharge and then actively maintain this target profile for the remainder of the discharge. The evolution in time of the toroidal current profile in tokamaks is related to the evolution of the poloidal magnetic flux profile, which is modelled in normalized cylindrical coordinates using a first-principles, nonlinear, dynamic partial differential equation (PDE) referred to as the magnetic diffusion equation. The magnetic diffusion equation is combined with empirical correlations developed from physical observations and experimental data from DIII-D for the electron temperature, the plasma resistivity and the non-inductive current drive to develop a simplified, control-oriented, nonlinear, dynamic PDE model of the poloidal flux profile evolution valid for low confinement mode discharges. In this work, we synthesize a robust feedback controller to reject disturbances and track a desired reference trajectory of the poloidal magnetic flux gradient profile by employing the control-oriented model of the system. A singular value decomposition of the static gain matrix of the plant model is utilized to identify the most relevant control channels and is combined with the dynamic response of system around a given operating trajectory to design the feedback controller. A general framework for real-time feedforward + feedback control of magnetic and

  15. Control of plasma profile in microwave discharges via inverse-problem approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyoshi Yasaka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the manufacturing process of semiconductors, plasma processing is an essential technology, and the plasma used in the process is required to be of high density, low temperature, large diameter, and high uniformity. This research focuses on the microwave-excited plasma that meets these needs, and the research target is a spatial profile control. Two novel techniques are introduced to control the uniformity; one is a segmented slot antenna that can change radial distribution of the radiated field during operation, and the other is a hyper simulator that can predict microwave power distribution necessary for a desired radial density profile. The control system including these techniques provides a method of controlling radial profiles of the microwave plasma via inverse-problem approach, and is investigated numerically and experimentally.

  16. Generation and control of wide area, homogenous atmospheric pressure discharges for industrial coating applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Alan; Walter, Castagna; Carr, Kieran; O'Shea, Sean; Herbert, Tony

    2004-09-01

    Dow Corning Plasma Solutions use diffuse atmospheric pressure plasma technology combined with a unique precursor delivery system for a new coatings approach: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Liquid Deposition. Operating at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature this process allows the use of a wide range of liquid precursors delivering high chemical functionality onto flexible substrates. Patented APPLD equipment enables plasma deposition onto wide area substrates up to 1.6m width in true reel-to-reel conditions at industrial line speeds up to 30m/min. Substrates can be either electrically insulating or conducting. Recent engineering developments addressing issues in electrode design, liquid delivery and gas retention and distribution, have significantly enhanced the stability and homogeneity of the plasma chemistry and coating performance. The process is controlled through monitoring and control of key plasma chemistry and process parameters. The process hardware and process control package will be described in detail with particular emphasis on plasma chemistry and process control tools.

  17. Transport of radioactive materials; Transporte de materiais radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material.

  18. Controle de plantas daninhas em cultivos orgânicos de soja por meio de descarga elétrica Weed control in organic soybean using electrical discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram instalados em semeadura direta, em área de cultivo orgânico de soja, no município de São Miguel do Iguaçu, Paraná (PR, com o objetivo de avaliar o controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja (BRS 232 por meio de descarga elétrica. O delineamento experimental foi blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. No experimento 1, fixou-se a voltagem de 4400V e, no experimento 2, de 6800V. Em ambos os experimentos, os tratamentos consistiram das variações de rotação do motor do trator (i 2200rpm (rotações por minutos; (ii 2000rpm; (iii 1600rpm e as testemunhas (iv capinada e (v sem capina. O equipamento utilizado para aplicação dos tratamentos foi o Eletroherb (Sayyou do Brasil. As plantas daninhas existentes na área experimental foram o amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla, a corda-de-viola (Ipomoea spp., a guanxuma (Sida spp., o capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea e o capim-colchão (Digitaria spp.. O emprego de descarga elétrica é eficiente no controle das plantas daninhas da cultura da soja. A rotação 2200rpm proporcionou o melhor controle e, consequentemente, a maior produtividade da soja.Two experiments were carried out in no-till organic soybean area in São Miguel do Iguaçu, Paraná State, Brazil, in order to evaluate the weed control using electrical discharge. The experiments were arranged in a complete block design, with four replicates. The voltages were fixed in 4400V (experiment 1 and 6800V (experiment 2. In both experiments, the treatments consisted by different revolution tractor: (i 2200rpm (revolutions per minute; (ii 2000rpm; (iii 1600rpm; and two checks [(iv unweeded control and (v weeded control]. The equipment Eletroherb (Sayyou do Brasil was used to apply the electrical discharges. The weeds presented in the experimental area were wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla, morningglory (Ipomoea spp., prickly Sida (Sida spp., alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea and crabgrass

  19. Sensor integration in radioactive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfensteller, Mark; Schilp, Michael; Eursch, Andreas; Zaeh, Michael F.

    2004-12-01

    Radioactive material of high activity levels has to be handled in a nuclear medicine environment. Until now most of these activities are done manually or by rudimentally automated processes. To increase radiation safety and process quality, smart automation strategies for these processes have to be developed. Especially long-term processes with radioactive materials have to be automated in early stages of development. This leads to a certain flexibility regarding requirements demanding an adjustable automation concept. The application of radiation hardened sensors is expensive but even these sensors will be destroyed by radiation effects. To allow therefore standard sensors to be used in radioactive environments, different strategies have been tested: In general, the sensors must be applied in a way to allow an easy access to sensors for replacement purposes. But this approach might not be sophisticated. An additional solution is the reduction of exposure of sensitive parts such as electronics. This means dividing the sensor in a measuring part which is placed in the radioactive environment and in a sensitive, shielded control part as it is realized by fibre optic sensors. The implementation of these approaches is demonstrated in sensor applications for radium handling systems e. g. contactless control of the needle clearance of a dispensing system via a fibre optic sensor. Further scenarios for sensor integration problems are presented in this paper.

  20. NIPPLE DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Bukharova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data available in the literature, as high as 50% of women have benign breast tumors frequently accompanied by nip- ple discharge. Nipple discharge may be serous, bloody, purulent, and colostric. The most common causes are breast abscess, injury, drugs, prolactinoma, intraductal pappiloma, ductal ectasia, intraductal cancer (not more than 10%.

  1. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  2. Radioactivity and its measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Garfinkel, S B

    1980-01-01

    Begins with a description of the discovery of radioactivity and the historic research of such pioneers as the Curies and Rutherford. After a discussion of the interactions of &agr;, &bgr; and &ggr; rays with matter, the energetics of the different modes of nuclear disintegration are considered in relation to the Einstein mass-energy relationship as applied to radioactive transformations. Radiation detectors and radioactivity measurements are also discussed

  3. Quality control of concretes for conditioning of spent radioactive sources; Control de calidad de concretos para acondicionamiento de fuentes radiactivas gastadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez N, M.

    2015-07-01

    The spent sealed radioactive sources are considered as a specific type of radioactive wastes and should be properly stored to ensure their integrity and prevent or limit the release of radionuclides in the geosphere. For this, these sources can be put up in concrete matrices. This research presents the evaluation and characterization of five concretes prepared with 4 brands of commercial cements: CPC Extra RS, CPC 30R Impercem of Cemex, Cruz Azul CPC 30R and CPC 30R of Apasco; three sizes of coarse aggregate (<30 mm, 29-11 mm and <10 mm) and fine aggregate (0.0797 mm) used as matrices for conditioning of spent sealed radioactive sources, in order to verify if these specific concretes accredit the standard NOM-019-Nucl-1995. After hardening for 28 days the concrete specimens were subjected to the tests: compressive strength; thermal cycles, irradiation, leaching and permeability, later to be characterized by: 1) X-ray diffraction in order to meet their crystalline phases; 2) scanning electron microscopy, to determine changes in morphology; 3) infrared spectroscopy, to determine the structural changes of concrete from its functional groups; 4) Raman spectroscopy to determine their structural changes and 5) Moessbauer spectroscopy, which determines changes in the oxidation state of iron in the concrete. According to the results and the changes presented by each concrete after applying the tests set by NOM-019-Nucl-1995, is concluded that the concrete made with cement Cemex brand (CPC 30-RS Extra), gravel of particle size 11-29 mm and sieved sand (0.0797 mm) can be used as matrices of spent sealed sources conditioning. Is remarkable a morphological and structural change of the concrete due to gamma irradiation and heat treatment. (Author)

  4. Can a supported self-management program for COPD upon hospital discharge reduce readmissions? A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson-Warrington V

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vicki Johnson-Warrington,1,2 Karen Rees,3 Colin Gelder,1 Mike Morgan,4 Sally J Singh2,41Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, 2Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Coventry University, 3Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, 4Centre for Exercise and Rehabilitation Science, Glenfield Hospital, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK Introduction: Patients with COPD experience exacerbations that may require hospitalization. Patients do not always feel supported upon discharge and frequently get readmitted. A Self-management Program of Activity, Coping, and Education for COPD (SPACE for COPD, a brief self-management program, may help address this issue.Objective: To investigate if SPACE for COPD employed upon hospital discharge would reduce readmission rates at 3 months, compared with usual care.Methods: This is a prospective, single-blinded, two-center trial (ISRCTN84599369 with participants admitted for an exacerbation, randomized to usual care or SPACE for COPD. Measures, including health-related quality of life and exercise capacity, were taken at baseline (hospital discharge and at 3 months. The primary outcome measure was respiratory readmission at 3 months.Results: Seventy-eight patients were recruited (n=39 to both groups. No differences were found in readmission rates or mortality at 3 months between the groups. Ten control patients were readmitted within 30 days compared to five patients in the intervention group (P>0.05. Both groups significantly improved their exercise tolerance and Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ-SR results, with between-group differences approaching statistical significance for CRQ-dyspnea and CRQ-emotion, in favor of the intervention. The “Ready for Home” survey revealed that patients receiving the intervention reported feeling better able to arrange their life to cope with COPD, knew when to seek help about

  5. DEPO-related to Radioactive Sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-24

    Design and Evaluation Process Outline (DEPO) is discussed as it pertains to protection of radioactive sources. The bulk of the report describes features of various kinds of detection systems, and follows this with systems for entry control and personnel identification.

  6. Analysis through indicators of the management of radioactive waste in a radioactive facility; Analisis por medio de indicadores de la gestion de desechos radiactivos en una instalacion radiactiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador Balbona, Zayda; Argudin Bocourt, William, E-mail: zabalbona@centis.edu.cu [Centro de Isotopos (CENTIS), Mayabeque (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The evaluation of the management of radioactive waste in the center of isotopes of the Republic of Cuba is the objective of this work. To do so, all the operations of the management system are evaluated through indicators used by this radioactive facility over a decade ago. Available information is processed from 1996 until 2012. The major waste generators are identified through the indicator of annual generation of each working group by local and by worker and it were analyzed the available store radioactive inventory, the relationship between the variation of annual technological waste volume of waste and the annual total manipulated activity, the relationship generation-declassification and the percent of liquid effluents managed as waste. Indicators of unconditional clearance, as well as the of the gaseous and liquid discharges are presented. It is concluded, with all these indicators, that it is possible to determine where are the causes of the behavior in the generation of radioactive waste if it is an increase of manipulated activity int the places of work or of worker, or improper application of the procedures of collection. It is controlled not only management, but also determines in which aspects can work to achieve the objective of minimizing the formation of these wastes, to be able to reduce the production costs. National shedding environmental regulations are met and the results are acceptable)

  7. Precipitation v. River Discharge Controls on Water Availability to Riparian Trees in the Rhône River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M. B.; Sargeant, C. I.; Vallet-Coulomb, C.; Evans, C.; Bates, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    Water availability to riparian trees in lowlands is controlled through precipitation and its infiltration into floodplain soils, and through river discharge additions to the hyporheic water table. The relative contributions of both water sources to the root zone within river floodplains vary through time, depending on climatic fluctuations. There is currently limited understanding of how climatic fluctuations are expressed at local scales, especially in 'critical zone' hydrology, which is fundamental to the health and sustainability of riparian forest ecosystems. This knowledge is particularly important in water-stressed Mediterranean climate systems, considering climatic trends and projections toward hotter and drier growing seasons, which have the potential to dramatically reduce water availability to riparian forests. Our aim is to identify and quantify the relative contributions of hyporheic (discharge) water v. infiltrated precipitation to water uptake by riparian Mediterranean trees for several distinct hydrologic years, selected to isolate contrasts in water availability from these sources. Our approach includes isotopic analyses of water and tree-ring cellulose, mechanistic modeling of water uptake and wood production, and physically based modeling of subsurface hydrology. We utilize an extensive database of oxygen isotope (δ18O) measurements in surface water and precipitation alongside recent measurements of δ18O in groundwater and soil water and in tree-ring cellulose. We use a mechanistic model to back-calculate source water δ18O based on δ18O in cellulose and climate data. Finally, we test our results via 1-D hydrologic modeling of precipitation infiltration and water table rise and fall. These steps enable us to interpret hydrologic cycle variability within the 'critical zone' and their potential impact on riparian trees.

  8. Impact of an automated email notification system for results of tests pending at discharge: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Anuj K; Roy, Christopher L; Poon, Eric G; Williams, Deborah H; Nolido, Nyryan; Yoon, Cathy; Budris, Jonas; Gandhi, Tejal; Bates, David W; Schnipper, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Physician awareness of the results of tests pending at discharge (TPADs) is poor. We developed an automated system that notifies responsible physicians of TPAD results via secure, network email. We sought to evaluate the impact of this system on self-reported awareness of TPAD results by responsible physicians, a necessary intermediary step to improve management of TPAD results. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial at a major hospital affiliated with an integrated healthcare delivery network in Boston, Massachusetts. Adult patients with TPADs who were discharged from inpatient general medicine and cardiology services were assigned to the intervention or usual care arm if their inpatient attending physician and primary care physician (PCP) were both randomized to the same study arm. Patients of physicians randomized to discordant study arms were excluded. We surveyed these physicians 72 h after all TPAD results were finalized. The primary outcome was awareness of TPAD results by attending physicians. Secondary outcomes included awareness of TPAD results by PCPs, awareness of actionable TPAD results, and provider satisfaction. We analyzed data on 441 patients. We sent 441 surveys to attending physicians and 353 surveys to PCPs and received 275 and 152 responses from 83 different attending physicians and 112 different PCPs, respectively (attending physician survey response rate of 63%). Intervention attending physicians and PCPs were significantly more aware of TPAD results (76% vs 38%, adjusted/clustered OR 6.30 (95% CI 3.02 to 13.16), pemail notification represents a promising strategy for managing TPAD results, potentially mitigating an unresolved patient safety concern. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01153451).

  9. A retrospect of anthropogenic radioactivity in the global marine environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1998-01-01

    ) the military nuclear establishment at Cheliabinsk (later MAYAK) a few years later began direct discharging of fission products to the nearby Techa River, which is a part of the Ob river system, and the Arctic Ocean received man made radioactivity. In the 1950s, when atmospheric testing of thermonuclear weapons...... commenced, the world ocean became radioactively contaminated. The atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons peaked in the early 1960s and so did the radioactive contamination of the world ocean. In the mid 1970s the authorised liquid discharges, first of all of Cs-137, from the nuclear reprocessing plant......Man-made radionuclides were introduced into the marine environment in the mid forties with the exploitation of nuclear fission for military purposes. Plutonium production reactors at Hanford, USA, released radioactivity to the Pacific Ocean via the Columbia River. In the former Soviet Union (FSU...

  10. Stroke rehabilitation at home before and after discharge reduced disability and improved quality of life: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Østergaard, Ann; Kjær, Pia; Skerris, Anja; Skou, Christina; Christoffersen, Jane; Seest, Line Skou; Poulsen, Mai Bang; Rønholt, Finn; Overgaard, Karsten

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate if home-based rehabilitation of inpatients improved outcome compared to standard care. Interventional, randomised, safety/efficacy open-label trial. University hospital stroke unit in collaboration with three municipalities. Seventy-one eligible stroke patients (41 women) with focal neurological deficits hospitalised in a stroke unit for more than three days and in need of rehabilitation. Thirty-eight patients were randomised to home-based rehabilitation during hospitalization and for up to four weeks after discharge to replace part of usual treatment and rehabilitation services. Thirty-three control patients received treatment and rehabilitation following usual guidelines for the treatment of stroke patients. Ninety days post-stroke the modified Rankin Scale score was the primary endpoint. Other outcome measures were the modified Barthel-100 Index, Motor Assessment Scale, CT-50 Cognitive Test, EuroQol-5D, Body Mass Index and treatment-associated economy. Thirty-one intervention and 30 control patients completed the study. Patients in the intervention group achieved better modified Rankin Scale score (Intervention median = 2, IQR = 2-3; Control median = 3, IQR = 2-4; P=0.04). EuroQol-5D quality of life median scores were improved in intervention patients (Intervention median = 0.77, IQR = 0.66-0.79; Control median = 0.66, IQR = 0.56 - 0.72; P=0.03). The total amount of home-based training in minutes highly correlated with mRS, Barthel, Motor Assessment Scale and EuroQol-5D™ scores (P-values ranging from Phome-based rehabilitation reduced disability and increased quality of life. Compared to standard care, home-based stroke rehabilitation was more cost-effective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Discharge controls on the sediment and dissolved nutrient transport flux of the lowermost Mississippi River: Implications for export to the ocean and for delta restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Mead A.; Pratt, Thad C.

    2017-12-01

    Lagrangian longitudinal surveys and fixed station data are utilized from the lowermost Mississippi River reach in Louisiana at high and low discharge in 2012-2013 to examine the changing stream power, sediment transport capacity, and nitrate conveyance in this backwater reach of the river. Nitrate appears to remain conservative through the backwater reach at higher discharges (>15,000 m3/s), thus, nitrate levels supplied from the catchment are those exported to the Gulf of Mexico, fueling coastal hypoxia. At lower discharges, interaction with fine sediments and organic matter stored on the bed due to estuarine and tidal processes, likely elevates nitrate levels prior to entering the Gulf: a further 1-2 week long spike in nitrate concentrations is associated with the remobilization of this sediments during the rising discharge phase of the Mississippi. Backwater characteristics are clearly observed in the study reach starting at river kilometer 703 (Vicksburg) in both longitudinal study periods. Stream power at the lowermost station is only 16% of that at Vicksburg in the high discharge survey, and 0.6% at low flow. The high-to-low discharge study differential in unit stream power at a station increases between Vicksburg and the lowermost station from a factor of 3 to 47-50 times. At high discharge, ∼30% of this energy loss can be ascribed to the removal of water to the Atchafalaya at Old River Control. Suspended sediment flux decreases downstream in the studied reach in both studies: the lowermost station has 75% of the flux at Vicksburg in the high discharge study, and 0.9% in the low discharge study. The high discharge values, given that this study was conducted during the highest rising hydrograph of the water year, are augmented by sediment resuspended from the bed that was deposited in the previous low discharge phase. Examination of this first detailed field observation studies of the backwater phenomenon in a major river, shows that observed suspended

  12. Ear discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antibiotic medicines, which are placed in the ear. Antibiotics may be given by mouth if a ruptured eardrum from an ear infection is causing the discharge. Alternative Names Drainage from the ear; Otorrhea; Ear bleeding; ...

  13. Osteomyelitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000297.htm Osteomyelitis - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have osteomyelitis , a bone infection caused by bacteria or other ...

  14. Induced radioactivity at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A description of some of the problems and some of the advantages associated with the phenomenon of induced radioactivity at accelerator centres such as CERN. The author has worked in this field for several years and has recently written a book 'Induced Radioactivity' published by North-Holland.

  15. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  16. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  17. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  18. Control of high-level radioactive waste-glass melters. Part 4, Preliminary analysis of DWPF process laboratory capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.; Coleman, C.J.

    1990-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will immobilize Savannah River Site High Level Waste as a durable borosilicate glass for permanent disposal in a repository. The DWPF will be controlled based on glass composition. The following discussion is a preliminary analysis of the capability of the laboratory methods that can be used to control the glass composition, and the relationships between glass durability and glass properties important to glass melting. The glass durability and processing properties will be controlled by controlling the chemical composition of the glass. The glass composition will be controlled by control of the melter feed transferred from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT). During cold runs, tests will be conducted to demonstrate the chemical equivalence of glass sampled from the pour stream and glass removed from cooled canisters. In similar tests, the compositions of glass produced from slurries sampled from the SME and MFT will be compared to final product glass to determine the statistical relationships between melter feed and glass product. The total error is the combination of those associated with homogeneity in the SME or MFT, sampling, preparation of samples for analysis, instrument calibration, analysis, and the composition/property model. This study investigated the sensitivity of estimation of property data to the combination of variations from sampling through analysis. In this or a similar manner, the need for routine glass product sampling will be minimized, and glass product characteristics will be assured before the melter feed is committed to the melter.

  19. Assessing Geologic Controls on Groundwater Discharge in the Loup River Basin of Nebraska by Using Aerial Thermal-Infrared Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobza, C. M.; Schepers, A.

    2016-12-01

    Streamflows in the Loup River basin are sensitive to groundwater withdrawals because of the close hydrologic connection between groundwater and surface water. Groundwater discharge contributes more than 90 percent of streamflow in the Loup River basin in the Nebraska Sand Hills. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper and Lower Loup Natural Resources Districts, and the Nebraska Environmental Trust, are studying the temporal and spatial characteristics of surface-water/groundwater interaction within the Loup River basin. Streams in the Loup River basin are known to receive a combination of focused discharge (groundwater discharge as springs) and diffuse discharge. To map focused groundwater discharge points, aerial thermal-infrared imagery was collected over two stream reaches prior to onset of ice cover in late 2015, when warm thermal anomalies in stream-surface temperatures indicated areas of focused groundwater discharge. Zones of focused groundwater discharge were detected along the upper South Loup, North Fork of South Loup, and Dismal Rivers. Within the active stream channel, the Dismal River is incising into the Ogallala Formation, which is locally characterized as fine-grained sandstone interbedded with siltstone. Some points of focused discharge along the Dismal River result from local confining beds within the Ogallala Formation that create strong vertical gradients near the stream margin. A series of focused groundwater discharge points was detected along the upper South Loup River where the river has incised into Pliocene-age gravel deposits. Stream surface temperatures from the aerial thermal-infrared imagery were plotted against distance downstream. Results showed a substantial increase in the groundwater component of streamflow originating from diffuse groundwater discharge located upstream from mapped springs.

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial for the Effectiveness of Aromatherapy in Decreasing Salivary Gland Damage following Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Michihiro; Okizaki, Atsutaka; Takahashi, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of aromatherapy in decreasing salivary gland damage for patients undergoing radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Materials and Methods. The subjects were 71 patients with DTC. They were divided into aromatherapy group (group A, n = 35) and a control group (group B, n = 36). We blended 1.0 mL of lemon and 0.5 mL of ginger essential oils. The patients in the inhalation aromatherapy group inhaled this blend oil and those in the control group inhaled distilled water as placebo for 10 min during admission. We statistically compared salivary gland function before and after treatment between groups A and B. Results. In comparison with group B, the rate of change of the accumulation rate was significantly higher in the parotid glands and submandibular glands of group A (P aromatherapy in the prevention of treatment-related salivary gland disorder. This trial is registered with UMIN Clinical Trial Registry: UMIN000013968.

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial for the Effectiveness of Aromatherapy in Decreasing Salivary Gland Damage following Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Nakayama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of aromatherapy in decreasing salivary gland damage for patients undergoing radioactive iodine (RAI therapy with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC. Materials and Methods. The subjects were 71 patients with DTC. They were divided into aromatherapy group (group A, n=35 and a control group (group B, n=36. We blended 1.0 mL of lemon and 0.5 mL of ginger essential oils. The patients in the inhalation aromatherapy group inhaled this blend oil and those in the control group inhaled distilled water as placebo for 10 min during admission. We statistically compared salivary gland function before and after treatment between groups A and B. Results. In comparison with group B, the rate of change of the accumulation rate was significantly higher in the parotid glands and submandibular glands of group A (P<0.05. In comparison with group B, a significant increase in rate of secretion change before and after treatment was noted in the bilateral parotid glands in group A (P<0.05. Conclusion. Because an amelioration of salivary gland function was observed in the present study, our results suggest the efficacy of aromatherapy in the prevention of treatment-related salivary gland disorder. This trial is registered with UMIN Clinical Trial Registry: UMIN000013968.

  2. Discharge lamp technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, James

    1994-03-01

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  3. Discharge lamp technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, James

    1994-01-01

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  4. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  5. Study of Periodic Forcing with a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Device for the Control of Flow Separation on a NACA 0012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dygert, Joseph P.

    The continued high global demand for passenger and freight air traffic as well as increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), in spite of rising fuel costs and several tragic cases involving loss-of-control events, has resulted in researchers examining alternative technologies, which would result in safer, more reliable, and superior performing aircraft. Aerodynamic flow control may be the most promising approach to this problem having already proven its ability to enable higher flow efficiency while also simultaneously improving overall flow control. Recent research in the area of aerodynamic control is transitioning from traditional mechanical flow control devices such as slats and flaps to plasma actuators. Plasma actuators offer an inexpensive and energy efficient method of flow control. In addition, plasma actuator technology has the potential of application to a host of other aircraft performance parameters including applications in radar mitigation and in situ wing deicing. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD), one of the most widely studied forms of plasma actuation, employs an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) device, which uses dominant electric fields and the respective electrically related body forces for actuation. Unlike momentum jets or other traditional flow control methods used on wings and tail surfaces, a DBD device operates without moving components or injecting any mass into the flow stream. Work performed focuses on qualitatively investigating experimentally the use of DBD devices for flow separation control on a NACA 0012-based 2D wing model. Flow visualization techniques illuminated flow seed particles around the model to determine the state of the flow (i.e., attached or separated) for various actuator cases. The DBD was operated in a steady-on mode as well as for three different pulsing frequencies (only for low power testing) based on the Strouhal frequency for each flight condition and compared to the clean (i.e., plasma off) case. Some of

  6. Cardiovascular parameters and neural sympathetic discharge variability before orthostatic syncope: role of sympathetic baroreflex control to the vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbic, Franca; Heusser, Karsten; Marchi, Andrea; Zamunér, Antonio Roberto; Gauger, Peter; Tank, Jens; Jordan, Jens; Diedrich, André; Robertson, David; Dipaola, Franca; Achenza, Sara; Porta, Alberto; Furlan, Raffaello

    2015-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that altered sympathetic baroreceptor control to the vessels (svBRS) and disrupted coupling between blood pressure (BP) fluctuations and muscle sympathetic activity (MSNA) discharge pattern in the low frequency band (LF, around 0.1 Hz) precede vasovagal syncope. Seven healthy males underwent ECG, BP, respiratory, and MSNA recordings at baseline (REST) and during a 15 min 80° head-up tilt, followed by a -10 mmHg step wise increase of lower body negative pressure up to presyncope. Spectral and coherence analyses of systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and MSNA variability provided the indexes of vascular sympathetic modulation, LFSAP, and of the linear coupling between MSNA and SAP in the low frequency band (around 0.1 Hz), K(2)MSNA-SAP(LF). svBRS was assessed as the slope of the regression line between MSNA and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP). Data were analyzed at REST, during asymptomatic and presyncope periods of tilt. svBRS declined during presyncope period compared to REST and asymptomatic tilt. The presyncope period was characterized by a decrease of RR interval, LFMSNA, LFSAP, and K(2)MSNA-SAP(LF) values compared to the asymptomatic one, whereas MSNA burst rate was unchanged. The reduction of svBRS producing an altered coupling between MSNA and SAP variability at 0.1 Hz, may provoke circulatory changes leading to presyncope.

  7. Hip fracture - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inter-trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Subtrochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Femoral neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - ...

  8. Note: implementation of a cold spot setup for controlled variation of vapor pressures and its application to an InBr containing discharge lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefi, S

    2013-02-01

    In order to allow for a systematic investigation of the plasma properties of discharges containing indium halides, which are proposed as an efficient alternative for mercury based low pressure discharge lamps, a controlled variation of the indium halide density is mandatory. This can be achieved by applying a newly designed setup in which a well-defined cold spot location is implemented and the cold spot temperature can be adjusted between 50 and 350 °C without influencing the gas temperature. The performance of the setup has been proved by comparing the calculated evaporated InBr density (using the vapor pressure curve) with the one measured via white light absorption spectroscopy.

  9. Study of the {sup 60}Co speciation in the aqueous radioactive waste of the la Hague nuclear reprocessing plant; environmental behaviour after discharges in the waters of the channel; Etude de la speciation du {sup 60}Co dans les effluents de l'usine de retraitement de combustibles irradies de la Hague; devenir apres rejet dans les eaux de la Manche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudaire, J.M

    1999-07-01

    {sup 60}Co is produced as an activation product and is present in the low-level aqueous radioactive waste released from the La Hague plant. At present, the concentration in the sea (non filtered at 0.45 {mu}m) at the Goury site are close to or even below, the detection limit: 0.2 mBq.l{sup -1}. The {sup 60}Co speciation depends on the type of effluent considered: in the effluent A ('active'), the cobalt is in the form of a stable trivalent complex; in the effluent V (to be checked), the cobalt is in majority (50% of the activity release) in the form of particles (>0.45 {mu}m), and then in the form of two soluble species: ionic divalent (Co{sup 2+}) and some stable complexes. The evolution of the reprocessing techniques used does not affect the speciation. So, since the nuclear reprocessing plant started at the La Hague plant in 1966, the chemical species discharged in the sea shows time variation related to the evolution of the type of effluent discharged. Thus, since 1994, the particles of cobalt are the main species discharged in the Channel (the V effluents represent more than 85% of the total {sup 60}Co activity released). The effect of instantaneous dilution into the marine conditions involving a variation of pH, oxido-reduction, ionic strength, a gradient of salinity, does not interfere with the evolution of the chemical species discharged. Nevertheless, during the discharge of the V effluent, the main constituents of the sea water (Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}) go through a precipitation. This comes with the coprecipitation of the ion Co{sup 2+} and with the particles of cobalt (complexes are not affected), and it can be responsible for an increase in the concentration in the particles. The chemical behaviour of the cobalt in the Channel is different from those of conservative element such as antimony. The ionic cobalt and the particles have a small dispersion in the water (cobalt has a very high particle/dissolved distribution factor, it is a non

  10. Radioactivity; La radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  11. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  12. Radioactive sources service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Dear Users, A new web interface is now available for requesting radioactive sources: http://cern.ch/rp-sources/request This link is also available from the radioactive sources service main page: http://cern.ch/rp-sources From now on, please submit your request via the above interface, which has been developed in order to improve the service. Thank you in advance for your collaboration!

  13. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Murray E; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  14. Temporary Personal Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Fred

    2012-01-01

    As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  15. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))

    1990-08-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy.

  16. The Conferences on Quality Control in Environmental Radioactivity and and its role in monitoring programs; Las jornadas de calidad en el control de la radiactividad ambiental y su papel en los programas de vigilancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, L. M.

    2013-03-01

    Since the first steps were given, in the mid eighties of last century, for the implementation of a national environmental monitoring network, a significant change on quality assurance matters has taken place in laboratories performing environmental radioactivity measurements. The Conferences on quality Control in Environmental Radioactivity, first held in Bilbao in 1998 and whose seventh edition tool place in Tarragona in 2012, have had a significant contribution to this change. The Conferences provide a platform for discussion of relevant issues, in this area and are a driving force for the actions necessary for resolution of the problems posed. As a result of these activities a large number of norms and procedures have been published which are contributing to the standardization of the measurement processes. It has also provided a framework for accreditation, resulting in an increase of the number of accredited laboratories. However there are still unresolved issues and challenges in the scientific field, in policy development and accreditation, all framed in on economic crisis that will particular affect public funded laboratories. This article presents an analysis of the Conferences on Quality Assurance and its influence on the results of environmental monitoring program in Spain. (Author) 12 refs.

  17. Classification of electrical discharges in DC Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi, E-mail: sruban.stephens@gmail.com [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Deb, A.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Rajan, Rehim N. [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kishore, N.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2016-08-11

    Controlled electrical discharge aids in conditioning of the system while uncontrolled discharges damage its electronic components. DC Accelerator being a high voltage system is no exception. It is useful to classify electrical discharges according to the severity. Experimental prototypes of the accelerator discharges are developed. Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) are used to detect the signals from these discharges. Time and Frequency domain characteristics of the detected discharges are used to extract features. Machine Learning approaches like Fuzzy Logic, Neural Network and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) are employed to classify the discharges. This aids in detecting the severity of the discharges.

  18. Classification of electrical discharges in DC Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi; Deb, A. K.; Rajan, Rehim N.; Kishore, N. K.

    2016-08-01

    Controlled electrical discharge aids in conditioning of the system while uncontrolled discharges damage its electronic components. DC Accelerator being a high voltage system is no exception. It is useful to classify electrical discharges according to the severity. Experimental prototypes of the accelerator discharges are developed. Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) are used to detect the signals from these discharges. Time and Frequency domain characteristics of the detected discharges are used to extract features. Machine Learning approaches like Fuzzy Logic, Neural Network and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) are employed to classify the discharges. This aids in detecting the severity of the discharges.

  19. Push-Alert Notification of Troponin Results to Physician Smartphones Reduces the Time to Discharge Emergency Department Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Aikta; Wang, Angela S; Feldman, Michael J; Hefferon, Darren A; Kiss, Alex; Lee, Jacques S

    2017-09-01

    For emergency department (ED) patients with chest pain, discharge decisions often hinge on troponin results. Push-alert notifications deliver results immediately to physician smartphones. Our objective is to determine whether troponin push alerts improve the time to discharge decisions for ED patients with chest pain. In an academic ED, we assessed the effect of a quality improvement initiative using troponin push alerts to physician smartphones, with a cluster-randomized evaluation. Participating physicians were randomized to receive troponin push alerts (intervention) or not receive them (control). We retrospectively identified patients treated by participating physicians during the study period who were discharged from the ED with chest pain. The primary outcome was the time from final troponin result to discharge decision. Secondary outcomes included length of stay. A linear mixed model was used to adjust for physician clustering. During the study, 1,554 patients were discharged from the ED with chest pain. There were 551 patients in the control group and 554 in the intervention group who met inclusion criteria. The overall median interval from final troponin result to discharge decision was 79.7 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] 33.6 to 167.8 minutes); it was 94.3 minutes (IQR 36.2 to 177.8 minutes) in the control group and 68.5 minutes (IQR 30.5 to 157.2 minutes) in the intervention group. This 25.8-minute difference in medians (95% confidence interval 24.6 to 28.0 minutes) was statistically significant. Total ED length of stay was 345 minutes (IQR 261 to 419 minutes) in the control group and 328 minutes (IQR 250 to 408 minutes) in the intervention group. Physicians who received troponin push alerts discharged their patients with chest pain 26 minutes faster than those without troponin notifications. Total ED length of stay did not significantly improve for these patients. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc

  20. Radioactive deposits in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, George W.; Lovering, Tom G.

    1954-01-01

    containing rare earths. Secondary uranium minerals have been found as fracture coatings and as disseminations in various types of wall rock, although they are largely confined to areas of Tertiary volcanic rocks. Probably the uranium in the uraniferous deposits in California is related genetically to felsic crystalline rocks and felsic volcanic rocks; the present distribution of the secondary uranium minerals has been controlled, in part, by circulating ground waters and probably, in part, by magmatic waters related to the Tertiary volcanic activity. The thorium minerals are genetically related to the intrusion of pegmatite and plutonic crystalline rocks. None of the known deposits of radioactive minerals in California contain marketable reserves of uranium or thorium ore under economic conditions existing in 1952. With a favorable local market small lots of uranium ore may be available in the following places: the Rosamund prospect, the Rafferty and Chilson properties, the Lucky Star claim, and the Yerih group. The commercial production of thorium minerals will be possible, in the near future, only if these minerals can be recovered cheaply as a byproduct either from the mining of rare earths minerals at Mountain Pass or as a byproduct of placer mining for gold.

  1. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge & Elimination System) Minor Dischargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into waters of the United States. The NPDES permit program regulates direct discharges from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities that discharge directly into surface waters. The NPDES permit program is part of the Permit Compliance System (PCS) which issues, records, tracks, and regulates point source discharge facilities. Individual homes that are connected to a municipal system, use a septic system, or do not have a surface discharge do not need an NPDES permit. Facilities in PCS are identified as either major or minor. Within the major/minor classification, facilities are grouped into municipals or non-municipals. In many cases, non-municipals are industrial facilities. This data layer contains Minor dischargers. Major municipal dischargers include all facilities with design flows of greater than one million gallons per day; minor dischargers are less that one million gallons per day. Essentially, a minor discharger does not meet the discharge criteria for a major. Since its introduction in 1972, the NPDES permit program is responsible for significant improvements to our Nation's water quality.

  2. Discharge lamp technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, J. [GE Lighting, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advance. A general overview of discharge lighting technology can be found in the book of Waymouth (1971). A recent review of low pressure lighting discharge science is found in Dakin (1991). The pioneering paper of Reiling (1964) provides a good introduction to metal halide discharges. Particularly relevant to lighting for plant growth, a recent and thorough treatment of high pressure Na lamps is found in the book by deGroot and vanVliet (1986). Broad practical aspects of lighting application are thoroughly covered in the IES Lighting Handbook edited by Kaufman (1984).

  3. Investigation and control of the {{\\rm{O}}}_{3}- to {NO}-transition in a novel sub-atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansemer, Robert; Schmidt-Bleker, Ansgar; van Rienen, Ursula; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter

    2017-06-01

    A novel flow-driven dielectric barrier discharge concept is presented, which uses a Venturi pump to transfer plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species from a sub-atmospheric pressure (200{--}600 {mbar}) discharge region to ambient pressure and can be operated with air. By adjusting the working pressure of the device, the plasma chemistry can be tuned continuously from an ozone ({{{O}}}3)-dominated mode to a nitrogen oxides ({{NO}}x)-only mode. The plasma source is characterized focusing on the mechanisms effecting this mode change. The composition of the device’s output gas was determined using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results are correlated to measurements of discharge chamber pressure and temperature as well as of input power. It is found that the mode-change temperature can be controlled by the discharge chamber pressure. The source concept is capable of generating an {{NO}}x-dominated plasma chemistry at gas temperatures distinctly below 400 {{K}}. Through mixing of the processed gas stream with a second flow of pressurized air required for the operation of the Venturi pump, the resulting product gas stream remains close to room temperature. A reduced zero-dimensional reaction kinetics model with only seven reactions is capable of describing the observed pressure- and temperature-dependence of the {{{O}}}3 to {{NO}}x mode-change.

  4. Composite state control and magnetic properties of Co and Si cluster assemblies prepared with double-glow-discharge sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Ryoji; Hihara, Takehiko; Peng, Dong-Liang; Sumiyama, Kenji

    2006-08-01

    Using a double-glow-discharge-cluster-source system, in which one glow discharge was a dc mode and the other an rf discharge mode, Co and Si clusters were independently produced and simultaneously deposited on a substrate. When a separation plate was inserted between two glow-discharge chambers, a mixture of Co and Si clusters was obtained: small Co clusters were distributed at random, while the Si clusters were aggregated to form large secondary particles. Without inserting the separation plate, on the other hand, core-shell clusters were obtained: a Co core was surrounded by small Si crystallites. The magnetization measurement indicated that the magnetic coercive force of Co /Si core-shell cluster assemblies was much smaller than that of Co cluster assemblies in which Co clusters were covered with antiferromagnetic CoO shells, indicating that the Si shell prevented Co cluster surfaces from their oxidation. Therefore, the present double-cluster-source system is useful in fabricating various sorts of cluster composites, which cannot be prepared by conventional coevaporation or precipitation methods.

  5. Survival in Malnourished Older Patients Receiving Post-Discharge Nutritional Support; Long-Term Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelemaat, F; van Keeken, S; Langius, J A E; de van der Schueren, M A E; Thijs, A; Bosmans, J E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous analyses have shown that a post-discharge individualized nutritional intervention had positive effects on body weight, lean body mass, functional limitations and fall incidents in malnourished older patients. However, the impact of this intervention on survival has not yet been

  6. Comprehensive discharge follow-up in patients' homes by GPs and district nurses of elderly patients. A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, L.; Jakobsen, Helle; Rønholt, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Many hospital admissions are due to inappropriate medical treatment, and discharge of fragile elderly patients involves a high risk of readmission. The present study aimed to assess whether a follow-up programme undertaken by GPs and district nurses could improve the quality of the medical...

  7. Electrochemistry and Radioactive Wastes: A Scientific Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Abed Elaziz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radioactive wastes are arising from nuclear applications such as nuclear medicine and nuclear power plants. Radioactive wastes should be managed in a safe manner to protect human beings and the environment now and in the future. The management strategy depends on collection, segregation, treatment, immobilization, and disposal. The treatment process is a very important step in which the hazardous materials were converted to a more concentrated, less volume and less movable materials. Electrochemistry is the branch of chemistry in which the passage of electric current was producing a chemical change. Electrochemical treatment of radioactive wastes is widely used all over the world. It has a number of advantages and hence benefits. Electrochemistry can lead to remote, automatic control and increasing safety. The present work is focusing on the role of electrochemistry in the treatment of radioactive wastes worldwide. It contains the fundamentals of electrochemistry, the brief story of radioactive wastes, and the modern trends in the electrochemical treatment of radioactive wastes. An overview of electrochemical decomposition of organic wastes, electrochemical reduction of nitrates, electro- precipitation, electro- ion exchange, and electrochemical remediation of soil are outlined. The main operating factors, the mechanism of decontamination, energy consumption and examples of field trials are considered.

  8. Radioactivity in food crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  9. Seventy-two-hour antibiotic retrieval from the ED: a randomized controlled trial of discharge instructional modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olives, Travis D; Patel, Roma G; Thompson, Hannah M; Joing, Scott; Miner, James R

    2016-06-01

    Limited health literacy is a risk factor for poor outcomes in numerous health care settings. Little is known about the impact of instructional modality and health literacy on adherence to emergency department (ED) discharge instructions. To examine the impact of instructional modality on 72-hour antibiotic retrieval among ED patients prescribed outpatient antibiotics for infections. English-speaking ED patients diagnosed as having acute infections and prescribed outpatient antibiotics were randomized to standard discharge instructions, standard instructions plus text-messaged instructions, or standard instructions plus voicemailed instructions targeting ED prescriptions. Health literacy was determined by validated instrument. Seventy-two-hour antibiotic retrieval, 30-day report of prescription completion, and discharge instructional modality preference were assessed. Nearly one-quarter of the 2521 participants demonstrated low health literacy. Low health literacy predicted decreased 72-hour antibiotic retrieval (χ(2) = 9.56, P=.008). No significant association with antibiotic retrieval was noted across the 3 treatment groups (χ(2) = 5.112, P=.078). However, patients randomized to the text message group retrieved antibiotic prescriptions within 72 hours more frequently than did those randomized to the voicemail treatment group (χ(2) = 4.345, P=.037), and patients with low health literacy randomized to voicemailed instructions retrieved their antibiotic prescriptions less frequently than did those randomized to standard of care instructions (χ(2) = 5.526, P=.019). Reported instructional modality preferences were inconsistent with the primary findings of the study. Discharge instructional modality impacts antibiotic retrieval in patients with low health literacy. Preference for discharge instructional modality varies by degree of health literacy, but does not predict which modality will optimize 72-hour antibiotic retrieval. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  10. Outcomes for family carers of a nurse-delivered hospital discharge intervention for older people (the Further Enabling Care at Home Program): Single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toye, Christine; Parsons, Richard; Slatyer, Susan; Aoun, Samar M; Moorin, Rachael; Osseiran-Moisson, Rebecca; Hill, Keith D

    2016-12-01

    Hospital discharge of older people receiving care at home offers a salient opportunity to identify and address their family caregivers' self-identified support needs. This study tested the hypothesis that the extent to which family caregivers of older people discharged home from hospital felt prepared to provide care at home would be positively influenced by their inclusion in the new Further Enabling Care at Home program. This single-blind randomised controlled trial compared outcomes from usual care alone with those from usual care plus the new program. The program, delivered by a specially trained nurse over the telephone, included: support to facilitate understanding of the patient's discharge letter; caregiver support needs assessment; caregiver prioritisation of urgent needs; and collaborative guidance, from the nurse, regarding accessing supports. Dyads were recruited from the medical assessment unit of a Western Australian metropolitan public hospital. Each dyad comprised a patient aged 70 years or older plus an English speaking family caregiver. The primary outcome was the caregiver's self-reported preparedness to provide care for the patient. Data collection time points were designated as: Time 1, within four days of discharge; Time 2, 15-21days after discharge; Time 3, six weeks after discharge. Other measures included caregivers' ratings of: their health, patients' symptoms and independence, caregiver strain, family well-being, caregiver stress, and positive appraisals of caregiving. Data were collected by telephone. Complete data sets were obtained from 62 intervention group caregivers and 79 controls. Groups were equivalent at baseline. Needs prioritised most often by caregivers were: to know whom to contact and what to expect in the future and to access practical help at home. Support guidance included how to: access help, information, and resources; develop crisis plans; obtain referrals and services; and organise legal requirements. Compared to

  11. Generic care pathway for elderly patients in need of home care services after discharge from hospital: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røsstad, Tove; Salvesen, Øyvind; Steinsbekk, Aslak; Grimsmo, Anders; Sletvold, Olav; Garåsen, Helge

    2017-04-17

    Improved discharge arrangements and targeted post-discharge follow-up can reduce the risk of adverse events after hospital discharge for elderly patients. Although more care is to shift from specialist to primary care, there are few studies on post-discharge interventions run by primary care. A generic care pathway, Patient Trajectory for Home-dwelling elders (PaTH) including discharge arrangements and follow-up by primary care, was developed and introduced in Central Norway Region in 2009, applying checklists at defined stages in the patient trajectory. In a previous paper, we found that PaTH had potential of improving follow-up in primary care. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of PaTH-compared to usual care-for elderly in need of home care services after discharge from hospital. We did an unblinded, cluster randomised controlled trial with 12 home care clusters. Outcomes were measured at the patient level during a 12-month follow-up period for the individual patient and analysed applying linear and logistic mixed models. Primary outcomes were readmissions within 30 days and functional level assessed by Nottingham extended ADL scale. Secondary outcomes were number and length of inpatient hospital care and nursing home care, days at home, consultations with the general practitioners (GPs), mortality and health related quality of life (SF-36). One-hundred and sixty-three patients were included in the PaTH group (six clusters), and 141 patients received care as usual (six clusters). We found no statistically significant differences between the groups for primary and secondary outcomes except for more consultations with the GPs in PaTH group (p = 0.04). Adherence to the intervention was insufficient as only 36% of the patients in the intervention group were assessed by at least three of the four main checklists in PaTH, but this improved over time. Lack of adherence to PaTH rendered the study inconclusive regarding the elderly's functional level

  12. Impact of drug reconciliation at discharge and communication between hospital and community pharmacists on drug-related problems: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourrat, Xavier; Roux, Clarisse; Bouzige, Brigitte; Garnier, Valérie; Develay, Armelle; Allenet, Benoit; Fraysse, Martial; Halimi, Jean-Michel; Grassin, Jacqueline; Giraudeau, Bruno

    2014-06-30

    Patients are at risk of drug-related problems (DRPs) at transition points during hospitalization. The community pharmacist (CP) is often the first healthcare professional patients visit after discharge. CPs lack sufficient information about the patient and so they may be unable to identify problems in medications, which may lead to dispensing the wrong drugs or dosage, and/or giving wrong information. We aim to assess the impact of a complex intervention comprising of medication reconciliation performed at discharge by a hospital pharmacist (HP) with communication between the HP and CP on DRPs during the seven days following discharge. The study is a cluster randomized crossover trial involving 46 care units (each unit corresponding to a cluster) in 22 French hospitals during two consecutive 14-day periods, randomly assigned as 'experimental' or 'control' (usual care) periods. We will recruit patients older than 18 years of age and visiting the same CP for at least three months. We will exclude patients with a hospital length of stay of more than 21 days, who do not return home or those in palliative care. During the experimental period, the HP will perform a medications reconciliation that will be communicated to the patient. The HP will inform the patient's CP about the patient's drug therapy (modification in home medication, acute drugs prescribed, nonprescription treatments, and/or lab results). The primary outcome will be a composite outcome of any kind of drug misuse during the seven days following discharge assessed at day seven (±2) post-discharge by a pharmacist in charge of the study who will contact both patients and CPs by phone. The secondary outcome will be unplanned hospitalizations assessed by phone contact at day 35 (±5) after discharge. We plan to recruit 1,176 patients. This study will assess the impact of a reconciliation of medications performed at patient discharge followed by communication between the HP and the patient's CP. It will allow

  13. Dossier: transport of radioactive materials; Dossier: le transport des matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignon, H. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction du Cycle du Combustible; Niel, J.Ch. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Canton, H. [CEA Cesta, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Brachet, Y. [Transnucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Turquet de Beauregard, G.; Mauny, G. [CIS bio international, France (France); Robine, F.; Plantet, F. [Prefecture de la Moselle (France); Pestel Lefevre, O. [Ministere de l`Equipement, des transports et du logement, (France); Hennenhofer, G. [BMU, Ministere de l`environnement, de la protection de la nature et de la surete des reacteurs (Germany); Bonnemains, J. [Association Robin des Bois (France)

    1997-12-01

    This dossier is entirely devoted to the transportation of radioactive and fissile materials of civil use. It comprises 9 papers dealing with: the organization of the control of the radioactive materials transport safety (safety and security aspects, safety regulations, safety analysis and inspection, emergency plans, public information), the technical aspects of the regulation concerning the transport of radioactive materials (elaboration of regulations and IAEA recommendations, risk assessments, defense in depth philosophy and containers, future IAEA recommendations, expertise-research interaction), the qualification of containers (regulations, test facilities), the Transnucleaire company (presentation, activity, containers for spent fuels), the packages of radioactive sources for medical use (flux, qualification, safety and transport), an example of accident during radioactive materials transportation: the Apach train derailment (February 4, 1997), the sea transport of radioactive materials (international maritime organization (OMI), international maritime dangerous goods (IMDG) code, irradiated nuclear fuel (INF) safety rules), the transport of radioactive materials in Germany, and the point of view from an external observer. (J.S.)

  14. Using heart rate "Sigma sport 1300" in the operational control of special endurance cyclists of higher discharges (for example, cross-country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voropay Sergej Nikolaevich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It is shown the efficiency of the use of «Sigma Sport 1300» in operational control of special endurance athletes. The study involved 10 athletes of higher discharges. At baseline for each athlete was defined range of indicators of heart rate and intensity of the zone. It is established that the best indicators of changes in special endurance observed in the control of the intensity of objective internal performance. It is noted that the subjective assessment can be influenced by many extraneous factors: the cumulative effect of exercise, emotional athlete to the start of classes.

  15. Radiation power control of the industrial CO2 lasers excited by a nonself-sustained glow discharge with regard to dissociation in a working gas mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemyakin, Andrey N.; Rachkov, Michael Yu.; Solovyov, Nikolay G.; Yakimov, Mikhail Yu.

    2018-01-01

    The action of a working gas mixture degradation related to the plasma chemical reactions in a glow discharge on the laser output power of the molecular laser excited by a nonself-sustained glow discharge has been studied by the example of an industrial laser of ;Lantan; CO2 laser series. It was found that the laser power overshoot when operating on a fresh gas mixture may exceed 3 times power level set in a steady-state regime. The working algorithm for the control system was proposed and developed setting standard fresh CO2/N2/He laser gas mixture to plasma chemical equilibrium composition during the laser turn-on procedure after full refill of a working gas mixture.

  16. Radioactive sources astray; Radioaktive kilder på avveier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-01

    In Norway, every year 2-3 incidents where radioactive sources are going astray happens. This can lead to serious consequences with the risk to both humans and the environment. Radioactive sources out of control are often ancient sources no longer in use and will be sent back to the dealer or an approved waste disposal facility.Radiation safety regulations has provisions for the acquisition, management and disposal of radioactive sources to assure proper use and handling of radioactive sources in the community. It is given here information about how businesses should deal with radioactive sources which have been taken out of use, and what should be done by discovery or suspected discovery of radioactivity in return metal industry.(eb)

  17. Estimation of monosaccharide radioactivity in biological samples through osazone derivatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, F.J.; Pons, A.; Alemany, M.; Palou, A.

    1982-03-01

    A method for the quantitative estimation of radioactivity in the glucose (monosaccharide) fraction of biological samples is presented. Radioactive samples are added with cold glucose, and 1 aliquot receives a known amount of radioactive glucose as internal standard. After controlled osazone formation and three washings of the yellow precipitate, the osazones are dissolved, decolored, and their radioactivity determined through scintillation counting. The overall efficiency of recovery is 23-24% of the initial readioactivity. Each sample is corrected by the recovery of its own internal standard. There is a very close linear relationship between radioactivity present in the samples and radioactivity found, despite the use of different biological samples (rat plasma, hen egg yolk and albumen).

  18. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  19. Radioactive waste study released

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowhaluk, Bohdan

    A National Research Council (NRC) panel has concluded that the technology for safely storing radioactive waste is ready for confirmation in a test facility. At the same time, the panel proposed safety standards that are more stringent than standards currently proposed by some government agencies. The report, Study of the Isolation System for the Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Wastes, was funded by the Department of Energy as part of its effort to comply with a Congressional mandate to open a national radioactive waste storage facility by the end of the century.The Waste Isolation Panel of the NRC's Board on Radioactive Waste Management did not choose a specific site for the first U.S. repository because the state of current technology does not allow the U.S. to design, construct, and safely operate a full-fledged site. However, the panel's chairman, Thomas H. Pigford, of the University of California at Berkeley, believes that the goal established by Congress can be met.

  20. MODEL RADIOACTIVE RADON DECAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Parovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In a model of radioactive decay of radon in the sample (222Rn. The model assumes that the probability of the decay of radon and its half-life depends on the fractal properties of the geological environment. The dependencies of the decay parameters of the fractal dimension of the medium.

  1. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorp, Frits; Grogan, Helen; McCombie, Charles

    The aim of radioactive and non-radioactive waste management is to protect man and the environment from unacceptable risks. Protection criteria for both should therefore be based on similar considerations. From overall protection criteria, performance criteria for subsystems in waste management can be derived, for example for waste disposal. International developments in this field are summarized. A brief overview of radioactive waste sorts and disposal concepts is given. Currently being implemented are trench disposal and engineered near-surface facilities for low-level wastes. For low-and intermediate-level waste underground facilities are under construction. For high-level waste site selection and investigation is being carried out in several countries. In all countries with nuclear programmes, the predicted performance of waste disposal systems is being assessed in scenario and consequence analyses. The influences of variability and uncertainty of parameter values are increasingly being treated by probabilistic methods. Results of selected performance assessments show that radioactive waste disposal sites can be found and suitable repositories can be designed so that defined radioprotection limits are not exceeded.

  2. Fallout Radioactivity and Epiphytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. T. Odum; George Ann Briscoe; C. B. Briscoe

    1970-01-01

    After relatively high levels of fallout retention were dicovered in the epiphytic mossy forest of the Luquillo Mountains durin 1962, a survey of the distribution of radioactivity in the rain forest system was made with beta counting of 1500 samples supplemented with gamma spectra. High levels, up to 4138 counts per minute per gram, were found mainly in or on green...

  3. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  4. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  5. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  6. Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that the radioactive sources service will be open by appointment only every Monday, Wednesday and Friday during CERN working hours (instead of alternate weeks). In addition, please note that our 2007 schedule is available on our web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources

  7. Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that the radioactive sources service will be open by appointment only every Monday, Wednesday and Friday during CERN working hours (instead of alternate weeks). In addition, please note that our 2007 schedule is available on our web site. http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources

  8. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riland, Carson A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  9. Stereotactic radiosurgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Linear accelerator - discharge; Lineacs - discharge; Proton beam radiosurgery - discharge ... You received stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), or radiotherapy. This is a form of radiation therapy that focuses high-powered x-rays onto a small ...

  10. Atrial fibrillation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auricular fibrillation - discharge; A-fib - discharge; AF - discharge; Afib - discharge ... Avoid salty and fatty foods. Stay away from fast-food restaurants. ... how to check your pulse, and check it every day. It is better ...

  11. Disposal of waste channels and control rods and radioactive waste; Gestion de canales usados y barras de control como residuos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Alvarez, L.

    2015-07-01

    Iberdrola and ENRESA are jointly developing a project for the characterization and conditioning of around 200 control rods and 70 used channel from Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant. This treatment line for high level waste with a radiologic inventory that avoids using the El Cabril low level waste repository is new in Spain and incorporates specific features like the option to carry on with the conditioning stage prior to having a licensed package and available storage facility for this type of waste. (Author)

  12. Uniform National Discharge Standards (UNDS): Rulemaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA and Department of Defense used a batch rulemaking process for establishing the discharge standards for vessels of the Armed Forces. They identified and evaluated the discharges and determined which require marine pollution control devices.

  13. Factors influencing patients' recovery and the efficacy of a psychosocial post-discharge intervention: post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; Passalacqua, Silvia; Heim, Gisela; Andreae, Andreas; Rössler, Wulf; von Wyl, Agnes

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this post hoc analysis was to examine self-reported recovery following a post-discharge intervention and to focus on the moderators of this intervention programme. RCT using parallel group block randomisation, including 151 patients with ≤3 hospitalisations within the last 3 years, a GAF score ≤60, and aged 18-64 years, assessed at two psychiatric hospitals from Zurich, Switzerland, between September 2011 and February 2014. In the present study, the main outcome was the OQ-45 as assessed prior to discharge from the index hospitalisation and at 12-month follow-up. Participants received either the post-discharge intervention provided by a social worker or treatment as usual (TAU). Patients in the intervention group showed substantially less recovery over the 12-month observation period than controls (d = 0.44). In the TAU group, 15.6 % remained clinically impaired at 12-month follow-up as opposed to 48.1 % in the intervention group (p = 0.001). Among participants in the intervention group, an interdisciplinary meeting of significant network members was associated with less recovery (d = 0.46). Involuntary index admission (d = 0.42) and high educational degree (d = 0.52) were significant moderators of the intervention. Both factors related to less recovery over time in the intervention group relative to TAU. According to the OQ-45, this psychosocial post-discharge intervention revealed an unintended negative effect on self-reported recovery over time. Specifically, the meeting of significant network members related to a moderate deteriorating effect, suggesting that the involvement of some carers, relatives, or friends may cause harm to the patient. Considering with reservation pending replication, these findings could have important implications for brief interventions targeted at patients' social networks. This study was supported by a private foundation. ISRCTN58280620.

  14. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge & Elimination System) Minor Dischargers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources...

  15. Radioactive waste management; Gerencia de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan.

  16. Handbook of radioactivity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The updated and much expanded Third Edition of the "Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis" is an authoritative reference providing the principles, practical techniques, and procedures for the accurate measurement of radioactivity from the very low levels encountered in the environment to higher levels measured in radioisotope research, clinical laboratories, biological sciences, radionuclide standardization, nuclear medicine, nuclear power, fuel cycle facilities and in the implementation of nuclear forensic analysis and nuclear safeguards. The Third Edition contains seven new chapters providing a reference text much broader in scope than the previous Second Edition, and all of the other chapters have been updated and expanded many with new authors. The book describes the basic principles of radiation detection and measurement, the preparation of samples from a wide variety of matrices, assists the investigator or technician in the selection and use of appropriate radiation detectors, and presents state-of-the-ar...

  17. Formation of the active medium in high-power repetitively pulsed gas lasers pumped by an electron-beam-controlled discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulaev, V. D.; Lysenko, S. L.

    2015-07-01

    A high-power repetitively pulsed e-beam-controlled discharge CO2 laser is simulated numerically; the simulation results are compared with experimental data. Optimal sizes and design of electrodes and configuration of the external magnetic field are found, which allow one to introduce no less than 90% electric pump energy into a specified volume of the active medium, including the active volume of a laser with an aperture of 110 × 110 cm. The results obtained can also be used to design other types of highpower gas lasers.

  18. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Document Server

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  19. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

    1961-11-14

    A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

  20. Using "warm handoffs" to link hospitalized smokers with tobacco treatment after discharge: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Kimber P; Faseru, Babalola; Mussulman, Laura M; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Shireman, Theresa I; Hunt, Jamie J; Carlini, Beatriz H; Preacher, Kristopher J; Ayars, Candace L; Cook, David J

    2012-08-01

    Post-discharge support is a key component of effective treatment for hospitalized smokers, but few hospitals provide it. Many hospitals and care settings fax-refer smokers to quitlines for follow-up; however, less than half of fax-referred smokers are successfully contacted and enrolled in quitline services. "Warm handoff" is a novel approach to care transitions in which health care providers directly link patients with substance abuse problems with specialists, using face-to-face or phone transfer. Warm handoff achieves very high rates of treatment enrollment for these vulnerable groups. The aim of this study-"EQUIP" (Enhancing Quitline Utilization among In-Patients)-is to determine the effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness, of warm handoff versus fax referral for linking hospitalized smokers with tobacco quitlines. This study employs a two-arm, individually randomized design. It is set in two large Kansas hospitals that have dedicated tobacco treatment interventionists on staff. At each site, smokers who wish to remain abstinent after discharge will be randomly assigned to groups. For patients in the fax group, staff will provide standard in-hospital intervention and will fax-refer patients to the state tobacco quitline for counseling post-discharge. For patients in the warm handoff group, staff will provide brief in-hospital intervention and immediate warm handoff: staff will call the state quitline, notify them that a warm handoff inpatient from Kansas is on the line, then transfer the call to the patients' mobile or bedside hospital phone for quitline enrollment and an initial counseling session. Following the quitline session, hospital staff provides a brief check-back visit. Outcome measures will be assessed at 1, 6, and 12 months post enrollment. Costs are measured to support cost-effectiveness analyses. We hypothesize that warm handoff, compared to fax referral, will improve care transitions for tobacco treatment, enroll more participants in quitline

  1. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Daniel E. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  2. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

  3. Surface discharge induced interactions of filaments in argon dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechen; Zhang, Panpan; Chu, Jingdi; Zhang, Qi; Lin, Xiaotong; Jia, Pengying; Dong, Lifang

    2017-10-01

    A needle-plate geometry is used to generate two barrier-discharge filaments composed of volume discharge and surface discharge in atmospheric pressure argon, interactions of which are investigated for the first time on the nanosecond timescale using an intensified charge-coupled device. The results indicate that the onset of volume discharges for the two filaments have a periodical discharge sequence, which implies interactions of the two filaments. Moreover, strong interactions of the two filaments are controlled through surface discharges, one of which is induced by that of the other filament during the positive discharge. Different from repulsive streamers, counter-propagating streamers are attractive between the two filaments.

  4. Comparison of effects between home visits with telephone calls and telephone calls only for transitional discharge support: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; Chow, Susan Ka Yee; Chan, Tony Moon Fai; Tam, Stanley Kui Fu

    2014-01-01

    home visits and telephone calls are two often used approaches in transitional care but their differential effects are unknown. to examine the overall effects of a transitional care programme for discharged medical patients and the differential effects of telephone calls only. randomised controlled trial. a regional hospital in Hong Kong. patients discharged from medical units fitting the inclusion criteria (n = 610) were randomly assigned to: control ('control', n = 210), home visits with calls ('home', n = 196) and calls only ('call', n = 204). the home groups received alternative home visits and calls and the call groups calls only for 4 weeks. The control group received two placebo calls. The nurse case manager was supported by nursing students in delivering the interventions. the home visit group (after 4 weeks 10.7%, after 12 weeks 21.4%) and the call group (11.8, 20.6%) had lower readmission rates than the control group (17.6, 25.7%). Significance differences were detected in intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis for the home and intervention group (home and call combined) at 4 weeks. In the per-protocol analysis (PPA) results, significant differences were found in all groups at 4 weeks. There was significant improvement in quality of life, self-efficacy and satisfaction in both ITT and PPA for the study groups. this study has found that bundled interventions involving both home visits and calls are more effective in reducing readmissions. Many of the transitional care programmes use all-qualified nurses, and this study reveals that a mixed skills model seems to bring about positive effects as well.

  5. Investigation of working pressure on the surface roughness controlling technology of glow discharge polymer films based on the diagnosed plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Guo; He, Zhibing; Ai, Xing; Huang, Jinglin; Liu, Lei; Tang, Yongjian; He, Xiaoshan

    2017-07-01

    The effects of working pressure on the component, surface morphology, surface roughness, and deposition rate of glow discharge polymer (GDP) films by a trans-2-butene/hydrogen gas mixture were investigated based on plasma characteristics diagnosis. The composition and ion energy distributions of a multi-carbon (C4H8/H2) plasma mixture at different working pressures were diagnosed by an energy-resolved mass spectrometer (MS) during the GDP film deposition process. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and white-light interferometer (WLI) results were obtained to investigate the structure, morphology and roughness characterization of the deposited films, respectively. It was found that the degree of ionization of the C4H8/H2 plasma reduces with an increase in the working pressure. At a low working pressure, the C-H fragments exhibited small-mass and high ion energy in plasma. In this case, the film had a low CH3/CH2 ratio, and displayed a smooth surface without any holes, cracks or asperities. While the working pressure increased to 15 Pa, the largest number of large-mass fragments led to the deposition rate reaching a maximum of 2.11 μm h-1, and to hole defects on the film surface. However, continuing to increase the working pressure, the film surface became smooth again, and the interface between clusters became inconspicuous without etching pits.

  6. Control of vortex on a non-slender delta wing by a nanosecond pulse surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guang-yin; Li, Ying-hong; Liang, Hua; Han, Meng-hu; Hua, Wei-zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Wind tunnel experiments are conducted for improving the aerodynamic performance of delta wing using a leading-edge pulsed nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge (NS-DBD). The whole effects of pulsed NS-DBD on the aerodynamic performance of the delta wing are studied by balanced force measurements. Pressure measurements and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are conducted to investigate the formation of leading-edge vortices affected by the pulsed NS-DBD, compared to completely stalled flow without actuation. Various pulsed actuation frequencies of the plasma actuator are examined with the freestream velocity up to 50 m/s. Stall has been delayed substantially and significant shifts in the aerodynamic forces can be achieved at the post-stall regions when the actuator works at the optimum reduced frequency of F + = 2. The upper surface pressure measurements show that the largest change of static pressure occurs at the forward part of the wing at the stall region. The time-averaged flow pattern obtained from the PIV measurement shows that flow reattachment is promoted with excitation, and a vortex flow pattern develops. The time-averaged locations of the secondary separation line and the center of the vortical region both move outboard with excitation.

  7. Electric wind produced by a surface dielectric barrier discharge operating in air at different pressures: aeronautical control insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benard, N; Balcon, N; Moreau, E [Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques (LEA), Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, CNRS Bld Marie et Pierre Curie, Teleport 2, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France)

    2008-02-21

    The effects of the ambient air pressure level on the electric wind produced by a single dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) have been investigated by Pitot velocity measurements. Pressures from 1 down to 0.2 atm were tested with a 32 kV{sub p-p} 1 kHz excitation. This preliminary study confirms the effectiveness of surface DBD at low pressure. Indeed, the induced velocity is strongly dependent on the ambient air pressure level. Quite surprisingly the produced airflow presents a local maximum at 0.6 atm. The measured velocities at 1 atm and 0.2 atm are 2.5 m s{sup -1} and 3 m s{sup -1}, respectively while 3.5 m s{sup -1} is reached at 0.6 atm. The position of the maximal velocity always coincides with the plasma extension. Mass flow rate calculations indicate that the DBD is effective in real flight pressure conditions. (fast track communication)

  8. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by (137)Cesium ((137)Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as (132)Te-(132)I, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h(-1) per initial (137)Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2), whereas it was 100 μGy h(-1) around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2) for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums ((134)Cs + (137)Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  9. Radioactive waste material disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  10. Concussion - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain injury - concussion - discharge; Traumatic brain injury - concussion - discharge; Closed head injury - concussion - discharge ... a car Ski, snowboard, skate, skateboard, or do gymnastics or martial arts Participate in any activity where ...

  11. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateral epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... Soon after surgery, severe pain will decrease, but you may have mild soreness for 3 to 6 months.

  12. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  13. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VP shunt - discharge; Shunt revision - discharge; Hydrocephalus shunt placement - discharge ... The major problems to watch for are an infected shunt and a blocked shunt. Call your child's provider if your child ...

  14. Radioactivity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tuniz, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity: A Very Short Introduction explains radioactivity and discusses its fundamental role in nature. Radioactivity remains misunderstood and feared perhaps because nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses, and can undoubtedly do great harm if appropriate precautions are not taken. Radioactivity in the stars and in the Earth and its wide range of applications in biomedicine, science, industry, agriculture are described, as well as the mechanisms of nuclear fission and fusion, and the harnessing of nuclear power. The issues surrounding safety and security and the increasing concerns about nuclear terrorism are also considered.

  15. Rydberg gas theory of a glow discharge plasma: III. Formation, occupied state distributions, free energy, and kinetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Rod S; Douglas, Peter

    2010-04-21

    It has been suggested that Rydberg gas atoms are involved in conducting electricity through a steady state flowing afterglow (FAG) discharge plasma (R. S. Mason, D. J. Mitchell and P. M. Dickinson, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, DOI: ). From known properties of Rydberg atoms, a statistical model is developed here to find the distribution of levels (principal quantum number n) occupied in such a hypothetical Rydberg gas. It behaves non-ideally at positive column plasma densities, predicting 30 states are very long-lived and almost completely separated from the low n states by the low probability of intermediate levels. The effects of Rydberg gas (N(R)) and free charge densities are examined. The gas can exist in a deep free energy well (> 120 kJ mol(-1) below ionisation level when 10(10) collision and deceleration at the opposite NG-Positive Column (PC) plasma boundary. The atoms become stabilized after passing into the PC, by collisionally induced (nlm) mixing of states and the removal of free charge by charge transfer (and hence the passage of electric current through the Rydberg gas). The coupling of Rydberg states with the ionization continuum is poor; therefore, if the rate of their charge transfer is greater than that of their ionization, the Rydberg gas will remain relatively charge free and hence stable when it is conducting a current. When applied to the FAG plasma, the model provides a self-consistent interpretive framework for all its electrical, mass spectrometric and chemical behaviour. The effect on the optical spectroscopy of these plasmas is considered briefly.

  16. Decoding Environmental Processes Using Radioactive Isotopes for the Post-Radioactive Contamination Recovery Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumiishi, Misa; Nishimura, Taku; Osawa, Kazutoshi; Renschler, Chris

    2017-04-01

    slopes where the surface soil was scraped and litter was cleared, the scraping showed mixed results in radioactivity reduction. It is estimated that by the completion of soil decontamination in 2020, up to 22 million cubic meters of so-called 'contaminated soils' will have been scraped off in the affected areas and transferred to an underground storage. Understanding the radioactive isotope behaviors is crucial to assessing the financial and environmental consequences of such measures. As an example, a 30-year simulation of a 5-13 % hillslope under thick vegetation with GeoWEPP (the Geospatial interface for the Water Erosion Prediction Project) resulted in a very small soil loss on the hillslope. However, the results showed about five tons of soil loss through channels and as sediment discharge annually. On the hillslope, the radioactivity level in about the top 4.0 cm of the soil exceeded the 8,000 Bq/kg threshold which the Japanese government has set for surface soil removal. Referring to the case study data in Fukushima, this presentation will discuss how environmental decontamination measures (e.g. forest clearing) and monitoring methods should be considered and planned against dynamic environmental processes.

  17. Effectiveness of the YourCall™ text message intervention to reduce harmful drinking in patients discharged from trauma wards: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Ameratunga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioural brief interventions (BI can support people to reduce harmful drinking but multiple barriers impede the delivery and equitable access to these. To address this challenge, we developed YourCall™, a novel short message service (SMS text message intervention incorporating BI principles. This protocol describes a trial evaluating the effectiveness of YourCall™ (compared to usual care in reducing hazardous drinking and alcohol related harm among injured adults who received in-patient care. Methods/design Participants recruited to this single-blind randomised controlled trial comprised patients aged 16-69 years in three trauma-admitting hospitals in Auckland, New Zealand. Those who screened positive for moderately hazardous drinking were randomly assigned by computer to usual care (control group or the intervention. The latter comprised 16 informational and motivational text messages delivered using an automated system over the four weeks following discharge. The primary outcome is the difference in mean AUDIT-C score between the intervention and control groups at 3 months, with the maintenance of the effect examined at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes comprised the health and social impacts of heavy drinking ascertained through a web-survey at 12 months, and further injuries identified through probabilistic linkage to national databases on accident insurance, hospital discharges, and mortality. Research staff evaluating outcomes were blinded to allocation. Intention-to-treat analyses will include assessment of interactions based on ethnicity (Māori compared with non-Māori. Discussion If found to be effective, this mobile health strategy has the potential to overcome current barriers to implementing equitably accessible interventions that can reduce harmful drinking. Trial registration Universal Trial Number (UTN U1111-1134-0028. ACTRN12612001220853 . Submitted 8 November 2012 (date of enrolment of

  18. Effectiveness of the YourCall™ text message intervention to reduce harmful drinking in patients discharged from trauma wards: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameratunga, Shanthi; Kool, Bridget; Sharpe, Sarah; Reid, Papaarangi; Lee, Arier; Civil, Ian; Smith, Gordon; Thornton, Vanessa; Walker, Matthew; Whittaker, Robyn

    2017-01-09

    Behavioural brief interventions (BI) can support people to reduce harmful drinking but multiple barriers impede the delivery and equitable access to these. To address this challenge, we developed YourCall™, a novel short message service (SMS) text message intervention incorporating BI principles. This protocol describes a trial evaluating the effectiveness of YourCall™ (compared to usual care) in reducing hazardous drinking and alcohol related harm among injured adults who received in-patient care. Participants recruited to this single-blind randomised controlled trial comprised patients aged 16-69 years in three trauma-admitting hospitals in Auckland, New Zealand. Those who screened positive for moderately hazardous drinking were randomly assigned by computer to usual care (control group) or the intervention. The latter comprised 16 informational and motivational text messages delivered using an automated system over the four weeks following discharge. The primary outcome is the difference in mean AUDIT-C score between the intervention and control groups at 3 months, with the maintenance of the effect examined at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes comprised the health and social impacts of heavy drinking ascertained through a web-survey at 12 months, and further injuries identified through probabilistic linkage to national databases on accident insurance, hospital discharges, and mortality. Research staff evaluating outcomes were blinded to allocation. Intention-to-treat analyses will include assessment of interactions based on ethnicity (Māori compared with non-Māori). If found to be effective, this mobile health strategy has the potential to overcome current barriers to implementing equitably accessible interventions that can reduce harmful drinking. Universal Trial Number (UTN) U1111-1134-0028. ACTRN12612001220853 . Submitted 8 November 2012 (date of enrolment of first participant); Version 1 registration confirmed 19 November 2012

  19. Radioactive ion beams for solid state research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes are widely used in many research fields. In some applications they are used as tracers after diffusion or after activation in the material itself through nuclear reactions. For research in solid state physics, the ion implantation technique is the most flexible and convenient method to introduce the radioactive isotopes in the materials to be studied, since it allows the control of the ion dose, the implantation depth and the isotopic purity. The on-line coupling of isotope separators to particle accelerators, as is the case of the ISOLDE facility at CERN, allows the obtention of a wide range of high purity short lived isotopes. Currently, the most stringent limitation for some applications is the low acceleration energy of 60 keV of the ISOLDE beam. In this communication a short review of the current applications of the radioactive beams for research in solid state physics at ISOLDE is done. The development of a post-accelerator facility for MeV radioactive ions is introduced and the adv...

  20. [Loss and uncontrolled use of radioactive sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, P

    2005-01-01

    In the course of history, exposure to radioactive sources escaping regular control, has been the main cause of fatal accidents, with the exception of the reactor accident at Chernobyl. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, numerous lost sources have been found, sometimes with serious physical damage. The attacks of September 11, 2001 have focussed the attention on the possibility of nuclear terrorism. Although the risks of fatal consequences are rather limited, the possible uncontrolled exposure to ionizing radiation has an important psycho-social impact on the population. After a brief survey of the types of radioactive sources for medical and industrial applications and a discussion of the risks and exposure routes, possible scenarios are illustrated by well documented case histories. The main conclusions of this analysis are: Radioactive materials are not unique as a potential threat by toxic materials. The most serious consequences for individuals occur as the result of external radiation, mostly with skin contact with medium-active sources which are relatively easily accessible. The collective impact is mostly psycho-social and is more important for a dispersed contamination of the environment. Many sources are detected via medical complaints. The knowledge of the specific symptoms is consequently very important. A dispersion of radioactive contamination has usually considerable economic consequences. Accidents occur particularly, but certainly not exclusively, in relatively unstable countries. Change of owner or final evacuation of the source constitute a critical phase in many scenarios.

  1. 77 FR 12286 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... AGENCY Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater... Discharge Elimination System general permit for stormwater discharges from large and small construction... requirements for construction sites discharging stormwater to waters requiring additional pollutant control...

  2. Enhanced reproducibility of L-mode plasma discharges via physics-model-based q-profile feedback control in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, E.; Wehner, W. P.; Barton, J. E.; Boyer, M. D.; Luce, T. C.; Ferron, J. R.; Holcomb, C. T.; Walker, M. L.; Humphreys, D. A.; Solomon, W. M.; Penaflor, B. G.; Johnson, R. D.

    2017-11-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D demonstrate the potential of physics-model-based q-profile control to improve reproducibility of plasma discharges. A combined feedforward  +  feedback control scheme is employed to optimize the current ramp-up phase by consistently achieving target q profiles (Target 1: q_min=1.3, q95=4.4 ; Target 2: q_min=1.65, q95=5.0 ; Target 3: q_min=2.1, q95=6.2 ) at prescribed times during the plasma formation phase (Target 1: t=1.5 s; Target 2: t=1.3 s; Target 3: t=1.0 s). At the core of the control scheme is a nonlinear, first-principles-driven, physics-based, control-oriented model of the plasma dynamics valid for low confinement (L-mode) scenarios. To prevent undesired L-H transitions, a constraint on the maximum allowable total auxiliary power is imposed in addition to the maximum powers for the individual heating and current-drive sources. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the combined feedforward  +  feedback control scheme to consistently achieve the desired target profiles at the predefined times. These results also show how the addition of feedback control significantly improves upon the feedforward-only control solution by reducing the matching error and also how the feedback controller is able to reduce the matching error as the constraint on the maximum allowable total auxiliary power is relaxed while keeping the plasma in L-mode.

  3. Assessing patient-reported outcomes and preferences for same-day discharge after percutaneous coronary intervention: results from a pilot randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Michael; Muntner, Paul; Sharma, Samin; Choi, James W; Stoler, Robert C; Woodward, Mark; Mann, Devin M; Farkouh, Michael E

    2013-03-01

    Same-day discharge after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may be safe for some patients. Few data are available on patient-reported outcomes and preferences for same-day discharge after PCI. Between March 2008 and March 2010, a total of 298 patients undergoing elective PCI via femoral access at 2 medical centers (Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY, and Baylor Medical Center, Dallas, TX) were randomized to same-day (n=150) or next-day (n=148) discharge. The primary outcome was high patient coping during the 7 days after discharge defined as scores <20 on the validated postdischarge coping difficulty scale. Safety outcomes, clopidogrel adherence, and patient preferences were secondary outcomes. Before discharge, patients randomized to same-day and next-day discharge were similar with respect to sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. High-coping ability, assessed 7 days after PCI, was present for 79% of patients randomized to same-day discharge and for 77% of patients randomized to next-day discharge. The difference in high coping ability, 2 (95% confidence interval, -7 to 11), did not cross the noninferiority threshold of -12% (P<0.001 that same-day discharge is not noninferior to next-day discharge). At 30 days after PCI, clopidogrel adherence, physician and emergency room visits, and hospitalization were similar in the 2 randomization groups. In addition, 80% and 68% of those randomized to same-day and next-day discharge, respectively, stated they would prefer same-day discharge if they were to have another PCI procedure. Same-day discharge after PCI was associated with patient-reported and clinical outcomes similar to those of next-day discharge and was preferred by most patients.

  4. The safety of radioactive materials transport; La surete des transports de matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The rule of the radioactive materials transport contains two different objectives: the safety, or physical protection, consists in preventing the losses, the disappearances, the thefts and the diversions of the nuclear materials (useful materials for weapons); the high civil servant of defence near the Minister of Economy, Finance and Industry is the responsible authority; the safety consists in mastering the risks of irradiation, contamination and criticality presented by the radioactive and fissile materials transport, in order that man and environment do not undergo the nuisances. The control of the safety is within the competence of the Asn. (N.C.)

  5. Post-Discharge Adherence With Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis After Orthopedic Trauma: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial of Aspirin vs. Low Molecular Weight Heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haac, Bryce E; Van Besien, Richard; OʼHara, Nathan N; Slobogean, Gerard P; Manson, Theodore T; OʼToole, Robert V; Johal, Herman; Berger, Peter Z; Reahl, George B; Marinos, Dimitrius; Degani, Yasmin; Mascarenhas, Daniel; Connelly, Daniel; Scalea, Thomas M; Stein, Deborah M

    2017-12-14

    Orthopedic trauma patients are often treated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) chemoprophylaxis with aspirin or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) after discharge from their index admission, but adherence patterns are not known. We hypothesized that overall adherence would be moderate and greater with aspirin compared to LMWH. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of adult trauma patients with an operative extremity fracture or any pelvic/acetabular fracture requiring VTE prophylaxis. Patients were randomized to receive either LMWH 30mg BID or aspirin 81mg BID. Patients prescribed outpatient prophylaxis were contacted between 10 to 21 days after discharge to assess adherence measured by the validated Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Adherence scores were compared between the two treatment arms with similar results for intention-to-treat and as-treated analyses. As-treated multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine factors associated with low-medium adherence scores. 150 patients (64 on LMWH, 86 on aspirin) on chemoprophylaxis at time of follow-up completed the questionnaire. As-treated analysis showed that adherence was high overall (mean MMAS 7.2 out of 8, SD 1.5) and similar for the two regimens (LMWH: 7.4 vs. aspirin: 7.0, p=0.13). However, patients on LMWH were more likely to feel hassled by their regimen (23% vs. 9%, p=0.02). In a multivariable model, low-medium adherence was associated with taking LMWH as the prophylaxis medication (aOR 2.34, CI 1.06 - 5.18, p=0.04), having to self-administer the prophylaxis (aOR 4.44, CI 1.45 - 13.61, p<0.01), being of male sex (aOR 2.46, CI 1.10 - 5.49, p=0.03) and of younger age (aOR 0.72 per additional 10 years of age, CI 0.57-0.91, p<0.01). Overall post-discharge adherence with VTE prophylaxis was high. Several factors, including prophylaxis by LMWH, were associated with decreased adherence. These factors should be considered when managing patients and designing efficacy trials. Level

  6. Effectiveness of an exercise programme on physical function in patients discharged from hospital following critical illness: a randomised controlled trial (the REVIVE trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Kathryn; O'Neill, Brenda; Blackwood, Bronagh; Clarke, Chris; Gardner, Evie; Johnston, Paul; Kelly, Michaeline; McCaffrey, John; Mullan, Brian; Murphy, Sally; Trinder, T John; Lavery, Gavin; McAuley, Daniel F; Bradley, Judy M

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a 6-week exercise programme in patients discharged home following critical illness compared with standard care. Multicentre prospective phase II randomised controlled trial, with blinded outcome assessment after hospital discharge, following the 6-week intervention and at 6 months. 60 patients (30 per group) aged ≥18 years, mechanically ventilated >96 hours, and not in other rehabilitation, that is, cardiac or pulmonary rehabilitation programmes. Participants in the intervention group completed an individually tailored (personalised) exercise programme. Primary outcome measure was SF-36 physical functioning following the intervention. Secondary outcomes included a range of performance-based and patient-reported measures. Improvements in the primary outcome did not differ significantly between groups (mean difference (95% CI) 3.0 (-2.2 to 8.2), p=0.26). The intervention group showed significant improvement compared with the control group (mean difference (95% CI)) in SF-36 role physical (6.6 (0.73 to 12.5), p=0.03); incremental shuttle walk test (83.1 m (8.3 to 157.9), p=0.03); functional limitations profile (-4.8 (-8.7 to -0.9), p=0.02); self-efficacy to exercise (2.2 (0.8 to 3.7), p=0.01) and readiness to exercise (1.3 (0.8 to 1.9), pexercise. Improvements in all other secondary outcome measures were not significant. There was no statistically significant difference in the primary outcome measure of self-reported physical function following this 6-week exercise programme. Secondary outcome results will help inform future studies. NCT01463579. (results), https://clinicaltrials.gov/. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  8. Arduino based radioactive tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rashid, Mohd Fazlie Bin Abdul; Rahman, Anwar Bin Abdul; Ramlan, Atikah

    2017-01-01

    There is a clear need to strengthen security measures to prevent any malevolent use or accidental misuse of radioactive sources. Some of these radioactive sources are regularly transported outside of office or laboratory premises for work and consultation purposes. This paper present the initial development of radioactive source tracking system, which combined Arduino microcontroller, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) technologies. The tracking system will help the owner to monitor the movement of the radioactive sources. Currently, the system is capable of tracking the movement of radioactive source through the GPS satellite signals. The GPS co-ordinate could either be transmitted to headquarters at fixed interval via Short Messaging Service (SMS) to enable real time monitoring, or stored in a memory card for offline monitoring and data logging.

  9. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  10. PERSPECTIVE: Fireworks and radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenecker, Katharina

    2009-09-01

    both reaction products and unburnt constituents of a pyrotechnic mixture. One major environmental concern in pyrotechnics focuses on the emission of heavy metals. This is the topic discussed in the article by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek in this issue [4]. A possible interrelationship between respiratory effects and fireworks emissions of barium-rich aerosols was also raised last year [5]. In recent years the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material has become of importance to the scientific community. Naturally occurring radionuclides can be of terrestrial or cosmological origin. Terrestrial radionuclides were present in the presolar cloud that later contracted in order to build our solar system. These radionuclides—mainly heavy metals—and their non-radioactive isotopes are nowadays fixed in the matrix of the Earth's structure. Usually, their percentage is quite small compared to their respective stable isotopes—though there are exceptions like in the case of radium. The problem with environmental pollution due to naturally occurring radioactive material begins when this material is concentrated due to mining and milling, and later further processed [6]. Environmental pollution due to radioactive material goes back as far as the Copper and Iron Ages, when the first mines were erected in order to mine ores (gold, silver, copper, iron, etc), resulting in naturally occurring radioactive material being set free with other dusts into the atmosphere. So where is the link between pyrotechnics and radioactivity? In this article presented by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek [4], the pyrotechnic ingredients barium nitrate and strontium nitrate are explored with respect to their chemical similarities to radium. The fundamental question, therefore, was whether radium can be processed together with barium and strontium. If so, the production and ignition of these pyrotechnic ingredients could cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols

  11. Effect of acupuncture for radioactive-iodine-induced anorexia in thyroid cancer patients: a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Yoon, Jeungwon; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Jung, In-Chul; Kim, Sungchul; Lee, Suk-Hoon; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for radioactive iodine (RAI)-induced anorexia in thyroid cancer patients. Fourteen thyroid cancer patients with RAI-induced anorexia were randomized to a true acupuncture or sham acupuncture group. Both groups were given 6 true or sham acupuncture treatments in 2 weeks. Outcome measures included the change of the Functional Assessment of Anorexia and Cachexia Treatment (FAACT; Anorexia/Cachexia Subscale [ACS], Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General [FACT-G]), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), weight, body mass index (BMI), ACTH, and cortisol levels. The mean FAACT ACS scores of the true and sham acupuncture groups increased from baseline to exit in intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses; the true acupuncture group showed higher increase but with no statistical significance. Between groups, from baseline to the last treatment, statistically significant differences were found in ITT analysis of the Table of Index (TOI) score (P = .034) and in PP analysis of the TOI (P = .016), FACT-G (P = .045), FAACT (P = .037) scores. There was no significant difference in VAS, weight, BMI, ACTH, and cortisol level changes between groups. Although the current study is based on a small sample of participants, our findings support the safety and potential use of acupuncture for RAI-induced anorexia and quality of life in thyroid cancer patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Environmental radioactive intercomparison program and radioactive standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilbeck, G. [Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison Program described herein provides quality assurance support for laboratories involved in analyzing public drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Regulations, and to the environmental radiation monitoring activities of various agencies. More than 300 federal and state nuclear facilities and private laboratories participate in some phase of the program. This presentation describes the Intercomparison Program studies and matrices involved, summarizes the precision and accuracy requirements of various radioactive analytes, and describes the traceability determinations involved with radioactive calibration standards distributed to the participants. A summary of program participants, sample and report distributions, and additional responsibilities of this program are discussed.

  13. Multi-machine analysis of termination scenarios with comparison to simulations of controlled shutdown of ITER discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, P. C.; Luce, T. C.; Bae, Y. S.; Gerhardt, S.; Gong, X.; Gribov, Y.; Humphreys, D.; Kavin, A.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.; Kessel, C.; Kim, S. H.; Loarte, A.; Lukash, V. E.; de la Luna, E.; Nunes, I.; Poli, F.; Qian, J.; Reinke, M.; Sauter, O.; Sips, A. C. C.; Snipes, J. A.; Stober, J.; Treutterer, W.; Teplukhina, A. A.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Woo, M. H.; Wolfe, S.; Zabeo, L.; the Alcator C-MOD team; the ASDEX Upgrade team; the DIII-D team; the EAST team; contributors, JET; the KSTAR team; the NSTX-U team; the TCV team; IOS members, ITPA; experts

    2018-02-01

    To improve our understanding of the dynamics and control of ITER terminations, a study has been carried out on data from existing tokamaks. The aim of this joint analysis is to compare the assumptions for ITER terminations with the present experience basis. The study examined the parameter ranges in which present day devices operated during their terminations, as well as the dynamics of these parameters. The analysis of a database, built using a selected set of experimental termination cases, showed that, the H-mode density decays slower than the plasma current ramp-down. The consequential increase in f GW limits the duration of the H-mode phase or result in disruptions. The lower temperatures after the drop out of H-mode will allow the plasma internal inductance to increase. But vertical stability control remains manageable in ITER at high internal inductance when accompanied by a strong elongation reduction. This will result in ITER terminations remaining longer at low q (q 95 ~ 3) than most present-day devices during the current ramp-down. A fast power ramp-down leads to a larger change in β p at the H–L transition, but the experimental data showed that these are manageable for the ITER radial position control. The analysis of JET data shows that radiation and impurity levels significantly alter the H–L transition dynamics. Self-consistent calculations of the impurity content and resulting radiation should be taken into account when modelling ITER termination scenarios. The results from this analysis can be used to better prescribe the inputs for the detailed modelling and preparation of ITER termination scenarios.

  14. Effects of oral nutritional supplementation in the management of malnutrition in hospital and post-hospital discharged patients in India: a randomised, open-label, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, D T T; Devitt, A A; Paule, C L; Reddy, B R; Marathe, P; Hegazi, R A; Rosales, F J

    2015-08-01

    Hospital malnutrition is a significant problem that still remains under-recognised and under-treated in India. The present study assessed the effects of oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) in conjunction with dietary counselling versus dietary counselling (control) alone in malnourished patients when given in hospital and post-hospital discharge. The present study was conducted in nine private and four public hospitals. Patients from various medical wards were screened for malnutrition using modified Subjective Global Assessment (mSGA) and randomised to control (n = 106) or ONS (n = 106) for 12 weeks. Two servings (460 mL) of ONS were prescribed daily, providing 432 kcal, 16 g of protein and 28 micronutrients. The primary outcome was weight gain over 12 weeks. Other outcomes included change in body mass index (BMI), serum pre-albumin, albumin and C-reactive protein levels, energy and nutrient intakes, and handgrip strength at weeks 4, 8 and 12, as well as mSGA score at week 12. The mean age of patients was 39 years. Fifty-five percent were males and 90.3% were moderately malnourished (mSGA score B) at baseline. At week 12, ONS significantly improved certain parameters compared to control: weight (2.0 versus 0.9 kg; P Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Non-storm water discharges technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, S.

    1994-07-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) submitted a Notice of Intent to the California State Water Resources Control Board (hereafter State Board) to discharge storm water associated with industrial activities under the California General Industrial Activity Storm Water National Pollutant Elimination System Discharge Permit (hereafter General Permit). As required by the General Permit, LLNL provided initial notification of non-storm water discharges to the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (hereafter Regional Board) on October 2, 1992. Additional findings and progress towards corrective actions were reported in subsequent annual monitoring reports. LLNL was granted until March 27, 1995, three years from the Notice of Intent submission date, to eliminate or permit the non-storm water discharges. On May 20, 1994, the Regional Board issued Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR Board Order No. 94-131, NPDES No. CA0081396) to LLNL for discharges of non-contact cooling tower wastewater and storm water related to industrial activities. As a result of the issuance of WDR 94-131, LLNL rescinded its coverage under the General Permit. WDR 94-131 allowed continued non-storm water discharges and requested a technical report describing the discharges LLNL seeks to permit. For the described discharges, LLNL anticipates the Regional Board will either waive Waste Discharge Requirements as allowed for in The Water Quality Control Plan for the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region (hereafter Basin Plan) or amend Board Order 94-131 as appropriate.

  16. Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of a two-temperature polytetrafluoroethylene vapor plasma for ablation-controlled discharge applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Weizong; Yan, Joseph D.; Qi, Haiyang; Geng, Jinyue; Wu, Yaowu

    2017-10-01

    Ablation-controlled plasmas have been used in a range of technical applications where local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is often violated near the wall due to the strong cooling effect caused by the ablation of wall materials. The thermodynamic and transport properties of ablated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vapor, which determine the flowing plasma behavior in such applications, are calculated based on a two-temperature model at atmospheric pressure. To our knowledge, no data for PTFE have been reported in the literature. The species composition and thermodynamic properties are numerically determined using the two-temperature Saha equation and the Guldberg-Waage equation according to van de Sanden et al’s derivation. The transport coefficients, including viscosity, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, are calculated with the most recent collision interaction potentials using Devoto’s electron and heavy-particle decoupling approach but expanded to the third-order approximation (second-order for viscosity) in the frame of the Chapman-Enskog method. Results are computed for different degrees of thermal non-equilibrium, i.e. the ratio of electron to heavy-particle temperatures, from 1 to 10, with electron temperature ranging from 300 to 40 000 K. Plasma transport properties in the LTE state obtained from the present work are compared with existing published results and the causes for the discrepancy analyzed. The two-temperature plasma properties calculated in the present work enable the modeling of wall ablation-controlled plasma processes.

  17. Acupuncture meridians demythified. A study using the radioactive tracer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Esquerre, J.P.; Guiraud, R.; Guiraud, G.; Lazorthes, Y.

    1988-07-01

    Radioactive trajectories can be visualized by injecting a radioactive tracer, technetium 99 m, at the site of acupuncture points. To determine the exact nature of these trajectories we performed several experiments on healthy volunteers, and our results may be summarized as follows. The target organs of technetium 99 m, and notably the thyroid gland, were always visualized. The circulating radioactivity, visible on scintiscans and confirmed by venous blood counts, was not negligible. The radioactive trajectories we observed were often divided at their starting point and did not extend along the whole length of the acupuncture meridians they might have made visible. The radioactive trajectories disappeared after venous blockade to reappear when the blockade was lifted. Finally, the radioactive trajectories obtained were very similar after injection at the acupuncture point and at a control point. These findings indicate a lymphatic and venous drainage of the radioactive tracer at the site of injection followed by transportation through the veins, rather than visualization of acupuncture meridians as suggested by some authors.

  18. Low-level radioactive waste regulation: Science, politics and fear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, M.E. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    An inevitable consequence of the use of radioactive materials is the generation of radioactive wastes and the public policy debate over how they will be managed. In 1980, Congress shifted responsibility for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes from the federal government to the states. This act represented a sharp departure from more than 30 years of virtually absolute federal control over radioactive materials. Though this plan had the enthusiastic support of the states in 1980, it now appears to have been at best a chimera. Radioactive waste management has become an increasingly complicated and controversial issue for society in recent years. This book discusses only low-level wastes, however, because Congress decided for political reasons to treat them differently than high-level wastes. The book is based in part on three symposia sponsored by the division of Chemistry and the Law of the American Chemical Society. Each chapter is derived in full or in part from presentations made at these meetings, and includes: (1) Low-level radioactive wastes in the nuclear power industry; (2) Low-level radiation cancer risk assessment and government regulation to protect public health; and (3) Low-level radioactive waste: can new disposal sites be found.

  19. Radioactivity in the Marine Environment 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudjord, A.L.; Foeyn, L.; Brungot, A.L.; Kolstad, A.K.; Helldal, H.E.; Brown, J.; Iosjpe, M.; Christensen, G.

    2001-07-01

    A new, comprehensive national programme for monitoring of Radioactivity in the Marine Environment (RAME) was established in 1999. This program is based on a proposal developed by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), the Institute of Marine Research (IMR), the Directorate for Nature Conservation (DN) and the State pollution authorities (SFT) on behalf of the Ministry of Environment. NRPA, as the responsible authority on radiation protection, co-ordinates the programme whilst sampling at sea is conducted in close co-operation with IMR as part of the regular monitoring of the marine environment and its living resources. The principal objective of the programme is to document levels, distributions and trends of anthropogenic and naturally occurring radionuclides in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the Barents Sea and along the Norwegian coast. The programme also collects updated information on both Norwegian and other sources of radioactive contamination, and carries out assessments of radiation exposures of humans and biota. This new national monitoring programme has been co-ordinated with existing programmes funded by the Ministry of Fisheries. The monitoring programme for Marine Fish and Seafood was established in 1994. In previous reports from the programme established in 1994, (Sickel et al, 1995; Brungot et al, 1997, 1999) information regarding radioactivity in sea water, sediments and seaweed was included. However, the main purpose of this program is to document levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in fish and other seafood caught in Norwegian waters. This information is then made available to the relevant authorities, fishing industries and the general public as documentation regarding the quality of the marine products. The work in this programme is performed as a co-operation between the NRPA and the Directorate of Fisheries. In addition, results from the monitoring program conducted by the National Food Control Authority are also included

  20. Plasma dynamic synthesis of iron oxides in a discharge plasma jet with possibility to control final phase composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanenkov, I.; Sivkov, A.; Ivashutenko, A.; Gukov, M.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetite Fe3O4 and epsilon iron oxide ɛ-Fe2O3, having excellent frequency characteristics and high electrical resistivity, are considered as the most promising phases among all iron oxides for high-frequency equipment in order to increase the working frequency of the data transmission. Despite the large number of existing methods for synthesizing these materials, many of them do not provide both of these phases. In opposite to these methods, the plasma dynamic synthesis can provide the synthesis of necessary phases in a one-step process. The process is implemented in an electrodischarge iron-containing plasma jet, which interacts with gaseous precursor (oxygen). The use of plasma jet allows obtaining nanoscale powdered products. This work shows the results of the experiment series, where the influence of initial energy parameters on the final phase composition was studied. It is found that the plasma dynamic synthesis allows obtaining both magnetite Fe3O4 and epsilon phase ɛ-Fe2O3 during one short-term process (less than 1 ms). It is also established that the final phase composition strongly depends on the initial parameters of the system. The increased energy parameters lead to the formation of the product with predominant content of epsilon phase, while lower parameters allow synthesizing magnetite phase. Thus, by changing energy parameters, it is possible to control the final composition in the considered system.

  1. Discharge consents in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosie, Andrew J; Singleton, Peter T R

    2002-06-01

    The Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) is charged with the protection of the Scottish environment, and this is achieved through the regulation of polluting discharges and through consulting, influencing and educating others who interact with it. This paper describes aspects of the agency's regulatory work as it applies to the Scottish fish-farming industry. By far the largest sector of the industry in Scotland involves the rearing of fin-fish in cages, presently still dominated by Atlantic salmon, and the paper is based on experiences gained within this sector. The present circumstances affecting its development are described with reference to the environmental impacts associated with cage-rearing techniques used for production in marine waters. This paper briefly reviews the statutory background behind Scotland's system of discharge consents, including relevant aspects of European legislation. Methods developed to control the environmental risks posed by sea louse treatment chemicals are described. The concept of farming the sea is explored in relation to SEPA's 'allowable zone of effects' approach and the growing public concern about perceived environmental damage. Finally, the future prospects for the industry in Scotland are reviewed in relation to sea louse control.

  2. Radioactive decay data tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of radiation dose to man from either external or internal exposure to radionuclides requires a knowledge of the energies and intensities of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted during the radioactive decay process. The availability of evaluated decay data for the large number of radionuclides of interest is thus of fundamental importance for radiation dosimetry. This handbook contains a compilation of decay data for approximately 500 radionuclides. These data constitute an evaluated data file constructed for use in the radiological assessment activities of the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The radionuclides selected for this handbook include those occurring naturally in the environment, those of potential importance in routine or accidental releases from the nuclear fuel cycle, those of current interest in nuclear medicine and fusion reactor technology, and some of those of interest to Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the estimation of annual limits on intake via inhalation and ingestion for occupationally exposed individuals.

  3. Geochemical signature of radioactive waste: oil NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Gilberto T. de Paula; Costa-de-Moura, Jorge; Gomes, Carlos de Almeida; Sampaio, Emidio A. Lopes, E-mail: gilberto.costa@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jcmoura@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: cgomes@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Controle de Rejeitos e Transporte de Materiais Radioativos

    2017-07-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Agency (CNEN) rules all nuclear activity in Brazil as demanded by the Federal Constitution, articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, and by the Federal Acts 4.118/62 and 10.308/2001. Therefore, the CNEN is responsible for any radioactive waste disposal in the country. Oil Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Oil NORM) in this paper refers to waste coming from oil exploration. Oil NORM has called much attention during the last decades, mostly because it is not possible to determine its primary source due to the actual absence of regulatory control mechanism. There is no efficient regulatory tool which allows determining the origin of such NORM wastes even among those facilities under regulatory control. This fact may encourage non-authorized radioactive material transportation, smuggling and terrorism. The aim of this project is to provide a geochemical signature for each oil NORM waste using its naturally occurring isotopic composition to identify its origin. The here proposed method is a specific geochemical modeling of oil sludge NORM samples which are analyzed for radioisotopes normally present in oil pipes, such as {sup 228}Ac, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb. The activity ratios are plotted in scatter diagrams. This method was successfully tested with data of different sources obtained from analysis reports from the Campos Basin/Brazil and from literature. (author)

  4. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass - discharge; MIDCAB - discharge; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass - discharge; RACAB - discharge; Keyhole heart surgery - discharge; Coronary artery disease - MIDCAB discharge; CAD - ...

  5. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  6. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  7. Low-Activity Radioactive Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2003 EPA published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to collect public comment on alternatives for disposal of waste containing low concentrations of radioactive material ('low-activity' waste).

  8. Environmental radioactivity survey in Suwon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Keun; Park, Jong Mi [Kyunghee Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Suwon, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Suwon regional monitoring station m 2003. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of environmental samples such as soil, drinking water, indicator plant(mugwort, pine-needle), agricultural and forest products, and processed food(tea)

  9. Radioactive waste engineering and management

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.

  10. Radioactivity of the Cooling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E. P.

    1943-03-01

    The most important source of radioactivity at the exit manifold of the pile will be due to O{sup 19}, formed by neutron absorption of O{sup 18}. A recent measurement of Fermi and Weil permits to estimate that it will be safe to stay about 80 minutes daily close to the exit manifolds without any shield. Estimates are given for the radioactivities from other sources both in the neighborhood and farther away from the pile.

  11. Urethral discharge culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture of urethral discharge; Genital exudate culture; Culture - genital discharge or exudate ... 2015:chap 109. Craft AC, Woods GL. Specimen collection and handling for diagnosis of infectious diseases. In: ...

  12. Foot amputation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation - foot - discharge; Trans-metatarsal amputation - discharge ... You have had a foot amputation. You may have had an accident, or your foot may have had an infection or disease and doctors could ...

  13. Hysterectomy - laparoscopic - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a shower the day after surgery. If tape strips were used to close your skin, they should ... cancer Endometriosis Hysterectomy Uterine fibroids Patient Instructions Hysterectomy - abdominal - discharge Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge Review Date 2/18/ ...

  14. Nurse-led discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Carole

    2010-12-01

    Delayed discharges have financial implications for hospital trusts and cause dissatisfaction for patients and their families. This article looks at nurse-led discharge pathways at Milton Keynes Hospital's ambulatory care unit. It explains how giving nurses the responsibility to discharge has improved the patient experience, made nurses more accountable and saved money for the trust.

  15. Effectiveness of once-weekly gym-based exercise programmes for older adults post discharge from day rehabilitation: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, A; Hillier, S; Barnard, R

    2011-09-01

    To determine whether high-intensity, progressive gym-based exercise performed once a week is as effective as twice weekly for maintaining both subjective and objective outcomes in older adults post discharge from a metropolitan day rehabilitation centre (DRC). Randomised controlled trial. Community-based exercise centre for older adults, located in Metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. 21 men and 85 women who completed the DRC programme were assessed and randomly allocated to a study group. The two experimental interventions were gym-based exercise programmes (including resistance, aerobic, flexibility and balance training) varying only in frequency of delivery: either once or twice a week, directly compared with usual care (control). Lower limb strength (one-repetition maximum), balance (Berg Balance Scale), physical function (gait speed, 30-s chair stand test, timed up and go test (primary outcome) and 6-min walk test), self-reported pain (Glasgow Pain Questionnaire), activities of daily living (Barthel Index and Older Americans Resources and Services Multidimensional Functional Assessment Questionnaire), perceived benefits of and barriers to exercise (Exercise Benefits Barriers Scale), quality of life (Assessment of Quality of Life Questionnaire) and exercise frequency preference. Most of the outcomes (69%, 11/16) were maintained over the intervention period with no significant group effects detected between the two intervention groups or compared to the control group. Physical activity levels recorded in the control group showed a significant proportion of participants were actively exercising once weekly. A per-protocol analysis was undertaken to take this potential contamination effect into account. This showed that the control group participants, who did not exercise, did not maintain outcomes to the extent of the intervention groups, with significant group-by-time effects detected between the two intervention groups and the control group. Most of all

  16. Biological cleaning method for radioactive waste water; Biologisches Reinigungsverfahren fuer radioaktive Abwaesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasch, M.; Krumpholz, U. [Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft (Germany); Eickelpasch, N.; Schohe, W. [VAK Kahl (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Depending on the size of power plants, the waste water consisting of laundry drains and rinsing liquids from the nuclear laundry and the wash rooms within the controlled area may vary between some hundred and some thousand cubic meters. Common practice so far for water cleaning is careful filtration/sedimentation for extraction of radioactive substances, and subsequent discharge into the draining body. If radioactivity removal is insuffient, the water is evaporated for enhancing purification. The paper describes a biological method developed at the Gundremmingen reactor station. The organic matter in the waste water is removed by bacterial biodegradation, boosted by air. The time required for waste water treatment in the collecting tanks of the power plant for removal of the washing agents is approx. 10 hours, and the resulting waste water is then filtered for radioactivity removal from the water, which in the absence of detergents is much more efficient. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] In Kernkraftwerken fallen, je nach Anlagengroesse, einige hundert bis zu einigen tausend Kubikmetern Waschlaugen und Spuelwaesser aus der nuklearen Waescherei sowie aus den Duschen innerhalb des Kontrollbereichs an. Bisherige Praxis ist es, diese Waesser einer sorgfaeltigen Filtration/Sedimentation zur Abtrennung der Radioaktivitaet zu unterwerfen, um sie dann an den Vorfluter abgeben zu koennen. Sofern die Abscheidung der Radioaktivitaet nicht befriedigend moeglich ist, koennen solche Waesser durch Verdampfung gereinigt werden. Im Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen wurde ein biologisches Verfahren zur Reinigung von Wasch- und Duschwaessern entwickelt. Dabei werden diese Waesser unter Einblasen von Luft bakteriell von organischen Bestandteilen befreit. Behandlungszeiten von ca. 10 Stunden in den im Kraftwerk vorhandenen Sammelbehaeltern reichen aus, um die Waschmittel weitestgehend abzubauen. Wenn die Waschmittel aus der Loesung entfernt worden sind, kann die Abfiltration der radioaktiven

  17. Distribution Methods for Transferable Discharge Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eheart, J. Wayland; Joeres, Erhard F.; David, Martin H.

    1980-10-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to simulate the operation of a single-price auction of transferable discharge permits. Permits may be sold at auction by the control authority or may be given, free of charge, to the dischargers according to some agreed-upon formula and subsequently redistributed by a similar auction. The sales method and four alternative free allocation schemes are compared through the example case of phosphorus discharge from point sources in the Wisconsin-Lake Michigan watershed.

  18. The Relaxation Exercise and Social Support Trial (RESST: a community-based randomized controlled trial to alleviate medically unexplained vaginal discharge symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobeissi Loulou

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptoms such as medically unexplained vaginal discharge (MUVD are common and bothersome, leading to potentially unnecessary use of resources. Methods A community-based individually randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a relatively simple, culturally appropriate multi-component intervention on reducing reported MUVD, among women suffering from low-moderate levels of common mental distress. The setting was a socio-economically deprived, informal settlement in the southern suburbs of Beirut, Lebanon. The intervention comprised up to 12 group sessions implemented over a six-week period, each divided into a psychosocial and a relaxation exercise component. The primary outcome was self-reported MUVD, which was defined as a complaint of vaginal discharge upon ruling out reproductive tract infections (RTIs, through lab analysis. Anxiety and/or depression symptoms were the secondary outcomes for this trial. These were assessed using an Arabic validated version of the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 (HSCL-25. Assessments were done at baseline and six months using face-to face interviews, pelvic examinations and laboratory tests. Women were randomized into either intervention or control group. Blinding on the intervention status was not possible for both logistic and ethical reasons, especially as knowledge of involvement in the intervention was integral to its delivery. Intent to treat analysis was used. Results Of 75 women randomized to the intervention, 48% reported MUVD at 6 months compared with 63% of 73 in the control group (difference of -15%, 95% confidence interval (CI -31%, 0%, p=0.067. Adjustments for baseline imbalances and any factors relating to consent had no appreciable effect on these results. The risk of MUVD was reduced in absolute terms by 2.4% for each intervention session attended (95% CI -4.9%, 0.0%, p=0.049. While there was also marginal evidence of a beneficial effect on anxiety, there was

  19. Radioactive source security: the cultural challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englefield, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Radioactive source security is an essential part of radiation protection. Sources can be abandoned, lost or stolen. If they are stolen, they could be used to cause deliberate harm and the risks are varied and significant. There is a need for a global security protection system and enhanced capability to achieve this. The establishment of radioactive source security requires 'cultural exchanges'. These exchanges include collaboration between: radiation protection specialists and security specialists; the nuclear industry and users of radioactive sources; training providers and regulators/users. This collaboration will facilitate knowledge and experience exchange for the various stakeholder groups, beyond those already provided. This will promote best practice in both physical and information security and heighten security awareness generally. Only if all groups involved are prepared to open their minds to listen to and learn from, each other will a suitable global level of control be achieved. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Radioactivity in the environment. Report for 2001 : a summary and radiological assessment of the Environment Agency's monitoring programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The Environment Agency has wide-ranging responsibilities and powers to protect and, where necessary, improve the environment in England and Wales. The Agency also has a duty to protect the environment in a way that works towards sustainable development. This involves meeting the needs of the present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. One of the Agency's functions is to administer and enforce the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 (RSA 93) in England and Wales. The Agency exercises regulatory control over the disposal of radioactive waste, by means of authorisations issued under the RSA 93. During 2001, 34 nuclear sites and 850 non-nuclear premises held authorisations to discharge radioactive waste. The Agency seeks to secure continuous improvement in the protection of the public and the environment from the disposal of radioactive wastes. In 1998, the Oslo and Paris Commission (OSPAR) strategy for radioactive substances was agreed by Ministers at Sintra, Portugal, to prevent pollution of the North East Atlantic maritime area through progressive and substantial reductions in discharges, emissions and losses of radioactive substances. In July 2002, the UK Government published the UK Strategy for Radioactive Discharges 2001-2002, which sets out the UK's plans to implement the OSPAR strategy. Achieving the requirements and targets in the UK strategy is a key objective of the Agency in implementing its long-term Vision for the Environment. The Government has also consulted upon draft Statutory Guidance to the Environment Agency on regulation of radioactive discharges from nuclear sites, which will provide the vehicle through which the UK strategy will be implemented. A key principle within the draft Statutory Guidance is the need for progressive reduction in discharges and discharge limits for sites as a whole. The Agency is taking account of the UK strategy and draft Statutory Guidance in its regulatory

  1. Radioactive waste management in Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoura, Kazukuni [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1997-02-01

    The joint utilization by the researchers of the universities and others in whole Japan of the reactor facilities in Kyoto University was begun in 1965. The facility for abandoning radioactive waste was constructed in fiscal year 1963, and comprises 500 kg/h vaporization and concentration facility, 2 systems of 5 m{sup 3}/h flocculation, precipitation and filtration facility, and 2 systems of 5 m{sup 3}/h ion exchange facility for liquid waste, 50x10{sup 3} kg pressing capacity, four-column type press for reducing volume of solid waste, and waste store for 400 standard drums. Radioactive Waste Treatment Department was organized, and the stipulations on security and radiation injury prevention were enforced in 1964. Liquid and solid wastes have been accepted since 1964. The radioactivity in discharged water in each year is shown. About 600 m{sup 3} of waste liquid has been accepted in one year since 1980. The trust of solid waste treatment to Japan Radioisotope Association has been carried out 51 times. The radioactive waste which is temporarily stored in the waste store is reported. Hereafter, the construction of the facility for storing large finished equipment and the appearance of waste treatment enterprises are desirable. (K.I.)

  2. Post-discharge management following hip fracture - get you back to B4: A parallel group, randomized controlled trial study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Roy A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fall-related hip fractures result in significant personal and societal consequences; importantly, up to half of older adults with hip fracture never regain their previous level of mobility. Strategies of follow-up care for older adults after fracture have improved investigation for osteoporosis; but managing bone health alone is not enough. Prevention of fractures requires management of both bone health and falls risk factors (including the contributing role of cognition, balance and continence to improve outcomes. Methods/Design This is a parallel group, pragmatic randomized controlled trial to test the effectiveness of a post-fracture clinic compared with usual care on mobility for older adults following their hospitalization for hip fracture. Participants randomized to the intervention will attend a fracture follow-up clinic where a geriatrician and physiotherapist will assess and manage their mobility and other health issues. Depending on needs identified at the clinical assessment, participants may receive individualized and group-based outpatient physiotherapy, and a home exercise program. Our primary objective is to assess the effectiveness of a novel post-discharge fracture management strategy on the mobility of older adults after hip fracture. We will enrol 130 older adults (65 years+ who have sustained a hip fracture in the previous three months, and were admitted to hospital from home and are expected to be discharged home. We will exclude older adults who prior to the fracture were: unable to walk 10 meters; diagnosed with dementia and/or significant comorbidities that would preclude their participation in the clinical service. Eligible participants will be randomly assigned to the Intervention or Usual Care groups by remote allocation. Treatment allocation will be concealed; investigators, measurement team and primary data analysts will be blinded to group allocation. Our primary outcome is mobility

  3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - ...

  4. Behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of radioactively contaminated wastes from decontamination activities in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Nomura, Kazutaka; Maeseto, Tomoharu; Osako, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    Large volumes of decontamination wastes (DW) generated by off-site decontamination activities in Fukushima Prefecture have been incinerated since 2015. The behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of DW was investigated at a working incineration plant. The incineration discharged bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) with similar levels of radiocesium, and the leachability of the radiocesium from both types of ash was very low (<1%). These results are significantly different from those obtained for the incineration of contaminated municipal solid waste (CMSW) reported in earlier studies. The source of radiocesium in DW-FA is chiefly small particles derived from DW and DW-BA blown into the flue gas, not the deposition of gaseous synthesized radiocesium compounds on the surfaces of ash particles in the flue gas as observed in CMSW incineration. This source difference causes the behavior of radiocesium during waste incineration to differ between DW and CMSW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving Hospital Discharge Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Eid, Ghada R.; Kaddoum, Roland; Tamim, Hani; Hitti, Eveline A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Delays in discharging patients can impact hospital and emergency department (ED) throughput. The discharge process is complex and involves setting specific challenges that limit generalizability of solutions. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of using Six Sigma methods to improve the patient discharge process. This is a quantitative pre and post-intervention study. Three hundred and eighty-six bed tertiary care hospital. A series of Six Sigma driven interventions over a 10-month period. The primary outcome was discharge time (time from discharge order to patient leaving the room). Secondary outcome measures included percent of patients whose discharge order was written before noon, percent of patients leaving the room by noon, hospital length of stay (LOS), and LOS of admitted ED patients. Discharge time decreased by 22.7% from 2.2 hours during the preintervention period to 1.7 hours post-intervention (P discharge. Hospital LOS dropped from 3.4 to 3.1 days postintervention (P hospital was significantly lower in the postintervention period (6.9 ± 7.8 vs 5.9 ± 7.7 hours; P discharge time. The focus of institutions aspiring to tackle delays in the discharge process should be on adopting the core principles of Six Sigma rather than specific interventions that may be institution-specific. PMID:25816029

  6. Environmental radioactivity survey in Andong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Zi Hong; Jo, Kum Ju [Andong Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal level in Andong area and to provide a base line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity levels in case of any radiological emergency situation. The project is important in view of protecting the public health from the potential hazards of radiation and keeping up the clean environment. This report simonizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring samples : Gamma exposure rates, airborne dust, precipitation, fall out and drinking-water. Environmental samples 2 kinds of indicator plant, 4 kinds of mushroom, 7 kinds of nut and seeds, and drinking waters. Among the all 2003 radiological monitoring and environmental data in Andong area were not found the extraordinary data. And a nation-wide environmental radiation/radioactivity level survey results were all background levels attributed to terrestrial and cosmic radiation.

  7. Snowmelt controls on concentration-discharge relationships and the balance of oxidative and acid-base weathering fluxes in an alpine catchment, East River, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnick, Matthew J.; Carroll, Rosemary W. H.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Maxwell, Reed M.; Dong, Wenming; Maher, Kate

    2017-03-01

    Although important for riverine solute and nutrient fluxes, the connections between biogeochemical processes and subsurface hydrology remain poorly characterized. We investigate these couplings in the East River, CO, a high-elevation shale-dominated catchment in the Rocky Mountains, using concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships for major cations, anions, and organic carbon. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) displays a positive C-Q relationship with clockwise hysteresis, indicating mobilization and depletion of DOC in the upper soil horizons and emphasizing the importance of shallow flow paths during snowmelt. Cation and anion concentrations demonstrate that carbonate weathering, which dominates solute fluxes, is promoted by both sulfuric acid derived from pyrite oxidation in the shale bedrock and carbonic acid derived from subsurface respiration. Sulfuric acid weathering dominates during base flow conditions when waters infiltrate below the inferred pyrite oxidation front, whereas carbonic acid weathering plays a dominant role during snowmelt as a result of shallow flow paths. Differential C-Q relationships between solutes suggest that infiltrating waters approach calcite saturation before reaching the pyrite oxidation front, after which sulfuric acid reduces carbonate alkalinity. This reduction in alkalinity results in CO2 outgassing when waters equilibrate to surface conditions, and reduces the riverine export of carbon and alkalinity by roughly 33% annually. Future changes in snowmelt dynamics that control the balance of carbonic and sulfuric acid weathering may substantially alter carbon cycling in the East River. Ultimately, we demonstrate that differential C-Q relationships between major solutes can provide unique insights into the complex subsurface flow and biogeochemical dynamics that operate at catchment scales.

  8. Radioactive waste integrated management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, D. Y.; Choi, S. S.; Han, B. S. [Atomic Creative Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we present an integrated management system for radioactive waste, which can keep watch on the whole transporting process of each drum from nuclear power plant temporary storage house to radioactive waste storage house remotely. Our approach use RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) system, which can recognize the data information without touch, GSP system, which can calculate the current position precisely using the accurate time and distance measured from satellites, and the spread spectrum technology CDMA, which is widely used in the area of mobile communication.

  9. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is being carried out in order to gather information about the low earth orbit radiation environment and its effects on materials. The large mass of the LDEF spacecraft, its stabilized configuration, and long mission duration have presented an opportunity to determine space radiation-induced radioactivities with a precision not possible before. Data presented include preliminary activities for steel and aluminum structural samples, and activation subexperiment foils. Effects seen in the data show a clear indication of the trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly and suggest contributions from different sources of external radiation fluxes.

  10. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  11. Chemical vs Electrochemical Formation of Li2CO3 as a Discharge Product in Li-O2/CO2 Batteries by Controlling the Superoxide Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wei; Grimaud, Alexis; Lepoivre, Florent; Yang, Chunzhen; Tarascon, Jean Marie

    2017-01-05

    The Li-O2/CO2 battery with high capacity has recently been proposed as a new protocol to convert CO2. However, the fundamental mechanism for the reaction still remains hazy. Here, we investigated the discharge processes of Li-O2/CO2 (70%/30%) batteries in two solvents, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME). During discharge, both solvents initially show the reduction of oxygen. However, afterward, the solvent affects the reaction pathways of superoxide species by solvating Li+ with different strength, depending on the so-called donor number. More precisely, the initial formation of CO4•- is favored in DMSO at the expense of lithium superoxide formation that we observed in DME. Despite the different intermediate processes, X-ray diffraction showed that Li2CO3 was the final discharge product in both solvents. Moreover, we observed that CO2 cannot be reduced within the electrochemical stability window of DMSO and DME.

  12. Combining observations of channel network contraction and spatial discharge variation to inform spatial controls on baseflow in Birch Creek, Catskill Mountains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B. Shaw

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights: For the 31 different sub-channels, baseflow discharge per unit drainage area and per unit stream length were highly variable, even during periods of higher moisture storage when all channels were active. Simple mapping of the active channels would not have recognized these sizable spatial differences in discharge contribution. Previous studies of hydrologic scaling in the Catskills have noted the likelihood of heterogeneity in discharge below a threshold of approximately 3–8 km2. This study provides direct documentation of such heterogeneity at smaller spatial scales. When considering perennial and ephemeral streams, such heterogeneity was not well explained by standard topographic, geologic, or meteorological factors. We suggest the heterogeneity may arise from difficult to map fine-scale variations in subsurface properties.

  13. The Role of Climatic Conditions in Controlling Observed Variability of Timing and Peak Discharge of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods: Lago Cachet Dos, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, J.; McCoy, S. W.; McGrath, D.; Nimick, D.; Friesen, B.; Fahey, M. J.; Leidich, J.; Okuinghttons, J.

    2016-12-01

    The sudden release of water from an ice-dammed lake poses substantial hazard to the downstream environment, but predicting the timing and magnitude of such an event is difficult. We use a series of high-resolution discharge measurements from a glacier-dammed lake, Lago Cachet Dos (LC2), during outburst events to evaluate the environmental conditions that influence the timing of initiation and peak discharge of observed glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Since April 2008, 20 GLOFs have initiated out of LC2, located on the eastern edge of the Northern Patagonia Icefield, Chile and flooded areas along the Rio Colonia- Rio Baker system. GLOF frequency has averaged 2-3 events annually and peak discharges exiting LC2 have ranged widely from 2,000 to >15,000 m3 s-1. Although some LC2 GLOFs are consistent with global compilations relating peak discharge to lake volume, large deviations from the global trend and large intra-event variability are striking and call into question the predictive ability of simple empirical scaling equations. To evaluate the environmental conditions that lead to variability in observed peak discharge, we use a variation of the theoretical model of Nye (1976), which describes the process of englacial conduit evolution as a competition between thermally induced conduit growth and viscous flow of ice causing conduit collapse. We show that, consistent with theory, initial lake volume, lake temperature, and the rate of meltwater input into the glacially dammed lake all influence the peak discharge of measured GLOFs. Consequently, evolving climatic conditions of a region can greatly influence the potential hazard of GLOFs. Our results suggest that more accurate predictions of GLOF timing and magnitude from ice dammed lakes can be made by incorporating additional measurements of environmental conditions.

  14. Measurement and analysis of radioactive substances; Mesure et analyse de substances radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Here are gathered the abstracts presented to the 3. summer university of the year 2001 whose main themes were the destructive (5 conferences) and nondestructive (8 conferences) analyses applied to nuclear industry. The points of view of different organisms (as DSIN: Directorate for the Safety of Nuclear Installations, IPSN: Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety, OPRI: Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations, TUI: Institute for Transuranium Elements, COGEMA, EDF: Electric Utilities, ANDRA: French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management, CRLC Val d'Aurelle, France) concerning the needs involved in nuclear facilities control, the methods of radionuclide speciation in use internationally, the measurements and analyses of radioactive substances are given too as well as some general concepts concerning 1)the laser-matter interaction 2)the ions production 3)the quality applied to the measurements and analyses 4)the standard in activity metrology. (O.M.)

  15. Radioactivity in Dutch consumer products

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, M P M

    2002-01-01

    This study took place within the framework of a general update of the average radiation dose for the Dutch population. It focuses on consumer products in which radionuclides have been intentionally incorporated and on radiation-emitting devices that can be supplied to members of the public without special surveillance. Eleven consumer products were studied in more detail. The radiation from these products determined 90% of the total collective dose due to consumer products in the Netherlands in 1988. Individual and collective doses are presented here for each product. The total collective dose has decreased from 130 personSv in 1988 to 4.6 personSv at present. This reduction was attributed to: a decrease in the number of radioactive products (gas mantles), lower estimates of the number of radioactive products present in the Netherlands thanks to new information (camera lenses, smoke detectors containing Ra-226), replacement of radioactive by non-radioactive products (gas mantles, dental protheses), and a lowe...

  16. Fission approach to cluster radioactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Fission theory is used to explain α decay. Also, the analytical superasymmetric fission. (ASAF) model is successfully employed to make a systematic search and to predict, with other mod- els, cluster radioactivity. The macroscopic–microscopic method is illustrated for the superheavy nucleus 286Fl. Then a few ...

  17. Fission approach to cluster radioactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-08-04

    Aug 4, 2015 ... Fission theory is used to explain decay. Also, the analytical superasymmetric fission (ASAF) model is successfully employed to make a systematic search and to predict, with other models, cluster radioactivity. The macroscopic–microscopic method is illustrated for the superheavy nucleus 286Fl. Then a ...

  18. Traps for neutral radioactive atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Sprouse, G D; Grossman, J S; Orozco, L A; Pearson, M R

    2002-01-01

    We describe several methods for efficiently injecting a small number of radioactive atoms into a laser trap. The characteristics of laser traps that make them desirable for physics experiments are discussed and several different experimental directions are described. We describe recent experiments with the alkali element Fr and point to future directions of the neutral atom trapping program.

  19. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  20. Atmospheric discharges from nuclear facilities during decommissioning: German experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, H.; Goertz, R.; Weil, L.

    1997-08-01

    In Germany, a substantial amount of experience is available with planning, licensing and realization of decommissioning projects. In total, a number of 18 nuclear power plants including prototype facilities as well as 6 research reactors and 3 fuel cycle facilities have been shut down finally and are at different stages of decommissioning. Only recently the final {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} stage of the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant total dismantlement project has been achieved. From the regulatory point of view, a survey of the decommissioning experience in Germany is presented highlighting the aspects of production and retention of airborne radioactivity. Nuclear air cleaning technology, discharge limits prescribed in licences and actual discharges are presented. As compared to operation, the composition of the discharged radioactivity is different as well as the off-gas discharge rate. In practically all cases, there is no significant amount of short-lived radionuclides. The discussion further includes lessons learned, for example inadvertent discharges of radionuclides expected not to be in the plants inventory. It is demonstrated that, as for operation of nuclear power plants, the limits prescribed in the Ordinance on Radiological Protection can be met using existing air cleaning technology, Optimization of protection results in public exposures substantially below the limits. In the frame of the regulatory investigation programme a study has been conducted to assess the airborne radioactivity created during certain decommissioning activities like decontamination, segmentation and handling of contaminated or activated parts. The essential results of this study are presented, which are supposed to support planning for decommissioning, for LWRs, Co-60 and Cs-137 are expected to be the dominant radionuclides in airborne discharges. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Undiagnosed illnesses and radioactive warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraković, Asaf

    2003-10-01

    The internal contamination with depleted uranium (DU) isotopes was detected in British, Canadian, and United States Gulf War veterans as late as nine years after inhalational exposure to radioactive dust in the Persian Gulf War I. DU isotopes were also identified in a Canadian veteran's autopsy samples of lung, liver, kidney, and bone. In soil samples from Kosovo, hundreds of particles, mostly less than 5 microm in size, were found in milligram quantities. Gulf War I in 1991 resulted in 350 metric tons of DU deposited in the environment and 3-6 million grams of DU aerosol released into the atmosphere. Its legacy, Gulf War disease, is a complex, progressive, incapacitating multiorgan system disorder. The symptoms include incapacitating fatigue, musculoskeletel and joint pains, headaches, neuropsychiatric disorders, affect changes, confusion, visual problems, changes of gait, loss of memory, lymphadenopathies, respiratory impairment, impotence, and urinary tract morphological and functional alterations. Current understanding of its etiology seems far from being adequate. After the Afghanistan Operation Anaconda (2002), our team studied the population of Jalalabad, Spin Gar, Tora Bora, and Kabul areas, and identified civilians with the symptoms similar to those of Gulf War syndrome. Twenty-four-hour urine samples from 8 symptomatic subjects were collected by the following criteria: 1) the onset of symptoms relative to the bombing raids; 2) physical presence in the area of the bombing; and 3) clinical manifestations. Control subjects were selected among the sympotom-free residents in non-targeted areas. All samples were analyzed for the concentration and ratio of four uranium isotopes, (234)U, (235)U, (236)U and (238)U, by using a multicollector, inductively coupled plasma ionization mass spectrometry. The first results from the Jalalabad province revealed urinary excretion of total uranium in all subjects significantly exceeding the values in the nonexposed population

  2. The transport safety of radioactive matters; La surete des transports des matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landier, D.; Louet, Ch.A.; Robert, Ch. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Binet, J. [Commission europeenne, DG Energie et transports, Bruxelles (Belgium); Malesys, P. [TN International, 75 - Paris (France); Pourade, C. [Societe Dangexpress, 78 - St Remy l' Honore (France); Le Meur, A.; Robert, M. [Societe Nationale des Chemins de fer Francais, 75 - Paris (France); Turquet de Beauregard, G.Y.; Hello, E. [CIS bio, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Laumond, A. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Regnault, Ph.; Gourlay, M. [AREVA NC, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France); Bruhl, G. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. de la Protection et de la Surete Nucleaire, 92 (France); Malvache, P.; Dumesnil, J. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Cohen, B. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Sert, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France); Pain, M. [Ministere de l' Interieur, et de l' Amenagement du Territoire, Dir. de la Defense et la Securite Civiles, 75 - Paris (France); Green, L.; Hartenstein, M. [World Nuclear Transport Institute, London (United Kingdom); Stewart, J. [Ministere des Transport, Royaume Uni (United Kingdom); Cottens, E.; Liebens, M. [Agence Federale de Controle Nucleaire (Belgium); Marignac, Y. [Wise, 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-02-15

    Since the control of transport of radioactive materials was given to A.S.N. 10 years ago, A.S.N. has strengthened the radioactive material transport inspections, in particular of the designers, manufacturers, carriers and consignors. A.S.N. has implemented INES scale for incidents during transport. It has participated as much as possible to IAEA working groups in order to improve the international regulatory framework. And, supported by I.R.S.N., A.S.N. has performed a periodic safety review of existing package models and has approved new models incorporating innovative design features. Finally, A.S.N. has tested its emergency responses to procedures to an accident involving the transport of radioactive materials. All these actions taken together have led to improvement in and reinforcement of the safety culture among the transport operators; this has been acknowledged by a recent audit T.R.A.N.S.A.S. performed by IAEA. In spite of all these actions, there are not approved by the competent authority. As A.S.N. is in charge of every field in radioprotection, this should help to intensify the control. In addition, the different kinds of transport are also tackled as rail transport with S.N.C.F. radiological risk training, air transport through nuclear medicine. Some experience feedback are given such radioactive waste transport to the storage facilities in the Aube or how to protect the population after a nuclear transport incident with the O.R.S.E.C.-T.M.S. plans. (N.C.)

  3. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 10: environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant; environmental effects related to transporting radioactive wastes associated with LWR fuel reprocessing and fabrication; environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - retrievable waste storage facility; environmental effects related to geologic isolation of LWR fuel reprocessing wastes; and integrated systems for commercial radioactive waste management. (LK)

  4. Paediatric vaginal discharge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal discharge in the prepubertal patient is a common symptom, and can be a source of distress for the caregiver and con- cern for the healthcare worker. Several factors predispose these patients to the development of recurrent vaginal discharge. Unless noticed by the caregiver, this problem can persist for long periods ...

  5. Graywater Discharges from Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    both sewage and graywater, or sewage collected from “ honey dipper” trucks, which may contain far less graywater, depending on the source (See... crystal clean effluent discharge. As a reference, Cruiseliners equipped with Scanship AWP systems has obtained continous discharge permits in Hawaii and

  6. Lithium battery discharge tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    The long term discharge of a variety of lithium cells was characterized and the susceptibility of the cells to chemical variation during the slow discharge was tested. A shunt resistor was set across the terminals to monitor the voltage as a function of time. Failures were identified by premature voltage drops.

  7. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  8. Tailored support for type 2 diabetes patients with an acute coronary event after discharge from hospital - design and development of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteleyn, M.J.; Gorter, K.J.; Stellato, R.K.; Rijken, M.; Nijpels, G.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with an acute coronary event (ACE) experience decreased quality of life and increased distress. According to the American Diabetes Association, discharge from the hospital is a time of increased distress for all patients. Tailored support specific to

  9. Tailored support for type 2 diabetes patients with an acute coronary event after discharge from hospital: design and development of a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteleyn, M.J.; Gorter, K.J.; Stellato, R.K.; Rijken, M.; Nijpels, G.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with an acute coronary event (ACE) experience decreased quality of life and increased distress. According to the American Diabetes Association, discharge from the hospital is a time of increased distress for all patients. Tailored support specific to

  10. Study on the mode-transition of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge between uniform and filamentary by controlling pressures and pulse repetition frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S.; Pei, X.; Hasnain, Q.; Nie, L.; Lu, X.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the temporally resolved evolution of the nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in a moderate 6 mm discharge gap under various pressures and pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) by intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) images, using dry air and its components oxygen and nitrogen. It is found that the pressures are very different when the mode transits between uniform and filamentary in air, oxygen, and nitrogen. The PRFs can also obviously affect the mode-transition. The transition mechanism in the pulsed DBD is not Townsend-to-Streamer, which is dominant in the traditional alternating-voltage DBD. The pulsed DBD in a uniform mode develops in the form of plane ionization wave due to overlap of primary avalanches, while the increase in pressure disturbs the overlap and discharge develops in streamer, corresponding to the filamentary mode. Increasing the initial electron density by pre-ionization may contribute to discharge uniformity at higher pressures. We also found that the dependence of homogeneity upon PRF is a non-monotonic one.

  11. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.

    1960-11-22

    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  12. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on board, used in any manner, or stored on the vessel, unless the...

  13. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present or...

  14. Radioactive Waste Material From Tapping Natural Resources ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Rocks around oil and gas and mineral deposits may contain natural radioactivity. Drilling through these rocks and bringing them to the surface creates radioactive waste materials. Once desired minerals have been removed from ore, the radionuclides left in the waste are more concentrated. Scientists call this waste Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material or simply TENORM.

  15. Silane Discharge Ion Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatham, Robert Hood, III

    We have studied silane dc, rf and dc proximity discharges, using mass spectroscopic measurements of the positive ions as a detailed diagnostic for the type of discharge used to produce hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar photovoltaic cells. The properties and quality of these films depends in a very complex way upon the interactions of the many reactive neutral and ion species in the discharge. We have developed qualitative models of the ion chemical processes in these discharges from our measurements. Knowledge of the ion-molecule and electron-molecule collision cross sections is important to any attempt at understanding silane discharge chemistry. Consequently, we have measured the electron impact ionization cross sections for silane and disilane, and for comparison purposes also for methane and ethane. In addition, we have measured the rate coefficients for charge exchange reactions of He('+), Ne('+), and Ar('+) with silane, disilane, methane, and ethane, as these are important to understanding discharges in inert gas-silane mixtures. We have developed a detailed quantitative model of the cathode sheath region of a silane dc discharge, by extending the best recent calculation of the electron motion in the sheath to a self-consistent form which includes the ion motion. This model is used with comparison of silane dc discharge data to diagnose the ion chemistry occurring in the sheath region of silane dc discharge. The understanding of the discharge ion chemical processes that we have gained in this study represent an important step toward understanding the chemical and physical processes leading to film growth.

  16. Environmental system applied to radioactive liquid effluent release; Sistema ambiental aplicado a liberacao de efluente radioativo liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa

    2009-07-01

    executed radiotracer study was carried out without monetary and environmental costs. The results showed that the dilution factors values varied according to the employed radioisotope, in increasing order from {sup 3}H, {sup 137}CS, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 60}Co to {sup 65}Zn, following to each chemical element characteristics, significant variance among hydrogen, alkaline metal and transition metals was also showed. The dilution factor averages obtained in the first and second day of the releases were respectively 4,3 and 7,4 for {sup 3}H, 12,0 and 16,1 for {sup 54}Mn, 12,6 and 14,2 for {sup 60}Co, 12,0 and 27,9 for {sup 65}Zn, 6,2 and 13,9 for {sup 137}Cs. This is the first study about intra-institutional dilution factor estimation using anthropic radiotracers, without any addition costs. The obtained results contribute with the subsidies to the improvement of the environmental conduct and to establish optimized procedures, under current legislation. The dilution factors were estimated in an operations and laboratory study, in only one controlled discharge of the storage tank TR1. This radioactive tracers study will have to be repeated, in order to create an institutional database. The environmental systemic study must be established by each case, depending on the characteristics of the area, the institution and the released effluents.(author)

  17. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  18. Utilização do inversos de freqüência em sistemas de irrigação para controle de vazão Utilization of a variable frequency drive in irrigation systems to control discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto de Assunção Carvalho

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o uso de um inversor de freqüência de 25 cv na irrigação, considerando-se diferentes demandas de água como manejo. A avaliação consistiu de uma análise de custos e benefícios, ambos anuais. O custo foi calculado com base no fator de recuperação do capital, para taxas de juros de 6 e 12% e períodos de amortização de 5 e 15 anos. O benefício consistiu da economia de energia proporcionada pelo inversor de freqüência em relação aos procedimentos usuais de controle da vazão. Relacionaram-se os parâmetros econômicos e de manejo da irrigação, com o objetivo de se avaliar o equipamento para qualquer situação de projeto. Como exemplo de aplicação, analisaram-se duas situações de controle de vazão comparadas ao inversor de freqüência em um projeto de irrigação. Foram determinadas, com auxílio do inversor de freqüência, as características hidráulicas, em função da vazão de uma motobomba de 25 cv sob várias rotações. Observou-se que o inversor de freqüência pode ser viável, devendo-se avaliar a redução de potência advinda do seu uso e o tempo de funcionamento da irrigação, analisando-se a melhor forma de amortização.This work aimed to evaluate the use of a variable frequency drive of 25 HP in irrigation systems to manage different water demands. The evaluation was done analyzing annual costs and benefits. The cost was calculated using interest rates of 6 and 12% and capital return periods of 5 and 15 years. The benefit was the energy saving by use of the variable frequency drive in relation to usual procedures to control discharge. The economic and irrigation management parameters were compared in order to evaluate several design situations. As an example, two situations of discharge control were compared with the use of a variable frequency drive in an irrigation project, suggesting forms for evaluation of the equipment under irrigated conditions. With the help

  19. Radioactivity in the ocean: laws and biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the literature on US laws and international agreements, experimental and monitoring data, and ongoing studies to provide background information for environmental assessment and regulatory compliance activities for ocean dumping of low-level radioactive waste. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act is the major US legislation governing ocean disposal of radioactive waste. The major international agreement on ocean dumping is the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter. The United States ended its ocean dumping of radioactive wastes in 1970, but other countries have continued ocean dumping under international supervision in the northeast Atlantic. Monitoring of former US disposal sites has neither revealed significant effects on marine biota nor indicated a hazard to human health. Also, no effects on marine organisms have been found that could be attributed to routine discharges into the Irish Sea from the Windscale reprocessing plant. We must improve our ability to predict the oceanic carrying capacity and the fate and effects of ionizing radiation in the marine environment.

  20. Groundwater Impacts of Radioactive Wastes and Associated Environmental Modeling Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan

    2012-11-01

    This article provides a review of the major sources of radioactive wastes and their impacts on groundwater contamination. The review discusses the major biogeochemical processes that control the transport and fate of radionuclide contaminants in groundwater, and describe the evolution of mathematical models designed to simulate and assess the transport and transformation of radionuclides in groundwater.

  1. Assessment of Radioactivity Concentration in Soil of some Mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mandate to control nuclear and radiation generating sources in Nigeria is vested with the Nigerian Nuclear. Regulatory Authority which ..... Bhaumik, B.K., Bhattacharya, T., Acharyulu, A.A.P.S.R.,. Srinivas, D., Sandilya M.K., (2004). Principles of. Radiometry in Radioactive Metal Exploration. Physics. Lab, Eastern Region ...

  2. Baseline Radioactivity Measurements In The Vicinity Of A Gold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Region, Ghana) to obtain baseline radioactivity data prior to the installation of Cs-137 nuclear density gauges for quality control measure-ment of the density of slurry in the pipelines at the plant. A survey meter, gamma spectrometry and ...

  3. [Problems of safety regulation under radioactive waste management in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastyrskaia, S G; Kochetkov, O A; Barchukov, V G; Kuznetsova, L I

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the requirements of Federal Law N 190 "About radioactive waste management and incorporation of changes into some legislative acts of the Russian Federation", as well as normative-legislative documents actual and planned to be published related to provision of radiation protection of the workers and the public have been done. Problems of safety regulation raised due to different approaches of Rospotrebnadzor, FMBA of Russia, Rostekhnadzor and Minprirody with respect to classification and categorization of the radioactive wastes, disposal, exemption from regulatory control, etc. have been discussed in the paper. Proposals regarding improvement of the system of safety regulation under radioactive waste management and of cooperation of various regulatory bodies have been formulated.

  4. Capacitor discharge engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1976-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume III: Capacitor Discharge Engineering covers the production and practical application of capacitor dischargers for the generation and utilization of high speed pulsed of energy in different forms. This nine-chapter volume discusses the principles of electric current, voltage, X-rays, gamma rays, heat, beams of electrons, neutrons and ions, magnetic fields, sound, and shock waves in gases and liquids. Considerable chapters consider the applications of capacitor discharges, such as impulse hardening of steel, ultrapulse welding of precision parts, X-ray flash t

  5. INTENSE ENERGETIC GAS DISCHARGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-03-01

    A method and apparatus for initiating and sustaining an energetic gas arc discharge are described. A hollow cathode and a hollow anode are provided. By regulating the rate of gas flow into the interior of the cathode, the arc discharge is caused to run from the inner surface of the cathode with the result that adequate space-charge neutralization is provided inside the cathode but not in the main arc volume. Thus, the gas fed to the cathode is substantially completely ionized before it leaves the cathode, with the result that an energetic arc discharge can be maintained at lower operating pressures.

  6. Hydrogeologic controls on ground-water discharge to the Washington METRO subway tunnel near the Medical Center station and Crossover, Montgomery County, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Earl A.; Shapiro, Allen M.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2004-01-01

    Medical Center Station and Crossover could be the result of its location within the Georgetown Intrusive Suite. The abrupt changes in the mapped directions of ground-water flow based on the hydraulic heads at the contact between the Sykesville Formation and biotite-hornblende tonalite member of the Georgetown Intrusive Suite could also be the result of the change in fracturing between these two lithologies. Saprolite, a residual of soft, red/brown to gray clay from decomposed crystalline rock, overlies the bedrock and varies from about 20 to 55 feet thick, depending on location. On the basis of a slug test conducted in the lower part of the saprolite near the Medical Center Station and Crossover, transmissivity and storativity of the saprolite were estimated to be 10 feet squared per day and 10-6 , respectively. The transmissivity of fractures intersecting bedrock boreholes drilled in the biotite-hornblende tonalite member of the Georgetown Intrusive Suite varies over five orders of magnitude, from a maximum of approximately 10 feet squared per day to the detection limit of the in situ testing apparatus, which is approximately 10-4 feet squared per day. In general, the transmissivity of fractures intersecting the boreholes increases with depth. The low transmissivity of bedrock fractures in close proximity to the saprolite is likely to be caused by the fractures being filled with byproducts of rock weathering, resulting in reduced permeability. 2 Hydrogeologic Controls on Ground-Water Discharge to the Washington METRO Subway Tunnel The bulk transmissivity of the bedrock aquifer is approximately 3.7 feet squared per day, as determined from an aquifer test conducted by pumping a 240-foot-deep borehole and monitoring the drawdown over 3 days in the pumped borehole and several observation boreholes. In general, the hydraulic head decreases with depth in bedrock boreholes, indicating the potential for downward ground-water flow. Based on hydraulic head values mea

  7. Neutral atom traps of radioactives

    CERN Document Server

    Behr, J A

    2003-01-01

    Neutral atoms trapped with modern laser cooling techniques offer the promise of improving several broad classes of experiments with radioactive isotopes. In nuclear beta decay, neutrino spectroscopy from beta-recoil coincidences, along with highly polarized samples, enable experiments to search for non-Standard Model interactions, test whether parity symmetry is maximally violated, and search for new sources of time reversal violation. Ongoing efforts at TRIUMF, Los Alamos and Berkeley will be highlighted. The traps also offer bright sources for Doppler-free spectroscopy, particularly in high-Z atoms where precision measurements could measure the strength of weak neutral nucleon-nucleon and electron-nucleon interactions. Physics with francium atoms has been vigorously pursued at Stony Brook. Several facilities plan work with radioactive atom traps; concrete plans and efforts at KVI Groningen and Legnaro will be among those summarized. Contributions to the multidisciplinary field of trace analysis will be left...

  8. Radioactive Decays in Geant4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauf, Steffen; Kuster, Markus; Batič, Matej; Bell, Zane W.; Hoffmann, Dieter H. H.; Lang, Philipp M.; Neff, Stephan; Pia, Maria Grazia; Weidenspointner, Georg; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    The simulation of radioactive decays is a common task in Monte-Carlo systems such as Geant4. Usually, a system either uses an approach focusing on the simulations of every individual decay or an approach which simulates a large number of decays with a focus on correct overall statistics. The radioactive decay package presented in this work permits, for the first time, the use of both methods within the same simulation framework - Geant4. The accuracy of the statistical approach in our new package, RDM-extended, and that of the existing Geant4 per-decay implementation (original RDM), which has also been refactored, are verified against the ENSDF database. The new verified package is beneficial for a wide range of experimental scenarios, as it enables researchers to choose the most appropriate approach for their Geant4-based application.

  9. Radioactive Decays in Geant4

    CERN Document Server

    Hauf, Steffen; Batič, Matej; Bell, Zane W; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Lang, Philipp M; Neff, Stephan; Pia, Maria Grazia; Weidenspointner, Georg; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The simulation of radioactive decays is a common task in Monte-Carlo systems such as Geant4. Usually, a system either uses an approach focusing on the simulations of every individual decay or an approach which simulates a large number of decays with a focus on correct overall statistics. The radioactive decay package presented in this work permits, for the first time, the use of both methods within the same simulation framework - Geant4. The accuracy of the statistical approach in our new package, RDM-extended, and that of the existing Geant4 per-decay implementation (original RDM), which has also been refactored, are verified against the ENSDF database. The new verified package is beneficial for a wide range of experimental scenarios, as it enables researchers to choose the most appropriate approach for their Geant4-based application.

  10. Radioactivity in returned lunar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The H-3, Ar-37, and Ar-39 radioactivities were measured at several depths in the large documented lunar rocks 14321 and 15555. The comparison of the Ar-37 activities from similar locations in rocks 12002, 14321, and 15555 gives direct measures of the amount of Ar-37 produced by the 2 November 1969 and 24 January 1971 solar flares. The tritium contents in the documented rocks decreased with increasing depths. The solar flare intensity averaged over 30 years obtained from the tritium depth dependence was approximately the same as the flare intensity averaged over 1000 years obtained from the Ar-37 measurements. Radioactivities in two Apollo 15 soil samples, H-3 in several Surveyor 3 samples, and tritium and radon weepage were also measured.

  11. Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B K

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  12. Radioactive substances in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsuumi, Ryo; Endo, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Akihiko; Kannotou, Yasumitu; Nakada, Masahiro; Yabuuchi, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    A 9.0 magnitude (M) earthquake with an epicenter off the Sanriku coast occurred at 14: 46 on March 11, 2011. TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F-1 NPP) was struck by the earthquake and its resulting tsunami. Consequently a critical nuclear disaster developed, as a large quantity of radioactive materials was released due to a hydrogen blast. On March 16(th), 2011, radioiodine and radioactive cesium were detected at levels of 177 Bq/kg and 58 Bq/kg, respectively, in tap water in Fukushima city (about 62km northwest of TEPCO F-1 NPP). On March 20th, radioiodine was detected in tap water at a level of 965 Bq/kg, which is over the value-index of restrictions on food and drink intake (radioiodine 300 Bq/kg (infant intake 100 Bq/kg)) designated by the Nuclear Safety Commission. Therefore, intake restriction measures were taken regarding drinking water. After that, although the all intake restrictions were lifted, in order to confirm the safety of tap water, an inspection system was established to monitor all tap water in the prefecture. This system has confirmed that there has been no detection of radioiodine or radioactive cesium in tap water in the prefecture since May 5(th), 2011. Furthermore, radioactive strontium ((89) Sr, (90)Sr) and plutonium ((238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu) in tap water and the raw water supply were measured. As a result, (89) Sr, (238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu were undetectable and although (90)Sr was detected, its committed effective dose of 0.00017 mSv was much lower than the yearly 0.1 mSv of the World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality. In addition, the results did not show any deviations from past inspection results.

  13. Nuclear astrophysics with radioactive beams

    CERN Document Server

    Schatz, H

    2002-01-01

    Nuclei far from stability play an important role in our understanding of astrophysical scenarios with extreme temperature and density conditions. Among these are nova explosions, accreting neutron stars, supernovae, and the site of the r-process. I will give a brief review of the important open astrophysical questions in these scenarios and discuss the radioactive beam experiments at ISOL-type and at fragmentation-type facilities that are needed to answer them.

  14. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  15. Clays in radioactive waste disposal

    OpenAIRE

    DELAGE, Pierre; CUI, Yu-Jun; TANG, Anh-Minh

    2010-01-01

    Clays and argillites are considered in some countries as possible host rocks for nuclear waste disposal at great depth. The use of compacted swelling clays as engineered barriers is also considered within the framework of the multi-barrier concept. In relation to these concepts, various research programs have been conducted to assess the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of radioactive waste disposal at great depth. After introducing the concepts of waste isolation developed in Belgium, Fran...

  16. Storage of liquid, radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesky, H.; Wunderer, A.

    1983-08-02

    When reprocessing spent nuclear fuel, liquid radioactive wastes are obtained and, is generated from fission within the waste, and oxyhydrogen may be set free by radiolysis. The fission heat generated within the liquid wastes is carried off by evaporation cooling and, the vapor so formed condensed and recycled into the storage vessel for the liquid wastes. The oxyhydrogen is then diluted with the vapor formed during evaporation cooling and converted catalytically.

  17. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usang, M. D.; Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.

    2015-04-01

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  18. Development of radioactive stent using HANARO research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Bae; Kim, J. R.; Han, H. S.; Shin, B. C.; Kim, Y. M.; Cho, U. K.; Han, K. H.; Park, W. W.; Chung, Y. J

    1997-10-01

    Radioactive cylindrical was prepared by neutron irradiation of pre-made non-radioactive `1`6`5 Ho-sleeve, which was made by casting polyurethane solution containing `1`6`5`Ho(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} in THF+DMF (10:1) solvent in cylindrical glass tube. Its length and diameter could be easily controlled by glass tube used as a mold. The radioactive stent assembly (`1`6`5Ho-SA) was prepared by covering the metallic stent with radioactive sleeve and then treated both ends with epoxy glue for prevention of peeling off the radioactive sleeve from stent (post-irradiation method). Other preparation method of radioactive stent is similar to that of the first one except using radioactive `1`6`6Ho(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and glass tube fitted with metallic stent before casting (pre-irradiation method). Scanning electron microscopy and autoradiography exhibited that the distribution of `1`6`5Ho and `1`6`6Ho(NO{sub 3}) compounds in polyurethane matrix was nearly homogeneous. The present preparation methods of radioactive sleeve and stent are quite different from conventional method which metallic stent is coated or implanted with radionuclide. The ease with which the radioactive stent can be prepared and its homogeneous radiation emission make it an attractive radiation applicator for the treatment of esophagus cancer. As an animal studies, 6 pathologic specimens were obtained. An animal with 4 mCi of `1`6`6Ho-SA showed loss of epithelial tissue and inflammation at the submucosal layer 4 weeks after the procedure. Considerable improvement of the inflammatory reaction was observed 7 weeks post-therapy without complication. In case treated with 6 mCi of `1`6`6Ho-SA, tissue destruction and widening of the esophageal lumen were observed and the inflammatory reaction propagated into the muscle layer. In case with 9 mCi of `1`6`6Ho-SA, severe esophagitis with cellular proliferation were seen, which resulted in further narrowing of the lumen. (author). 58 refs., 5 tabs., 14 figs

  19. Mobile crud and transportation of radioactivity in BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansson, H-P. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoping (Sweden); LTU, Div. of Chemical Engineering, Lulea (Sweden); Hagg, J. [Ringhals AB, Varobacka (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Mobile crud is here referred to as a generic term for all types of particles that occur in the reactor water in BWRs and that are able to carry radioactivity. Previous results in this on-going series of studies in Swedish BWRs suggest that there are particles of different origins and function. A share may come from fuel crud and others may come from detachment, precipitation and dissolution processes in different parts of the BWR primary system, as well as from other system parts, such as the turbine/condenser. In addition, crud particles in this sense may come from purely mechanical processes such as degradation of graphite containing parts of the control rod drives. Therefore, the overall aim was to evaluate which particles are responsible for the transportation and distribution of radioactivity and also to clarify the chemical conditions under which they are formed. Furthermore the aim was to draw conclusions about how the chemistry would be like in order to avoid or at least minimize the formation of radioactivity distributing particles. A specific objective has also been to look into the importance of particle size for spreading of radioactivity in the primary system. Different types of crud particles are likely to have different characteristics in terms of function associated with transportation of radioactivity. The fuel crud is radioactive from the source and other types of crud can via surface processes, co-precipitation and other chemical and mechanical processes potentially affect the distribution of radioactivity in the primary system. In order to predict how operating parameters (e.g. stable, full power operation and scram) and chemical parameters (NWC/HWC/Zn, etc.) will affect the activity build-up on the system surfaces, it is important to know how the different types of crud are affected by these and related parameters. Fuel crud fixed on cladding ring samples, as well as mobile crud from the reactor water captured on filters, were examined by

  20. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of a Specialist Geriatric Medical Intervention for Frail Older People Discharged from Acute Medical Units: Economic Evaluation in a Two-Centre Randomised Controlled Trial (AMIGOS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Tanajewski

    Full Text Available Poor outcomes and high resource-use are observed for frail older people discharged from acute medical units. A specialist geriatric medical intervention, to facilitate Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment, was developed to reduce the incidence of adverse outcomes and associated high resource-use in this group in the post-discharge period.To examine the costs and cost-effectiveness of a specialist geriatric medical intervention for frail older people in the 90 days following discharge from an acute medical unit, compared with standard care.Economic evaluation was conducted alongside a two-centre randomised controlled trial (AMIGOS. 433 patients (aged 70 or over at risk of future health problems, discharged from acute medical units within 72 hours of attending hospital, were recruited in two general hospitals in Nottingham and Leicester, UK. Participants were randomised to the intervention, comprising geriatrician assessment in acute units and further specialist management, or to control where patients received no additional intervention over and above standard care. Primary outcome was incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY gained.We undertook cost-effectiveness analysis for 417 patients (intervention: 205. The difference in mean adjusted QALYs gained between groups at 3 months was -0.001 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.009, 0.007. Total adjusted secondary and social care costs, including direct costs of the intervention, at 3 months were £4412 (€5624, $6878 and £4110 (€5239, $6408 for the intervention and standard care groups, the incremental cost was £302 (95% CI: 193, 410 [€385, $471]. The intervention was dominated by standard care with probability of 62%, and with 0% probability of cost-effectiveness (at £20,000/QALY threshold.The specialist geriatric medical intervention for frail older people discharged from acute medical unit was not cost-effective. Further research on designing effective and cost

  2. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  3. Brain injury - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000163.htm Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...

  4. Hypospadias repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000158.htm Hypospadias repair - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child had hypospadias repair to fix a birth defect in which ...

  5. Femur fracture repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000166.htm Femur fracture repair - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a fracture (break) in the femur in your leg. It ...

  6. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000293.htm Thyroid gland removal - discharge To use the sharing features ... surgery. This will make your scar show less. Thyroid Hormone Replacement You may need to take thyroid ...

  7. Breast radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - breast - discharge ... You may notice changes in the way your breast looks or feels (if you are getting radiation ... after treatment is over. The skin on your breast may become more sensitive or numb. Skin and ...

  8. Pectus excavatum - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000298.htm Pectus excavatum - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... You or your child had surgery to correct pectus excavatum . This is an abnormal formation of the rib ...

  9. Diverticulitis and diverticulosis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000192.htm Diverticulitis and diverticulosis - discharge To use the sharing features ... JavaScript. You were in the hospital to treat diverticulitis. This is an infection of an abnormal pouch ( ...

  10. Lasik eye surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000525.htm Lasik eye surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lasik eye surgery permanently changes the shape of the cornea ( ...

  11. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  12. Pneumonia - children - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000011.htm Pneumonia in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has pneumonia, which is an infection in the lungs. In ...

  13. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  14. Epilepsy or seizures - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000128.htm Epilepsy or seizures - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have epilepsy . People with epilepsy have seizures. A seizure is ...

  15. Capacitor discharge pulse analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Michael Sean; Griffiths, Stewart K.; Tanner, Danelle Mary

    2013-08-01

    Capacitors used in firing sets and other high discharge current applications are discharge tested to verify performance of the capacitor against the application requirements. Parameters such as capacitance, inductance, rise time, pulse width, peak current and current reversal must be verified to ensure that the capacitor will meet the application needs. This report summarizes an analysis performed on the discharge current data to extract these parameters by fitting a second-order system model to the discharge data and using this fit to determine the resulting performance metrics. Details of the theory and implementation are presented. Using the best-fit second-order system model to extract these metrics results in less sensitivity to noise in the measured data and allows for direct extraction of the total series resistance, inductance, and capacitance.

  16. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000001.htm Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... care for your child. Take Charge of Your Child's Asthma at Home Make sure you know the ...

  17. Abdominal radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - abdomen - discharge; Cancer - abdominal radiation; Lymphoma - abdominal radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after radiation treatment starts, you might notice changes ...

  18. Chest radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - chest - discharge; Cancer - chest radiation; Lymphoma - chest radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after your first treatment: It may be hard ...

  19. Concussion - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000125.htm Concussion in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Your child was treated for a concussion . This is a mild brain injury that can ...

  20. Multiple sclerosis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000129.htm Multiple sclerosis - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... doctor has told you that you have multiple sclerosis (MS). This disease affects the brain and spinal ...

  1. Electronic discharge summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Peter D; Keselman, Alla; Rappaport, Daniel; Van Vleck, Tielman; Cooper, Mary; Boyer, Aurelia; Hripcsak, George

    2005-01-01

    Timely completion of Discharge Summaries is a requirement of high quality care. We developed a system for writing electronic Discharge Summaries. DSUM Writer has generated 2464 of 7349 total summaries (34%) and has paid for itself during its first 8 weeks in production. DSUM Writer is a component of a suite of tools (eNote) for electronic physician documentation used to support clinical care, billing and narrative analysis research.

  2. Evaluation of brief interventions for managing depression and anxiety symptoms during early discharge period after stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Tammy; Ownsworth, Tamara; Eames, Sally; Shum, David

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence estimates for depression and anxiety in individuals post-stroke are approximately 33 and 29%, yet there are few effective preventive interventions. Interventions which commence pre-discharge and continue during the early post-discharge period may support individuals during the critical transition to home adjustment period. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a self-management intervention and a coping skills intervention, compared to usual care, on anxiety and depression post-stroke. A pilot, three-arm randomized trial involving 33 stroke patients (coping skills: n = 11, self-management: n = 12, usual care: n = 10) recruited from an Australian stroke unit. Both interventions were eight 1-hour weekly sessions, with the first two pre-discharge and the remainder at home; targeted both anxiety and depression; and tailored content to individuals. Primary outcome was severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms (measured using Montgomery andÅsberg Depression Rating Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Secondary measures were: self-efficacy, stroke knowledge, basic and extended activities of daily living, and quality of life. Outcome measures were administered at baseline, one week post-intervention, and at a three month follow-up by a blinded assessor. Thirty (91%) participants completed the trial. Immediately post-intervention there was a small improvement in stroke knowledge and a small increase in depression symptoms (on one of the two measures of depression symptoms) in the coping skills group compared to usual care. These differences did not remain significant at the 3-month follow-up, nor were there any other significant differences. Neither a coping skills nor self-management intervention reduced anxiety nor depression symptoms early post-stroke more than usual care. Lack of statistical power may have contributed to the non-significant findings in this pilot study.

  3. "Ictal" lateralized periodic discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen-Gupta, Indranil; Schuele, Stephan U; Macken, Micheal P; Kwasny, Mary J; Gerard, Elizabeth E

    2014-07-01

    Whether lateralized periodic discharges (LPDs) represent ictal or interictal phenomena, and even the circumstances in which they may represent one or the other, remains highly controversial. Lateralized periodic discharges are, however, widely accepted as being ictal when they are time-locked to clinically apparent symptoms. We sought to investigate the characteristics of "ictal" lateralized periodic discharges (ILPDs) defined by time-locked clinical symptoms in order to explore the utility of using this definition to dichotomize LPDs into "ictal" and "nonictal" categories. Our archive of all continuous EEG (cEEG) reports of adult inpatients undergoing prolonged EEG monitoring for nonelective indications between 2007 and 2011 was searched to identify all reports describing LPDs. Lateralized periodic discharges were considered ILPDs when they were reported as being consistently time-locked to clinical symptoms; LPDs lacking a clear time-locked correlate were considered to be "nonictal" lateralized periodic discharges (NILPDs). Patient charts and available neuroimaging studies were also reviewed. Neurophysiologic localization of LPDs, imaging findings, presence of seizures, discharge outcomes, and other demographic factors were compared between patients with ILPDs and those with NILPDs. p-Values were adjusted for false discovery rate (FDR). One thousand four hundred fifty-two patients underwent cEEG monitoring at our institution between 2007 and 2011. Lateralized periodic discharges were reported in 90 patients, 10 of whom met criteria for ILPDs. Nine of the patients with ILPDs demonstrated motor symptoms, and the remaining patient experienced stereotyped sensory symptoms. Ictal lateralized periodic discharges had significantly increased odds for involving central head regions (odds ratio [OR]=11; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.16-62.6; p=0.018, FDR adjusted), with a trend towards higher proportion of lesions involving the primary sensorimotor cortex (p=0.09, FDR

  4. Communication from the Radioactive Shipping Service

    CERN Multimedia

    DDGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive materials Import/Export service reminds you that all movements of potentially radioactive material must be declared in advance. For exports, shipping requests must be made via the EDH request form, ticking the box “radioactive material”. For imports, an electronic form must be completed before the arrival of the material. Requests which do not comply with the above procedure and any unauthorized imports of radioactive material will be refused.The same applies to imports/exports of radioactive sources. All necessary information is given in the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Yann Donjoux / Radioactive Shipping Service Phone: +41 22 767.31.71 Fax: +41 22 766.92.00 Email: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  5. Radioactive geochronometry from the treatise on geochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, H D

    2011-01-01

    The history of Earth in the Solar System has been unraveled using natural radioactivity. The sources of this radioactivity are the original creation of the elements and the subsequent bombardment of objects, including Earth, in the Solar System by cosmic rays. Both radioactive and radiogenic nuclides are harnessed to arrive at ages of various events and processes on Earth. This collection of chapters from the "Treatise on Geochemistry" displays the range of radioactive geochronometric studies that have been addressed by researchers in various fields of Earth science. These range from the age of Earth and the Solar System to the dating of the history of Earth that assists us in defining the major events in Earth history. In addition, the use of radioactive geochronometry in describing rates of Earth surface processes, including the climate history recorded in ocean sediments and the patterns of circulation of the fluid Earth, has extended the range of utility of radioactive isotopes as chronometric and tracer ...

  6. Radioactive Probes on Ferromagnetic Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    On the (broad) basis of our studies of nonmagnetic radioactive probe atoms on magnetic surfaces and at interfaces, we propose to investigate the magnetic interaction of magnetic probe atoms with their immediate environment, in particular of rare earth (RE) elements positioned on and in ferromagnetic surfaces. The preparation and analysis of the structural properties of such samples will be performed in the UHV chamber HYDRA at the HMI/Berlin. For the investigations of the magnetic properties of RE atoms on surfaces Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) measurements and Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS) in the UHV chamber ASPIC (Apparatus for Surface Physics and Interfaces at CERN) are proposed.

  7. Study on the mode-transition of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge between uniform and filamentary by controlling pressures and pulse repetition frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sizhe; Lu, Xinpei

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the temporally resolved evolution of the nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in a moderate 6mm gap under various pressures and pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) by intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) images, using synthetic air and its components oxygen and nitrogen. It is found that the pressures are very different when the DBD mode transits between uniform and filamentary in air, oxygen, and nitrogen. The PRFs can also obviously affect the mode-transition. The transition mechanism in the pulsed DBD is not Townsend-to-streamer, which is dominant in the traditional alternating-voltage DBDs. The pulsed DBD in a uniform mode develops in the form of plane ionization wave, due to overlap of primary avalanches, while the increase in pressure disturbs the overlap and DBD develops in streamer instead, corresponding to the filamentary mode. Increasing the initiatory electron density by pre-ionization methods may contribute to discharge uniformity at higher pressures. We also find that the dependence of uniformity upon PRF is non-monotonic.

  8. Control of radioactive wastes and coupling of neutron/gamma measurements: use of radiative capture for the correction of matrix effects that penalize the fissile mass measurement by active neutron interrogation; Controle des dechets radioactifs et couplage de mesures neutron/gamma: exploitation de la capture radiative pour corriger les effets de matrice penalisant la mesure de la masse fissile par interrogation neutronique active

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loche, F

    2006-10-15

    In the framework of radioactive waste drums control, difficulties arise in the nondestructive measurement of fissile mass ({sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu..) by Active Neutron Interrogation (ANI), when dealing with matrices containing materials (Cl, H...) influencing the neutron flux. The idea is to use the neutron capture reaction (n,{gamma}) to determine the matrix composition to adjust the ANI calibration coefficient value. This study, dealing with 118 litres, homogeneous drums of density less than 0,4 and composed of chlorinated and/or hydrogenated materials, leads to build abacus linking the {gamma} ray peak areas to the ANI calibration coefficient. Validation assays of these abacus show a very good agreement between the corrected and true fissile masses for hydrogenated matrices (max. relative standard deviation: 23 %) and quite good for chlorinated and hydrogenated matrices (58 %). The developed correction method improves the measured values. It may be extended to 0,45 density, heterogeneous drums. (author)

  9. Feasibility analysis of recycling radioactive scrap steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, F. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Woodland, WA (United States); Balhiser, B. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Cignetti, N. [Cignetti Associates, North Canton, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to: (1) establish a conceptual design that integrates commercial steel mill technology with radioactive scrap metal (RSM) processing to produce carbon and stainless steel sheet and plate at a grade suitable for fabricating into radioactive waste containers; (2) determine the economic feasibility of building a micro-mill in the Western US to process 30,000 tons of RSM per year from both DOE and the nuclear utilities; and (3) provide recommendations for implementation. For purposes of defining the project, it is divided into phases: economic feasibility and conceptual design; preliminary design; detail design; construction; and operation. This study comprises the bulk of Phase 1. It is divided into four sections. Section 1 provides the reader with a complete overview extracting pertinent data, recommendations and conclusions from the remainder of the report. Section 2 defines the variables that impact the design requirements. These data form the baseline to create a preliminary conceptual design that is technically sound, economically viable, and capitalizes on economies of scale. Priorities governing the design activities are: (1) minimizing worker exposure to radionuclide hazards, (2) maximizing worker safety, (3) minimizing environmental contamination, (4) minimizing secondary wastes, and (5) establishing engineering controls to insure that the plant will be granted a license in the state selected for operation. Section 3 provides details of the preliminary conceptual design that was selected. The cost of project construction is estimated and the personnel needed to support the steel-making operation and radiological and environmental control are identified. Section 4 identifies the operational costs and supports the economic feasibility analysis. A detailed discussion of the resulting conclusions and recommendations is included in this section.

  10. Radioactive Waste Management in A Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Shoukat; Syed, AT; Ahmad, Reyaz; Rather, Tanveer A.; Ajaz, M; Jan, FA

    2010-01-01

    Most of the tertiary care hospitals use radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Safe disposal of the radioactive waste is a vital component of the overall management of the hospital waste. An important objective in radioactive waste management is to ensure that the radiation exposure to an individual (Public, Radiation worker, Patient) and the environment does not exceed the prescribed safe limits. Disposal of Radioactive waste in public domain is undertaken in accordance w...

  11. Low-Dose Radioactive Iodine Destroys Thyroid Tissue Left after Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    A low dose of radioactive iodine given after surgery for thyroid cancer destroyed (ablated) residual thyroid tissue as effectively as a higher dose, with fewer side effects and less exposure to radiation, according to two randomized controlled trials.

  12. Uterine Natural Killer Cell and Human Leukocyte Antigen-G1 and Human Leukocyte Antigen-G5 Expression in Vaginal Discharge of Threatened-Abortion Women: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Sadat Shobeiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunotolerant human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G molecules have a major role in fetal-maternal tolerance during pregnancy. Interaction between these molecules and uterine natural killer (uNK cells inhibitory receptors prevents NK cell invasion against fetus trophoblast cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percentages of uNK cells and HLA-G1 and HLA-G5 isoforms expression in vaginal discharge of threatened-abortion women in comparison with control. In a case-control study, we investigated 30 threatened-abortion women with bleeding or spotting less than 20 weeks of pregnancy as compared to 30 normal pregnant women. uNK cells percentage was assessed by flow cytometry. Furthermore, we evaluated HLA-G1 and HLA-G5 isoforms expression by Real-Time PCR in these groups. The results of this study showed that threatened-abortion women had increased uNK cells and decreased T cells percentage in vaginal discharge in comparison with normal pregnant women (p=0.01, p=0.003, resp.. In addition, HLA-G1 isoform had lower expression in threatened-abortion women in comparison with control group p=0.0001. The increase of uNK cells level with the decrease of HLA-G expression in vaginal discharge of threatened-abortion pregnant women is an indicator of mother’s immune dysregulation. It is concluded that HLA-G expression level with uNK cells percentage can be determined as a diagnostic marker for threatened-abortion women.

  13. [Microbiological Aspects of Radioactive Waste Storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonov, A V; Gorbunova, O A; German, K E; Zakharova, E V; Tregubova, V E; Ershov, B G; Nazina, T N

    2015-01-01

    The article gives information about the microorganisms inhabiting in surface storages of solid radioactive waste and deep disposal sites of liquid radioactive waste. It was shown that intensification of microbial processes can lead to significant changes in the chemical composition and physical state of the radioactive waste. It was concluded that the biogeochemical processes can have both a positive effect on the safety of radioactive waste storages (immobilization of RW macrocomponents, a decreased migration ability of radionuclides) and a negative one (biogenic gas production in subterranean formations and destruction of cement matrix).

  14. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-09

    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  15. Analysis of the Institutional Framework For Radioactive Waste Management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Wisnubroto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the infrastructure for radioactive waste management in Indonesia has been studied using several parameters, i.e. policy, regulatory authorities and their regulations, implementing organizations and financial system. By considering the international trends and the Indonesian program to utilize nuclear power, the infrastructure of radioactive waste management needs to be improved. The Act No. 10/1997 on Nuclear Energy for the future beneficence will have to be amended to incorporate several missing key points on waste management, such as definition of radioactive waste, disposal of Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW, and classification of waste. Full involvement of some important stakeholders, especially the State Ministry of Environment, on the radioactive waste management infrastructure is required since some radioactive waste is generated from non nuclear waste. Assigning full authority to the State Ministry of Environment for regulating radioactive waste generated by non nuclear facilities may be more effective, whereas BAPETEN is still holding onto control over the waste generated from nuclear facilities. In the near future, several regulations on clearance level, classification of waste, NORM/TENORM, and financial system are expected to be set up for urgent need. By considering the high risk for handling of radioactivity, including for transportation and storage, the liability or assurance of the safety for such activities must be accounted for. Finally, establishment of financial system for long term waste management in Indonesia needs to be implemented to ensure that the radioactive waste will not be the burden on future generations.

  16. Load estimation and assessment of land-based pollution for Quanzhou Bay and their relevance to the Total Quantity Control of Pollutants Discharged into the Sea (TQCPS) Program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W. L.; Yang, S. Y.; Wang, J.; Xiao, J. M.; Lu, X. X.; Lin, J.; Huang, P.; Cai, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Total Quantity Control of Pollutants Discharged into the Sea (TQCPS) Program belonged to the Public Science and Technology Research Funds Projects of Ocean in China, launched in 2008. As one of the most important and typical demonstration cases of the TQCPS Program, a full investigation of the land-based pollutions discharges around Quanzhou Bay, China developed the total input for three main environmental factors (NH3-N, TP, COD) which were estimated and quantified in 2008 and 2012, respectively. Combined with the trend of seawater quality changes in Quanzhou Bay in the same periods, the effects of the program's implementation were then evaluated. On the whole, by using the basic survey data and export coefficient method, the total amounts of NH3-N, TP and COD discharged into the bay were estimated to be approximately 888.3, 130.6 and 14527.4 t/a in 2008, and 1518.6, 558.8 and 19986.7 t/a in 2012, respectively, where the percentage of the discharge from domestic sources (46.5% in 2008 and 45.2% in 2012) was generally higher than that from the other sources. Based on the characteristic of geography and administrative division, the land areas around the bay were divided into three parts: the south coast region (SCR), the west coast region (WCR), and the north coast region (NCR). The SCR and WCR accounted for 59.2 and 35.4% of the COD loads, and 49.2 and 48.0% of NH3-N loads in 2008. The NCR contributed less of the industrial pollution, but most to domestic pollution (54.1%), followed by 26.2% in the SCR in 2012. The contributions of the discharge from different land areas to the pollution of Quanzhou Bay were found to be differed in 2008 and 2012. Due to the difference in the levels of the economic development among these three areas, the discharge of pollutants from the north coast was much lower than that from the other two parts in 2008; however, following our suggestion of the moderation and optimization of the industrial distribution and the sewage

  17. WWW Table of Radioactive Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, R. B.; Ekstrom, L. P.; Chu, S. Y. F.

    1999-10-01

    An electronic sequel to the Table of Radioactive Isotopes (John Wiley, 1986) is being developed for use on the WWW. Updated adopted and decay data from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Decay File (ENSDF) and other sources have been combined and edited. Decay scheme normalizations are revised when necessary. Gamma-ray and alpha-particle energies can be searched interactively by energy or parent half-life, mass, and atomic or neutron number. Summary data including half-lives, Q-values, production mode(s), genetic feedings, and a list of references published since the last full evaluation are available. Users can display energy or intensity ordered tables of gamma-rays, K and L x-rays, alpha-particles, and beta endpoints. Spectra of betas and bremsstrahlung, and Auger/conversion electrons can be viewed with an interactive JAVA applet. Decay schemes can be displayed with the JAVA version of Isotope Explorer 3.0. The URL for the Table of Radioactive Isotopes is http://nucleardata.nuclear.lu.se/nucleardata/toi/.

  18. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  19. Radioactivity in the galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

  20. Cosmic radioactivity and INTEGRAL results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Roland [Max Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching, Germany and Excellence Cluster Origin and Evolution of the Universe' , D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-05-02

    Gamma-ray lines from radioactive decay of unstable isotopes co-produced by nucleosynthesis in massive stars and supernova have been measured since more than thirty years. Over the past ten years, INTEGRAL complemented the first sky survey made by COMPTEL. The {sup 26}A1 isotope with 1 My decay time had been first direct proof of currently-ongoing nucleosynthesis in our Galaxy. This has now become a tool to study the ∼My history of specific source regions, such as massive-star groups and associations in nearby regions which can be discriminated from the galactic-plane background, and the inner Galaxy, where Doppler shifted lines add to the astronomical information about bar and spiral structure. Recent findings suggest that superbubbles show a remarkable asymmetry, on average, in the spiral arms of our galaxy. {sup 60}Fe is co-produced by the sources of {sup 26}A1, and the isotopic ratio from their nucleosynthesis encodes stellar-structure information. Annihilation gamma-rays from positrons in interstellar space show a puzzling bright and extended source region central to our Galaxy, but also may be partly related to nucleosynthesis. {sup 56}Ni and {sup 44}Ti isotope gamma-rays have been used to constrain supernova explosion mechanisms. Here we report latest results using the accumulated multi-year database of INTEGRAL observations, and discuss their astrophysical interpretations, connecting to other traces of cosmic radioactivity and to other cosmic messengers.

  1. Import/Export Service of Radioactive Material and Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export Service of radioactive material (http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ - e-mail : service-rp-shipping@cern.ch) and the Radioactive Sources Service (http://cern.ch/service-radioactive-sources - e-mail : service-radioactive-sources@cern.ch) at bldg. 24/E-024 will be closed on FRIDAY 10 SEPTEMBER 2004. Tel. 73171

  2. A Study on the improvement of Paldang dam discharge evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Chul; Kim, Chong Hak; Lee, Dae Soo [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Lee, Won Hwan; Cho, Won Chul; Heo, Jun Haeng [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Besides the original purpose of electric power generation, the Paldang dam plays such important roles as flood control and water supply in the Han river. However, significant drawdown of the downstream water level since 1973 has caused considerable differences between the real discharges and the estimated values currently in use. This study was performed to improve discharge evaluation method and to provide new discharge table appropriate for the changed condition. Through the physical model tests assisted by numerical test, the discharge equations were modified, the discharge table was revised for steady and unsteady flow conditions, but the gate operation rules proved reasonable and remained unchanged. (author). 81 refs., 166 figs.

  3. Direct observation of laser guided corona discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tie-Jun; Wei, Yingxia; Liu, Yaoxiang; Chen, Na; Liu, Yonghong; Ju, Jingjing; Sun, Haiyi; Wang, Cheng; Lu, Haihe; Liu, Jiansheng; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-01-01

    Laser based lightning control holds a promising way to solve the problem of the long standing disaster of lightning strikes. But it is a challenging project due to insufficient understanding of the interaction between laser plasma channel and high voltage electric filed. In this work, a direct observation of laser guided corona discharge is reported. Laser filament guided streamer and leader types of corona discharges were observed. An enhanced ionization took place in the leader (filament) through the interaction with the high voltage discharging field. The fluorescence lifetime of laser filament guided corona discharge was measured to be several microseconds, which is 3 orders of magnitude longer than the fluorescence lifetime of laser filaments. This work could be advantageous towards a better understanding of laser assisted leader development in the atmosphere. PMID:26679271

  4. Control of population of excited nitrogen molecules by mixing hydrogen in low pressure discharge; Chisso jun`antei reiki bunshi mitsudo no quenching ni yoru seigyo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, K.; Yumoto, M.; Sakai, T. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    The authors have studied on surface treatment of PTFE by a low pressure discharge. It is deduced that excited nitrogen molecules contribute to introduce polar components on the surface. To confirm the speculation, we tried to change population of metastable nitrogen N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) by quenching precursor N2 (B{sup 3}{pi}g), with hydrogen molecule. The decrease of relaxation time which indicates a change of excited molecule and measured by emission spectroscopy using a time after glow method was obtained. As a result, the relaxation times of N2 (B{sup 3}{pi}g) and N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) decreased to 55% and 20% respectively, when mixing ratio of hydrogen was 3%. It was also deduced that hydrogen atom may take a part in a quenching process of N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}). 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Kinetics of the Electric Discharge Pumped Oxygen-Iodine Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    of the sustainer pulse is tailored to keep the discharge stable. In January 2007, OSU demonstrated a peak laser power of 0.28 W, using a pulser...controlled avalanche ionization, Applied Physics Letters, 22, p. 670, (1973). (57) Hill. A.E., The next generation of controlled avalanche discharge ...pressure oxygen pulsed discharge . Simple and quick method for temperature determination, J. Phys. D:Appl. Phys. 32, pp. 246-250, (1998). (71

  6. Transport Models for Radioactive Carbon Dioxide at RWMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Laurence Charles; Hohorst, Frederick August

    2001-12-01

    Radioactive carbon dioxide (formed by oxidation of carbon-14) is a highly mobile, radioactive contaminant released from solid wastes buried at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Radioactive CO2 is chemically active in the environment, volatile, water soluble, and subject to adsorption on solids. For this reason, its fate must be understood and controlled to meet radiological requirements (protection of the atmosphere, aquifer, vadose zones, plants and animals). In the present work, the migration of carbon-14 as dissolved bicarbonate was studied using miscible displacement experiments in water-saturated columns containing sediments from RWMC. Dissolved carbon-14 was retarded relative to the movement of water by a factor of about 3.6, which translates to a partition coefficient (Kd) of 0.8 ml/g. Two different adsorption sites were identified, with one site possibly having a nonlinear adsorption isotherm. A conservative tracer gas, sulfur hexafluoride, was used to measure the tortuosity of sedimentary material for gaseous diffusion. The tortuosity of the RWMC sediment (Spreading Area B sediment) was determined to be 3.2, which is slightly greater than predicted by the commonly used Millington-Quirk equation. In terms of affecting the migration of carbon-14 to the aquifer, the relative importance of the parameters studied is: (1) natural moisture content of the sediments, (2) sediment tortuosity to gas-phase diffusion, and (3) adsorption onto solid phases.

  7. Novel Molecular Discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbig, R.; Koerber, A.; Schwan, S.; Hayashi, D.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic investigation into halides and ~oxides showed the high potential of transition metal oxides as visible radiators for highly efficient gas discharge light sources. Zirconium monoxide (ZrO) has been identified as most promising candidate combining highly attractive green and red emission

  8. Electrostatic Discharge Training Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    NAVSEA SE 003-AA-TRN-OO LEYE V ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE TRAINING MANUAL s DTIC ,T OF I!ELECTE, ,4MA 0W\\R 9 981 E PUBLISHED BY DIRECTION OF COMMANDER...LABORATORY-TYPE DETECTORS SHOULD BE USED. IN SUMMARY, CHARACTERIS- TICS TO CONSIDER IN SELECTING AN ELECTROSTATIC DETECTOR ARE: o SENSITIVITY (MINIMUM

  9. ACL reconstruction - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have redness, pain, swelling, or yellowish discharge from your incisions. You have a temperature higher than 101°F (38.3°C). ... W, Amy E, Sepulveda F. Anterior cruciate ligament tear. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD, eds. ...

  10. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  11. Occupational monitoring at radioactive waste deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner S.; Cunha, Franklin S. [Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (COMAP.N/FCN/INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Fábrica de Combustível Nuclear. Coordenação de Meio Ambiente e Proteção Radiológica Ambiental; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/UFF), Niterói, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br, E-mail: franklincunha@inb.gov.br, E-mail: lararapls@hotmail.com, E-mail: Ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The Initial Deposit of Low Activity Radioactive Waste - DIRBA is an ancillary facility to the Nuclear Fuel Factory - FCN for the initial storage of low activity radioactive waste generated in the nuclear fuel cycle under the responsibility of the FCN. Currently approximately 460 200-liter drums containing Class 2.3 waste are stored: Waste containing Natural Radionuclides (RBMN-RN). As part of the nuclear licensing of the facility, an area radiological monitoring program was developed with monthly monitoring of 17 exposure points, 3 direct long-distance air sampling points with CAM alpha-7 monitors, monitored in January and 9 points where smears of alpha long half-life emitters were monitored in January. The mean exposure rate between points was 0.5 μSv∙h{sup -1}, with a maximum of 1.27 μSv∙h{sup -1} varying, on average, between 0.98 μSv∙h{sup -1} at point P1 to 0.23 μSv∙h{sup -1} at P11. The monthly average was the same, 0.50 μSv∙h-1, ranging from 0.46 μSv∙h{sup -1} (November) to 0.57 μSv∙h{sup -1} (August). The half-life long-lived alpha sampling were all below the MDA as well as the 9 smears. Regarding the requirements of monitored areas, the deposit must be considered as supervised area, from the point of view of radioprotection. The possibility of tipping the drums or other accidents with spillage of material contained into them caused, in a proactive way, the area to be considered a controlled area. (author)

  12. Dissolved Concentration Limits of Radioactive Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Chen; E.R. Thomas; F.J. Pearson; P.L. Cloke; T.L. Steinborn; P.V. Brady

    2003-06-20

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of radioactive elements under possible repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, and measurements made in laboratory experiments and field work. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 radioactive elements (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium), which are important to calculated dose. Model outputs are mainly in the form of look-up tables plus one or more uncertainty terms. The rest are either in the form of distributions or single values. The results of this analysis are fundamental inputs for total system performance assessment to constrain the release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Solubilities of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, lead, and radium have been re-evaluated using the newly updated thermodynamic database (Data0.ymp.R2). For all of the actinides, identical modeling approaches and consistent environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models in this revision. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, activity coefficients, and selection of solubility controlling phase have been quantified or otherwise addressed. Moreover, a new blended plutonium solubility model has been developed in this revision, which gives a mean solubility that is three orders of magnitude lower than the plutonium solubility model used for the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation. Two alternative neptunium solubility models have also been

  13. Assessment of Radioactive Liquid Effluents Release at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa; dos Santos, Adir Janete Godoy

    2008-08-01

    A continuous effluent monitoring program has been established at IPEN's plant in order to allow an environmental impact assessment due to radioactive liquid effluent discharge to sanitary system. Representative samples of radioactive liquid effluents are analyzed by using high resolution gamma spectroscopy and instrumental neutron activation analysis, facing to Brazilian radioprotection regulatory rules. The results are consolidating yearly in the Institute source-term. In this paper, results of the source-term are presented, concerning to years 2004, 2005 and 2006. The total activity discharged was 8.5×l08 Bq, 5.7×108 Bq and 2.7×l08 Bq, respectively. As the release is strongly dependent on the total amount of the effluent and on the dilution factor, special attention is needed in order to obtain the correct value of that last one. The estimated inside plant dilution factor, considering the recent facilities and the reshaping of the sewerage system was 80, 180 and 130, for period of 2004, 2005 and 2006 discharged liquid radioactive effluent.

  14. Simulation of radioactive tracer transport using IsoRSM and uncertainty analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAYA, A.; Chang, E.; Yoshimura, K.; Oki, T.

    2013-12-01

    Due to the massive earthquakes and tsunami on March 11 2011 in Eastern Japan, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was severely damaged and some reactors were exploded. To know how the radioactive materials were spread and how much they were deposited into the land, it is important to enhance the accuracy of radioactive transport simulation model. However, there are uncertainties in the models including dry and wet deposition process in the models, meteorological field and release amount of radioactive materials. In this study we analyzed these uncertainties aiming for higher accuracy in the simulation. We modified the stable isotope mode of Regional Spectral Model (IsoRSM, Yoshimura et al., 2009) to enable to simulate the transport of the radioactive tracers, namely iodine 131 and cesium 137, by including the dry and wet deposition processes. With this model, we conducted a set of sensitivity experiments using different parameters in the deposition processes, different diffusivity in advection processes, and different domain sizes. The control experiment with 10km resolution covering most of Japan and surrounding oceans (132.7oE-151.5oE &28.3oN-46.7oN) and the emission estimated by Chino et al. (2011) showed reasonable temporal results for Toukatsu area (eastern part of Tokyo metropolis and western part of Chiba prefecture where low-level contamination was occurred), i.e., on 22 March, the tracers from Fukushima were reached and precipitated in a significant amount as wet deposition. Thus we conducted 4 experimental simulations to analyze the simulation uncertainty due to 1) different meteorological pattern, different parameters for 2) wet and 3) dry deposition and 4) diffusion. Though the temporal patterns of deposition of radioactive particles were somewhat similar each other in all experiments, we revealed that the impacts to the area mean deposition were large. Results of the simulations with different diffusivity and different domain size showed that the

  15. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The presentations made at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials are included. The purpose of the meeting was for the interchange of information on the technology and politics of radioactive material transportation. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual items. (DC)

  16. Note from the Radioactive Waste Section

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group wishes to announce that the radioactive waste treatment centre will be closed on Friday, 19 December. In addition, waste reception will be limited to a strict minimum on Thursday, 18 December. Users of the centre are requested to adjust their plans accordingly. For more information, call 73875.

  17. Indian programme on radioactive waste management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The primary objective of radioactive waste management is protection of human health, environment and future generation. This article describes, briefly, the Indian programme on management of different radioactive wastes arising in the entire nuclear fuel cycle adhering to this objective.

  18. [Radioactive burden resulting from zirconia implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Brandies, E; Pratzel, H; Wendt, T

    1991-10-01

    Due to its mechanical properties circonia is an interesting implantation material. However, it may contain a certain amount of radioactive isotopes. The measurement of alpha-emission reveals varying amounts of radiation. As a result, a declaration of radioactivity should be required for circonia implants and only circonia with low emission levels should be used for implantation purposes.

  19. Production of extended plasma channels in atmospheric air by amplitude-modulated UV radiation of GARPUN-MTW Ti : sapphire—KrF laser. Part 2. Accumulation of plasma electrons and electric discharge control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvorykin, V. D.; Ionin, Andrei A.; Levchenko, A. O.; Mesyats, Gennadii A.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Smetanin, Igor V.; Sunchugasheva, E. S.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Shutov, A. V.

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the production of extended (~1 m) plasma channels is studied in atmospheric air by amplitude-modulated laser pulses of UV radiation, which are a superposition of a subpicosecond USP train amplified in a regenerative KrF amplifier with an unstable confocal resonator and a quasi-stationary lasing pulse. The USPs possess a high (0.2-0.3 TW) peak power and efficiently ionise oxygen molecules due to multiphoton ionisation, and the quasi-stationary lasing pulse, which has a relatively long duration (~100 ns), maintains the electron density at a level ne = (3-5) × 1014 cm—3 by suppressing electron attachment to oxygen. Experiments in laser triggering of high-voltage electric discharges suggest that the use of combined pulses results in a significant lowering of the breakdown threshold and enables controlling the discharge trajectory with a higher efficiency in comparison with smooth pulses. It was shown that controlled breakdowns may develop with a delay of tens of microseconds relative to the laser pulse, which is many orders of magnitude greater than the lifetime of free electrons in the laser-induced plasma. We propose a mechanism for this breakdown, which involves speeding-up of the avalanche ionisation of the air by negative molecular oxygen ions with a low electron binding energy (~0.5 eV) and a long lifetime (~1 ms), which are produced upon cessation of the laser pulse.

  20. The radioactive beam facility ALTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essabaa, Saïd, E-mail: essabaa@ipno.in2p3.fr; Barré-Boscher, Nicole; Cheikh Mhamed, Maher; Cottereau, Evelyne; Franchoo, Serge; Ibrahim, Fadi; Lau, Christophe; Roussière, Brigitte; Saïd, Abdelhakim; Tusseau-Nenez, Sandrine; Verney, David

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Research at the ALTO TNA-facility. • R and D on radioactive ion sources. • R and D on the lanthanide beam production by fluorination. • Recent developments on uranium carbide targets. -- Abstract: The Transnational Access facility ALTO (TNA07-ENSAR/FP7) has been commissioned and received from the French safety authorities, the operation license. It is allowed to run at nominal intensity to produce 10{sup 11} fissions/s in a thick uranium carbide target by photo-fission using a 10 μA, 50 MeV electron beam. In addition the recent success in operating the selective laser ion source broadens the physics program with neutron-rich nuclear beams possible at this facility installed at IPN Orsay. The facility also aims at being a test bench for the SPIRAL2 project. In that framework an ambitious R and D program on the target ion source system is being developed.

  1. Low-level radioactive biomedical wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarett, G.W.

    A summary of the management and hazards of low-level radioactive biomedical wastes is presented. The volume, disposal methods, current problems, regulatory agencies, and possible solutions to disposal problems are discussed. The benefits derived from using radioactivity in medicine are briefly described. Potential health risks are discussed. The radioactivity in most of the radioactive biomedical waste is a small fraction of that contained naturally in the human body or in the natural environment. Benefit-risk-cost considerations are presented. The cost of managing these wastes is getting so high that a new perspective for comparison of radioactivity (facts, risks, costs, benefits and trade-offs) and alternate approaches to minimize the risk and cost and maximize the benefits is suggested. (DMC)

  2. Apparatus and method for radioactive waste screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Douglas W.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Salomon, Hopi; Williams, Charles Leroy

    2012-09-04

    An apparatus and method relating to screening radioactive waste are disclosed for ensuring that at least one calculated parameter for the measurement data of a sample falls within a range between an upper limit and a lower limit prior to the sample being packaged for disposal. The apparatus includes a radiation detector configured for detecting radioactivity and radionuclide content of the of the sample of radioactive waste and generating measurement data in response thereto, and a collimator including at least one aperture to direct a field of view of the radiation detector. The method includes measuring a radioactive content of a sample, and calculating one or more parameters from the radioactive content of the sample.

  3. Production of high intensity radioactive beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    The production of radioactive nuclear beams world-wide is reviewed. The projectile fragmentation and the ISOL approaches are discussed in detail, and the luminosity parameter is used throughout to compare different production methods. In the ISOL approach a thin and a thick target option are distinguished. The role of storage rings in radioactive beam research is evaluated. It is concluded that radioactive beams produced by the projectile fragmentation and the ISOL methods have complementary characteristics and can serve to answer different scientific questions. The decision which kind of facility to build has to depend on the significance and breadth of these questions. Finally a facility for producing a high intensity radioactive beams near the Coulomb barrier is proposed, with an expected luminosity of {approximately}10{sup 39} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}, which would yield radioactive beams in excess of 10{sup 11} s{sup {minus}1}. 9 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Nuclear radioactive techniques applied to materials research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, João Guilherme; Wahl, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review materials characterization techniques using radioactive isotopes at the ISOLDE/CERN facility. At ISOLDE intense beams of chemically clean radioactive isotopes are provided by selective ion-sources and high-resolution isotope separators, which are coupled on-line with particle accelerators. There, new experiments are performed by an increasing number of materials researchers, which use nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Mössbauer, Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC), beta-NMR and Emission Channeling with short-lived isotopes not available elsewhere. Additionally, diffusion studies and traditionally non-radioactive techniques as Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy, Hall effect and Photoluminescence measurements are performed on radioactive doped samples, providing in this way the element signature upon correlation of the time dependence of the signal with the isotope transmutation half-life. Current developments, applications and perspectives of using radioactive ion beams and tech...

  5. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Cochran, John Russell; Sol Shamsaldin, Emad (Iraq Ministry of Science and Technology)

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  6. Radioactively Contaminated Sites | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-12

    If radioactive materials are used or disposed of improperly, they can contaminate buildings and the environment. Every site requiring cleanup is different depending on the type of facility, the radioactive elements involved and the concentration of the radioactive elements.

  7. Land-based discharges of marine debris: From local to global regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Nollkaemper (Andre)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis article outlines the major regulatory requirements involved in the control of land-based discharges of marine debris, and reviews the main developments in the process towards more appropriate international controls of such discharges.

  8. Liquid discharges from patients undergoing {sup 131}I treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barquero, R. [Servicio de Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica, Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega, E-47010 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: rbarquero@hurh.sacyl.es; Basurto, F. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47010 Valladolid (Spain); Nunez, C. [Servicio de Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, FJD, E-82001 Madrid (Spain); Esteban, R. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Clinico Universitario, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    This work discusses the production and management of liquid radioactive wastes as excretas from patients undergoing therapy procedures with {sup 131}I radiopharmaceuticals in Spain. The activity in the sewage has been estimated with and without waste radioactive decay tanks. Two common therapy procedures have been considered, the thyroid cancer (4.14 GBq administered per treatment), and the hyperthyroidism (414 MBq administered per treatment). The calculations were based on measurements of external exposure around the 244 hyperthyroidism patients and 23 thyroid cancer patients. The estimated direct activity discharged to the sewage for two thyroid carcinomas and three hyperthyroidisms was 14.57 GBq and 1.27 GBq, respectively, per week; the annual doses received by the most exposed individual (sewage worker) were 164 {mu}Sv and 13 {mu}Sv, respectively. General equations to calculate the activity as a function of the number of patient treated each week were also obtained.

  9. Control and reception of out of use radioactive sources at the CDTN/CNEN, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Controle e recebimento de fontes radioativas fora de uso no CDTN/CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Luiz C.A.; Guzella, Marcia F.R.; Seles, Sandro R.N.; Cuccia, Valeria, E-mail: reislca@cdtn.b, E-mail: mfrg@cdtn.b, E-mail: seless@cdtn.b, E-mail: vc@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    For reception of the received sources and for accomplish with CNEN regulations and IAEA recommendations, the CDTN have implanted a system for receiving those sources and all the procedures for effective control and recovering of information. The CDTN posses a source deposit, a data bank for the inventory and also a Laboratory for Treatment of Sealed Sources

  10. Direct and controllable nitric oxide delivery into biological media and living cells by a pin-to-hole spark discharge (PHD) plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrynin, D; Friedman, G [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Arjunan, K; Clyne, A Morss [School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Fridman, A, E-mail: alisam@coe.drexel.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, College of Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2011-02-23

    Nitric oxide has great potential for improving wound healing through both inflammatory and vascularization processes. Nitric oxide can be produced in high concentrations by atmospheric pressure thermal plasmas. We measured the physical characteristics and nitric oxide production of a pin-to-hole spark discharge (PHD) plasma, as well as plasma-produced nitric oxide delivery into liquid and endothelial cells. The plasma temperature was calculated as 9030 {+-} 320 K by the Boltzmann method, which was adequate to produce nitric oxide, although the average gas temperature was near room temperature. The plasma produced significant UV radiation and hydrogen peroxide, but these were prevented from reaching the cells by adding a straight or curved tube extension to the plasma device. Plasma-produced nitric oxide in gas reached 2000 ppm and rapidly diffused into liquid and cells. Cells remained viable following plasma treatment and showed a linear increase in cGMP concentration with plasma treatment, indicating an intracellular functional response to PHD plasma NO. These data suggest that this plasma may provide a novel method for delivering NO locally and directly for enhanced wound healing.

  11. River Flow Regimes and Effective Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, S.; Sprocati, R.; Frascati, A.; Marani, M.; Schirmer, M.; Botter, G.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of effective discharge is widespread in geomorphology and river engineering and restoration. For example, it is used to design the most stable channel configuration, to estimate sedimentation rate and lifespan of reservoirs and to characterize the hydrologic forcing in models studying long-term evolution of rivers. Accordingly, the effective discharge has been the focus of countless empirical, theoretical and numerical studies, which found it to vary among catchments as a function of climate, landscape and river morphology, type of transport (dissolved, suspended or bedload), and of streamflow variability. The heterogeneity of the effective discharge values observed in different catchments challenges a thorough understanding of its pivotal drivers, and a consistent framework which explains observations carried out in different geographic areas is still lacking. In the present work, the observed diversity is explained in terms of the underlying heterogeneity of river flow regimes, by linking effective discharge to attributes of the sediment rating curve and to streamflow variability, as resulting from climatic and landscape drivers. An analytic expression of the effective ratio (i.e. the ratio between effective discharge and mean streamflow) is provided, which captures observed values of effective discharge for suspended sediment transport in a set of catchments of the continental United States. The framework disentangles hydrologic and landscape controls on effective discharge, and highlights distinct effective ratios of persistent and erratic hydrologic regimes (respectively characterized by low and high flow variability), attributable to intrinsically different streamflow dynamics. Clusters of river catchments characterized by similar streamflow dynamics can be identified. The framework provides an opportunity for first-order estimates of effective discharge in rivers belonging to different areas, based on the type of flow regime.

  12. Techniques to produce and accelerate radioactive ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Penescu, Liviu Constantin; Lettry, Jacques; Cata-Danil, Gheorghe

    The production and acceleration of the Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) continues the long line of nuclear investigations started in the XIXth century by Pierre and Marie Curie, Henri Becquerel and Ernest Rutherford. The contemporary applications of the RIBs span a wide range of physics fields: nuclear and atomic physics, solid-state physics, life sciences and material science. ISOLDE is a world-leading Isotope mass-Separation On-Line (ISOL) facility hosted at CERN in Geneva for more than 40 years, offering the largest variety of radioactive ion beams with, until now, more than 1000 isotopes of more than 72 elements (with Z ranging from 2 to 88), with half-lives down to milliseconds and intensities up to 1011 ions/s. The post acceleration of the full variety of beams allows reaching final energies between 0.8 and 3.0 MeV/u. This thesis describes the development of a new series of FEBIAD (“Forced Electron Beam Induced Arc Discharge”) ion sources at CERN-ISOLDE. The VADIS (“Versatile Arc Discharge Ion Source�...

  13. GASEOUS DISCHARGE DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    An extremely compact two-terminal gaseous discharge device is described that is capable of producing neutrons in copious quantities, relatively high energy ions, intense x rays, and the like. Principal novelty resides in the provision of a crossed electric-magnetic field region in the discharge envelope that traps electrons and accelerates them to very high energies to provide an intense ionizing medium adjacent the anode of the device for ionizing gas therein with extremely high efficiency. In addition, the crossed-field trapping region holds the electrons close to the anode whereby the acceleration of ions to the cathode is not materially effected by the electron sheath and the ions assume substantially the full energy of the anodecathode potential drop. (auth)

  14. Epileptiform discharge propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mălîia, Mihai Dragos; Meritam, Pirgit; Scherg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    propagation was analyzed using sequential voltage-maps of the averaged spikes, and principal components analysis. When propagation was detected, sources were modeled both at onset and peak. RESULTS: Propagation occurred in half of the patients. The median time of propagation between onset and peak was 17 ms......OBJECTIVE: To investigate how often discharge propagation occurs within the spikes recorded in patients evaluated for epilepsy surgery, and to assess its impact on the accuracy of source imaging. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 50 consecutive patients who had presurgical workup. Discharge....... In 60% of the cases with propagation (15/25 patients) this remained in the same sub-lobar area where onset occurred. The accuracy of source imaging in cases of propagating spikes was 67% when only analyzing onset or peak. This was lower as compared to cases without propagation (79%). Combining source...

  15. Diffuse Discharge Switch Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    discharge current, jO’ is also fixed by ne* For methane-argon, 9:1, the minimum starts at an E/n of 2.5 Td and gives an elec-7 (21) tron drift velocity of...deposition (assuming 10 ) is 280 W/cm , the discharge current density (at E/n = 2.5 Td ) is 8 A/cm ,and the area of the switch is 2.5 m . Since one reason for 3...34 ne e = 6.7x10-2 ne A/cm 2 (6) eb (p/p ) 12For ne 5x10,this gives 167211 (mA/cm 2 (7) 3eb (pipo0 ) The current gain is JO e ve ne 2.4 x 1014 (8) Jeb

  16. Discharge pulse phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    A model was developed which places radiation induced discharge pulse results into a unified conceptual framework. Only two phenomena are required to interpret all space and laboratory results: (1) radiation produces large electrostatic fields inside insulators via the trapping of a net space charge density; and (2) the electrostatic fields initiate discharge streamer plasmas similar to those investigated in high voltage electrical insulation materials; these streamer plasmas generate the pulsing phenomena. The apparent variability and diversity of results seen is an inherent feature of the plasma streamer mechanism acting in the electric fields which is created by irradiation of the dielectrics. The implications of the model are extensive and lead to constraints over what can be done about spacecraft pulsing.

  17. The design of remote discharge scenario management system on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, W.T, E-mail: wtchai@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Xiao, B.J [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Yuan, Q.P; Zhang, R.R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The remote discharge scenario management system is established on EAST, it provides some useful function for operators to manage discharge scenarios and formulate discharge schedule. • Operators can use this system to formulate discharge schedule on account of it can electing optimal scenarios automatically. • The system is not only for local user but also for remote user. • In the future, we can combine with actual discharge data and data mining technology to acquire optimal configuration, which to generate expert database and guiding experiment. - Abstract: The discharge scenarios on EAST plasma control system (PCS), characterized by different waveform parameters and different hardware requirements, will need a systematic discharge scenario management system for remote and local operators, in order to optimize storage structure and rationally manage discharge time. The remote management of discharge scenarios will require extending the functionalities of the present PCS “future shot” and “next shot” modules. Taking advantage of database technique, the operators can acquire detail information of all discharge scenarios directly without PCS user interface and search the specified scenarios by key words. In addition, the system can elect optimal scenarios automatically based on discharge schedule and plasma pulse setting for later artificial selection. To this purpose, a new remote discharge scenario management system (RDSMS) basis for Web is being conceived on EAST. The system contains a database with functions of “user management”, “scenario verification”, “prepared scenario management”, “actual discharge scenario management” and “discharge schedule management”. This paper will present the relevant conceptual design and give an account of the test results for implementation on EAST discharges.

  18. Modeling electronegative plasma discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenberg, A.J.; Lieberman, M.A. [Univ. of California, Berkley, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Macroscopic analytic models for a three-component electronegative gas discharge are developed. Assuming the negative ions to be in Boltzmann equilibrium, a positive ion ambipolar diffusion equation is derived. The discharge consists of an electronegative core and electropositive edges. The electron density in the core is nearly uniform, allowing a parabolic approximation to the plasma profile to be employed. The resulting equilibrium equations are solved analytically and matched to a constant mobility transport model of an electropositive edge plasma. The solutions are compared to a simulation of a parallel-plane r.f. driven oxygen plasma for p = 50 mTorr and n{sub eo}= 2.4 x 10{sup 15} m{sup -3}. The ratio {alpha}{sub o} of central negative ion density to electron density, and the electron temperature T{sub e}, found in the simulation, are in reasonable agreement with the values calculated from the model. The model is extended to: (1) low pressures, where a variable mobility model is used in the electropositive edge region; and (2) high {alpha}{sub o} in which the edge region disappears. The inclusion of a second positive ion species, which can be very important in describing electronegative discharges used for materials processing, is a possible extension of the model.

  19. Powerful glow discharge excilamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Victor F.; Panchenko, Aleksey N.; Skakun, Victor S.; Sosnin, Edward A.; Wang, Francis T.; Myers, Booth R.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A powerful glow discharge lamp comprising two coaxial tubes, the outer tube being optically transparent, with a cathode and anode placed at opposite ends of the tubes, the space between the tubes being filled with working gas. The electrodes are made as cylindrical tumblers placed in line to one other in such a way that one end of the cathode is inserted into the inner tube, one end of the anode coaxially covers the end of the outer tube, the inner tube penetrating and extending through the anode. The increased electrodes' surface area increases glow discharge electron current and, correspondingly, average radiation power of discharge plasma. The inner tube contains at least one cooling liquid tube placed along the axis of the inner tube along the entire lamp length to provide cathode cooling. The anode has a circumferential heat extracting radiator which removes heat from the anode. The invention is related to lighting engineering and can be applied for realization of photostimulated processes under the action of powerful radiation in required spectral range.

  20. {sup 137}Cs radioactive check device for quality and stability control of dosimeters used in radiotherapy; Controle de qualidade e estabilidade de dosimetros usados em radioterapia empregando fontes de {sup 137}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, C.F.E.; Mondaini, C.V.; Leite, S.P.; Pires, E.J.; Magalhaes, L.A.G.; Daivd, M.G.; Almeida, C.E. de, E-mail: cfealves@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Di Prinzio, R. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the design and construction of a shielded container to store a used brachytherapy {sup 137}Cs source. This system proposes a new option to check the periodical consistency and proper functioning of ionization chambers and electrometers used in radiotherapy. Since there is no similar equipment being produced in the Brazilian market and the chambers stability control is part of a licensing requirement this device was built to meet the needs of several radiotherapy centers without access to it. (author)

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF BENTONITE FOR ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Domitrović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered barrier systems are used in radioactive waste disposal sites in order to provide better protection of humans and the environment from the potential hazards associated with the radioactive waste disposal. The engineered barrier systems usually contain cement or clay (bentonite because of their isolation properties and long term performance. Quality control tests of clays are the same for all engineering barrier systems. Differences may arise in the required criteria to be met due for different application. Prescribed clay properties depend also on the type of host rocks. This article presents radioactive waste management based on best international practice. Standard quality control procedures for bentonite used as a sealing barrier in radioactive waste disposal sites are described as some personal experiences and results of the index tests (free swelling index, water adsorption capacity, plasticity limits and hydraulic permeability of bentonite (the paper is published in Croatian.

  2. The low to intermediate activity and short living waste storage facility. For a controlled management of radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de faible et moyenne activite a vie courte. Pour une gestion controlee des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Sited at about 50 km of Troyes (France), the Aube facility started in 1992 and has taken over the Manche facility for the surface storage of low to intermediate and short living radioactive wastes. The Aube facility (named CSFMA) is the answer to the safe management of these wastes at the industrial scale and for 50 years onward. This brochure presents the facility specifications, the wastes stored at the center, the surface storage concept, the processing and conditioning of waste packages, and the environmental monitoring performed in the vicinity of the site. (J.S.)

  3. Theory of gas discharge plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Boris M

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the theory of gas discharge plasmas in a didactical way. It explains the processes in gas discharge plasmas. A gas discharge plasma is an ionized gas which is supported by an external electric field. Therefore its parameters are determined by processes in it. The properties of a gas discharge plasma depend on its gas component, types of external fields, their geometry and regimes of gas discharge. Fundamentals of a gas discharge plasma include elementary, radiative and transport processes which are included in its kinetics influence. They are represented in this book together with the analysis of simple gas discharges. These general principles are applied to stationary gas discharge plasmas of helium and argon. The analysis of such plasmas under certain conditions is theoretically determined by numerical plasma parameters for given regimes and conditions.

  4. Using hospital discharge database to characterize Chagas disease evolution in Spain: there is a need for a systematic approach towards disease detection and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrador, Zaida; Rivas, Eva; Gherasim, Alin; Gomez-Barroso, Diana; García, Jezabel; Benito, Agustín; Aparicio, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    After the United States, Spain comes second in the list of countries receiving migrants from Latin America, and, therefore, it is the European country with the highest expected number of infected patients of Chagas disease. We have studied the National Health System's Hospital Discharge Records Database (CMBD) in order to describe the disease evolution from 1997 to 2011 in Spain. We performed a retrospective descriptive study using CMBD information on hospitalizations including Chagas disease. Data was divided in two periods with similar length in time: 1997-2004 and 2005-2011. Hospitalization rates were calculated and clinical characteristics were described. We used multivariable logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds-ratio (aOR) for the association between various conditions and being hospitalized with organ affectation. A total of 1729 hospitalization records were identified. Hospitalization rates for the two periods were 18 and 242.8/100000 population, respectively. The median age was 35 years (range 0-87), 74% were female and the 16-45 age-group was mostly represented (69.8%). Overall, 23.4% hospitalizations included the diagnosis of Chagas disease with organ complications. Being male [aOR: 1.3 (1.00-1.77)], aged 45 and 64 years [aOR: 2.59 (1.42-4.71)], and a median hospitalization cost above 3,065 euro [aOR: 2.03 (3.73-7.86)] were associated with hospitalizations with organ affectation. Since 2005, the number of detected infections increased in Spain. The predominant patients' profile (asymptomatic women at fertile age) and the conditions associated with organ affectation underlines the need for increased efforts towards the early detection of T cruzi.

  5. Using hospital discharge database to characterize Chagas disease evolution in Spain: there is a need for a systematic approach towards disease detection and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Herrador

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available After the United States, Spain comes second in the list of countries receiving migrants from Latin America, and, therefore, it is the European country with the highest expected number of infected patients of Chagas disease. We have studied the National Health System's Hospital Discharge Records Database (CMBD in order to describe the disease evolution from 1997 to 2011 in Spain. We performed a retrospective descriptive study using CMBD information on hospitalizations including Chagas disease. Data was divided in two periods with similar length in time: 1997-2004 and 2005-2011. Hospitalization rates were calculated and clinical characteristics were described. We used multivariable logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds-ratio (aOR for the association between various conditions and being hospitalized with organ affectation. A total of 1729 hospitalization records were identified. Hospitalization rates for the two periods were 18 and 242.8/100000 population, respectively. The median age was 35 years (range 0-87, 74% were female and the 16-45 age-group was mostly represented (69.8%. Overall, 23.4% hospitalizations included the diagnosis of Chagas disease with organ complications. Being male [aOR: 1.3 (1.00-1.77], aged 45 and 64 years [aOR: 2.59 (1.42-4.71], and a median hospitalization cost above 3,065 euro [aOR: 2.03 (3.73-7.86] were associated with hospitalizations with organ affectation. Since 2005, the number of detected infections increased in Spain. The predominant patients' profile (asymptomatic women at fertile age and the conditions associated with organ affectation underlines the need for increased efforts towards the early detection of T cruzi.

  6. Using Hospital Discharge Database to Characterize Chagas Disease Evolution in Spain: There Is a Need for a Systematic Approach towards Disease Detection and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherasim, Alin; Gomez-Barroso, Diana; García, Jezabel; Benito, Agustín; Aparicio, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    After the United States, Spain comes second in the list of countries receiving migrants from Latin America, and, therefore, it is the European country with the highest expected number of infected patients of Chagas disease. We have studied the National Health System’s Hospital Discharge Records Database (CMBD) in order to describe the disease evolution from 1997 to 2011 in Spain. We performed a retrospective descriptive study using CMBD information on hospitalizations including Chagas disease. Data was divided in two periods with similar length in time: 1997-2004 and 2005-2011. Hospitalization rates were calculated and clinical characteristics were described. We used multivariable logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds-ratio (aOR) for the association between various conditions and being hospitalized with organ affectation. A total of 1729 hospitalization records were identified. Hospitalization rates for the two periods were 18 and 242.8/100000 population, respectively. The median age was 35 years (range 0-87), 74% were female and the 16-45 age-group was mostly represented (69.8%). Overall, 23.4% hospitalizations included the diagnosis of Chagas disease with organ complications. Being male [aOR: 1.3 (1.00-1.77)], aged 45 and 64 years [aOR: 2.59 (1.42-4.71)], and a median hospitalization cost above 3,065 euro [aOR: 2.03 (3.73-7.86)] were associated with hospitalizations with organ affectation. Since 2005, the number of detected infections increased in Spain. The predominant patients’ profile (asymptomatic women at fertile age) and the conditions associated with organ affectation underlines the need for increased efforts towards the early detection of T cruzi. PMID:25884198

  7. Experience in the patients management which received treatments with radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I). Measurements and dosimetry pertaining to the personnel related; Experiencia en el manejo de pacientes que recibieron tratamientos con yodo radiactivo ({sup 131}I). Mediciones reglamentarias y dosimetria del personal relacionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz J, A. [Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Tlalpan, 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In the INNSZ there are administering ablative doses of radioactive iodine to patients with problems of the thyroid gland from 40 years ago. Starting from 1992 was initiated the restlessness to inform to the patients verbally and in writing over the measurements of radiological safety that must be followed for the protection of their families. In this work it is commented, the benefits obtained with the patients and the teachings to give to the personnel what attend the patients which receive treatments with iodine-131 and must be hospitalized. It is commented too over the standardization standing of the patients discharged whom received radioactive material and lastly, it was make a dosimetric study of the nurses, radiotherapeutic and control area. (Author)

  8. A laboratory activity for teaching natural radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilakouta, M.; Savidou, A.; Vasileiadou, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an educational approach for teaching natural radioactivity using commercial granite samples. A laboratory activity focusing on the topic of natural radioactivity is designed to develop the knowledge and understanding of undergraduate university students on the topic of radioactivity, to appreciate the importance of environmental radioactivity and familiarize them with the basic technology used in radioactivity measurements. The laboratory activity is divided into three parts: (i) measurements of the count rate with a Geiger-Muller counter of some granite samples and the ambient background radiation rate, (ii) measurement of one of the samples using gamma ray spectrometry with a NaI detector and identification of the radioactive elements of the sample, (iii) using already recorded 24 h gamma ray spectra of the samples from the first part (from the Granite Gamma-Ray Spectrum Library (GGRSL) of our laboratory) and analyzing selected peaks in the spectrum, students estimate the contribution of each radioactive element to the total specific activity of each sample. A brief description of the activity as well as some results and their interpretation are presented.

  9. Natural radioactivity in groundwater--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh Chau, Nguyen; Dulinski, Marek; Jodlowski, Pawel; Nowak, Jakub; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Sleziak, Monika; Wachniew, Przemyslaw

    2011-12-01

    The issue of natural radioactivity in groundwater is reviewed, with emphasis on those radioisotopes which contribute in a significant way to the overall effective dose received by members of the public due to the intake of drinking water originating from groundwater systems. The term 'natural radioactivity' is used in this context to cover all radioactivity present in the environment, including man-made (anthropogenic) radioactivity. Comprehensive discussion of radiological aspects of the presence of natural radionuclides in groundwater, including an overview of current regulations dealing with radioactivity in drinking water, is provided. The presented data indicate that thorough assessments of the committed doses resulting from the presence of natural radioactivity in groundwater are needed, particularly when such water is envisaged for regular intake by infants. They should be based on a precise determination of radioactivity concentration levels of the whole suite of radionuclides, including characterisation of their temporal variability. Equally important is a realistic assessment of water intake values for specific age groups. Only such an evaluation may provide the basis for possible remedial actions.

  10. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-01-01

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

  11. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-12-31

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF BENTONITE FOR ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravko Domitrović; Helena Vučenović; Biljana Kovačević Zelić

    2012-01-01

    Engineered barrier systems are used in radioactive waste disposal sites in order to provide better protection of humans and the environment from the potential hazards associated with the radioactive waste disposal. The engineered barrier systems usually contain cement or clay (bentonite) because of their isolation properties and long term performance. Quality control tests of clays are the same for all engineering barrier systems. Differences may arise in the required criteria to be met due f...

  13. Radioactive and mixed waste - risk as a basis for waste classification. Symposium proceedings No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-21

    The management of risks from radioactive and chemical materials has been a major environmental concern in the United states for the past two or three decades. Risk management of these materials encompasses the remediation of past disposal practices as well as development of appropriate strategies and controls for current and future operations. This symposium is concerned primarily with low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes. Individual reports were processed separately for the Department of Energy databases.

  14. Separation of oily materials in radioactive waste waters by flotation. Determination of operation and control parameters; Separacion de materiales oleosos en aguas residuales radiactivas por flotacion. Determinacion de parametros de operacion y control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz O, H.B.; Flores E, R.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: huemantzin@prodigy.net.mx

    2003-07-01

    In this work the determination of the operation and control parameters (air/solids ratio G/S, retention time {theta}, pressure P and de pressurized volume of mixed air-water V), of the flotation system used in the treatment of oleaginous residual water (polluted mainly with {sup 60} Co) coming from the decontamination process of worn out oils, using as response parameters the concentration of oleaginous material and the residual turbidity. The obtained results allowed to observe the dependence of G/S with the pressure and volume of air-water given. At the same time it was settled down that the set of operation conditions that offers the greater separation percentage of G As and turbidity in the smallest time, they are those obtained by V{sub 2} = 0.0012 m{sup 3} and P{sub 2} = 620 kPa, (G/S = 0.30 - 0.35, = 14-16 min) for what were employees as the ideal values of operation and control in the flotation system. As long as, the concentration of total Co is found under 1 mgL{sup -1}. Finally, the selected flotation system showed high separation levels of {sup 60} Co, whose specific activity are below of 0.007 BqmL{sup -1}. (Author)

  15. Radioactive waste management in member states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this part of the report is to present a brief overview of key issues in radioactive waste management on a nation-by-nation basis. Member State representatives were asked to address nine questions in no more than three or four pages. Hence, by design, the presentations are not comprehensive. Even so, the information set out here should provide the reader valuable insights into the nature of problems associated with radioactive waste management. The materials may also be used as a ready reference for specific information about radioactive waste management in individual Member States as well as for comparative purposes. (author).

  16. Communication from the Radioactive Waste Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste service of the Radiation protection Group informs you that as of 15 April 2011 radioactive waste can be delivered to the waste treatment centre (Bldg. 573) only during the following hours: Mon- Thu: 08:00 – 11:30 / 13:30 – 16:00 Fri : 08:00 – 11:30 An electronic form must be filled in before the arrival of the waste at the treatment centre: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/General/RadioactiveWaste for further information, please call 73171.

  17. Environmental radioactivity survey data in Cheonju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mo Sung; Goo, Hyun Mi [Cheongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    We surveyed the en environmental radiation and radioactivity in Chungcheongbuk-do in order to provide baseline data in the year of 2003. Data generated from the project will be the information base for making decisions necessary to ensure the protection of public health. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Cheongju regional monitoring station In the year 2003. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of environmental samples such as soil, drinking water, indicator plant(mugwort, pine-needle), agricultural and forest products, and processed food(tea)

  18. Temporal trends in childhood leukaemia incidence following exposure to radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard; Darby, Sarah C; Murphy, Michael F G

    2010-05-01

    Notably raised rates of childhood leukaemia incidence have been found near some nuclear installations, in particular Sellafield and Dounreay in the United Kingdom, but risk assessments have concluded that the radiation doses estimated to have been received by children or in utero as a result of operations at these installations are much too small to account for the reported increases in incidence. This has led to speculation that the risk of childhood leukaemia arising from internal exposure to radiation following the intake of radioactive material released from nuclear facilities has been substantially underestimated. The radionuclides discharged from many nuclear installations are similar to those released into the global environment by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, which was at its height in the late-1950s and early-1960s. Measurements of anthropogenic radionuclides in members of the general public resident in the vicinity of Sellafield and Dounreay have found levels that do not differ greatly from those in persons living remote from nuclear installations that are due to ubiquitous exposure to the radioactive debris of nuclear weapons testing. Therefore, if the leukaemia risk to children resulting from deposition within the body of radioactive material discharged from nuclear facilities has been grossly underestimated, then a pronounced excess of childhood leukaemia would have been expected as a consequence of the short period of intense atmospheric weapons testing. We have examined childhood leukaemia incidence in 11 large-scale cancer registries in three continents for which data were available at least as early as 1962. We found no evidence of a wave of excess cases corresponding to the peak of radioactive fallout from atmospheric weapons testing. The absence of a discernible increase in the incidence of childhood leukaemia following the period of maximum exposure to the radioactive debris of this testing weighs heavily against the suggestion that

  19. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  20. Radioactive Ions for Surface Characterization

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The collaboration has completed a set of pilot experiments with the aim to develop techniques for using radioactive nuclei in surface physics. The first result was a method for thermal deposition of isolated atoms (Cd, In, Rb) on clean metallic surfaces. \\\\ \\\\ Then the diffusion history of deposited Cd and In atoms on two model surfaces, Mo(110) and Pd(111), was followed through the electric field gradients (efg) acting at the probe nuclei as measured with the Perturbed Angular Correlation technique. For Mo(110) a rather simple history of the adatoms was inferred from the experiments: Atoms initially landing at terrace sites diffuse from there to ledges and then to kinks, defects always present at real surfaces. The next stage is desorption from the surface. For Pd a scenario that goes still further was found. Following the kink stage the adatoms get incorporated into ledges and finally into the top surface layer. For all these five sites the efg's could be measured.\\\\ \\\\ In preparation for a further series o...

  1. Compact Intracloud Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    In November of 1993, mysterious signals recorded by a satellite-borne broadband VHF radio science experiment called Blackboard led to a completely unexpected discovery. Prior to launch of the ALEXIS satellite, it was thought that its secondary payload, Blackboard, would most often detect the radio emissions from lightning when its receiver was not overwhelmed by noise from narrowband communication carriers. Instead, the vast majority of events that triggered the instrument were isolated pairs of pulses that were one hundred times more energetic than normal thunderstorm electrical emissions. The events, which came to be known as TIPPs (for transionospheric pulse pairs), presented a true mystery to the geophysics community. At the time, it was not even known whether the events had natural or anthropogenic origins. After two and one half years of research into the unique signals, two ground-based receiver arrays in New Mexico first began to detect and record thunderstorm radio emissions that were consistent with the Blackboard observations. On two occasions, the ground-based systems and Blackboard even recorded emissions that were produced by the same exact events. From the ground based observations, it has been determined that TIPP events areproduced by brief, singular, isolated, intracloud electrical discharges that occur in intense regions of thunderstorms. These discharges have been dubbed CIDS, an acronym for compact intracloud discharges. During the summer of 1996, ground-based receiver arrays were used to record the electric field change signals and broadband HF emissions from hundreds of CIDS. Event timing that was accurate to within a few microseconds made possible the determination of source locations using methods of differential time of arrival. Ionospheric reflections of signals were recorded in addition to groundwave/line-of-sight signals and were used to determine accurate altitudes for the discharges. Twenty-four CIDS were recorded from three

  2. The High Altitude Sampling Program: Radioactivity in the stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, R.; Juzdan, Z. R.

    1986-12-01

    Radioactivity data are presented from Project Airstream (aircraft) for the year 1983 and for Project Ashcan (balloon) for the years 1982 and 1984. Due to budgetary constraints both Projects Airstream and Ashcan have been terminated. This will be the final report containing radioactivity data collected during projects airstream and ashcan. Included are gross gamma, gamma spectral and radiochemical analyses of filter samples. Quality control samples submitted along with the air filter samples were analyzed and the results are presented. Low activity on many of the filters precludes the estimation of the stratospheric inventories of Pu-239, -240, and Sr-90. Based on data with count errors less than 20%, the mean Northern Hemisphere stratospheric Sr-90, Pu-239, and -240 concentration for November 1983 was 0.2 + or - 0.1 and 0.009 + or - 0.006 Bq/1000 scm, respectively.

  3. Discussions about safety criteria and guidelines for radioactive waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masafumi

    2011-07-01

    In Japan, the clearance levels for uranium-bearing waste have been established by the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC). The criteria for uranium-bearing waste disposal are also necessary; however, the NSC has not concluded the discussion on this subject. Meanwhile, the General Administrative Group of the Radiation Council has concluded the revision of its former recommendation 'Regulatory exemption dose for radioactive solid waste disposal', the dose criteria after the institutional control period for a repository. The Standardization Committee on Radiation Protection in the Japan Health Physics Society (The Committee) also has developed the relevant safety criteria and guidelines for existing exposure situations, which are potentially applicable to uranium-bearing waste disposal. A new working group established by The Committee was initially aimed at developing criteria and guidelines specifically for uranium-bearing waste disposal; however, the aim has been shifted to broader criteria applicable to any radioactive wastes.

  4. An overview on measurements of natural radioactivity in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans are always exposed during their lives to ionizing radiation arising outside and within the earth. The exposure to these radiation occurs from natural sources such as radioactive elements in rocks and soil, internal exposure form radioactive elements through water, food and air and cosmic rays entering from outer space to earth's atmosphere. About 87% of the radiation dose received by human beings is due to natural radiation, it is essential to assess the radiation doses in order to control possible health effects from such natural sources. In this regard, a number of articles have been appeared for Malaysia in international research journals, which have been reviewed and complied in this article. Most of these articles are about the measurement of activity concentrations of primordial (238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K and anthropogenic (137Cs radionuclide's and gamma dose rate in environmental samples using HPGe and NaI (Tl survey meter.

  5. Arc Discharge Electrode Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, G.

    The ASI was dedicated to the topic "Electrical Breakdown and Discharges in Gases," — a part of the general field called "Gaseous Electronics." There are physicists — more than a few — who have hardly heard about Gaseous Electronics. There are others — particularly, so called pure theoreticians — who consider this field the esoterica of physics filled with bizarre oddities. But there are also those experts who dared to look closer into this field and found that it has many fascinating and tempting aspects combining extreme features from various fields of physics.

  6. Continuous pile discharging machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phillips P.

    1976-05-11

    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug.

  7. Validation of the Monte Carlo model developed to estimate doses around the irradiated fuel pool produced by activated control rods discharged from a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abarca, Agustin; Gallardo, Sergio; Rodenas, Jose [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear], e-mail: ergalbe@iqn.upv.es

    2009-07-01

    BWR control rods are irradiated into the reactor by the neutron flux and consequently materials composing the rod become activated. When the control rods are withdrawn from the reactor, they must be stored into the spent fuel storage pool of the plant at a certain depth under water. Doses potentially received by plant workers in the area surrounding the pool edges as well as in a platform moving over the water surface should be calculated to assure the adequate protection. Irradiated fuel elements are stored at the bottom of the pool while controls rods are nearer the surface. Therefore, doses out of the pool are mainly produced by activated control rods. The MCNP5 code based on the Monte Carlo method has been applied to model the pool containing hanger devices with irradiated control rods and to estimate dose rates at points of interest. To obtain dose rates on the pool and around it an F4MESH tally has been used. Furthermore, the SSW/SSR technique has been applied in order to strongly reduce the computer time. Results have been compared with measurements in plant in order to validate the model. An interesting application of the validated model is the assessment of doses when some variation is introduced in the distribution of activated material. (author)

  8. A phase II randomized controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Praneem polyherbal vaginal tablets compared with betadine vaginal pessary in women with symptoms of abnormal vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhan, Sudha; Tripathi, Vrijesh; Sehgal, Raman; Kumar, Gaurav; Talwar, Gursaran P; Chatterjee, Arani

    2009-10-01

    Abnormal vaginal discharge (AVD) caused by a variety of reproductive tract infections is a widespread syndrome among women in India and in other developing countries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a polyherbal formulation, Praneem, can be used for the regression of the syndrome. A phase IotaIota randomized controlled study was carried out with Praneem polyherbal tablets and Betadine vaginal pessary in 99 women with AVD. The authors found that 92% of women using Praneem were relieved of their symptoms of AVD as against 81.6% women using Betadine. Significant reduction was also seen with both treatments in lower abdominal pain, vaginal itching, and dysuria. Thus, the study indicates the efficacy of Praneem for the treatment of AVD and provides a rationale for planning a further Phase III study on a larger sample size for definitive conclusions.

  9. Production of negatively charged radioactive ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Stracener, D. W.; Stora, T.

    2017-08-01

    Beams of short-lived radioactive nuclei are needed for frontier experimental research in nuclear structure, reactions, and astrophysics. Negatively charged radioactive ion beams have unique advantages and allow for the use of a tandem accelerator for post-acceleration, which can provide the highest beam quality and continuously variable energies. Negative ion beams can be obtained with high intensity and some unique beam purification techniques based on differences in electronegativity and chemical reactivity can be used to provide beams with high purity. This article describes the production of negative radioactive ion beams at the former holifield radioactive ion beam facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at the CERN ISOLDE facility with emphasis on the development of the negative ion sources employed at these two facilities. ).

  10. Radioactivity in man: levels, effects and unknowns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundo, J.

    1980-01-01

    The report discusses the potential for significant human exposure to internal radiation. Sources of radiation considered include background radiation, fallout, reactor accidents, radioactive waste, and occupational exposure to various radioisotopes. (ACR)

  11. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Environmental effects (including accidents) associated with facility construction, operation, decommissioning, and transportation in the management of commercially generated radioactive waste were analyzed for plants and systems assuming a light water power reactor scenario that produces about 10,000 GWe-yr through the year 2050. The following alternative fuel cycle modes or cases that generate post-fission wastes requiring management were analyzed: a once-through option, a fuel reprocessing option for uranium and plutonium recycle, and a fuel reprocessing option for uranium-only recycle. Volume 1 comprises five chapters: introduction; summary of findings; approach to assessment of environmental effects from radioactive waste management; environmental effects related to radioactive management in a once-through fuel cycle; and environmental effects of radioactive waste management associated with an LWR fuel reprocessing plant. (LK)

  12. Import/export Service of Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export service of radioactive material (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Radioactive Sources Service Please note that the radioactive sources service (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Moreover, the service being reduced transports between Swiss and French sites (and vice versa) will now be achieved by internal transport. Web site : http://cern.ch/service-radioactive-sources/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  13. The ISOLDE Facility: Radioactive beams at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The Isope Separation On-Line (ISOL) technique evolved from chemical techniques used to separate radioactive isotopes off-line from irradiated "targets". The ISOL targets of today, used at e.g. ISOLDE, can be of many different types and in different phases but the isotopes are always delivered at very low energies making the technique ideal for study of ground state properties and collections for other applications such as solid state physics and medical physics. The possibility of accelerating these low energy beams for nuclear structure studies, and in the long term future for neutrino physics, is now being explored at first generation radioactive beam facilities. The upgrade towards HIE-ISOLDE aim to consolidate ISOLDE's position as a world leading radioactive nuclear beam facility and it will be a pre-cursor to a future all European ISOL facility, EURISOL, with order of magnitudes higher radioactive beam intensities and energies. Prerequisite knowledge and references: None

  14. Radioactivity. Centenary of radioactivity discovery; Radioactivite. Centenaire de la decouverte de la radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpak, G. [Academie des Sciences, 75 - Paris (France); Tubiana, M. [Academie de Medecine, 75 - Paris (France); Bimbot, R. [Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules (India2P3), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    This small booklet was edited for the occasion of the exhibitions of the celebration of the centenary of radioactivity discovery which took place in various locations in France from 1996 to 1998. It recalls some basic knowledge concerning radioactivity and its applications: history of discovery, atoms and isotopes, radiations, measurement of ionizing radiations, natural and artificial radioactivity, isotope dating and labelling, radiotherapy, nuclear power and reactors, fission and fusion, nuclear wastes, dosimetry, effects and radioprotection. (J.S.)

  15. Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification.

  16. Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iroulard, M.G

    2007-04-15

    The basic requirement when preparing radioactivity standard solutions is to guarantee the concentration of a radionuclide or a radioelement, expressed in the form of activity concentration (Ac = A/m (Bq/g), with A: activity and m: mass of solution). Knowledge of the law of radioactive decay and the half-life of a radionuclide or radioelement makes it possible to determine the activity concentration at any time, and this must be confirmed subsequently by measurement. Furthermore, when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared, it is necessary to establish optimal conditions of thermodynamic stability of the standard solutions. Radioactivity standard solutions are prepared by metrology laboratories from original solutions obtained from a range of suppliers. These radioactivity standard solutions must enable preparation of liquid and/or solid radioactivity standard sources of which measurement by different methods can determine, at a given instant, the activity concentration of the radionuclide or radioelement present in the solution. There are a number of constraints associated with the preparation of such sources. Here only those that relate to the physical and chemical properties of the standard solution are considered, and therefore need to be taken into account when preparing a radioactivity standard solution. These issues are considered in this document in accordance with the following plan: - A first part devoted to the chemical properties of the solutions: - the solubilization media: ultra-pure water and acid media, - the carriers: concentration, oxidation state of the radioactive element and the carrier element. - A second part describing the methodology of the preparation, packaging and storage of standard solutions: - glass ampoules: the structure of glasses, the mechanisms of their dissolution, the sorption phenomenon at the solid-solution interface, - quartz ampoules, - cleaning and packaging: cleaning solutions, internal surface coatings and

  17. General criteria for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxey, M.N.; Musgrave, B.C.; Watkins, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques are being developed for conversion of radioactive wastes to solids and their placement into repositories. Criteria for such disposal are needed to assure protection of the biosphere. The ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle should be applicable at all times during the disposal period. Radioactive wastes can be categorized into three classes, depending on the activity. Three approaches were developed for judging the adequacy of disposal concepts: acceptable risk, ore body comparison, and three-stage ore body comparison. (DLC)

  18. Engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, R

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plants generate long-lived radioactive waste of high toxicity. The security assessment of repositories destined to definitive confinement of radioactive waste has been studied for several decades. Deep geological repositories are technically feasible and begin to be built by some pioneer countries. The scientific evaluation of interactions between the different engineered barriers is studied by laboratory experiments, natural analogues and modeling studies. The three methods are...

  19. The radioactive wastes treatment enterprises and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolev, I.A.; Pol`skij, O.G.; Verbov, V.V.; Verbova, L.F.; Puzanov, Y.V.; Paramonova, T.I. [SIA Radon, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Radioactive waste treatment is not a scientific problem only but also a social-and-economical problem. Dislike the activity of the waste treatment enterprises is a result of the population ignorance about impact level of those enterprises on environment. The results of radioecological inspection of 19 Russian enterprises for treatment of radioactive wastes are presented. Method of the impact estimation is described. No influence on the environment is displayed.

  20. Experimental and measurement issues in natural radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risica, S.; Bochicchio, F.; Bolzan, C.; Grisanti, G.; Nuccetelli, C

    2001-07-01

    The paper deals with some open experimental problems in the field of natural radioactivity. Its aim is to stimulate discussion on the type of research efforts needed in the field and to be planned for the future. The review, which makes no claims to completeness, analyses some issues in gamma spectrometry of natural radionuclides, and the measurement of natural radioactivity in non-nuclear industries and of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentration in air. (author)