WorldWideScience

Sample records for radioactive beams fission

  1. (d,p)-transfer induced fission of heavy radioactive beams

    CERN Document Server

    Veselsky, Martin

    2012-01-01

    (d,p)-transfer induced fission is proposed as a tool to study low energy fission of exotic heavy nuclei. Primary goal is to directly determine the fission barrier height of proton-rich fissile nuclei, preferably using the radio-active beams of isotopes of odd elements, and thus confirm or exclude the low values of fission barrier heights, typically extracted using statistical calculations in the compound nucleus reactions at higher excitation energies. Calculated fission cross sections in transfer reactions of the radioactive beams show sufficient sensitivity to fission barrier height. In the probable case that fission rates will be high enough, mass asymmetry of fission fragments can be determined. Results will be relevant for nuclear astrophysics and for production of super-heavy nuclei. Transfer induced fission offers a possibility for systematic study the low energy fission of heavy exotic nuclei at the ISOLDE.

  2. Determination of the fission barrier height in fission of heavy radioactive beams induced by the (d,p)-transfer

    CERN Multimedia

    A theoretical framework is described, allowing to determine the fission barrier height using the observed cross sections of fission induced by the (d,p)-transfer with accuracy, which is not achievable in another type of low-energy fission of neutron-deficient nuclei, the $\\beta$-delayed fission. The primary goal is to directly determine the fission barrier height of proton-rich fissile nuclei, preferably using the radio-active beams of isotopes of odd elements, and thus confirm or exclude the low values of fission barrier heights, typically extracted using statistical calculations in the compound nucleus reactions at higher excitation energies. Calculated fission cross sections in transfer reactions of the radioactive beams show sufficient sensitivity to fission barrier height. In the probable case that fission rates will be high enough, mass asymmetry of fission fragments can be determined. Results will be relevant for nuclear astrophysics and for production of super-heavy nuclei. Transfer induced fission of...

  3. Heavy neutron-deficient radioactive beams: fission studies and fragment distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, K.H.; Benlliure, J.; Heinz, A.; Voss, B. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Boeckstiegel, C.; Grewe, A.; Steinhaeuser, S.; Clerc, H.G.; Jong, M. de; Junghans, A.R.; Mueller, J. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Pfuetzner, M. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Experimental Physics

    1998-02-01

    The secondary-beam facility of GSI Darmstadt was used to study the fission process of short-lived radioactive nuclei. Relativistic secondary projectiles were produced by fragmentation of a 1 A GeV {sup 238}U primary beam and identified in nuclear charge and mass number. Their production cross sections were determined, and the fission competition in the statistical deexcitation was deduced for long isotopical chains. New results on the enhancement of the nuclear level density in spherical and deformed nuclei due to collective rotational and vibrational excitations were obtained. Using these reaction products as secondary beams, the dipole giant resonance was excited by electromagnetic interactions in a secondary lead target, and fission from excitation energies around 11 MeV was induced. The fission fragments were identified in nuclear charge, and their velocity vectors were determined. Elemental yields and total kinetic energies have been determined for a number of neutron-deficient actinides and preactinides which were not accessible with conventional techniques. The characteristics of multimodal fission of nuclei around {sup 226}Th were systematically investigated and related to the influence of shell effects on the potential energy and on the level density between fission barrier and scission. A systematic view on the large number of elemental yields measured gave rise to a new interpretation of the enhanced production of even elements in nuclear fission and allowed for a new understanding of pair breaking in large-scale collective motion. (orig.)

  4. $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with radioactive At beams

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and radioactive decay of the newly available pure beams of neutron-deficient and neutron-rich astatine (Z=85) isotopes. The fission probability and the fission fragment distribution of the even-even isotopes $^{194,196}$Po following the $\\beta$-decay of the isotopes $^{194,196}$At will be studied with the Windmill setup. In-source laser spectroscopy will be performed on the entire astatine isotopic chain, using a combination of the Windmill setup, ISOLTRAP MR-ToF and ISOLDE Faraday. Radioactive decay data will be acquired at the Windmill setup throughout those studies and contribute to the global understanding of the phenomenon of shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient lead region.

  5. Radioactive ion beams produced by neutron-induced fission at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Catherall, R; Gilardoni, S S; Köster, U

    2003-01-01

    The production rates of neutron-rich fission products for the next-generation radioactive beam facility EURISOL are mainly limited by the maximum amount of power deposited by protons in the target. An alternative approach is to use neutron beams to induce fission in actinide targets. This has the advantage of reducing: the energy deposited by the proton beam in the target; contamination from neutron-deficient isobars that would be produced by spallation; and mechanical stress on the target. At ISOLDE CERN, tests have been made on standard ISOLDE actinide targets using fast neutron bunches produced by bombarding thick, high-Z metal converters with 1 and 1.4 GeV proton pulses. This paper reviews the first applications of converters used at ISOLDE. It highlights the different geometries and the techniques used to compare fission yields produced by the proton beam directly on the target with neutron-induced fission. Results from the six targets already tested, namely UC2/graphite and ThO2 targets with tungsten an...

  6. Use of electron beams for the production of radioactive nuclei through photo-fission; Utilisation de faisceaux d'electrons pour la production des noyaux radioactifs par photo-fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M' garrech, Slah

    2004-09-01

    The IPN (institute of nuclear physics) of Orsay decided to build a linear accelerator in order to produce an electron beam of 50 MeV energy and of 10 {mu}A average intensity. It is the ALTO project (Linear Accelerator near the Tandem of Orsay). This project will be dedicated to the production of the radioactive ions using the photo-fission process. The central topic of this thesis is the study of the beam dynamics of the ALTO facility. The first part presents studies concerning the injector. The simulations made with the simulation code PARMELA allowed the optimization of the characteristics of pre-buncher (dephasing HF, accelerating field peak...) to obtain a good bunching factor at the entrance of the buncher and at the entrance of the accelerating section according to the distance separating the two systems. The second part of this thesis is related to measurements of transverse emittance of the beam at the buncher exit. The three gradients method has been selected and the optical system used is a solenoid. The results obtained are in good agreement with former measurements. Finally a calculation of the beam line was carried out to optimize the transport of the beam to the PARRNe target without degrading its characteristics. The calculation codes that have been used are BETA and TRACE-WIN. (author)

  7. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  8. Fission approach to cluster radioactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-08-04

    Aug 4, 2015 ... Also, the analytical superasymmetric fission (ASAF) model is successfully employed to make a systematic search and to predict, with other models, cluster ... those of the staff, the journals, various programmes, and Current Science, has changed from 'ias.ernet.in' (or 'academy.ias.ernet.in') to 'ias.ac.in'. Thus ...

  9. CERN: Producing radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Accelerating radioactive beams has long been of interest at CERN's ISOLDE on-line isotope separator - the possibility was discussed at a CERN Workshop on intermediate energy physics as early as 1977. Meanwhile, as was highlighted in the 1991 report of the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee, widespread scientific interest in these beams has developed and a range of projects are proposed, under construction or operational throughout the world

  10. Radioactive beams in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    In its report open-quotes Nuclear Physics in Europe - Opportunities and Perspectivesclose quotes, NuPECC concluded that physics with radioactive beams represents one of the foremost frontiers in nuclear physics. It therefore set up a study group to produce a report on the physics case for radioactive beams, together with a comparison of the relative merits of the various European facilities, operational or planned, and the R ampersand D required to achieve the desired goals. This paper presents some of the results of that report and concentrates on the latter two aspects of the task assigned to the Study Group. The facilities discussed are those planning to use the two-accelerator method to produce beams in the energy range of 0.5-25Mev/A. In addition, a report is given on the status of the recently-approved Test Bed facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, where the aim is to test the ability of existing ISOL target/ion-source technology to withstand a primary proton beam intensity of 100μA

  11. Radioactive heavy ion secondary beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.

    1987-01-01

    The production of secondary radioactive beams at GANIL using the LISE spectrometer is reviewed. The experimental devices, and secondary beam characteristics are summarized. Production of neutron rich secondary beams was studied for the systems Ar40 + Be at 44 MeV/u, and 018 + Be at 45 and 65 MeV/u. Partial results were also obtained for the system Ne22 + Ta at 45 MeV/u. Experiments using secondary beams are classified into two categories: those which correspond to fast transfer of nuclei from the production target to a well shielded observation point; and those in which the radioactive beam interacts with a secondary target

  12. Status of radioactive ion beams at the HRIBF

    CERN Document Server

    Stracener, D W

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) are produced using the isotope separation on-line technique and are subsequently accelerated up to a few MeV per nucleon for use in nuclear physics experiments. The first RIB experiments at the HRIBF were completed at the end of 1998 using sup 1 sup 7 F beams. Since then other proton-rich ion beams have been developed and a large number of neutron-rich ion beams are now available. The neutron-rich radioactive nuclei are produced via proton-induced fission of uranium in a low-density matrix of uranium carbide. Recently developed RIBs include sup 2 sup 5 Al from a silicon carbide target and isobarically pure beams of neutron-rich Ge, Sn, Br and I isotopes from a uranium carbide target.

  13. Map of calculated radioactivity of fission product, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tsuneo

    1978-07-01

    The overall radioactivities of fission products depending on irradiation time and cooling time were calculated for 18 different neutron fluxes, which are presented in contour maps and tables. Irradiation condition etc. are the followings: neutron flux (n sub(th)) 1 x 10 12 - 6.8 x 10 14 n/cm 2 /sec, uranium quantity 1 mole (6 x 10 23 atoms, ca. 271 g UO 2 ), U-235 enrichment 2.7%, irradiation time 60. - 6 x 10 7 sec (1 min - 1.9 y), cooling time 0. and 60. - 6 x 10 7 sec (1 min - 1.9 y). The enrichment value represents those for LWRs. To calculate the overall radioactivities, 595 fission product nuclides were introduced. Overall radioactivities calculations were made for 68,000 combinations of irradiation time, cooling time and neutron flux. The many complex decay chains of fission products were treated with CODAC-No.6 computer code. (author)

  14. Setup for fission and evaporation cross-section measurements in reactions induced by secondary beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.A.; Luk'yanov, S.M.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Skobelev, N.K.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.; Dlouhy, Z.; Radnev, S.; Poroshin, N.V.

    2002-01-01

    A setup for studying reactions induced by secondary radioactive beams has been constructed. It allows simultaneous measurement of α-particle and fission fragment energy spectra. By measuring the α-particles, identification of evaporation residues is achieved. A set of three targets can be used so as to ensure sufficient statistics. Two silicon detectors, located at 90 degrees to the secondary beam direction, face each target, thus covering 30% of the solid angle. This experimental setup is to be used to obtain excitation functions of fusion-fission reactions and of reactions leading to evaporation residue production

  15. A radioactive ion beam facility using photofission

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, W T

    1999-01-01

    Use of a high-power electron linac as the driver accelerator for a Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility is proposed. An electron beam of 30 MeV and 100 kW can produce nearly 5x10 sup 1 sup 3 fissions/s from an optimized sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U target and about 60% of this from a natural uranium target. An electron beam can be readily transmitted through a thin window at the exit of the accelerator vacuum system and transported a short distance through air to a water-cooled Bremsstrahlung-production target. The Bremsstrahlung radiation can, in turn, be transported through air to the isotope-production target. This separates the accelerator vacuum system, the Bremsstrahlung target and the isotope-production target, reducing remote handling problems. The electron beam can be scanned over a large target area to reduce the power density on both the Bremsstrahlung and isotope-production targets. These features address one of the most pressing technological challenges of a high-power RIB facility, namely the production o...

  16. Nuclear astrophysics with radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.; Gade, A.

    2010-01-01

    The quest to comprehend how nuclear processes influence astrophysical phenomena is driving experimental and theoretical research programs worldwide. One of the main goals in nuclear astrophysics is to understand how energy is generated in stars, how elements are synthesized in stellar events and what the nature of neutron stars is. New experimental capabilities, the availability of radioactive beams and increased computational power paired with new astronomical observations have advanced the present knowledge. This review summarizes the progress in the field of nuclear astrophysics with a focus on the role of indirect methods and reactions involving beams of rare isotopes.

  17. Laser spectroscopy of radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otten, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of using the laser spectroscopy in investigations radioactive beams is considered. The main attention is payed to the isotope shift of nuclear charge radii delta 2 >. The general trend of delta 2 > is discussed. Predictions for delta>r 2 < in the framework of the droplet model are given. It is noted that two parameter interpretation of the isotope shift based on the droplet model works the better, the further the distance spans and the clearer the nuclear structure is

  18. Automatic control and monitoring of the MIT fission converter beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, B.A.; Riley, K.J.; Harling, O.K.

    2000-01-01

    An automated control and monitoring system for the new MIT high intensity epithermal neutron irradiation facility has been designed and constructed. The neutron beam is monitored with fission counters located at the periphery of the beam near the patient position. Control of the beam is accomplished with redundant Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). These industrial controllers open and close the three shutters of the Fission Converter Beam. The control system uses a series of robust components to assure that the prescribed fluence is delivered. This paper discusses the design and implementation of this system. (author)

  19. Process for ultimate storage of radioactive fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baukal, W.; Gruenthaler, K.H.; Neumann, K.

    1980-01-01

    In order to exclude cracking in the cooling phase during sealing of radioactive oxidic fission products in glass melts, metallic filling elements - e.g. wires, tissues - are proposed to be incorporated in the mould before the glass melt is poured in. Especially nickel alloys with corrosion proof surface layers, e.g. titanium nitride, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminium oxide, suit best. These elements reduce thermal stresses and effect high thermal conductance towards the mould wall. (UWI) [de

  20. Cyclotrons for the production of radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics and design choices for modern cyclotrons. Cyclotrons can be used in 3 areas in the radioactive beam field: the production of high energy heavy ion beams for use in fragmentation, the spallation of targets with high energy protons, and the acceleration of radioactive beams from low energy to the MeV/u range. 16 refs., 6 figs

  1. Fission product yield measurements using monoenergetic photon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishichayan; Bhike, M.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.

    2017-09-01

    Measurements of fission products yields (FPYs) are an important source of information on the fission process. During the past couple of years, a TUNL-LANL-LLNL collaboration has provided data on the FPYs from quasi monoenergetic neutron-induced fission on 235U, 238U, and 239Pu and has revealed an unexpected energy dependence of both asymmetric fission fragments at energies below 4 MeV. This peculiar FPY energy dependence was more pronounced in neutron-induced fission of 239Pu. In an effort to understand and compare the effect of the incoming probe on the FPY distribution, we have carried out monoenergetic photon-induced fission experiments on the same 235U, 238U, and 239Pu targets. Monoenergetic photon beams of Eγ = 13.0 MeV were provided by the HIγS facility, the world's most intense γ-ray source. In order to determine the total number of fission events, a dual-fission chamber was used during the irradiation. These irradiated samples were counted at the TUNL's low-background γ-ray counting facility using high efficient HPGe detectors over a period of 10 weeks. Here we report on our first ever photofission product yield measurements obtained with monoenegetic photon beams. These results are compared with neutron-induced FPY data.

  2. Fission product yield measurements using monoenergetic photon beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishichayan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of fission products yields (FPYs are an important source of information on the fission process. During the past couple of years, a TUNL-LANL-LLNL collaboration has provided data on the FPYs from quasi monoenergetic neutron-induced fission on 235U, 238U, and 239Pu and has revealed an unexpected energy dependence of both asymmetric fission fragments at energies below 4 MeV. This peculiar FPY energy dependence was more pronounced in neutron-induced fission of 239Pu. In an effort to understand and compare the effect of the incoming probe on the FPY distribution, we have carried out monoenergetic photon-induced fission experiments on the same 235U, 238U, and 239Pu targets. Monoenergetic photon beams of Eγ = 13.0 MeV were provided by the HIγS facility, the world's most intense γ-ray source. In order to determine the total number of fission events, a dual-fission chamber was used during the irradiation. These irradiated samples were counted at the TUNL's low-background γ-ray counting facility using high efficient HPGe detectors over a period of 10 weeks. Here we report on our first ever photofission product yield measurements obtained with monoenegetic photon beams. These results are compared with neutron-induced FPY data.

  3. High purity radioactive beams at the bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.; Chatterjee, A.; Tobias, C.A.

    1979-03-01

    Peripheral nuclear fragmentation reactions of primary Bevalac heavy ion beams are used to produce secondary beams of radioactive nuclei. The large cross section and small deflection of the projectile fragments lead to high production and delivery efficiency for these beams. Dispersive beam transport allows good separation and purification of the desired secondary beams. 11 C and 19 Ne beams of high purity and good intensity (almost 0.2% of the primary beam current) are presently being used for biomedical experiments

  4. Physics with radioactive nuclear beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.N.; Tanihata, I.

    1992-01-01

    Recently developed facilities allow a wide range of new investigations of the reactions and properties of short-lived nuclei. These studies may help to solve puzzles of nuclear structure and the Big Bang. The purpose of nuclear physics is to measure properties of specific nuclides and infer from them global properties common to all nuclides. One goal, for example, is to understand nuclear sizes and matter distributions in terms of basic nuclear forces. Another is to understand the variation throughout the periodic table of the dominant quantum states, which are known as the open-quotes nuclear shell modelclose quotes states and are characterized, much as are atomic states, by a principal quantum number and by orbital and total angular momentum quantum numbers. In turn other nuclear phenomena, such as the collective excitations known as giant resonances, can be understood in terms of the shell-model configurations and basic nuclear parameters. Radioactive nuclear beam studies of reactions of short-lived nuclides have already yielded results with important ramifications in both nuclear physics and astrophysics. Nuclear physicists expect unstable nuclides to exhibit unusual structures or features that may test their understanding of known nuclear phenomena at extreme conditions, and perhaps even to reveal previously unknown nuclear phenomena, Astrophysicists, for their part, have known for several decades that processes in both Big Bang nucleosynthesis and stellar nucleosynthesis involve short-lived nuclides. Indeed, the original motivation for developing radioactive nuclear beams was astrophysical. 25 refs., 7 figs

  5. Physics with radioactive nuclear beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.N.

    1995-01-01

    Recently developed facilities allow a wide range of new investigations of the reactions and properties of short-lived nuclei. These studies may help to solve puzzles of nuclear structure and the Big Bang. The purpose of nuclear physics is to measure properties of specific nuclides and infer from them global properties common to all nuclides, for example, is to understand nuclear sizes and matter distributions in terms of basic nuclear forces. Another is to understand the variation throughout the periodic table of the dominant quantum states, which are known as the open-quotes nuclear shell model close quotes states and are characterized, much as are atomic states, by a principal quantum number and by orbital and total angular momentum quantum numbers. In turn other nuclear phenomena, such as the collective excitations known as giant resonances, can be understood in terms of the shell-model configurations and basic nuclear parameters. Radioactive nuclear beam studies of reactions of short-lived nuclides have already yielded results with important ramifications in both nuclear physics and astrophysics. Nuclear physicists expect unstable nuclides to exhibit unusual structures or features that may test their understanding of known nuclear phenomena at extreme conditions, and perhaps even to reveal previously unknown nuclear phenomena, Astrophysicists, for their part, have known for several decades that processes in both Big Bang nucleosynthesis and stellar nucleosynthesis involve short-lived nuclides. Indeed, the original motivation for developing radioactive nuclear beams was astrophysical. (author). 25 refs., 7 figs

  6. Dual-fission chamber and neutron beam characterization for fission product yield measurements using monoenergetic neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, C.; Fallin, B.; Gooden, M. E.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Tornow, W.; Arnold, C. W.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Moody, W. A.; Rundberg, R. S.; Rusev, G.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Macri, R.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.

    2014-09-01

    A program has been initiated to measure the energy dependence of selected high-yield fission products used in the analysis of nuclear test data. We present out initial work of neutron activation using a dual-fission chamber with quasi-monoenergetic neutrons and gamma-counting method. Quasi-monoenergetic neutrons of energies from 0.5 to 15 MeV using the TUNL 10 MV FM tandem to provide high-precision and self-consistent measurements of fission product yields (FPY). The final FPY results will be coupled with theoretical analysis to provide a more fundamental understanding of the fission process. To accomplish this goal, we have developed and tested a set of dual-fission ionization chambers to provide an accurate determination of the number of fissions occurring in a thick target located in the middle plane of the chamber assembly. Details of the fission chamber and its performance are presented along with neutron beam production and characterization. Also presented are studies on the background issues associated with room-return and off-energy neutron production. We show that the off-energy neutron contribution can be significant, but correctable, while room-return neutron background levels contribute less than <1% to the fission signal.

  7. Present and future radioactive nuclear beam developments at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decrock, P.

    1996-01-01

    A scheme for building an ISOL-based radioactive nuclear beam facility at the Argonne Physics Division, is currently evaluated. The feasibility and efficiency of the different steps in the proposed production- and acceleration cycles are being tested. At the Dynamitron Facility of the ANL Physics Division, stripping yields of Kr, Xe and Ph beams in a windowless gas cell have been measured and the study of fission of 238 U induced by fast neutrons from the 9 Be(dn) reaction is in progress. Different aspects of the post-acceleration procedure are currently being investigated. In parallel with this work, energetic radioactive beams such as 17 F, 18 F and 56 Ni have recently been developed at Argonne using the present ATLAS facility

  8. National Centre for Radioactive Ion Beams (NCRIB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintalapudi, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    A dedicated National Centre for RIB (NCRIB) proposed discussed at several forums is presented. The production of (RIB) radioactive ion beams and applications of beams leading to competitive studies in nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, condensed matter, bio-science and radioactive isotope production etc. are mentioned

  9. Production of high intensity radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    The production of radioactive nuclear beams world-wide is reviewed. The projectile fragmentation and the ISOL approaches are discussed in detail, and the luminosity parameter is used throughout to compare different production methods. In the ISOL approach a thin and a thick target option are distinguished. The role of storage rings in radioactive beam research is evaluated. It is concluded that radioactive beams produced by the projectile fragmentation and the ISOL methods have complementary characteristics and can serve to answer different scientific questions. The decision which kind of facility to build has to depend on the significance and breadth of these questions. Finally a facility for producing a high intensity radioactive beams near the Coulomb barrier is proposed, with an expected luminosity of ∼10 39 cm -2 s -1 , which would yield radioactive beams in excess of 10 11 s -1 . 9 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Radioactive ion beam facilities at INFN LNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifuggiato, D; Calabretta, L; Celona, L; Chines, F; Cosentino, L; Cuttone, G; Finocchiaro, P; Pappalardo, A; Re, M; Rovelli, A

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive ion beams are produced at INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) by means of the two operating accelerators, the Tandem and the Superconducting Cyclotron (CS), originally designed to accelerate stable beams. Both the ISOL (Isotope Separation On Line) and the IFF (In-Flight Fragmentation) methods are exploited to produce RIBs in two different ways at different energies: in the first case, the Cyclotron is the primary accelerator and the Tandem accelerates the secondary beams, while in the second case radioactive fragments are produced by the Cyclotron beam in a thin target with energies comparable to the primary beam energy. The ISOL facility is named EXCYT (Exotics at the Cyclotron and Tandem) and was commissioned in 2006, when the first radioactive beam ( 8 Li) has been produced. The IFF installation is named FRIBs (in Flight Radioactive Ion Beams), and it has started to produce radioactive beams in 2001, placing a thin target in the extraction beam line of the Cyclotron. The development of both facilities to produce and accelerate radioactive ion beams at LNS, is briefly described, with some details on the future prospects that are presently under consideration or realization.

  11. Map of calculated radioactivity of fission product, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tsuneo

    1977-02-01

    In this work, the radioactivities of fission products were calculated and summarized in contour maps and tables depending on irradiation and cooling times. The irradiation condition and other parameters used for the present calculation are shown in the followings. Neutron flux (N sub(th)): 3x10 13 n/sec/cm 2 Atom number of uranium: 1 mole (6x10 23 , ca. 271 gUO 2 ) Enrichment of U-235: 2.7% Range of irradiation time: 60-6x10 7 sec (ca. 1.9 y) Range of cooling time: 60-6x10 7 sec (ca. 1.9 y). Values of the neutron flux and the enrichment treated here are representative for common LWRs. The maps and tables of 560 nuclides are divided and compiled into the following three volumes. Vol. I: Maps of radioactivity of overall total, element total and each nuclide (Ni - Zr), Vol. II: Maps of radioactivity of each nuclide (Nb - Sb), Vol. III: Maps of radioactivity of each nuclide (Te - Tm). (auth.)

  12. Map of calculated radioactivity of fission product, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tsuneo

    1977-02-01

    In this work, the radioactivities of fission products were calculated and summarized in contour maps and tables depending on irradiation and cooling times. The irradiation condition and other parameters used for the present calculation are shown in the followings. Neutron flux (N sub(th)): 3x10 13 n/sec/cm 2 Atom number of uranium: 1 mole (6x10 23 , ca. 271 gUO 2 ) Enrichment of U-235: 2.7% Range of irradiation time: 60-6x10 7 sec (ca. 1.9 y) Range of cooling time: 60-6x10 7 sec (ca. 1.9 y). Values of the neutron flux and the enrichment treated here are representative for common LWRs. The maps and tables of 560 nuclides are divided and compiled into the following three volumes. Vol. I Maps of radioactivity of overall total, element total and each nuclide (Ni - Zr) Vol. II Maps of radioactivity of each nuclide (Nb - Sb) Vol. III Maps of radioactivity of each nuclide (Te - Tm) (auth.)

  13. Map of calculated radioactivity of fission product, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tsuneo

    1977-02-01

    In this work, the radioactivities of fission products were calculated and summarized in contour maps and tables depending on irradiation and cooling times. The irradiation condition and other parameters used for the present calculation are shown in the followings. Neutron flux (N sub(th)): 3x10 13 n/sec/cm 2 Atom number of uranium: 1 mole (6x10 23 , ca. 271 gUO 2 ) Enrichment of U-235: 2.7% Range of irradiation time: 60-6x10 7 sec (ca. 1.9 y) Range of cooling time: 60-6x10 7 sec (ca. 1.9 y). Values of the neutron flux and the enrichment treated here are representative for common LWRs. The maps and tables of 560 nuclides are divided and compiled into the following three volumes. Vol. I: Maps of radioactivity of overall total, element total and each nuclide (Ni - Zr), Vol. II: Maps of radioactivity of each nuclide (Nb - Sb), Vol. III: Maps of radioactivity of each nuclide (Te - Tm). (auth.)

  14. Physics with energetic radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, W.F.

    1996-01-01

    Beams of short-lived, unstable nuclei have opened new dimensions in studies of nuclear structure and reactions. Such beams also provide key information on reactions that take place in our sun and other stars. Status and prospects of the physics with energetic radioactive beams are summarized

  15. Radioactive beam production at the Bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.; Feinberg, B.; Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; McMahan, M.A.; Tanihata, I.

    1989-10-01

    At the Bevalac radioactive beams are routinely produced by the fragmentation process. The effectiveness of this process with respect to the secondary beam's emittance, intensity and energy spread depends critically on the nuclear reaction kinematics and the magnitude of the incident beam energy. When this beam energy significantly exceeds the energies of the nuclear reaction process, many of the qualities of the incident beam can be passed on to the secondary beam. Factors affecting secondary beam quality are discussed along with techniques for isolating and purifying a specific reaction product. The on-going radioactive beam program at the Bevalac is used as an example with applications, present performance and plans for the future. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  16. The ISOLDE Facility: Radioactive beams at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The Isope Separation On-Line (ISOL) technique evolved from chemical techniques used to separate radioactive isotopes off-line from irradiated "targets". The ISOL targets of today, used at e.g. ISOLDE, can be of many different types and in different phases but the isotopes are always delivered at very low energies making the technique ideal for study of ground state properties and collections for other applications such as solid state physics and medical physics. The possibility of accelerating these low energy beams for nuclear structure studies, and in the long term future for neutrino physics, is now being explored at first generation radioactive beam facilities. The upgrade towards HIE-ISOLDE aim to consolidate ISOLDE's position as a world leading radioactive nuclear beam facility and it will be a pre-cursor to a future all European ISOL facility, EURISOL, with order of magnitudes higher radioactive beam intensities and energies. Prerequisite knowledge and references: None

  17. Nucleon transfer reactions with radioactive beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, K.

    2018-03-01

    Transfer reactions are a valuable tool to study the single-particle structure of nuclei. At radioactive beam facilities transfer reactions have to be performed in inverse kinematics. This creates a number of experimental challenges, but it also has some advantages over normal kinematics measurements. An overview of the experimental and theoretical methods for transfer reactions, especially with radioactive beams, is presented. Recent experimental results and highlights on shell evolution in exotic nuclei are discussed.

  18. From the discovery of radioactivity to the production of radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of the projectiles used to explore the nucleus influenced strongly the development of Nuclear Physics. The alpha particles from radioactivity were the projectiles mostly used up to the second world war. This period was marked by fundamental discoveries, as those of artificial radioactivity and of fission. From the 1930's to 1070, light accelerated particles (electrons, protons, deuterons, isotopes of helium) became universally used. A third period began in the 1960's with the emergence of heavy ion accelerators, the use of which led to a true revolution in the study of nuclear matter. Finally, the fourth period started in 1985 when the first secondary beams of radioactive nuclei were produced, and opened new ways in physics. (authors)

  19. Summary -- Experiments with Radioactive Beams Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wiescher, M. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States)

    1992-12-31

    During the course of the workshop, a wide range of futuristic radioactive-beam experiments were discussed. These extended from the study of electroweak interactions in nuclei to materials science, nuclear astrophysics, and a host of nuclear physics investigations. Emphasis was placed on illustrating how these prototypical experiments could be done, discussing what types of detection systems would be needed, exploring the new problems which would be confronting the radioactive beam experimenter, and better defining the beam requirements. Contained herein is a summary of these discussions.

  20. Experimental studies with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, D.L.; Sree Krishna Murty, G.; Chandrasekhar Rao, M.V.S.

    1991-01-01

    The sources of information presented are essentially taken from the papers reported at several international seminars and those appeared in the Journal of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Production and usage of radioactive ion beams (RIB) in research have received the attention of scientists all over the world during the past six years. The first radioactive ion beams ( 19 Ne) were produced at Bevalac for the purpose of medical research using a primary beam of energy 800 MeV/a.m.u. (author). 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Organization of customs control of fissionable and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukhlinov, L.; Bojko, V.

    2001-01-01

    Among the routine inspection tasks of the Sheremetyevo customs office are tasks stemming from international commitments of Russia to prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons and material that can be used for making these weapons. These tasks are: radiation monitoring of all vehicles, passengers, their luggage and goods crossing the state border; inspection of fissionable and radioactive materials (FRM) legally transported by participants in the foreign trade activities with a view to checking that the declared data fully correspond to the actual radioactive cargo. Organizational measures and technical measures at the Sheremetyevo customs office are described in detail. The efficiency of the scheme is illustrated by the following figures. In 1997, when appropriate technical means and trained personnel were lacking, there were only 2 events of detecting items with a rather high radioactivity level in the luggage. In 1999, after the entire radiation monitoring system was fully deployed (i.e. the flight checkpoint was equipped with technical means of radiation monitoring, personnel was trained, special technologies and algorithms were developed), there were 61 events of radiation detection, and in 2000 there have been 90 events, including breaches of legal FRM traffic regulations through disagreement of declared and actual parameters. We believe that the above-considered organization of radiation monitoring allows effective and quite reliable control of and adequate response to possible illicit transport of FRM through the airport Sheremetyevo to other countries, including CIS. In the near future we plan to increase the efficiency of the radiation monitoring by integrating the currently operational customs-used stationary FRM detection systems into a single information network capable of providing simultaneous video-aided continuous nuclear monitoring at three terminals (Sheremetyevo-1, Sheremetyevo-2, Sheremetyevo-Cargo) with display of information at the workstation

  2. Detection systems for radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savajols, H.

    2002-01-01

    Two main methods are used to produce radioactive ion beams: -) the ISOL method (isotope separation on-line) in which the stable beam interacts with a thick target, the reaction products diffuse outside the target and are transferred to a source where they are ionized, a mass separator and a post-accelerator drive the selected radioactive ions to the right energy; -) the in-flight fragmentation method in which the stable beam interacts with a thin target, the reaction products are emitted from the target with a restricted angular distribution and a velocity close to that of the incident beam, the experimenter has to take advantage from the reaction kinetics to get the right particle beam. Characteristic time is far longer with the ISOL method but the beam intensity is much better because of the use of a post-accelerator. In both cases, the beam intensity is lower by several orders of magnitude than in the case of a stable beam. This article presents all the constraints imposed by radioactive beams to the detection systems of the reaction products and gives new technical solutions according to the type of nuclear reaction studied. (A.C.)

  3. Study of the production of neutron-rich isotope beams issuing from fissions induced by fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the PARRNe project (production of radioactive neutron-rich isotopes). This project is based on the fission fragments coming from the fission of 238-uranium induced by fast neutrons. The fast neutron flux is produced by the collisions of deutons in a converter. Thick targets of uranium carbide and liquid uranium targets have been designed in order to allow a quick release of fission fragments. A device, able to trap on a cryogenic thimble rare gas released by the target, has allowed the production of radioactive nuclei whose half-life is about 1 second. This installation has been settled to different deuton accelerators in the framework of the European collaboration SPIRAL-2. A calibration experiment has proved the feasibility of fixing an ISOL-type isotope separator to a 15 MV tandem accelerator, this installation can provide 500 nA deutons beams whose energy is 26 MeV and be a valuable tool for studying fast-neutron induced fission. Zinc, krypton, rubidium, cadmium, iodine, xenon and cesium beams have been produced in this installation. The most intense beams reach 10000 nuclei by micro-coulomb for 26 MeV deutons. An extra gain of 2 magnitude orders can be obtained by using a more specific ion source and by increasing the thickness of the target. Another extra gain of 2 magnitude orders involves 100 MeV deutons

  4. Radioactive Beam Measurements to Probe Stellar Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Unique beams of unstable nuclei from the Holi eld Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are being used to measure the thermonuclear reactions that occur in novae, X-ray bursts, and supernovae. The astrophysical impact of these measurements is determined by synergistic nuclear data evaluations and element synthesis calculations. Results of recent measurements and explosion simulations are brie y described, along with future plans and software research tools for the community.

  5. Sciences with radioactive nuclear beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Yoichi

    1992-01-01

    The unstable nuclei which are produced with accelerators and nuclear reactors and are far apart from the stability line have been used mainly in nuclear physics field as the object of the systematic research on atomic nucleus structure. Recently, the projects for developing the advanced research in many fields by accelerating the obtained unstable nuclei have been proposed. The unstable nucleus beam which was accelerated to high energy and controlled precisely keeps the possibility of qualitatively improve further conventional ion beam science, and it is expected as the breakthrough in the interdisciplinary basic research related to atomic energy, therefore, its recent trend in the world is explained, hoping for the new development. The stable isotopes existing naturally distribute along the N-Z straight line, and as they are apart from the natural stability line, they become unstable to beta decay, and their life becomes short exponentially. The significance of unstable nucleus beam science and its recent trend, the production of unstable nucleus beam, the interdisciplinary research using unstable nucleus beam, and the present state and future plan in Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Photonuclear fission with quasimonoenergetic electron beams from laser wakefields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, S. A.; Chvykov, V.; Kalintchenko, G.; Matsuoka, T.; Rousseau, P.; Yanovsky, V.; Vane, C. R.; Beene, J. R.; Stracener, D.; Schultz, D. R.; Maksimchuk, A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent advancements in laser wakefield accelerators have resulted in the generation of low divergence, hundred MeV, quasimonoenergetic electron beams. The bremsstrahlung produced by these highly energetic electrons in heavy converters includes a large number of MeV γ rays that have been utilized to induce photofission in natural uranium. Analysis of the measured delayed γ emission demonstrates production of greater than 3x10 5 fission events per joule of laser energy, which is more than an order of magnitude greater than that previously achieved. Monte Carlo simulations model the generated bremsstrahlung spectrum and compare photofission yields as a function of target depth and incident electron energy

  7. The ISOLDE Facility: Radioactive beams at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Some of the experimental techniques used will be introduced; more focus will be put on what physics questions can be answered by using radioactive beams. A brief overview is given of the present and future European developments in this rapidly evolving field. Prerequisite knowledge: none

  8. National Centre for Radioactive Ion Beams (NCRIB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintalapudi, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Radioactive Ion (nuclear) Beams have become prolific recently. Nuclear physics and associated subjects have staged a comeback to almost the beginning with the advent of RIB. A dedicated National Centre for RIB (NCRIB) proposed, discussed at several forums and under serious consideration is described

  9. Improvements of present radioactive beam facilities and new projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    A short overview is given over scheduled improvements of present radioactive beam facilities and of new projects. In order to put these into a coherent context the paper starts with a general section about the making of radioactive beams. (author)

  10. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Fission Products in Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A. J. [Pohang Univ. Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    The environmental factors that can affect microbial growth and activity include moisture, temperature, ph, Eh, availability of organic and inorganic nutrients, and radiation. The microbial activity in a specific repository is influenced by the ambient environment of the repository, and the materials to be emplaced. For example, a repository in unsaturated igneous rock formations such as volcanic tuff rocks at Yucca Mountain is generally expected to be oxidizing; a repository in a hydrologically expected to be oxidizing; a repository in a hydrologically saturated zone, especially in sedimentary rocks, could be reducing. Sedimentary rocks contain a certain amount of organic matter, which may stimulate microbial activities and, thus maintain the repository and its surrounding areas at reducing conditions. Although the impacts of microbial activity on high-level nuclear waste and the long-term performance of the repository have not fully investigated, little microbial activity is expected in the near-field because of the radiation, lack of nutrients and the harsh conditions. However in the far-field microbial effects could be significant. Much of our understanding of the microbial effects on radionuclides stems from studies conducted with selected transuranic elements and fission products and limited studies with low-level radioactive wastes. Significant aerobic- and anaerobic-microbial activity is expected to occur in the waste because of the presence of electron donors and acceptors. The actinides initially may be present as soluble- or insoluble-forms but, after disposal, may be converted from one to the other by microorganisms. The direct enzymatic or indirect non-enzymatic actions of microbes could alter the speciation, solubility, and sorption properties of the actinides, thereby increasing or decreasing their concentrations in solution.

  11. Exotic nuclei and radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Nuclei called exotic are all the nuclei that it is necessary to recreate in laboratory to study them. Their life time is too short -in relation to earth age- for it remains enough on earth. The researchers are going to have at their s disposal at GANIL (Caen) with the S.P.I.R.A.L. project, exotic nuclei beams and will study new kinds of nuclear reactions to better understand the atom nucleus. (N.C.). 2 refs., 9 figs

  12. BEARS: Radioactive ion beams at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Guo, F.Q.; Haustein, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    BEARS (Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species) is an initiative to develop a radioactive ion-beam capability at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The aim is to produce isotopes at an existing medical cyclotron and to accelerate them at the 88 inch Cyclotron. To overcome the 300-meter physical separation of these two accelerators, a carrier-gas transport system will be used. At the terminus of the capillary, the carrier gas will be separated and the isotopes will be injected into the 88 inch Cyclotron's Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source. The first radioactive beams to be developed will include 20-min 11 C and 70-sec 14 O, produced by (p,n) and (p,α) reactions on low-Z targets. A test program is currently being conducted at the 88 inch Cyclotron to develop the parts of the BEARS system. Preliminary results of these tests lead to projections of initial 11 C beams of up to 2.5 x 10 7 ions/sec and 14 O beams of 3 x 10 5 ions/sec

  13. Condensed matter physics with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, H.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the present uses of radioactive ion beams from ISOLDE for condensed matter research is presented. As simple examples of such work, tracer studies of diffusion processes with radioisotopes and blocking/channeling measurements of emitted particles for lattice location are discussed. Especially the application of nuclear hyperfine interaction techniques such as PAC or Moessbauer spectroscopy has become a powerful tool to study local electronic and structural properties at impurities. Recently, interesting information on impurity properties in semiconductors has been obtained using all these methods. The extreme sensitivity of nuclear techniques makes them also well suited for investigations of surfaces, interfaces, and biomolecules. Some ideas for future uses of high energy radioactive ion beams beyond the scope of the present projects are outlined: the study of diffusion in highly immiscible systems by deep implantation, nuclear polarization with the tilted-foil technique, and transmutation doping of wide-bandgap semiconductors. (orig.)

  14. Muon catalyzed fusion - fission reactor driven by a recirculating beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, S.; Tajima, T.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    The recent experimentally inferred value of multiplicity of fusion of deuterium and tritium catalyzed by muons has rekindled interest in its application to reactors. Since the main energy expended is in pion (and consequent muon) productions, we try to minimize the pion loss by magnetically confining pions where they are created. Although it appears at this moment not possible to achieve energy gain by pure fusion, it is possible to gain energy by combining catalyzed fusion with fission blankets. We present two new ideas that improve the muon fusion reactor concept. The first idea is to combine the target, the converter of pions into muons, and the synthesizer into one (the synergetic concept). This is accomplished by injecting a tritium or deuterium beam of 1 GeV/nucleon into DT fuel contained in a magnetic mirror. The confined pions slow down and decay into muons, which are confined in the fuel causing little muon loss. The necessary quantity of tritium to keep the reactor viable has been derived. The second idea is that the beam passing through the target is collected for reuse and recirculated, while the strongly interacted portion of the beam is directed to electronuclear blankets. The present concepts are based on known technologies and on known physical processes and data. 29 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Charge breeding of intense radioactive beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kester, O

    2001-01-01

    The efficient transformation of radioactive beams by charge breeding devices will critically influence the lay-out of the post accelerator of presently built first generation radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities as well as new second generation facilities. The size of the post-accelerator needed to bring the unstable nuclei to the energies required to study nuclear reactions depends on the charge state of the radioactive ions. The capability to raise that charge state from 1+ to n+, where n may correspond to a charge-to- mass ratio of 0.15 or higher, will therefore produce an enormous reduction in cost as well as the possibility to accelerate heavier masses. Thus the efficiency of the charge breeding scheme in comparison to the stripping scheme will be explored in the frame of the EU-network charge breeding. The two possible charge breeding schemes using either an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) or an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS), the demands to the sources and the present status of existi...

  16. Radioactive ion beam development for the SPIRAL 2 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichard, A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of radioactive ion beam production by the ISOL method for the SPIRAL 2 project. The production of light ion beams is studied and the potential in-target yields of two beams are appraised. The neutron-rich 15 C yield in an oxide target is estimated with simulations (MCNPx, EAF-07) and experimental data bases; the neutron-deficient 14 O yield is estimated thanks to a new measurement of the 12 C( 3 He, n) 14 O reaction excitation function. Based on thermal simulations, a first design of the production target is presented. This thermal study gives the necessary answers for the detailed design of the system able to reach a production yield 140 times higher than with SPIRAL 1. The production of radioactive ion beams coming from fissions in the UCx target is also studied and more particularly effusion and ionisation processes. A global study and an off-line tests campaign allow essential knowledge to the design of the surface ionisation source for SPIRAL 2 to be acquired. A first prototype of this ion source dedicated to alkali and alkaline-earth element production has been built and a thermal calibration performed. Ionisation efficiency and time response of the target-ion source system have been measured at different target temperatures and for different noble gases. These measurements allow evaluation of the impact of effusion and ionisation processes on the production efficiency of different alkali and noble gases isotopes as a function of their half-life. (author) [fr

  17. Vietnam Project For Production Of Radioactive Beam Based On ISOL Technique With The Dalat Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Hong Khiem; Phan Viet Cuong; Fadi Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    The presence in Vietnam of Dalat nuclear reactor dedicated to fundamental studies is a unique opportunity to produce Radioactive Ion (RI) Beams with the fission of a 235 U induced by the thermal neutrons produced by the reactor. We propose to produce RI beams at the Dalat nuclear reactor using ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) technique. This project should be a unique opportunity for Vietnamese nuclear physics community to use its own facilities to produce RI beams for studying nuclear physics at an international level. (author)

  18. Radioactive ion beam facilities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The past two decades have seen extraordinarily rapid development of radioactive beam physics throughout the world and in particular in Europe. The important scientific advances have stemmed from a large number of facilities. Previously existing stable beam machines have been adapted to produce rare isotope beams and dedicated facilities have come on-line. This talk gives an overview of the present European installations highlighting their complementary nature. The European roadmap calls for the construction of two next generation facilities: FAIR making use of projectile fragmentation and EURISOL based on the ISOL technique. The future FAIR facility will be described and the path towards EURISOL presented in the light of the construction of 'intermediate' generation facilities SPIRAL2, HIE ISOLDE and SPES and results from the ongoing EURISOL Design Study.

  19. World new facilities for radioactive isotope beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motobayashi, T.

    2014-01-01

    The use of unstable nuclei in the form of energetic beams for nuclear physics studies is now entering into a new era. 'New-generation' facilities are either in operation, under construction or being planned. They are designed to provide radioactive isotope (RI) beams with very high intensities over a wide range of nuclides. These facilities are expected to provide opportunities to study nuclear structure, astrophysical nuclear processes and nuclear matter with large proton-neutron imbalance in grate detail. This article reports on the current status of such new-generation RI-beam facilities around the world. In order to cover different energy domains and to meet various scientific demands, the designs of RI-beam facilities are of a wide variety. For example, RIBF in Japan, FAIR in Germany and FRIB in US are based on the fragmentation scheme for beams with energies of a few hundred MeV/nucleon to GeV/nucleon, whereas Spiral2 in France, SPES in Italy, HIE-ISOLDE in Switzerland/France, and the future facility EURISOL in Europe are based on the ISOL method, and aim at providing lower-energy RI beams. There are a many other projects including upgrades of existing facilities in the three continents, America, Asia and Europe

  20. Fundamental symmetries and astrophysics with radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, E.

    1996-04-01

    A major new initiative at TRIUMF pertains to the use of radioactive beams for astrophysics and for fundamental symmetry experiments. Some recent work is described in which the β-decay-followed by alpha particle emission of 16 N was used to find the resonance parameters dominating the alpha particle capture in 12 C and thus to find the astrophysical S-factor of this reaction which is of crucial importance for alpha-particle burning and the subsequent collapse of stars. In some work underway trapped neural atoms of radioactive potassium atoms will be used to study fundamental symmetries of the weak interactions. Trapping has been achieved and soon 38m K decay will be used to search for evidence of scalar interactions and 37 K decay to search for right-handed gauge-bosom interactions. Future experiments are planned to look for parity non-conservation in trapped francium atoms. This program is part of a revitalization for the TRIUMF laboratory accompanied by the construction of the radioactive beam facility (ISAC). (author)

  1. A comparison of radioactive waste from first generation fusion reactors and fast fission reactors with actinide recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1991-04-01

    Limitations of the fission fuel resources will presumably mandate the replacement of thermal fission reactors by fast fission reactors that operate on a self-sufficient closed fuel cycle. This replacement might take place within the next one hundred years, so the direct competitors of fusion reactors will be fission reactors of the latter rather than the former type. Also, fast fission reactors, in contrast to thermal fission reactors, have the potential for transmuting long-lived actinides into short-lived fission products. The associated reduction of the long-term activation of radioactive waste due to actinides makes the comparison of radioactive waste from fast fission reactors to that from fusion reactors more rewarding than the comparison of radioactive waste from thermal fission reactors to that from fusion reactors. Radioactive waste from an experimental and a commercial fast fission reactor and an experimental and a commercial fusion reactor has been characterized. The fast fission reactors chosen for this study were the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the Integral Fast Reactor. The fusion reactors chosen for this study were the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and a Reduced Activation Ferrite Helium Tokamak. The comparison of radioactive waste parameters shows that radioactive waste from the experimental fast fission reactor may be less hazardous than that from the experimental fusion reactor. Inclusion of the actinides would reverse this conclusion only in the long-term. Radioactive waste from the commercial fusion reactor may always be less hazardous than that from the commercial fast fission reactor, irrespective of the inclusion or exclusion of the actinides. The fusion waste would even be far less hazardous, if advanced structural materials, like silicon carbide or vanadium alloy, were employed

  2. A comparison of radioactive waste from first generation fusion reactors and fast fission reactors with actinide recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1991-04-01

    Limitations of the fission fuel resources will presumably mandate the replacement of thermal fission reactors by fast fission reactors that operate on a self-sufficient closed fuel cycle. This replacement might take place within the next one hundred years, so the direct competitors of fusion reactors will be fission reactors of the latter rather than the former type. Also, fast fission reactors, in contrast to thermal fission reactors, have the potential for transmuting long-lived actinides into short-lived fission products. The associated reduction of the long-term activation of radioactive waste due to actinides makes the comparison of radioactive waste from fast fission reactors to that from fusion reactors more rewarding than the comparison of radioactive waste from thermal fission reactors to that from fusion reactors. Radioactive waste from an experimental and a commercial fast fission reactor and an experimental and a commercial fusion reactor has been characterized. The fast fission reactors chosen for this study were the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the Integral Fast Reactor. The fusion reactors chosen for this study were the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and a Reduced Activation Ferrite Helium Tokamak. The comparison of radioactive waste parameters shows that radioactive waste from the experimental fast fission reactor may be less hazardous than that from the experimental fusion reactor. Inclusion of the actinides would reverse this conclusion only in the long-term. Radioactive waste from the commercial fusion reactor may always be less hazardous than that from the commercial fast fission reactor, irrespective of the inclusion or exclusion of the actinides. The fusion waste would even be far less hazardous, if advanced structural materials, like silicon carbide or vanadium alloy, were employed.

  3. Release of radioactive fission products from BN-600 reactor untight fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, S.L.; Tsikunov, A.G.; Lisitsin, E.C.

    1996-01-01

    The experimental data on the release of radioactive fission products from BN-600 reactor untight fuel elements are given in the report. Various groups of radionuclides: inert gases Xe, Kr, volatile Cs, J, non-volatile Nb, and La are considered. The results of calculation-experimental study of transfer and distribution of radionuclides in the reactor primary circuit, gas system and sodium coolant are considered. It is shown that some complex radioactivity transfer processes can be described by simple mathematical models. (author)

  4. A target concept for intense radioactive beams in the 132Sn Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, J.A. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    To produce intense secondary beams of radioactive isotopes, primary beams of up to 100 kW are being proposed at some facilities. There are plans to test production targets with 800 MeV protons at such higher power at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. In this paper the use of high energy neutrons as a possible alternative is presented. The concept is to generate an intense beam of neutrons in a well-cooled target with a primary deuteron beam. The neutrons have a high cross section for producing fission fragments in a thick uranium target which is coupled to the ion source for the secondary beams. The effective target thickness is large and the power dissipated in the ISOL target is relatively small, which should lead to intense beams of neutron-rich, intermediate-mass isotopes such as 132 Sn

  5. Particle beam generator using a radioactive source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, D.G.

    1993-03-30

    The apparatus of the present invention selects from particles emitted by a radioactive source those particles having momentum within a desired range and focuses the selected particles in a beam having at least one narrow cross-dimension, and at the same time attenuates potentially disruptive gamma rays and low energy particles. Two major components of the present invention are an achromatic bending and focusing system, which includes sector magnets and quadrupole, and a quadrupole doublet final focus system. Permanent magnets utilized in the apparatus are constructed of a ceramic (ferrite) material which is inexpensive and easily machined.

  6. High spin studies with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The variety of new research possibilities afforded by the culmination of the two frontier areas of nuclear structure: high spin and studies far from nuclear stability (utilizing intense radioactive ion beams) are discussed. Topics presented include: new regions of exotic nuclear shape (e.g. superdeformation, hyperdeformation, and reflection-asymmetric shapes); the population of and consequences of populating exotic nuclear configurations; and complete spectroscopy (i.e. the overlap of state of the art low-and high-spin studies in the same nucleus)

  7. High spin studies with radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, J D [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The variety of new research possibilities afforded by the culmination of the two frontier areas of nuclear structure: high spin and studies far from nuclear stability (utilizing intense radioactive ion beams) are discussed. Topics presented include: new regions of exotic nuclear shape (e.g. superdeformation, hyperdeformation, and reflection-asymmetric shapes); the population of and consequences of populating exotic nuclear configurations; and, complete spectroscopy (i.e. the overlap of state of the art low- and high-spin studies in the same nucleus). (author). 47 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Cluster radioactivity and very asymmetric fission through quasi-molecular shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, G.

    1997-01-01

    The decay of radioactive nuclei which emit heavy clusters like C, O, Ne, Mg and Si has been studied in the fission valley which leads one spherical nucleus towards two spherical touching nuclei before crossing the barrier. Assuming volume conservation, the deformation energy has been calculated within a generalized liquid drop model taking into account the proximity effects between the cluster and the daughter nucleus. The theoretical partial half-lives obtained within the WKB barrier penetration probability are in good agreement with the experimental data for the heaviest clusters. The Ne, Mg and Si emission looks like a very-asymmetric spontaneous fission. The 14 C radioactivity is not correctly described within the fission hypothesis. The 14 C and apparently also the 20 O are probably pre-born in the parent nucleus, the emission being similar to the α decay process. (author)

  9. Radioactive beam studies of cosmological interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sale, K.E.; Boyd, R.N.; Mathews, G.J.; Corn, B.P.; Islam, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental efforts by the LLNL/Ohio State radioactive ion beam collaboration are described. We are presently focusing on some reactions which are of great importance in the newly proposed inhomogeneous big bang cosmological models. Specifically we are using our system to make beams of 8 Li for measurements of the 8 Li(d, n) 9 Be and 8 Li(α, n) 11 B cross-sections. These are the key reactions which determine the production of heavy (A > 12) elements during the era of big bang nucleosynthesis, and thus the initial composition of stars and subsequent stellar isotope production. Plans for future experiments, including the measurement of the 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B cross section will be discussed. (orig.)

  10. Proceedings of national seminar on physics with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintalapudi, S.N.; Shyam, R.

    1991-01-01

    This volume containing the proceedings of the national seminar on physics with radioactive ion beams gives a broad overview of the developments taking place in the area of nuclear physics and accelerator physics with special emphasis on the utilization of radioactive ion beams for various studies. Topics covered include studies on nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics and the wide ranging applications of radioactive ion beams in these and other areas of nuclear sciences. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  11. Experiments with radioactive nuclear beams II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera R, E.F.; Martinez Q, E.; Gomez C, A.; Lizcano C, D.; Garcia M, H.; Rosales M, P.

    2001-12-01

    The studies of nuclear reactions with heavy ions have been carried out for years for the group of heavy ions of the laboratory of the Accelerator of the ININ. Especially in the last years the group has intruded in the studies of nuclear reactions with radioactive beams, frontier theme at world level. Presently Technical Report is presented in detailed form the experimental methods and the analysis procedures of the research activities carried out by the group. The chpater II is dedicated to the procedures used in the analysis of the last two experiments with radioactive beams carried out by the group. In the chapter III is presented the procedure followed to carrying out an extended analysis with the CCDEF code, to consider the transfer channel of nucleons in the description of the fusion excitation functions of a good number of previously measured systems by the group. Finally, in the chapter IV the more important steps to continue in the study of the reaction 12 C + 12 C experiment drifted to be carried out using the available resources of the Tandem Accelerator Laboratory of the ININ are described. At the end of each chapter some of the more representative results obtained in the analysis are presented and emphasis on the scientific production generated by the group for each case is made. (Author)

  12. Study of the production of neutron-rich isotope beams issuing from fissions induced by fast neutrons; Etude de la production de faisceaux riches en neutrons par fission induite par neutrons rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Ch

    2000-09-15

    This work is a contribution to the PARRNe project (production of radioactive neutron-rich isotopes). This project is based on the fission fragments coming from the fission of 238-uranium induced by fast neutrons. The fast neutron flux is produced by the collisions of deutons in a converter. Thick targets of uranium carbide and liquid uranium targets have been designed in order to allow a quick release of fission fragments. A device, able to trap on a cryogenic thimble rare gas released by the target, has allowed the production of radioactive nuclei whose half-life is about 1 second. This installation has been settled to different deuton accelerators in the framework of the European collaboration SPIRAL-2. A calibration experiment has proved the feasibility of fixing an ISOL-type isotope separator to a 15 MV tandem accelerator, this installation can provide 500 nA deutons beams whose energy is 26 MeV and be a valuable tool for studying fast-neutron induced fission. Zinc, krypton, rubidium, cadmium, iodine, xenon and cesium beams have been produced in this installation. The most intense beams reach 10000 nuclei by micro-coulomb for 26 MeV deutons. An extra gain of 2 magnitude orders can be obtained by using a more specific ion source and by increasing the thickness of the target. Another extra gain of 2 magnitude orders involves 100 MeV deutons.

  13. Freedom: a transient fission-product release model for radioactive and stable species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, L.D.; Lewis, B.J.; Iglesias, F.C.

    1989-05-01

    A microstructure-dependent fission-gas release and swelling model (FREEDOM) has been developed for UO 2 fuel. The model describes the transient release behaviour for both the radioactive and stable fission-product species. The model can be applied over the full range of operating conditions, as well as for accident conditions that result in high fuel temperatures. The model accounts for lattice diffusion and grain-boundary sweeping of fusion products to the grain boundaries, where the fission gases accumulate in grain-face bubbles as a result of vacancy diffusion. Release of fission-gas to the free void of the fuel element occurs through the interlinkage of bubbles and cracks on the grain boundaries. This treatment also accounts for radioactive chain decay and neutron-induced transmutation effects. These phenomena are described by mass balance equations which are numerically solved using a moving-boundary, finite-element method with mesh refinement. The effects of grain-face bubbles on fuel swelling and fuel thermal conductivity are included in the ELESIM fuel performance code. FREEDOM has an accuracy of better than 1% when assessed against an analytic solution for diffusional release. The code is being evaluated against a fuel performance database for stable gas release, and against sweep-gas and in-cell fission-product release experiments at Chalk River for active species

  14. Studies of nuclei using radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1989-07-01

    The 12 month period from May 1988 to July 1989 represents the first full year of our 18 month pilot program in nuclear structure research. In this period, research was initiated to develop a capability for radioactive secondary beams at Argonne National Laboratory using the Atlas and the new Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA), which is currently under construction. Two major new detector facilities are currently in the final stages of design and testing. The Large-Area, Scintillator Telescope (LAST) detector is fully operational and will be shipped to Argonne National Laboratory in August for fit-tests and in-beam calibrations. The first segments of a new sixteen-segment neutron multiplicity detector have been built and tested. The remaining segments are currently being constructed. Research was continued in the areas of (1) Coulomb excitation studies of rare earth and actinide nuclei; (2) In-beam, gamma-ray spectroscopy of nuclei in the mass 100 region, and (3) Advanced detector design. Several journal articles and abstracts were published or submitted for publication in the reporting period, and others are currently in preparation. Three graduate students participated in the program, one from the University of Florida and two from the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

  15. Production and use of radioactive nuclear beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanihata, Isao

    1994-01-01

    Two different production method of radioactive nuclear beams (RNB) are reviewed, in this paper. One is the secondary beam method that use a high-energy heavy-ion reaction and a separator and the other is the reacceleration method. The RNB is also expected to have following properties that are useful to the application in wider research and technical usage; 1. any elements and isotopes can be used as a beam. 2. it is easy to control a position and a depth of the implantation. 3. an extremely sensitive detection is possible because they emit radiations. 4. one can select the lifetime among the isotopes suitable for a specific phenomenon. 5. one can select a spin among the isotopes for specific selectivity to the phenomenon. These useful properties of the RNB and a few recent examples of study are discussed. Among them are the discovery of the neutron skin and the neutron halo in nuclei near the limit of existence, the first determinations of reactions relevant to the synthesis of the heavy elements in the universe, and an application to the PET. (J.P.N.)

  16. Chemical durability of glasses containing radioactive fission product waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Ross, W.A.

    1974-04-01

    Measurements made to determine the chemical durability of glasses for disposal of radioactive waste are discussed. The term glass covers materials varying from true glass with only minute quantities of crystallites, such as insoluble RuO 2 , to quasi glass-ceramics which are mostly crystalline. Chemical durability requirements and Soxhlet extractor leach tests are discussed

  17. Development of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatum, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) construction project has been completed and the first radioactive ion beam has been successfully accelerated. The project, which began in 1992, has involved numerous facility modifications. The Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron has been converted from an energy booster for heavy ion beams to a light ion accelerator with internal ion source. A target-ion source and mass analysis system have been commissioned as key components of the facility's radioactive ion beam injector to the 25MV tandem electrostatic accelerator. Beam transport lines have been completed, and new diagnostics for very low intensity beams have been developed. Work continues on a unified control system. Development of research quality radioactive beams for the nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics communities continues. This paper details facility development to date

  18. Inventories of radioactive fission products in the core of thermal nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, N.

    1977-01-01

    As a part of the analysis concerning radiological consequences of a major LWR accident, inventories of the most significant radioactive nuclides and stable fission gases in the core of a PWR type reactor have been calculated. Calculations were performed by the DELFIN code using nuclide data and neutron flux data earlier obtained by the METHUSELAH code. Comparison with simplified calculation method show that it is quite rough for certain nuclides but the accuracy may be sufficient for safety analysis purposes recalling the inaccuracies in the later parts of fission product transport process (author)

  19. Nuclear astrophysics with radioactive beams: a TRIUMF perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shotter, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Explosive nuclear burning in stellar environments involves reactions with a wide range of isotopes. For isotopes that are unstable, information on relevant reaction rates can only generally be obtained at radioactive beam facilities. The ISAC facility at TRIUMF is purpose built to provide a wide range of radioactive beams for nuclear astrophysics purposes as well as a range of other science

  20. Gamma spectroscopy: from steady beams to radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stezowski, O.

    2008-06-01

    The author gives an overview of his research works in the field of gamma spectroscopy. First, he recalls some results of experiments performed for the study of peculiar structures associated with different modes of nucleus rotation, and notably in the case of collective rotation of deformed and even super-deformed nuclei. Then, he details tools and methods used to experimentally determine the level scheme. The main characteristics of steady and radioactive beams are briefly presented, and their complementarities and differences are highlighted. Specific spectrometers and sensors are described. In a last chapter, the author discusses several research projects he is involved in, and more particularly the 'gamma tracking' which is the fundamental principle for gamma multi-sensors of the next generations

  1. Induced fission track distribution from highly radioactive particles in fallout materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Okada, Tatemichi

    1987-01-01

    Some highly radioactive fallout particles (GPs) from the 19th Chinese nuclear detonation were followed to the neutron irradiation in a reactor after sandwiched with mica detectors. The interesting star-like fission track patterns were revealed on the etched surface of the mica detectors. The simple chemical separation procedure for the GPs was applied for the separation of U and Pu as fissile elements and the both resultant fractions were examined with the similar high sensitive fission tracking detection. Subsequently, a representative track pattern from a black spherical particle was subjected to the determination of fissile nuclide content; comparing the total fission events evaluated on the basis of the numerical calculation of track densities with the total thermal neutron fluence. The results implied that the uranium is responsible for the main fissile nuclide remaining within a particle as unfissioned fractions and should be certainly enriched with respect to U-235 within such small fallout particles. This sophisticated method was also applied to determine the dead GPs, which have been highly radioactive particles just after the detonations, in the rain and snow-residual materials. Many induced star-like fission tracks verified certainly that there remains a lot of dead particles in the atmosheric environment till nowadays. (author)

  2. Development of target ion source systems for radioactive beams at GANIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajeat, O., E-mail: bajeat@ganil.fr [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); Delahaye, P. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); Couratin, C. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); LPC Caen, 6 bd Maréchal Juin, 14050 CAEN Cedex (France); Dubois, M.; Franberg-Delahaye, H.; Henares, J.L.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Lecesne, N.; Lecomte, P.; Leroy, R.; Maunoury, L.; Osmond, B.; Sjodin, M. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • For Spiral 1, a febiad ion source has been connected to a graphite target. • For Spiral 2, an oven made with a carbon resistor is under development. • We made some measurement of effusion in the Spiral 2 target. • A laser ion source is under construction. -- Abstract: The GANIL facility (Caen, France) is dedicated to the acceleration of heavy ion beams including radioactive beams produced by the Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) method at the SPIRAL1 facility. To extend the range of radioactive ion beams available at GANIL, using the ISOL method two projects are underway: SPIRAL1 upgrade and the construction of SPIRAL2. For SPIRAL1, a new target ion source system (TISS) using the VADIS FEBIAD ion source coupled to the SPIRAL1 carbon target will be tested on-line by the end of 2013 and installed in the cave of SPIRAL1 for operation in 2015. The SPIRAL2 project is under construction and is being design for using different production methods as fission, fusion or spallation reactions to cover a large area of the chart of nuclei. It will produce among others neutron rich beams obtained by the fission of uranium induced by fast neutrons. The production target made from uranium carbide and heated at 2000 °C will be associated with several types of ion sources. Developments currently in progress at GANIL for each of these projects are presented.

  3. Recent results on reactions with radioactive beams at RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine-Szily, A.; Lichtenthäler, R.; Guimarães, V.; Arazi, A.; Barioni, A.; Benjamim, E. A.; de Faria, P. N.; Descouvemont, P.; Gasques, L. R.; E; Leistenschneider; Mendes, D. R., Jr.; Morais, M. C.; Morcelle, V.; Moro, A. M.; Pampa Condori, R.; Pires, K. C. C.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Scarduelli, V.; Shorto, J. M. B.; Zamora, J. C.

    2015-04-01

    We present a quick description of RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion beams in Brazil), which is a superconducting double solenoid system, installed at the Pelletron Laboratory of the University of São Paulo and extends the capabilities of the original Pelletron Tandem Accelerator of 8MV terminal voltage (8UD) by producing secondary beams of unstable nuclei. The experimental program of the RIBRAS covers the study of elastic and inelastic scattering with the objective to study the interaction potential and the reaction mechanisms between weakly bound (RIB) and halo (6He and 8B) projectiles on light, medium and heavy mass targets. With highly purified beams, the study of resonant elastic scattering and resonant transfer reactions, using inverse kinematics and thick targets, have also been included in our recent experimental program.

  4. The radioactive ion beams facility project for the legnaro laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecchio, Luigi B.

    1999-04-01

    In the frame work of the Italian participation to the project of a high intensity proton facility for the energy amplifier and nuclear waste transmutations, LNL is involving in the design and construction of prototypes of the injection system of the 1 GeV linac that consists of a RFQ (5 MeV, 30 mA) followed by a 100 MeV linac. This program has been already financially supported and the work is actually in progress. In this context, the LNL has been proposed a project for the construction of a second generation facility for the production of radioactive ion beams (RIBs) by using the ISOL method. The final goal consists in the production of neutron rich RIBs with masses ranging from 80 to 160 by using primary beams of protons, deuterons and light ions with energy of 100 MeV and 100 kW power. This project is proposed to be developed in about 10 years from now and intermediate milestones and experiments are foreseen and under consideration for the next INFN five year plan (1999-2003). In such period of time is proposed the construction of a proton/deuteron accelerator of 10 MeV energy and 10 mA current, consisting of a RFQ (5 MeV, 30 mA) and a linac (10 MeV, 10 mA), and of a neutron area dedicated to the RIBs production, to the BNCT applications and to the neutron physics. Some remarks on the production methods will be presented. The possibility of producing radioisotopes by means of the fission induced by neutrons will be investigated and the methods of production of neutrons will be discussed.

  5. Status of SPIRAL. The radioactive beam project at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieuvin, M.

    1995-01-01

    SPIRAL, a radioactive ion beam facility (RIB) is under construction at GANIL (Caen, France). The heavy ion beams of GANIL will be used to produce radioactive atoms by the ISOL method. After ionisation by an ECR ion source (ECRIS), the low energy radioactive beam is axially injected on the first orbit of a k=265 compact cyclotron. The final energy will range between 1.7 and 25 MeV/u (harmonics 5 to 2) and the accelerated ions will be sent to the existing GANIL experimental areas. The present status of the project is described. (author)

  6. ISOL science at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beene, James R [ORNL; Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Gross, Carl J [ORNL; Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Nazarewicz, Witold [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Tatum, B Alan [ORNL; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The Holi eld Radioactive Ion Beam Facility, located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is operated as a National User Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy, producing high quality ISOL beams of short-lived, radioactive nuclei for studies of exotic nuclei, astrophysics research, and various societal applications. The primary driver, the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, produces rare isotopes by bombarding highly refractory targets with light ions. The radioactive isotopes are ionized, formed into a beam, mass selected, injected into the 25-MV Tandem, accelerated, and used in experiments. This article reviews HRIBF and its science.

  7. Radioactive nuclear beam facilities based on projectile fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrill, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    The production of radioactive beams using direct separation techniques is discussed. The reaction mechanisms which can be used to produce radioactive beams with these techniques can be broadly divided into three groups, projectile fragmentation, nucleon transfer, and Coulomb disassociation. Radioactive nuclei produced in these ways have large forward momenta with relatively sharp angular distributions peaked near zero degrees which are suitable for collection with magnetic devices. Secondary beam intensities of up to a few percent of the primary beam intensity are possible, although depending on the production mechanism the beam emittance may be poor. Further beam purification can be achieved using atomic processes with profiled energy degraders. The features of the production reaction mechanism, separation techniques, and a review of world wide efforts are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of the method are presented, with discussion of techniques to overcome some of the disadvantages. (Author)

  8. The production of accelerated radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    During the last few years, substantial work has been done and interest developed in the scientific opportunities available with accelerated radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for nuclear physics, astrophysics, and applied research. This interest has led to the construction, development, and proposed development of both first- and second-generation RIB facilities in Asia, North America, and Europe; international conferences on RIBs at Berkeley and Louvain-la-Neuve; and many workshops on specific aspects of RIB production and science. This paper provides a discussion of both the projectile fragmentation, PF, and isotope separator on-line, ISOL, approach to RIB production with particular emphasis on the latter approach, which employs a postaccelerator and is most suitable for nuclear structure physics. The existing, under construction, and proposed facilities worldwide are discussed. The paper draws heavily from the CERN ISOLDE work, the North American IsoSpin Laboratory (ISL) study, and the operating first-generation RIB facility at Louvain-la-Neuve, and the first-generation RIB project currently being constructed at ORNL

  9. Design of the radioactive ion beam facility at the LNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migneco, E.; Alba, R.; Calabretta, L.; Ciavola, G.; Cuttone, G.; Di Giacomo, M.; Gammino, S.; Gmaj, P.; Moscatello, M.H.; Raia, G.

    1992-01-01

    At the Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud the existing 15 MV Tandem will be coupled to the Superconducting Cyclotron booster, which will provide light and heavy ion beams in the energy range 100-20 MeV/n. Using these beams, secondary radioactive beams can be produced by projectile fragmentation. A fragment separator will collect the secondary beam produced at energies near that of the projectile and deliver it into the experimental areas. The possibility of using an ECRIS source for the axial injection into the Cyclotron and producing radioactive ions on a thick source placed inside the Tandem preinjector is also discussed. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Spes: An intense source of Neutron-Rich Radioactive Beams at Legnaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, A.; Manzolaro, M.; Corradetti, S.; Scarpa, D.; Monetti, A.; Rossignoli, M.; Ballan, M.; Borgna, F.; D'Agostini, F.; Gramegna, F.; Prete, G.; Meneghetti, G.; Ferrari, M.; Zenoni, A.

    2018-02-01

    The Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) method for the production of Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) is attracting significant interest in the worldwide nuclear physics community. Within this context the SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) RIB facility is now under construction at INFN LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro). This technique is established as one of the main techniques for high intensity and high quality beams production. The SPES facility will produce n-rich isotopes by means of a 40 MeV proton beam, emitted by a cyclotron, impinging on a uranium carbide multi-foil fission target. The aim of this work is to describe the most important results obtained by the study of the on-line behavior of the SPES production target assembly. This target system will produce RIBs at a rate of about 1013 fissions per second, it will be able to dissipate a total power of up to 10 kW, and it is planned to work continuously for 2 week-runs of irradiation. ISOL beams of 24 different elements will be produced, therefore a target and ion source development is ongoing to ensure a great variety of produced isotopes and to improve the beam intensity and purity.

  11. A Monte Carlo code to optimize the production of Radioactive Ion Beams by the ISOL technique

    CERN Document Server

    Santana-Leitner, M

    2005-01-01

    Currently the nuclear chart includes around 3000 nuclides, distributed as ${\\beta}^+$, ${\\beta}^-$ and $\\alpha$-emitters, stable and spontaneously fissioning isotopes. A similar amount of unknown nuclei belongs to the so-called \\textit{terra incognita}, the uncertain region contained also within the proton, neutron and (fast) fission driplines and thereby stable against nucleon emission. The exploration of this zone is to be assisted by the use of radioactive ion beams (RIB) and could provide a new understanding of several nuclear properties. Moreover, besides pointing at crucial questions such as the validity of the shell model, the dilute matter and the halo structure, challenging experiments outside nuclear physics are also attended, e.g., explanations of the nucleosythesis processes that may justify why the matter in the universe has evolved to present proportions of elements, and which represents a major challenge to nuclear physics. These, together with other fascinating research lines in particle physi...

  12. A neutron beam facility for radioactive ion beams and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecchio, L. B.

    1999-06-01

    In the framework of the Italian participation in the project of a high intensity proton facility for the energy amplifier and nuclear waste transmutations, LNL is involved in the design and construction of same prototypes of the injection system of the 1 GeV linac that consists of a RFQ (5 MeV, 30 mA) followed by a 100 MeV linac. This program has already been supported financially and the work is in progress. In this context LNL has proposed a project for the construction of a second generation facility for the production of radioactive ion beams (RIBs) by means of the ISOL method. The final goal is the production of neutron rich RIBs with masses ranging from 30 to 150 by using primary beams of protons, deuterons and light ions with energy of 100 MeV and 100 kW power. This project is expected to be developed in about 10 years from new and intermediate milestones and experiments are foreseen and under consideration for the next INFN five year plan (1999-2003). During that period the construction of a proton/deuteron accelerator of 10 MeV energy and 10 mA current, consisting of a RFQ (5 MeV, 30 mA) and a linac (10 MeV, 10 mA), and of a neutron area dedicated to the RIBs production and to the neutron physics, is proposed. Some remarks on the production methods will be presented. The possibility of producing radioisotopes by means of the fission induced by neutrons will be investigated and the methods of production of neutrons will be discussed. Besides the RIBs production, neutron beams for the BNCT applications and neutron physics are also planned.

  13. Accelerator complex for a radioactive ion beam facility at ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Since the superconducting heavy ion linac ATLAS is an ideal post-accelerator for radioactive beams, plans are being developed for expansion of the facility with the addition of a driver accelerator, a production target/ion source combination, and a low q/m pre-accelerator for radioactive ions. A working group including staff from the ANL Physics Division and current ATLAS users are preparing a radioactive beam facility proposal. The present paper reviews the specifications of the accelerators required for the facility

  14. Overview of linac applications at future radioactive beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    There is considerable interest worldwide in the research which could be done at a next generation, advanced radioactive beam facility. To generate high quality, intense beams of accelerated radionuclides via the open-quotes isotope separator on-lineclose quotes (ISOL) method requires two major accelerator components: a high power (100 kW) driver device to produce radionuclides in a production target/ion source complex, and a secondary beam accelerator to produce beams of radioactive ions up to energies on the order of 10 MeV per nucleon over a broad mass range. In reviewing the technological challenges of such a facility, several types of modem linear accelerators appear well suited. This paper reviews the properties of the linacs currently under construction and those proposed for future facilities for use either as the driver device or the radioactive beam post-accelerator. Other choices of accelerators, such as cyclotrons, for either the driver or secondary beam devices of a radioactive beam complex will also be compared. Issues to be addressed for the production accelerator include the choice of ion beam types to be used for cost-effective production of radionuclides. For the post-accelerator the choice of ion source technology is critical and dictates the charge-to-mass requirements at the injection stage

  15. Characterization of low energy radioactive beams using direct reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.G.; Fraser, M.A.; Bildstein, V.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a new technique to determine the beam structure of low energy radioactive beams using coincidence events from a direct reaction. The technique will be described and tested using Geant4 simulations. We use the technique to determine for the first time the width, divergence and energy...

  16. ISOL based radioactive nuclear beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, T.

    1991-07-01

    High-intensity and high-quality unstable nuclear beams can be realized by coupling an isotope separator on-line and a proper post accelerator in various primary beams. Some technical features and problems in the production of such beams are discussed. A brief description is given on 'Exotic Nuclei Arena' in Japanese Hadron Project. (author)

  17. Nuclear astrophysics at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    The potential for understanding spectacular stellar explosions such as novae, supernovae, and X-ray bursts will be greatly enhanced by the availability of the low-energy, high-intensity, accelerated beams of proton-rich radioactive nuclei currently being developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These beams will be utilized in absolute cross section measurements of crucial (p, γ) capture reactions in efforts to resolve the substantial qualitative uncertainties in current models of explosive stellar hydrogen burning outbursts. Details of the nuclear astrophysics research program with the unique HRIBF radioactive beams and a dedicated experimental endstation--centered on the Daresbury Recoil Separator--will be presented

  18. Production of chemically reactive radioactive ion beams through on-line separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joinet, A.

    2003-10-01

    The ISOL (isotope separation on line) allows the production of secondary radioactive ion beams through spallation or fragmentation or fission reactions that take place in a thick target bombarded by a high intensity primary beam. The challenge is to increase the intensity and purity of the radioactive beam. The optimization of the system target/source requires the right choice of material for the target by taking into account the stability of the material, its reactivity and the ionization method used. The target is an essential part of the system because radioactive elements are generated in it and are released more or less quickly. Tests have been made in order to select the best fitted material for the release of S, Se, Te, Ge and Sn. Materials tested as target filling are: ZrO 2 , Nb, Ti, V,TiO 2 , CeO x , ThO 2 , C, ZrC 4 and VC). Other molecules such as: COSe, COS, SeS, COTe, GeS, SiS, SnS have been studied to ease the extraction of recoil nuclei (Se, S, Te, Ge and Sn) produced inside the target

  19. Production of multicharged radioactive ion beams for spiral: studies and realization of the first target-ion source system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maunoury, L.

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of the SPIRAL project, which concerns the production and the acceleration of a multicharged radioactive ions beam, the following part has been studied: production and ionization of the radioactive ions beam. A first target-source (nanogan II), devoted exclusively to the production of multicharged radioactive ions gas type beams, has been studied and tested. The diffusion efficiency has been deduced from the diffusion equations (Fick laws). This efficiency is governed by the following parameters: the temperature, the grains size of the target, the Arrhenius parameters and the radioactive period. Another study concerning the production targets is presented. It deals with the temperature distribution allowing an utilization of more than one month at a temperature of 2400 K. Another development (SPIRAL II) is devoted to the production of high neutron content radioactive atoms created by the uranium fission, from fast neutrons. The neutrons beam is produced by the ''stripping break-up'' of a deutons beam in a converter. (A.L.B.)

  20. Accelerator development for a radioactive beam facility based on ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K. W.

    1998-01-01

    The existing superconducting linac ATLAS is in many respects an ideal secondary beam accelerator for an ISOL (Isotope separator on-line) type radioactive beam facility. Such a facility would require the addition of two major accelerator elements: a low charge state injector for the existing heavy ion linac, and a primary beam accelerator providing 220 MV of acceleration for protons and light ions. Development work for both of these elements, including the option of superconducting cavities for the primary beam accelerator is discussed

  1. Accelerator development for a radioactive beam facility based on ATLAS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K. W.

    1998-01-08

    The existing superconducting linac ATLAS is in many respects an ideal secondary beam accelerator for an ISOL (Isotope separator on-line) type radioactive beam facility. Such a facility would require the addition of two major accelerator elements: a low charge state injector for the existing heavy ion linac, and a primary beam accelerator providing 220 MV of acceleration for protons and light ions. Development work for both of these elements, including the option of superconducting cavities for the primary beam accelerator is discussed.

  2. Moessbauer Effect applications using intense radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Moessbauer Effect is reviewed as a promising tool for a number of new solid state studies when used in combination with radioactive beam/implantation facilities. The usual Moessbauer Effect involves long-lived radioactive parents (days to years) that populate low-lying nuclear excited states that subsequently decay to the ground state. Resonant emission/absorption of recoil-free gamma rays from these states provide information on a number of properties of the host materials. Radioactive ion beams (RIB) produced on-line allow new Moessbauer nuclei to be studied where there is no suitable parent. The technique allows useful sources to be made having extremely low local concentrations. The ability to separate the beams in both Z and A should provide high specific activity ''conventional'' sources, a feature important in some applications such as Moessbauer studies in diamond anvil high pressure cells. Exotic chemistry is proposed using RIB and certain Krypton and Xenon Moessbauer isotopes

  3. Radioactive ion beams and techniques for solid state research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we review the most recent and new applications of solid state characterization techniques using radioactive ion beams. For such type ofresearch, high yields of chemically clean ion beams of radioactive isotopesare needed which are provided by the on-line coupling of high resolution isotope separators to particle accelerators, such as the isotope separator on-line (ISOLDE) facility at CERN. These new experiments are performed by an increasing number of solid state groups. They combine nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Moessbauer, perturbed angular correlations (PAC) and emission channeling with the traditional non-radioactive techniques liked deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Hall effect measurements. Recently isotopes of elements, not available before, were successfully used in new PAC experiments, and the first photoluminescence (PL) measurements, where the element transmutation plays the essential role on the PL peak identification, have been performed. The scope of applications of radioactive ion beams for research in solid state physics will be enlarged in the near future, with the installation at ISOLDE of a post-accelerator device providing radioactive beams with energies ranging from a few keV up to a few MeV. (orig.)

  4. Measurement of nuclear cross sections using radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizcano, D.; Aguilera, E.F.; Martinez Q, E.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main applications of the production and use of nuclear radioactive beams is the measurement of nuclear cross sections. In this work is used a 6 He nuclear radioactive beam (β emitting with half life 806.7 ms) for the study of the reaction 6 + 209 Bi which could have several products. This investigation was realized in collaboration with the personnel of the Nuclear Structure laboratory at the University of Notre Dame (U.S.A.) and the National institute of Nuclear Research and CONACyT by Mexico. (Author)

  5. Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Development and Status

    CERN Document Server

    Tatum, Alan

    2005-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) is a national user facility dedicated to nuclear structure, reactions, and nuclear astrophysics research with radioactive ion beams (RIBs) using the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique. An integrated strategic plan for physics, experimental systems, and RIB production facilities have been developed and implementation of the plan is under way. Specific research objectives are defined for studying the nature of nucleonic matter, the origin of elements, solar physics, and synthesis of heavy elements. Experimental systems upgrade plans include new detector arrays and beam lines, and expansion and upgrade of existing devices. A multifaceted facility expansion plan includes a $4.75M High Power Target Laboratory (HPTL), presently under construction, to provide a facility for testing new target materials, target geometries, ion sources, and beam preparation techniques. Additional planned upgrades include a second RIB production system (IRIS2), an external axi...

  6. The experience of Russian Federation in organization of customs control of fissionable and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podchishaev, A.

    2001-01-01

    Among the routine inspection tasks of customs offices are tasks stemming from international commitments of Russia to prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons and material that can be used for making these weapons. These tasks are: radiation monitoring of all vehicles, passengers, their luggage and goods crossing the state border; inspection of fissionable and radioactive materials (FRM) legally transported by participants in the foreign trade activities with a view to checking that the declared data fully correspond to the actual radioactive cargo. Organizational measures involve the Sheremetyevo customs office has a department whose personnel is specially trained in radiation monitoring and can operate radiometric and spectrometric instruments. These specialists are included in shifts on duty responsible for customs clearing and inspection and carry out continuous radiation monitoring of passengers and their luggage, vehicles and goods crossing the border. They work on the 24-hour basis, which allows quickly and skillfully localizing the detected radiation source and avoiding direct contact of customs, officers, airport personnel, and passengers with the radioactive item. Technical measures include provision and everyday use of radiation monitoring instrumentation, classified as: stationary equipment of primary radiation monitoring (SEPRM); hand-held instruments for additional radiation monitoring (RM); spectrometric equipment for control of legal FRM transport. The customs procedure for monitoring of fissionable and radioactive materials is divided into three stages. Stage I, primary RM is carried out by stationary FRM detection systems Yantar for customs applications installed on the customs inspection line next to the X-ray inspection equipment (XIE). Stage II, additional RM is carried out by officer who uses hand-held instruments to check the passenger's luggage for surface contamination; to perform primary identification of the detected radioactive source

  7. Synthesis and investigation of superheavy elements - perspectives with radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenzenberg, G.

    1997-09-01

    The perspectives for the investigation of heavy and superheavy elements with intense beams of radioactive nuclei available from the new generation of secondary beam facilities in combination with modern experimental developments are the subject of this paper. The nuclear properties of the recently discovered shell nuclei centered at Z=108 and N=164 and predictions on the location of the superheavy region with improved theoretical models will be discussed. (orig.)

  8. Electron Accelerators for Radioactive Ion Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lia Merminga

    2007-10-10

    The summary of this paper is that to optimize the design of an electron drive, one must: (a) specify carefully the user requirements--beam energy, beam power, duty factor, and longitudinal and transverse emittance; (b) evaluate different machine options including capital cost, 10-year operating cost and delivery time. The author is convinced elegant solutions are available with existing technology. There are several design options and technology choices. Decisions will depend on system optimization, in-house infrastructure and expertise (e.g. cryogenics, SRF, lasers), synergy with other programs.

  9. Generalized liquid drop model and fission, fusion, alpha and cluster radioactivity and superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, G.

    2012-01-01

    A particular version of the liquid drop model taking into account both the mass and charge asymmetries, the proximity energy, the rotational energy, the shell and pairing energies and the temperature has been developed to describe smoothly the transition between one and two-body shapes in entrance and exit channels of nuclear reactions. In the quasi-molecular shape valley where the proximity energy is optimized, the calculated l-dependent fusion and fission barriers, alpha and cluster radioactivity half-lives as well as actinide half-lives are in good agreement with the available experimental data. In this particular deformation path, double-humped potential barriers begin to appear even macroscopically for heavy nuclear systems due to the influence of the proximity forces and, consequently, quasi-molecular isomeric states can survive in the second minimum of the potential barriers in a large angular momentum range

  10. Description of two-proton radioactivity by the methods of the quantum theory of ternary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadmenskij, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    Two-proton decay of spherical nuclei has been investigated on the base of the formalism of quantum mechanical theory of ternary fission. The suggested method of construction of partial two-proton-decay-width amplitudes and of asymptotics of the decaying nucleus wave functions allows to solve a problem of two-proton radioactivity description without the traditionally used in R-matrix approaches laborious sewing procedure for internal and external parent nucleus wave functions in three-body scheme. In the frame of diagonal approximation, the wave-function structure for Cooper pair of two emitted protons in parent nucleus was analyzed as well as the behavior of the wave function describing potential scattering of two-proton-decay products with taking into account decay channel coupling and properties of interaction potentials between these products [ru

  11. RIKEN radioactive isotope beam factory project – Present status and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Programs for studying nuclear reactions and structure of exotic nuclei available at the RIKEN radioactive isotope beam factory project are introduced and discussed by demonstrating recent highlights. Special emphasis ... RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan ...

  12. Recent radioactive ion beam program at RIKEN and related topics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. RIKEN; radioactive ion beams; magic numbers. PACS No. 21.10.-k. 1. Introduction. In RIKEN, there are several heavy ion accelerators. Main accelerator is the RIKEN ring cyclotron (RRC) with K = 540, that has been operated from 1986. The RRC has two injectors; one is heavy ion linear accelerator that has been ...

  13. Present and future radioactive beam studies at GANIL. From SISSI to SPIRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreau, D.

    1996-01-01

    The present status of radioactive beam developments at GANIL is discussed. The emphasis is put on the construction of the new SPIRAL radioactive beam facility presently underway and of the main trends in physics. (author)

  14. Radioactive beam diagnostics status and development at the Spiral facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chautard, F.; Baelde, J.L.; Bucaille, F.; Duneau, P.; Galard, C.; Le Blay, J.P.; Loyant, J.M.; Martina, L.; Ulrich, M.; Laune, B.

    2001-01-01

    In 2001 the first radioactive beam will be accelerated in the CIME cyclotron of the SPIRAL project at GANIL. In order to be able to tune such low intensity beams in the cyclotron (down to few particles per second), a silicon and a scintillator detectors are mounted on probes. They measure the beam energy and the beam phase/RF in the cyclotron as a function of the radius. Such fragile diagnostics are meant to be used routinely from the control room by non-specialists in instrumentation and in presence of various beam intensities. Therefore, a program is developed to control and secure the acquisition procedure, the measurements and the isochronism correction. Additional detectors are installed at a fixed position in the ejection line before the experimental areas. Additionally, a diamond detector is foreseen to be installed in the machine to be tested in order to ease the CIME operation. (authors)

  15. A rich revenue from the use of radioactive beams and radioactive targets: recent highlights from the nTOF and ISOLDE facilities (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    The On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE is a facility dedicated to the production of a large variety of radioactive ion beams for a great number of different experiments, e.g. in the field of nuclear and atomic physics, solid-state physics, life sciences and material science. At ISOLDE, radioactive nuclides are produced in thick high-temperature targets via spallation, fission or fragmentation reactions. The targets are placed in the external proton beam of the PSB, which has an energy of 1.0 or 1.4 GeV and an intensity of about 2 microA. The target and ion-source together represent a small chemical factory for converting the nuclear reaction products into a radioactive ion beam. An electric field accelerates the ions, which are mass separated and steered to the experiments. Until now more than 600 isotopes of more than 60 elements (Z=2 to 88) have been produced with half-lives down to milliseconds and intensities up to 1011 ions per second. Through the advent of post-accelerated beams with the REX-ISOLDE c...

  16. The beam diagnostic instruments in Beijing radioactive ion-beam facilities isotope separator on-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.; Cui, B.; Ma, R.; Tang, B.; Chen, L.; Huang, Q.; Jiang, W.

    2014-01-01

    The beam diagnostic instruments for Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facilities Isotope Separator On-Line are introduced [B. Q. Cui, Z. H. Peng, Y. J. Ma, R. G. Ma, B. Tang, T. Zhang, and W. S. Jiang, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 266, 4113 (2008); T. J. Zhang, X. L. Guan, and B. Q. Cui, in Proceedings of APAC 2004, Gyeongju, Korea, 2004, http://www.jacow.org , p. 267]. For low intensity ion beam [30–300 keV/1 pA–10 μA], the beam profile monitor, the emittance measurement unit, and the analyzing slit will be installed. For the primary proton beam [100 MeV/200 μA], the beam profile scanner will be installed. For identification of the nuclide, a beam identification unit will be installed. The details of prototype of the beam diagnostic units and some experiment results will be described in this article

  17. Radioactivity of fission products in cistern waters along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.; Marovic, G.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of radioactive contamination of water samples from cisterns collecting rainwater from roofs etc. with fission products have been carried out along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea since 1968. An exponential decline of radioactivity followed the nuclear moratorium.After the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, higher levels of 137 Cs and 90 Sr were detected again, cistern waters being the only environmental samples in Croatia in which elevated 90 Sr activities persisted for several years. For the pre-Chernobyl period, the mean residence time of 90 Sr in cistern waters being order of magnitude several years was similar to that calculated for fallout.Contrary, for the post-Chernobyl time, S r mean residence time was calculated to be considerably shorter, reflecting the tropospheric mean residence time.Therefore, the pre-Chernobyl) and the post-Chernobyl mean residence times of 90 Sr in cistern waters reflect the mechanism by which strontium was released to the atmosphere. The annual dose for the critical adult population received from 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 90 Cs by drinking cistern water was estimated to be a few per cent of the dose from natural background radiation. (authors)

  18. Management of radioactive waste from 99Mo production by nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, Maria Eugenia de Melo

    2013-01-01

    Brazil intends to build a facility for the 99 Mo production through 235 U fission, once this radioisotope is largely used in nuclear medicine. This study aimed at estimating the physical, chemical and radiological characteristics of radioactive waste expected to be generated in that facility, and to provide theoretical subsides that can be used on the definition of a proper waste management system. Two production scenarios were established and the radioisotope inventories of the wastes were calculated by Scale®. From the chemical processing of the uranium targets the wastes were characterized on their chemical and radiological features. MicroShield® was used to determine the activity concentrations up to three months of 99 Mo production. In addition, this work presents dose rate calculation for several sizes of shielding and different amount of wastes, collected in a proper package for in-site transportation. Radionuclides responsible for higher doses were identified in order to facilitate choosing the most appropriate method for managing the wastes after their chemical separation and before their storage. These results are part of what is expected on radioactive wastes at a 99 Mo production facility and might help on the development of the waste management planning for that facility. (author)

  19. Production of radioactive molecular beams for CERN-ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiffert, Christoph

    2015-06-15

    ISOLDE, the Isotope Separation On-Line facility, at CERN is a leading facility for the production of beams of exotic radioactive isotopes. Currently over 1000 different isotopes with half lives down to milliseconds can be extracted with beam intensities of up to 10{sup 11} ions per second. However, due to the reactive target environment not all isotopes are extractable in sufficient amounts. In this work the extraction of short lived carbon and boron isotopes is investigated. Therefore a variety of experimental and computational techniques have been used.

  20. Production of radioactive molecular beams for CERN-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)703149; Kröll, Thorsten

    SOLDE, the Isotope Separation On-Line facility, at CERN is a leading facility for the production of beams of exotic radioactive isotopes. Currently over 1000 different isotopes with half lives down to milliseconds can be extracted with beam intensities of up to 10^11 ions per second. However, due to the reactive target environment not all isotopes are extractable in sufficient amounts. In this work the extraction of short lived carbon and boron isotopes is investigated. Therefore a variety of experimental and computanional techniques have been used.

  1. Some thoughts on opportunities with reactions using radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    I was asked to talk about the use of radioactive beams for nuclear reactions. My overall perspective is that the scientific justification for such studies must be done carefully. To go to the added complexity of radioactive beams one must clearly demonstrate the need for obtaining information about nuclear structure or processes, information that is not otherwise available. On the other hand, much of what we know about nuclear structure comes from nuclear reactions with stable nuclear beams and targets. While a certain amount of information about far from stability nuclei may be obtained from the study of their radioactive decays, this is limited. Our knowledge and understanding of nuclear structure comes from stable nuclei: energy levels, their spins and parties, and very importantly the matrix elements characterizing them. These are largely determined by reaction studies with normal stable nuclei. The extension of such studies to unstable nuclei, far from stability, may well hold qualitative surprises, or at the very least give a firmer basis to our understanding of nuclear structure. Perhaps it is a matter of taste, but if one wishes to start on this endeavor then it is best to begin with simple, easily accessible features. The ''simplest'' nuclei are the ones that form doubly-closed shells and the easiest features to explore initially are the single-particle states and the collective excitations that one can build on these. I would like to emphasize that a unique facility for this type of study is about to come into operation in Darmstadt where the ESR storage ring will capture radioactive beams from fragmentation products and cool them to useful energies for reaction studies

  2. Production of light radioactive ion beams (RIB) using inverse kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, J.J.; Sugathan, P.; Madhavan, N.; Madhusudhana Rao, P.V.; Jhingan, A.; Varughese, T.; Barua, S.; Nath, S.; Sinha, A.K.; Kumar, B.; Zacharias, J.

    2005-01-01

    At Nuclear Science Centre (NSC), New Delhi, we have implemented a facility to produce low energy light radioactive ion beams (RIBs) using (p,n) type of reactions in inverse kinematics. For this purpose primary beams from the 15-UD Pelletron accelerator impinged on a thin polypropylene foil mounted on a rotating/linearly moving target assembly. For efficiently separating the secondary beam from primary beam, the existing recoil mass spectrometer (RMS) HIRA was operated with new ion optics. Suitable hardware modifications were also made. Using this facility, we have extracted a 7 Be beam of purity better than 99% and spot-size ∼4 mm in diameter. This 7 Be beam has been utilized in a variety of experiments in the energy range of 15-22 MeV. Typical beam parameters are: intensity 10 4 pps, angular spread ±30 mrad and energy spread ±0.5 MeV. Development of appropriate detector setup/target arrangement were also made to perform these experiments. In this paper, we describe the implementation of this project

  3. Radioactive ion beam production by the ISOL method for SPIRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landre-Pellemoine, Frederique

    2001-01-01

    This work is directly related to the SPIRAL project (Systeme de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Acceleres en Lignes) of which the start up will begin in September 2001 at GANIL (Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds) in Caen. This thesis primarily concerns the development of radioactive ion production systems (target/ion source) by the thorough study of each production stage of the ISOL (Isotopic Separation On Line) method: target and/or projectile fragmentation production, diffusion out of target material, effusion into the ion source and finally the ionization of the radioactive atoms. A bibliographical research and thermal simulations allowed us to optimize materials and the shape of the production and diffusion targets. A first target was optimized and made reliable for the radioactive noble gases production (argon, neon...). A second target dedicated to the radioactive helium production was entirely designed and realised (from the specifications to the 'off line' and 'on line' tests). Finally, a third target source system was defined for singly-charged radioactive alkaline production. The intensities of secondary beams planned for SPIRAL are presented here. A detailed study of the diffusion effusion efficiency for these various targets showed that the use of a fine microstructure carbon (grain size of 1 μm) improved the diffusion and showed the importance of thickness of the lamella for the short lived isotope effusion. (author) [fr

  4. Storage ion trap of an 'In-Flight Capture' type for precise mass measurement of radioactive nuclear reaction products and fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarantin, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    Data on nuclear masses provide a basis for creating and testing various nuclear models. A tandem system of FLNR comprised of the U-400M cyclotron, the COMBAS magnetic separator and the mass-spectrometric ion trap of an 'in-flight capture' type is considered as a possible complex for producing of the short-lived nuclei in fragmentation reactions by heavy ions and for precise mass measurement of these nuclei. The plan of scientific and technical FLNR research includes a project DRIBs for producing beams of accelerated radioactive nuclear reaction products and photofission fragments. This project proposes also precise mass measurements of the fission fragment with the help of the ion trap. The in-flight entrance of the ions and their capture in the mass-spectrometric ion trap using the monochromatizing degrader, the static electric and magnetic fields and a new invention, a magnetic unidirectional transporting ventil, is considered

  5. Techniques to produce and accelerate radioactive ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Penescu, Liviu Constantin; Lettry, Jacques; Cata-Danil, Gheorghe

    The production and acceleration of the Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) continues the long line of nuclear investigations started in the XIXth century by Pierre and Marie Curie, Henri Becquerel and Ernest Rutherford. The contemporary applications of the RIBs span a wide range of physics fields: nuclear and atomic physics, solid-state physics, life sciences and material science. ISOLDE is a world-leading Isotope mass-Separation On-Line (ISOL) facility hosted at CERN in Geneva for more than 40 years, offering the largest variety of radioactive ion beams with, until now, more than 1000 isotopes of more than 72 elements (with Z ranging from 2 to 88), with half-lives down to milliseconds and intensities up to 1011 ions/s. The post acceleration of the full variety of beams allows reaching final energies between 0.8 and 3.0 MeV/u. This thesis describes the development of a new series of FEBIAD (“Forced Electron Beam Induced Arc Discharge”) ion sources at CERN-ISOLDE. The VADIS (“Versatile Arc Discharge Ion Source�...

  6. Positron emission medical measurements with accelerated radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llacer, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews in some detail the process by which a heavy ion accelerator can be used to inject positron emitting radioactive particles into a human body for a range of possible medical measurements. The process of radioactive beam generation and injection is described, followed by a study of the relationship between activity that can be injected versus dose to the patient as a function of which of the positron emitting ions is used. It is found that 6 C 10 and 10 Ne 19 are the two isotopes that appear more promising for injection into humans. The design considerations for a non-tomographic instrument to obtain images from beam injections are outlined and the results of 10 Ne 19 preliminary measurements with human phantoms and actual patients for the determination of end-of-range of cancer therapy ion beams is reported. Accuracies in the order of ±1 mm in the measurements of stopping point of a therapy beam with safe doses to the patient are reported. The paper concludes with a simple analysis of requirements to extend the technique to on-line verification of cancer treatment and to nuclear medicine research and diagnostics measurements. 17 refs.; 16 figs.; 3 tabs

  7. Modelling and simulation the radioactive source-term of fission products in PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porfirio, Rogilson Nazare da Silva

    1996-01-01

    The source-term was defined with the purpose the quantify all radioactive nuclides released the nuclear reactor in the case of accidents. Nowadays the source-term is limited to the coolant of the primary circuit of reactors and may be measured or modelled with computer coders such as the TFP developed in this work. The calculational process is based on the linear chain techniques used in the CINDER-2 code. The TFP code considers forms of fission products release from the fuel pellet: Recoil, Knockout and Migration. The release from the gap to the coolant fluid is determined from the ratio between activity measured in the coolant and calculated activity in the gap. Considered the operational data of SURRY-1 reactor, the TFP code was run to obtain the source=term of this reactor. From the measured activities it was verified the reliability level of the model and the employed computational logic. The accuracy of the calculated quantities were compared to the measured data was considered satisfactory. (author)

  8. Beam Dynamics Design Studies of a Superconducting Radioactive Ion Beam Post-accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, MA; Pasini, M

    2011-01-01

    The HIE-ISOLDE project at CERN proposes a superconducting upgrade to increase the energy range and quality of the radioactive ion beams produced at ISOLDE, which are currently post- accelerated by the normal conducting REX linac. The specification and design choices for the HIE-ISOLDE linac are outlined along with a comprehensive beam dynamics study undertaken to understand and mitigate the sources of beam emittance dilution. The dominant cause of transverse emittance growth was attributed to the coupling between the transverse and longitudinal motions through the phase dependence of the rf defocusing force in the accelerating cavities. A parametric resonance induced by the coupling was observed and its excitation surveyed as a function of trans- verse phase advance using numerical simulations and analytic models to understand and avoid the regions of transverse beam instability. Other sources of emittance growth were studied and where necessary ameliorated, including the beam steering force in the quarter-wa...

  9. Prospects for high-power radioactive beam facilities worldwide

    CERN Document Server

    Nolen, Jerry A

    2003-01-01

    Advances in accelerators, targets, ion sources, and experimental instrumentation are making possible ever more powerful facilities for basic and applied research with short-lived radioactive isotopes. There are several current generation facilities, based on a variety of technologies, operating worldwide. These include, for example, those based on the in-flight method such as the recently upgraded National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University, the facility at RIKEN in Japan, GANIL in Caen, France, and GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. Present facilities based on the Isotope-Separator On-Line method include, for example, the ISOLDE laboratory at CERN, HRIBF at Oak Ridge, and the new high-power facility ISAC at TRIUMF in Vancouver. Next-generation facilities include the Radioactive-Ion Factory upgrade of RIKEN to higher energy and intensity and the upgrade of ISAC to a higher energy secondary beam; both of these projects are in progress. A new project, LINAG, to upgrade the capabilities at...

  10. ''In situ'' investigations of the radioactive fissionable element infiltration and retention in different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncescu, M.; Danis, A.; Sahagia, M.; Negrescu, C.; Bobe, M.; Balanescu, P.; Burcescu, M.; Tautu, N.

    1980-01-01

    ''In situ'' investigations of the natural and forced infiltration and retention of the fissionable elements from a liquid residue in several natural compacted soils and compacted clays are presented. The velocities and flow rates for different stages of the residue infiltration are determined. The retention of the fissionable elements by variation of the fissionable element concentration with the distance from the place of the residue depot is investigated. (author)

  11. Removal of some Fission Products from Low Level Liquid Radioactive Waste by Chemical Precipitation liquid/Co-precipitation / Phosphate Coagulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borai, E.H.; Attallah, M.F.; Hilal, M.A.; Abo-Aly, M.M.; Shehata, F.A.

    2008-01-01

    In Egypt radioactive waste has been generated from various uses of radioactive materials. Presence of cesium demonstrated a major problem from the removal point of view even by conventional and advanced technologies. Selective chemical precipitation has been oriented for removal of some fission products including 137 Cs from low level liquid radioactive waste (LLLRW). The aim of the present study was focused to investigate the effectiveness of various phosphate compounds that improved the precipitation process and hence the decontamination factor. The results showed that, maximum removal of 137 Cs reaching 46.4 % using di-sodium hydrogen phosphate as a selective coagulant. It was found that significant enhancement of co-precipitation of 137 Cs (62.5 %) was obtained due to presence of Nd 3+ in the LLLRW

  12. RP process studies with radioactive beams at ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K E [Argonne National Lab., Physics Div., Argonne, IL (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Reactions of interest to nuclear astrophysics have been studied with radioactive beams at the ATLAS accelerator. Using a modified ISOL technique, beams of {sup 18}F(T{sub 1/2}=110 min) and {sup 56}Ni(T{sub 1/2}=6.1 d) have been produced. The reactions {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O, {sup 18}F(p,{gamma}){sup 19}Ne, and {sup 56}Ni(d,p){sup 57}Ni have been investigated. The results indicate that the {sup 18}F(p,{gamma}) route is a small contributor to the breakout from the hot CNO cycle into the rp process, while the {sup 56}Ni(p,{gamma}){sup 57}Cu rate is about ten times larger than previously assumed. (orig.)

  13. Investigations of the neutron halo by radioactive beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a new tool has become available to study the behaviour of nuclei at the limits of particle stability. Heavy-ion projectile fragmentation, in combination with efficient recoil spectrometers, allows to prepare 'exotic' beams which can be used to induce secondary nuclear reactions. First experiments have revealed surprising features in the reactions of the most neutron-rich light nuclei. There is now conclusive evidence that the observed effects are due to long-tail matter distributions ('neutron halo') which occur for the last, very weakly bound neutrons. The results of some recent radioactive beam experiments, made by means of the spectrometer LISE3 at GANIL, are presented. (author) 24 refs.; 7 figs

  14. Low-energy radioactive ion beam production of 22Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duy, N.N.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Kwon, Y.K.; Khiem, L.H.; Kim, Y.H.; Song, J.S.; Hu, J.; Ayyad, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The 22 Mg nucleus plays an important role in nuclear astrophysics, specially in the 22 Mg(α,p) 25 Al and proton capture 22 Mg(p,γ) 23 Al reactions. It is believed that 22 Mg is a waiting point in the αp-process of nucleosynthesis in novae. We proposed a direct measurement of the 22 Mg+α resonance reaction in inverse kinematics using a radioactive ion (RI) beam. A 22 Mg beam of 3.73 MeV/u was produced at CRIB (Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) low-energy RI Beam) facility of the University of Tokyo located at RIKEN (Japan) in 2011. In this paper we present the results about the production of the 22 Mg beam used for the direct measurement of the scattering reaction 22 Mg(α,α) 22 Mg, and the stellar reaction 22 Mg(α,p) 25 Al in the energy region concerning an astrophysical temperature of T 9 =1–3 GK

  15. The usage of electron beam to produce radio isotopes through the uranium fission by γ-rays and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.; Nikolenko, V.G.; Popov, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    We treat the production of desirable radio isotopes due to the 238 U photo-fission by the bremsstrahlung induced in converter by an initial electron beam provided by a linear electron accelerator. We consider as well the radio isotope production through the 238 U fission by the neutrons that stem in the 238 U sample irradiated by that bremsstrahlung. The yield of the most applicable radio isotope 99 Mo is calculated. We correlate the findings acquired in the work presented with those obtained by treating the nuclear photo-neutron reaction. Menace of the plutonium contamination of an irradiated uranium sample because of the neutron capture by 238 U is considered. As we get convinced, the photo-neutron production of radio isotopes proves to be more practicable than the production by the uranium photo- and neutron-fission. Both methods are certain to be brought into action due to usage of the electron beam provided by modern linear accelerators

  16. Combined in-beam gamma-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy with radioactive ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konki J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In-beam gamma-ray and electron spectroscopy have been widely used as tools to study the broad variety of phenomena in nuclear structure. The SPEDE spectrometer is a new device to be used in conjunction with the MINIBALL germanium detector array to enable the detection of internal conversion electrons in coincidence with gamma rays from de-exciting nuclei in radioactive ion beam experiments at the upcoming HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN, Switzerland. Geant4 simulations were carried out in order to optimise the design and segmentation of the silicon detector to achieve good energy resolution and performance.

  17. Radioactive Emissions from Fission-Based Medical Isotope Production and Their Effect on Global Nuclear Explosion Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, T.; Saey, P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of medical isotopes, such as Tc-99m, is widespread with over 30 million procedures being performed every year, but the fission-based production of isotopes used for medical procedures causes emissions into the environment. This paper will show that gaseous radioactive isotopes of xenon, such as Xe-133, are released in high quantities, because they have a high fission cross section and they are difficult to scrub from the processes used to produce the medical isotopes due to their largely unreactive nature. Unfortunately, the reasons that large amounts of radioactive xenon isotopes are emitted from isotope production are the same as those that make these isotopes the most useful isotopes for the detection of underground nuclear explosions. Relatively recently, the nuclear explosion monitoring community has established a provisional monitoring network for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) that includes radioactive xenon monitoring as a major component. This community has discovered that emissions from medical isotope production present a more serious problem to nuclear explosion monitoring than thought when the network was first conceived. To address the growing problem, a group of scientists in both the monitoring and the isotope production communities have come together to attempt to find scientific and pragmatic ways to address the emissions problems, recognizing that medical isotope production should not be adversely affected, while monitoring for nuclear explosions should remain effective as isotope production grows, changes, and spreads globally. (author)

  18. Calculated model of radioactive fission and corrosion product accumulation and distribution in a fast reactor sodium coolant circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizin, V.D.; Konyashov, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    A simple calculation procedure of radioactive products accumulation and distribution in a primary circuit has been developed on the basis of experimental investigations at the BOR-60 reactor. Common knowledge on the impurity products transfer at the liquid-solid and liquid-gas phase boundary is taken. Use is made of the typical in reactor physics relationships for the description of the products transition to the equipment surfaces, of fission products release, metal corrosion and others. Satisfactory agreement of the calculation data with the experimental ones has been obtained. (orig.)

  19. Development of a radioactive ion beam test stand at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, J.; Freedman, S.J.; Fujikawa, B.; Gough, R.A.; Lyneis, C.M.; Vetter, P.; Wutte, D.; Xie, Z.Q.

    1998-01-01

    For the on-line production of a 14 O + ion beam, an integrated target--transfer line ion source system is now under development at LBNL. 14 O is produced in the form of CO in a high temperature carbon target using a 20 MeV 3 He beam from the LBNL 88'' Cyclotron via the reaction 12 C( 3 He,n) 14 O. The neutral radioactive CO molecules diffuse through an 8 m room temperature stainless steel line from the target chamber into a cusp ion source. The molecules are dissociated, ionized and extracted at energies of 20 to 30 keV and mass separated with a double focusing bending magnet. The different components of the setup are described. The release and transport efficiency for the CO molecules from the target through the transfer line was measured for various target temperatures. The ion beam transport efficiencies and the off-line ion source efficiencies for Ar, O 2 and CO are presented. Ionization efficiencies of 28% for Ar + , 1% for CO, 0.7% for O + , 0.33 for C + have been measured

  20. Proposal of measuring the mechanisms of nuclear excitation leading to fission with the ADONE jet-target tagged photon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucherini, V.; Bianchi, N.; De Sanctis, E.; Guaraldo, C.; Levi Sandri, P.; Muccifora, V.; Polli, E.; Reolon, A.R.; Aiello, S.; De Filippo, E.; Lanzano', G.; Lo Nigro, S.; Milone, C.; Pagano, A.; Botvina, A.S.; Iljinov, A.S.; Mebel, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms of excitation with subsequent fission of heavy nuclei can be conveniently studied by means of photons, since this probe is able to interact deeply inside the nucleus. We propose the use of the (200-1200 MeV) tagged photon beam from the ADONE Jet Target in order to study the mass-energy and total momentum distributions of fission fragments, to obtain experimental information on the configurations (excitation energy and nucleonic composition) of produced compound nuclei and on their decay channels

  1. Direct Reaction Experimental Studies with Beams of Radioactive Tin Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ahn, S.H. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Allmond, James M [ORNL; Ayres, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Baugher, T. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bazin, D. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Beene, James R [ORNL; Berryman, J. S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bey, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Cartegni, L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)/Sungkyunkwan University, Korea; Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Gade, A. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Garcia-Ruiz, R.F. [Instituut voor Kernen Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, B-3001, Leuven, Belgium; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz [ORNL; Howard, Meredith E [ORNL; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University (TTU); Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Manning, Brett M [ORNL; Matos, M. [Louisiana State University; McDaniel, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Miller, D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; O' Malley, Patrick [Rutgers University; Padgett, S [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM); Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Pittman, S. T. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Radford, David C [ORNL; Ratkiewicz, Andrew J [ORNL; Schmitt, Kyle [ORNL; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Stroberg, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tostevin, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Weisshaar, D. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wimmer, K. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL)/Central Michigan University; Winkler, R. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2015-01-01

    The tin chain of isotopes provides a unique region in which to investigate the evolution of single-particle structure, spreading from N = 50 at Sn-100, through 10 stable isotopes and the N = 82 shell closure at Sn-132 out into the r-process path. Direct reactions performed on radioactive ion beams are sensitive spectroscopic tools for studying exotic nuclei. Here we present one experiment knocking out neutrons from tin isotopes that are already neutron deficient and two reactions that add a neutron to neutron-rich Sn-130. Both techniques rely on selective particle identification and the measurement of gamma rays in coincidence with charged ions. We present the goals of the two experiments and the particle identification for the channels of interest. The final results will be presented in future publications.

  2. Studies of pear-shaped nuclei using accelerated radioactive beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gaffney, L P; Scheck, M; Hayes, A B; Wenander, F; Albers, M; Bastin, B; Bauer, C; Blazhev, A; Bonig, S; Bree, N; Cederkall, J; Chupp, T; Cline, D; Cocolios, T E; Davinson, T; DeWitte, H; Diriken, J; Grahn, T; Herzan, A; Huyse, M; Jenkins, D G; Joss, D T; Kesteloot, N; Konki, J; Kowalczyk, M; Kroll, Th; Kwan, E; Lutter, R; Moschner, K; Napiorkowski, P; Pakarinen, J; Pfeiffer, M; Radeck, D; Reiter, P; Reynders, K; Rigby, S V; Robledo, L M; Rudigier, M; Sambi, S; Seidlitz, M; Siebeck, B; Stora, T; Thoele, P; Van Duppen, P; Vermeulen, M J; von Schmid, M; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wimmer, K; Wrzosek-Lipska, K; Wu, C Y; Zielinska, M

    2013-01-01

    There is strong circumstantial evidence that certain heavy, unstable atomic nuclei are ‘octupole deformed’, that is, distorted into a pear shape. This contrasts with the more prevalent rugby-ball shape of nuclei with reflection-symmetric, quadrupole deformations. The elusive octupole deformed nuclei are of importance for nuclear structure theory, and also in searches for physics beyond the standard model; any measurable electric-dipole moment (a signature of the latter) is expected to be amplified in such nuclei. Here we determine electric octupole transition strengths (a direct measure of octupole correlations) for short-lived isotopes of radon and radium. Coulomb excitation experiments were performed using accelerated beams of heavy, radioactive ions. Our data on and $^{224}$Ra show clear evidence for stronger octupole deformation in the latter. The results enable discrimination between differing theoretical approaches to octupole correlations, and help to constrain suitable candidates for experimental...

  3. Separation of actinides and long-lived fission products from high-level radioactive wastes (a review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolarik, Z.

    1991-11-01

    The management of high-level radioactive wastes is facilitated, if long-lived and radiotoxic actinides and fission products are separated before the final disposal. Especially important is the separation of americium, curium, plutonium, neptunium, strontium, cesium and technetium. The separated nuclides can be deposited separately from the bulk of the high-level waste, but their transmutation to short-lived nuclides is a muchmore favourable option. This report reviews the chemistry of the separation of actinides and fission products from radioactive wastes. The composition, nature and conditioning of the wastes are described. The main attention is paid to the solvent extraction chemistry of the elements and to the application of solvent extraction in unit operations of potential partitioning processes. Also reviewed is the behaviour of the elements in the ion exchange chromatography, precipitation, electrolysis from aqueous solutions and melts, and the distribution between molten salts and metals. Flowsheets of selected partitioning processes are shown and general aspects of the waste partitioning are shortly discussed. (orig.) [de

  4. Future prospects for radioactive nuclear beams in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    In 1989 this author proposed the construction of a dedicated, flexible, radioactive nuclear beams facility that would provide intense beams of nearly all elements for a program of scientific studies in nuclear structure, nuclear reaction dynamics, astrophysics, high-spin physics, nuclei far from stability, material- and surface science, and atomic- and hyperfine-interaction physics. The initial name proposed for the new facility was ''IsoSpin Factory'' to underscore the key feature of this new physics tool; it was later changed to ''IsoSpin Laboratory'' (ISL). The ISL is now supported by a broad base of nuclear scientists and has been identified in the US Long Range Plan on Nuclear Science as one of the new potential construction projects for the second part of this decade. Since 1989 a number of conferences and workshops has been held in which the scientific and technical case for RNB facilities has been made. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the North American plan for the ISL, which was initially summarized in a ''White Paper'' but has since evolved in its scientific and technical scop

  5. Radioactive Ions Production Ring for Beta-Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, E; Wehner, J

    2010-01-01

    Within the FP7 EUROnu program, Work Package 4 addresses the issues of production and acceleration of 8Li and 8B isotopes through the Beta-Beam complex, for the production of electron-neutrino. One of the major critical issues is the production of a high enougth ion ßux, to fulÞll the requirements for physics. In alternative to the direct ISOL production method, a new ap- proach is proposed in [1]. The idea is to use a compact ring for Litium ions at 25 MeV and an internal He or D target, in which the radioactive-isotopes production takes place. The beam is expected to survive for several thousands of turns, therefore cooling in 6D is required and, according this scheme, the ionization cooling provided by the target itself and a suitable RF system would be sufÞcient. We present some preliminary work on the Production ring lat- tice design and cooling issues, for the 7Li ions, and propose plans for future studies, within the EUROnu program.

  6. High-spin nuclear structure studies with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.

    1992-01-01

    Two important developments in the sixties, namely the advent of heavy-ion accelerators and fabrication of Ge detectors, opened the way for the experimental studies of nuclear properties at high angular momentum. Addition of a new degree of freedom, namely spin, made it possible to observe such fascinating phenomena as occurrences and coexistence of a variety of novel shapes, rise, fall and occasionally rebirth of nuclear collectivity, and disappearance of pairing correlations. Today, with the promise of development of radioactive ion beams (RIB) and construction of the third-generation Ge-detection systems (GAMMASPHERE and EUROBALL), nuclear physicists are poised to explore new and equally fascinating phenomena that have been hitherto inaccessible. With the addition of yet another dimension, namely the isospin, they will be able to observe and verify predictions for exotic shapes as varied as rigid triaxiality, hyperdeformation and triaxial-octupole shapes, or to investigate the T=O pairing correlations. In this paper, the author reviews, separately for neutron-deficient and neutron-rich nuclei, these and a few other new high-spin physics opportunities that may be realized with RIB. Following this discussion, a list of the beam species, intensities and energies that are needed to fulfill these goals is presented. The paper concludes with a description of the experimental techniques and instrumentations that are required for these studies

  7. Production of and studies with secondary radioactive ion beams at Lise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The doubly achromatic spectrometer LISE, installed at GANIL has delivered secondary radioactive beams for the past 6 years. Essentially, it consists of by two dipole magnets selecting (in A/Z) and refocusing (achromatically) the projectile-like fragment-beams emitted at 0 0 . Important features of LISE and selected experimental results will be discussed. LISE was substantially upgraded, recently, by adding a Wien-filter, providing secondary radioactive beams of still increased intensity and isotopic purity. (6 figs)

  8. Importance of individual fission nuclide to incontainment radioactive reading during PWR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junfeng; Shi Zhongqi

    2004-01-01

    Containment radiation level is one of the most important base for core damage assessment and protective actions recommendation during accidents. Incontainment radioactive reading calculations is the precondition of using this kind of method. Importance of individual nuclides were compared during normal coolant release, gap release and core melt. Conclusions are deduced that when the spray is off, the radioactive reading in containment is mainly from iodine and noble gas, and the spray is on, the radioactive reading is mainly from noble gas. (authors)

  9. Nuclear fission: a review of experimental advances and phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyev, A. N.; Nishio, K.; Schmidt, K.-H.

    2018-01-01

    In the last two decades, through technological, experimental and theoretical advances, the situation in experimental fission studies has changed dramatically. With the use of advanced production and detection techniques both much more detailed and precise information can now be obtained for the traditional regions of fission research and, crucially, new regions of nuclei have become routinely accessible for fission studies. This work first of all reviews the recent developments in experimental fission techniques, in particular the resurgence of transfer-induced fission reactions with light and heavy ions, the emerging use of inverse-kinematic approaches, both at Coulomb and relativistic energies, and of fission studies with radioactive beams. The emphasis on the fission-fragment mass and charge distributions will be made in this work, though some of the other fission observables, such as prompt neutron and γ-ray emission will also be reviewed. A particular attention will be given to the low-energy fission in the so far scarcely explored nuclei in the very neutron-deficient lead region. They recently became the focus for several complementary experimental studies, such as β-delayed fission with radioactive beams at ISOLDE(CERN), Coulex-induced fission of relativistic secondary beams at FRS(GSI), and several prompt fusion–fission studies. The synergy of these approaches allows a unique insight in the new region of asymmetric fission around {\\hspace{0pt}}180 Hg, recently discovered at ISOLDE. Recent extensive theoretical efforts in this region will also be outlined. The unprecedented high-quality data for fission fragments, completely identified in Z and A, by means of reactions in inverse kinematics at FRS(GSI) and VAMOS(GANIL) will be also reviewed. These experiments explored an extended range of mercury-to-californium elements, spanning from the neutron-deficient to neutron-rich nuclides, and covering both asymmetric, symmetric and transitional fission regions

  10. High resolution line for secondary radioactive beams at the U400M cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodin, A.M.; Sidorchuk, S.I.; Stepantsov, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    For implementation of an experimental program for studying nuclear reactions with radioactive ion beams in the energy domain of 20 through 80 MeV · A the high resolution beam line ACCULINNA was put into commissioning on a primary beam line of the JINR U-400M cyclotron. By means of nuclear fragmentation of the 14 N beam with the energy of 51 MeV · A on the 170 mg/cm 2 carbon target radioactive beams of 6 He, 8 He and 8 B were obtained. Possibilities of further development of the set-up are discussed. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Ion sources development at GANIL for radioactive beams and high charge state ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, R.; Barue, C.; Canet, C.; Dupuis, M.; Flambard, J.L.; Gaubert, G.; Gibouin, S.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Lecesne, N.; Leherissier, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Pellemoine-Landre, F.; Rataud, J.P.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Villari, A.C.C.; Maunoury, L.

    2001-01-01

    The GANIL laboratory has in charge the production of ion beams for nuclear and non nuclear physics. This article reviews the last developments that are underway in the fields of radioactive ion beam production, increase of the metallic ion intensities and production of highly charges ion beams. (authors)

  12. Exhaust gas cleaning system for handling radioactive fission and activation gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiser, H.; Schwarz, H.

    1975-01-01

    An exhaust gas cleaning system utilizing the principle of delaying radioactive gases to permit their radioactive decay to a level acceptable for release to the atmosphere, comprising an adsorbent for adsorbing radioactive gas and a container for containing the adsorbent and for constraining gas to flow through the adsorbent, the adsorbent and the container forming simultaneously an adsorptive delay section and a mechanical delay section, by means of a predetermined ratio of volume of voids in the adsorbent to total volume of the container containing the adsorbent, for delaying radioactive gas to permit its radioactive decay to a level acceptable for release to the atmosphere is described. A method of using an adsorbent for cleaning a radioactive gas containing an isotope which is adsorbed by the adsorbent and containing an isotope whose adsorption by the adsorbent is low as compared to the isotope which is adsorbed and which is short-lived as compared to the isotope which is adsorbed, comprising constraining the gas to flow through the adsorbent with the retention time for the isotope which is adsorbed being at least the minimum for permitting radioactive decay to a level acceptable for release to the atmosphere and with the retention time for the isotope of relatively low adsorption and relatively short life being at least the minimum for permitting radioactive decay to a level acceptable for release to the atmosphere is also described. (U.S.)

  13. Proceedings of the workshop on prospects for research with radioactive beams from heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1984-04-01

    The SuperHILAC Users Executive Committee organized a workshop on Prospects for Research with Radioactive Beams from Heavy Ion Accelerators. The main purpose of the workshop was to bring together a diverse group of scientists who had already done experients with radioactive beams or were interested in their use in the future. The topics of the talks ranged from general nuclear physics, astrophysics, production of radioactive beams and high energy projectile fragmentation to biomedical applications. This publication contains the abstracts of the talks given at the workshop and copies of the viewgraphs as they were supplied to the editor

  14. Reactions with fast radioactive beams of neutron-rich nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumann, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    The neutron dripline has presently been reached only for the lightest nuclei up to the element oxygen. In this region of light neutron-rich nuclei, scattering experiments are feasible even for dripline nuclei by utilizing high-energy secondary beams produced by fragmentation. In the present article, reactions of high-energy radioactive beams will be exemplified using recent experimental results mainly derived from measurements of breakup reactions performed at the LAND and FRS facilities at GSI and at the S800 spectrometer at the NSCL. Nuclear and electromagnetically induced reactions allow probing different aspects of nuclear structure at the limits of stability related to the neutron-proton asymmetry and the weak binding close to the dripline. Properties of the valence-neutron wave functions are studied in the one-neutron knockout reaction, revealing the changes of shell structure when going from the beta-stability line to more asymmetric loosely bound neutron-rich systems. The vanishing of the N=8 shell gap for neutron-rich systems like {sup 11}Li and {sup 12}Be, or the new closed N=14, 16 shells for the oxygen isotopes are examples. The continuum of weakly bound nuclei and halo states can be studied by inelastic scattering. The dipole response, for instance, is found to change dramatically when going away from the valley of stability. A redistribution of the dipole strength towards lower excitation energies is observed for neutron-rich nuclei, which partly might be due to a new collective excitation mode related to the neutron-proton asymmetry. Halo nuclei in particular show strong dipole transitions to the continuum at the threshold, being directly related to the ground-state properties of the projectile. Finally, an outlook on future experimental prospects is given. (orig.)

  15. Reactions with fast radioactive beams of neutron-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumann, T.

    2005-11-01

    The neutron dripline has presently been reached only for the lightest nuclei up to the element oxygen. In this region of light neutron-rich nuclei, scattering experiments are feasible even for dripline nuclei by utilizing high-energy secondary beams produced by fragmentation. In the present article, reactions of high-energy radioactive beams will be exemplified using recent experimental results mainly derived from measurements of breakup reactions performed at the LAND and FRS facilities at GSI and at the S800 spectrometer at the NSCL. Nuclear and electromagnetically induced reactions allow probing different aspects of nuclear structure at the limits of stability related to the neutron-proton asymmetry and the weak binding close to the dripline. Properties of the valence-neutron wave functions are studied in the one-neutron knockout reaction, revealing the changes of shell structure when going from the beta-stability line to more asymmetric loosely bound neutron-rich systems. The vanishing of the N=8 shell gap for neutron-rich systems like 11 Li and 12 Be, or the new closed N=14, 16 shells for the oxygen isotopes are examples. The continuum of weakly bound nuclei and halo states can be studied by inelastic scattering. The dipole response, for instance, is found to change dramatically when going away from the valley of stability. A redistribution of the dipole strength towards lower excitation energies is observed for neutron-rich nuclei, which partly might be due to a new collective excitation mode related to the neutron-proton asymmetry. Halo nuclei in particular show strong dipole transitions to the continuum at the threshold, being directly related to the ground-state properties of the projectile. Finally, an outlook on future experimental prospects is given. (orig.)

  16. MUST: A silicon strip detector array for radioactive beam experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenfeld, Y; Sauvestre, J E; Maréchal, F; Ottini, S; Alamanos, N; Barbier, A; Beaumel, D; Bonnereau, B; Charlet, D; Clavelin, J F; Courtat, P; Delbourgo-Salvador, P; Douet, R; Engrand, M; Ethvignot, T; Gillibert, A; Khan, E; Lapoux, V; Lagoyannis, A; Lavergne, L; Lebon, S; Lelong, P; Lesage, A; Le Ven, V; Lhenry, I; Martin, J M; Musumarra, A; Pita, S; Petizon, L; Pollacco, E; Pouthas, J; Richard, A; Rougier, D; Santonocito, D; Scarpaci, J A; Sida, J L; Soulet, C; Stutzmann, J S; Suomijärvi, T; Szmigiel, M; Volkov, P; Voltolini, G

    1999-01-01

    A new and innovative array, MUST, based on silicon strip technology and dedicated to the study of reactions induced by radioactive beams on light particles is described. The detector consists of 8 silicon strip - Si(Li) telescopes used to identify recoiling light charged particles through time of flight, energy loss and energy measurements and to determine precisely their scattering angle through X, Y position measurements. Each 60x60 mm sup 2 double sided silicon strip detector with 60 vertical and 60 horizontal strips yields an X-Y position resolution of 1 mm, an energy resolution of 50 keV, a time resolution of around 1 ns and a 500 keV energy threshold for protons. The backing Si(Li) detectors stop protons up to 25 MeV with a resolution of approximately 50 keV. CsI crystals read out by photo-diodes which stop protons up to 70 MeV are added to the telescopes for applications where higher energy particles need to be detected. The dedicated electronics in VXIbus standard allow us to house the 968 logic and a...

  17. Astrophysical r- and rp-processes, and radioactive nuclear beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Richard N.

    1998-01-01

    The modern description of the r-process follows naturally from α-rich freezeout, thought to occur in the hot neutrino wind just beyond the nascent neutron star in a type II supernova. Initially, all pre-existing nuclei are reduced to α-particles and neutrons. As the environment cools, nuclei up to about mass 90 to 100 u are synthesized, in nuclear statistical equilibrium, in about 1 s. In the next few seconds, the remaining neutrons are captured to form the r-process progenitors, which then decay to the r-process nuclides. The rp-process occurs in a high-temperature H-rich environment. It is one of the processes that synthesize the p-process nuclei, the most neutron-poor nuclei in the periodic table. It is thought to occur during the explosion of a C-O white dwarf in a type Ia supernova or in a binary system during accretion onto a white dwarf or a neutron star. It appears to be capable of forming the p-nuclei up to about mass 90 u. Both processes pass through nuclei that are far from stability. Thus, their description requires the masses, half-lives, decay modes, and structure of these nuclei. The next generation of radioactive beam facilities promises to allow the study of many such nuclei. (author)

  18. Half-lives for proton emission, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes calculated in a unified theoretical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, S.B.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Guzman, F.; Dimarco, A.; Garcia, F.; Goncalves, M.

    2002-01-01

    Half-life values of spontaneous nuclear decay processes are presented in the framework of the Effective Liquid Drop Model (ELDM) using the combination of varying mass asymmetry shape description for the mass transfer with Werner-Wheeler's inertia coefficient V MAS /WW. The calculated half-lives of ground-state to ground-state transitions for the proton emission, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes are compared with experimental data. Results have shown that the ELDM is a very efficient model to describe these different decay processes in a same, unified theoretical framework. A Table listing the predicted half-life values, τ c is presented for all possible cases of spontaneous nuclear break-up such that -7.30 10 τ c [S] 10 (τ/τ c ) > -17.0, where τ is the total half-life of the parent nucleus. (author)

  19. A separate effect study of the influence of metallic fission products on CsI radioactive release from nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Lemma, F.G., E-mail: fidelma.dilemma@gmail.com [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Radiation Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft, 2629 JB (Netherlands); Colle, J.Y., E-mail: jean-yves.colle@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Beneš, O. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Konings, R.J.M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Radiation Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft, 2629 JB (Netherlands)

    2015-10-15

    The chemistry of cesium and iodine is of main importance to quantify the radioactive release in case of a nuclear reactor accident, or sabotage involving irradiated nuclear materials. We studied the interaction of CsI with different metallic fission products such as Mo and Ru. These elements can be released from nuclear fuel when exposed to oxidising conditions, as in the case of contact of overheated nuclear fuel with air (e.g. in a spent fuel cask sabotage, uncovering of a spent fuel pond, or air ingress accidents). Experiments were performed by vaporizing mixtures of the compounds in air, and analysing the produced aerosols in view of a possible gas–gas and gas–aerosol reactions between the compounds. These results were compared with the gaseous species predicted by thermochemical equilibrium calculations and experimental equilibrium vaporization tests using Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry.

  20. Imprints left by natural radioactivity in geological materials: uranium fission tracks and thermoluminescence applications in earth sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broquet, P.; Chambaudet, A.; Rebetez, M.; Charlet, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    In a rock, all minerals which contain uranium are host to a number of spontaneous fission phenomena forming a single damaged area called a ''latent track'', observations of which may lead to dating, uranium mapping and finding paleo-geo-thermometers (thermal history, used in oil exploration). The radioactive elements during the decay process release energy which is trapped as electrons into the physical or chemical defects of the crystalline lattice; this energy can be later released by heating the mineral (thermic stimulated luminescence); the thermoluminescence is characterized by a glow which spectrum constitutes a typical feature of the mineral, its crystallization conditions and the subsequent evolution of the material. Natural and induced glow curve may be produced. 6 figs., 52 refs

  1. Investigating the contamination of accelerated radioactive beams with an ionization chamber at MINIBALL

    CERN Document Server

    Zidarova, Radostina

    2017-01-01

    My summer student project involved the operation and calibration of an ionization chamber, which was used at MINIBALL for investigating and determining the contamination in post-accelerated radioactive beams used for Coulomb excitation and transfer reaction experiments.

  2. Contamination of the air and other environmental samples of the Ulm region by radioactive fission products after the accident of the Chernobyl reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivan, V.; Egger, K.P.; Hausbeck, R.; Schmid, W.

    1986-01-01

    Since April 30, 1986, the radioactivity of the fission products released by the accident of the Chernobyl reactor has been measured in the air of the city of Ulm. The airborne dust samples were collected with flow calibrated samplers on cellulose acetate membrane filters and counted with a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. Later on, the radioactivity measurements were expanded to other relevant environmental samples contaminated by radioactive atmospheric precipitates including grass, spruce needles, mosses, lichens, various kinds of food, drinking water, asphalt and concrete surface layers, municipal sewage sludge and sewage sludge ash. This paper reports the obtained results. (orig.) [de

  3. Recent radioactive ion beam program at RIKEN and related topics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent experimental programs at RIKEN concerning RI beams are reviewed. RIKEN has the ring cyclotron (RRC) with high intense heavy-ion beams and large acceptance fragment separator, RIPS. The complex can provide high intense RI-beams. By using the high intense RI-beams, a variety of experiments have been ...

  4. MUST: A silicon strip detector array for radioactive beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Auger, F.; Sauvestre, J.E.; Marechal, F.; Ottini, S.; Alamanos, N.; Barbier, A.; Beaumel, D.; Bonnereau, B.; Charlet, D.; Clavelin, J.F.; Courtat, P.; Delbourgo-Salvador, P.; Douet, R.; Engrand, M.; Ethvignot, T.; Gillibert, A.; Khan, E.; Lapoux, V.; Lagoyannis, A.; Lavergne, L.; Lebon, S.; Lelong, P.; Lesage, A.; Le Ven, V.; Lhenry, I.; Martin, J.M.; Musumarra, A.; Pita, S.; Petizon, L.; Pollacco, E.; Pouthas, J.; Richard, A.; Rougier, D.; Santonocito, D.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Sida, J.L.; Soulet, C.; Stutzmann, J.S.; Suomijaervi, T.; Szmigiel, M.; Volkov, P.; Voltolini, G.

    1999-01-01

    A new and innovative array, MUST, based on silicon strip technology and dedicated to the study of reactions induced by radioactive beams on light particles is described. The detector consists of 8 silicon strip - Si(Li) telescopes used to identify recoiling light charged particles through time of flight, energy loss and energy measurements and to determine precisely their scattering angle through X, Y position measurements. Each 60x60 mm 2 double sided silicon strip detector with 60 vertical and 60 horizontal strips yields an X-Y position resolution of 1 mm, an energy resolution of 50 keV, a time resolution of around 1 ns and a 500 keV energy threshold for protons. The backing Si(Li) detectors stop protons up to 25 MeV with a resolution of approximately 50 keV. CsI crystals read out by photo-diodes which stop protons up to 70 MeV are added to the telescopes for applications where higher energy particles need to be detected. The dedicated electronics in VXIbus standard allow us to house the 968 logic and analog channels of the array in one crate placed adjacent to the reaction chamber and fully remote controlled, including pulse visualization on oscilloscopes. A stand alone data acquisition system devoted to the MUST array has been developed. Isotope identification of light charged particles over the full energy range has been achieved, and the capability of the system to measure angular distributions of states populated in inverse kinematics reactions has been demonstrated

  5. Ternary fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the energy minimization of all possible ternary breakups of a heavy radioactive nucleus. Further, within the TCM we have analysed the competition between different geometries as well as different positioning of the fragments. Also, an attempt was made to calculate the mass distribution of ternary fission process within the ...

  6. The Effect of Fission Products on the Radioactivity of Some Hydrobionts of the Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseev, P. A.; Kardashev, A. V. [All-Union Marine Fisheries and Oceanographical Scientific Research Institute, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)

    1960-07-01

    The paper emphasizes the fact that currents in the water masses disperse radioactive elements over large distances, with the result that many marine fauna and flora far removed from the centres of contamination may accumulate dangerous concentrations of such elements. (author)

  7. Process for final storage of high level radioactive fission product solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.R.B.; Fries, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    In this process for the storage of an aqueous solution of radioactive nuclides, the solution is diluted with system water, which is obtained from a reservoir below the bottom of the sea in a porous geological stratum. After dilution, the diluted solution is injected into the same geological stratum under the bottom of the sea. (orig.) [de

  8. ISOLDE experiment explores new territory in nuclear fission

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    An international collaboration led by the University of Leuven, Belgium, exploiting ISOLDE’s radioactive beams, has recently discovered an unexpected new type of asymmetric nuclear fission, which challenges current theories. The surprising result opens the way for new nuclear structure models and further theories to elucidate the question.   Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) in action at ISOLDE. RILIS was instrumental in providing the pure beam necessary for the successful nuclear fission experiment. In nuclear fission, the nucleus splits into two fragments (daughter nuclei), releasing a huge amount of energy. Nuclear fission is exploited in power plants to produce energy. From the fundamental research point of view, fission is not yet fully understood decades after its discovery and its properties can still surprise nuclear physicists. The way the process occurs can tell us a lot about the internal structure of the nucleus and the interactions taking place inside the com...

  9. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakama, M., E-mail: minorusakama@tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiological Science, Division of Biomedical Information Sciences, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8509 (Japan); Nagano, Y. [Department of Radiological Science, Division of Biomedical Information Sciences, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8509 (Japan); Kitade, T. [Department of Laboratory, M and S Instruments Inc., Osaka 532-0005 (Japan); Shikino, O. [Department of Inorganic Analysis, PerkinElmer Japan Co. Ltd., Yokohama 240-0005 (Japan); Nakayama, S. [Department of Nuclear Science, Institute of Socio-Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    Radioactive fission product {sup 131}I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m{sup -3} in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m{sup -3}) variation of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  10. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakama, M.; Nagano, Y.; Kitade, T.; Shikino, O.; Nakayama, S.

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive fission product 131 I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, 134 Cs and 137 Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m -3 in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of 134 Cs and 137 Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m -3 ) variation of stable cesium ( 133 Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument

  11. New Horizon in Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics Using Radioactive Nuclear Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanihata, Isao

    Beams of β- radioactive nuclei, having a lifetime as short as 1 ms have been used for studies of the nuclear structure and reaction relevant to nucleosynthesis in the universe. In nuclear-structure studies, decoupling of the proton and neutron distributions in nuclei has been discovered. The decoupling appeared as neutron halos and neutron skins on the surface of neutron-rich unstable nuclei. In astrophysics, reaction cross sections have been determined for many key reactions of nucleosynthesis involving short-lived nuclei in the initial and final states. One such important reaction, 13N+p → 14O +γ, has been studied using beams of unstable 13N nuclei. Such studies became possible after the invention of beams of radioactive nuclei in the mid-80's. Before that, the available ion beams were restricted to ions of stable nuclei for obvious reasons. In the next section the production method of radioactive beams is presented, then a few selected studies using radioactive beams are discussed in the following sections. In the last section, some useful properties of radioactive nuclei for other applications is shown.

  12. HAC and fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, I.; Moriyama, H.; Tachikawa, E.

    1984-01-01

    In the fission process, newly formed fission products undergo hot atom reactions due to their energetic recoil and abnormal positive charge. The hot atom reactions of the fission products are usually accompanied by secondary effects such as radiation damage, especially in condensed phase. For reactor safety it is valuable to know the chemical behaviour and the release behaviour of these radioactive fission products. Here, the authors study the chemical behaviour and the release behaviour of the fission products from the viewpoint of hot atom chemistry (HAC). They analyze the experimental results concerning fission product behaviour with the help of the theories in HAC and other neighboring fields such as radiation chemistry. (Auth.)

  13. Radioactive Waste Issues related to Production of Fission-based Mo-99 by using Low Enriched Uranium (LEU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Muhmood ul; Ryu, Ho Jin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In order to produce fission-based Mo-99 from research reactors, two types of targets are being used and they are highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets with {sup 235}U enrichment more than 90wt% of {sup 235}U and low enriched uranium (LEU) targets with {sup 235}U enrichment less than 20wt% of {sup 235}U. It is worth noting that medium enriched uranium i.e. 36wt% of {sup 235}U as being used in South Africa is also regarded as non-LEU from a nuclear security point of view. In order to cope with the proliferation issues, international nuclear security policy is promoting the use of LEU targets in order to minimize the civilian use of HEU. It is noteworthy that Mo-99 yield of the LEU target is less than 20% of the HEU target, which requires approximately five times more LEU targets to be irradiated and consequently results in increased volume of waste. The waste generated from fission Mo-99 production can be mainly due to: target fabrication, assembling of target, irradiation in reactor and processing of irradiated targets. During the fission of U-235 in a reactor, a large number of radionuclides with different chemical and physical properties are formed. The waste produced from these practices may be a combination of low level waste (LLW) and intermediate level waste (ILW) comprised of all three types, i.e., solid, liquid and gas. Handling and treatment of the generated waste are dependent on its form and activity. In case of the large production facility, waste storage facility should be constructed in order to limit the radiation exposures of the workers and the environment. In this study, we discuss and compare mainly the radioactive waste generated by alkaline digestion of both HEU and LEU targets to assist in planning and deciding the choice of the technology with better arrangements for proper handling and disposal of generated waste. With the use of the LEU targets in Mo-99 production facility, significant increase in liquid and solid waste has been expected.

  14. Physics and Technology for the Next Generation of Radioactive Ion Beam Facilities: EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Kadi, Y; Catherall, R; Giles, T; Stora, T; Wenander, F K

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of artificial radioactivity in 1935, nuclear scientists have developed tools to study nuclei far from stability. A major breakthrough came in the eighties when the first high energy radioactive beams were produced at Berkeley, leading to the discovery of neutron halos. The field of nuclear structure received a new impetus, and the major accelerator facilities worldwide rivalled in ingenuity to produce more intense, purer and higher resolution rare isotope beams, leading to our much improved knowledge and understanding of the general evolution of nuclear properties throughout the nuclear chart. However, today, further progress is hampered by the weak beam intensities of current installations which correlate with the difficulty to reach the confines of nuclear binding where new phenomena are predicted, and where the r-process path for nuclear synthesis is expected to be located. The advancement of Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) science calls for the development of so-called next-generation facil...

  15. Detection systems for radioactive ion beams; Systeme de detection en ions radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savajols, H

    2002-07-01

    Two main methods are used to produce radioactive ion beams: -) the ISOL method (isotope separation on-line) in which the stable beam interacts with a thick target, the reaction products diffuse outside the target and are transferred to a source where they are ionized, a mass separator and a post-accelerator drive the selected radioactive ions to the right energy; -) the in-flight fragmentation method in which the stable beam interacts with a thin target, the reaction products are emitted from the target with a restricted angular distribution and a velocity close to that of the incident beam, the experimenter has to take advantage from the reaction kinetics to get the right particle beam. Characteristic time is far longer with the ISOL method but the beam intensity is much better because of the use of a post-accelerator. In both cases, the beam intensity is lower by several orders of magnitude than in the case of a stable beam. This article presents all the constraints imposed by radioactive beams to the detection systems of the reaction products and gives new technical solutions according to the type of nuclear reaction studied. (A.C.)

  16. Ion sources for initial use at the Holifield radioactive ion beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will use the 25-MV tandem accelerator for the acceleration of radioactive ion beams to energies appropriate for research in nuclear physics; negative ion beams are, therefore, required for injection into the tandem accelerator. Because charge exchange is an efficient means for converting initially positive ion beams to negative ion beams, both positive and negative ion sources are viable options for use at the facility; the choice of the type of ion source will depend on the overall efficiency for generating the radioactive species of interest. A high-temperature version of the CERN-ISOLDE positive ion source has been selected and a modified version of the source designed and fabricated for initial use at the HRIBF because of its low emittance, relatively high ionization efficiencies and species versatility, and because it has been engineered for remote installation, removal and servicing as required for safe handling in a high-radiation-level ISOL facility. Prototype plasma-sputter negative ion sources and negative surfaceionization sources are also under design consideration for generating negative radioactive ion beams from high electron-affinity elements. A brief review of the HRIBF will be presented, followed by a detailed description of the design features, operational characteristics, ionization efficiencies, and beam qualities (emittances) of these sources

  17. Neutron-rich rare isotope production from projectile fission of heavy beams in the energy range of 20 MeV/nucleon

    OpenAIRE

    Vonta, N.; Souliotis, G. A.; Loveland, W. D.; Kwon, Y. K.; Tshoo, K.; Jeong, S. C.; Veselsky, M.; Bonasera, A.; Botvina, A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the possibilities of producing neutron-rich nuclides in projectile fission of heavy beams in the energy range of 20 MeV/nucleon expected from low-energy facilities. We report our efforts to theoretically describe the reaction mechanism of projectile fission following a multinucleon transfer collision at this energy range. Our calculations are mainly based on a two-step approach: the dynamical stage of the collision is described with either the phenomenological Deep-Inelastic Tr...

  18. Production of chemically reactive radioactive ion beams through on-line separation; Production de faisceaux d'ions radioactifs chimiquement reactifs par separation en ligne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joinet, A

    2003-10-01

    The ISOL (isotope separation on line) allows the production of secondary radioactive ion beams through spallation or fragmentation or fission reactions that take place in a thick target bombarded by a high intensity primary beam. The challenge is to increase the intensity and purity of the radioactive beam. The optimization of the system target/source requires the right choice of material for the target by taking into account the stability of the material, its reactivity and the ionization method used. The target is an essential part of the system because radioactive elements are generated in it and are released more or less quickly. Tests have been made in order to select the best fitted material for the release of S, Se, Te, Ge and Sn. Materials tested as target filling are: ZrO{sub 2}, Nb, Ti, V,TiO{sub 2}, CeO{sub x}, ThO{sub 2}, C, ZrC{sub 4} and VC). Other molecules such as: COSe, COS, SeS, COTe, GeS, SiS, SnS have been studied to ease the extraction of recoil nuclei (Se, S, Te, Ge and Sn) produced inside the target.

  19. Production of chemically reactive radioactive ion beams through on-line separation; Production de faisceaux d'ions radioactifs chimiquement reactifs par separation en ligne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joinet, A

    2003-10-01

    The ISOL (isotope separation on line) allows the production of secondary radioactive ion beams through spallation or fragmentation or fission reactions that take place in a thick target bombarded by a high intensity primary beam. The challenge is to increase the intensity and purity of the radioactive beam. The optimization of the system target/source requires the right choice of material for the target by taking into account the stability of the material, its reactivity and the ionization method used. The target is an essential part of the system because radioactive elements are generated in it and are released more or less quickly. Tests have been made in order to select the best fitted material for the release of S, Se, Te, Ge and Sn. Materials tested as target filling are: ZrO{sub 2}, Nb, Ti, V,TiO{sub 2}, CeO{sub x}, ThO{sub 2}, C, ZrC{sub 4} and VC). Other molecules such as: COSe, COS, SeS, COTe, GeS, SiS, SnS have been studied to ease the extraction of recoil nuclei (Se, S, Te, Ge and Sn) produced inside the target.

  20. Laboratory study of the radioactivity from fission products in microscopic fallout particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.A.; Ward, T.E.; Wesick, J.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment is described wherein simple γ-ray detection and analysis techniques were utilized to study the radioactivity in local precipitation. Gamma spectra from filtered particulate, evaporation residue, and water from a sample of freshly fallen snow were counted, and the relative amount of several radionuclides present were identified. These data show that several isotopes produced in the recent Chinese nuclear detonation (Lop Nor testing ground, Sinkiang Province, 17 November 1976) are observable. Furthermore the data are sufficient to estimate the date of the detonation and to determine some of the characteristics of the explosion

  1. Decree of 4 September 1969, Stb. 405, concerning the implementation of Sections 16, 19, paragraph 1, 21, 29, 30, paragraph 2 and 32 of the Nuclear Energy Act (Fissionable Materials, Ores and Radioactive Materials (Transport))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The regulations governing the transport of fissionable materials, ores and radioactive materials are embodied in this Decree, together with the regulations concerning operations involving their movements into and out of the Netherlands and their storage incidental to transport. (NEA) [fr

  2. A combined thermal dissociation and electron impact ionization source for radioactive ion beam generationa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Williams, C.

    1996-01-01

    The probability for simultaneously dissociating and efficiently ionizing the individual atomic constituents of molecular feed materials with conventional, hot-cathode, electron-impact ion sources is low and consequently, the ion beams from these sources often appear as mixtures of several molecular sideband beams. This fragmentation process leads to dilution of the intensity of the species of interest for radioactive ion beam (RIB) applications where beam intensity is at a premium. We have conceived an ion source that combines the excellent molecular dissociation properties of a thermal dissociator and the high ionization efficiency characteristics of an electron impact ionization source that will, in principle, overcome this handicap. The source concept will be evaluated as a potential candidate for use for RIB generation at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility, now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The design features and principles of operation of the source are described in this article. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  3. Half-lives for proton emission, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes calculated in a unified theoretical framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, S.B.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Guzman, F.; Dimarco, A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Rodriguez, O. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Instituto Superior de Ciencias e Tecnologia Nucleares, La Habana (Cuba); Goncalves, M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-01-01

    Half-life values of spontaneous nuclear decay processes are presented in the framework of the Effective Liquid Drop Model (ELDM) using the combination of varying mass asymmetry shape description for the mass transfer with Werner-Wheeler's inertia coefficient V{sub MAS}/WW. The calculated half-lives of ground-state to ground-state transitions for the proton emission, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes are compared with experimental data. Results have shown that the ELDM is a very efficient model to describe these different decay processes in a same, unified theoretical framework. A Table listing the predicted half-life values, {tau}{sub c} is presented for all possible cases of spontaneous nuclear break-up such that -7.30 <{approx_equal} log{sub 10} {tau}{sub c} [S] <{approx_equal} 27.50 and log {sub 10}({tau}/{tau}{sub c}) > -17.0, where {tau} is the total half-life of the parent nucleus. (author)

  4. Ternary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemans, C.

    1991-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1946, light (charged) particle accompanied fission (ternary fission) has been extensively studied, for spontaneous as well as for induced fission reactions. The reason for this interest was twofold: the ternary particles being emitted in space and time close to the scission point were expected to supply information on the scission point configuration and the ternary fission process was an important source of helium, tritium, and hydrogen production in nuclear reactors, for which data were requested by the nuclear industry. Significant experimental progress has been realized with the advent of high-resolution detectors, powerful multiparameter data acquisition systems, and intense neutron and photon beams. As far as theory is concerned, the trajectory calculations (in which scission point parameters are deduced from the experimental observations) have been very much improved. An attempt was made to explain ternary particle emission in terms of a Plateau-Rayleigh hydrodynamical instability of a relatively long cylindrical neck or cylindrical nucleus. New results have also been obtained on the so-called open-quotes trueclose quotes ternary fission (fission in three about-equal fragments). The spontaneous emission of charged particles has also clearly been demonstrated in recent years. This chapter discusses the main characteristics of ternary fission, theoretical models, light particle emission probabilities, the dependence of the emission probabilities on experimental variables, light particle energy distributions, light particle angular distributions, correlations between light particle accompanied fission observables, open-quotes trueclose quotes ternary fission, and spontaneous emission of heavy ions. 143 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Development and validation of the aerosol transport module gamma-FP for evaluating radioactive fission product source terms in a VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Churl; Lim, Hong Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Predicting radioactive fission product (FP) behaviors in the reactor coolant system and the containment of a nuclear power plant (NPP) is one of the major concerns in the field of reactor safety, since the amount of radioactive FP released into the environment during the postulated accident sequences is one of the major regulatory issues. Radioactive FPs circulating in the primary coolant loop and released into the containment are basically in the form of gas or aerosol. In this study, a multi-component and multi-sectional analysis module for aerosol fission products has been developed based on the MAEROS model, and the aerosol transport model has been developed and verified against an analytic solution. The deposition of aerosol FPs to the surrounding structural surfaces is modeled with recent research achievements. The developed aerosol analysis model has been successfully validated against the STORM SR-11 experimental data, which is International Standard Problem No. 40. Future studies include the development of the resuspension, growth, and chemical reaction models of aerosol fission products.

  6. Development of windowless liquid lithium targets for fragmentation and fission of 400-kW uranium beams

    CERN Document Server

    Nolen, J A; Hassanein, A; Novick, V J; Plotkin, P; Specht, J R

    2003-01-01

    The driver linac of the proposed rare isotope accelerator facility is designed to deliver 2x10 sup 1 sup 3 uranium ions per second at 400 MeV/u on target for radionuclide production via the fission and fragmentation mechanisms. The ion optics of the large acceptance, high-resolution fragment separators that follow the production target require primary beam spot widths of 1 mm. To cope with the resulting high power densities, windowless liquid lithium targets are being developed. The present designs build on existing experience with liquid lithium and liquid sodium systems that have been used for fusion and fission applications. However, no completely windowless systems have been developed or tested to date. For the beam power indicated above (400 kW), the flow requirements are up to about 20 m/s and 10 l/s linear and volume flow rates, respectively. The required target thickness is 1-1.5 g/cm sup 2 (2-3 cm lithium thickness). At this time a prototype windowless system with a lithium thickness of 1-2 cm is und...

  7. Radioactive contamination of some rubber or plastic surfaces by fission products. Decontamination tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestre, E.; Sautiez, N.

    1957-10-01

    With the objective of notably addressing the contamination and decontamination of gloves and floor covering, this report first presents some characteristics of contaminating radioactive materials (nature, physical and chemical condition), of contaminated surfaces (surface condition, surface nature), and of decontamination processes (physical, chemical or mechanical action). It describes the operational modality implemented to test decontamination processes on various glove or flooring materials: sample preparation, counting, decontamination, reproducibility of decontamination tests, results in terms of activity reduction. It more precisely describes the tested samples: short gloves, gloves from glove boxes, floor and wall coverings. Results are presented and discussed in terms of sample susceptibility to contamination, and of decontamination, but also for re-contamination tests after a Nab-based decontamination (susceptibility to contamination, decontamination gain)

  8. Investigating proton emitters at the limits of stability with radioactive beams from the Oak Ridge facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, K.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Batchelder, J.C.; Zganjar, E.F. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Bingham, C.R.; Wauters, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Davinson, T.; MacKenzie, J.A.; Woods, P.J. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    By using beams from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at ORNL, it should be possible to identify many new ground-state proton emitters in the mass region from Sn to Pb. In these investigations nuclei produced in fusion-evaporation reactions will be separated from incident ions and dispersed in mass/charge with a recoil mass separator and then implanted into a double-sided Si strip detector for study of proton (and {alpha}-particle) radioactivity. This paper summarizes data presently extant on proton emitters and then focuses on tests and initial experiments that will be carried out with stable beams and with radioactive ions as they are developed at the Oak Ridge facility.

  9. Prospects for studies of ground-state proton decays with the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, K.S.

    1994-01-01

    By using radioactive ions from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory it should be possible to identify many new ground-state proton emitters in the mass region from Sn to Pb. During this production and search process the limits of stability on the proton-rich side of the nuclidic chart will be delineated for a significant fraction of medium-weight elements and our understanding of the proton-emission process will be expanded and improved

  10. Retention of activation and fission radionuclides by mallards from the Test Reactor Area radioactive leaching pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, D.K.; Millard, J.B.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty semi-wild mallard ducks were banded, fitted with dorsal and ventral thermoluminescent dosimeter packets, and released on the Test Reactor Area radioactive leaching ponds. Ducks were live captured after 75 days and 145 days on the pond, placed in metabolic cages and whole-body counted periodically for 52 days. Ducks from each group were sacrificed immediately after capture, dissected, and muscle, feather, gut, and liver samples submitted for analyses. The remaining ducks were also sacrificed and dissected after the 52 day counting period. Concentrations of the 17 gamma emitting radionuclides detected at capture and after 52 days of physical and biological decay were compared. Highest mean radionuclide concentrations were found in feathers followed by gut, liver, and muscle. Effective and biological halflives of Zn-65, Cr-51, Cs-134, Cs-137, and Se-75 were determined and compared with data from previous studies. Samples are currently being analyzed for Pu-238, Pu-239-240, Am-241, Cm-242, Cm-244 and Sr-90. Further data analyses will be completed after data collection has terminated

  11. Properties of container and backfill materials for the final disposal of highly radioactive fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirschinka, V.

    1983-11-01

    The qualifications of six metallic alloys to serve as canister materials for an in-can glass smelting process were studied. These alloys are: N 6 1.4864 (X 12NiCrSi3616, Thermax 16/36), No. 2.4816 (NiCr15Fe, Inconel 600), No. 2.4610 (Hastelloy C4), No. 2.4778 (UMCO50), No. 1.5415 (15MO3), No. 1.1005 (ZSH-Spezial). The mechanical properties of any of the six materials at high temperatures were found to be sufficient. The chemical interactions between glass and metal were investigated by glass smelting tests and electron microprobe analyses, showing that chromium as an alloying element of the crucible material may affect the quality of the glass product by causing inhomogeneities and a violent blistering in the glass matrix. The resistance against corrosion by concentrated salt solutions under elevated pressure and temperature similar to final depository conditions was tested showing that the presence of a bentonite suspension in the salt solution reduces the corrosion attack of the metal significantly. Diffusion experiments of salt solutions doted with radioactive isotopes Na-22 and Cl-36 as tracer substances were made to show the retardation behaviour of salt ions in compacted bentonite. However, a long-term barrier effect of the bentonite against salt ion diffusion could not be verified. (orig./HOE)

  12. High-energy beams of radioactive nuclei and their biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpen, E.L.; Chatterjee, A.; Llacer, J.

    1981-01-01

    Several exploratory measurements have been conducted with radioactive beams to test the feasibility of using these beams to measure effective stopping power of heterogeneous media for heavy charged particles. Such measurements will provide direct information on the average electron density and average stopping number of a target with an unknown heterogeneous beam path. This information, once obtained with a suitable radioactive beam, can be used in equations to calculate the energy of any heavy particle of therapeutic choice so that the Bragg peak of the therapeutic beam can be placed on the tumor volume. A beam of high-energy heavy ions was collimated to a diameter of 1.58 cm (PEBA has a good positional accuracy as long as the beam diameter is less than 2 cm), and made to enter target materials (mixed or homogeneous) positioned between the detector banks and centered along the beam axis. Measurements have been made with 11 C and 19 Ne beams, but the short half-life of 19 Ne (19 sec) allows prompt repeated measurements, making that nucleus very interesting for these purposes. Only the results obtained with it are reported

  13. Measurement of nuclear cross sections using radioactive beams; Medicion de secciones eficaces nucleares usando haces radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizcano, D.; Aguilera, E.F.; Martinez Q, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    One of the main applications of the production and use of nuclear radioactive beams is the measurement of nuclear cross sections. In this work is used a {sup 6} He nuclear radioactive beam ({beta} emitting with half life 806.7 ms) for the study of the reaction {sup 6} + {sup 209} Bi which could have several products. This investigation was realized in collaboration with the personnel of the Nuclear Structure laboratory at the University of Notre Dame (U.S.A.) and the National institute of Nuclear Research and CONACyT by Mexico. (Author)

  14. 1: the atom. 2: radioactivity. 3: man and radiations. 4: the energy. 5: nuclear energy: fusion and fission. 6: the operation of a nuclear reactor. 7: the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This series of 7 digest booklets present the bases of the nuclear physics and of the nuclear energy: 1 - the atom (structure of matter, chemical elements and isotopes, the four fundamental interactions, nuclear physics); 2 - radioactivity (definition, origins of radioelements, applications of radioactivity); 3 - man and radiations (radiations diversity, biological effects, radioprotection, examples of radiation applications); 4 - energy (energy states, different forms of energy, characteristics); 5 - nuclear energy: fusion and fission (nuclear energy release, thermonuclear fusion, nuclear fission and chain reaction); 6 - operation of a nuclear reactor (nuclear fission, reactor components, reactor types); 7 - nuclear fuel cycle (nuclear fuel preparation, fuel consumption, reprocessing, wastes management). (J.S.)

  15. Properties of the platinoid fission products during vitrification of high-level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W.; Lutze, W.; Perez-Cardenas, F.; Matlack, K. S.; Pegg, I. L.

    2006-05-01

    Platinoid fission products present in high-level nuclear wastes present particular challenges to their treatment by vitrification. The platinoid metals Ru, Rh, Pd, and their compounds are sparingly soluble in borosilicate glass melts. During glass melting under oxidizing conditions, the platinoids form small crystals of highly dense solid intermetallic phases and oxides. Under reducing conditions, the platinoids form only intermetallic phases. A fraction of these crystals settles to the bottom of the melting furnace, forming an immobile sludge. The fraction settling reported in the literature is highly variable. In the present work, the fraction settling was found to be >90% under reducing conditions but only 10 to 20% under oxidizing conditions. The thickness of the sludge layer depends on the volume fraction of platinoid crystals in the sludge, which is poorly known (typically ~0.06 under oxidizing conditions). Since the electrical conductivity of the sludge can be >10X that of the melt, in joule-heated melters the presence of such a layer can lead to diversion of the electric current, thereby compromising melter operability. The time to failure by this mechanism is clearly of practical importance. A variety of data are required in order to estimate the time to failure due to this mechanism and such data must be obtained under conditions representative of those in a full-size melting furnace. We have acquired such data using a melting furnace installed in our laboratory. This furnace is a one-third scale prototype of the system to be used for the vitrification of defense HLW at Hanford, WA. In the present work, simulated Hanford HLW material was combined with glass formers to produce a melter feed slurry that was then spiked with the platinoids. Over one thousand chemical and optical analyses were performed on hundreds of samples taken from the feed, various locations inside the furnace, the glass melt during pouring, the solid glass, and various locations along

  16. Research of the Mass Spectra of the Fission Products and Yields of (n, gamma) and (n, 2n) Reactions in a Model Subcritical Uranium Blanket of the Electronuclear System "Energy Plus Transmutation" on Proton Beam of the Dubna Synchrophasotron at 1.5 Ge

    CERN Document Server

    Chultem, D; Krivopustov, M I; Gerbish, S; Tumendemberel, B; Pavlyuk, A B; Zaveryukha, O S

    2002-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the research of the spatial distributions of the yields of (n, f), (n, gamma) and (n, 2n) reactions in a two-section model of the uranium blanket electronuclear installation constructed at the Laboratory of High Energies, JINR (Dubna) for experiments according to the program "Research of physical aspects of the electronuclear method of energy production and of radioactive waste transmutation in atomic power-engineering on beams of the synchrophasotron and nuclotron" - project "Energy plus Transmutation". The mass spectrum of the fission products and yields of above reactions in uranium activation detectors placed on the radii of the so-called detector plates is determined. The experimental results testify that the fission of nuclei in the uranium blanket is made by fast neutrons. This conclusion coincides with the result obtained with track integrators of uranium fission.

  17. A high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragments and ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosev, Krasimir Milchev

    2007-07-01

    For the purpose of fission-fragment detection a double time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer has been developed. The key component of the TOF spectrometer is a TOF detector consisting of multichannel-plate (MCP) detectors with a position-sensitive readout, a foil for secondary electron (SE) production and an electrostatic mirror. The fission fragments are detected by measuring the SEs impinging on the position-sensitive anode after emission from the foil, acceleration and deflection by the electrostatic mirror. The functionality of the different detector components is proven in detail. Optimised schemes for the high-voltage supplies of the MCP detectors have been implemented successfully. In order to process the multichannel-plate detector signals optimally, a new state-of-the-art constant-fraction discriminator based on the amplitude and rise time compensated technique with very low threshold capabilities and optimised walk properties has been developed and incorporated into the setup. In a setup consisting of two mirror MCP detectors, we could successfully observe the TOF spectrum of a mixed ({sup 226}Ra,{sup 222}Rn,{sup 210}Po,{sup 218}Po,{sup 214}Po) {alpha}-source. Testing photo-fission experiments were performed at the bremsstrahlung facility at the ELBE accelerator. The setup consisted of two mirror detectors (first arm) and a 80 mm diameter MCP detector (second arm) with a {sup 238}U target positioned in between. TOF measurements with two bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 12.9 and 16.0 MeV were carried out. A clear cut separation of the TOF peaks for the medium-mass and heavy fission fragments was observed. (orig.)

  18. A high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragments and ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosev, Krasimir Milchev

    2007-01-01

    For the purpose of fission-fragment detection a double time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer has been developed. The key component of the TOF spectrometer is a TOF detector consisting of multichannel-plate (MCP) detectors with a position-sensitive readout, a foil for secondary electron (SE) production and an electrostatic mirror. The fission fragments are detected by measuring the SEs impinging on the position-sensitive anode after emission from the foil, acceleration and deflection by the electrostatic mirror. The functionality of the different detector components is proven in detail. Optimised schemes for the high-voltage supplies of the MCP detectors have been implemented successfully. In order to process the multichannel-plate detector signals optimally, a new state-of-the-art constant-fraction discriminator based on the amplitude and rise time compensated technique with very low threshold capabilities and optimised walk properties has been developed and incorporated into the setup. In a setup consisting of two mirror MCP detectors, we could successfully observe the TOF spectrum of a mixed ( 226 Ra, 222 Rn, 210 Po, 218 Po, 214 Po) α-source. Testing photo-fission experiments were performed at the bremsstrahlung facility at the ELBE accelerator. The setup consisted of two mirror detectors (first arm) and a 80 mm diameter MCP detector (second arm) with a 238 U target positioned in between. TOF measurements with two bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 12.9 and 16.0 MeV were carried out. A clear cut separation of the TOF peaks for the medium-mass and heavy fission fragments was observed. (orig.)

  19. Selection and design of ion sources for use at the Holifield radioactive ion beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Haynes, D.L.; Mills, G.D.; Olsen, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will use the 25 MV tandem accelerator for the acceleration of radioactive ion beams to energies appropriate for research in nuclear physics; negative ion beams are, therefore, required for injection into the tandem accelerator. Because charge exchange is an efficient means for converting initially positive ion beams to negative ion beams, both positive and negative ion sources are viable options for use at the facility. The choice of the type of ion source will depend on the overall efficiency for generating the radioactive species of interest. Although direct-extraction negative ion sources are clearly desirable, the ion formation efficiencies are often too low for practical consideration; for this situation, positive ion sources, in combination with charge exchange, are the logical choice. The high-temperature version of the CERN-ISOLDE positive ion source has been selected and a modified version of the source designed and fabricated for initial use at the facility because of its low emittance, relatively high ionization efficiencies, and species versatility, and because it has been engineered for remote installation, removal, and servicing as required for safe handling in a high-radiation-level ISOL facility. The source will be primarily used to generate ion beams from elements with intermediate to low electron affinities. Prototype plasma-sputter negative ion sources and negative surface-ionization sources are under design consideration for generating radioactive ion beams from high-electron-affinity elements. The design features of these sources and expected efficiencies and beam qualities (emittances) will be described in this report

  20. Charge breeding of radioactive isotopes at the CARIBU facility with an electron beam ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, R. C.; Dickerson, C. A.; Hendricks, M.; Ostroumov, P.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R.; Zinkann, G.

    2018-05-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory as part of the californium rare ion breeder upgrade. For the past year, the EBIS-CB has been undergoing commissioning as part of the ATLAS accelerator complex. It has delivered both stable and radioactive beams with A/Q 18% into a single charge state. The operation of this device, challenges during the commissioning phase, and future improvements will be discussed.

  1. Nuclear Astrophysics Data from Radioactive Beam Facilities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Alan A.

    2008-01-01

    The scientific aims of this project have been the evaluation and dissemination of key nuclear reactions in nuclear astrophysics, with a focus on ones to be studied at new radioactive beam facilities worldwide. These aims were maintained during the entire funding period from 2003 - 2006. In the following, a summary of the reactions evaluated during this period is provided. Year 1 (2003-04): 21 Na(p,γ) 22 Mg and 18 Ne(α,p) 21 Na - The importance of the 21 Na(p,γ) 22 Mg and the 18 Ne(α,p) 21 Na reactions in models of exploding stars has been well documented: the first is connected to the production of the radioisotope 22 Na in nova nucleosynthesis, while the second is a key bridge between the Hot-CNO cycles and the rp-process in X-ray bursts. By the end of Summer 2004, our group had updated these reaction rates to include all published data up to September 2004, and cast the reaction rates into standard analytical and tabular formats with the assistance of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's computational infrastructure for reaction rates. Since September 2004, ongoing experiments on these two reactions have been completed, with our group's participation in both: 21 Na(p,γ) 22 Mg at the TRIUMF-ISAC laboratory (DRAGON collaboration), and 18Ne(α,p) 21 Na at Argonne National Laboratory (collaboration with Ernst Rehm, Argonne). The data from the former was subsequently published and included in our evaluation. Publication from the latter still awaits independent confirmation of the experimental results. Year 2 (2004-05): The 25Al(p,γ) 26 Si and 13 N(p,γ)14O reactions - For Year 2, we worked on evaluations of the 25 Al(p,γ) 26 Si and 13 N(p,γ) 14 O reactions, in accordance with our proposed deliverables and following similar standard procedures to those used in Year 1. The 25 Al(p,γ) 26 Si reaction is a key uncertainty in the understanding the origin of galactic 26 Al, a target radioisotope for gamma ray astronomy; the 13 N(p,γ) 14 O reaction in turn is the trigger

  2. Preliminary shielding estimates for the proposed Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (RIBF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.; Gabriel, T.A.; Lillie, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has proposed designing and implementing a new target-ion source for production and injection of negative radioactive ion beams into the Hollifield tandem accelerator. This new facility, referred to as the Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (RIBF), will primarily be used to advance the scientific communities' capabilities for performing state-of-the-art cross-section measurements. Beams of protons or other light, stable ions from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) will be stopped in the RIBF target ion source and the resulting radioactive atoms will be ionized, charge exchanged, accelerated, and injected into the tandem accelerator. The ORIC currently operates with proton energies up to 60 MeV and beam currents up to 100 microamps with a maximum beam power less than 2.0 kW. The proposed RIBF will require upgrading the ORIC to generate proton energies up to 200 MeV and beam currents up to 200 microamps for optimum performance. This report summarizes the results of a preliminary one-dimensional shielding analysis of the proposed upgrade to the ORIC and design of the RIBF. The principal objective of the shielding analysis was to determine the feasibility of such an upgrade with respect to existing shielding from the facility structure, and additional shielding requirements for the 200 MeV ORIC machine and RIBF target room

  3. TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape-Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS): a versatile tool for radioactive beam physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, G. C.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Becker, J. A.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Chen, A.; Churchman, R.; Cifarelli, F.; Cline, D.; Cooper, R. J.; Cross, D. S.; Dashdorj, D.; Demand, G.; Dimmock, M. R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Gagon-Moisan, F.; Gallant, A. T.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Grint, A. N.; Hackman, G.; Harkness, L. J.; Hayes, A. B.; Kanungo, R.; Leach, K. G.; Lee, G.; Maharaj, R.; Martin, J.-P.; Morton, A. C.; Mythili, S.; Nelson, L.; Newman, O.; Nolan, P. J.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Porter-Peden, M.; Ressler, J. J.; Roy, R.; Ruiz, C.; Savajols, H.; Sarazin, F.; Schumaker, M. A.; Scraggs, D. P.; Svensson, C. E.; Waddington, J. C.; Wan, J. M.; Whitbeck, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.; Wu, C. Y.

    2007-05-01

    TIGRESS is a new generation γ-ray spectrometer designed for use with radioactive beams from ISAC. This paper gives an overview of the project and presents results from the first radioactive beam experiment with TIGRESS, the Coulomb excitation of 20,21Na.

  4. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in atomic beams of radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebel, H.; Schatz, G.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the resonant scattering of light from CW tunable dye lasers, by a well collimated atomic beam, enable hyperfine splittings and optical isotope shifts to be determined with high precision and high sensitivity. Recent off-line atomic beam experiments with minute samples, comprising measurements with stable and unstable Ba, Ca and Pb isotopes are reviewed. The experimental methods and the analysis of the data are discussed. Information on the variation of the rms charge radii and on electromagnetic moments of nuclei in long isotopic chains is presented. (orig.) [de

  5. The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, J.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The status of the new Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which is slated to start its scientific program late this year is discussed, as is the new experimental equipment which is being constructed at this facility. Information on the early scientific program also is given.

  6. The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The status of the new Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which is slated to start its scientific program late this year is discussed, as is the new experimental equipment which is being constructed at this facility. Information on the early scientific program also is given

  7. First Nuclear Reaction Experiment with Stored Radioactive 56Ni Beam and Internal Hydrogen and Helium Targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egelhof, P.; Bagchi, Soumya; Csatlós, M.; Dillmann, I.; Dimopoulou, C.; Furuno, T; Geissel, H.; Gernhauser, R.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, Nasser; Kuilman, M.; Mahjour-Shafiei, M.; Najafi, M.A.; Rigollet, C.; Streicher, B.

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of light-ion induced direct reactions using stored and cooled radioactive beams, interacting with internal targets of storage rings, can lead to substantial advantages over external target experiments, in particular for direct reaction experiments in inverse kinematics at very low

  8. Nuclear Structure Studies On Exotic Nuclei With Radioactive Beams - Present Status And Future Perspectives At FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Egelhof

    2011-01-01

    The investigation of nuclear reactions using radioactive beams in inverse kinematics gives access to a wide field of nuclear structure studies in the region far off stability. The basic concept and the methods involved are briefly discussed, and an overview including some selected examples of recent results obtained with radioactive beams from the present fragment separator at GSI Darmstadt is presented. The experimental conditions expected at the future international facility FAIR will, among others, allow for a substantial improvement in intensity and quality of radioactive beams as compared to present facilities. Therefore, it is expected that FAIR will provide unique opportunities for nuclear structure studies on nuclei far off stability, and will allow to explore new regions in the chart of nuclides of high interest for nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. A brief overview on the new facility, and on the experimental setups planned for nuclear structure research with radioactive beams is given. For nuclear reaction studies several complex, highly efficient, high resolution, and universal detection systems such as R 3 B, EXL, ELISe, etc. are presently under design and construction. A brief overview on the research objectives and the technical realization will be presented. (author)

  9. The role fo the Pygmy resonance in the synthesis of heavy elements with radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.

    1990-12-01

    It is suggested that the inclusion of the virtual excitation of the soft giant dipole (pygmy) resonance in the calculation of the cross-section for very neutron-rich radioactive beam-induced fusion reactions may enhance the formation probability of the heavy compound nucleus produced at low excitation energy. (author)

  10. Fast and slow radioactive beams in study of light nuclei far from stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewitowicz, M.

    2003-01-01

    Several examples of results of recent experiments performed with the SPIRAL ISOL-type and GANIL high energy radioactive beams on the properties of nuclei far from stability are presented. Future plans of the GANIL/SPIRAL facility related to the SPIRAL II project are shortly discussed. (orig.)

  11. Production of a radioactive 18F ion beam for nuclear reaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. D.; Nickles, R. J.; Paul, M.; Rehm, K. E.; Jiang, C. L.; Blumenthal, D. J.; Gehring, J.; Henderson, D.; Nolen, J.; Pardo, R. C.; Schiffer, J. P.; Segel, R. E.

    1995-12-01

    A two-stage method for generating a radioactive 18F ion beam has been developed. 18F is produced with a medical cyclotron by 11 MeV proton activation of [ 18O]water, then chemically processed off-line for use in a tandem accelerator ion source. Azeotropic distillation reduces the 18O component by 10 5, with a resulting 18O to 18F beam ratio of about 10 3. The average 18F - beam intensity per synthesis is 1 ppA over 120 min from a cesium vapor, sputter negative ion source (SNICS), with a peak intensity of 4.5 ppA.

  12. Multi-channel probes to understand fission dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosby, Shea Morgan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Explaining the origin of the elements is a major outstanding question in nuclear astrophysics. Observed elemental abundance distribution shows strong nuclear physics effects. In conclusion, neutron-induced reactions are important for nuclear astrophysics and applied fields in nuclear energy and security. LANSCE has a program to address many of these questions directly with neutron beams on (near-)stable nuclei. Increasing demand for correlated data to test details of fission models poses additional challenges. Possibilities exist to extend existing experimental efforts to radioactive beam facilities. Kinematic focusing from using inverse kinematics has potential to circumvent some challenges associated with measuring correlations between fission output channels.

  13. A concept for emittance reduction of DC radioactive heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, J.A.; Dooling, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Numerical simulations indicate that it should be possible to use an electron beam to strip 1+ DC radioactive ion beams to 2+ or higher charge states with on the order of 50% efficiency. The device, which the authors call an Electron-Beam Charge-State Amplifier, is similar to an Electron Beam Ion Source, except that it is not pulsed, the beams are continuous. The 2+ beams are obtained in a single pass through a magnetic solenoid while higher charge states may be reached via multiple passes. An unexpected result of the ion optics simulations is that the normalized transverse emittance of the ion beam is reduced in proportion to the charge-state gain. Ion beams with realistic emittances and zero angular momentum relative to the optic axis before entering the solenoid will travel though the solenoid on helical orbits which intercept the axis once per cycle. With an ion beam about 2 mm in diameter and an electron beam about 0.2 mm in diameter, the ion stripping only occurs very near the optic axis, resulting in the emittance reduction

  14. The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beams Facility (HRIBF) - getting ready to do experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapira, D.; Lewis, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The conversion of the HHIRF facility to a Radioactive Ion Beam facility started in 1994. In this ISOL type facility the Cyclotron has been re-fitted as a driver providing high intensity proton beams which react with the target from which the radioactive products are extracted and then accelerated in the Tandem Electrostatic Accelerator to the desired energy for nuclear science studies. Facilities for nuclear physics experiments are at different stages of development: A Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) with a complement of detectors at the focal plane and around the target is used primarily for nuclear structure studies. A large recoil separator combining velocity and momentum selection, with its complement of focal plane detectors, will be dedicated to measurements relevant to nuclear astrophysics. The Enge Split Pole spectrograph is being re-fitted for operation in a gas filled mode, making it a more versatile tool for nuclear reaction studies. With the new experimental equipment being commissioned and the prospects of running experiments with low intensity radioactive beams a significant effort to develop equipment for beam diagnostics is underway. Some of the efforts and results in developing beam diagnostic tools will be described

  15. Exotic nuclei and radioactive beams; Noyaux exotiques et faisceaux radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, P.

    1996-12-31

    The Nuclei called exotic are all the nuclei that it is necessary to recreate in laboratory to study them. Their life time is too short -in relation to earth age- for it remains enough on earth. The researchers are going to have at their s disposal at GANIL (Caen) with the S.P.I.R.A.L. project, exotic nuclei beams and will study new kinds of nuclear reactions to better understand the atom nucleus. (N.C.). 2 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Amount, disposal and relative toxicity of long-lived fission products and actinides in the radioactive wastes of the nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, H.O.

    1975-11-01

    A review is presented on the magnitude of the long-term problems of radioactive wastes from the nuclear power industry of the FRG (and Western Europe). The production of long-lived fission products and actinides has been calculated for several fuel types of the uranium-plutonium and thorium-uranium fuel cycles and related to a prediction of the development and share of LWR, FBR and HTGR. The quantities and concentrations of actinides, the radioactivity and relative toxicity index of the wastes of reprocessing (and fuel refabrication) and their changes by radioactive decay are presented. The radiotoxicity of the nuclide inventory of the solidified high-level wastes have been compared with naturally occuring uranium ores. On the long term (>10 3 years) the radiotoxicity level of the total area of the final repository in deep geological formation does not result in a significantly higher radiotoxicity level than an uranium ore deposit of low uranium content. Also discussed have been the chemical separation of the actinides from high-level wastes and recycling in fission reactors. (orig.) [de

  17. Measurement of residual radioactivity in cooper exposed to high energy heavy ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eunjoo; Nakamura, Takashi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Uwamino, Yoshitomo; Ito, Sachiko; Fukumura, Akifumi

    1999-03-01

    The residual radioactivities produced by high energy heavy ions have been measured using the heavy ion beams of the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) at National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The spatial distribution of residual radioactivities in 3.5 cm, 5.5 cm and 10 cm thick copper targets of 10 cm x 10 cm size bombarded by 290 MeV/u, 400 MeV/u-{sup 12}C ion beams and 400 MeV/u-{sup 20}Ne ion beam, respectively, were obtained by measuring the gamma-ray activities of 0.5 mm thick copper foil inserted in the target with a high purity Ge detector after about 1 hour to 6 hours irradiation. (author)

  18. The nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentino, J.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear fission process considering initially the formation of compound nucleus and finishing with radioactive decay of fission products is studied. The process is divided in three parts which consist of the events associated to the nucleus of intermediate transitional state, the scission configuration, and the phenomenum of post scission. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Transport of radioactive ion beams and related safety issues: The {sup 132}Sn{sup +} case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osswald, F., E-mail: francis.osswald@iphc.cnrs.fr; Bouquerel, E.; Boutin, D.; Dinkov, A.; Sellam, A. [IPHC/IN2P3/CNRS, University of Strasbourg, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Kazarinov, N. [JINR/FLNR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Perrot, L. [IPNO/IN2P3/CNRS, University of Paris-Sud-11, 91406 Orsay (France)

    2014-12-15

    The transport of intense radioactive ion beam currents requires a careful design in order to limit the beam losses, the contamination and thus the dose rates. Some investigations based on numerical models and calculations have been performed in the framework of the SPIRAL 2 project to evaluate the performance of a low energy beam transport line located between the isotope separation on line (ISOL) production cell and the experiment areas. The paper presents the results of the transverse phase-space analysis, the beam losses assessment, the resulting contamination, and radioactivity levels. They show that reasonable beam transmission, emittance growth, and dose rates can be achieved considering the current standards.

  20. Constraints due to the production of radioactive ion beams in the SPIRAL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, R.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Marry, C.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Villari, A.C.C.

    1997-01-01

    The radioactive ion beams that will be delivered by the SPIRAL facility will be produced by the interaction of a stable high energy and high intensity primary ion beam delivered by the GANIL cyclotrons with a carbon target heated to 2000 deg C. During this interaction, some radioactive atoms will be created and will diffuse out of the target before entering into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source where they will be ionized and extracted. The production of radioactive ion beams with this method implies high radiation fields that activate and can damage materials located in the neighborhood of the target. Therefore, the production system which is composed of the permanent magnet ECR ion source coupled to a graphite target will be changed after two weeks of irradiation. As this ensemble will be very radioactive, this operation has to be supervised by remote control. The radiation levels around the target-ion source system and a detailed description of the different precautions that have been taken for safety and for prevention of contamination and irradiation are presented. (author)

  1. Charge breeding of stable and radioactive ion beams with EBIS/T devices

    CERN Document Server

    Kester, Oliver; Becker, R

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) are an important tool for experiments at the foremost frontier of nuclear physics. The quasi-continuous radioactive beams from target ion sources of RIB-facilities have to be accelerated to energies at and beyond the Coulomb barrier. An efficient acceleration requires a suitable A/q of the ions determined by the accelerator design, which can be reached via the stripping method or by using a charge state breeder like the REX-ISOLDE system. In order to get comparable efficiencies for a charge state breeder with the stripping scheme, the breeding efficiency in one charge state has to be optimized by narrowing the charge state distribution. In addition good beam quality and thus small emittances are required to achieve best transmission in the following accelerator, which is mandatory for high intensity RIBs. For EBIS/T devices the maximum intensity of the radioactive ion beam is a critical issue, and high current EBIS/T devices will be necessary to deal with intensities of second gen...

  2. Latest developments at GANIL for stable and radioactive ion beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, P.; Barue, C.; Bajeat, O.; Canet, C.; Clement, E.; Cornell, J. C.; Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Dupuis, M.; Flambard, J. L.; Fraanberg, H.; Frigot, R.; Leboucher, C.; Lecesne, N.; Lecomte, P.; Leherissier, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Leroy, R.; Maunoury, L.; Mery, A.

    2010-01-01

    In the frame of the SPIRAL II (Systeme de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Acceleres en Ligne Partie II) project, several developments of stable and radioactive ion production systems have been started up. In parallel, GANIL has the ambition to preserve the existing stable and radioactive beams and also to increase its range by offering new ones. In order to identify the best directions for this development, a new group called GANISOL has been formed. Its preliminary conclusions and the latest developments at GANIL are presented.

  3. Radioactive ion beams for biomedical research and nuclear medical application

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at CERN is the world leading on On-Line Isotope Separator installation. The main aspects which makes ISOLDE produced radio-isotopes such valuable for use in biomedical research are: the availability of exotic or uncommon radioisotopes, the high purity and the ion beam quality. A short overview on research strategies, on experimental work and application of ISOLDE produced radionuclides used in the field of biomedicine over a period of more than 2 decades will be given. Special attention will be directed to the radio- lanthanides, because they can be seen as one single element providing the unique possibility to study systematically relationships between molecule parameters and a biological response without changes in the basic tracer molecule. Among those radionuclides we find any radiation properties we wish (single photon emission) suitable for SPECT, positron emission suitable for positron emission tomography (PET), alpha -, beta /sup -/- and Auger electron emission. (21 refs).

  4. Radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Radon. Fission product aerosols. Radioiodine. Tritium. Plutonium. Mass transfer of radioactive vapours and aerosols. Studies with radioactive particles and human subjects. Index. This paper explores the environmental and health aspects of radioactive aerosols. Covers radioactive nuclides of potential concern to public health and applications to the study of boundary layer transport. Contains bibliographic references. Suitable for environmental chemistry collections in academic and research libraries

  5. First radioactive beams at ACCULINNA-2 facility and first proposed experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezbakh, A. A.; Beekman, W.; Chudoba, V.; Fomichev, A. S.; Golovkov, M. S.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Grigorenko, L. V.; Kaminski, G.; Krupko, S. A.; Mentel, M.; Nikolskii, E. Yu.; Parfenova, Yu. L.; Plucinski, P.; Sidorchuk, S. I.; Slepnev, R. S.; Sharov, P. G.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Zalewski, B.

    2018-04-01

    New fragment separator ACCULINNA-2 was installed at the primary beam line of the U-400M cyclotron in 2016. Recently, first radioactive ion beams were obtained. The design parameters of new facility were experimentally confirmed. Intensity, purity and transverse profile of several secondary beams at the final focal plane were studied. The intensities obtained for the secondary beams of 14B, 12Be, 9;11Li, 6;8He in the fragmentation reaction 15N (49.7 AMeV) + Be (2 mm) are in average 15 times higher in comparison to the ones produced at its forerunner ACCULINNA separator. The ACCULINNA-2 separator will become a backbone facility at the FLNR for the research in the field of light exotic nuclei in the vicinity of the nuclear drip lines. The planned first experiment, aimed for the observation of the 7H nucleus at ACCULINNA-2, is outlined.

  6. A linear radiofrequency ion trap for accumulation, bunching, and emittance improvement of radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herfurth, F.; Dilling, J.; Kellerbauer, A.

    2000-05-01

    An ion beam cooler and buncher has been developed for the manipulation of radioactive ion beams. The gas-filled linear radiofrequency ion trap system is installed at the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN. Its purpose is to accumulate the 60-keV continuous ISOLDE ion beam with high efficiency and to convert it into low-energy low-emittance ion pulses. The efficiency was found to exceed 10% in agreement with simulations. A more than 10-fold reduction of the ISOLDE beam emittance can be achieved. The system has been used successfully for first on-line experiments. Its principle, setup and performance will be discussed. (orig.)

  7. Study of fission reactions induced by 4,6He and 7Li beams on 209Bi and 208Pb targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukyanov S.M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of fission reactions induced by 4,6He and 7Li beams on 209Bi and 208Pb targets, leading to the production of 210,212A compound nuclei, was performed. It was shown that the fission excitation functions for the three reactions 4,6He + 209Bi and 7Li + 208Pb had similar behavior within the experimental error for a broad range of energy. More likely, halo structure of 6He is not reflected on the fission reaction mechanism. Otherwise, a large value of the fusion cross section was observed so far, as it could be expected in the case of weakly bound character of 6He projectile.

  8. The Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil (RIBRAS) facility. Description, program, main results, future plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepine-Szily, A.; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Guimaraes, V. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil) is a facility installed at the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo (IFUSP), Brazil. The RIBRAS system consists of two superconducting solenoids and uses the ''in-flight method'' to produce radioactive ion beams using the primary beam provided by the 8UD Pelletron Tandem of IFUSP. The ion beams produced so far by RIBRAS are {sup 6}He, {sup 8}Li, {sup 7}Be, {sup 10}Be, {sup 8}B, {sup 12}B with intensities that can vary from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 6} pps. Initially the experimental program covered the study of elastic and inelastic scattering with the objective to study the interaction potential and the reaction mechanisms between weakly bound (RIB) and halo ({sup 6}He and {sup 8}B) projectiles on light, medium and heavy mass targets. With highly purified beams, the study of resonant elastic scattering and resonant transfer reactions, using inverse kinematics and thick targets, has also been included in our experimental program. Also, transfer reactions of astrophysical interest and fusion reactions induced by halo nuclei are part of the near-future research program. Our recent results on elastic scattering, alpha-particle production and total reaction cross sections, as well as the resonant elastic and transfer reactions, are presented. Our plans for the near future are related to the installation of a new beam line and a cave for gamma-ray detection. We intend to place in operation a large area neutron detector available in our laboratory. The long-range plans could be the move of the RIBRAS system to the more energetic beam line of the LINAC post-accelerator (10MeV/nucleon primary beams) still in construction in our laboratory. (orig.)

  9. The Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil (RIBRAS) facility. Description, program, main results, future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine-Szily, A.; Lichtenthäler, R.; Guimarães, V.

    2014-08-01

    RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil) is a facility installed at the Institute of Physics of the University of São Paulo (IFUSP), Brazil. The RIBRAS system consists of two superconducting solenoids and uses the "in-flight method" to produce radioactive ion beams using the primary beam provided by the 8UD Pelletron Tandem of IFUSP. The ion beams produced so far by RIBRAS are 6He, 8Li, 7Be, 10Be, 8B, 12B with intensities that can vary from 104 to 106 pps. Initially the experimental program covered the study of elastic and inelastic scattering with the objective to study the interaction potential and the reaction mechanisms between weakly bound (RIB) and halo (6He and 8B projectiles on light, medium and heavy mass targets. With highly purified beams, the study of resonant elastic scattering and resonant transfer reactions, using inverse kinematics and thick targets, has also been included in our experimental program. Also, transfer reactions of astrophysical interest and fusion reactions induced by halo nuclei are part of the near-future research program. Our recent results on elastic scattering, alpha-particle production and total reaction cross sections, as well as the resonant elastic and transfer reactions, are presented. Our plans for the near future are related to the installation of a new beam line and a cave for gamma-ray detection. We intend to place in operation a large area neutron detector available in our laboratory. The long-range plans could be the move of the RIBRAS system to the more energetic beam line of the LINAC post-accelerator (10MeV/nucleon primary beams) still in construction in our laboratory.

  10. Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy at TRIUMF-ISAC: the New Frontier of Radioactive Ion Beam Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, G. C.; Andreoiu, C.; Austin, R. A. E.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Becker, J. A.; Bricault, P.; Brown, N.; Chan, S.; Churchman, R.; Colosimo, S.; Coombes, H.; Cross, D.; Demand, G.; Drake, T. E.; Dombsky, M.; Ettenauer, S.; Finlay, P.; Furse, D.; Garnsworthy, A.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Hackman, G.; Kanungo, R.; Kulp, W. D.; Lassen, J.; Leach, K. G.; Leslie, J. R.; Mattoon, C.; Melconian, D.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Rand, E.; Sarazin, F.; Svensson, C. E.; Sumithrarachchi, S.; Schumaker, M. A.; Triambak, S.; Waddington, J. C.; Walker, P. M.; Williams, S. J.; Wood, J. L.; Wong, J.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2009-03-01

    High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is essential to fully exploit the unique scientific opportunities at the next generation radioactive ion beam facilities such as the TRIUMF Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC). At ISAC the 8π spectrometer and its associated auxiliary detectors is optimize for β-decay studies while TIGRESS an array of segmented clover HPGe detectors has been designed for studies with accelerated beams. This paper gives a brief overview of these facilities and also presents recent examples of the diverse experimental program carried out at the 8π spectrometer.

  11. A high-intensity He-jet production source for radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.J.; Kimberly, H.J.; Grisham, D.L.; Talbert, W.L.; Wouters, J.M.; Rosenauer, D.; Bai, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The use of a thin-target, He-jet transport system operating with high primary beam intensities is explored as a high-intensity production source for radioactive beams. This method is expected to work well for short-lived, non-volatile species. As such the thin-target, He-jet approach represents a natural complement to the thick-target ISOL method in which such species are not, in general, rapidly released. Highlighted here is a thin-target, He-jet system that is being prepared for a 500 + μA, 800-MeV proton demonstration experiment at LAMPF this summer

  12. A cylindrical Penning trap for capture, mass selective cooling, and bunching of radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault-Hartmann, H.; Bollen, G.; Beck, D.; Koenig, M.; Kluge, H.-J.; Schwarz, S.; Schark, E.; Stein, J.; Szerypo, J.

    1997-01-01

    A Penning trap ion accumulator, cooler, and buncher for low-energy ion beams has been developed for the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. A cylindrical electrode configuration is used for the creation of a nested trapping potential. This is required for efficient accumulation of externally produced ions and for high-mass selectivity by buffer gas cooling. The design goal of a mass resolving power of about 1 x 10 5 has been achieved. Isobar separation has been demonstrated for radioactive rare-earth ion beams delivered by the ISOLDE on-line mass separator. (orig.)

  13. A cylindrical Penning trap for capture, mass selective cooling, and bunching of radioactive ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Raimbault-Hartmann, H; Bollen, G; König, M; Kluge, H J; Schark, E; Stein, J; Schwarz, S; Szerypo, J

    1997-01-01

    A Penning trap ion accumulator, cooler, and buncher for low energy ion beams has been developed for the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. A cylindrical electrode configuration is used for the creation of a nested trapping potential. This is required for efficient accumulation of externally produced ions and for high mass selectivity by buffer gas cooling. The design goal of a mass resolving power of about $1\\cdot 10^{5}$ has been achieved. Isobar separation has been demonstrated for radioactive rare earth ion beams delivered by the ISOLDE on-line mass separator.

  14. Investigations concerning the source term for the emission of fission products and transuranic elements from the highly radioactive waste in the temperature region between 200 and 11000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, F.; Krebs, K.; Merte, B.

    1984-04-01

    Starting point of these investigations was the research report 290 of the former Institute for Reactor Safety, Cologne. The largely incorrect assumptions made in the chemical statement led to high radioactive doses not only for the closer, but also for the further surroundings of a reprocessing plant in case that the cooling system of the fuel element storage or the storage tank for the highly radioactive waste (HAW) should become inoperative for an extended period of time. However, as a result of this temperature region which we used in our experiments, the investigations concerning the source term of the HAW between 1100 and 1200 0 C became interesting again, because a glass melt of about 1100 0 C is used during the PAMELA-process for the vitrification of the HAW. The aqueous HAW-solution is thereby poured onto a hot glass melt. The solution thereby dries up, the HAW-salt is calcined and finally sinks into the glass melt. From today's point of view an investigation concerning the source term of the fission products and transuranic elements from the HAW at 1100 0 C therefore provides information regarding the fission product- and transuranic element volatilization within the melting furnace during the vitrification process. The results may now therefore also be considered a contribution for the layout of the off-gas purification system during the PAMELA-process

  15. Precision Lifetime Measurements Using LaBr3 Detectors With Stable and Radioactive Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regan P.H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements have been carried out using arrays which include a number of Cerium-doped Lanthanum-Tribromide (LrBr3(Ce scintillation detectors used in conjunction with high-resolution hyper-pure germanium detectors. Examples of the spectral and temporal responses of such set-ups, using both standard point radioactive sources 152Eu and 56Co, and in-beam fusionevaporation reaction experiments for precision measurements of nuclear excited states in 34P and 138Ce are presented. The current and future use of such arrays at existing (EURICA at RIKEN and future (NUSTAR at FAIR secondary radioactive beam facilities for precision measurements of excited nuclear state lifetimes in the 10 ps to 10 ns regime are also discussed.

  16. Radioactive ion beam facility at Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium and its features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintalapudi, S.N.

    1991-01-01

    Use of radioactive ion beams for the study of nuclear structure as well as the astrophysical reaction cross sections become the current interest in physics. A full-fledged facility based on two coupled cyclotrons comprising a compact high current cyclotron and a medium energy cyclotron with an intermediate target and ion source system has been recently commissioned at the Louvain-La-Neuve University in Belgium by its accelerator group and has been successfully used for the measurement of cross sections for the primordial nucleosynthesis reactions of astrophysical interest, directly. A brief description of the system, its operational features together with some details of the target and the ion source arrangement for the production of the radioactive ion beams and their acceleration to energies required for the proposed studies is presented. Description of the reactions studied by the Louvain La Neuve group for astrophysical interest is also given. (author). 20 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Radioactive ion beam production challenges at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigs, M.J.; Alton, G.D.; Dowling, D.T.; Haynes, D.L.; Jones, C.M.; Juras, R.C.; Lane, S.N.; Mills, G.D.; Mosko, S.W.; Olsen, D.K.; Tatum, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    The radioactive ion beam (RIB) project at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) will provide for reconfiguration of the HHIRF accelerator system to enable provision of low-intensity RIBs for nuclear and astrophysics research. As we have progressed with the design of the reconfiguration, we have encountered several challenges that were not immediately obvious when first contemplating the project. The challenges do not seem insurmountable but should keep life interesting for those of us doing the work. A brief review of the project will allow a better understanding of the challenges in RIB production. Radioactive ion beams will be produced with the Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) postacceleration technique. In particular, radioactive atoms will be produced by reactions in the thick stopping target of an ISOL-type target-ion source assembly using intense beams from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron equipped with a light-ion internal source. This ISOL target-ion source assembly will be mounted on a high-voltage platform with a mass separator. The target ion source will operate at potentials up to 50 kV with respect to the high voltage platform. The radioactive atoms produced by nuclear reactions in the target diffuse to the surface of the heated target material, desorb from this surface, and effuse through a heated transfer tube into an ion source where ionization and extraction take place. Two types of ion sources will be initially considered. A Forced Electron Beam Induced Arc Discharge source, similar to those used by the ISOLDE facility at CERN and by the UNISOR facility at ORNL, will be built to produce positive ions. These positive ions will be focused through an alkali vapor charge-exchange canal to produce negative ions for tandem injection. In addition, a direct negative surface ionization addition or modification to the above source will be built and investigated

  18. Targets for production of high-intensity radioactive ion-beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagebo, E.; Hoff, P.; Steffensen, K.

    1991-01-01

    The recent developments of target systems for production of high intensity radioactive ion-beams at the ISOLDE mass separators is described. Methods for chemically selective production through separation of molecular ions are outlined and the effects of the addition of reactive gases has been studied. Results and further possible applications in the light element region are discussed. (author) 10 refs.; 9 figs.; 1 tab

  19. Low (50 keV) and medium (∼10 MeV) energy radioactive beams at Louvain-la-Neuve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyse, M.; Decrock, P.; Dendooven, P.; Reusen, G.; Duppen, P. Van; Wauters, J.

    1991-01-01

    Low energy radioactive beams are produced at the Leuven Isotope Separator On Line (LISOL) facility in Louvain-la-Neuve. The beams are used for standard nuclear spectroscopy studies and for nuclear orientation on line measurements. Since September 1987 a new project has been started up to accelerate radioactive beams to energies in the range of astrophysical interest. A beam of 10 6 13 N ions per seconde with an energy of 8.5 MeV has been produced last June. (author) 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  20. Transcript of the workshop to discuss plans for a National High Intensity Radioactive Nuclear Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Following the ''First International Conference on Radioactive Nuclear Beams'' in Berkeley, a workshop was held on October 19, 1989 at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to discuss plans for a National High Intensity Radioactive Nuclear Beam (RNB) Facility. The purpose of the workshop was -- after having discussed during the conference the physics question that can be addressed with RNBs -- to evaluate more concretely the possibilities for actually constructing such a facility in this country. It is becoming increasingly apparent that facility producing beams of radioactive nuclei with extreme neutron-to-proton ratios is of high scientific interest and technically feasible. It would allow the study of nuclear structure and astrophysical reactions very far from the line of stable nuclei, and could provide new possibilities of reaching the long-sought island of stability of superheavy nuclei. Such facilities are under advanced consideration in Japan and at CERN in Europe. This paper contains a slightly edited transcript of the tape recording that was made of the workshop

  1. Targets for ion sources for RIB generation at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF), now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is based on the use of the well-known on-line isotope separator (ISOL) technique in which radioactive nuclei are produced by fusion type reactions in selectively chosen target materials by high-energy proton, deuteron, or He ion beams from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). Among several major challenges posed by generating and accelerating adequate intensities of radioactive ion beams (RIBs), selection of the most appropriate target material for production of the species of interest is, perhaps, the most difficult. In this report, we briefly review present efforts to select target materials and to design composite target matrix/heat-sink systems that simultaneously incorporate the short diffusion lengths, high permeabilities, and controllable temperatures required to effect maximum diffusion release rates of the short-lived species that can be realized at the temperature limits of specific target materials. We also describe the performance characteristics for a selected number of target ion sources that will be employed for initial use at the HRIBF as well as prototype ion sources that show promise for future use for RIB applications

  2. γ-spectroscopy and radioactive beams: search for highly deformed exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosse, B.

    2006-07-01

    This work is devoted to the search for highly deformed nuclei under extreme conditions of isospin, located near the proton drip-line, around A ∼ 130. The experiment was performed at GANIL (Caen) with the SPIRAL radioactive beam facility. The nuclei of interest were produced by fusion-evaporation reactions induced by the neutron deficient Kr 76 radioactive beam (T1/2 = 14.8 h). γ-rays were detected by the EXOGAM array, composed of 11 segmented germanium clover detectors, for which a new segment calibration method has been developed. To extract fusion-evaporation events of a overwhelming background due to the radioactivity of the beam, the EXOGAM array was coupled with the light charged particle detector DIAMANT and the high acceptance VAMOS spectrometer. The latter was used for the first time to detect fusion-evaporation residues. The detailed data analysis allowed us to demonstrate that the EXOGAM + DIAMANT + VAMOS coupling is operational and essential to investigate the structure of these nuclei. Furthermore, the first γ transition was observed in the very exotic odd-odd Pm 130 nucleus. The results have been interpreted with static and dynamic self-consistent microscopic calculations in collaboration with the Theoretical Physicists of the IPN Lyon. (author)

  3. γ-spectroscopy and radioactive beams: search for highly deformed exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosse, Bertrand

    2006-01-01

    This work is devoted to the search for highly deformed nuclei under extreme conditions of isospin, located near the proton drip-line, around A∼130. The experiment was performed at GANIL (Caen) with the SPIRAL radioactive beam facility. The nuclei of interest were produced by fusion-evaporation reactions induced by the neutron deficient 76 Kr radioactive beam (T 1/2 = 14.8 h). γ-rays were detected by the EXOGAM array, composed of 11 segmented germanium clover detectors, for which a new segment calibration method has been developed. To extract fusion-evaporation events of a overwhelming background due to the radioactivity of the beam, the EXOGAM array was coupled with the light charged particle detector DIAMANT and the high acceptance VAMOS spectrometer. The latter was used for the first time to detect fusion-evaporation residues. The detailed data analysis allowed us to demonstrate that the EXOGAM + DIAMANT + VAMOS coupling is operational and essential to investigate the structure of these nuclei. Furthermore, the first γ transition was observed in the very exotic odd-odd 130 Pm nucleus. The results have been interpreted with static and dynamic self-consistent microscopic calculations in collaboration with the Theoretical Physicists of the IPN Lyon. (author)

  4. Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

  5. Lifetime measurements using radioactive ion beams at intermediate energies and the Doppler shift method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewald, A.; Melon, B.; Pissulla, T.; Rother, W.; Fransen, C.; Moeller, O.; Zell, K.O.; Jolie, J. [IKP, Univ. zu Koeln (Germany); Petkov, P. [Bulg. Acad. of Science, INRNE, Solfia (Bulgaria); Starosta, K.; Przemyslaw, A.; Miller, D.; Chester, A.; Vaman, C.; Voss, P.; Gade, A.; Glasmacher, T.; Stolz, A.; Bazin, D.; Weisshaar, D. [NSCL, MSU, East Lansing (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Absolute transition probabilities are crucial quantities in nuclear structure physics. Therefore, it is important to establish Doppler shift (plunger) techniques also for the measurement of level lifetimes in radioactive ion beam experiments. After a first successful test of the Doppler Shift technique at intermediate energy (52MeV/u) with a stable {sup 124}Xe beam, a plunger has been built and used in two experiments, performed at the NSCL/MSU with the SEGA Ge-array and the S800 spectrometer. The aim of the first experiment was to investigate the plunger technique after a knock-out reaction using a radioactive {sup 65}Ge beam at 100 MeV/u for populating excited states in {sup 64}Ge. The second experiment aimed to measure the lifetimes of the first 2{sup +} states in {sup 110,114}Pd with the plunger technique after Coulomb excitation at beam energies of 54 MeV/u. First results of both experiments will be presented and discussed. (orig.)

  6. A high-efficiency positive (negative) surface ionization source for radioactive ion beam (abstract)a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    A versatile, new concept, spherical-geometry, positive (negative) surface-ionization source has been designed and fabricated which will have the capability of generating both positive- and negative-ion beams without mechanical changes to the source. The source utilizes a highly permeable, high-work-function Ir ionizer (φ≡5.29 eV) for ionizing highly electropositive atoms/molecules; while for negative-surface ionization, the work function is lowered to φ≡1.43 eV by continually feeding cesium vapor through the ionizer matrix. The use of this technique for negative ion beam generation has the potential of overcoming the chronic poisoning effects experienced with LaB 6 while enhancing considerably the efficiency for negative surface ionization of atoms and molecules with intermediate electron affinities. The flexibility of operation in either mode makes it especially attractive for radioactive ion beam applications and, therefore, the source will be used as a complementary replacement for the high-temperature electron impact ionization sources presently in use at the Holifield radioactive beam facility. The design features and operational principles of the source will be described in this report. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. A positive (negative) surface ionization source concept for radioactive ion beam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    A novel, versatile, new concept, spherical-geometry, positive (negative) surface-ionization source has been designed and fabricated which will have the capability of generating both positive- and negative-ion beams without mechanical changes to the source. The source utilizes a highly permeable, high-work-function Ir ionizer (φ ≅ 5.29 eV) for ionizing highly electropositive atoms/molecules; while for negative-surface ionization, the work function is lowered by continually feeding a highly electropositive vapor through the ionizer matrix. The use of this technique to effect low work function surfaces for negative ion beam generation has the potential of overcoming the chronic poisoning effects experienced with LaB 6 while enhancing the probability for negative ion formation of atomic and molecular species with low to intermediate electron affinities. The flexibility of operation in either mode makes it especially attractive for radioactive ion beam (RIB) applications and, therefore, the source will be used as a complementary replacement for the high-temperature electron impact ionization sources presently in the use at the Holifield radioactive ion beam facility (HRIBF). The design features and operational principles of the source are described in this report. (orig.)

  8. Experiments on the nuclear fragmentation and on the production of radioactive beams for direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.

    1993-06-01

    In April 1992 at the GSI a prototype experiment on the production and study of the double-magic radioactive nucleus 56 Ni was successfully performed with proton scattering in inverse kinematics. A 350 MeV/u 56 Ni primary beam from the heavy ion synchrotron SIS was fragmented in a 4/g/cm 2 thick beryllium target. The separation of the formed isotopes ensued in the fragment separator FRS, which was operated in the achromatic mode with a degrader. Production cross sections for a whole series of fragments in the range 29≥Z≥19 and 57≥A≥41 were obtained. It succeeded to detect proton-rich isotopes at the boundary of the stability as for instance 52 Co, 51 Co, 50 Co, or 52 Ni and to determine for the first time their production cross sections. A further part of this thesis with regard to experiments with radioactive beams were first test experiments at the experimental storage ring ESR. The spotlight held luminosity measurements at the internal gas target with cooled, stable proton beam. For this the elastic scattering was stuided in inverse kinematics in the Rutherford range. Studied were different projectile beams (Ne, Xe) at energies of 150 MeV/u respectively 250 MeV/u and gas jets of nitrogen, argon, and hydrogen. The measured energy spectra of the recoils are in agreement with simulation calculations

  9. Multi-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) for measurements of fusion reactions with radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnelli, P.F.F.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K.E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P.F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernández Niello, J.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C.L.; Lai, J.; Marley, S.T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R.C.; Paul, M.; Ugalde, C.

    2015-01-01

    A detection technique for high-efficiency measurements of fusion reactions with low-intensity radioactive beams was developed. The technique is based on a Multi-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) operating as an active target and detection system, where the ionization gas acts as both target and counting gas. In this way, we can sample an excitation function in an energy range determined by the gas pressure, without changing the beam energy. The detector provides internal normalization to the incident beam and drastically reduces the measuring time. In a first experiment we tested the performance of the technique by measuring the 10,13,15 C+ 12 C fusion reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier

  10. Multi-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) for measurements of fusion reactions with radioactive beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnelli, P.F.F. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Laboratorio TANDAR, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Almaraz-Calderon, S. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Rehm, K.E., E-mail: rehm@anl.gov [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P.F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fernández Niello, J. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Campus Miguelete, B1650BWA San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Henderson, D.; Jiang, C.L. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Lai, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Marley, S.T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R.C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel); Ugalde, C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A detection technique for high-efficiency measurements of fusion reactions with low-intensity radioactive beams was developed. The technique is based on a Multi-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) operating as an active target and detection system, where the ionization gas acts as both target and counting gas. In this way, we can sample an excitation function in an energy range determined by the gas pressure, without changing the beam energy. The detector provides internal normalization to the incident beam and drastically reduces the measuring time. In a first experiment we tested the performance of the technique by measuring the {sup 10,13,15}C+{sup 12}C fusion reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier.

  11. Thin and thick targets for radioactive ion beam production at SPIRAL1 facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, P.; Bajeat, O.; Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Kuchi, V.; Maunoury, L.

    2018-05-01

    The upgrade of the Système de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Accélérés en Ligne (SPIRAL1) facility will deliver its new Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) by summer 2017. The goal of the upgrade is an improvement of the performances of the installation in terms of isotopes species and ion charge states [1]. Ion beams are produced using the Isotope Separator On Line Method, consisting in an association of a primary beam of stable ions, a hot target and an ion source. The primary beam impinges on the material of the target. Radioactive isotopes are produced by nuclear reactions and propagate up to the source, where they are ionized and accelerated to create a RIB. One advantage of SPIRAL1 driver is the variety of its available primary beams, from carbon to uranium with energies up to 95 MeV/A. Within the SPIRAL1 upgrade, they will be combined with targets made of a large choice of materials, extending in this way the number of possible nuclear reactions (fusion-evaporation, transfer, fragmentation) for producing a wider range of isotopes, up to regions of the nuclide chart still scarcely explored. Depending on the reaction process, on the collision energy and on the primary beam power, thin and thick targets are used. As their functions can be different, their design must cope with specific constraints which will be described. After a presentation of the goals of present and future SPIRAL1 Target Ion Source System, the main target features, studies and designs under progress are presented.

  12. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 3: Preliminary feasibility screening study of space disposal of the actinide radioactive wastes with 1 percent and 0.1 percent fission product contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, R. E.; Wohl, M. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted of the feasibility of space disposal of the actinide class of radioactive waste material. This waste was assumed to contain 1 and 0.1 percent residual fission products, since it may not be feasible to completely separate the actinides. The actinides are a small fraction of the total waste but they remain radioactive much longer than the other wastes and must be isolated from human encounter for tens of thousands of years. Results indicate that space disposal is promising but more study is required, particularly in the area of safety. The minimum cost of space transportation would increase the consumer electric utility bill by the order of 1 percent for earth escape and 3 percent for solar escape. The waste package in this phase of the study was designed for normal operating conditions only; the design of next phase of the study will include provisions for accident safety. The number of shuttle launches per year required to dispose of all U.S. generated actinide waste with 0.1 percent residual fission products varies between 3 and 15 in 1985 and between 25 and 110 by 2000. The lower values assume earth escape (solar orbit) and the higher values are for escape from the solar system.

  13. Metabolism of fission products. I. The metabolism of the radioactive ashes obtained from the No. 5 Fukuryu Maru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, T; Wakisaky, G; Kono, T; Hiroshi, G; Akagi, H; Yamamasu, T; Sugawa, I

    1954-01-01

    When the radioactive ashes were administered by mouth, the radioisotopes which were chiefly absorbed were alkaline earths, and were deposited mainly in the bones. When, after the removal of the alkaline earths, the radioisotopes contained in the radioactive ashes were administered by mouth in the form of chloride or citrate, the radioisotopes chiefly absorbed were heavy metals such as Ru and Rh.

  14. Progress in fission product nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammer, M.

    1984-09-01

    This is the tenth issue of a report series on Fission Product Data, which informs us about all the activities in this field, which are planned, ongoing, or have recently been completed. The types of activities included are measurements, compilations and evaluations of: fission product yields (neutron induced and spontaneous fission), neutron reaction cross sections of fission products, data related to the radioactive decay of fission products, delayed neutron data of fission products, lumped fission product data (decay heat, absorption, etc.). There is also a section with recent references relative to fission product nuclear data

  15. Nuclear reactions with 11C and 14O radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Fanqing

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) have been shown to be a useful tool for studying proton-rich nuclides near and beyond the proton dripline and for evaluating nuclear models. To take full advantage of RIBs, Elastic Resonance Scattering in Inverse Kinematics with Thick Targets (ERSIKTT), has proven to be a reliable experimental tool for investigations of proton unbound nuclei. Following several years of effort, Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species (BEARS), a RIBs capability, has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. The current BEARS provides two RIBs: a 11C beam of up to 2x108 pps intensity on target and an 14O beam of up to 3x104 pps intensity. While the development of the 11C beam has been relatively easy, a number of challenges had to be overcome to obtain the 14O beam. The excellent 11C beam has been used to investigate several reactions. The first was the 197Au(11C,xn)208-xnAt reaction, which was used to measure excitation functions for the 4n to 8n exit channels. The measured cross sections were generally predicted quite well using the fusion-evaporation code HIVAP. Possible errors in the branching ratios of ?? decays from At isotopes as well as the presence of incomplete fusion reactions probably contribute to specific overpredictions. 15F has been investigated by the p(14O,p)14O reaction with the ERSIKTT technology. Several 14O+p runs have been performed. Excellent energy calibration was obtained using resonances from the p(14N,p)14N reaction in inverse kinematics, and comparing the results to those obtained earlier with normal kinematics. The differences between 14N+p and 14O+p in the stopping power function have been evaluated for better energy calibration. After careful calibration, the energy levels of 15F were fitted with an R-matrix calculation. Spins and parities were assigned to the two observed resonances. This new measurement of the 15F ground state supports the disappearance of the Z = 8

  16. Recoil separators for radiative capture using radioactive ion beams. Recent advances and detection techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Chris [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Greife, Uwe; Hager, Ulrike [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Radiative capture reactions involving the fusion of hydrogen or helium are ubiquitous in the stellar history of the universe, and are some of the most important reactions in the processes that govern nucleosynthesis and energy generation in both static and explosive scenarios. However, radiative capture reactions pose some of the most difficult experimental challenges due to extremely small cross sections. With the advent of recoil separators and techniques in inverse kinematics, it is now possible to measure radiative capture reactions on very short-lived radioactive nuclei, and in the presence of high experimental backgrounds. In this paper we review the experimental needs for making measurements of astrophysical importance on radiative capture reactions. We also review some of the important historical advances in the field of recoil separators as well as describe current techniques and performance milestones, including descriptions of some of the separators most recently working at radioactive ion beam facilities, such as DRAGON at TRIUMF and the DRS at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. We will also summarize some of the scientific highlight measurements at the RIB facilities. (orig.)

  17. Preliminary results utilizing high-energy fission product γ-rays to detect fissionable material in cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, D. R.; Accatino, M. R.; Bernstein, A.; Church, J. A.; Descalle, M. A.; Gosnell, T. B.; Hall, J. M.; Loshak, A.; Manatt, D. R.; Mauger, G. J.; Moore, T. L.; Norman, E. B.; Pohl, B. A.; Pruet, J. A.; Petersen, D. C.; Walling, R. S.; Weirup, D. L.; Prussin, S. G.; McDowell, M.

    2005-12-01

    A concept for detecting the presence of special nuclear material (235U or 239Pu) concealed in intermodal cargo containers is described. It is based on interrogation with a pulsed beam of 7 MeV neutrons that produce fission events and their β-delayed neutron emission or β-delayed high-energy γ radiation between beam pulses provide the detection signature. Fission product β-delayed γ-rays above 3 MeV are nearly 10 times more abundant than β-delayed neutrons and are distinct from natural radioactivity and from nearly all of the induced activity in a normal cargo. Detector backgrounds and potential interferences with the fission signature radiation have been identified and quantified.

  18. Upgrade of the facility EXOTIC for the in-flight production of light Radioactive Ion Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzocco, M., E-mail: marco.mazzocco@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Torresi, D.; Strano, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Boiano, A. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Boiano, C. [INFN-Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Costa, L. [INFN-LNL, Viale dell’Università 2, I-35020 Legnaro, PD (Italy); Glodariu, T. [NIPNE, 407 Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Guglielmetti, A. [INFN-Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica,Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); La Commara, M. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università di Napoli, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Parascandolo, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Pierroutsakou, D. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Signorini, C.; Soramel, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Stroe, L. [NIPNE, 407 Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Production of in-flight Radioactive Ion Beams via two-body reactions. • Development of a cryogenic gas target. • Event-by-event tracking via Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPACs). -- Abstract: The facility EXOTIC for the in-flight production of light weakly-bound Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) has been operating at INFN-LNL since 2004. RIBs are produced via two-body reactions induced by high intensity heavy-ion beams impinging on light gas targets and selected by means of a 30°-dipole bending magnet and a 1-m long Wien filter. The facility has been recently upgraded (i) by developing a cryogenic gas target, (ii) by replacing the power supplies of the middle lenses of the two quadrupole triplets, (iii) by installing two y-steerers and (iv) by placing two Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters upstream the secondary target to provide an event-by-event reconstruction of the position hit on the target. So far, RIBs of {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}B and {sup 17}F in the energy range 3–5 MeV/u have been produced with intensities about 3 × 10{sup 5}, 1.6 × 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 5} pps, respectively. Possible light RIBs (up to Z = 10) deliverable by the facility EXOTIC are also reviewed.

  19. Potential and limitations of nucleon transfer experiments with radioactive beams at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Gund, C.; Cub, J.; Dietrich, A.; Hartlein, T.; Lenske, H.; Pansegrau, D.; Richter, A.; Scheit, H.; Schrieder, G.; Schwalm, D.

    2001-01-01

    As a tool for studying the structure of nuclei far off stability the technique of $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy after low-energy single-nucleon transfer reactions with radioactive nuclear beams in inverse kinematics was investigated. Modules of the MINIBALL germanium array and a thin position-sensitive parallel plate avalanche counter (PPAC) to be employed in future experiments at REX-ISOLDE were used in a test experiment performed with a stable $^{36}$S beam on deuteron and $^{9}$Be targets. It is demonstrated that the Doppler broadening of $\\gamma$ lines detected by the MINIBALL modules is considerably reduced by exploiting their segmentation, and that for beam intensities up to 10$^{6}$ particles/s the PPAC positioned around zero degrees with respect to the beam axis allows not only to significantly reduce the gamma background by requiring coincidences with the transfer products but also to control the beam and its intensity by single particle counting. The predicted large neutron pickup cross-sections of neut...

  20. Stb 342 - Decree of 4 June 1987 amending the Decree on the transport of fissionable materials, ores and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 1969 transport Decree governs all modes of transport of fissile and radioactive materials as well as ores in and to and from the Netherlands. The 1987 Decree amends it, in particular, for modernization purposes. (NEA) [fr

  1. Materials science and biophysics applications at the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, U., E-mail: uwahl@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-12-15

    The ISOLDE isotope separator facility at CERN provides a variety of radioactive ion beams, currently more than 800 different isotopes from {approx}70 chemical elements. The radioisotopes are produced on-line by nuclear reactions from a 1.4 GeV proton beam with various types of targets, outdiffusion of the reaction products and, if possible, chemically selective ionisation, followed by 60 kV acceleration and mass separation. While ISOLDE is mainly used for nuclear and atomic physics studies, applications in materials science and biophysics account for a significant part (currently {approx}15%) of the delivered beam time, requested by 18 different experiments. The ISOLDE materials science and biophysics community currently consists of {approx}80 scientists from more than 40 participating institutes and 21 countries. In the field of materials science, investigations focus on the study of semiconductors and oxides, with the recent additions of nanoparticles and metals, while the biophysics studies address the toxicity of metal ions in biological systems. The characterisation methods used are typical radioactive probe techniques such as Moessbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, emission channeling, and tracer diffusion studies. In addition to these 'classic' methods of nuclear solid state physics, also standard semiconductor analysis techniques such as photoluminescence or deep level transient spectroscopy profit from the application of radioactive isotopes, which helps them to overcome their chemical 'blindness' since the nuclear half life of radioisotopes provides a signal that changes in time with characteristic exponential decay or saturation curves. In this presentation an overview will be given on the recent research activities in materials science and biophysics at ISOLDE, presenting some of the highlights during the last five years, together with a short outlook on the new developments under way.

  2. Radioactive beams produced by the ISOL method: development for laser ionization and for surface ionization; Faisceaux exotiques par methode ISOL: developpements pour l'ionisation par laser et l'ionisation de surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosni, Faouzi

    2004-10-01

    The works were carried out in the framework of the research program PARRNe (production of radioactive neutron-rich nuclei). This program aims to determine optimal conditions to produce intense beams of neutron-rich isotopes. This thesis treats multiple technical aspects related to the production of separate radioactive isotopes in line (ISOL). It deals mainly with the development of the target-source unit which is the key element for projects such as SPIRAL-2 or EURISOL.The first part presents the various methods using fission as production mode and compares them: fission induced by thermal neutrons, induced by fast neutrons and photofission. The experiment carried out at CERN validated the interest of the photofission as a promising production mode of radioactive ions. That is why the institute of nuclear physics of Orsay decided to build a linear electron accelerator at the Tandem d'Orsay (ALTO).The second part of this thesis deals with the development of uranium targets. The X-rays diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy have been used as analysis techniques. They allowed to determine the chemical and structural characteristics of uranium carbide targets as function of various heating temperatures. After the production, the process of ionization has been studied. Two types of ion source have been worked out: the first one is a surface ion source and the second one is a source based on resonant ionization by laser. These two types of sources will be used for the ALTO project. (author)

  3. Nuclear structure and astrophysics with accelerated beams of radioactive ions: A new multidisciplinary research tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    After a brief discussion of the techniques for producing accelerated radioactive ion beams (RIBs), several recent scientific applications are mentioned. Three general nuclear structure topics, which can be addressed using RIBs, are discussed in some detail: possible modifications of the nuclear shell structure near the particle drip lines; various possibilities for decoupling the proton and neutron mass distributions for weakly bound nuclei; and tests of fundamental nuclear symmetries for self-conjugate and nearly self-conjugate nuclei. The use of RIBs to study r- and rp-process nucleosynthesis also is discussed

  4. Selection of targets and ion sources for RIB generation at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    In this report, the authors describe the performance characteristics for a selected number of target ion sources that will be employed for initial use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) as well as prototype ion sources that show promise for future use for RIB applications. A brief review of present efforts to select target materials and to design composite target matrix/heat-sink systems that simultaneously incorporate the short diffusion lengths, high permeabilities, and controllable temperatures required to effect fast and efficient diffusion release of the short-lived species is also given

  5. Radioactive beam EXperiments at ISOLDE : Coulomb excitation and neutron transfer reactions of exotic nuclei.

    CERN Multimedia

    Kugler, E; Ratzinger, U; Wenander, F J C

    2002-01-01

    % IS347 \\\\ \\\\We propose to perform a pilot experiment to study very neutron rich (A<32) Na-Mg and (A<52) K-Ca isotopes in the region around the neutron shell closures of N=20 and N=28 after Coulomb excitation and neutron transfer, and to demonstrate highly efficient and cost-effective ways to bunch, charge-state breed and accelerate already existing mass-separated singly-charged radioactive ion beams. \\\\ \\\\To do this we plan to accelerate the ISOLDE beams up to 2~MeV/u by means of a novel acceleration scheme and to install an efficient $\\gamma$-ray array for low-multiplicity events around the target position.

  6. Nuclear spectroscopy by radioactivity. Study of nuclei adjacent to the 82 neutron closed shell and application to fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraz, L.-C.

    1974-01-01

    Chemical separation techniques have been developed which make it possible to obtain a certain number of isotopes presenting anomalies in the fission efficiencies (near the magic shell N=82). A short description is given of the fission phenomenon by analysing the selection of isotopes investigated; it is shown how it was possible to explain the results by means of computers and the various chemical separations perfected are described. Thus a study was made of the 144 La direct γ spectrum. It was shown that the anomalies in the fission efficiencies of certain nuclei are apparent only. Hence, it is the presence of isomers and the distribution of the corresponding efficiency between two isomers which are the cause of the apparent weakness of the efficiency of 134 I, 136 I and 136 Cs, and of certain isotopes of Nb(Z=41). The nuclear spectrometry of nuclei of the area N=82 has made it possible to extend the existence of a metastable state to 136 Xe and 138 Ba. The value of the energies of the first 2 + , 4 + , 6 + levels and the half life duration of the 6 + metastable state are given. The discussion of the results and of the models show that the interpretation of the 0 + , 2 + , 4 + of the 82 neutron nuclei by means of a two quasi-particle (protons) model gives a fairly satisfactory description of the various experimental events: elastic scattering, gamma spectrometry and proton transfer reactions; on the other hand the interpretation of higher energy levels, requires the use of more complicated configurations [fr

  7. 1: the atom. 2: radioactivity. 3: man and radiations. 4: the energy. 5: nuclear energy: fusion and fission. 6: the operation of a nuclear reactor. 7: the nuclear fuel cycle; 1: l'atome. 2: la radioactivite. 3: l'homme et les rayonnements. 4: l'energie. 5: l'energie nucleaire: fusion et fission. 6: le fonctionnement d'un reacteur nucleaire. 7: le cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This series of 7 digest booklets present the bases of the nuclear physics and of the nuclear energy: 1 - the atom (structure of matter, chemical elements and isotopes, the four fundamental interactions, nuclear physics); 2 - radioactivity (definition, origins of radioelements, applications of radioactivity); 3 - man and radiations (radiations diversity, biological effects, radioprotection, examples of radiation applications); 4 - energy (energy states, different forms of energy, characteristics); 5 - nuclear energy: fusion and fission (nuclear energy release, thermonuclear fusion, nuclear fission and chain reaction); 6 - operation of a nuclear reactor (nuclear fission, reactor components, reactor types); 7 - nuclear fuel cycle (nuclear fuel preparation, fuel consumption, reprocessing, wastes management). (J.S.)

  8. A combined thermal dissociation and electron impact ionization source for radioactive ion beam generation (abstract)a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Williams, C.

    1996-01-01

    The probability for simultaneously dissociating and efficiently ionizing the individual atomic constituents of molecular feed materials with conventional, hot-cathode, electron-impact ion sources is low and consequently, the ion beams from these sources often appear as mixtures of several molecular sideband beams. This fragmentation process leads to dilution of the intensity of the species of interest for radioactive ion beam (RIB) applications where beam intensity is at a premium. We have conceived an ion source that combines the excellent molecular dissociation properties of a thermal dissociator and the high ionization efficiency characteristics of an electron impact ionization source that will, in principle, overcome this handicap. The source concept will be evaluated as a potential candidate for use for RIB generation at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility, now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The design features and principles of operation of the source are described in this article. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Ion beam production and study of radioactive isotopes with the laser ion source at ISOLDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosseev, Valentin; Chrysalidis, Katerina; Day Goodacre, Thomas; Marsh, Bruce; Rothe, Sebastian; Seiffert, Christoph; Wendt, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    At ISOLDE the majority of radioactive ion beams are produced using the resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS). This ion source is based on resonant excitation of atomic transitions by wavelength tunable laser radiation. Since its installation at the ISOLDE facility in 1994, the RILIS laser setup has been developed into a versatile remotely operated laser system comprising state-of-the-art solid state and dye lasers capable of generating multiple high quality laser beams at any wavelength in the range of 210-950 nm. A continuous programme of atomic ionization scheme development at CERN and at other laboratories has gradually increased the number of RILIS-ionized elements. At present, isotopes of 40 different elements have been selectively laser-ionized by the ISOLDE RILIS. Studies related to the optimization of the laser-atom interaction environment have yielded new laser ion source types: the laser ion source and trap and the versatile arc discharge and laser ion source. Depending on the specific experimental requirements for beam purity or versatility to switch between different ionization mechanisms, these may offer a favourable alternative to the standard hot metal cavity configuration. In addition to its main purpose of ion beam production, the RILIS is used for laser spectroscopy of radioisotopes. In an ongoing experimental campaign the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of long isotopic chains have been measured by the extremely sensitive in-source laser spectroscopy method. The studies performed in the lead region were focused on nuclear deformation and shape coexistence effects around the closed proton shell Z = 82. The paper describes the functional principles of the RILIS, the current status of the laser system and demonstrated capabilities for the production of different ion beams including the high-resolution studies of short-lived isotopes and other applications of RILIS lasers for ISOLDE experiments. This article belongs to the Focus on

  10. Search of fission products in 20Ne-ion beam interaction with 165Ho at 8 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Ali, R.; Afzal Ansari, M.; Rashid, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, during the study complete fusion (CF) and incomplete fusion (ICF) in 20 Ne-induced reactions, the production cross-sections for several fission products in 20 Ne + 165 Ho system have been measured

  11. Management of radioactive waste from {sup 99}Mo production by nuclear fission; Gestao dos rejeitos radioativos gerados na producao do {sup 99}Mo por fissao nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Maria Eugenia de Melo

    2013-07-01

    Brazil intends to build a facility for the {sup 99}Mo production through {sup 235}U fission, once this radioisotope is largely used in nuclear medicine. This study aimed at estimating the physical, chemical and radiological characteristics of radioactive waste expected to be generated in that facility, and to provide theoretical subsides that can be used on the definition of a proper waste management system. Two production scenarios were established and the radioisotope inventories of the wastes were calculated by Scale®. From the chemical processing of the uranium targets the wastes were characterized on their chemical and radiological features. MicroShield® was used to determine the activity concentrations up to three months of {sup 99}Mo production. In addition, this work presents dose rate calculation for several sizes of shielding and different amount of wastes, collected in a proper package for in-site transportation. Radionuclides responsible for higher doses were identified in order to facilitate choosing the most appropriate method for managing the wastes after their chemical separation and before their storage. These results are part of what is expected on radioactive wastes at a {sup 99}Mo production facility and might help on the development of the waste management planning for that facility. (author)

  12. Delayed fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    Delayed fission is a nuclear decay process that couples {beta} decay and fission. In the delayed fission process, a parent nucleus undergoes {beta} decay and thereby populates excited states in the daughter. If these states are of energies comparable to or greater than the fission barrier of the daughter, then fission may compete with other decay modes of the excited states in the daughter. In this paper, mechanism and some experiments of the delayed fission will be discussed. (author)

  13. Submicro and Nano Structured Porous Materials for the Production of High-Intensity Exotic Radioactive Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, Sandrina; Stora, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    ISOLDE, the CERN Isotope Separator On-line DEvice is a unique source of low energy beams of radioactive isotopes - atomic nuclei that have too many or too few neutrons to be stable. The facility is like a small ‘chemical factory’, giving the possibility of changing one element to another, by selecting the atomic mass of the required isotope beam in the mass separator, rather as the ‘alchemists’ once imagined. It produces a total of more than 1000 different isotopes from helium to radium, with half-lives down to milliseconds, by impinging a 1.4 GeV proton beam from the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) onto special targets, yielding a wide variety of atomic fragments. Different components then extract the nuclei and separate them according to mass. The post-accelerator REX (Radioactive beam EXperiment) at ISOLDE accelerates the radioactive beams up to 3 MeV/u for many experiments. A wide international user radioactive ion beam (RIB) community investigates fundamental aspects of nuclear physics, particle...

  14. Experimental methods in radioactive ion-beam target/ion source development and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welton, R.F.; Alton, G.D.; Cui, B.; Murray, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed off-line experimental techniques and apparatuses that permit direct measurement of effusive-flow delay times and ionization efficiencies for nearly any chemically reactive element in high-temperature target/ion sources (TIS) commonly used for on-line radioactive ion-beam (RIB) generation. The apparatuses include a hot Ta valve for effusive-flow delay-time measurements, a cooled molecular injection system for determination of ionization efficiencies, and a gas flow measurement/control system for introducing very low, well-defined molecular flows into the TIS. Measurements are performed on a test stand using molecular feed compounds containing stable complements of the radioactive nuclei of interest delivered to the TIS at flow rates commensurate with on-line RIB generation. In this article, the general techniques are described and effusive-flow delay times and ionization efficiency measurements are reported for fluorine in an electron-beam plasma target/ion source developed for RIB generation and operated in both positive- and negative-ion extraction modes. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  15. Proceedings of the workshop on the science of intense radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, J.B.; Vieira, D.J.

    1990-10-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a 2-1/2 day workshop on the Science of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams which was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on April 10--12, 1990. The workshop was attended by 105 people, representing 30 institutions from 10 countries. The thrust of the workshop was to develop the scientific opportunities which become possible with a new generation intense Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility, currently being discussed within North America. The workshop was organized around five primary topics: (1) reaction physics; (2) nuclei far from stability/nuclear structure; (3) nuclear astrophysics; (4) atomic physics, material science, and applied research; and (5) facilities. Overview talks were presented on each of these topics, followed by 1-1/2 days of intense parallel working group sessions. The final half day of the workshop was devoted to the presentation and discussion of the working group summary reports, closing remarks and a discussion of future plans for this effort

  16. Selection of RIB targets using ion implantation at the Holifield radioactive ion beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Dellwo, J.

    1995-01-01

    Among several major challenges posed by generating and accelerating adequate intensities of RIBs, selection of the most appropriate target material is perhaps the most difficult because of the requisite fast and selective thermal release of minute amounts of the short-lived product atoms from the ISOL target in the presence of bulk amounts of target material. Experimental studies are under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) which are designed to measure the time evolution of implanted elements diffused from refractory target materials which are candidates for forming radioactive ion beams (RIBs) at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF). The diffusion coefficients are derived by comparing experimental data with numerical solutions to a one-dimensional form of Fick's second law for ion implanted distributions. In this report, we describe the experimental arrangement, experimental procedures, and provide time release data and diffusion coefficients for releasing ion implanted 37 Cl from Zr 5 Si 3 and 75 As, 79 Br, and 78 Se from Zr 5 Ge 3 and estimates of the diffusion coefficients for 35 Cl, 63 Cu, 65 Cu, 69 Ga and 71 Ga diffused from BN; 35 Cl, 63 Cu, 65 Cu, 69 Ga, 75 As, and 78 Se diffused from C; 35 Cl, 68 Cu, 69 Ga, 75 As, and 78 Se diffused from Ta

  17. Experiments with radioactive nuclear beams II; Experimentos con haces nucleares radiactivos II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera R, E.F.; Martinez Q, E.; Gomez C, A.; Lizcano C, D.; Garcia M, H.; Rosales M, P. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-12-15

    The studies of nuclear reactions with heavy ions have been carried out for years for the group of heavy ions of the laboratory of the Accelerator of the ININ. Especially in the last years the group has intruded in the studies of nuclear reactions with radioactive beams, frontier theme at world level. Presently Technical Report is presented in detailed form the experimental methods and the analysis procedures of the research activities carried out by the group. The chpater II is dedicated to the procedures used in the analysis of the last two experiments with radioactive beams carried out by the group. In the chapter III is presented the procedure followed to carrying out an extended analysis with the CCDEF code, to consider the transfer channel of nucleons in the description of the fusion excitation functions of a good number of previously measured systems by the group. Finally, in the chapter IV the more important steps to continue in the study of the reaction {sup 12}C + {sup 12}C experiment drifted to be carried out using the available resources of the Tandem Accelerator Laboratory of the ININ are described. At the end of each chapter some of the more representative results obtained in the analysis are presented and emphasis on the scientific production generated by the group for each case is made. (Author)

  18. Proceedings of the workshop on the science of intense radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, J.B.; Vieira, D.J. (comps.)

    1990-10-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a 2-1/2 day workshop on the Science of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams which was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on April 10--12, 1990. The workshop was attended by 105 people, representing 30 institutions from 10 countries. The thrust of the workshop was to develop the scientific opportunities which become possible with a new generation intense Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility, currently being discussed within North America. The workshop was organized around five primary topics: (1) reaction physics; (2) nuclei far from stability/nuclear structure; (3) nuclear astrophysics; (4) atomic physics, material science, and applied research; and (5) facilities. Overview talks were presented on each of these topics, followed by 1-1/2 days of intense parallel working group sessions. The final half day of the workshop was devoted to the presentation and discussion of the working group summary reports, closing remarks and a discussion of future plans for this effort.

  19. EURISOL-DS Multi-MWatt Hg Target: Neutron flux and fission rate calculations for the MAFF configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Romanets, Y; Vaz, P; Herrera-Martinez, A; Kadi, Y; Kharoua, C; Lettry, J; Lindroos, M

    The EURISOL (The EURopean Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam) project aims at producing high intensity radioactive ion beams produced by neutron induced fission on a fissile target (235U) surrounding a liquid mercury converter. A proton beam of 1 GeV and 4 MW impinges on the Hg converter generating by spallation reactions high neutron fluxes. In this work the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo codes MCNPX and FLUKA were used to assess the neutronics performance of the system which geometry, inspired from the MAFF concept, allows a versatile manipulation of the fission targets. The objective of the study was to optimize the geometry of the system and the materials used in the fuel and reflector elements of the system, in order to achieve the highest possible fission rate.

  20. Stb No. 404 - Decree of 12 July 1983 amending the fissionable materials, ores and radioactive substances (Transport) Decree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    For the Netherlands, international carriage by air of radioactive materials is governed by the regulations of the internationl Air Transport Association (IATA) which are partly based on the IAEA's recommendations in this respect. These were revised in 1973, and the present Decree amends the Transport Decree of 1969 to align it with the 1973 revision followed by IATA. (NEA) [fr

  1. LEAF: a computer program to calculate fission product release from a reactor containment building for arbitrary radioactive decay chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.E.; Apperson, C.E. Jr.; Foley, J.E.

    1976-10-01

    The report describes an analytic containment building model that is used for calculating the leakage into the environment of each isotope of an arbitrary radioactive decay chain. The model accounts for the source, the buildup, the decay, the cleanup, and the leakage of isotopes that are gas-borne inside the containment building

  2. Measurement of g factors of excited states in radioactive beams by the transient field technique: 132Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benczer-Koller, N.; Kumbartzki, G.; Gurdal, G; Gross, Carl J; Krieger, B; Hatarik, Robert; O'Malley, Patrick; Pain, S. D.; Segen, L.; Baktash, Cyrus; Bingham, C. R.; Danchev, M.; Grzywacz, R.; Mazzocchi, C.

    2008-01-01

    The g factor of the 2 1 + state in 52 132 Te, E(2 1 + ) = 0.9739 MeV, r = 2.6 ps, was measured by the transient field technique applied to a radioactive beam. The development of an experimental approach necessary for work in radioactive beam environments is described. The result g = 0.28(15) agrees with the previous measurement by the recoil-in-vacuum technique, but here the sign of the g factor is measured as well

  3. Criteria for selection of target materials and design of high-efficiency-release targets for radioactive ion beam generation

    CERN Document Server

    Alton, G D; Liu, Y

    1999-01-01

    In this report, we define criteria for choosing target materials and for designing, mechanically stable, short-diffusion-length, highly permeable targets for generation of high-intensity radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for use at nuclear physics and astrophysics research facilities based on the ISOL principle. In addition, lists of refractory target materials are provided and examples are given of a number of successful targets, based on these criteria, that have been fabricated and tested for use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF).

  4. Studies of nuclei using radioactive beams. [Space Astronomy Lab. , Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1989-07-01

    The 12 month period from May 1988 to July 1989 represents the first full year of our 18 month pilot program in nuclear structure research. In this period, research was initiated to develop a capability for radioactive secondary beams at Argonne National Laboratory using the Atlas and the new Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA), which is currently under construction. Two major new detector facilities are currently in the final stages of design and testing. The Large-Area, Scintillator Telescope (LAST) detector is fully operational and will be shipped to Argonne National Laboratory in August for fit-tests and in-beam calibrations. The first segments of a new sixteen-segment neutron multiplicity detector have been built and tested. The remaining segments are currently being constructed. Research was continued in the areas of (1) Coulomb excitation studies of rare earth and actinide nuclei; (2) In-beam, gamma-ray spectroscopy of nuclei in the mass 100 region, and (3) Advanced detector design. Several journal articles and abstracts were published or submitted for publication in the reporting period, and others are currently in preparation. Three graduate students participated in the program, one from the University of Florida and two from the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

  5. Studies of nuclei using radioactive beams. Progress report, May 1988--July 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1989-07-01

    The 12 month period from May 1988 to July 1989 represents the first full year of our 18 month pilot program in nuclear structure research. In this period, research was initiated to develop a capability for radioactive secondary beams at Argonne National Laboratory using the Atlas and the new Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA), which is currently under construction. Two major new detector facilities are currently in the final stages of design and testing. The Large-Area, Scintillator Telescope (LAST) detector is fully operational and will be shipped to Argonne National Laboratory in August for fit-tests and in-beam calibrations. The first segments of a new sixteen-segment neutron multiplicity detector have been built and tested. The remaining segments are currently being constructed. Research was continued in the areas of (1) Coulomb excitation studies of rare earth and actinide nuclei; (2) In-beam, gamma-ray spectroscopy of nuclei in the mass 100 region, and (3) Advanced detector design. Several journal articles and abstracts were published or submitted for publication in the reporting period, and others are currently in preparation. Three graduate students participated in the program, one from the University of Florida and two from the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

  6. High Power Molten Targets for Radioactive Ion Beam Production: from Particle Physics to Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    De Melo Mendonca, T M

    2014-01-01

    Megawatt-class molten targets, combining high material densities and good heat transfer properties are being considered for neutron spallation sources, neutrino physics facilities and radioactive ion beam production. For this last category of facilities, in order to cope with the limitation of long diffusion times affecting the extraction of short-lived isotopes, a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) target loop equipped with a diffusion chamber has been proposed and tested offline during the EURISOL design study. To validate the concept, a molten LBE loop is now in the design phase and will be prototyped and tested on-line at CERN-ISOLDE. This concept was further extended to an alternative route to produce 1013 18Ne/s for the Beta Beams, where a molten salt loop would be irradiated with 7 mA, 160 MeV proton beam. Some elements of the concept have been tested by using a molten fluoride salt static unit at CERNISOLDE. The investigation of the release and production of neon isotopes allowed the measurement of the diffu...

  7. Determination of the isomeric fraction in a postaccelerated radioactive ion beam using the coupled decay-chain equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ekstrom, A; Dijulio, D D; Cederkall, J; Van de Walle, J

    2010-01-01

    A method based on the coupled decay-chain equations for extracting the isotopic and the isomeric composition of a postaccelerated radioactive ion beam is presented and demonstrated on a data set from a Coulomb excitation experiment. This is the first attempt of analyzing the content of a postaccelerated radioactive ion beam using this technique. The beam composition is required for an absolute normalization of the measurement. The strength of the method, as compared to present online-based methods, lies in the determination of the isomeric fraction of a partially isomeric beam using all data accumulated during the experiment. We discuss the limitations and sensitivity of the method with respect to the gamma-ray detection efficiency and the accumulated flux. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Resonant ionization by laser beams: application to ions sources and to study the nuclear structure of radioactive tellurium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sifi, R.

    2007-07-01

    The radioactive ion beams that are produced through current isotope separators are well separated according to the A mass but not according to the Z parameter. The resonant ionization through laser beams applied to ion sources allows the production of radioactive ion beam in a very selective and efficient way by eliminating the isobaric contamination. The first chapter is dedicated to the resonant ionization by laser beams, we describe the principle, the experimental setting, the lasers used, the ionization schemes and the domain of application. The second chapter deals with the application of resonant ionization to laser ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams. We present experimental tests performed for getting copper ion beams. Resonant ionization through laser is also used in the spectroscopy experiments performed at the Isolde (isotope separation on-line device) installation in CERN where more than 20 elements are ionized very efficiently. The technique is based on a frequency scanning around the excitation transition of the atoms in order to probe the hyperfine structure. Laser spectroscopy allows the determination of the hyperfine structure as well as the isotopic shift of atoms. In the third chapter the method is applied to the spectroscopy of tellurium atoms. First, we define the 2 parameters on which the extraction is based: charge radius and nuclear moments, then we present several theoretical models that we have used to assess our experimental results. (A.C.)

  9. Radioactive contamination of some rubber or plastic surfaces by fission products. Decontamination tests; Contamination radioactive de quelques surfaces en caoutchouc ou en matiere plastique par des produits de fission. Essais de decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, E.; Sautiez, N.

    1957-10-15

    With the objective of notably addressing the contamination and decontamination of gloves and floor covering, this report first presents some characteristics of contaminating radioactive materials (nature, physical and chemical condition), of contaminated surfaces (surface condition, surface nature), and of decontamination processes (physical, chemical or mechanical action). It describes the operational modality implemented to test decontamination processes on various glove or flooring materials: sample preparation, counting, decontamination, reproducibility of decontamination tests, results in terms of activity reduction. It more precisely describes the tested samples: short gloves, gloves from glove boxes, floor and wall coverings. Results are presented and discussed in terms of sample susceptibility to contamination, and of decontamination, but also for re-contamination tests after a Nab-based decontamination (susceptibility to contamination, decontamination gain)

  10. Induced radioactivity in the target station and decay tunnel from a 4MW proton beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Otto, T; Silari, Marco

    2003-01-01

    An important aspect of a future CERN Neutrino Factory is the material activation arising from a 2.2 GeV, 4 MW proton beam striking a mercury target. A first estimation of the hadronic inelastic interactions and the production of residual nuclei in the target, the magnetic horn, the decay tunnel, the surrounding rock and a downstream dump has been performed by the Monte Carlo hadronic cascade code FLUKA. The aim is both to assess the dose equivalent rate to be expected during maintenance work and to evaluate the amount of residual radioactivity, which will have to be disposed of after the facility has ceased operation. This paper discusses the first results of such calculations.

  11. Total cross section measurement of radioactive isotopes with a thin beam neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razbudej, V.F.; Vertebnyj, V.P.; Padun, G.S.; Muravitskij, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The method for measuring the neutron total cross sections of radioactive isotopes by a time-of-flight spectrometer with a narrow (0.17 mm in diameter) beam of thermal neutrons is described. The distinguishing feature of this method is the use of capillary samples with a small amount of substance (0.05-1.0 mg). The energy range is 0.01-0.3 eV. The total cross sections of irradiated samples of sub(153)Eu and sub(151)Eu are measured. From them are obtained the cross sections of sub(152)Eu (Tsub(1/2)=12.4 g) and of sub(154)E (Tsub(1/2)=8.6 yr); they equal 11400+-1400 and 1530+-190 barn at E=0.0253 eV. The cross section of the sub(152)Eu absorption for the thermal spectrum (T=333 K) is determined by the activation method; it is 8900+-1200 barn

  12. Development of a low-energy radioactive ion beam facility for the MARA separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadakis, Philippos, E-mail: philippos.papadakis@jyu.fi; Moore, Iain; Pohjalainen, Ilkka; Sarén, Jan; Uusitalo, Juha [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics (Finland)

    2016-12-15

    A low-energy radioactive ion beam facility for the production and study of nuclei produced close to the proton drip line is under development at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. The facility will take advantage of the mass selectivity of the recently commissioned MARA vacuum-mode mass separator. The ions selected by MARA will be stopped and thermalised in a small-volume gas cell prior to extraction and further mass separation. The gas cell design allows for resonance laser ionisation/spectroscopy both in-gas-cell and in-gas-jet. The facility will include experimental setups allowing ion counting, mass measurement and decay spectroscopy.

  13. Directive of The Minister of Economic Affairs and the State Secretary for Social Affairs and Public Health of 5 December 1969, Stcrt. 240 in implementation of Section 2 and other Sections of the Fissionable Materials, Ores and Radioactive Materials (Transport) Decree (Designation of Countries)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    This Directive designates the countries which are parties to the same international transport agreements as the Netherlands and which may therefore transport fissionable materials, ores and radioactive materials over Netherlands territory and territorial waters. (NEA) [fr

  14. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelet, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The beginning of this book explains the why and how of the radioactivity, with a presentation of the different modes of disintegration. Are tackled the reports between radioactivity and time before explaining how the mass-energy equivalence appears during disintegrations. Two chapters treat natural radioisotopes and artificial ones. This book makes an important part to the use of radioisotopes in medicine (scintigraphy, radiotherapy), in archaeology and earth sciences (dating) before giving an inventory of radioactive products that form in the nuclear power plants. (N.C.)

  15. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  16. Cluster-transfer reactions with radioactive beams: a spectroscopic tool for neutron-rich nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086156; Raabe, Riccardo; Bracco, Angela

    In this thesis work, an exploratory experiment to investigate cluster-transfer reactions with radioactive beams in inverse kinematics is presented. The aim of the experiment was to test the potential of cluster-transfer reactions at the Coulomb barrier, as a possible mean to perform $\\gamma$ spectroscopy studies of exotic neutron-rich nuclei at medium-high energies and spins. The experiment was performed at ISOLDE (CERN), employing the heavy-ion reaction $^{98}$Rb + $^{7}$Li at 2.85 MeV/A. Cluster-transfer reaction channels were studied through particle-$\\gamma$ coincidence measurements, using the MINIBALL Ge array coupled to the charged particle Si detectors T-REX. Sr, Y and Zr neutron-rich nuclei with A $\\approx$ 100 were populated by either triton- or $\\alpha$ transfer from $^{7}$Li to the beam nuclei and the emitted complementary charged fragment was detected in coincidence with the $\\gamma$ cascade of the residues, after few neutrons evaporation. The measured $\\gamma$ spectra were studied in detail and t...

  17. Development of a surface ionization source for the production of radioactive alkali ion beams in SPIRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleon, C.; Jardin, P.; Gaubert, G.; Saint-Laurent, M.-G.; Alcantara-Nunez, J.; Alves Conde, R.; Barue, C.; Boilley, D.; Cornell, J.; Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Jacquot, B.; Leherissier, P.; Leroy, R.; Lhersonneau, G.; Marie-Jeanne, M.; Maunoury, L.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Pellemoine, F.; Pierret, C.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the production of radioactive alkali ion beams by the isotope separation on-line (ISOL) method in SPIRAL I, a surface ionization source has been developed at GANIL to produce singly-charged ions of Li, Na and K. This new source has been designed to work in the hostile environment whilst having a long lifetime. This new system of production has two ohmic heating components: the first for the target oven and the second for the ionizer. The latter, being in carbon, offers high reliability and competitive ionization efficiency. This surface ionization source has been tested on-line using a 48 Ca primary beam at 60.3 A MeV with an intensity of 0.14 pA. The ionization efficiencies obtained for Li, Na and K are significantly better than the theoretical values of the ionization probability per contact. The enhanced efficiency, due to the polarization of the ionizer, is shown to be very important also for short-lived isotopes. In the future, this source will be associated with the multicharged electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) ion source NANOGAN III for production of multicharged alkali ions in SPIRAL. The preliminary tests of the set up are also presented in this contribution.

  18. Spectroscopy of high lying resonances in {sup 9}Be produced with radioactive {sup 8}Li beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepini-Szily, A.; Leistenschneider, E.; Lichtenthäler, R.; Guimaraes, V.; Condori, R. Pampa; Scarduelli, V.; Rossi, E.; Zagatto, V.A.; Aguiar, V.A.P.; Duarte, J., E-mail: alinka@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Mendes Junior, D.R.; Faria, P.N. de; Santos, H. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Descouvemont, P. [Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium); Barioni, A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Pires, K.C.C. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UFTPR), Cornelio Procopio, PR (Brazil); Morcelle, V. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itabira, MG (Brazil); Moraes, M.C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Britos, T.; Assuncao, M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil); Zamora, J.C. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, (Germany); Shorto, J.M.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of the {sup 8}Li(p,α){sup 5}He and {sup 8}Li(p,p){sup 8}Li reactions measured at the RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil) system. The experiment was realized in inverse kinematics using a thick [CH{sub 2}]{sub n} polyethylene target and an incident {sup 8}Li beam, produced by RIBRAS. Using the thick target method, the complete excitation function could be measured between E{sub cm} = 0.2 - 2.1 MeV, which includes the Gamow peak energy region. The excitation function of the {sup 8}Li(p,α){sup 5}He reaction, populating resonances between 16.888 and 19.0 MeV in {sup 9}Be, was obtained[1] and the resonances were fitted using R-matrix calculations. This study shed light on spins, parities, partial widths and isospin values of high lying resonances in {sup 9}Be. The measurement of the resonant elastic scattering {sup 8}Li(p,p){sup 8}Li populating resonances in the same energy region can constrain the resonance parameters. Preliminary results of the elastic scattering are also presented. (author)

  19. Recent progress in the development of a polarized proton target for reactions with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrego-Blanco, J.P.; Bingham, C.R.; Brandt, B. van den; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gomez del Campo, J.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J.A.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Schmelzbach, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Polarization observables in nuclear reactions with stable beams have provided important information concerning structural properties of nuclei and reaction mechanisms and hold great promise in the context of exotic nuclei. We report on the development of a polarized target based on plastic foils of 20-200 μm thickness to be used with radioactive ion beams. The operation of such a target requires a moderately high magnetic field and very low temperatures. The plastic foil is placed inside a chamber attached to the mixing chamber of a 3 He- 4 He dilution refrigerator. Cooling of the foil is achieved via a superfluid film of 4 He that can be supplied through two capillaries. The chamber has two thin, highly uniform silicon nitride windows. An NMR coil is attached to the target to monitor the polarization. Results of a first test to characterize the target system, using the elastic scattering of 38 MeV 12 C by protons in inverse kinematics are presented

  20. The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Present status and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Beene, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) is a first generation national user facility for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics research with radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The reconfiguration, construction, and equipment commissioning phases have been completed and the beam development program is in progress. In this article, descriptions of the facility and newly implemented experimental equipment for use in the nuclear and astrophysics programs will be given and an outline of the initial experimental program will be presented. Special target ion source related problems, endemic to the production of specific short lived RIBs will be discussed. In addition, plans, which involve either a 200 MeV or a 1 GeV proton linac driver for a second generation ISOL facility, will be presented

  1. Nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, T.

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear fission process is pedagogically reviewed from a macroscopic-microscopic point of view. The Droplet model is considered. The fission dynamics is discussed utilizing path integrals and semiclassical methods. (L.C.) [pt

  2. Proceedings of the workshop on the production and use of intense radioactive beams at the Isospin Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, J.D. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    These proceedings report the deliberations of a 3 1/2 day workshop on the Production and Use of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams at the Isospin Laboratory, which was held at the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1992. The purpose of this workshop was not to duplicate the programs of other recent radioactive ion beam workshops or international conferences that have focused on the scientific concepts which radioactive beams can, and in fact already are, addressing. Instead, the intent was to address the technical problems associated with the construction of the next generation ISOL facility and to initiate a discussion of the type of experimental equipment that should be developed for such a facility. We have tried to bring together in Oak Ridge the world`s experts in radioactive targets/ion sources, light and heavy-ion accelerators, and detection systems. After 1 1/2 days of overview presentations, the participants divided into three discussion groups (Experiments with Radioactive Beams, Target Ion Sources and Mass Separation, and Accelerators-Primary and Secondary) for 1 1/2 days of detailed discussions of the most pertinent issues. The final session was devoted to reports from each of the discussion groups and a general discussion of where to go from here. An outgrowth of these discussions was the establishment of working groups to coordinate future technical developments associated with the pertinent issues. The proceedings include the text of all the overview presentations, reports from each discussion group, as well as contributions from those participants who chose to provide the text of their presentations in the discussion groups and the Concluding Remarks. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Proceedings of the workshop on the production and use of intense radioactive beams at the Isospin Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    These proceedings report the deliberations of a 3 1/2 day workshop on the Production and Use of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams at the Isospin Laboratory, which was held at the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1992. The purpose of this workshop was not to duplicate the programs of other recent radioactive ion beam workshops or international conferences that have focused on the scientific concepts which radioactive beams can, and in fact already are, addressing. Instead, the intent was to address the technical problems associated with the construction of the next generation ISOL facility and to initiate a discussion of the type of experimental equipment that should be developed for such a facility. We have tried to bring together in Oak Ridge the world's experts in radioactive targets/ion sources, light and heavy-ion accelerators, and detection systems. After 1 1/2 days of overview presentations, the participants divided into three discussion groups (Experiments with Radioactive Beams, Target Ion Sources and Mass Separation, and Accelerators-Primary and Secondary) for 1 1/2 days of detailed discussions of the most pertinent issues. The final session was devoted to reports from each of the discussion groups and a general discussion of where to go from here. An outgrowth of these discussions was the establishment of working groups to coordinate future technical developments associated with the pertinent issues. The proceedings include the text of all the overview presentations, reports from each discussion group, as well as contributions from those participants who chose to provide the text of their presentations in the discussion groups and the Concluding Remarks. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  4. Radioactivity. Centenary of radioactivity discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.; Tubiana, M.; Bimbot, R.

    1997-01-01

    This small booklet was edited for the occasion of the exhibitions of the celebration of the centenary of radioactivity discovery which took place in various locations in France from 1996 to 1998. It recalls some basic knowledge concerning radioactivity and its applications: history of discovery, atoms and isotopes, radiations, measurement of ionizing radiations, natural and artificial radioactivity, isotope dating and labelling, radiotherapy, nuclear power and reactors, fission and fusion, nuclear wastes, dosimetry, effects and radioprotection. (J.S.)

  5. Coulex fission of 234U, 235U, 237Np, and 238Np studied within the SOFIA experimental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Julie-Fiona

    2014-01-01

    SOFIA (Studies On FIssion with Aladin) is an experimental project which aims at systematically measuring the fission fragments' isotopic yields as well as their total kinetic energy, for a wide variety of fissioning nuclei. The PhD work presented in this dissertation takes part in the SOFIA project, and covers the fission of nuclei in the region of the actinides: 234 U, 235 U, 237 Np and 238 Np. The experiment is led at the heavy-ion accelerator GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. This facility provides intense relativistic primary beam of 238 U. A fragmentation reaction of the primary beam permits to create a secondary beam of radioactive ions, some of which the fission is studied. The ions of the secondary beam are sorted and identified through the FR-S (Fragment Separator), a high resolution recoil spectrometer which is tuned to select the ions of interest.The selected - fissile - ions then fly further to Cave-C, an experimental area where the fission experiment itself takes place. At the entrance of the cave, the secondary beam is excited by Coulomb interaction when flying through an target; the de-excitation process involves low-energy fission. Both fission fragments fly forward in the laboratory frame, due to the relativistic boost inferred from the fissioning nucleus.A complete recoil spectrometer has been designed and built by the SOFIA collaboration in the path of the fission fragments, around the existing ALADIN magnet. The identification of the fragments is performed by means of energy loss, time of flight and deviation in the magnet measurements. Both fission fragments are fully (in mass and charge) and simultaneously identified.This document reports on the analysis performed for (1) the identification of the fissioning system, (2) the identification of both fission fragments, on an event-by-event basis, and (3) the extraction of fission observables: yields, TKE, total prompt neutron multiplicity. These results, concerning the actinides, are discussed, and

  6. Early results utilizing high-energy fission product gamma rays to detect fissionable material in cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaughter, D.R.; Accatino, M.R.; Alford, O.J.; Bernstein, A.; Descalle, M.; Gosnell, T.B.; Hall, J.M.; Loshak, A.; Manatt, D.R.; McDowell, M.R.; Moore, T.L.; Petersen, D.C.; Pohl, B.A.; Pruet, J.A.; Prussin, S.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A concept for detecting the presence of special nuclear material ( 235 U or 239 Pu) concealed in inter modal cargo containers is described. It is based on interrogation with a pulsed beam of 6-8 MeV neutrons and fission events are identified between beam pulses by their β-delayed neutron emission or β -delayed high-energy γ-radiation. The high-energy γ-ray signature is being employed for the first time. Fission product γ-rays above 3 MeV are distinct from natural radioactivity and from nearly all of the induced activity in a normal cargo. High-energy γ-radiation is nearly 10X more abundant than the delayed neutrons and penetrates even thick cargo's readily. The concept employs two large (8x20 ft) arrays of liquid scintillation detectors that have high efficiency for the detection of both delayed neutrons and delayed γ-radiation. Detector backgrounds and potential interferences with the fission signature radiation have been identified and quantified. This information, together with predicted signature strength, has been applied to the estimation of detection probability for the nuclear material and estimation of false alarm rates. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48

  7. First inverse-kinematics fission measurements in a gaseous active target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Tajes, C., E-mail: rodriguez@ganil.fr [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DRF-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd. Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Farget, F. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DRF-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd. Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Acosta, L. [Departamento de Ciencias Integradas, Universidad de Huelva, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Alvarez-Pol, H. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Babo, M.; Boulay, F. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DRF-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd. Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Caamaño, M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Damoy, S. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DRF-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd. Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Fernández-Domínguez, B. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Galaviz, D. [Centro de Física Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, CFNUL, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Grinyer, G.F.; Grinyer, J. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DRF-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd. Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Harakeh, M.N. [KVI-CART, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, NL-9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Konczykowski, P. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); and others

    2017-02-15

    The fission of a variety of actinides was induced by fusion and transfer reactions between a {sup 238}U beam and {sup 12}C nuclei, in the active target MAYA. The performance of MAYA was studied, as well as its capability to reconstruct the fission-fragment trajectories. Furthermore, a full characterization of the different transfer reactions was achieved, and the populated excitation-energy distributions were investigated as a function of the kinetic energy in the entrance channel. The ratio between transfer- and fusion-induced fission cross-sections was also determined, in order to investigate the competition between both reaction types and its evolution with the incident energy. The experimental results will be discussed with a view to forthcoming radioactive-ion beam facilities, and next-generation active-target setups.

  8. Nuclear Structure Studies of Exotic Nuclei with Radioactive Ion Beams A Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winger, Jeff Allen [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2016-04-21

    Beta-decay spectroscopy provides important information on nuclear structure and properties needed to understand topics as widely varied as fundamental nuclear astrophysics to applied nuclear reactor design. However, there are significant limitations of our knowledge due to an inability to experimentally measure everything. Therefore, it is often necessary to rely on theoretical calculations which need to be vetted with experimental results. The focus of this report will be results from experimental research performed by the Principal Investigator (PI) and his research group at Mississippi State University in which the group played the lead role in proposing, implementing, performing and analyzing the experiment. This research was carried out at both the National Superconduction Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University and the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The primary emphasis of the research was the use of \\bdec spectroscopy as a tool to understand the evolution of nuclear structure in neutron-rich nuclei which could then be applied to improve theory and to increase the overall knowledge of nuclear structure.

  9. Yrast spectroscopy in {sup 49-51}Ti via fusion-evaporation reaction induced by a radioactive beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niikura, M.; Ideguchi, E.; Michimasa, S.; Ota, S.; Shimoura, S.; Wakabayashi, Y. [University of Tokyo, Center for Nuclear Study, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Aoi, N.; Baba, H.; Fukuchi, T.; Ichikawa, Y.; Kubo, T.; Kurokawa, M.; Ohnishi, T.; Suzuki, H.; Yoshida, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Iwasaki, H.; Onishi, T.K.; Suzuki, D. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Liu, M.; Zheng, Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2009-12-15

    In-beam {gamma} -ray spectroscopy of high-spin states in {sup 49-51}Ti was performed via the fusion-evaporation reaction using a radioactive beam. By excitation function and {gamma} - {gamma} coincidence analysis, yrast high-spin levels up to I=(21/2{sup -}),(11{sup +}),(17/2{sup -}) in {sup 49-51}Ti were determined. The levels were compared with full-pf -shell model calculation. The level structure indicates the persistency of the N=28 shell gap at yrast states in {sup 49-51}Ti. (orig.)

  10. Study of chemically synthesized ZnO nano particles under a bio template using radioactive ion beam

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a project proposal to study nano sized semiconductor ZnO system, useful in biology and medicinal purposes, using radioactive ion beam from ISOLDE. Doping of the nano particles with Cu, Cd and Ga ions (in their variable valancy states) are expected to impart changes in the electrical structure and properties in the said system under study. The morphological changes, chemical environment, micro structure, electrical and optical properties of the nano size particles of ZnO system (developed under a bio template of folic acid) after the interaction with radioactive ion beam will be studied. The provision of perturbed angular correlation (PAC) study with respect to the changes in chemical environment, where ever possible will be attempted.

  11. Natural fission reactors from Gabon. Contribution to the study of the conditions of stability of a natural radioactive wastes storage site (2 Ga)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourcelot, L.

    1997-01-01

    The natural fission reactors of Oklo consists of a core of uraninite (60%) with fission products, embedded in a pure clay matrix. Thus, the aim of geological, mineral, and geochemical studies of the Oklo Reactors is to assess the behaviour of fission products in an artificial waste depository. Previous studies have shown that Reactor Zone 10, located in the Oklo mine, represents an example for an exceptional confinement of fission products since 2 Ga. In reactor Zone 9, located in Oklo open pit, migrations are more important. Reactor ZOne 13 was influenced by a thermal event due to a doleritic intrusion, located some twenty meters far away, one Ga years after fission reaction operations. In this study,we characterized temperature and redox conditions of fluids by using stable isotopes of uraninites and clays. Moreover mineralogical and chemical characteristics were defined. (author)

  12. Feasibility of Colliding-beam fast-fission reactor via 238U80++238 U80+ --> 4 FF + 5n + 430 MeV beam with suppressed plutonium and direct conversion of fission fragment (FF) energy into electricity and/or Rocket propellant with high specific impulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglich, Bogdan; Hester, Tim; Calsec Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Uranium-uranium colliding beam experiment1, used fully ionized 238U92+ at energy 100GeV --> accelerated through 3 MV accelerator, will collide beam 240 MeV --> 4 FF + 5n + 430 MeV. Using a simple model1 fission σf ~ 100 b. Suppression of Pu by a factor of 106 will be achieved because NO thermal neutron fission can take place; only fast, 1-3 MeV, where σabs is negligible. Direct conversion of 95% of 430 MeV produced is carried by electrically charged FFs which are magnetically funneled for direct conversion of energy of FFs via electrostatic decelerators4,11. 90% of 930 MeV is electrically recoverable. Depending on the assumptions, we project electric _ power density production of 20 to 200 MWe m-3, equivalent to Thermal 1.3 - 13 GWthm-3. If one-half of unburned U is used for propulsion while rest powers system, heavy FF ion mass provides specific impulse Isp = 106 sec., 103 times higher than current rocket engines.

  13. Fission product detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liatard, E.; Akrouf, S.; Bruandet, J.F

    1987-01-01

    The response of photovoltaic cells to heavy ions and fission products have been tested on beam. Their main advantages are their extremely low price, their low sensitivity to energetic light ions with respect to fission products, and the possibility to cut and fit them together to any shape without dead zone. The time output signals of a charge sensitive preamplifier connected to these cells allows fast coincidences. A resolution of 12ns (F.W.H.M.) have been measured between two cells [fr

  14. Titanium carbide-carbon porous nanocomposite materials for radioactive ion beam production: processing, sintering and isotope release properties

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081922; Stora, Thierry

    2017-01-26

    The Isotope Separator OnLine (ISOL) technique is used at the ISOLDE - Isotope Separator OnLine DEvice facility at CERN, to produce radioactive ion beams for physics research. At CERN protons are accelerated to 1.4 GeV and made to collide with one of two targets located at ISOLDE facility. When the protons collide with the target material, nuclear reactions produce isotopes which are thermalized in the bulk of the target material grains. During irradiation the target is kept at high temperatures (up to 2300 °C) to promote diffusion and effusion of the produced isotopes into an ion source, to produce a radioactive ion beam. Ti-foils targets are currently used at ISOLDE to deliver beams of K, Ca and Sc, however they are operated at temperatures close to their melting point which brings target degradation, through sintering and/or melting which reduces the beam intensities over time. For the past 10 years, nanostructured target materials have been developed and have shown improved release rates of the produced i...

  15. Lise: a recoil spectrometer at GANIL for the production and study of secondary radioactive beams. Present status and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    The doubly achromatic spectrometer LISE, installed at the intermediate-energy heavy-ion facility GANIL is now operating since five years. Essentially, it is composed by two dipole-magnets selecting (in A/Z) and refocusing (achromatically) the projectile-like radioactive fragment-beams emitted at 0 0 . We shall review some of the essential properties of LISE. Some selected examples will be used to demonstrate experimental results which have been obtained so far (discovery of numerous new nuclei up to the drip-lines, half-life measurements, β-γ and delayed-particle spectroscopy, spin-aligned beams, total reaction cross-sections). We shall also discuss several improvements, in particular a cross-field electrostatic/electromagnetic post separator, which are expected to provide in the near future secondary beams of still increased intensity and isotopic purity

  16. Fission approach to cluster radioactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    point Rt = Re + Rd. Here R0 is the radius of the parent nucleus, Re and Rd are the radii. 0. 0.5. 1 ... The standard r.m.s. deviations of log T values for 580 α emitters ... the total of 27 cluster emissions with standard deviations under one order of ...

  17. The wastes of nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubre, H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the author presents the problems of the radioactive wastes generated by the nuclear fission. The first part devoted to the fission phenomenon explains the incident neutron energy and the target nuclei role. The second part devoted to the nuclear wastes sources presents the production of wastes upstream of the reactors, in the reactors and why these wastes are dangerous. The third part discusses the radioactive wastes management in France (classification, laws). The last part details the associated research programs: the radionuclides separation, the disposal, the underground storage, the transmutation and the thorium cycle. (A.L.B.)

  18. The use of aluminum nitride to improve Aluminum-26 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry measurements and production of Radioactive Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Meghan S.; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo; Liu, Yuan; Mills, Gerald D.; Romero-Romero, Elisa; Stracener, Daniel W.

    2015-10-01

    We present results and discuss the use of aluminum nitride as a promising source material for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) science applications of 26Al isotopes. The measurement of 26Al in geological samples by AMS is typically conducted on Al2O3 targets. However, Al2O3 is not an ideal source material because it does not form a prolific beam of Al- required for measuring low-levels of 26Al. Multiple samples of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), aluminum nitride (AlN), mixed Al2O3-AlN as well as aluminum fluoride (AlF3) were tested and compared using the ion source test facility and the stable ion beam (SIB) injector platform at the 25-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Negative ion currents of atomic and molecular aluminum were examined for each source material. It was found that pure AlN targets produced substantially higher beam currents than the other materials and that there was some dependence on the exposure of AlN to air. The applicability of using AlN as a source material for geological samples was explored by preparing quartz samples as Al2O3 and converting them to AlN using a carbothermal reduction technique, which involved reducing the Al2O3 with graphite powder at 1600 °C within a nitrogen atmosphere. The quartz material was successfully converted to AlN. Thus far, AlN proves to be a promising source material and could lead towards increasing the sensitivity of low-level 26Al AMS measurements. The potential of using AlN as a source material for nuclear physics is also very promising by placing 26AlN directly into a source to produce more intense radioactive beams of 26Al.

  19. Determining the isotopic compositions of uranium and fission products in radioactive environmental microsamples using laser ablation ICP-MS with multiple ion counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, Sergei F.; Prohaska, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) - a Nu Plasma HR - equipped with three ion-counting multipliers and coupled to a laser ablation system (LA) for the rapid and sensitive determination of the 235 U/ 238 U, 236 U/ 238 U, 145 Nd/ 143 Nd, 146 Nd/ 143 Nd, 101 Ru/( 99 Ru+ 99 Tc) and 102 Ru/( 99 Ru+ 99 Tc) isotope ratios in microsamples collected in the vicinity of Chernobyl. Microsamples with dimensions ranging from a hundred μm to about 1 mm and with surface alpha activities of 3-38 mBq were first identified using nuclear track radiography. U, Nd and Ru isotope systems were then measured sequentially for the same microsample by LA-MC-ICP-MS. The application of a zoom ion optic for aligning the ion beams into the ion counters allows fast switching between different isotope systems, which enables all of the abovementioned isotope ratios to be measured for the same microsample within a total analysis time of 15-20 min (excluding MC-ICP-MS optimization and calibration). The 101 Ru/( 99 Ru+ 99 Tc) and 102 Ru/( 99 Ru+ 99 Tc) isotope ratios were measured for four microsamples and were found to be significantly lower than the natural ratios, indicating that the microsamples were contaminated with the corresponding fission products (Ru and Tc). A slight depletion in 146 Nd of about 3-5% was observed in the contaminated samples, but the Nd isotopic ratios measured in the contaminated samples coincided with natural isotopic composition within the measurement uncertainty, as most of the Nd in the analyzed samples originates from the natural soil load of this element. The 235 U/ 238 U and 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios were the most sensitive indicators of irradiated uranium. The present work yielded a significant variation in uranium isotope ratios in microsamples, in contrast with previously published results from the bulk analysis of contaminated samples originating from the vicinity of Chernobyl. Thus

  20. Determining the isotopic compositions of uranium and fission products in radioactive environmental microsamples using laser ablation ICP-MS with multiple ion counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, Sergei F; Prohaska, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS)--a Nu Plasma HR--equipped with three ion-counting multipliers and coupled to a laser ablation system (LA) for the rapid and sensitive determination of the 235U/238U, 236U/238U, 145Nd/143Nd, 146Nd/143Nd, 101Ru/(99Ru+99Tc) and 102Ru/(99Ru+99Tc) isotope ratios in microsamples collected in the vicinity of Chernobyl. Microsamples with dimensions ranging from a hundred mum to about 1 mm and with surface alpha activities of 3-38 mBq were first identified using nuclear track radiography. U, Nd and Ru isotope systems were then measured sequentially for the same microsample by LA-MC-ICP-MS. The application of a zoom ion optic for aligning the ion beams into the ion counters allows fast switching between different isotope systems, which enables all of the abovementioned isotope ratios to be measured for the same microsample within a total analysis time of 15-20 min (excluding MC-ICP-MS optimization and calibration). The 101Ru/(99Ru+99Tc) and 102Ru/(99Ru+99Tc) isotope ratios were measured for four microsamples and were found to be significantly lower than the natural ratios, indicating that the microsamples were contaminated with the corresponding fission products (Ru and Tc). A slight depletion in 146Nd of about 3-5% was observed in the contaminated samples, but the Nd isotopic ratios measured in the contaminated samples coincided with natural isotopic composition within the measurement uncertainty, as most of the Nd in the analyzed samples originates from the natural soil load of this element. The 235U/238U and 236U/238U isotope ratios were the most sensitive indicators of irradiated uranium. The present work yielded a significant variation in uranium isotope ratios in microsamples, in contrast with previously published results from the bulk analysis of contaminated samples originating from the vicinity of Chernobyl. Thus, the 235U/238U ratios measured in ten

  1. Production of secondary radioactive beams from 44 MeV/u Ar projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.; Della Negra, S.; Aguer, P.; Bastin, G.; Anne, R.; Delagrange, H.; Hubert, F.

    1985-01-01

    Secondary beams have been produced through interaction of a 1760 MeV Ar beam with a 99 mg/cm 2 Be target. An achromatic spectrometer is used to select the magnetic rigidity corresponding to a given beam, and to transport this beam over a distance of about 18 m. The beam purity is studied using a solid state ΔE-E telescope. Beams of 38 S and 39 Cl are produced with a purity of about 80% and production rates of 1.5 10 -6 Isub(o) and 5.10 -5 Isub(o) respectively. Here Isub(o) denotes the primary beam intensity. Beams of 38 Ar, 39 Ar and 41 Kr are produced with about the same abundances as 39 Cl but with lower purities. It is shown that, by setting properly the experimental parameters, the beam production can be improved by a factor 2 to 5. This could lead to intensities of about 2.10 6 pps for 38 S and of 10 7 to 10 8 pps for the four other beams. The possibility of purifying these beams by placing a degrader between the two dipoles of the spectrometer is shown experimentally

  2. Vitrification processes for fission product solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonniaud, R.; Jouan, A.; Moncouyoux, J.P.; Sombret, C.

    1982-10-01

    The different processes for fission product vitrification in the world are reviewed. Continuous or discontinuous processes, induction or arc heating, in can melting or casting, tests with radioactive or simulated wastes and industrial realizations are described [fr

  3. Performance of the Recoil Mass Spectrometer and its detector systems at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, C.J.; Ginter, T.N.; Shapira, D.; Milner, W.T.; McConnell, J.W.; James, A.N.; Johnson, J.W.; Mas, J.; Mantica, P.F.; Auble, R.L.; Das, J.J.; Blankenship, J.L.; Hamilton, J.H.; Robinson, R.L.; Akovali, Y.A.; Baktash, C.; Batchelder, J.C.; Bingham, C.R.; Brinkman, M.J.; Carter, H.K.; Cunningham, R.A.; Davinson, T.; Fox, J.D.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Grzywacz, R.; Liang, J.F.; MacDonald, B.D.; MacKenzie, J.; Paul, S.D.; Piechaczek, A.; Radford, D.C.; Ramayya, A.V.; Reviol, W.; Rudolph, D.; Rykaczewski, K.; Toth, K.S.; Weintraub, W.; Williams, C.; Woods, P.J.; Yu, C.-H.; Zganjar, E.F.

    2000-01-01

    The recently commissioned Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) is described. Consisting of a momentum separator followed by an E-D-E Rochester-type mass spectrometer, the RMS is the centerpiece of the nuclear structure endstation at the HRIBF. Designed to transport ions with rigidities near K=100, the RMS has acceptances of ±10% in energy and ±4.9% in mass-to-charge ratio. Recent experimental results are used to illustrate the detection capabilities of the RMS, which is compatible with many detectors and devices

  4. First Results with TIGRESS and Accelerated Radioactive Ion Beams from ISAC: Coulomb Excitation of 20,21,29Na

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, M. A.; Hurst, A. M.; Svensson, C. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.; Cline, D.; Hackman, G.; Pearson, C. J.; Stoyer, M. A.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Barton, C. J.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Buchmann, L.; Churchman, R.; Cifarelli, F.; Colosimo, S. J.; Cooper, R. J.; Cross, D. S.; Dashdorj, D.; Demand, G. A.; Dimmock, M. R.; Djongolov, M.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Gallant, A. T.; Garrett, P. E.; Gray-Jones, C.; Green, K. L.; Grint, A. N.; Grinyer, G. F.; Harkness, L. J.; Hayes, A. B.; Kanungo, R.; Leach, K. G.; Kulp, W. D.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Lee, G.; Lloyd, S.; Maharaj, R.; Martin, J.-P.; Millar, B. A.; Moisan, F.; Morton, A. C.; Mythili, S.; Nelson, L.; Newman, O.; Nolan, P. J.; Orce, J. N.; Oxley, D. C.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Phillips, A. A.; Porter-Peden, M.; Ressler, J. J.; Rigby, S. V.; Roy, R.; Ruiz, C.; Sarazin, F.; Scraggs, D. P.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Triambak, S.; Waddington, J. C.; Walker, P. M.; Wan, J.; Whitbeck, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.; Wood, J. L.

    2009-03-01

    The TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS) is a state-of-the-art γ-ray spectrometer being constructed at the ISAC-II radioactive ion beam facility at TRIUMF. TIGRESS will be comprised of twelve 32-fold segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) clover-type γ-ray detectors, with BGO/CsI(Tl) Compton-suppression shields, and is currently operational at ISAC-II in an early-implementation configuration of six detectors. Results have been obtained for the first experiments performed using TIGRESS, which examined the A = 20, 21, and 29 isotopes of Na by Coulomb excitation.

  5. First results of Trojan horse method using radioactive ion beams: {sup 18}F(p,α) at astrophysical energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Puglia, S.; Rapisarda, G.; Romano, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania, Italy and INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Gulino, M. [Università KORE, Enna, Italy and INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); La Cognata, M. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); Kubono, S.; Wakabayashi, Y. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and present address RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Kurihara, Y. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Binh, D. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and present address Institute of Physics and Electronics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Bishop, S. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama, Japan and present address Physik Department E12, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Coc, A. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de masse, IN2P3, Orsay (France); De Séréville, N.; Hammache, F. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3, Orsay (France)

    2014-05-02

    The abundance of {sup 18}F in Nova explosions is considered to be an important piece of information for the understanding of this astrophysical phenomenon. It is then necessary to study the nuclear processess that both produce and destroy this isotope in Novae. Among these latter reactions, the {sup 18}F(p,α){sup 15}O is one of the most important {sup 18}F destruction channels. Here we report on an experiment performed using the CRIB apparatus of the Center for Nuclear Study of the University of Tokyo. This was the first experiment that used the Trojan Horse method applied to a Radioactive Ion Beam induced reaction.

  6. First results of Trojan horse method using radioactive ion beams: 18F(p,α) at astrophysical energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Puglia, S.; Rapisarda, G.; Romano, S.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Kubono, S.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Binh, D.; Bishop, S.; Coc, A.; De Séréville, N.; Hammache, F.

    2014-01-01

    The abundance of 18 F in Nova explosions is considered to be an important piece of information for the understanding of this astrophysical phenomenon. It is then necessary to study the nuclear processess that both produce and destroy this isotope in Novae. Among these latter reactions, the 18 F(p,α) 15 O is one of the most important 18 F destruction channels. Here we report on an experiment performed using the CRIB apparatus of the Center for Nuclear Study of the University of Tokyo. This was the first experiment that used the Trojan Horse method applied to a Radioactive Ion Beam induced reaction

  7. Production of fast neutrons from deuteron beams in view of producing radioactive heavy ions beams; Etude de la production de neutrons rapides a partir de faisceaux de deutons en vue de la mise en oeuvre de faisceaux d'ions lourds radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauwels, N

    2000-11-01

    This thesis is part of two research and development programmes for the study of neutron rich radioactive nuclear beam production. The technique is based on the ISOL method and can be summarized as follows. Fast neutrons are generated by the break-up of deuterons in a thick target. These neutrons irradiate a fissionable {sup 238}U target. The resulting fission products are extracted from the target, ionised, mass selected and post-accelerated. The aim of the thesis is to study the neutron angular and energetic distributions. After a bibliographical research to justify the choice of deuterons as the best projectile, we developed more specifically three points: - the extension of the activation detector method for neutron spectroscopy to a wide energy range (1 to 150 MeV), - the experimental measurement of neutron angular and energetic distributions produced by deuterons on thick targets. The deuteron energy ranges from 17 to 200 MeV and the thick targets were Be, C and U, - the realization of a code based on Serber's theory to predict the neutron distribution for any couple (deuteron energy-thick target). We conclude that for our application the most suitable target is C and the best deuteron energy is about 100 MeV. (author)

  8. Measurement of Fission Product Yields from Fast-Neutron Fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, C. W.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Moody, W. A.; Rusev, G.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Henderson, R.; Kenneally, J.; Macri, R.; McNabb, D.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.; Bhatia, C.; Bhike, M.; Fallin, B.; Gooden, M. E.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Tornow, W.

    2014-09-01

    One of the aims of the Stockpile Stewardship Program is a reduction of the uncertainties on fission data used for analyzing nuclear test data [1,2]. Fission products such as 147Nd are convenient for determining fission yields because of their relatively high yield per fission (about 2%) and long half-life (10.98 days). A scientific program for measuring fission product yields from 235U,238U and 239Pu targets as a function of bombarding neutron energy (0.1 to 15 MeV) is currently underway using monoenergetic neutron beams produced at the 10 MV Tandem Accelerator at TUNL. Dual-fission chambers are used to determine the rate of fission in targets during activation. Activated targets are counted in highly shielded HPGe detectors over a period of several weeks to identify decaying fission products. To date, data have been collected at neutron bombarding energies 4.6, 9.0, 14.5 and 14.8 MeV. Experimental methods and data reduction techniques are discussed, and some preliminary results are presented.

  9. Fifth International Conference on Fission and Properties of Neutron-Rich Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Ramayya, A V; ICFN5

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings are the fifth in the series of International Conferences covering fission and properties of neutron-rich nuclei, which are at the forefront of nuclear research. The time interval of 5 years between each conference allows for significant new results to be achieved. Recently, world leaders in theory and experiments in research and the development of new facilities for research presented their latest results in areas such as synthesis of superheavy elements, new facilities for and recent results with radioactive ion beams, structure of neutron-rich nuclei, nuclear fission process, fission yields and nuclear astrophysics. This book is a major source of the latest research in these areas and plans for the future. The conference brought together a unique group of over 100 speakers including leaders from the major nuclear laboratories in Canada, China, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, Switerzland and the US along with leading research scientists from around the world.

  10. TEM and XAS investigation of fission gas behaviors in U-Mo alloy fuels through ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Hang; Yun, Di; Mo, Kun; Wang, Kunpeng; Mohamed, Walid; Kirk, Marquis A.; Velázquez, Daniel; Seibert, Rachel; Logan, Kevin; Terry, Jeffrey; Baldo, Peter; Yacout, Abdellatif M.; Liu, Wenbo; Zhang, Bo; Gao, Yedong; Du, Yang; Liu, Jing

    2017-10-01

    In this study, smaller-grained (hundred nano-meter size grain) and larger-grained (micro-meter size grain) U-10Mo specimens have been irradiated (implanted) with 250 keV Xe+ beam and were in situ characterized by TEM. Xe bubbles were not seen in the specimen after an implantation fluence of 2 × 1020 ions/m2 at room temperature. Nucleation of Xe bubbles happened during heating of the specimen to a final temperature of 300 °C. By comparing measured Xe bubble statistics, the nucleation and growth behaviors of Xe bubbles were investigated in smaller-grained and larger-grained U-10Mo specimens. A multi-atom kind of nucleation mechanism has been observed in both specimens. X-ray Absorption spectroscopy showed the edge position in the bubbles to be the same as that of Xe gas. The size of Xe bubbles has been shown to be bigger in larger-grained specimens than in smaller-grained specimens at the same implantation conditions.

  11. Performance Test Results of a Single-sided Silicon Strip Detector with a Radioactive Source and a Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Y. I.; Kah, D. H.; Son, D. H.; Kang, H. D.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. O.; Bae, J. B.; Ryu, S.; Park, H.; Kim, K. R.

    2007-01-01

    Due to high intrinsic precision and high speed properties of a silicon material, the silicon detector has been used in various applications such as medical imaging detector, radiation detector, positioning detectors in space science and experimental particle physics. High technology, modern equipment, and deep expertise are required to design and fabricate good quality of silicon sensors. Only few facilities in the world can develop silicon sensors which meet requirements of sensor performances. That is one of main reasons that the silicon sensor is so expensive and it takes time to purchase the silicon sensor once it is ordered. We designed and fabricated AC-coupled single-sided silicon strip sensors and developed front-end electronics and DAQ system to read out sensor signals. The silicon strip sensors were fabricated on a 5-in. n-type silicon wafer which has an orientation, high resistivity (>5 kΩ · cm) and a thickness of 380 μm. We measured the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of each channel by using a radioactive source and a 45 MeV proton beam from the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS) in Seoul. We present the measurement results of the SNRs of the silicon strip sensor with a proton beam and radioactive sources

  12. Neutron-induced fission cross-section measurement of 234U with quasi-monoenergetic beams in the keV and MeV range using micromegas detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsinganis, A.; Kokkoris, M.; Vlastou, R.; Kalamara, A.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Kanellakopoulos, A.; Lagoyannis, A.; Axiotis, M.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate data on neutron-induced fission cross-sections of actinides are essential for the design of advanced nuclear reactors based either on fast neutron spectra or alternative fuel cycles, as well as for the reduction of safety margins of existing and future conventional facilities. The fission cross-section of 234U was measured at incident neutron energies of 560 and 660 keV and 7.5 MeV with a setup based on `microbulk' Micromegas detectors and the same samples previously used for the measurement performed at the CERN n_TOF facility (Karadimos et al., 2014). The 235U fission cross-section was used as reference. The (quasi-)monoenergetic neutron beams were produced via the 7Li(p,n) and the 2H(d,n) reactions at the neutron beam facility of the Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics at the `Demokritos' National Centre for Scientific Research. A detailed study of the neutron spectra produced in the targets and intercepted by the samples was performed coupling the NeuSDesc and MCNPX codes, taking into account the energy spread, energy loss and angular straggling of the beam ions in the target assemblies, as well as contributions from competing reactions and neutron scattering in the experimental setup. Auxiliary Monte-Carlo simulations were performed with the FLUKA code to study the behaviour of the detectors, focusing particularly on the reproduction of the pulse height spectra of α-particles and fission fragments (using distributions produced with the GEF code) for the evaluation of the detector efficiency. An overview of the developed methodology and preliminary results are presented.

  13. ISAC and ARIEL the TRIUMF radioactive beam facilities and the scientific program

    CERN Document Server

    Krücken, Reiner; Merminga, Lia

    2014-01-01

    The TRIUMF Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) facility uses the isotope separation on-line (ISOL) technique to produce rare-isotope beams (RIB). The ISOL system consists of a primary production beam, a target/ion source, a mass separator, and beam transport system. The rare isotopes produced during the interaction of the proton beam with the target nucleus are stopped in the bulk of the target material. They diffuse inside the target material matrix to the surface of the grain and then effuse to the ion source where they are ionized to form an ion beam that can be separated by mass and then guided to the experimental facilities. Previously published in the journal Hyperfine Interactions.

  14. Determining the isotopic compositions of uranium and fission products in radioactive environmental microsamples using laser ablation ICP-MS with multiple ion counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, Sergei F.; Prohaska, Thomas [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Division of Analytical Chemistry-VIRIS Laboratory, Vienna (Austria)

    2008-01-15

    This paper presents the application of a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) - a Nu Plasma HR - equipped with three ion-counting multipliers and coupled to a laser ablation system (LA) for the rapid and sensitive determination of the {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U, {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U, {sup 145}Nd/{sup 143}Nd, {sup 146}Nd/{sup 143}Nd, {sup 101}Ru/({sup 99}Ru+{sup 99}Tc) and {sup 102}Ru/({sup 99}Ru+{sup 99}Tc) isotope ratios in microsamples collected in the vicinity of Chernobyl. Microsamples with dimensions ranging from a hundred {mu}m to about 1 mm and with surface alpha activities of 3-38 mBq were first identified using nuclear track radiography. U, Nd and Ru isotope systems were then measured sequentially for the same microsample by LA-MC-ICP-MS. The application of a zoom ion optic for aligning the ion beams into the ion counters allows fast switching between different isotope systems, which enables all of the abovementioned isotope ratios to be measured for the same microsample within a total analysis time of 15-20 min (excluding MC-ICP-MS optimization and calibration). The {sup 101}Ru/({sup 99}Ru+{sup 99}Tc) and {sup 102}Ru/({sup 99}Ru+{sup 99}Tc) isotope ratios were measured for four microsamples and were found to be significantly lower than the natural ratios, indicating that the microsamples were contaminated with the corresponding fission products (Ru and Tc). A slight depletion in {sup 146}Nd of about 3-5% was observed in the contaminated samples, but the Nd isotopic ratios measured in the contaminated samples coincided with natural isotopic composition within the measurement uncertainty, as most of the Nd in the analyzed samples originates from the natural soil load of this element. The {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratios were the most sensitive indicators of irradiated uranium. The present work yielded a significant variation in uranium isotope ratios in microsamples, in contrast with previously

  15. Application of ion beams in materials science of radioactive waste forms: focus on the performance of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, Frederico [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3-Universite Paris-Sud, Batiments 104-108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France)]. E-mail: garrido@csnsm.in2p3.fr; Nowicki, Lech [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Thome, Lionel [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3-Universite Paris-Sud, Ba-hat timents 104-108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France)

    2005-10-15

    Ion beam techniques provide unique tools for the qualification of radioactive waste forms. They address three major issues: (i) the simulation by ion irradiation of the stability of a matrix submitted to radiative environment; (ii) the doping of a material with stable or radioactive elements which simulate the species to be confined; (iii) the characterisation of a material via nuclear microanalysis techniques. Among various classes of nuclear matrices the spent nuclear fuel is widely considered as a potential candidate for the stabilisation of radioactive wastes in scenarios of long term interim storage or final geological disposal. Illustrative examples revealing the potentialities of the use of ion beams either as a pure characterisation tool - to investigate the chemical stability of the UO{sub 2} matrix under an oxygen potential - or in a combined way (e.g. irradiation/characterisation, doping/characterisation) - to explore the radiation stability and the behaviour of foreign species - are presented. Transformations (stoichiometry, depth and structure of growing hyperstoichiometric U{sub 4}O{sub 9}/U{sub 3}O{sub 7} oxides) occurring during low-temperature air oxidation of uranium dioxide single crystals are reported. Swift heavy ion irradiation of UO{sub 2} single crystals leads to a peculiar single crystal-polycrystal transformation (i.e. polygonisation of the fluorite-type structure of the material). Irradiation of UO{sub 2} at low energy shows that the damage production is directly linked to the energy deposited in nuclear elastic collisions. The lattice location of helium atoms (generated in large amount during the storage period) in interstitial octahedral positions is discussed.

  16. Electroplating method for producing ultralow-mass fissionable deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.

    1989-01-01

    A method for producing ultralow-mass fissionable deposits for nuclear reactor dosimetry is described, including the steps of holding a radioactive parent until the radioactive parent reaches secular equilibrium with a daughter isotope, chemically separating the daughter from the parent, electroplating the daughter on a suitable substrate, and holding the electroplated daughter until the daughter decays to the fissionable deposit

  17. Investigation of spatial distribution of fission-rate of natural uranium nuclei in the blanket of electronuclear setup 'Energy plus Transmutation' at Dubna Nuclotron proton beam at energy 1.5 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi-Nezhad, S.R.; Zhuk, I.V.; Kievets, M.; Krivopustov, M.I.; Sosnin, A.N.; Westmeier, W.; Brandt, R.

    2008-01-01

    The 'Energy plus Transmutation' experimental setup of the Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics within the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia, is a lead target (with a diameter of 8.4 cm and length of 45.6 cm) surrounded by a uranium blanket (weight 206.4 kg of natural uranium). A polyethylene plus cadmium shield is placed around the target-blanket assembly to modify the spallation and fission neutron spectra in the system. The setup was irradiated by a proton beam of energy 1.5 GeV using the Nuclotron accelerator. The spatial distribution of natural uranium fission-rate in the assembly and fission-rate in the blanket was determined experimentally and compared with Monte Carlo predictions using the MCNPX 2.6C code. Besides neutron-induced fission the calculations include the Nat U(p,f), Nat U(π,f) as well as Nat U(γ,f) reactions. Good agreement between the experimental and calculation results was obtained. The possible sources of errors in the experiment and calculations are discussed in detail

  18. The REX-ISOLDE-project and the Munich Accelerator for Fission Fragments MAFF

    CERN Document Server

    Habs, D; Assmann, R W; Emhofer, S; Engels, O; Gross, M; Kester, O; Maier, H J; Reiter, P; Sieber, T; Thirolf, P G

    2001-01-01

    After a general discussion of ISOL-facilities in Europe we focus on the present status of the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN and the Munich Accelerator for Fission Fragments MAFF. At REX-ISOLDE in 2001 radioactive beams of ISOLDE will be accelerated to (0.8-2.4) MeV/u. At the new Munich high-flux reactor FRM-II a production target of MAFF with 10$^{14}$ fissions/s is under design. Probably in 2003 intense low-energy beams ( approximately=10$^{11}$/s) of very neutron-rich fission fragments will be available. For MAFF a linac is being developed, which will accelerate the ions after charge breeding to energies between 3.7 and 5.9 MeV/u. In the long term a recycling ring with large momentum acceptance will further increase the radioactive beam intensities by a factor of 10$^{2}$-10$^{3}$ for specific experiments. (33 refs).

  19. Measurements of Fission Cross Sections of Actinides

    CERN Multimedia

    Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M

    2002-01-01

    A measurement of the neutron induced fission cross sections of $^{237}$Np, $^{241},{243}$Am and of $^{245}$Cm is proposed for the n_TOF neutron beam. Two sets of fission detectors will be used: one based on PPAC counters and another based on a fast ionization chamber (FIC). A total of 5x10$^{18}$ protons are requested for the entire fission measurement campaign.

  20. Fission of nuclei far from stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, K.H.; Benlliure, J.; Junghans, A.R.

    2000-11-01

    The secondary-beam facility of GSI provided the technical equipment for a new kind of fission experiment. Fission properties of short-lived neutron-deficient nuclei have been investigated in inverse kinematics. The measured element distributions reveal new kinds of systematics on shell structure and even-odd effects and lead to an improved understanding of structure effects in nuclear fission. Prospects for further experimental studies are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Fission modelling with FIFRELIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaize, Olivier; Serot, Olivier; Berge, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear fission process gives rise to the formation of fission fragments and emission of particles (n,γ, e - ). The particle emission from fragments can be prompt and delayed. We present here the methods used in the FIFRELIN code, which simulates the prompt component of the de-excitation process. The methods are based on phenomenological models associated with macroscopic and/or microscopic ingredients. Input data can be provided by experiment as well as by theory. The fission fragment de-excitation can be performed within Weisskopf (uncoupled neutron and gamma emission) or a Hauser-Feshbach (coupled neutron/gamma emission) statistical theory. We usually consider five free parameters that cannot be provided by theory or experiments in order to describe the initial distributions required by the code. In a first step this set of parameters is chosen to reproduce a very limited set of target observables. In a second step we can increase the statistics to predict all other fission observables such as prompt neutron, gamma and conversion electron spectra but also their distributions as a function of any kind of parameters such as, for instance, the neutron, gamma and electron number distributions, the average prompt neutron multiplicity as a function of fission fragment mass, charge or kinetic energy, and so on. Several results related to different fissioning systems are presented in this work. The goal in the next decade will be i) to replace some macroscopic ingredients or phenomenological models by microscopic calculations when available and reliable, ii) to be a support for experimentalists in the design of detection systems or in the prediction of necessary beam time or count rates with associated statistics when measuring fragments and emitted particle in coincidence iii) extend the model to be able to run a calculation when no experimental input data are available, iv) account for multiple chance fission and gamma emission before fission, v) account for the

  2. Nuclear reactions with 11C and 14O radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Fanqing [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) have been shown to be a useful tool for studying proton-rich nuclides near and beyond the proton dripline and for evaluating nuclear models. To take full advantage of RIBs, Elastic Resonance Scattering in Inverse Kinematics with Thick Targets (ERSIKTT), has proven to be a reliable experimental tool for investigations of proton unbound nuclei. Following several years of effort, Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species (BEARS), a RIBs capability, has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. The current BEARS provides two RIBs: a 11C beam of up to 2x108 pps intensity on target and an 14O beam of up to 3x104 pps intensity. While the development of the 11C beam has been relatively easy, a number of challenges had to be overcome to obtain the 14O beam. The excellent 11C beam has been used to investigate several reactions. The first was the 197Au(11C,xn)208-xnAt reaction, which was used to measure excitation functions for the 4n to 8n exit channels. The measured cross sections were generally predicted quite well using the fusion-evaporation code HIVAP. Possible errors in the branching ratios of ?? decays from At isotopes as well as the presence of incomplete fusion reactions probably contribute to specific overpredictions. 15F has been investigated by the p(14O,p)14O reaction with the ERSIKTT technology. Several 14O+p runs have been performed. Excellent energy calibration was obtained using resonances from the p(14N,p)14N reaction in inverse kinematics, and comparing the results to those obtained earlier with normal kinematics. The differences between 14N+p and 14O+p in the stopping power function have been evaluated for better energy calibration. After careful calibration, the energy levels of 15F

  3. A linear radiofrequency quadrupole ion trap for the cooling and bunching of radioactive ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerbauer, A G; Dilling, J; Henry, S; Herfurth, F; Kluge, H J; Lamour, E; Moore, R B; Scheidenberger, C; Schwarz, S; Sikler, G; Szerypo, J

    2002-01-01

    A linear radiofrequency quadrupole ion guide and beam buncher has been installed at the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometry experiment at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The apparatus is being used as a beam cooling, accumulation, and bunching system. It operates with a buffer gas that cools the injected ions and converts the quasicontinuous 60- keV beam from the ISOLDE facility to 2.5-keV beam pulses with improved normalized transverse emittance. Recent measurements suggest a capture efficiency of the ion guide of up to 40% and a cooling and bunching efficiency of at least 12% which is expected to still be increased. The improved ISOLTRAP setup has so far been used very successfully in three on-line experiments. (12 refs).

  4. Simple estimate of fission rate during JCO criticality accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro [Faculty of Studies on Contemporary Society, Aichi Shukutoku Univ., Nagakute, Aichi (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The fission rate during JCO criticality accident is estimated from fission-product (FP) radioactivities in a uranium solution sample taken from the preparation basin 20 days after the accident. The FP radioactivity data are taken from a report by JAERI released in the Accident Investigation Committee. The total fission number is found quite dependent on the FP radioactivities and estimated to be about 4x10{sup 16} per liter, or 2x10{sup 18} per 16 kgU (assuming uranium concentration 278.9 g/liter). On the contrary, the time dependence of the fission rate is rather insensitive to the FP radioactivities. Hence, it is difficult to determine the fission number in the initial burst from the radioactivity data. (author)

  5. Simple estimate of fission rate during JCO criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2000-01-01

    The fission rate during JCO criticality accident is estimated from fission-product (FP) radioactivities in a uranium solution sample taken from the preparation basin 20 days after the accident. The FP radioactivity data are taken from a report by JAERI released in the Accident Investigation Committee. The total fission number is found quite dependent on the FP radioactivities and estimated to be about 4x10 16 per liter, or 2x10 18 per 16 kgU (assuming uranium concentration 278.9 g/liter). On the contrary, the time dependence of the fission rate is rather insensitive to the FP radioactivities. Hence, it is difficult to determine the fission number in the initial burst from the radioactivity data. (author)

  6. Production of zero energy radioactive beams through extraction across superfluid helium surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takahashi, N; Huang, WX; Gloos, K; Dendooven, P; Pekola, JP; Aysto, J

    A radioactive Ra-223 source was immersed in superfluid helium at 1.2-1.7 K. Electric fields transported recoiled Rn-219 ions in the form of snowballs to the surface and further extracted them across the surface. The ions were focussed onto an aluminium foil and alpha particle spectra were taken with

  7. Energy from nuclear fission()

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripani, M.

    2015-08-01

    The main features of nuclear fission as physical phenomenon will be revisited, emphasizing its peculiarities with respect to other nuclear reactions. Some basic concepts underlying the operation of nuclear reactors and the main types of reactors will be illustrated, including fast reactors, showing the most important differences among them. The nuclear cycle and radioactive-nuclear-waste production will be also discussed, along with the perspectives offered by next generation nuclear assemblies being proposed. The current situation of nuclear power in the world, its role in reducing carbon emission and the available resources will be briefly illustrated.

  8. Decontamination process and device of a radioactive surface with a coherent light beam. Procede et installation de decontamination d'une surface radioactive au moyen d'un faisceau de lumiere coherente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauchon, J.P.; Bournot, P.; Caminat, P.; Dupont, A.

    1994-07-29

    To decontaminate a radioactive surface, this one is swept with a focused laser beam and a liquid such as water or preferably a nitric acid solution on the whole surface. The liquid may be a film running on the surface and is recycled advantageously. The resulting decontamination is very efficient. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Time-dependent radioactivity distribution in MAFF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebel, F.; Zech, E.; Faestermann, T.; Kruecken, R.; Maier-Komor, P.; Assmann, W.; Szerypo, J.; Gross, M.; Kester, O.; Thirolf, P.G.; Groetzschel, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Munich Accelerator for Fission Fragments is planned to be installed at the FRM II in Garching. It will operate a uranium-carbide-loaded graphite matrix as a target for neutron-induced fission. The radioactive reaction fragments leave the ion source as both, atoms and ions. For radiation safety it is imperative to have a basic understanding of the fragment distribution within the beam line. Atoms leaving the graphite matrix will spread like a gas and stick to surfaces depending on their species. A probabilistic Monte-Carlo approach is used to predict the surface coating of internal surfaces of the beam line for all fission nuclides. To decrease calculation time, the problem is reduced to two dimensions with the surface areas being a measure for the probability, that they are hit by a particle. The program is completely time dependent to implement radioactive decay. Ions leaving the fission ion source are transported by electrostatic means towards the mass pre-separator, a low-resolution dipole magnet with a complex slit system in the focal plane. All unwanted ions are stopped at the slits, resulting in a high level of radioactive contamination. While it is advantageous for shielding purposes to have the majority of the contamination in one point, precautions must be taken to ensure that it stays that way. Material corrosion caused by sputtering will release previously implanted radionuclides. To reduce this effect, different methods are under investigation, one of which is changing the slit geometry. The considered designs will be described and experimental results will be shown

  10. SPES: exotic beams for nuclear physics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrighetto, A.; Manzolaro, M.; Corradetti, S.; Scarpa, D.; Vasquez, J.; Rossignoli, M.; Monetti, A.; Calderolla, M.; Prete, G.

    2014-01-01

    The SPES project at Laboratori di Legnaro of INFN (Italy) is concentrating on the production of neutron-rich radioactive nuclei for nuclear physics experiments using uranium fission at a rate of 10 13 fission/s. The emphasis on neutron-rich isotopes is justified by the fact that this vast territory has been little explored. The Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) will be produced by the ISOL technique using proton induced fission on a direct target of UCx. The most critical element of the SPES project is the Multi-Foil Direct Target. Up to the present time, the proposed target represents an innovation in terms of its capability to sustain the primary beam power. This talk will present the status of the project financed by INFN, which is actually in the construction phase at Legnaro. In particular, developments related to the target and the ion-source activities using the surface ion source, plasma ion source, and laser ion source techniques will be reported. (author)

  11. Focus on radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, M

    1989-01-01

    Written for children, this book looks at the nature of radioactive materials, how they were discovered, what they are used for and how they affect the environment around us. The emphasis is on the benefits of radioactive materials, particularly in nuclear power stations, in medical diagnostics and radiotherapy, in industry and in agriculture. Nuclear fission and fusion are explained, how radioactive materials are handled and naturally occurring radioactivity are included. (UK).

  12. Off-line production of a sup 7 Be radioactive ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Gialanella, L; De Cesare, N; D'Onofrio, A; Romano, M; Campajola, L; Formicola, A; Fülöp, Z; Gyürky, G; Imbriani, G; Lubritto, C; Ordine, A; Roca, V; Rogalla, D; Rolfs, C; Russo, M; Sabbarese, C; Somorjai, E; Strieder, F; Terrasi, F; Trautvetter, H P

    2002-01-01

    A sup 7 Be ion beam of several particle pA at 8 MeV has been produced at the TTT3 tandem of the University 'Federico II' in Naples. The sup 7 Be nuclides were formed via the sup 7 Li(p,n) sup 7 Be reaction using a metallic Li target and an 11.4 MeV proton beam of 20 mu A intensity, delivered by the cyclotron in Debrecen. Methods of hot chemistry were used to extract the sup 7 Be nuclides from the Li matrix and to prepare the sup 7 Be cathodes for the ion sputter source of the tandem. Examples of sup 7 Be beam applications are given.

  13. Yield calculations for a facility for short-lived nuclear beams

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, C L; Gomes, I; Heinz, A M; Nolen, Jerry A; Rehm, K E; Savard, G; Schiffer, J P

    2002-01-01

    Yields for a broad range of radioactive nuclei produced by spallation reactions, neutron-induced fission, in-flight projectile fragmentation and in-flight fission have been calculated for beams of stable nuclei at energies of 100-1000 MeV/u. Calculations of cross-sections and yields, attenuation effects due to absorption, production from secondary reactions, and transport efficiencies for mass selection are discussed. Rare isotope yields as functions of bombarding energies for both reaccelerated and directly produced fast-fragmentation beams are presented. This information provides a foundation for a cost-effective design of a next generation rare isotope accelerator.

  14. EURISOL-DS Multi-MW Target: Thermal Behaviour of the fission target disk arrangement inspired by the MAFF project

    CERN Document Server

    Cyril Kharoua, Yacine Kadi and the EURISOL-DS Task#2 collaboration

    This technical note summarises the design calculations performed within Task #2 of the European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Design Study (EURISOL-DS) [1] for the thermal behaviour of the fission target.A preliminary study was carried out in order to determine the heat deposition within the fissile material and estimate the temperature rise. This new solution takes into account the problems related to effusion/diffusion of radioactive isotopes inside a thick target. To enhance the extraction rates and the thermal behaviour it is proposed to study a solution where the fissile material is split into an arrangement of disks.

  15. Nuclear fission with inertial confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Koshkarev, D G

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of initiating the explosive fission reaction in a small quantity of fissile material through the heavy ions beam from the powerful accelerator-driver, developed for realization of the thermonuclear synthesis in the deuterium-tritium cylindrical targets with the direct ignition, is considered. The consequences of applying this method in the nuclear engineering are discussed

  16. The Effusive-Flow Properties of Target/Vapor-Transport Systems for Radioactive Ion Beam Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, Yoko; Liu, Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive atoms produced by the ISOL technique must diffuse from a target, effusively flow to an ion source, be ionized, be extracted, and be accelerated to research energies in a time commensurate with the lifetime of the species of interest. We have developed a fast valve system (closing time ~100 us) that can be used to accurately measure the effusion times of chemically active or inactive species through arbitrary geometry and size vapor transport systems with and without target material in the reservoir. The effusive flow times are characteristic of the system and thus serve as figures of merit for assessing the quality of a given vapor transport system as well as for assessing the permeability properties of a given target design. This article presents effusive flow data for noble gases flowing through a target reservoir and ion source system routinely used to generate radioactive species at the HRIBF with and without disks of 6 times and 10 times compressed Reticulated Vitreous Carbon Foam (RVCF) with...

  17. On the usage of electron beam as a tool to produce radioactive isotopes in photonuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.; Nikolenko, V.G.; Popov, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    We treat the Bremsstrahlung, induced by initial electron beam in converter, and the production of a desirable radioisotope due to the photonuclear reaction caused by this Bremsstrahlung. By way of illustration, the yield of a number of some, the most applicable in practice, radioisotopes is evaluated. The acquired findings persuade us that usage of modern electron accelerators offers a practicable way to produce the radioisotopes needful nowadays for various valuable applications in the nuclear medicine

  18. Fission meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA

    2012-04-10

    A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source.

  19. Nuclear incineration method for long life radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takaaki; Uematsu, Kunihiko.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear incineration method is the method of converting the long life radioactive nuclides in wastes to short life or stable nuclides by utilizing the nuclear reaction caused by radiation, unlike usual chemical incineration. By the nuclear incineration, the radioactivity of wastes increases in a short period, but the problems at the time of the disposal are reduced because of the decrease of long life radioactive nuclides. As the radiation used for the nuclear incineration, the neutron beam from fission and fusion reactors and accelerators, the proton beam and gamma ray from accelerators have been studied. The object of the nuclear incineration is actinide, Sr-90, Cs-137, I-129 and Tc-99. In particular, waste actinide emits alpha ray, and is strongly toxic, accordingly, the motive of attempting the nuclear incineration is strong. In Japan, about 24t of waste actinide will accumulate by 2000. The principle of the nuclear incineration, and the nuclear incineration using nuclear fission and fusion reactors and accelerators are described. The nuclear incineration using fission reactors was examined for the first time in 1972 in USA. It is most promising because it is feasible by the present technology without particular research and development. (Kako, I.)

  20. Neutron-induced fission fragment angular distribution at CERN n TOF: The Th-232 case

    CERN Document Server

    Tarrio, Diego; Paradela, Carlos

    This thesis work was done in the frame of the study of the neutron-induced fission of actinides and subactinides at the CERN n TOF facility using a fast Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPACs) setup. This experimental setup provide us with an intense neutron beam with a white spectrum from thermal to 1 GeV and with an outstanding high resolution provided by its flight path of 185 m. In our experiment, fission events were identified by detection of both fission fragments in time coincidence in the two PPAC detectors flanking the corresponding target. This technique allowed us to discriminate the fission events from the background produced by α disintegration of radioactive samples and by particles produced in spallation reactions. Because PPAC detectors are insensitive to the γ flash, it is possible to reach energies as high as 1 GeV. The stripped cathodes provide the spatial position of the hits in the detectors, so that the emission angle of the fission fragments can be measured. Inside the reaction cham...

  1. Thorium-uranium fission radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, E. L.; Weiss, J. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    Results are described for studies designed to develop routine methods for in-situ measurement of the abundance of Th and U on a microscale in heterogeneous samples, especially rocks, using the secondary high-energy neutron flux developed when the 650 MeV proton beam of an accelerator is stopped in a 42 x 42 cm diam Cu cylinder. Irradiations were performed at three different locations in a rabbit tube in the beam stop area, and thick metal foils of Bi, Th, and natural U as well as polished silicate glasses of known U and Th contents were used as targets and were placed in contact with mica which served as a fission track detector. In many cases both bare and Cd-covered detectors were exposed. The exposed mica samples were etched in 48% HF and the fission tracks counted by conventional transmitted light microscopy. Relative fission cross sections are examined, along with absolute Th track production rates, interaction tracks, and a comparison of measured and calculated fission rates. The practicality of fast neutron radiography revealed by experiments to data is discussed primarily for Th/U measurements, and mixtures of other fissionable nuclei are briefly considered.

  2. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr on proton and deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H., E-mail: wanghe@ribf.riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otsu, H.; Sakurai, H.; Ahn, D.S. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aikawa, M. [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Doornenbal, P.; Fukuda, N.; Isobe, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kawakami, S. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Koyama, S. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kubo, T.; Kubono, S.; Lorusso, G. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Maeda, Y. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Makinaga, A. [Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, North-14, West-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8648 (Japan); Momiyama, S. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakano, K. [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Niikura, M. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shiga, Y. [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Söderström, P.-A. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); and others

    2016-03-10

    We have studied spallation reactions for the fission products {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The spallation cross sections on the proton and deuteron were obtained in inverse kinematics for the first time using secondary beams of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr at 185 MeV/nucleon at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. The target dependence has been investigated systematically, and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter spallation products. The experimental data are compared with the PHITS calculation, which includes cascade and evaporation processes. Our results suggest that both proton- and deuteron-induced spallation reactions are promising mechanisms for the transmutation of radioactive fission products.

  3. Target conception for the Munich fission fragment accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, H J; Gross, M L; Grossmann, R; Kester, O; Thirolf, P

    1999-01-01

    For the new high-flux reactor FRM II, the fission fragment accelerator MAFF is under design. MAFF will supply intense mass-separated radioactive ion beams of very neutron-rich nuclei with energies around the Coulomb barrier. A central part of this accelerator is the ion source with the fission target, which is operated at a neutron flux of 1.5x10 sup 1 sup 4 cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1. The target consists of typically 1 g of sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U dispersed in a cylindrical graphite matrix, which is encapsulated in a Re container. To enable diffusion and extraction of the fission products, the target has to be maintained at a temperature of up to 2400 deg. C during operation. It has to stand this temperature for at least one reactor cycle of 1250 h. Comprehensive tests are required to study the long-term behaviour of the involved materials at these conditions prior to operation in the reactor. The present paper gives details of the target conception and the projected tests.

  4. Determination of uranium content in dental porcelains by means of the fission track method and estimation of radiation dose to oral mucosa by radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sairenji, E.; Moriwaki, K.; Shimizu, M.; Noguchi, K.

    1980-01-01

    Porcelain teeth, some of which contain uranium compounds for aesthetic purpose, have been widely used in dental clinics. Hazardous effects due to uranium radiation have been suggested in recent publications. In the present study uranium concentrations were determined in four major brands of porcelain teeth marketed in Japan using the fission track method, and the absorbed doses to oral tissued were calculated. Average uranium concentrations of the brands studied were determined to be 3.6 ppm (0.33-10 ppm, Japan), 18 ppm (0.69-81 ppm, Japan), 9.4 ppm (2.5-14 ppm, Japan) and 82 ppm (11-205 ppm, U.S.), respectively. The corresponding dose equivalents at the surface of oral mucosal membrane were 2.9 rem yr -1 . 14 rem yr -1 , 7.6 rem yr -1 and 66 rem yr -1 . (author)

  5. Determination of uranium content in dental porcelains by means of the fission track method and estimation of radiation dose to oral mucosa by radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sairenji, Eiko; Moriwaki, Kazunari; Shimizu, Masami; Noguchi, Kunikazu; Anzai, Ikuro.

    1979-01-01

    Porcelain teeth, some of which contained uranium compounds for aesthetic purpose, have been widely used in dental clinics. Recently, the hazardous effects by uranium radiation were suggested. In the present study, the authors carried out the determination of uranium concentrations of four major brands of porcelain teeth marketed in Japan using the fission track method, and the absorbed doses of oral tissues were calculated by the authors' introduced formula for calculation of alpha radiation. Average uranium concentrations of the brands studied were determined 3.6 ppm (0.33 - 10 ppm, Japan), 18 ppm (0.69 - 81 ppm, Japan), 9.4 ppm (2.5 - 14 ppm, Japan) and 82 ppm (11 - 205 ppm, U.S.A.), respectively. The corresponding dose equivalents at the surface of oral mucosal membrane were 2.9 rem y -1 , 14 rem y -1 , 7.6 rem y -1 and 66 rem y -1 . (author)

  6. Energy from nuclear fission an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    De Sanctis, Enzo; Ripani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview on nuclear physics and energy production from nuclear fission. It serves as a readable and reliable source of information for anyone who wants to have a well-balanced opinion about exploitation of nuclear fission in power plants. The text is divided into two parts; the first covers the basics of nuclear forces and properties of nuclei, nuclear collisions, nuclear stability, radioactivity, and provides a detailed discussion of nuclear fission and relevant topics in its application to energy production. The second part covers the basic technical aspects of nuclear fission reactors, nuclear fuel cycle and resources, safety, safeguards, and radioactive waste management. The book also contains a discussion of the biological effects of nuclear radiation and of radiation protection, and a summary of the ten most relevant nuclear accidents. The book is suitable for undergraduates in physics, nuclear engineering and other science subjects. However, the mathematics is kept at a level that...

  7. Identification of more than a 100 new isotopes from 238U projectile fission and beams of neutron-rich nuclei at BRENDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernas, M.; Donzaud, C.; Dessagne, Ph.

    1996-01-01

    Projectile fission of 238 U was investigated at a bombarding energy of 750 A MeV using Pb and Be targets. The fully stripped forward emitted fragments from Ti to Cs were analyzed with the Fragment Separator (FRS) and unambiguously identified by their energy-loss and time-of-flight. The magnetic selection of the largest momenta acted as a trigger of the low-energy fission component. More than a hundred new nuclear species were identified including the 78 Ni, for which a cross-section of 300 pb was measured. (author)

  8. Induced radioactivity of a GSO scintillator by secondary fragments in carbon ion therapy and its effects on in-beam OpenPET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Nitta, Munetaka; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-07-07

    The accumulation of induced radioactivity within in-beam PET scanner scintillators is of concern for its long-term clinical usage in particle therapy. To estimate the effects on OpenPET which we are developing for in-beam PET based on GSOZ (Zi doped Gd2SiO5), we measured the induced radioactivity of GSO activated by secondary fragments in a water phantom irradiation by a (12)C beam with an energy of 290 MeV u(-1). Radioisotopes of Na, Ce, Eu, Gd, Nd, Pm and Tb including positron emitters were observed in the gamma ray spectra of the activated GSO with a high purity Ge detector and their absolute radioactivities were calculated. We used the Monte Carlo simulation platform, Geant4 in which the observed radioactivity was assigned to the scintillators of a precisely reproduced OpenPET and the single and coincidence rates immediately after one treatment and after one-year usage were estimated for the most severe conditions. Comparing the highest coincidence rate originating from the activated scintillators (background) and the expected coincidence rate from an imaging object (signal), we determined the expected signal-to-noise ratio to be more than 7 within 3 min and more than 10 within 1 min from the scan start time. We concluded the effects of scintillator activation and their accumulation on the OpenPET imaging were small and clinical long-term usage of the OpenPET was feasible.

  9. Development of an intense O-15 radioactive ion beam using low energy protons

    CERN Document Server

    Lapi, S; Zyuzin, A Yu; D'Auria, J M

    2003-01-01

    The production of copious quantities of sup 1 sup 5 O, (half-life = 122.2 s) for astrophysical applications has been a source of concern at TRIUMF and ISAC for some time. An sup 1 sup 5 O beam is needed for two experiments ( sup 1 sup 5 O(alpha,gamma) sup 1 sup 9 Ne and sup 1 sup 5 O( sup 6 Li,d) sup 1 sup 9 Ne) at ISAC. The beam flux required for these experiments is extremely high, (between 10 sup 9 and 10 sup 1 sup 1 sup 1 sup 5 O/s) and thus high efficiencies at all steps in the process will be required. Difficulties arise due to the fact that oxygen is very reactive chemically and thus is difficult to extract from a thick spallation target. The possibility of using one of the small cyclotrons on site (TR13, CP42 or TR30) for the production of this isotope ( sup 1 sup 5 O) has been discussed. This production approach will involve the use of low energy protons to interact with a nitrogen gas target via the sup 1 sup 5 N(p,n) sup 1 sup 5 O reaction, which is accessible with attainable particle energies usin...

  10. Ideological Fission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    ; it is a materialisation of an ideological fission which attempts to excise certain ideological constructions, yet paradoxically casting them in a form that is recognizable and familiar. The monstrous metonomy which is used shows us glimpses of a horrid being, intended to vilify the attack on New York City. However......, it is a being which is reminiscent of earlier monsters - from Godzilla to The Blob. It is evident that the Cloverfield monster is a paradoxical construction which attempts to articulate fear and loathing about terrorism, but ends up trapped in an ideological dead-end maze, unable to do anything other than...

  11. Production of radioactivity in local soil at AGS fast neutrino beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gollon, P.J.; Hauptmann, M.G.; McIntyre, K.; Miltenberger, R.; Naidu, J.

    1984-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has recently decided to construct a new neutrino production target station at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). To determine the environmental impact of this addition, a study is being conducted in the vicinity of the old target area to determine the radiological consequences of operating this experimental facility. Typical BNL soil samples were placed at two locations near an operating target: at right angles to the target and behind thick shielding close to the direction of the incident beam. These samples were used to determine radionuclide production and leaching information. A core was taken from beneath the concrete floor of the old target area and a monitoring well was installed down-gradient of the facility. Preliminary results from all areas of the study are presented along with estimates of the potential environmental impact of the old and new facilities. 9 figures

  12. The discovery of uranium fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, P.

    1990-01-01

    Uranium was discovered 200 years ago. Its radioactive character was first demonstrated in 1896 and two years later radium was extracted from uranium minerals. In 1911 studies with alpha rays from radioactive decay led to the unexpected discovery of the atomic nucleus. Exposure of beryllium to alpha rays yielded neutrons, first detected in 1932. Starting in 1934, neutron irradiation of uranium produced radioactive substances erroneously attributed to transuranium elements but with confusing properties. Painstaking experiments by chemists left no doubt on 17 December 1938 that barium was produced by these irradiations: the neutrons had split some uranium nuclei. The physics of the fission process was understood two weeks later; after a few months, neutron multiplication was found to be probable. This review deals with the eminent scientists involved, their successes, errors and disappointments, and the unexpected insights which occurred on the paths and detours of scientific research. It is, therefore, instructive also to discuss how fission was not discovered. The momentous discovery must be considered inevitable; the great tragedy was that Germany started World War II just at the time when the possibility of nuclear chain reactions and bombs became known. The consequences and anxieties that remain after 50 years of nuclear fission demand that mankind act with reason and conscience to maintain peace. (author)

  13. Mica fission detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.; Anderson, J.D.; Hansen, L.; Lehn, A.V.; Williamson, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The present development status of the mica fission detectors is summarized. It is concluded that the techniques have been refined and developed to a state such that the mica fission counters are a reliable and reproducible detector for fission events

  14. Fusion reactor radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, J.D.; Postma, A.K.; Bradley, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Quantities and compositions of non-tritium radioactive waste are estimated for some current conceptual fusion reactor designs, and disposal of large amounts of radioactive waste appears necessary. Although the initial radioactivity of fusion reactor and fission reactor wastes are comparable, the radionuclides in fusion reactor wastes are less hazardous and have shorter half-lives. Areas requiring further research are discussed

  15. Liquid radioactive wastes characterizing obtained of {sup 99} Mo production by fission; Caracterizacion de residuos liquidos radiactivos provenientes de la produccion de {sup 99} Mo por fision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devida, Claudio; Bouza, Edgardo; Gil, Daniel; Neuringer, Silvia [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenso Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza. Unidad de Actividad Materiales y Combustibles Nucleares; Ramallo, Telma [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza. Unidad de Actividad gestion de Residuos Radiactivos

    1999-11-01

    Among its facilities, the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina has a {sup 99} Mo by Fission Production Plant, which generates, among others, low and medium activity liquid waste. The characterization of the waste aims at obtaining the array of data that is necessary to carry out the processed which lead to obtain an acceptable product for its storage and final disposal. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory faced the development, adjustment and execution of the necessary analytical procedures to achieve the physico-chemical characterization of the main liquid waste. Given the complexity and activity of the waste, high sensitivity instrumental analytical techniques were chose and the equipment was adapted to work in radiochemical hoods. In a first stage, simulated solutions were used in order to adjust the methods and techniques and to carry out studies about interference and results statistics. Afterwards, physico-chemical analysis were performed on real waste samples yielding satisfactory results as regards precision required for this kind of waste. (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Climate risks by radioactive krypton-85 from nuclear fission. Atmospheric-electrical and air-chemical effects of ionizing radiation in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollert, R.

    1994-01-01

    The study shows that krypton-85 from nuclear fission enhances air ionization and, thus, interferes with the atmospheric-electrical system and the water balance of the earth atmosphere. This is reason for concern: There are unforeseeable effects for weather and climate if the krypton-85 content of the earth atmosphere continues to rise. There may be a krypton-specific greenhouse effect and a collapse of the natural atmospheric-electrical field. In addition, human well-being may be expected to be impaired as a result of the diminished atmospheric-electrical field. There is also the risk of radiochemical actions and effects caused-by krypton-85-containing plumes in other air-borne pollutants like the latters' transformation to aggressive oxidants. This implies radiation smog and more acid rain in the countries exposed. This study summarizes findings gained in these issues by various sciences, analyses them and elaborates hypotheses on the actions and effects of krypton-85 on the air, the atmosphere and the climate. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Universal method for effusive-flow characterization target ion source/vapor transport systems for radioactive ion beam generation (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Bilheux, J.-C.; Liu, Y.; Cole, J. A.; Williams, C.

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide interest in the use of accelerated radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for exploring reactions important in understanding the structure of the nucleus and nuclear astrophysical phenomena has motivated the construction of facilities dedicated to their production and acceleration. Many facilities utilize the isotope-separator-on-line (ISOL) method in which species of interest are generated within a solid or liquid target matrix. Experimentally useful RIBs are often difficult to generate by this technique because of the times required for diffusion from the interior of the target material, and to effusively transport the species of interest to the ion source following diffusion release in relation to its lifetime. Therefore, these delay times must be minimized. We have developed an experimental method that can be used to determine effusive-flow times of arbitrary geometry target/vapor transport systems. The technique utilizes a fast valve to measure effusive-flow times as short as 0.1 ms for any chemically active or inactive species through any target system, independent of size, geometry and materials of construction. In this report, we provide a theoretical basis for effusive flow through arbitrary geometry vapor transport systems, describe a universal experimental apparatus for measuring effusive-flow times, and provide time spectra for noble gases through prototype RIB target/vapor-transport systems

  18. The identification of autoionizing states of atomic chromium for the resonance ionization laser ion source of the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    Goodacre, T Day

    2017-01-01

    The resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) is the principal ion source of the ISOLDE radioactive beam facility based at CERN. Using the method of in-source resonance ionization spectroscopy, an optimal three-step, three-resonance photo-ionization scheme has been developed for chromium. The scheme uses an ionizing transition to one of the 14 newly observed autoionizing states. This work increases the range of ISOLDE-RILIS ionized beams to 32 chemical elements. Details of the spectroscopic studies are described and the new ionization scheme is summarized. A link to the complete version of this document will be added here following publication:

  19. How fission was discovered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluegge, S.

    1989-01-01

    After the great survey of neutron induced radioactivity by Fermi and co-workers, the laboratories in Paris and Berlin-Dahlen tried to disentangle the complex results found in uranium. At that time neutron sources were small, activities low, and equipment very simple. Chemistry beyond uranium still was unknown. Hahn and Meitner believed to have observed three transuranic isomeric chains, a doubtful result even then. Early in 1938, Curie and Savic in Paris found an activity interpreted to be actinium, and Hahn and Meitner another to be radium. Both interpretations seemed impossible from energy considerations. Hahn and Strassmann, therefore, continued this work and succeeded to separate the new activity from radium. There remained no doubt that a barium isotope had been produced, the uranium nucleus splitting in the yet-unknown process we now call fission

  20. Theoretical study on production of heavy neutron-rich isotopes around the N=126 shell closure in radioactive beam induced transfer reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to produce more unknown neutron-rich nuclei around N=126, the transfer reactions 136Xe + 198Pt, 136–144Xe + 208Pb, and 132Sn + 208Pb are investigated within the framework of the dinuclear system (DNS model. The influence of neutron excess of projectile on production cross sections of target-like products is studied through the reactions 136,144Xe + 208Pb. We find that the radioactive projectile 144Xe with much larger neutron excess is favorable to produce neutron-rich nuclei with charge number less than the target rather than produce transtarget nuclei. The incident energy dependence of yield distributions of fragments in the reaction 132Sn + 208Pb are also studied. The production cross sections of neutron-rich nuclei with Z=72–77 are predicted in the reactions 136–144Xe + 208Pb and 132Sn + 208Pb. It is noticed that the production cross sections of unknown neutron-rich nuclei in the reaction 144Xe + 208Pb are at least two orders of magnitude larger than those in the reaction 136Xe + 208Pb. The radioactive beam induced transfer reactions 139,144Xe + 208Pb, considering beam intensities proposed in SPIRAL2 (Production System of Radioactive Ion and Acceleration On-Line project as well, for production of neutron-rich nuclei around the N=126 shell closure are investigated for the first time. It is found that, in comparison to the stable beam 136Xe, the radioactive beam 144Xe shows great advantages for producing neutron-rich nuclei with N=126 and the advantages get more obvious for producing nuclei with less charge number.

  1. Modelling and simulation the radioactive source-term of fission products in PWR type reactors; Modelagem e simulacao do termo-fonte radioativo de produtos de fissao em reatores nucleares do tipo PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porfirio, Rogilson Nazare da Silva

    1996-07-01

    The source-term was defined with the purpose the quantify all radioactive nuclides released the nuclear reactor in the case of accidents. Nowadays the source-term is limited to the coolant of the primary circuit of reactors and may be measured or modelled with computer coders such as the TFP developed in this work. The calculational process is based on the linear chain techniques used in the CINDER-2 code. The TFP code considers forms of fission products release from the fuel pellet: Recoil, Knockout and Migration. The release from the gap to the coolant fluid is determined from the ratio between activity measured in the coolant and calculated activity in the gap. Considered the operational data of SURRY-1 reactor, the TFP code was run to obtain the source=term of this reactor. From the measured activities it was verified the reliability level of the model and the employed computational logic. The accuracy of the calculated quantities were compared to the measured data was considered satisfactory. (author)

  2. Feasibility study of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu characterization in radioactive waste drums using neutron-induced fission delayed gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, T. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); FZJ, Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety, Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße, d-52425 Jülich (Germany); Pérot, B., E-mail: bertrand.perot@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Carasco, C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Brackx, E. [CEA, DEN, Marcoule, Metallography and Chemical Analysis Laboratory, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Mariani, A.; Passard, C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Mauerhofer, E. [FZJ, Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety, Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße, d-52425 Jülich (Germany); Collot, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3 Grenoble (France)

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports a feasibility study of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu characterization in 225 L bituminized waste drums or 200 L concrete waste drums, by detecting delayed fission gamma rays between the pulses of a deuterium-tritium neutron generator. The delayed gamma yields were first measured with bare samples of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu in REGAIN, a facility dedicated to the assay of 118 L waste drums by Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) at CEA Cadarache, France. Detectability in the waste drums is then assessed using the MCNPX model of MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation), another PGNAA cell dedicated to 200 L drums at FZJ, Germany. For the bituminized waste drum, performances are severely hampered by the high gamma background due to {sup 137}Cs, which requires the use of collimator and shield to avoid electronics saturation, these elements being very penalizing for the detection of the weak delayed gamma signal. However, for lower activity concrete drums, detection limits range from 10 to 290 g of {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu, depending on the delayed gamma rays of interest. These detection limits have been determined by using MCNPX to calculate the delayed gamma useful signal, and by measuring the experimental gamma background in MEDINA with a 200 L concrete drum mock-up. The performances could be significantly improved by using a higher interrogating neutron emission and an optimized experimental setup, which would allow characterizing nuclear materials in a wide range of low and medium activity waste packages.

  3. Progress in fission product nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammer, M.

    1981-06-01

    This is the seventh issue of a report series on Fission Product Nuclear Data (FPND) which is published by the Nuclear Data Section (NDS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The purpose of this series is to inform scientists working on FPND, or using such data, about all activities in this field which are planned, ongoing, or have recently been completed. The present issue contains also a section with some recent references relative to fission product nuclear data, which were not covered by the contributions submitted. The types of activities being included in this report are measurements, compilations and evaluations of: fission product yields (neutron induced and spontaneous fission); neutron reaction cross sections of fission products; data related to the radioactive decay of fission products; delayed neutron data of fission products; and lumped fission product data (decay heat, absorption etc.). The sixth issue of this series has been published in June 1980 as INDC(NDS)-113/G+P. The present issue includes contributions which were received by NDS between 1 August 1980 and 25 May 1981

  4. Progress in fission product nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammer, M.

    1982-07-01

    This is the eighth issue of a report series on Fission Product Nuclear Data (FPND) which is published by the Nuclear Data Section (NDS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The purpose of this series is to inform scientists working on FPND, or using such data, about all activities in this field which are planned, ongoing, or have recently been completed. The main part of this report consists of unaltered original contributions which the authors have sent to IAEA/NDS. Therefore, the IAEA cannot be held responsible for the information contained nor for any consequences resulting from the use of this information. The present issue contains also a section with some recent references relative to fission product nuclear data, which were not covered by the contributions submitted. The types of activities being included in this report are measurements, compilations and evaluations of: Fission product yields (neutron induced and spontaneous fission); Neutron reaction cross sections of fission products; Data related to the radioactive decay of fission products; Delayed neutron data of fission products; and lumped fission product data (decay heat, absorption etc.). The seventh issue of this series has been published in July 1981 as INDC(NDS)-116. The present issue includes contributions which were received by NDS between 1 August 1981 and 15 June 1982

  5. Progress in fission product nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammer, M.

    1983-08-01

    This is the ninth issue of a report series on Fission Product Nuclear Data (FPND) which is published by the Nuclear Data Section (NDS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The purpose of this series is to inform scientists working on FPND, or using such data, about all activities in this field which are planned, ongoing, or have recently been completed. The main part of this report consists of unaltered original contributions which the authors have sent to IAEA/NDS. The present issue contains also a section with some recent references relative to fission product nuclear data, which were not covered by the contributions submitted. The types of activities being included in this report are measurements, compilations and evaluations of: Fission product yields (neutron induced and spontaneous fission); Neutron reaction cross sections of fission products; Data related to the radioactive decay of fission products; Delayed neutron data of fission products; and lumped fission product data (decay heat, absorption etc.). The eighth issue of this series has been published in July 1982 as INDC(NDS)-130. The present issue includes contributions which were received by NDS between 1 August 1982 and 25 June 1983

  6. {gamma}-spectroscopy and radioactive beams: search for highly deformed exotic nuclei; Detection {gamma} et faisceaux radioactifs: recherche de noyaux exotiques tres deformes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosse, B

    2006-07-15

    This work is devoted to the search for highly deformed nuclei under extreme conditions of isospin, located near the proton drip-line, around A {approx} 130. The experiment was performed at GANIL (Caen) with the SPIRAL radioactive beam facility. The nuclei of interest were produced by fusion-evaporation reactions induced by the neutron deficient Kr{sup 76} radioactive beam (T1/2 = 14.8 h). {gamma}-rays were detected by the EXOGAM array, composed of 11 segmented germanium clover detectors, for which a new segment calibration method has been developed. To extract fusion-evaporation events of a overwhelming background due to the radioactivity of the beam, the EXOGAM array was coupled with the light charged particle detector DIAMANT and the high acceptance VAMOS spectrometer. The latter was used for the first time to detect fusion-evaporation residues. The detailed data analysis allowed us to demonstrate that the EXOGAM + DIAMANT + VAMOS coupling is operational and essential to investigate the structure of these nuclei. Furthermore, the first {gamma} transition was observed in the very exotic odd-odd Pm{sup 130} nucleus. The results have been interpreted with static and dynamic self-consistent microscopic calculations in collaboration with the Theoretical Physicists of the IPN Lyon. (author)

  7. Studies of short-lived products of spallation fission reactions at TRIUMF

    CERN Document Server

    Bischoff, G; D'Auria, J M; Dautet, H; Lee, J K P; Pate, B D; Wiesehahn, W

    1976-01-01

    The gas-jet recoil transport technique has been used to transport products from spallation and fission reactions from a target chamber to a shielded location for nuclear spectroscopic studies. These involve X- beta - gamma coincidence measurements and (shortly) time- of-flight mass spectroscopy. It has been deduced that the proton beam at present intensities has no appreciable effect on the ability of ethylene and other cluster-producing gases to transport radioactivity. Preliminary results will be presented for shortlived fission products from uranium, and for spallation products of iodine and argon. The latter were obtained from the bombardment of gas and aerosol targets mixed with the transporting gas in the target chamber, which appears to be a generally useful technique.

  8. Studies of Fission Fragment Rocket Engine Propelled Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werka, Robert O.; Clark, Rodney; Sheldon, Rob; Percy, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Office of Chief Technologist has funded from FY11 through FY14 successive studies of the physics, design, and spacecraft integration of a Fission Fragment Rocket Engine (FFRE) that directly converts the momentum of fission fragments continuously into spacecraft momentum at a theoretical specific impulse above one million seconds. While others have promised future propulsion advances if only you have the patience, the FFRE requires no waiting, no advances in physics and no advances in manufacturing processes. Such an engine unequivocally can create a new era of space exploration that can change spacecraft operation. The NIAC (NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts) Program Phase 1 study of FY11 first investigated how the revolutionary FFRE technology could be integrated into an advanced spacecraft. The FFRE combines existent technologies of low density fissioning dust trapped electrostatically and high field strength superconducting magnets for beam management. By organizing the nuclear core material to permit sufficient mean free path for escape of the fission fragments and by collimating the beam, this study showed the FFRE could convert nuclear power to thrust directly and efficiently at a delivered specific impulse of 527,000 seconds. The FY13 study showed that, without increasing the reactor power, adding a neutral gas to the fission fragment beam significantly increased the FFRE thrust through in a manner analogous to a jet engine afterburner. This frictional interaction of gas and beam resulted in an engine that continuously produced 1000 pound force of thrust at a delivered impulse of 32,000 seconds, thereby reducing the currently studied DRM 5 round trip mission to Mars from 3 years to 260 days. By decreasing the gas addition, this same engine can be tailored for much lower thrust at much higher impulse to match missions to more distant destinations. These studies created host spacecraft concepts configured for manned round trip journeys. While the

  9. Fission theory and actinide fission data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaudon, A.

    1975-06-01

    The understanding of the fission process has made great progress recently, as a result of the calculation of fission barriers, using the Strutinsky prescription. Double-humped shapes were obtained for nuclei in the actinide region. Such shapes could explain, in a coherent manner, many different phenomena: fission isomers, structure in near-threshold fission cross sections, intermediate structure in subthreshold fission cross sections and anisotropy in the emission of the fission fragments. A brief review of fission barrier calculations and relevant experimental data is presented. Calculations of fission cross sections, using double-humped barrier shapes and fission channel properties, as obtained from the data discussed previously, are given for some U and Pu isotopes. The fission channel theory of A. Bohr has greatly influenced the study of low-energy fission. However, recent investigation of the yields of prompt neutrons and γ rays emitted in the resonances of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu, together with the spin determination for many resonances of these two nuclei cannot be explained purely in terms of the Bohr theory. Variation in the prompt neutron and γ-ray yields from resonance to resonance does not seem to be due to such fission channels, as was thought previously, but to the effect of the (n,γf) reaction. The number of prompt fission neutrons and the kinetic energy of the fission fragments are affected by the energy balance and damping or viscosity effects in the last stage of the fission process, from saddle point to scission. These effects are discussed for some nuclei, especially for {sup 240}Pu.

  10. Attachment behavior of fission products to solution aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamiya, Koichi; Tanaka, Toru; Nitta, Shinnosuke; Itosu, Satoshi; Sekimoto, Shun; Oki, Yuichi; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Various characteristics such as size distribution, chemical component and radioactivity have been analyzed for radioactive aerosols released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Measured results for radioactive aerosols suggest that the potential transport medium for radioactive cesium was non-sea-salt sulfate. This result indicates that cesium isotopes would preferentially attach with sulfate compounds. In the present work the attachment behavior of fission products to aqueous solution aerosols of sodium salts has been studied using a generation system of solution aerosols and spontaneous fission source of {sup 248}Cm. Attachment ratios of fission products to the solution aerosols were compared among the aerosols generated by different solutions of sodium salt. A significant difference according as a solute of solution aerosols was found in the attachment behavior. The present results suggest the existence of chemical effects in the attachment behavior of fission products to solution aerosols.

  11. Libraries of decay data and fission product yields in the ABBN-93 constant set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabrodskaya, S.V.; Nikolaev, M.N.; Tsibulya, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes three new libraries in the Abb. constant set which are essential for calculating radioactivity: basic decay data, radioactive decay photon spectra and fission product yields. (author)

  12. Progress in fission product nuclear data. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammer, M.

    1990-11-01

    This is the 13th issue of a report series published by the Nuclear Data Section of the IAEA. The types of activities included are measurements, compilations and evaluations of: Fission product yields (neutron induced and spontaneous fission), neutron reaction cross-sections of fission products, data related to the radioactive decay of fission products, delayed neutron data of fission products and bumped fission product data (decay heat, absorption, etc.). The first part of the report consists of unaltered original data which the authors have sent to IAEA/NDS. The second part contains some recent references relative to fission product nuclear data, which were not covered by the contributions submitted, and selected papers from conferences. Part 3 contains requirements for further measurements

  13. Progress in fission product nuclear data. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammer, M.

    1994-06-01

    This is the 14th issue of a report series on Fission Product Nuclear Data published by the Nuclear Data Section of the IAEA. The types of activities included are measurements, compilations and evaluations of fission product yields, neutron reaction cross sections of fission products, data related to the radioactive decay of fission products, delayed neutron data from neutron induced and spontaneous fission, lumped fission product data. The first part of the report consists of unaltered original contributions which the authors have sent to IAEA/NDS. The second part contains some recent references relative to fission product nuclear data, which were not covered by the contributions submitted, and selected papers from conferences. The third part contains requirements for further measurements

  14. Nuclear fission and reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear fission research programs are designed to elucidate basic features of the fission process. Specifically, (1) factors determining how nucleons of a fissioning nucleus are distributed between two fission fragments, (2) factors determining kinetic energy and excitation energies of fragments, and (3) factors controlling fission lifetimes. To these ends, fission studies are reported for several heavy elements and include investigations of spontaneous and neutron-induced fission, heavy ion reactions, and high energy proton reactions. The status of theoretical research is also discussed. (U.S.)

  15. Preparation and characterization of an improved borosilicate glass for the solidification of high level radioactive fission product solutions (HLW). Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahl, L.; Ruiz-Lopez, M.C.; Saidl, J.; Dippel, T.

    1982-04-01

    In the 'Institut fuer Nuklare Entsorgungstechnik' the borosilicate glass VG 98/12 has been developed for the solidification of the high level radioactive waste (HLW). This borosilicate glass can be used in a direct heated ceramic melter and forms together with the HLW the borosilicate glass product GP 98/12. This borosilicate glass product has been examined in detail both in liquid and solid state. The elements contained in the HLW can be incorporated without problems. Only in a few exceptions the concentration must be kept below certain limits to exclude the formation of a second phase ('yellow phase') by separation. No spontaneous crystallization and no crystallization over a long time could be observed as long as the temperature of the borosilicate glass product is kept below its transformation area. Simulating accidental conditions in the final storage, samples had been leached at temperatures up to 200 0 C and pressures up to 130 bar with saturated rock salt brine and saturated quinary salt brine. The leaching process seems to be stopped by the formed 'leached layer' on the surface of the borosilicate glass product after a limited leaching time. Detailed investigations have been started to explain this phenomenon. (orig.) [de

  16. The Eurisol report. A feasibility study for a European isotope-separation-on-line radioactive ion beam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    The Eurisol project aims at a preliminary design study of the next-generation European isotope separation on-line (ISOL) radioactive ion beam (RIB) facility. In this document, the scientific case of high-intensity RIBs using the ISOL method is first summarised, more details being given in appendix A. It includes: 1) the study of atomic nuclei under extreme and so-far unexplored conditions of composition (i.e. as a function of the numbers of protons and neutrons, or the so-called isospin), rotational angular velocity (or spin), density and temperature, 2) the investigation of the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the Universe, an important part of nuclear astrophysics, 3) a study of the properties of the fundamental interactions which govern the properties of the universe, and in particular of the violation of some of their symmetries, 4) potential applications of RIBs in solid-state physics and in nuclear medicine, for example, where completely new fields could be opened up by the availability of high-intensity RIBs produced by the ISOL method. The proposed Eurisol facility is then presented, with particular emphasis on its main components: the driver accelerator, the target/ion-source assembly, the mass-selection system and post-accelerator, and the required scientific instrumentation. Special details of these components are given in appendices B to E, respectively. The estimates of the costs of the Eurisol, construction and running costs, have been performed in as much details as is presently possible. The total capital cost (installation manpower cost included) of the project is estimated to be of the order of 630 million Euros within 20%. In general, experience has shown that operational costs per annum for large accelerator facilities are about 10% of the capital cost. (A.C.)

  17. Measurements of fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.

    2000-01-01

    After some historical introductory remarks on the discovery of nuclear fission and early fission yield determinations, the present status of knowledge on fission yields is briefly reviewed. Practical and fundamental reasons motivating the pursuit of fission yield measurements in the coming century are pointed out. Recent results and novel techniques are described that promise to provide new interesting insights into the fission process during the next century. (author)

  18. Radiochemical studies on fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on nuclear chemistry; topics considered include: recoil range and kinetic energy distribution in the thermal neutron ftssion of /sup 245/Cm; mass distribution and recoil range measurements in the reactor neutron-induced fission of /sup 232/U; fission yields in the thermal neutron fission of /sup 241/PU highly asymmetric binary fission of uranium induced by reactor neutrons; and nuclear charge distribution in low energy fission. ( DHM)

  19. Recent results in the study of exotic nuclei using the 'Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil' (RIBRAS) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepine-Szily, A.; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Guimaraes, V.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Benjamim, E.A.; Faria, P.N. de; Leistenschneider, E.; Gasques, L.R.; Morais, M.C.; Pampa Condori, R.; Pires, K.C.C.; Scarduelli, V.; Zamora, J.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Mendes Junior, D.R.; Morcelle, V. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (IF/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Descouvemont, P. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Matematique; Assuncao, M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil); Moro, A.M. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain). Fac. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear (FAMN); Arazi, A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. TANDAR; Barioni, A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The 'Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil' (RIBRAS) facility consists of two super-conducting solenoids of maxi- mum magnetic field B 6.5T, coupled to the 8UD-Pelletron tandem Accelerator installed at the University of Sao Paulo Physics Institute. It is the first radioactive beam facility of the Southern Hemisphere. The production mechanism of the radioactive ions is by transfer reactions, using {sup 9}Be, {sup 3}He, LiF and other production targets, and the forward focused reaction products are selected and focalized by the solenoids into a scattering chamber. Low energy (3-5 MeV/u) radioactive beams of {sup 6}He, {sup 8}Li, {sup 7,10}Be and {sup 8,12}B are produced currently and used to study elastic, inelastic, and transfer reactions on a variety of light, medium mass and heavy ({sup 9}Be, {sup 12}C, {sup 27}Al, {sup 51}V and {sup 120}Sn) secondary targets. The data are analyzed, using most of the time, the Sao Paulo Potential (SPP) and compared to optical model and continuum discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) calculations. The total reaction cross section as a function of energy has been extracted from the elastic scattering data and the role of breakup of weakly bound or exotic nuclei is discussed. Some examples of reactions recently studied are {sup 1}H({sup 8}Li,{sup 4}He){sup 5}He, {sup 1}H({sup 8}Li,{sup 1}H){sup 8}Li using thick (CH{sub 2}){sub n} targets to measure their excitation functions. The transfer reaction {sup 12}C({sup 8}Li,{sup 4}He){sup 16}N, leading to well defined excited states of {sup 16}N, through the transfer of {sup 4}H or the sequential decay {sup 3}H+n, is also being studied. (author)

  20. Radioactive waste management and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.

    1976-12-01

    The following conclusions are reached: (1) safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; (2) basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; (3) the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and (4) the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged

  1. Restoration strategies for radioactive contaminated ecosystems (RESTORE). Mastering events of the past - Nuclear fission safety programme E.2: restoration of severely contaminated territories. Final report 1996 - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.; Semioschkina, N.

    2000-01-01

    The RESTORE project has focused on the development of an environmental decision support system (EDSS) applied to areas of the NIS contaminated by radioactive fallout based upon an understanding of such processes. It incorporates spatial variation in radioecological processes which can influence transfer of radionuclides via foodstuffs to man including soil type, ecosystem, food production systems and flooding, such factors are not considered in existing models. Special emphasis has been placed on the identification of key pathways using the knowledge incorporated into the EDSS and developing strategies whereby the dose via these pathways could be effectively reduced, in particular by enabling the population to understand and influence their own exposure. The main objectives of the project were: Identification of major pathways of radiation exposure, resulting from the Chernobyl accident, within different contaminated ecosystems within the NIS; Collation of spatial data to allow, using geographical information systems (GIS), the identification of areas with high radionuclide concentrations in foodstuffs, high fluxes of radionuclides or elevated doses; Development of practical and cost effective countermeasure strategies, targeted at key pathways, which will enable affected populations to understand and influence their own radiation exposures; Assessment of the potential importance of flooding for the redistribution and remobilization of radionuclides into food production systems; Application of this knowledge to develop an environmental decision support system (EDSS) providing a tool to identify vulnerable areas or groups and allow assessment of countermeasure strategies; Independently assess the radiological situation following nuclear weapons tests within the semipalatinsk test site (STS), Kazakhstan which was the most important nuclear weapons testing area within the USSR. (orig.)

  2. Fission-product release during accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, C.E.L.; Cox, D.S.

    1991-09-01

    One of the aims when managing a reactor accident is to minimize the release of radioactive fission products. Release is dependent not only on the temperature, but also on the partial pressure of oxygen. Strongly oxidizing atmospheres, such as those that occurred during the Chernobyl accident, released semi-volatile elements like ruthenium, which has volatile oxides. At low temperatures, UO 2 oxidization to U 3 O 8 can result in extensive breakup of the fuel, resulting in the release of non-volatile fission products as aerosols. Under less oxidizing conditions, when hydrogen accumulates from the zirconium-water reaction, the resulting low oxygen partial pressure can significantly reduce these reactions. At TMI-2, only the noble gases and volatile fission products were released in significant quantities. A knowledge of the effect of atmosphere as well as temperature on the release of fission products from damaged reactor cores is therefore a useful, if not necessary, component of information required for accident management

  3. A new neutron counter for fission research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, B., E-mail: benoit.laurent@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Granier, T.; Bélier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Martin, J.-F.; Taieb, J. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Hambsch, F.-J. [EC-JRC Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg, 2440 Geel (Belgium); Tovesson, F.; Laptev, A.B.; Haight, R.C.; Nelson, R.O.; O' Donnell, J.M. [Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    A new neutron counter for research experiments on nuclear fission has been developed. This instrument is designed for the detection of prompt fission neutrons within relatively high levels of gamma and neutron background. It is composed of a set of {sup 3}He proportional counters arranged within a block of polyethylene which serves as moderator. The detection properties have been studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations and experiments with radioactive sources. These properties are confirmed by an experiment on neutron-induced fission of {sup 238}U at the WNR facility of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center during which the mean prompt fission neutron multiplicity, or ν{sup ¯} has been measured from 1 to 20 MeV of incident neutron energy.

  4. Fission products collecting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable fission products trap with no contamination to coolants and cover gas by the provision of a fission products trap above the upper part of a nuclear power plant. Constitution: Upon fuel failures in a reactor core, nuclear fission products leak into coolants and move along the flow of the coolants to the coolants above the reactor core. The fission products are collected in a trap container and guided along a pipeline into fission products detector. The fission products detector monitors the concentration of the fission products and opens the downstream valve of the detector when a predetermined concentration of the fission products is detected to introduce the fission products into a waste gas processing device and release them through the exhaust pipe. (Seki, T.)

  5. Energy released in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.F.

    1969-05-01

    The effective energy released in and following the fission of U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 by thermal neutrons, and of U-238 by fission spectrum neutrons, is discussed. The recommended values are: U-235 ... 192.9 ± 0.5 MeV/fission; U-238 ... 193.9 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-239 ... 198.5 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-241 ... 200.3 ± 0.8 MeV/fission. These values include all contributions except from antineutrinos and very long-lived fission products. The detailed contributions are discussed, and inconsistencies in the experimental data are pointed out. In Appendix A, the contribution to the total useful energy release in a reactor from reactions other than fission are discussed briefly, and in Appendix B there is a discussion of the variations in effective energy from fission with incident neutron energy. (author)

  6. The wastes of nuclear fission; Les dechets de la fission nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doubre, H. [Paris-11 Univ., Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, IN2P3/CNRS, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    In this paper the author presents the problems of the radioactive wastes generated by the nuclear fission. The first part devoted to the fission phenomenon explains the incident neutron energy and the target nuclei role. The second part devoted to the nuclear wastes sources presents the production of wastes upstream of the reactors, in the reactors and why these wastes are dangerous. The third part discusses the radioactive wastes management in France (classification, laws). The last part details the associated research programs: the radionuclides separation, the disposal, the underground storage, the transmutation and the thorium cycle. (A.L.B.)

  7. Radioactive and Other Effects of Nuclear Explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilijas, B.; Cizmek, A.; Prah, M.; Medakovic, S.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of long lasting efforts of international community to definitely ban all test nuclear explosions, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was opened for signature in New York on 24 September 1996, when it was signed by 71 states, including Croatia. The State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) which, as an independent state regulatory authority has a responsibility for activities relating to nuclear safety, including the national authority over this Treaty, is actively engaged in CTBTO activities. The nuclear explosion causes a lot of effects (blast, thermal, radioactive, electromagnetic) which differs a lot in its nature, reach, lasting and other. The longest lasting aftermath is from the radioactive effects that cause a radioactive fallout and a lot of radioactive elements in the environment, created by the influence of a primary beam of radiation. Fission and fusion are the main source of radionuclide created by the nuclear explosion, and the longest lasting aftermaths are by the fission products, namely their offspring in natural disintegration chains. This can make contaminated areas inappropriate for life for very long periods. Even in the case of underground nuclear explosion (when underground cavity is formed with no effects on the surface), a leakage of radioactive gases through cracks is possible. A number of radionuclide is created by the neutron activation of elements naturally present in an environment, because a very strong neutron radiation appears in the moment of nuclear explosion. The abundance of particular radionuclide is a very much dependent of a place of performing nuclear explosion and a composition of soil or water in the vicinity.(author)

  8. Estimation of penetration depth of fission products in cladding Hull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Moon; Jung, Yang Hong; Yoo, Byong Ok; Choo, Yong Sun; Hong, Kwon Pyo

    2005-01-01

    A disposal and a reprocessing for spent fuel rod with high burnup need de-cladding procedure. Pellet in this rod has been separated from a cladding hull to reduce a radioactivity of hull by chemical and mechanical methods. But fission products and actinides(U,Pu) still remain inside of cladding hull by chemical bonding and fission spike, which is called as 'contamination'. More specific removal of this contamination would have been considered. In this study, the sorts of fission products and penetration depth in hull were observed by EPMA test. To analyze this behavior, SRIM 2000 code was also used as energies of fission products and an oxide thickness of hull

  9. Volatilization and reaction of fission products in flowing steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, I.; Steidl, D.V.; Johnson, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    The principal risk to the public from nuclear power plants derives from the highly radioactive atoms (fission products) generated as energy is produced in the nuclear fuel. The revolatilization of fission products from reactor system surfaces due to self-heating by radioactive decay has become a complicating factor in the source-term redefinition effort. It has had a major impact on calculations of fission product distributions in accident safety analyses. The focus of this research effort was to investigate the volatilization and transport of fission products and control rod materials in a flowing gaseous steam-hydrogen mixture. Fission product and control rod materials in various combinations were studied including CsI, CsOH, TeO 2 , SrO, Ag, In, Cd and Mn. The vaporization behavior of the deposits were characterized with respect to vaporization rates, chemical species and downstream transport behavior

  10. Neutron emission as a probe of fusion-fission and quasi-fission dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinde, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Pre- and post scission neutron yeilds have been measured as a function of projectile mass, compound nucleus fissility, and fission mass-split and total kinetic energy (TKE) for 27 fusion-fission and quasi-fission reactions induced by beams of 16,18 O, 40 Ar and 64 Ni. A new method of interpretation of experimental pre-scission neutron multiplicities ν-pre and mean kinetic energies ε ν allows the extraction of fission time scales with much less uncertainty than previously, all fusion-fission results being consistent with a dynamical time scale of (35±15) x 10 -21 s for symmetric fission. All reactions show that ν-pre falls quite rapidly with increasing mass-asymmetry; evidence is presented that for fusion-fission reactions this is partly due to a reduction of the dynamical fission time scale with mass-asymmetry. For quasi-fission, the data indicate that the pre-scission multiplicity and mean neutron kinetic energy are very sensitive to the final mass-asymmetry, but that the time scale is virtually independent of mass-asymmetry. It is concluded that for fusion-fission there is no dependence of ν-pre on TKE, whilst for 64 Ni-induced quasi-fission reactions, a strong increase of ν-pre with decreasing TKE is observed, probably largely caused by neutron emission during the acceleration time of the fission fragments in these fast reactions. Interpretation of post-scission multiplicities in terms of fragment excitation energies leads to deduced time scales consistent with those determined from the pre-scission data. 54 refs., 17 tabs., 25 figs

  11. Use of Radioactive Ion Beams for Biomedical Research 1. in vivo labelling of monoclonal antibodies with radio-lanthanides and $^{225}$Ac

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % IS330 \\\\ \\\\\\begin{enumerate} \\item The aim of this study was to contribute to developments of new radiopharmaceuticals for tumour diagnosis and therapy. CERN-ISOLDE is the leading facility in the world to provide radioactive ion beams with high selectivity, purity and intensity. Radioisotope production by spallation makes available a complete range of rare earth isotopes having as complete a diversity of types and energy of radiation, of half-life, and of ionic properties as one would wish. The availability of exotic nuclei, e.g. radionuclides of rare earth elements and $^{225}$Ac, opens new possibilities for the development of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy.\\\\ \\\\ \\item Two approaches were followed within the experimental program. The radioactive metal ions are bound either to bio-specific ligands (monoclonal antibodies or peptides) or to unspecific low molecular weight form. The aim of the experimental program is to evaluate relationships between physico-chemical parameters of the tracer m...

  12. Study on the calculation method of source term from fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jing; Gong Quan; Qiu Haifeng

    2014-01-01

    As a major part of radioactive nuclides, fission products play an important role in nuclear power plant design. The paper analyzes the calculation model of core activity inventory, the model of fission products releasing from the pellets to RCS, the balance model of fission products in RCS, and then proves them by calculation of the typical pressurized water reactor. The model is proved applicable for calculating fission products of pressurized water reactors. (authors)

  13. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes)

  14. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  15. Fissionable material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuuring, C.; Tuininga, E.-J.; Turkenburg, W.

    1983-01-01

    This book is a presentation of controversies surrounding nuclear energy discussions in the Netherlands and aims to show that there are serious arguments against nuclear energy. Chapters on the following topics are included: the various dimensions of the energy discussion, the background to the existence of controversies in the nuclear energy discussion, the relation between nuclear energy and prosperity, different opinions concerning the cost of producing electricity from nuclear energy, radioactive waste, the consequences of a large scale accident, the relation between the peaceful use of nuclear energy and the proliferation of nuclear weapons, the effects of low radiation doses, the relation between nuclear energy and developments in the Third World, the effect of nuclear energy on democracy. The authors of these chapters, themselves critical of nuclear energy, have described the particular controversy and have given the viewpoints of both advocates and adversaries, followed by their own opinion. The conclusions from each chapter are recapitulated in a summary and the various components of the nuclear energy cycle are presented in an appendix. (C.F.)

  16. Investigation of exotic fission modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Gherghescu, R. A.; Greiner, W.; Nagame, Y.; Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.

    2002-01-01

    Fission approach to the cluster radioactivities and α-decay has been systematically developed during the last two decades. A more complex process, the ternary fission, was observed since 1946 both in neutron-induced and spontaneous fission. We obtained interesting results concerning the binary fission saddle-point reflection asymmetric nuclear shapes, and we can explain how a possible nuclear quasimolecular state is formed during the 10 Be accompanied cold fission of 252 Cf. The equilibrium nuclear shapes in fission theory are usually determined by minimizing the deformation energy for a given surface equation. We developed a method allowing to obtain a very general saddle-point shape as a solution of a differential equation without an a priori introduction of a shape parametrization. In the approach based on a liquid drop model (LDM), saddle-point shapes are always reflection symmetric: the deformation energy increases with the mass-asymmetry parameter η = (A 1 - A 2 )/(A 1 + A 2 ). By adding the shell corrections to the LDM deformation energy, we obtained minima at a finite mass asymmetry for parent nuclei 238 U, 232,228 Th in agreement with experiments. This correction was calculated phenomenologically. A technique based on the fragment identification by using triple γ coincidences in the large arrays of Ge-detectors, like GAMMASPHERE, was employed at Vanderbilt University to discover new characteristics of the fission process, and new decay modes. The possibility of a whole family of new decay modes, the multicluster accompanied fission, was envisaged. Besides the fission into two or three fragments, a heavy or superheavy nucleus spontaneously breaks into four, five or six nuclei of which two are asymmetric or symmetric heavy fragments and the others are light clusters, e.g. α-particles, 10 Be, 14 C, or combinations of them. Examples were presented for the two-, three- and four cluster accompanied cold fission of 252 Cf and 262 Rf, in which the emitted

  17. Obtaining Empirical Validation of Shape-Coexistence in the Mass 70 Region: Coulomb Excitation of a Radioactive Beam of $^{70}$Se

    CERN Multimedia

    Andreoiu, C; Paul, E S; Czosnyka, T; Hammond, N

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study the Coulomb excitation of a radioactive beam of $^{70}$Se at 2.2 MeV/u obtained from the REX-ISOLDE facility in order to determine the sign of the quadrupole moment and, hence, the sign of the quadrupole deformation. Calculations suggest a 33~\\% sensitivity in Coulomb excitation yield for a nickel target depending on whether the nuclear shape is oblate or prolate. Such a determination would provide compelling evidence for the presence of oblate shapes in the vicinity of N=Z=34.

  18. Form coexistence in light krypton nuclei. Isomeric spectroscopy of 72,74Kr nuclei and Coulomb excitation of the 76Kr radioactive beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchez, Emmanuelle

    2003-01-01

    The first part of this research thesis proposes an overview of the different theoretical calculations elaborated in the region of light krypton nuclei, and of published experimental results. The second part reports the electron and gamma isomeric spectroscopy of 72,74 Kr nuclei after fragmentation of the projectile by a magnetic separator (experimental installation, experimental results, discussion). The third part reports the study of the Coulomb excitation of the 76 Kr radioactive beam (method and experimental installation, data analysis and results in terms of germanium and silicon spectra, and form of the 76 Kr)

  19. Overview of research by the fission group in Trombay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the late eighties, heavy-ion beams from the pelletron-based medium energy heavy- ... (9) Ternary fission/light charged particle (LCP) accompanied fission .... There is a clear deviation in the behaviour of neck emission of α-particles at high.

  20. Fission Research at IRMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Adili A.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fission Research at JRC-IRMM has a longstanding tradition. The present paper is discussing recent investigations of fission fragment properties of 238 U(n,f, 234 U(n,f, prompt neutron emission in fission of 252 Cf(SF as well as the prompt fission neutron spectrum of 235 U(n,f and is presenting the most important results.

  1. Developments of the ISOLDE RILIS for radioactive ion beam production and the results of their application in the study of exotic mercury isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086245; Marsh, Bruce

    This work centres around development and applications of the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) of the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility based at CERN. The RILIS applies step-wise resonance photo-ionization, to achieve an unparalleled degree of element selectivity, without compromising on ion source efficiency. Because of this, it has become the most commonly used ion source at ISOLDE, operating for up to 75% of ISOLDE experiments. In addition to its normal application as an ion source, the RILIS can be exploited as a spectroscopic tool for the study of nuclear ground state and isomer properties, by resolving the influence of nuclear parameters on the atomic energy levels of the ionization scheme. There are two avenues of development by which to widen the applicability of the RILIS: laser ionization scheme development, enabling new or more efficient laser ionized ion beams and the development of new laser-atom interaction regions. New ionization schemes for chromium, tellurium, germanium, mercu...

  2. Fission cross section measurements at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The activity in intermediate energy particle induced fission cross-section measurements of Pu, U isotopes, minor actinides and sub-actinides in PNPI of Russia is reviewed. The neutron-induced fission cross-section measurements are under way in the wide energy range of incident neutrons from 0.5 MeV to 200 MeV at the GNEIS facility. In number of experiments at the GNEIS facility, the neutron-induced fission cross sections were obtained for many nuclei. In another group of experiments the proton-induced fission cross-section have been measured for proton energies ranging from 200 to 1000 MeV at 100 MeV intervals using the proton beam of PNPI synchrocyclotron. (author)

  3. Equilibrium fission model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckerman, M.; Blann, M.

    1976-01-01

    In order to aid in understanding the systematics of heavy ion fission and fission-like reactions in terms of the target-projectile system, bombarding energy and angular momentum, fission widths are calculated using an angular momentum dependent extension of the Bohr-Wheeler theory and particle emission widths using angular momentum coupling

  4. General Description of Fission Observables - JEFF Report 24. GEF Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Jurado, Beatriz; Amouroux, Charlotte

    2014-06-01

    The Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion (JEFF) Project is a collaborative effort among the member countries of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Data Bank to develop a reference nuclear data library. The JEFF library contains sets of evaluated nuclear data, mainly for fission and fusion applications; it contains a number of different data types, including neutron and proton interaction data, radioactive decay data, fission yield data and thermal scattering law data. The General fission (GEF) model is based on novel theoretical concepts and ideas developed to model low energy nuclear fission. The GEF code calculates fission-fragment yields and associated quantities (e.g. prompt neutron and gamma) for a large range of nuclei and excitation energy. This opens up the possibility of a qualitative step forward to improve further the JEFF fission yields sub-library. This report describes the GEF model which explains the complex appearance of fission observables by universal principles of theoretical models and considerations on the basis of fundamental laws of physics and mathematics. The approach reveals a high degree of regularity and provides a considerable insight into the physics of the fission process. Fission observables can be calculated with a precision that comply with the needs for applications in nuclear technology. The relevance of the approach for examining the consistency of experimental results and for evaluating nuclear data is demonstrated. (authors)

  5. On the feasibility of producing secondary radioactive nuclear beams using reactions in reversed geometries at HI-13 tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xixiang; Liu Weiping

    1993-01-01

    Some of (p,n),(d,p),(d,n) and (d, 3 He) reactions involving heavy-ions in reversed geometries are proposed for producing the kinematically compressed beams of ions such as 6 He, 7 Be, 8 Li, 11 C, 12 B, 13 N, 15 O and 17 F. A simple facility being constructed to produce and utilize these beams is briefly described

  6. Fission level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    Fission level densities (or fissioning nucleus level densities at fission saddle deformations) are required for statistical model calculations of actinide fission cross sections. Back-shifted Fermi-Gas Model, Constant Temperature Model and Generalized Superfluid Model (GSM) are widely used for the description of level densities at stable deformations. These models provide approximately identical level density description at excitations close to the neutron binding energy. It is at low excitation energies that they are discrepant, while this energy region is crucial for fission cross section calculations. A drawback of back-shifted Fermi gas model and traditional constant temperature model approaches is that it is difficult to include in a consistent way pair correlations, collective effects and shell effects. Pair, shell and collective properties of nucleus do not reduce just to the renormalization of level density parameter a, but influence the energy dependence of level densities. These effects turn out to be important because they seem to depend upon deformation of either equilibrium or saddle-point. These effects are easily introduced within GSM approach. Fission barriers are another key ingredients involved in the fission cross section calculations. Fission level density and barrier parameters are strongly interdependent. This is the reason for including fission barrier parameters along with the fission level densities in the Starter File. The recommended file is maslov.dat - fission barrier parameters. Recent version of actinide fission barrier data obtained in Obninsk (obninsk.dat) should only be considered as a guide for selection of initial parameters. These data are included in the Starter File, together with the fission barrier parameters recommended by CNDC (beijing.dat), for completeness. (author)

  7. Review of fission-fusion pellet designs and inertial confinement system studies at EIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifriz, W [Eidgenoessisches Inst. fuer Reaktorforschung, Wuerenlingen (Switzerland)

    1978-01-01

    The article summarizes the work done so far at the Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research (EIR) in the field of the inertial confinement fusion technique. The following subjects are reviewed: a) fission fusion pellet designs using fissionable triggers, b) uranium tampered pellets, c) tampered pellets recycling unwanted actinide wastes from fission reactors in beam-driven micro-explosion reactors, and d) symbiotic fusion/fission reactor studies.

  8. Nuclear fission induced by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.O.

    1988-09-01

    Because the accelerators of the 50's and 60's mostly provided beams of light ions, well suited for studying individual quantum states of low angular momentum or reactions involving the transfer of one or two nucleons, the study of fission, being an example of large-scale collective motion, has until recently been outside of the mainstream of nuclear research. This situation has changed in recent years, due to the new generation of accelerators capable of producing beams of heavy ions with energies high enough to overcome the Coulomb barriers of all stable nuclei. These have made possible the study of new examples of large-scale collective motions, involving major rearrangements of nuclear matter, such as deep-inelastic collisions and heavy-ion fusion. Perhaps the most exciting development in the past few years is the discovery that dissipative effects (nuclear viscosity) play an important role in fission induced by heavy ions, contrary to earlier assumptions that the viscosity involved in fission was very weak and played only a minor role. This review will be mainly concerned with developments in heavy-ion induced fission during the last few years and have an emphasis on the very recent results on dissipative effects. Since heavy-ion bombardment usually results in compound systems with high excitation energies and angular momenta, shell effects might be expected to be small, and the subject of low energy fission, where they are important, will not be addressed. 285 refs., 58 figs

  9. Radioactive waste removing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To cleanup primary coolants for LMFBR type reactors by magnetically generating a high speed rotational flow in the flow of liquid metal, and adsorbing radioactive corrosion products and fission products onto capturing material of a complicated shape. Constitution: Three-phase AC coils for generating a rotational magnetic field are provided to the outside of a container through which liquid sodium is passed to thereby generate a high speed rotational stream in the liquid sodium flowing into the container. A radioactive substance capturing material made of a metal plate such as of nickel and stainless steel in the corrugated shape with shape edges is secured within a flow channel. Magnetic field at a great slope is generated in the flow channel by the capturing material to adsorb radioactive corrosion products and fission products present in the liquid sodium onto the capturing material and removing therefrom. This enables to capture the ferri-magnetic impurities by adsorption. (Moriyama, K.)

  10. Production of radioactive ion beams and resonance ionization spectroscopy with the laser ion source at on-line isotope separator ISOLDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedosseev, V.N.; )

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The resonance ionisation laser ion source (RILIS) of the ISOLDE on-line isotope separation facility at CERN is based on the method of laser step-wise resonance ionisation of atoms in a hot metal cavity. Using the system of dye lasers pumped by copper vapour lasers the ion beams of many different metallic elements have been produced at ISOLDE with an ionization efficiency of up to 27%. The high selectivity of the resonance ionization is an important asset for the study of short-lived nuclides produced in targets bombarded by the proton beam of the CERN Booster accelerator. Radioactive ion beams of Be, Mg, Al, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Tb, Yb, Tl, Pb and Bi have been generated with the RILIS. Setting the RILIS laser in the narrow line-width mode provides conditions for a high-resolution study of hyperfine structure and isotopic shifts of atomic lines for short-lived isotopes. The isomer selective ionization of Cu, Ag and Pb isotopes has been achieved by appropriate tuning of laser wavelengths

  11. Fast fission phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, Christian.

    1982-03-01

    Experimental studies of fast fission phenomena are presented. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, problems associated with fast fission processes are examined in terms of interaction potentials and a dynamic model is presented in which highly elastic collisions, the formation of compound nuclei and fast fission appear naturally. In the second part, a description is given of the experimental methods employed, the observations made and the preliminary interpretation of measurements suggesting the occurence of fast fission processes. In the third part, our dynamic model is incorporated in a general theory of the dissipative processes studied. This theory enables fluctuations associated with collective variables to be calculated. It is applied to highly inelastic collisions, to fast fission and to the fission dynamics of compound nuclei (for which a schematic representation is given). It is with these calculations that the main results of the second part can be interpreted [fr

  12. Simulation of Fission Product Liftoff Behavior During Depressurization Transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tak, Nam-il; Yoon, Churl; Lee, Sung Nam

    2016-01-01

    As one of crucial technologies for the NHDD project, the development of the GAMMA-FP code is on-going. The GAMMA-FP code is targeted for fission product transport analysis under accident conditions. A well-known experiment named COMEDIE considered two important phenomena, i.e., fission product plateout and liftoff, for fission product transport within the primary circuit of a prismatic high temperature gas cooled reactor. The accumulated fission products on the structural material via the plateout can be liftoff during a blowdown phase after a pipe break accident. Since the fission product liftoff can increase a radioactivity risk, it is important to predict the amount of fission product liftoff during depressurization accidents. In this work, a model for fission product liftoff is implemented into the GAMMA-FP code and the GAMMA-FP code with the implemented model is validated using the COMEDIE blowdown test data. The results of GAMMA-FP show that the GAMMA-FP code can reliably simulate a pressure transient during blowdown phase after a pipe break accident. In addition, a reasonable amount of fission product liftoff was predicted by the GAMMA-FP code. The maximum difference between the measured and predicted liftoff fraction was less than a factor of 10. More in-depth study is required to increase the accuracy of prediction for a fission product liftoff

  13. Fission product yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenta, V.; Hep, J.

    1978-01-01

    Data are summed up necessary for determining the yields of individual fission products from different fissionable nuclides. Fractional independent yields, cumulative and isobaric yields are presented here for the thermal fission of 235 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu and for fast fission (approximately 1 MeV) of 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu; these values are included into the 5th version of the YIELDS library, supplementing the BIBFP library. A comparison is made of experimental data and possible improvements of calculational methods are suggested. (author)

  14. Fission neutron multiplicity calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerten, H.; Ruben, A.; Seeliger, D.

    1991-01-01

    A model for calculating neutron multiplicities in nuclear fission is presented. It is based on the solution of the energy partition problem as function of mass asymmetry within a phenomenological approach including temperature-dependent microscopic energies. Nuclear structure effects on fragment de-excitation, which influence neutron multiplicities, are discussed. Temperature effects on microscopic energy play an important role in induced fission reactions. Calculated results are presented for various fission reactions induced by neutrons. Data cover the incident energy range 0-20 MeV, i.e. multiple chance fission is considered. (author). 28 refs, 13 figs

  15. Intermediate energy nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylten, G.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear fission has been investigated with the double-kinetic-energy method using silicon surface barrier detectors. Fragment energy correlation measurements have been made for U, Th and Bi with bremsstrahlung of 600 MeV maximum energy. Distributions of kinetic energy as a function of fragment mass are presented. The results are compared with earlier photofission data and in the case of bismuth, with calculations based on the liquid drop model. The binary fission process in U, Yb, Tb, Ce, La, Sb, Ag and Y induced by 600 MeV protons has been investigated yielding fission cross sections, fragment kinetic energies, angular correlations and mass distributions. Fission-spallation competition calculations are used to deduce values of macroscopic fission barrier heights and nuclear level density parameter values at deformations corresponding to the saddle point shapes. We find macroscopic fission barriers lower than those predicted by macroscopic theories. No indication is found of the Businaro Gallone limit expected to occur somewhere in the mass range A = 100 to A = 140. For Ce and La asymmetric mass distributions similar to those in the actinide region are found. A method is described for the analysis of angular correlations between complementary fission products. The description is mainly concerned with fission induced by medium-energy protons but is applicable also to other projectiles and energies. It is shown that the momentum and excitation energy distributions of cascade residuals leading to fission can be extracted. (Author)

  16. Fission, fusion and the energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, S E [Aston Univ., Birmingham (UK)

    1980-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: living on capital (energy reserves and consumption forecasts); the atom and its nucleus, mass and energy; fission and the bomb; the natural uranium reactor; enriched reactors; control and safety; long-term economics (the breeder reactions and nuclear fuel reserves); short-term economics (cost per kilowatt hour); national nuclear power programmes; nuclear power and the environment (including reprocessing, radioactive waste management, public relations); renewable energy sources; the fusion programme; summary and comment.

  17. Regulatory aspects of fusion power-lessons from fission plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizio, A.; Brunnader, H.; Sood, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    Experience from fission reactors has shown the regulatory process for licensing a nuclear facility to be legalistic, lengthy, unpredictable, and costly. This experience also indicates that much of the regulatory debate is focused on safety margins, that is, the smaller the safety margins the bigger the regulatory debate and the greater the amount of proof required to satisfy the regulatory. Such experience suggests that caution and prudence guide the development of a regulatory regime for fusion reactors. Fusion has intrinsic safety and environmental advantages over fission, which should alleviate significantly, or even eliminate, the regulatory problems associated with fission. The absence of a criticality concern and the absence of fission products preclude a Chernobyl type accident from occurring in a fusion reactor. Although in a fusion reactor there are large inventories of radioactive products that can be mobilized, the total quantity is orders of magnitude smaller than in fission power reactors. The bulk of the radioactivity in a fusion reactor is either activation products in steel structures, or tritium fuel supplies safely stored in the form of a metal tritide in storage beds. The quantity of tritium that can be mobilized under accident conditions is much less than ten million curies. This compares very favorably with a fission product inventory greater than ten billion curies in a fission power reactor. Furthermore, in a fission reactor, all of the reactivity is contained in a steel vessel that is pressurized to about 150 atmospheres, whereas in a fusion reactor, the inventory of radioactive material is dispersed in different areas of the plant, such that it is improbable that a single event could give rise to the release of the entire inventory to the environment. With such significant intrinsic safety advantages there is no a priori need to make fusion requirements/regulations more demanding and more stringent than fission

  18. High energy muon induced radioactive nuclides in nickel plate and its use for 2-D muon-beam image profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurebayashi, Y.; Sakurai, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Doshita, N.; Kikuchi, S.; Tokanai, F.; Horiuchi, K.; Tajima, Y.; Oe, T.; Sato, T.; Gunji, S.; Inui, E.; Kondo, K.; Iwata, N.; Sasaki, N.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kunieda, S.

    2015-01-01

    Target materials were exposed to a muon beam with an energy of 160 GeV/c at the COMPASS experiment line in CERN-SPS to measure the production cross-sections for muon-induced radionuclides. A muon imager containing four nickel plates, each measuring 100 mm×100 mm, exposed to the IP plate successfully detected the muon beam image during an irradiation period of 33 days. The contrasting density rate of the nickel plate was (5.2±0.7)×10 –9 PSL/muon per one-day exposure to IP. The image measured 122 mm and 174 mm in horizontal and vertical lengths, respectively, in relation to the surface of the base, indicating that 50±6% of the muon beam flux is confined to an area of 18% of the whole muon beam. The number of muons estimated from the PSL value in the total beam image area (0.81±0.1)×10 13 was comparable to the total muon counts of the ion-chamber at the M2 beam line in the CERN-SPS. The production cross-sections of Cr-51, Mn-54, Co-56, Co-57, and Co-58 in nickel were 0.19±0.08, 0.34±0.06, 0.5±0.05, 3.44±0.07, 0.4±0.03 in the unit of mb, respectively, reducing muon associated particles effects. They are approximately 10 times smaller than that a proceeding study by Heisinger et al

  19. Fission product and aerosol behaviour within the containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, A.M.; Benson, C.G.; Bowsher, B.R.; Dickinson, S.; Nichols, A.L.

    1990-04-01

    Experimental studies have been undertaken to characterise the behaviour of fission products in the containment of a pressurised water reactor during a severe accident. The following aspects of fission product transport have been studied: (a) aerosol nucleation, (b) vapour transport processes, (c) chemical forms of high-temperature vapours, (d) interaction of fission product vapours with aerosols generated from within the reactor core, (e) resuspension processes, (f) chemistry in the containment. Chemical effects have been shown to be important in defining and quantifying fission product source terms in a wide range of accident sequences. Both the chemical forms of the fission product vapours and their interactions with reactor materials aerosols could have a major effect on the magnitude and physicochemical forms of the radioactive emission from a severe reactor accident. Only the main conclusions are presented in this summary document; detailed technical aspects of the work are described in separate reports listed in the annex

  20. On the safety of conceptual fusion-fission hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Okrent, D.; Badham, V.; Caspi, S.; Chan, C.K.; Ferrell, W.J.; Frederking, T.H.K.; Grzesik, J.; Lee, J.Y.; McKone, T.E.; Pomraning, G.C.; Ullman, A.Z.; Ting, T.D.; Kim, Y.I.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary examination of some potential safety questions for conceptual fusion-fission hybrid reactors is presented in this paper. The study and subsequent analysis was largely based upon one design, a conceptual mirror fusion-fission reactor, operating on the deuterium-tritium plasma fusion fuel cycle and the uranium-plutonium fission fuel cycle. The major potential hazards were found to be: (a) fission products, (b) actinide elements, (c) induced radioactivity, and (d) tritium. As a result of these studies, it appears that highly reliable and even redundent decay heat removal must be provided. Loss of the ability to remove decay heat results in melting of fuel, with ultimate release of fission products and actinides to the containment. In addition, the studies indicate that blankets can be designed which will remain subcritical under extensive changes in both composition and geometry. Magnet safety and the effects of magnetic fields on thermal parameters were also considered. (Auth.)

  1. Progress in fission product nuclear data. Information about activities in the field of measurements and compilations/evaluations of fission product nuclear data (FPND)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammer, G.

    1978-07-01

    This is the fourth issue of a report series on Fission Product Nuclear Data (FPND) which is published by the Nuclear Data Section (NDS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The purpose of this series is to inform scientists working on FPND, or using such data, about all activities in this field which are planned, ongoing, or have recently been completed. The main part of this report consists of unaltered original contributions which the authors have sent to IAEA/NDS. The types of activities being included in this report are measurements, compilations and evaluations of: Fission product yields (neutron induced and spontaneous fission); neutron reaction cross sections of fission products; data related to the radioactive decay of fission products; delayed neutron data of fission products; and lumped fission product data (decay heat, absorption etc.)

  2. Fission gas detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colburn, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    A device for collecting fission gas released by failed fuel rods which device uses a filter adapted to pass coolant but to block passage of fission gas bubbles due to the surface tension of the bubbles. The coolant may be liquid metal. (author)

  3. Muon-induced fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polikanov, S.

    1980-01-01

    A review of recent experimental results on negative-muon-induced fission, both of 238 U and 232 Th, is given. Some conclusions drawn by the author are concerned with muonic atoms of fission fragments and muonic atoms of the shape isomer of 238 U. (author)

  4. Relativistic Coulomb Fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear fission reactions induced by the electromagnetic field of relativistic nuclei are studied for energies relevant to present and future relativistic heavy ion accelerators. Cross sections are calculated for U-238 and Pu-239 fission induced by C-12, Si-28, Au-197, and U-238 projectiles. It is found that some of the cross sections can exceed 10 b.

  5. Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Sean; Bhike, Megha; Howell, Calvin; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tornow, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Fission yields of the short lived isomers 134mTe (T1 / 2 = 162 ns) and 136mXe (T1 / 2 = 2 . 95 μs) were measured for 235U and 238U. The isomers were detected by the γ rays associated with the decay of the isomeric states using high-purity germanium detectors. Fission was induced using both monoenergetic γ rays and neutrons. At TUNL's High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HI γS), γ rays of 9 and 11 MeV were produced . Monoenergetic 8 MeV neutrons were produced at TUNL's tandem accelerator laboratory. Both beams were pulsed to allow for precise time-gated spectroscopy of both prompt and delayed γ rays following fission. This technique offers a non-destructive probe of special nuclear materials that is sensitive to the isotopic identity of the fissile material.

  6. Study of hypernuclei fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, F.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about PS177 experience made on LEAR machine at CERN in 1988. The annihilation reaction of anti protons on a target of Bismuth or Uranium is studied. Lambda particles are produced by this reaction, in the nucleus in 2% of cases 7.1 10 -3 hypernuclei by stopped antiproton in the target are produced. The prompt hypernucleus fission probability of uranium is 75% and that of Bismuth 10%. The mass distribution of fission fragments is symmetrical ((≡ the excitation energy of the nucleus is very high). If the nucleus hasn't fissioned, the non-mesonic lambda decay, gives it an energy of 100 MeV, what allows to fission later. This fission is delayed because the hypernucleus lifetime is 1.3 +0.25 -0.21 10 -10 sec for Bismuth [fr

  7. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd on proton and deuteron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spallation reactions for the long-lived fission products 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd have been studied for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The cross sections on the proton- and deuteron-induced spallation were obtained in inverse kinematics at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Both the target and energy dependences of cross sections have been investigated systematically. and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter fragments. The experimental data are compared with the SPACS semi-empirical parameterization and the PHITS calculations including both the intra-nuclear cascade and evaporation processes.

  8. The nuclear fission process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemans, C.

    1991-01-01

    Fifty years after its discovery, the nuclear fission phenomenon is of recurring interest. When its fundamental physics aspects are considered, fission is viewed in a very positive way, which is reflected in the great interest generated by the meetings and large conferences organized for the 50th anniversary of its discovery. From a purely scientific and practical point of view, a new book devoted to the (low energy) nuclear fission phenomenon was highly desirable considering the tremendous amount of new results obtained since the publication of the book Nuclear Fission by Vandenbosch and Huizenga in 1973 (Academic Press). These new results could be obtained thanks to the growth of technology, which enabled the construction of powerful new neutron sources, particle and heavy ion accelerators, and very performant data-acquisition and computer systems. The re-invention of the ionization chamber, the development of large fission fragment spectrometers and sophisticated multiparameter devices, and the production of exotic isotopes also contributed significantly to an improved understanding of nuclear fission. This book is written at a level to introduce graduate students to the exciting subject of nuclear fission. The very complete list of references following each chapter also makes the book very useful for scientists, especially nuclear physicists. The book has 12 chapters covering the fission barrier and the various processes leading to fission as well as the characteristics of the various fission reaction products. In order to guarantee adequate treatment of the very specialized research fields covered, several distinguished scientists actively involved in some of these fields were invited to contribute their expertise as authors or co-authors of the different chapters

  9. Fission 2009 4. International Workshop on Nuclear Fission and Fission Product Spectroscopy - Compilation of slides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This conference is dedicated to the last achievements in experimental and theoretical aspects of the nuclear fission process. The topics include: mass, charge and energy distribution, dynamical aspect of the fission process, nuclear data evaluation, quasi-fission and fission lifetime in super heavy elements, fission fragment spectroscopy, cross-section and fission barrier, and neutron and gamma emission. This document gathers the program of the conference and the slides of the presentations

  10. Radioactivity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tuniz, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity: A Very Short Introduction explains radioactivity and discusses its fundamental role in nature. Radioactivity remains misunderstood and feared perhaps because nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses, and can undoubtedly do great harm if appropriate precautions are not taken. Radioactivity in the stars and in the Earth and its wide range of applications in biomedicine, science, industry, agriculture are described, as well as the mechanisms of nuclear fission and fusion, and the harnessing of nuclear power. The issues surrounding safety and security and the increasing concerns about nuclear terrorism are also considered.

  11. Teaching concepts in the field of radioactivity and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleichroth, W.

    1982-01-01

    This issue of 'Naturwissenschaften im Unterricht', dealing with the subjects of physics and chemistry, gives an account of the fundamentals of radioactivity, nuclear fission, controlled nuclear fission, nuclear power plants, dosimetry, safety engineering, shielding measures to prevent the release of radioactive substances, pressure engineering, emergency core cooling systems, waste disposal and natural and artificial environmental radioactivity. Teachers will find helpful hints as to the method of instruction and the explanation of problems. (DG) [de

  12. A novel recession rate physics methodology for space applications at CIRA by means of CIRCE radioactive beam tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, M.; Di Leva, A.; Del Vecchio, A.; Gialanella, L.

    2018-03-01

    Thermal protection systems (TPSs) of spacecrafts, either for single use or reusable, experience wear by ablation and erosion, due to the high heat fluxes during a re-entry phase in the atmosphere. The determination of the wear rate is a crucial point, which is presently mainly possible in aerospace on-ground measurements by means of invasive diagnostics. The purpose of this paper is to present novel contactless, online, high-sensitivity and non-intrusive diagnostics for wear measurements based on radioactive tracers. We propose the technique for future on-ground experiments that might later be developed to perform in-flight TPSs monitoring, thus significantly increasing the safety of the aerospace vehicles. The basic ideas of the method, its sensitivity investigated by GEANT4 simulations, and the future experimental validation are outlined.

  13. Fission Fragment Yield Data in Support of Advanced Reactor Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, Adam [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-21

    Within the 3 year POP we propose to continue to test and further develop the fission spectrometers, to do development tests and full data acquisition run at the national laboratory neutron beam facilities, to measure correlated fission fragment yields at low neutron energies with 235 U fission targets, and make these data available to the nuclear community. The spectrometer development will be both on the university based r\\prototype and on the National Laboratory Spectrometer, and measurements will be performed with both. Over the longer time frame of the collaboration, we will take data over a range of low energies, and use other fission targets available to the laboratory. We will gather energy specific fragment distributions and reaction cross sections. We will further develop the data acquisition capabilities to take correlated fission fragment'gamma ray/neurton data, all on an event-by-event basis. This really is an enabling technology.

  14. Post-acceleration of sup 7 Be at the Louvain-la-Neuve radioactive ion beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    Gaelens, M; Loiselet, M; Ryckewaert, G

    2003-01-01

    The development of an intense and pure post-accelerated sup 7 Be beam at Louvain-la-Neuve will be discussed. Given its properties (metallic nature, long half-life (53 days)) and the special beam parameters required (multi-charge ions, high purity), a range of special techniques had to be investigated. At Louvain-la-Neuve, sup 7 Be is produced by irradiating a lithium target with 30 mu A of 27 MeV protons and is extracted using offline chemical separation techniques. Because of the large amounts of activity required, the chemistry has to be adapted for use in hotcells. The ionization is performed with an Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with the sup 7 Be injected in the source by means of sputtering. Special techniques have to be used to prevent the beryllium atoms from being lost on the plasma chamber walls. A dedicated heated plasma chamber for the ion source was developed. The ionization efficiency was increased by studying the chemistry involved in the ion source. The atoms are ionized to the 1+ or ...

  15. A very large Paul trap system for in-line capture of high-energy DC radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezfuli, A.M. Ghalambor; Moore, R.B.; Varfalvy, P.; Schwarz, S.

    2002-01-01

    A very large Paul trap (VLPTRAP) has built to test in-flight collection of DC ion beams. An iterative design process led to a Paul trap that was basically a cylindrical electrode of internal diameter 120 mm with two symmetrically placed coaxial end electrodes that approximated hyperboloids of revolution separated by 106 mm. The trap was operated at up to 20 kV pp at 1 MHz on the ring cylindrical electrode relative to the end electrodes with buffer gas pressures up to 40 mPa. Ions were delivered to the trap from a 60 keV + Cs ion gun and electrostatically decelerated to about 100 eV for entrance. After a cooling time of the order of 1 ms, the ions were extracted by biasing the end electrodes. Beam pulses of less than 1 s could be extracted, at repetition rates down to 1 Hz. An overall bunching efficiency of about 0.4% was obtained, resulting from a collection efficiency of 2% and an extraction efficiency of 20%. The trap could hold up to 10 7 ions at a temperature of 1000 K

  16. Influence of the incident particle energy on the fission product mass distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, I. C.

    1998-01-01

    For 238 U targets and the five elements considered here, the best yields of neutron-rich isotopes are obtained from neutrons in the 2-20 MeV range. High energy beams of neutrons, protons, and deuterons have comparable integral yields per element to neutrons below 20 MeV, but the distributions are peaked at lower neutron numbers. This is presumably due to a higher neutron multiplicity in the pre-equilibrium stage and/or the compound nucleus/fission stage. For 235 U targets there are high yields predicted especially for thermal neutrons, and also for the fast neutron spectrum. For the high energy neutrons, protons, and deuterons 235 U has no advantage over 238 U. A detailed comparison of the relative advantages of 235 U and 238 U for radioactive beam applications is beyond the scope of this study and will be addressed in the future. The present work is the first step of a more detailed analysis of various possible one- and two-step target geometry calculated with the LAHET code system. It is intended to serve as a guide in choosing geometry and beams for future studies. It is desirable to extend this study to higher beam energies, e.g. 200 to 1000 MeV, but at this time there is very little data against which to benchmark the analysis. Additional data would also permit comparisons of isotope yields beyond the tails of the distributions presented here, to even more neutron rich isotopes

  17. Fission product detection by means of photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liatard, E.; Akrouf, S.; Bruandet, J.F.; Fontenille, A.; Glasser, F.; Stassi, P.; Tsan Ung Chan

    1988-01-01

    The response of photovoltaic cells to heavy ions and fission products have been tested in-beam. Their main advantages are their extremely low price, their low sensitivity to energetic light ions with respect to fission products, and the possibility to cut and fit them together to any shape without dead zone. The time output signals of a charge sensitive preamplifier connected to these cells allows fast coincidences. A resolution of 12 ns (FWHM) has been measured between two cells. (orig.)

  18. Fission and the discovery of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoennessen, M.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new isotopes requires new developments in accelerator and detector technology. The new RI Beam Factory at RIKEN and the future projects FAIR at GSI and FRIB at MSU promise to expand the nuclear horizon even further. In the talk a short history of the role that fission played in the discovery of isotopes will be presented and future perspectives will be discussed

  19. Fission in a Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-26

    A three-year theory project was undertaken to study the fission process in extreme astrophysical environments, such as the crust of neutron stars. In the first part of the project, the effect of electron screening on the fission process was explored using a microscopic approach. For the first time, these calculations were carried out to the breaking point of the nucleus. In the second part of the project, the population of the fissioning nucleus was calculated within the same microscopic framework. These types of calculations are extremely computer-intensive and have seldom been applied to heavy deformed nuclei, such as fissioning actinides. The results, tools and methodologies produced in this work will be of interest to both the basic-science and nuclear-data communities.

  20. Microscopic Theory of Fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, W; Gogny, D

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the microscopic method has been applied to the notoriously difficult problem of nuclear fission with unprecedented success. In this paper, we discuss some of the achievements and promise of the microscopic method, as embodied in the Hartree-Fock method using the Gogny finite-range effective interaction, and beyond-mean-field extensions to the theory. The nascent program to describe induced fission observables using this approach at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented

  1. Fusion-fission dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocki, J.; Planeta, R.; Brzychczyk, J.; Grotowski, K.

    1992-01-01

    Classical dynamical calculations of the heavy ion induced fission processes have been performed for the reactions 40 Ar+ 141 Pr, 20 Ne+ 165 Ho and 12 C+ 175 Lu leading to the iridium like nucleus. As a result prescission lifetimes were obtained and compared with the experimental values. The comparison between the calculated and experimental lifetimes indicates that the one-body dissipation picture is much more relevant in describing the fusion-fission dynamics than the two-body one. (orig.)

  2. Radioactive substance separation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable separation of fission products, radioactive corrosion products and the likes in primary coolants with no requirement for the replacement of separation system during plant service life, by providing protruded magnetic pole plates in a liquid metal flow channel to thereby form slopes magnetic fields. Constitution: A plurality of magnetic pole plates are disposed vertically in a comb-like arrangement so as not to contact with each other along the direction of flow in a rectangular primary coolant pipeway at the exit of the reactor core in an LMFBR type reactor. Large magnetic poles are provided to the upper and lower sides of the pipeway and coils are wound on the side opposed to the pipeway. When electrical current is supplied to the coils, the magnetic pole is magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely to form large gradient in the magnetic fields between the upper and lower magnetic plates, whereby ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic fission products and radioactive corrosion products in the coolants are intensely adsorbed and not detached by the flow of the coolants. Accordingly, the fission products and the radioactive corrosion products can surely be removed with no requirement for the exchange of separation system during plant service life. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Projectile fission of 238U relativistic ions in a Pb target and discovery of new fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernas, M.; Donzaud, C.; Dessagne, Ph.; Miehe, Ch.; Hanelt, E.; Heinz, A.

    1994-01-01

    With the 238 U beam accelerated at relativistic energies by the heavy ion synchrotron (SIS) at GSI, fission was investigated using inverse kinematics. This geometry is well suited for analyzing fragments with the fragment separator. The fragments are identified by in flight measurements of their energy loss and time of flight signals. More than forty new isotopes have been discovered focusing on the light branch of fission products. (K.A.) 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. True ternary fission of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M.; Oertzen, W. von

    2014-01-01

    Splitting of heavy radioactive nucleus into three fragments is known as ternary fission. If the size of the fragments are almost equal it is referred to as true ternary fission. Recently, Yu. V. Pyatkov et al observed/reported the experimental observation of true ternary fission in 252 Cf. In this work, the possibilities of different true ternary fission modes of 252 Cf through potential energy surface (PES) calculations based on three cluster model (TCM) are discussed. In TCM a condition on the mass numbers of the fission fragments is implied as A 1 ≥ A 2 ≥ A 3 in order to avoid repetition of combinations. Due to this condition, the values of Z 3 vary from 0 to 36 and Z 2 vary from 16 to 51. Of the different pairs having similar (Z 2 , Z 3 ) with different potential energy, a pair possessing minimum potential energy is chosen. Thus identified favourable combinations are plotted. For the PES calculations the arrangement of the fragments is considered in the order of A 1 +A 2 +A 3 . i.e. the heavy and the lightest fragments are kept at the ends. It is seen that the deepest minimum in the PES occurs for Z 3 =2 labelled as (Z 2 ; 2) indicating He accompanied breakup as the most favourable one. Of which, the breakup with Z 2 around 46 to 48 is the least (shown by dashed (Z 1 = 50) and dotted (Z 1 = 52) lines indicating a constant Z 1 value). The other notable minima in the PES are labelled and they correspond to the (Z 2 , Z 3 ) pairs viz., (20, 20), (28, 20), (28, 28) and (32, 32). Of these four minima, the first three are associated with the magic numbers 20 and 28. For Z 3 =20, there are two minimums at (20,20) and (28,20) among them (28,20) is the lowest minimum through which the minimum-path passes, and it is the ternary decay observed by Yu. V. Pyatkov et al. The fourth minima is the most interesting due to the fact that it corresponds to true ternary fission mode with Z 2 =32, Z 3 =32 and Z 1 =34. The minimum potential energy path also goes through this true

  5. JEF-2.2 radioactive decay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This work deals with the JEF-2.2 radioactive decay data and is divided into four tables. The first table presents the origin of the JEF-2.2 radioactive decay data and subsequent modifications. The second one is a summary of the JEF-2.2 radioactive decay data file. The third one describes the JEF-2.2 fission products and the main decay and fission yield data. The last one consists of the main decay parameters from the JEF-2.2, ENDF/B-VI and JNDC-2.0 libraries. (O.L.). 100 figs., 4 tabs

  6. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  7. Potentials of fissioning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlheinz, Thom.

    1979-01-01

    Successful experiments with the nuclear pumping of lasers have demonstrated that in gaseous medium the kinetic energy of fission fragments can be converted directly into non-equilibrium optical radiation. This confirms the concept that the fissioning medium in a gas-phase nuclear reactor shows an internal structure such as a plasma in nearly thermal equilibrium varying up to a state of extreme-non-equilibrium. The accompanying variations of temperatures, pressure and radiative spectrum suggest wide ranges of applications. For example, in the gas-phase fission reactor concept enriched uranium hexafluoride or an uranium plasma replaces conventional fuel elements and permits operation above the melting point of solid materials. This potential has been motivation for the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to conduct relevant research for high specific impulse propulsion in space. The need to separate the high temperature gaseous fuel from the surfaces of a containing vessel and to protect them against thermal radiation has led to the concept of an externally moderated reactor in which the fissioning gaseous material is suspended by fluid dynamic means and the flow of opaque buffer gas removes the power. The gaseous nuclear fuel can slowly be circulated through the reactor for continuous on-site reprocessing including the annihilation of transuranium actinides at fission when being fed back into the reactor. An equilibrium of the generation and destruction of such actinides at fission when being fed back into the reactor. An equilibrium of the generation and destruction of such actinides can thus be achieved. These characteristics and the unique radiative properties led to the expectation that the gas-phase fission reactor could feature improved safety, safeguarding and economy, in addition to new technologies such as processing, photochemistry and the transmission of power over large distances in space

  8. Background and derivation of ANS-5.4 standard fission product release model. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    ANS Working Group 5.4 was established in 1974 to examine fission product releases from UO2 fuel. The scope of ANS-5.4 was narrowly defined to include the following: (1) Review available experimental data on release of volatile fission products from UO2 and mixed-oxide fuel; (2) Survey existing analytical models currently being applied to lightwater reactors; and (3) Develop a standard analytical model for volatile fission product release to the fuel rod void space. Place emphasis on obtaining a model for radioactive fission product releases to be used in assessing radiological consequences of postulated accidents

  9. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomek, D.

    1980-01-01

    The prospects of nuclear power development in the USA up to 2000 and the problems of the fuel cycle high-level radioactive waste processing and storage are considered. The problems of liquid and solidified radioactive waste transportation and their disposal in salt deposits and other geologic formations are discussed. It is pointed out that the main part of the high-level radioactive wastes are produced at spent fuel reprocessing plants in the form of complex aqueous mixtures. These mixtures contain the decay products of about 35 isotopes which are the nuclear fuel fission products, about 18 actinides and their daughter products as well as corrosion products of fuel cans and structural materials and chemical reagents added in the process of fuel reprocessing. The high-level radioactive waste management includes the liquid waste cooling which is necessary for the short and middle living isotope decay, separation of some most dangerous components from the waste mixture, waste solidification, their storage and disposal. The conclusion is drawn that the seccessful solution of the high-level radioactive waste management problem will permit to solve the problem of the fuel cycle radioactive waste management as a whole. The salt deposits, shales and clays are the most suitable for radioactive waste disposal [ru

  10. Fission Detection Using the Associated Particle Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.P. Keegan; J.P. Hurley; J.R. Tinsley; R. Trainham; S.C. Wilde

    2008-01-01

    A beam of tagged 14 MeV neutrons from the deuterium-tritium (DT) reaction is used to induce fission in a target composed of depleted uranium. The generator yield is 10 7 neutrons/second radiated into a 4 x 4 in. NaI detectors are used for gamma-ray detection. The fission process is known to produce multiple gamma-rays and neutrons. Triple coincidences (α-γ-γ) are measured as a function of neutron flight time up to 90 ns after fission, where the α-particle arises from the DT reaction. A sudden increase in the triple coincidence rate at the location of the material is used to localize and detect fission in the interrogated target. Comparisons are made with experiment runs where lead, tungsten, and iron were used as target materials. The triple coincidence response profile from depleted uranium is noted to be different to those observed from the other target materials. The response from interrogation targets composed of fissile material is anticipated to be even more unique than that observed from depleted uranium

  11. Fission fragment angular distribution in the reaction 28Si+176Yb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Sharma, S.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Pujari, P.K.; Dutta, D.; Goswami, A.; Ramachandran, K.

    2009-01-01

    Fission fragment angular distribution has been measured in the reaction 28 Si+ 176 Yb at beam energies of 145 and 155 MeV to investigate the contribution from non-compound nucleus fission. Experiments were carried out at BARC-TIFR Pelletron-LINAC accelerator facility, Mumbai. Experimental angular anisotropies in this reaction were observed to be higher than those calculated using statistical theory, indicating contribution from non-compound nucleus fission in this reaction. (author)

  12. Nuclear fission and neutron-induced fission cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, G.D.; Lynn, J.E.; Michaudon, A.; Rowlands, J.; de Saussure, G.

    1981-01-01

    A general presentation of current knowledge of the fission process is given with emphasis on the low energy fission of actinide nuclei and neutron induced fission. The need for and the required accuracy of fission cross section data in nuclear energy programs are discussed. A summary is given of the steps involved in fission cross section measurement and the range of available techniques. Methods of fission detection are described with emphasis on energy dependent changed and detector efficiency. Examples of cross section measurements are given and data reduction is discussed. The calculation of fission cross sections is discussed and relevant nuclear theory including the formation and decay of compound nuclei and energy level density is introduced. A description of a practical computation of fission cross sections is given.

  13. The evaluation for reference fission yield of 238U fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Qichang; Liu Tingjin

    1998-01-01

    In the fission yield data evaluation and measurement, the reference yield is very important, good or poor recommended or measurement values depend upon the reference data to a great extent. According to the CRP's requirement, the evaluation of reference fission yields have been and will be carried out in CNDC, as a part of the whole work (contract No.9504/R 0 /Regular Budget Fund), the evaluation for 29 reference fission yields of 15 product nuclides from 238 U fission have been completed

  14. Reduction of radioactivity produced by nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessler, Richard M [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Four main sources contribute to the radioactivity produced by a nuclear explosive: 1. Fission products from the nuclear explosive, 2. Fusion products from the nuclear explosive, 3. Induced radioactivity in the nuclear explosive, 4. Induced radioactivity in the environment. This paper will summarize some of the work done at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at Livermore to reduce the radioactivity from these sources to levels acceptable for peaceful applications. Although it is theoretically possible to have no radioactivity produced by nuclear explosives, this goal has not been achieved.

  15. Fission fragment angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenne, D. De

    1991-01-01

    Most of the energy released in fission is converted into translational kinetic energy of the fragments. The remaining excitation energy will be distributed among neutrons and gammas. An important parameter characterizing the scission configuration is the primary angular momentum of the nascent fragments. Neutron emission is not expected to decrease the spin of the fragments by more than one unit of angular momentum and is as such of less importance in the determination of the initial fragment spins. Gamma emission is a suitable tool in studying initial fragment spins because the emission time, number, energy, and multipolarity of the gammas strongly depend on the value of the primary angular momentum. The main conclusions of experiments on gamma emission were that the initial angular momentum of the fragments is large compared to the ground state spin and oriented perpendicular to the fission axis. Most of the recent information concerning initial fragment spin distributions comes from the measurement of isomeric ratios for isomeric pairs produced in fission. Although in nearly every mass chain isomers are known, only a small number are suitable for initial fission fragment spin studies. Yield and half-life considerations strongly limit the number of candidates. This has the advantage that the behavior of a specific isomeric pair can be investigated for a number of fissioning systems at different excitation energies of the fragments and fissioning nuclei. Because most of the recent information on primary angular momenta comes from measurements of isomeric ratios, the global deexcitation process of the fragments and the calculation of the initial fragment spin distribution from measured isomeric ratios are discussed here. The most important results on primary angular momentum determinations are reviewed and some theoretical approaches are given. 45 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Weld Development for Aluminum Fission Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, Carl Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Jesse Norris [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-16

    The Sigma welding team was approached to help fabricate a small fission chamber (roughly ½ inch dia. x ½ inch tall cylinder). These chambers are used as radiation sensors that contain small traces of radionuclides (Cf 252, U 235, and U 238) that serve to ionize gas atoms in addition to external radiation. When a voltage is applied within the chamber, the resulting ion flow can be calibrated and monitored. Aluminum has the advantage of not forming radioactive compounds when exposed to high external radiation (except from minor Na alloy content). Since aluminum has not been used before in this application, this presented an unexplored challenge.

  17. R and D in Ciemat Nuclear Fission Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, J. L.; Diaz Arocas, P.; Gomez Briceno, D.; Gonzalez de la Huebra Gordo, A.; Gonzalez Romero, E.; Herranz Puebla, L. E.; Sola Farre, R.

    2000-01-01

    The technologically developed countries count on nuclear fission as a durable energy resource to produce electricity, facing the future by establishing research programmes to enhance the safety and extend the lifetime of the current power plants and to achieve the adequate management of radioactive waste. At the same time, the progress in the development of a new generation of reactors based in innovative safety concepts. The Nuclear fission Department has the ultimate objective of providing technical support to the Spanish nuclear reactors through applied research and development focused on improving the safety and performance of the operating power plants, and cooperating in the activities related to radioactive waste. In this context, the Departament has been organised in four R and D project covering the areas of Safety, Materials, Radioactive. (Author)

  18. The Munich accelerator for fission fragments MAFF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habs, D.; Gross, M.; Assmann, W.; Ames, F.; Bongers, H.; Emhofer, S.; Heinz, S.; Henry, S.; Kester, O.; Neumayr, J.; Ospald, F.; Reiter, P.; Sieber, T.; Szerypo, J.; Thirolf, P.G.; Varentsov, V.; Wilfart, T.; Faestermann, T.; Kruecken, R.; Maier-Komor, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Munich Accelerator for Fission Fragments MAFF has been designed for the new Munich research reactor FRM-II. It will deliver several intense beams (∼3x10 11 s -1 ) of very neutron-rich fission fragments with a final energy of 30 keV (low-energy beam) or energies between 3.7 and 5.9 MeV·A (high-energy beam). Such beams are of interest for the creation of super-heavy elements by fusion reactions, nuclear spectroscopy of exotic nuclei, but they also have a potential for applications, e.g. in medicine. Presently the Munich research reactor FRM-II is ready for operation, but authorities delay the final permission to turn the reactor critical probably till the end of 2002. Only after this final permission the financing of the major parts of MAFF can start. On the other hand all major components have been designed and special components have been tested in separate setups

  19. Low energy nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    1982-02-01

    In these lectures we present the liquid drop model of fission and compare some of its prediction with experiment. The liquid drop analogy allows to define in a rather simple and intuitive way a number of useful concepts and possible observables. We then discuss, using the example of the oscillator model, the generality of shell effects. We show how a synthesis of the liquid drop model and of the shell model can be made using the Strutinsky shell averaging procedure. Some experimental data related to the existence of shape isomers are presented and discussed. We conclude by discussing some aspects, both experimental and theoretical, of fission dynamics

  20. Fission of heavy hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    1993-01-01

    The results on delayed and prompt fission of heavy hypernuclei obtained by the LEAR PS177 collaboration are recalled and discussed. It is shown that the hypernuclei life-times can be explained in term of a weak strangeness violating lambda-nucleon interaction with a cross section close to 6.0 10 -15 barns. The lambda attachment function is shown to be sensitive to the scission configuration, just before fission, and to the neck dynamics. This function provides a new way to study the nuclear scission process. (author)

  1. Fission gas measuring technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Eun Ka; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Eun Pyo; Chun, Yong Bum; Seo, Ki Seog; Park, Dea Gyu; Chu, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok.

    1998-02-01

    Safety and economy of nuclear plant are greatly affected by the integrity of nuclear fuels during irradiation reactor core. A series of post-irradiation examination (PIE) including non-destructive and destructive test is to be conducted to evaluate and characterize the nuclear performance. In this report, a principle of the examination equipment to measure and analyse fission gases existing nuclear fuels were described and features of the component and device consisting the fission gas measuring equipment are investigated. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  2. Fission gas measuring technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Eun Ka; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Eun Pyo; Chun, Yong Bum; Seo, Ki Seog; Park, Dea Gyu; Chu, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok

    1998-02-01

    Safety and economy of nuclear plant are greatly affected by the integrity of nuclear fuels during irradiation reactor core. A series of post-irradiation examination (PIE) including non-destructive and destructive test is to be conducted to evaluate and characterize the nuclear performance. In this report, a principle of the examination equipment to measure and analyse fission gases existing nuclear fuels were described and features of the component and device consisting the fission gas measuring equipment are investigated. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. Low energy nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    1980-08-01

    In these lectures the liquid drop model of fission is presented and some of its predictions compared with experiment. The liquid drop analogy allows to define in a rather simple and intuitive way a number of useful concepts and possible observables. It is shown how a synthesis of the liquid drop model and of the shell model can be made using the Strutinsky shell averaging procedure. Some experimental data related to the existence of shape isomers are presented and discussed. We conclude by discussing some aspects, both experimental and theoretical, of fission dynamics

  4. Fission Product Library and Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Padgett, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-29

    Fission product yields can be extracted from an irradiated sample by performing gamma ray spectroscopy on the whole sample post irradiation. There are several pitfalls to avoid when trying to determine a specific isotope's fission product yield.

  5. Spontaneous fission of superheavy nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The fission-like configurations are used for the total deformation energy calculations. A ... oscillator potential for the two fission fragment regions reads as ... Beyond this limit, the contribution of more remote levels is negligible. Once the density ...

  6. Mirror fusion--fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission concept and the mirror fusion-fission hybrid program are outlined. Magnetic mirror fusion drivers and blankets for hybrid reactors are discussed. Results of system analyses are presented and a reference design is described

  7. Fission Product Yield Study of 235U, 238U and 239Pu Using Dual-Fission Ionization Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, C.; Fallin, B.; Howell, C.; Tornow, W.; Gooden, M.; Kelley, J.; Arnold, C.; Bond, E.; Bredeweg, T.; Fowler, M.; Moody, W.; Rundberg, R.; Rusev, G.; Vieira, D.; Wilhelmy, J.; Becker, J.; Macri, R.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S.; Stoyer, M.; Tonchev, A.

    2014-05-01

    To resolve long-standing differences between LANL and LLNL regarding the correct fission basis for analysis of nuclear test data [M.B. Chadwick et al., Nucl. Data Sheets 111, 2891 (2010); H. Selby et al., Nucl. Data Sheets 111, 2891 (2010)], a collaboration between TUNL/LANL/LLNL has been established to perform high-precision measurements of neutron induced fission product yields. The main goal is to make a definitive statement about the energy dependence of the fission yields to an accuracy better than 2-3% between 1 and 15 MeV, where experimental data are very scarce. At TUNL, we have completed the design, fabrication and testing of three dual-fission chambers dedicated to 235U, 238U, and 239Pu. The dual-fission chambers were used to make measurements of the fission product activity relative to the total fission rate, as well as for high-precision absolute fission yield measurements. The activation method was employed, utilizing the mono-energetic neutron beams available at TUNL. Neutrons of 4.6, 9.0, and 14.5 MeV were produced via the 2H(d,n)3He reaction, and for neutrons at 14.8 MeV, the 3H(d,n)4He reaction was used. After activation, the induced γ-ray activity of the fission products was measured for two months using high-resolution HPGe detectors in a low-background environment. Results for the yield of seven fission fragments of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu and a comparison to available data at other energies are reported. For the first time results are available for neutron energies between 2 and 14 MeV.

  8. Report on Fission Time Projection Chamber M3FT-12IN0210052

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James K. Jewell

    2012-08-01

    The Time Projection Chamber is a collaborative effort to implement an innovative approach and deliver unprecedented fission measurements to DOE programs. This 4?-detector system will provide unrivaled 3-D data about the fission process. Shown here is a half populated TPC (2?) at the LLNL TPC laboratory as it undergoes testing before being shipped to LANSCE for beam experiments.

  9. Process for treating fission waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Wick, O.J.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the treatment of fission waste. A glass forming agent, a metal oxide, and a reducing agent are mixed with the fission waste and the mixture is heated. After melting, the mixture separates into a glass phase and a metal phase. The glass phase may be used to safely store the fission waste, while the metal phase contains noble metals recovered from the fission waste

  10. Angular distribution in the neutron-induced fission of actinides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong L.S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Above 1 MeV of incident neutron energy the fission fragment angular distribution (FFAD has generally a strong anisotropic behavior due to the combination of the incident orbital momentum and the intrinsic spin of the fissioning nucleus. This effect has to be taken into account for the efficiency estimation of devices used for fission cross section measurements. In addition it bears information on the spin deposition mechanism and on the structure of transitional states. We designed and constructed a detection device, based on Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC, for measuring the fission fragment angular distributions of several isotopes, in particular 232Th. The measurement has been performed at n_TOF at CERN taking advantage of the very broad energy spectrum of the neutron beam. Fission events were recognized by back to back detection in coincidence in two position-sensitive detectors surrounding the targets. The detection efficiency, depending mostly on the stopping of fission fragments in backings and electrodes, has been computed with a Geant4 simulation and validated by the comparison to the measured case of 235U below 3 keV where the emission is isotropic. In the case of 232Th, the result is in good agreement with previous data below 10 MeV, with a good reproduction of the structures associated to vibrational states and the opening of second chance fission. In the 14 MeV region our data are much more accurate than previous ones which are broadly scattered.

  11. 50 years of nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilscher, D.

    1989-01-01

    The article tells the story of the discovery of nuclear fission in Berlin 50 years ago by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in cooperation with Lise Meitner. 50 years later nuclear fission is still a subject of research. Some question remain unanswered. Selected new research results are used to discuss the dynamics of the collective movement of the elementary nuclear fission process. (orig.) [de

  12. Fission dynamics of hot nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-05

    Apr 5, 2014 ... across the fission barrier is very small or in other words, the fission barrier is much ... of this shape evolution, the gross features of the fissioning nucleus can be described ..... [7] Y Abe, C Gregoire and H Delagrange, J. Phys.

  13. Status of fission yield measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeck, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Fission yield measurement and yield compilation activities in the major laboratories of the world are reviewed. In addition to a general review of the effort of each laboratory, a brief summary of yield measurement activities by fissioning nuclide is presented. A new fast reactor fission yield measurement program being conducted in the US is described

  14. A brief history of the ''Delayed'' discovery of nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1989-08-01

    This year marks the Fiftieth Anniversary of the discovery of Nuclear Fission. In the early 1930's, the neutron was discovered, followed by the discovery of artificial radioactivity and then the use of the neutron to produce artificial radioactivity. The first experiments resulting in the fission of uranium took place in 1934. A paper which speculated on fission as an explanation was almost immediately published, yet no one took it seriously not even the author herself. Why did it take an additional five years before anyone realized what had occurred? This is an abnormally long time in a period when discoveries, particularly in nuclear physics, seemed to be almost a daily occurrence. The events which led up to the discovery are recounted, with an attempt made to put them into their historical perspective. The role played by Mendeleev's Periodic Table, the role of the natural radioactive decay chain of uranium, the discovery of protactinium, the apparent discovery of masurium (technetium) and a speculation on the reason why Irene Curie may have missed the discovery of nuclear fission will all be discussed. 43 refs

  15. The potential for large scale uses for fission product xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrmann, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Of all fission products in spent, low enrichment, uranium, power reactor fuels xenon is produced in the highest yield - nearly one cubic meter, STP, per metric ton. In aged fuels which may be considered for processing in the U.S. radioactive xenon isotopes approach the lowest limits of detection. The separation from accompanying radioactive 85 Kr is the essential problem; however, this is state of the art technology which has been demonstrated on the pilot scale to yield xenon with pico-curie levels of 85 Kr contamination. If needed for special applications, such levels could be further reduced. Environmental considerations require the isolation of essentially all fission product krypton during fuel processing. Economic restraints assure that the bulk of this krypton will need to be separated from the much more voluminous xenon fraction of the total amount of fission gas. Xenon may thus be discarded or made available for uses at probably very low cost. In contrast with many other fission products which have unique radioactive characteristics which make them useful as sources of heat, gamma and x-rays and luminescence as well as for medicinal diagnostics and therapeutics fission product xenon differs from naturally occurring xenon only in its isotopic composition which gives it a slightly higher atomic weight, because of the much higher concentrations of the 134 X and 136 Xe isotopes. Therefore, fission product xenon can most likely find uses in applications which already exist but which can not be exploited most beneficially because of the high cost and scarcity of natural xenon. Unique uses would probably include applications in improved incandescent light illumination in place of krypton and in human anesthesia

  16. The discovery of fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, H.A.C.

    1978-01-01

    In this article by the retired head of the Separation Processes Group of the Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, U.K., the author recalls what he terms 'an exciting drama, the unravelling of the nature of the atomic nucleus' in the years before the Second World War, including the discovery of fission. 12 references. (author)

  17. Radioactive waste management and advanced nuclear fuel cycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In 2007 ENEA's Department of Nuclear Fusion and Fission, and Related Technologies acted according to national policy and the role assigned to ENEA FPN by Law 257/2003 regarding radioactive waste management and advanced nuclear fuel cycle technologies

  18. Neutrons from rock radioactivity in the new Canfranc underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amare, J; Bauluz, B; Beltran, B; Carmona, J M; Cebrian, S; GarcIa, E; Gomez, H; Irastorza, I G; Luzon, G; MartInez, M; Morales, J; Solorzano, A Ortiz de; Pobes, C; Jpuimedon; RodrIguez, A; Ruz, J; Sarsa, M L; Torres, L; Villar, J A

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of radioactivity and composition of rock from the main hall of the new Canfranc underground laboratory are reported. Estimates of neutron production by spontaneous fission and (α, n) reactions are given

  19. Status report on actinide and fission product transmutation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The management of radioactive waste is one of the key issues in today's political and public discussions on nuclear energy. One of the fields that looks into the future possibilities of nuclear technology is the neutronic transmutation of actinides and of some most important fission products. Studies on transmutation of actinides are carried out in various countries and at an international level. This status report which gives an up-to-date general overview of current and planned research on transmutation of actinides and fission products in non-OECD countries, has been prepared by a Technical Committee meeting organized by the IAEA in September 1995. 168 refs, 16 figs, 34 tabs

  20. Development of Fission Mo-99 Process for LEU Dispersion Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Kon; Lee, Su Seung; Hong, Soon Bog; Jang, Kyung Duk; Park, Ul Jae; Lee, Jun Sig [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) is developing LEU-based fission {sup 99}Mo production process which is connected to the new research reactor (Kijang New Research Reactor, KJRR), which is being constructed in Gijang, Busan, Korea. Historically, the most fission {sup 99}Mo producers have been used highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets so far. However, to reduce the use of HEU in private sector for non-proliferation, {sup 99}Mo producers are forced to convert their HEU-based process to use low enriched uranium (LEU) targets. Economic impact of a target conversion from HEU to LEU is significant. Overall cost for the production of the fission {sup 99}Mo increases significantly with the conversion of fission {sup 99}Mo targets from HEU to LEU. It is not only because the yield of LEU is only 50% of HEU, but also because radioactive waste production increases 200%. On the basis, worldwide efforts on the development of {sup 99}Mo production process that is optimized for the LEU target become an important issue. In this study, fission {sup 99}Mo process with non-irradiated LEU targets was presented except separation and purification steps. Pre- and post-irradiation tests of the fission {sup 99}Mo target will be done in 4th quarter of 2016.