WorldWideScience

Sample records for radio-loud high-redshift protogalaxy

  1. DEEP SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF INFRARED-FAINT RADIO SOURCES: HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Mao, Minnie; Afonso, Jose; Cava, Antonio; Farrah, Duncan; Oliver, Seb; Huynh, Minh T.; Mauduit, Jean-Christophe; Surace, Jason; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, Matt; Lacy, Mark; Maraston, Claudia; Middelberg, Enno; Seymour, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRSs) are a rare class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelengths but very faint at infrared and optical wavelengths. Here we present sensitive near-infrared observations of a sample of these sources taken as part of the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey. Nearly all the IFRSs are undetected at a level of ∼1 μJy in these new deep observations, and even the detections are consistent with confusion with unrelated galaxies. A stacked image implies that the median flux density is S 3.6μm ∼ 0.2 μJy or less, giving extreme values of the radio-infrared flux density ratio. Comparison of these objects with known classes of object suggests that the majority are probably high-redshift radio-loud galaxies, possibly suffering from significant dust extinction.

  2. Formation of globular cluster candidates in merging proto-galaxies at high redshift: a view from the FIRE cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Ma, Xiangcheng; Grudić, Michael Y.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Wetzel, Andrew; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Murray, Norman

    2018-03-01

    Using a state-of-the-art cosmological simulation of merging proto-galaxies at high redshift from the FIRE project, with explicit treatments of star formation and stellar feedback in the interstellar medium, we investigate the formation of star clusters and examine one of the formation hypotheses of present-day metal-poor globular clusters. We find that frequent mergers in high-redshift proto-galaxies could provide a fertile environment to produce long-lasting bound star clusters. The violent merger event disturbs the gravitational potential and pushes a large gas mass of ≳ 105-6 M⊙ collectively to high density, at which point it rapidly turns into stars before stellar feedback can stop star formation. The high dynamic range of the reported simulation is critical in realizing such dense star-forming clouds with a small dynamical time-scale, tff ≲ 3 Myr, shorter than most stellar feedback time-scales. Our simulation then allows us to trace how clusters could become virialized and tightly bound to survive for up to ˜420 Myr till the end of the simulation. Because the cluster's tightly bound core was formed in one short burst, and the nearby older stars originally grouped with the cluster tend to be preferentially removed, at the end of the simulation the cluster has a small age spread.

  3. A high-redshift IRAS galaxy with huge luminosity - hidden quasar or protogalaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan-Robinson, M; Broadhurst, T [Queen Mary Coll., London (UK). School of Mathematical Sciences; Lawrence, A [Queen Mary Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Physics; McMahon, R G [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Inst. of Astronomy; Lonsdale, C J [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (USA). Infrared Processing and Analysis Center; Oliver, S J; Taylor, A N [Queen Mary Coll., London (UK). School of Mathematical Sciences; Hacking, P B; Conrow, T [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (USA). Infrared Processing and Analysis Center; Saunders, W [Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics; Ellis, R S [Durham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics; Efstathiou, G P [Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics; Condon, J J [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (USA)

    1991-06-27

    During a survey intended to measure redshifts for 1,400 galaxies identified with faint sources detected by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite, we found an emission-line galaxy at a redshift of 2.286, and with the enormous far-infrared luminosity of 3 x 10{sup 14} times that of the sun (L{sub sun}) The spectrum is very unusual, showing lines of high excitation but with very weak Lyman-{alpha} emission. A self-absorbed synchrotron model for the infrared energy distribution cannot be ruled out, but a thermal origin seems more plausible. A radio-quiet quasar embedded in a very dusty galaxy could account for the infrared emission, as might a starburst embedded in 1-10 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun} of dust. The latter case demands so much dust that the object would probably be a massive galaxy in the process of formation. In either case, this is a remarkable object, and the presence of a large amount of dust in an object of such high redshift implies the generation of heavy elements at an early cosmological epoch. (author).

  4. DISCLOSING THE RADIO LOUDNESS DISTRIBUTION DICHOTOMY IN QUASARS: AN UNBIASED MONTE CARLO APPROACH APPLIED TO THE SDSS-FIRST QUASAR SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balokovic, M. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Smolcic, V. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ivezic, Z. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Zamorani, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Schinnerer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kelly, B. C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the dichotomy in the radio loudness distribution of quasars by modeling their radio emission and various selection effects using a Monte Carlo approach. The existence of two physically distinct quasar populations, the radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, is controversial and over the last decade a bimodal distribution of radio loudness of quasars has been both affirmed and disputed. We model the quasar radio luminosity distribution with simple unimodal and bimodal distribution functions. The resulting simulated samples are compared to a fiducial sample of 8300 quasars drawn from the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog and combined with radio observations from the FIRST survey. Our results indicate that the SDSS-FIRST sample is best described by a radio loudness distribution which consists of two components, with (12 {+-} 1)% of sources in the radio-loud component. On the other hand, the evidence for a local minimum in the loudness distribution (bimodality) is not strong and we find that previous claims for its existence were probably affected by the incompleteness of the FIRST survey close to its faint limit. We also investigate the redshift and luminosity dependence of the radio loudness distribution and find tentative evidence that at high redshift radio-loud quasars were rarer, on average louder, and exhibited a smaller range in radio loudness. In agreement with other recent work, we conclude that the SDSS-FIRST sample strongly suggests that the radio loudness distribution of quasars is not a universal function, and that more complex models than presented here are needed to fully explain available observations.

  5. DISCLOSING THE RADIO LOUDNESS DISTRIBUTION DICHOTOMY IN QUASARS: AN UNBIASED MONTE CARLO APPROACH APPLIED TO THE SDSS-FIRST QUASAR SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloković, M.; Smolčić, V.; Ivezić, Ž.; Zamorani, G.; Schinnerer, E.; Kelly, B. C.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the dichotomy in the radio loudness distribution of quasars by modeling their radio emission and various selection effects using a Monte Carlo approach. The existence of two physically distinct quasar populations, the radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, is controversial and over the last decade a bimodal distribution of radio loudness of quasars has been both affirmed and disputed. We model the quasar radio luminosity distribution with simple unimodal and bimodal distribution functions. The resulting simulated samples are compared to a fiducial sample of 8300 quasars drawn from the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog and combined with radio observations from the FIRST survey. Our results indicate that the SDSS-FIRST sample is best described by a radio loudness distribution which consists of two components, with (12 ± 1)% of sources in the radio-loud component. On the other hand, the evidence for a local minimum in the loudness distribution (bimodality) is not strong and we find that previous claims for its existence were probably affected by the incompleteness of the FIRST survey close to its faint limit. We also investigate the redshift and luminosity dependence of the radio loudness distribution and find tentative evidence that at high redshift radio-loud quasars were rarer, on average louder, and exhibited a smaller range in radio loudness. In agreement with other recent work, we conclude that the SDSS-FIRST sample strongly suggests that the radio loudness distribution of quasars is not a universal function, and that more complex models than presented here are needed to fully explain available observations.

  6. SDSS J013127.34–032100.1: A NEWLY DISCOVERED RADIO-LOUD QUASAR AT z = 5.18 WITH EXTREMELY HIGH LUMINOSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Wei-Min; Bai, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Ju-jia; Wang, Fang; Wang, Jian-Guo; Fan, Yu-Feng; Chang, Liang; Wang, Chuan-Jun; Lun, Bao-Li [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Wang, Feige; Wu, Xue-Bing; Yang, Jinyi; Ho, Luis C.; Zuo, Wenwen; Yang, Qian; Ai, Yanli [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fan, Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Brandt, William N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kim, Minjin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Ran [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); and others

    2014-11-10

    Very few of the z > 5 quasars discovered to date have been radio-loud, with radio-to-optical flux ratios (radio-loudness parameters) higher than 10. Here we report the discovery of an optically luminous radio-loud quasar, SDSS J013127.34–032100.1 (J0131–0321 in short), at z = 5.18 ± 0.01 using the Lijiang 2.4 m and Magellan telescopes. J0131–0321 has a spectral energy distribution consistent with that of radio-loud quasars. With an i-band magnitude of 18.47 and a radio flux density of 33 mJy, its radio-loudness parameter is ∼100. The optical and near-infrared spectra taken by Magellan enable us to estimate its bolometric luminosity to be L {sub bol} ∼ 1.1 × 10{sup 48} erg s{sup –1}, approximately 4.5 times greater than that of the most distant quasar known to date. The black hole mass of J0131–0321 is estimated to be 2.7 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}, with an uncertainty up to 0.4 dex. Detailed physical properties of this high-redshift, radio-loud, potentially super-Eddington quasar can be probed in the future with more dedicated and intensive follow-up observations using multi-wavelength facilities.

  7. Millimeter observations of radio-loud active galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bemmel, IM; Bertoldi, F

    In order to study the nature of the far-infrared emission observed in radio-loud active galaxies, we have obtained 1.2 mill observations with the IRAM 30 m telescope for a sample of eight radio-loud active galaxies. In all objects we find that the 1.2 mm emission is dominated by non-thermal

  8. Interpreting radiative efficiency in radio-loud AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Radiative efficiency in radio-loud active galactic nuclei is governed by the accretion rate onto the central black hole rather than directly by the type of accreted matter; while it correlates with real differences in host galaxies and environments, it does not provide unambiguous information about particular objects.

  9. HST Grism Confirmation of 16 Structures at 1.4 < z < 2.8 from the Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN (CARLA) Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirot, Gaël; Stern, Daniel; Mei, Simona; Wylezalek, Dominika; Cooke, Elizabeth A.; De Breuck, Carlos; Galametz, Audrey; Hatch, Nina A.; Vernet, Joël; Brodwin, Mark; Eisenhardt, Peter; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Jarvis, Matt; Rettura, Alessandro; Seymour, Nick; Stanford, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    We report spectroscopic results from our 40-orbit Hubble Space Telescope slitless grism spectroscopy program observing the 20 densest Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN (CARLA) candidate galaxy clusters at 1.4 targeting 420 distant radio-loud AGN. We report the spectroscopic confirmation of 16 distant structures at 1.4 targeted powerful high-redshift radio-loud AGN. We also report the serendipitous discovery and spectroscopic confirmation of seven additional structures at 0.87 targeted radio-loud AGN. We find that 1010–1011 M ⊙ member galaxies of our confirmed CARLA structures form significantly fewer stars than their field counterparts at all redshifts within 1.4 ≤ z ≤ 2. We also observe higher star-forming activity in the structure cores up to z = 2, finding similar trends as cluster surveys at slightly lower redshifts (1.0 strategy of obtaining just two grism orbits per field only obtains spectroscopic confirmation of emission line galaxies. Deeper spectroscopy will be required to study the population of evolved, massive galaxies in these (forming) clusters. Lacking multi-band coverage of the fields, we adopt a very conservative approach of calling all confirmations “structures,” although we note that a number of features are consistent with some of them being bona fide galaxy clusters. Together this survey represents a unique and large homogenous sample of spectroscopically confirmed structures at high redshifts, potentially more than doubling the census of confirmed, massive clusters at z > 1.4.

  10. Radio Loud AGN Unification: Connecting Jets and Accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Eileen T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While only a fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei are observed to host a powerful relativistic jet, a cohesive picture is emerging that radio-loud AGN may represent an important phase in the evolution of galaxies and the growth of the central super-massive black hole. I will review my own recent observational work in radio-loud AGN unification in the context of understanding how and why jets form and their the connection to different kinds of accretion and growing the black hole, along with a brief discussion of possible connections to recent modeling work in jet formation. Starting from the significant observational advances in our understanding of jetted AGN as a population over the last decade thanks to new, more sensitive instruments such as Fermi and Swift as well as all-sky surveys at all frequencies, I will lay out the case for a dichotomy in the jetted AGN population connected to accretion mode onto the black hole. In recent work, we have identified two sub-populations of radio-loud AGN which appear to be distinguished by jet structure, where low-efficiency accreting systems produce ‘weak’ jets which decelerate more rapidly than the ’strong’ jets of black holes accreting near the Eddington limit. The two classes are comprised of: (1The weak jet sources, corresponding to the less collimated, edge-darkened FR Is, with a decelerating or spine-sheath jet with velocity gradients, and (2 The strong jet sources, having fast, collimated jets, and typically displaying strong emission lines. The dichotomy in the vp-Lp plane can be understood as a "broken power sequence" in which jets exist on one branch or the other based on the particular accretion mode (Georganopolous 2011.We suggest that the intrinsic kinetic power (as measured by low-frequency, isotropic radio emission, the orientation, and the accretion rate of the SMBH system are the the fundamental axes needed for unification of radio-loud AGN by studying a well-characterized sample

  11. IRAS observations of radio-quiet and radio-loud quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Miley, G.; Habing, H. J.; Young, E.; Low, F. J.; Beichman, C. A.; Clegg, P. E.; Harris, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1984-01-01

    Observations from 12 to 100 microns are presented of two radio-quiet and three radio-loud quasars. Over this wavelength range, all five have grossly similar continuum energy distributions. The continua of the radio-loud quasars are consistent with synchrotron radiation. There is an indication, however, of excess 100 micron emission in the two radio-quiet quasars.

  12. Fossil shell emission in dying radio loud AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, M.; Ito, H.; Kawakatu, N.; Orienti, M.; Nagai, H.; Wajima, K.; Itoh, R.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate shell emission associated with dying radio loud AGNs. First, based on our recent work by Ito et al. (2015), we describe the dynamical and spectral evolution of shells after stopping the jet energy injection. We find that the shell emission overwhelms that of the radio lobes soon after stopping the jet energy injection because fresh electrons are continuously supplied into the shell via the forward shock, while the radio lobes rapidly fade out without jet energy injection. We find that such fossil shells can be a new class of target sources for SKA telescope. Next, we apply the model to the nearby radio source 3C84. Then, we find that the fossil shell emission in 3C84 is less luminous in the radio band while it is bright in the TeV γ-ray band and can be detectable by CTA. Data from STELLA

  13. High-redshift quasars in the Cold Dark Matter cosmogony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, G.; Rees, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between high-redshift quasars and the epoch of galaxy formation in the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) cosmogony is investigated. Luminous quasars could only form after galactic sized systems had collapsed. A constant comoving density of luminous quasars between z = 2 and z = 4 is compatible with the CDM model if quasars are short-lived and radiate at about the Eddington limit. However, according to the CDM model the abundance of high-luminosity quasars must decline exponentially at higher redshifts. Even if all protogalaxies form quasars, and about 1 per cent of the baryons within a protogalaxy collapse into a compact object, a steep fall in the density of quasars with L > 10 47 erg s -1 at redshifts z ≥ 5. The existence of a 'cut-off' in the quasar numbers at high redshift could therefore supply an important test of the CDM theory. (author)

  14. A Search for Radio-loud Quasars within the Epoch of Reionization

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Matt J.; Rawlings, Steve; Barrio, F. Eugenio; Hill, Gary J.; Bauer, Amanda; Croft, Steve

    2003-01-01

    The Universe became fully reionized, and observable optically, at a time corresponding to redshift z~6.5, so it is only by studying the HI and molecular absorption lines against higher-redshift, radio-loud sources that one can hope to make detailed studies of the earliest stages of galaxy formation. At present no targets for such studies are known. In these proceedings we describe a survey which is underway to find radio-loud quasars at z > 6.5.

  15. BROADBAND OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH REDSHIFT BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Stalin, C. S., E-mail: vpaliya@g.clemson.edu [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Block II, Koramangala, Bangalore-560034 (India)

    2016-07-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of four high redshift blazars, S5 0014+81 ( z = 3.37), CGRaBS J0225+1846 ( z = 2.69), BZQ J1430+4205 ( z = 4.72), and 3FGL J1656.2−3303 ( z = 2.40) using quasi-simultaneous data from the Swift , Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array ( NuSTAR ) and the Fermi -Large Area Telescope (LAT) and also archival XMM-Newton observations. Other than 3FGL J1656.2−3303, none of the sources were known as γ -ray emitters, and our analysis of ∼7.5 yr of LAT data reveals the first time detection of statistically significant γ -ray emission from CGRaBS J0225+1846. We generate the broadband spectral energy distributions (SED) of all the objects, centering at the epoch of NuSTAR observations and reproduce them using a one-zone leptonic emission model. The optical−UV emission in all the objects can be explained by radiation from the accretion disk, whereas the X-ray to γ -ray windows of the SEDs are found to be dominated by inverse Compton scattering off the broad line region photons. All of them host black holes that are billions of solar masses. Comparing the accretion disk luminosity and the jet power of these sources with a large sample of blazars, we find them to occupy a high disk luminosity–jet power regime. We also investigate the X-ray spectral properties of the sources in detail with a major focus on studying the causes of soft X-ray deficit, a feature generally seen in high redshift radio-loud quasars. We summarize that this feature could be explained based on the intrinsic curvature in the jet emission rather than being due to the external effects predicted in earlier studies, such as host galaxy and/or warm absorption.

  16. Infrared-faint radio sources in the SERVS deep fields. Pinpointing AGNs at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maini, A.; Prandoni, I.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Mignano, A.; Lacy, M.; Morganti, R.

    2016-12-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) represent an unexpected class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelength, but unusually faint at infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. A recent and extensive campaign on the radio-brightest IFRSs (S1.4 GHz≳ 10 mJy) has provided evidence that most of them (if not all) contain an active galactic nuclei (AGN). Still uncertain is the nature of the radio-faintest IFRSs (S1.4 GHz≲ 1 mJy). Aims: The scope of this paper is to assess the nature of the radio-faintest IFRSs, testing their classification and improving the knowledge of their IR properties by making use of the most sensitive IR survey available so far: the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS). We also explore how the criteria of IFRSs can be fine-tuned to pinpoint radio-loud AGNs at very high redshift (z > 4). Methods: We analysed a number of IFRS samples identified in SERVS fields, including a new sample (21 sources) extracted from the Lockman Hole. 3.6 and 4.5 μm IR counterparts of the 64 sources located in the SERVS fields were searched for and, when detected, their IR properties were studied. Results: We compared the radio/IR properties of the IR-detected IFRSs with those expected for a number of known classes of objects. We found that IR-detected IFRSs are mostly consistent with a mixture of high-redshift (z ≳ 3) radio-loud AGNs. The faintest ones (S1.4 GHz 100 μJy), however, could be also associated with nearer (z 2) dust-enshrouded star-burst galaxies. We also argue that, while IFRSs with radio-to-IR ratios >500 can very efficiently pinpoint radio-loud AGNs at redshift 2 < z < 4, lower radio-to-IR ratios ( 100-200) are expected for higher redshift radio-loud AGNs.

  17. Remnant radio-loud AGN in the Herschel-ATLAS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahatma, V. H.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Williams, W. L.; Brienza, M.; Brüggen, M.; Croston, J. H.; Gurkan, G.; Harwood, J. J.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Morganti, R.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Shimwell, T. W.; Tasse, C.

    2018-04-01

    Only a small fraction of observed active galactic nuclei (AGN) display large-scale radio emission associated with jets, yet these radio-loud AGN have become increasingly important in models of galaxy evolution. In determining the dynamics and energetics of the radio sources over cosmic time, a key question concerns what happens when their jets switch off. The resulting `remnant' radio-loud AGN have been surprisingly evasive in past radio surveys, and therefore statistical information on the population of radio-loud AGN in their dying phase is limited. In this paper, with the recent developments of Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) and the Very Large Array, we are able to provide a systematically selected sample of remnant radio-loud AGN in the Herschel-ATLAS field. Using a simple core-detection method, we constrain the upper limit on the fraction of remnants in our radio-loud AGN sample to 9 per cent, implying that the extended lobe emission fades rapidly once the core/jets turn off. We also find that our remnant sample has a wide range of spectral indices (-1.5≤slant α ^{1400}_{150}≤slant -0.5), confirming that the lobes of some remnants may possess flat spectra at low frequencies just as active sources do. We suggest that, even with the unprecedented sensitivity of LOFAR, our sample may still only contain the youngest of the remnant population.

  18. A large area search for radio-loud quasars within the epoch of reionization

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Matt J.; Rawlings, Steve; Barrio, F. Eugenio; Hill, Gary J.; Bauer, Amanda; Croft, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The Universe became fully reionized, and observable optically, at a time corresponding to redshift z ~ 6.5, so it is only by studying the HI and molecular absorption lines against higher-redshift, radio-loud sources that one can hope to make detailed studies of the earliest stages of galaxy formation. At present no targets for such studies are known. In these proceedings we describe a survey which is underway to find radio-loud quasars at z > 6.5, and present broad-band SEDs of our most promi...

  19. Stellar Dynamics and Star Formation Histories of z ∼ 1 Radio-loud Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barišić, Ivana; Van der Wel, Arjen; Chauké, Priscilla; Van Houdt, Josha; Straatman, Caroline [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Bezanson, Rachel [Department of Astrophysics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Pacifici, Camilla [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Noeske, Kai [experimenta gGmbH, Kranenstraße 14, 74072 Heilbronn (Germany); Muñoz-Mateos, Juan C. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Franx, Marijn; Labbé, Ivo; Maseda, Michael V.; Sobral, David [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 AA Leiden (Netherlands); Smolčić, Vernesa [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka cesta 32, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Calhau, João [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4 YB (United Kingdom); Van Dokkum, Pieter G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Gallazzi, Anna [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofsico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Muzzin, Adam, E-mail: barisic@mpia.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario, ON MJ3 1P3 (Canada); and others

    2017-09-20

    We investigate the stellar kinematics and stellar populations of 58 radio-loud galaxies of intermediate luminosities ( L {sub 3} {sub GHz} > 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup −1}) at 0.6 < z < 1. This sample is constructed by cross-matching galaxies from the deep VLT/VIMOS LEGA-C spectroscopic survey with the VLA 3 GHz data set. The LEGA-C continuum spectra reveal for the first time stellar velocity dispersions and age indicators of z ∼ 1 radio galaxies. We find that z ∼ 1 radio-loud active galactic nucleus (AGN) occur exclusively in predominantly old galaxies with high velocity dispersions: σ {sub *} > 175 km s{sup −1}, corresponding to black hole masses in excess of 10{sup 8} M {sub ⊙}. Furthermore, we confirm that at a fixed stellar mass the fraction of radio-loud AGN at z ∼ 1 is five to 10 times higher than in the local universe, suggesting that quiescent, massive galaxies at z ∼ 1 switch on as radio AGN on average once every Gyr. Our results strengthen the existing evidence for a link between high black hole masses, radio loudness, and quiescence at z ∼ 1.

  20. Was the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 RGB J0044+193 ever radio loud?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maccarone, T.J.; Miller-Jones, J.C.A.; Fender, R.P.; Pooley, G.G.

    2005-01-01

    We show new radio data and a re-analysis of old data for the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxy RGB J0044+193. This galaxy has previously been suggested to be both radio loud, and highly variable in the radio. As most NLSy 1 galaxies are radio quiet, this was interpreted as possible evidence that

  1. The contribution of unresolved radio-loud AGN to the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucke, A.; Pohl, M.

    2000-01-01

    , and on the unification scheme of radio-loud AGN. According to this picture, blazars represent the beamed fraction of the Fanaroff-Riley radio galaxies (FR galaxies). The observed log N-log S distribution and redshift distribution of both FSRQs and BL Lacs constrain our model. Depending slightly on the evolutionary...

  2. The unification of powerful radio-loud AGN: the multi-wavelength balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podigachoski, Pece; Barthel, Peter; Haas, Martin; Leipski, Christian; Wilkes, Belinda; Rocca-Volmerange, Brigitte; Drouart, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Powerful radio-loud AGN, by virtue of their optically-thin low-frequency radio emission, represent unique targets in orientation-based unification studies, and in searches for orientation indicators and orientation invariants. Central in these efforts is the landmark Third Cambridge Catalog of Radio

  3. Clustering at high redshifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Evidence for clustering of and with high-redshift QSOs is discussed. QSOs of different redshifts show no clustering, but QSOs of similar redshifts appear to be clustered on a scale comparable to that of galaxies at the present epoch. In addition, spectroscopic studies of close pairs of QSOs indicate that QSOs are surrounded by a relatively high density of absorbing matter, possibly clusters of galaxies

  4. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RADIO-LOUD AND RADIO-QUIET γ -RAY PULSARS AS REVEALED BY FERMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, C. Y.; Lee, Jongsu [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Takata, J. [Institute of Particle physics and Astronomy, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (China); Ng, C. W.; Cheng, K. S., E-mail: cyhui@cnu.ac.kr, E-mail: takata@hust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2017-01-10

    By comparing the properties of non-recycled radio-loud γ -ray pulsars and radio-quiet γ -ray pulsars, we have searched for the differences between these two populations. We found that the γ -ray spectral curvature of radio-quiet pulsars can be larger than that of radio-loud pulsars. Based on the full sample of non-recycled γ -ray pulsars, their distributions of the magnetic field strength at the light cylinder are also found to be different. We note that this might result from an observational bias. By reexamining the previously reported difference of γ -ray-to-X-ray flux ratios, we found that the significance can be hampered by their statistical uncertainties. In the context of the outer gap model, we discuss the expected properties of these two populations and compare with the possible differences that are identified in our analysis.

  5. Radio-loudness in black hole transients: evidence for an inclination effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, S. E.; Casella, P.; Fender, R.

    2018-06-01

    Accreting stellar-mass black holes appear to populate two branches in a radio:X-ray luminosity plane. We have investigated the X-ray variability properties of a large number of black hole low-mass X-ray binaries, with the aim of unveiling the physical reasons underlying the radio-loud/radio-quiet nature of these sources, in the context of the known accretion-ejection connection. A reconsideration of the available radio and X-ray data from a sample of black hole X-ray binaries confirms that being radio-quiet is the more normal mode of behaviour for black hole binaries. In the light of this we chose to test, once more, the hypothesis that radio loudness could be a consequence of the inclination of the X-ray binary. We compared the slope of the `hard-line' (an approximately linear correlation between X-ray count rate and rms variability, visible in the hard states of active black holes), the orbital inclination, and the radio-nature of the sources of our sample. We found that high-inclination objects show steeper hard-lines than low-inclination objects, and tend to display a radio-quiet nature (with the only exception of V404 Cyg), as opposed to low-inclination objects, which appear to be radio-loud(er). While in need of further confirmation, our results suggest that - contrary to what has been believed for years - the radio-loud/quiet nature of black-hole low mass X-ray binaries might be an inclination effect, rather than an intrinsic source property. This would solve an important issue in the context of the inflow-outflow connection, thus providing significant constraints to the models for the launch of hard-state compact jets.

  6. Ultra-Fast Outflows in Radio-Loud AGN: New Constraints on Jet-Disk Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambruna, Rita

    There is strong observational and theoretical evidence that outflows/jets are coupled to accretion disks in black hole accreting systems, from Galactic to extragalactic sizes. While in radio-quiet AGN there is ample evidence for the presence of Ultra-Fast Outflows (UFOs) from the presence of blue-shifted absorption features in their 4-10~keV spectra, sub-relativistic winds are expected on theoretical basis in radio-loud AGN but have not been observed until now. Our recent Suzaku observations of 5 bright Broad- Line Radio Galaxies (BLRGs, the radio-loud counterparts of Seyferts) has started to change this picture. We found strong evidence for UFOs in 3 out of 5 BLRGs, with ionization parameters, column densities, and velocities of the absorber similar to Seyferts. Moreover, the outflows in BLRGs are likely to be energetically very significant: from the Suzaku data of the three sources, outflow masses similar to the accretion masses and kinetic energies of the wind similar to the X-ray luminosity and radio power of the jet are inferred. Clearly, UFOs in radio-loud AGN represent a new key ingredient to understand their central engines and in particular, the jet-disk linkage. Our discovery of UFOs in a handful of BLRGs raises the questions of how common disk winds are in radio-loud AGN, what the absorber physical and dynamical characteristics are, and what is the outflow role in broader picture of galaxy-black hole connection for radio sources, i.e., for large-scale feedback models. To address these and other issues, we propose to use archival XMM-Newton and Suzaku spectra to search for Ultra-Fast Outflows in a large number of radio sources. Over a period of two years, we will conduct a systematic, uniform analysis of the archival X-ray data, building on our extensive experience with a similar previous project for Seyferts, and using robust analysis and statistical methodologies. As an important side product, we will also obtain accurate, self- consistent measurements

  7. THE RADIO PROPERTIES OF RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES ON PARSEC SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Minfeng; Chen, Yongjun; Shen, Zhiqiang [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Komossa, S.; Zensus, J. A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Yuan, Weimin [Key Lab for Space Astronomy and Technology, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wajima, Kiyoaki [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Hongyan, E-mail: gumf@shao.ac.cn [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Shanghai 200136 (China)

    2015-11-15

    We present the detection of the compact radio structures of 14 radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies from Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at 5 GHz performed in 2013. While 50% of the sources of our sample show a compact core only, the remaining 50% exhibit a core-jet structure. The measured brightness temperatures of the cores range from 10{sup 8.4} to 10{sup 11.4} K with a median value of 10{sup 10.1} K, indicating that the radio emission is from non-thermal jets, and that, likely, most sources are not strongly beamed, thus implying a low jet speed in these radio-loud NLS1 galaxies. In combination with archival data taken at multiple frequencies, we find that seven sources show flat or even inverted radio spectra, while steep spectra are revealed in the remaining seven objects. Although all of these sources are very radio-loud with R > 100, their jet properties are diverse in terms of their milliarcsecond (mas) scale (parsec scale) morphology and their overall radio spectral shape. The evidence for slow jet speeds (i.e., less relativistic jets), in combination with the low kinetic/radio power, may offer an explanation for the compact VLBA radio structure in most sources. The mildly relativistic jets in these high accretion rate systems are consistent with a scenario where jets are accelerated from the hot corona above the disk by the magnetic field and the radiation force of the accretion disk. Alternatively, a low jet bulk velocity can be explained by low spin in the Blandford–Znajek mechanism.

  8. Radio-loud magnetars as detectors for axions and axion-like particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendelman, E.I.; Chelouche, D.

    2011-01-01

    We show that, by studying the arrival times of radio pulses from highly-magnetized transient beamed sources, it may be possible to detect light pseudo-scalar particles, such as axions and axion-like particles, whose existence could have considerable implications for the strong-CP problem of QCD as well as the dark matter problem in cosmology. Specifically, such light bosons may be detected with a much greater sensitivity, over a broad particle mass range, than is currently achievable by terrestrial experiments, and using indirect astrophysical considerations. The observable effect was discussed in Chelouche & Guendelman (2009), and is akin to the Stern-Gerlach experiment: the splitting of a photon beam naturally arises when finite coupling exists between the electro-magnetic field and the axion field. The splitting angle of the light beams linearly depends on the photon wavelength, the size of the magnetized region, and the magnetic field gradient in the transverse direction to the propagation direction of the photons. If radio emission in radio-loud magnetars is beamed and originates in regions with strong magnetic field gradients, then splitting of individual pulses may be detectable. We quantify the effect for a simplified model for magnetars, and search for radio beam splitting in the 2GHz radio light curves of the radio loud magnetar XTEJ1810-197. (author)

  9. The difference between radio-loud and radio-quiet active galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. S.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    1995-01-01

    The recent development of unified theories of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has indicated that there are two physically distinct classes of these objects--radio-loud and radio-quiet. Despite differences, the (probable) thermal emissions from the AGNs (continua and lines from X-ray to infrared wavelengths) are quite similar to the two classes of object. We argue that this last result suggests that the black hole masses and mass accretion rates in the two classes are not greatly different, and that the difference between the classes is associated with the spin of the black hole. We assume that the normal process of accretion through a disk does not lead to rapidly spinning holes and propose that galaxies (e.g., spirals) which have not suffered a recent major merger event contain nonrotating or only slowly rotating black holes. When two such galaxies merge, the two black holes are known to form a binary and we assume that they eventually coalesce. The ratio of the number of radio-loud to radio-quiet AGNs at a given thermal (e.g., optical) luminosity is determined by the galaxy merger rate. Comparisons between the predicted and observed radio luminosity functions constrain the efficiencies with which jet power is extracted from the spinning hole and radio emission is produced by the jet.

  10. Extreme Gaseous Outflows in Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komossa, S.; Xu, D. W.; Wagner, A. Y.

    2018-04-01

    We present four radio-loud NLS1 galaxies with extreme emission-line shifts, indicating radial outflow velocities of the ionized gas of up to 2450 km/s, above the escape velocity of the host galaxies. The forbidden lines show strong broadening, up to 2270 km/s. An ionization stratification (higher line shift at higher ionization potential) implies that we see a large-scale outflow rather than single, localized jet-cloud interactions. Similarly, the paucity of zero-velocity [OIII]λ5007 emitting gas implies the absence of a second narrow-line region (NLR) component at rest, and therefore a large part of the high-ionization NLR is affected by the outflow. Given the radio loudness of these NLS1 galaxies, the observations are consistent with a pole on view onto their central engines, so that the effects of polar outflows are maximized. In addition, a very efficient driving mechanism is required, to reach the high observed velocities. We explore implications from recent hydrodynamic simulations of the interaction between fast winds or jets with the large-scale NLR. Overall, the best agreement with observations (and especially the high outflow speeds of the [NeV] emitting gas) can be reached if the NLS1 galaxies are relatively young sources with lifetimes not much exceeding 1 Myr. These systems represent sites of strong feedback at NLR scales at work, well below redshift one.

  11. The X-Ray Reflection Spectrum of the Radio-loud Quasar 4C 74.26

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohfink, Anne M.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Ballantyne, David R.

    2017-01-01

    of the supermassive black hole, the presumed jet launching point, are potentially particularly valuable in illuminating the jet formation process. Here, we present the hard X-ray NuSTAR observations of the radio-loud quasar 4C 74.26 in a joint analysis with quasi-simultaneous, soft X-ray Swift observations. Our...... the three months covered by our NuSTAR campaign. This lack of variation could mean that the jet formation in this radio-loud quasar differs from what is observed in broad-line radio galaxies....

  12. X-RAYS FROM A RADIO-LOUD COMPACT BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASAR 1045+352 AND THE NATURE OF OUTFLOWS IN RADIO-LOUD BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Katarzynski, Krzysztof; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2009-01-01

    We present new results on X-ray properties of radio-loud broad absorption line (BAL) quasars and focus on broadband spectral properties of a high-ionization BAL (HiBAL) compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio-loud quasar 1045+352. This HiBAL quasar has a very complex radio morphology indicating either strong interactions between a radio jet and the surrounding interstellar medium or a possible re-start of the jet activity. We detected 1045+352 quasar in a short 5 ksec Chandra ACIS-S observation. We applied theoretical models to explain spectral energy distribution of 1045+352 and argue that non-thermal, inverse-Compton (IC) emission from the innermost parts of the radio jet can account for a large fraction of the observed X-ray emission. In our analysis, we also consider a scenario in which the observed X-ray emission from radio-loud BAL quasars can be a sum of IC jet X-ray emission and optically thin corona X-ray emission. We compiled a sample of radio-loud BAL quasars that were observed in X-rays to date and report no correlation between their X-ray and radio luminosity. However, the radio-loud BAL quasars show a large range of X-ray luminosities and absorption columns. This is consistent with the results obtained earlier for radio-quiet BAL quasars and may indicate an orientation effect in BAL quasars or more complex dependence between X-ray emission, radio emission, and an orientation based on the radio morphology.

  13. Pair-Matching of Radio-Loud and Radio-Quiet AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozieł-Wierzbowska, Dorota [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Stasińska, Grażyna [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université Paris Diderot, Meudon (France); Vale Asari, Natalia [Departamento de Física–CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil); Sikora, Marek [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Warsaw (Poland); Goettems, Elisa [Departamento de Física–CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil); Wójtowicz, Anna, E-mail: dorota.koziel@uj.edu.pl [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland)

    2017-11-07

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are known to cover an extremely broad range of radio luminosities and the spread of their radio-loudness is very large at any value of the Eddington ratio. This implies very diverse jet production efficiencies which can result from the spread of the black hole spins and magnetic fluxes. Magnetic fluxes can be developed stochastically in the innermost zones of accretion discs, or can be advected to the central regions prior to the AGN phase. In the latter case there could be systematic differences between the properties of galaxies hosting radio-loud (RL) and radio-quiet (RQ) AGNs. In the former case the differences should be negligible for objects having the same Eddington ratio. To study the problem we decided to conduct a comparison study of host galaxy properties of RL and RQ AGNs. In this study we selected type II AGNs from SDSS spectroscopic catalogs. Our RL AGN sample consists of the AGNs appearing in the Best and Heckman (2012) catalog of radio galaxies. To compare RL and RQ galaxies that have the same AGN parameters we matched the galaxies in black hole mass, Eddington ratio and redshift. We compared several properties of the host galaxies in these two groups of objects like galaxy mass, color, concentration index, line widths, morphological type and interaction signatures. We found that in the studied group RL AGNs are preferentially hosted by elliptical galaxies while RQ ones are hosted by galaxies of later type. We also found that the fraction of interacting galaxies is the same in both groups of AGNs. These results suggest that the magnetic flux in RL AGNs is advected to the nucleus prior to the AGN phase.

  14. The role of AGN feedback in galaxy evolution at high-redshift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collet, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that supermassive black holes may play a crucial role for galaxy evolution, in particular during the formation of massive galaxies at high redshift (z ≅ 2 - 3). Our work focuses on quantifying the effects of jets of radiogalaxies and of large bolometric luminosities of quasars on the interstellar gas in their host galaxies. To this end, we studied the kinematics of the ionized gas in 12 moderately powerful radio galaxies and 11 quasars (6 radio-loud and 5 radio-quiet) at high redshifts with rest-frame optical imaging spectroscopy obtained at the VLT with SINFONI. We searched for outflows and other signatures of feedback from the supermassive black holes in the centers of these galaxies to evaluate if the AGN may plausibly quench star formation. In our sample of moderately powerful radiogalaxies, we observe velocity dispersions nearly as large as those observed in the most powerful ones (with FWHM ≅ 1000 km/s), but the quantity of ionized gas is decreased by one order of magnitude (M-ion gas ≅ 10"8 - 10"9 M-sun) and velocity gradients tend to be less dramatic (Δv ≤ 400 km/s), when they are observed. In our sample of quasars, we had to carefully subtract the broad spectral component of emission lines to have access to its narrow, and spatially extended, component. We detect truly extended emission line regions in 4/6 sources of our radio-loud sub-sample and in 1/5 source of our radio-quiet sub-sample. We estimate that masses of ionized gas in these sources are smaller than in our sample of high-redshift radiogalaxies (with Mion gas ≅ 10"7 - 10"8 Msun) and kinematics tend to be more quiescent, akin to what is observed in local quasars. Finally, detailed observations of two outliers among our sample of high-redshift radiogalaxies revealed that one of them is closely surrounded by 14 companions galaxies, hence lying in an over density. We therefore interpret the presence and morphology of ionized gas around these galaxies as evidence

  15. Fermi-LAT γ-ray anisotropy and intensity explained by unresolved radio-loud active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauro, Mattia Di; Cuoco, Alessandro; Donato, Fiorenza; Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) are expected to contribute substantially to both the intensity and anisotropy of the isotropic γ-ray background (IGRB). In turn, the measured properties of the IGRB can be used to constrain the characteristics of proposed contributing source classes. We consider individual subclasses of radio-loud AGN, including low-, intermediate-, and high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae objects, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and misaligned AGN. Using updated models of the γ-ray luminosity functions of these populations, we evaluate the energy-dependent contribution of each source class to the intensity and anisotropy of the IGRB. We find that collectively radio-loud AGN can account for the entirety of the IGRB intensity and anisotropy as measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Misaligned AGN provide the bulk of the measured intensity but a negligible contribution to the anisotropy, while high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae objects provide the dominant contribution to the anisotropy. In anticipation of upcoming measurements with the Fermi-LAT and the forthcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array, we predict the anisotropy in the broader energy range that will be accessible to future observations

  16. THE WISE BLAZAR-LIKE RADIO-LOUD SOURCES: AN ALL-SKY CATALOG OF CANDIDATE γ-RAY BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Smith, H. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Massaro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Masetti, N. [INAF/IASF di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Landoni, M. [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    We present a catalog of radio-loud candidate γ-ray emitting blazars with WISE mid-infrared colors similar to the colors of confirmed γ-ray blazars. The catalog is assembled from WISE sources detected in all four WISE filters, with colors compatible with the three-dimensional locus of the WISE γ-ray emitting blazars, and which can be spatially cross-matched with radio sources from one of the three radio surveys: NVSS, FIRST, and/or SUMSS. Our initial WISE selection uses a slightly modified version of previously successful algorithms. We then select only the radio-loud sources using a measure of the radio-to-IR flux, the q {sub 22} parameter, which is analogous to the q {sub 24} parameter known in the literature but which instead uses the WISE band-four flux at 22 μm. Our final catalog contains 7855 sources classified as BL Lacs, FSRQs, or mixed candidate blazars; 1295 of these sources can be spatially re-associated as confirmed blazars. We describe the properties of the final catalog of WISE blazar-like radio-loud sources and consider possible contaminants. Finally, we discuss why this large catalog of candidate γ-ray emitting blazars represents a new and useful resource to address the problem of finding low-energy counterparts to currently unidentified high-energy sources.

  17. Fermi-LAT γ-ray anisotropy and intensity explained by unresolved radio-loud active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, Mattia Di; Cuoco, Alessandro; Donato, Fiorenza [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, Torino, 10125 Italy (Italy); Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M., E-mail: mattia.dimauro@to.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.cuoco@to.infn.it, E-mail: donato@to.infn.it, E-mail: jsg@tapir.caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) are expected to contribute substantially to both the intensity and anisotropy of the isotropic γ-ray background (IGRB). In turn, the measured properties of the IGRB can be used to constrain the characteristics of proposed contributing source classes. We consider individual subclasses of radio-loud AGN, including low-, intermediate-, and high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae objects, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and misaligned AGN. Using updated models of the γ-ray luminosity functions of these populations, we evaluate the energy-dependent contribution of each source class to the intensity and anisotropy of the IGRB. We find that collectively radio-loud AGN can account for the entirety of the IGRB intensity and anisotropy as measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Misaligned AGN provide the bulk of the measured intensity but a negligible contribution to the anisotropy, while high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae objects provide the dominant contribution to the anisotropy. In anticipation of upcoming measurements with the Fermi-LAT and the forthcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array, we predict the anisotropy in the broader energy range that will be accessible to future observations.

  18. THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET DEFICIT AND MAGNETICALLY ARRESTED ACCRETION IN RADIO-LOUD QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punsly, Brian, E-mail: brian.punsly1@verizon.net [1415 Granvia Altamira, Palos Verdes Estates, CA 90274 (United States); ICRANet, Piazza della Repubblica, I-65100 10 Pescara (Italy)

    2014-12-20

    The Hubble Space Telescope composite quasar spectra presented in Telfer et al. show a significant deficit of emission in the extreme ultraviolet for the radio-loud component of the quasar population (RLQs) compared to the radio-quiet component of the quasar population. The composite quasar continuum emission between 1100 Å and ∼580 Å is generally considered to be associated with the innermost regions of the accretion flow onto the central black hole. The deficit between 1100 Å and 580 Å in RLQs has a straightforward interpretation as a missing or a suppressed innermost region of local energy dissipation in the accretion flow. It is proposed that this can be the result of islands of large-scale magnetic flux in RLQs that are located close to the central black hole that remove energy from the accretion flow as Poynting flux (sometimes called magnetically arrested accretion). These magnetic islands are natural sites for launching relativistic jets. Based on the Telfer et al. data and the numerical simulations of accretion flows in Penna et al., the magnetic islands are concentrated between the event horizon and an outer boundary of <2.8 M (in geometrized units) for rapidly rotating black holes and <5.5 M for modestly rotating black holes.

  19. Toward a New Paradigm for the Unification of Radio Loud AGN and its Connection to Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georganpoulos, Markos; Meyer, Eileen T.; Fossati, Giovanni; Lister, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    We recently argued [21J that the collective properties. of radio loud active galactic nuclei point to the existence of two families of sources, one of powerful sources with single velocity jets and one of weaker jets with significant velocity gradients in the radiating plasma. These families also correspond to different accretion modes and therefore different thermal and emission line intrinsic properties: powerful sources have radiatively efficient accretion disks, while in weak sources accretion must be radiatively inefficient. Here, after we briefly review of our recent work, we present the following findings that support our unification scheme: (i) along the broken sequence of aligned objects, the jet kinetic power increases. (ii) in the powerful branch of the sequence of aligned objects the fraction of BLLs decreases with increasing jet power. (iii) for powerful sources, the fraction of BLLs increases for more un-aligned objects, as measured by the core to extended radio emission. Our results are also compatible with the possibility that a given accretion power produces jets of comparable kinetic power.

  20. Observations of neutral hydrogen in radio-loud and interacting galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, T. M.; Balick, B.; Van Breugel, W. J. W.; Miley, G. K.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a survey of H I in radio-loud and interacting galaxies is presented. Four cases of H I absorption and five of emission are reported. The interesting features found for individual galaxies are described, and the systematic properties are discussed. Column densities of absorbing gas generally exceed those expected for a 'Milky Way' H I disk by more than an order of magnitude. The absorbing gas must have a flattened, disklike morphology oriented roughly parallel to the optical disk of the galaxy. Turbulent noncircular gas motions are evidently present, which are shown to be almost certainly induced by galaxy-galaxy interactions. The set of galaxies in which H I absorption has been detected is dominated by morphologically peculiar objects. It is concluded that the detection of H I seen in absorption against a nuclear radio source permits direct determination of the sense of radial flow of extranuclear material, and is direct evidence that potential 'food' for a compact object in the nucleus exists in the galaxy.

  1. New Insights on the Accretion Disk-Winds Connection in Radio-Loud AGNs from Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Sambruna, R. M.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.; Cappi, M.; Reynolds, S.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    From the spectral analysis of long Suzaku observations of five radio-loud AGNs we have been able to discover the presence of ultra-fast outflows with velocities ,,approx.0.1 c in three of them, namely 3C III, 3C 120 and 3C 390.3. They are consistent with being accretion disk winds/outflows. We also performed a follow-up on 3C III to monitor its outflow on approx.7 days time-scales and detected an anti-correlated variability of a possible relativistic emission line with respect to blue-shifted Fe K features, following a flux increase. This provides the first direct evidence for an accretion disc-wind connection in an AGN. The mass outflow rate of these outflows can be comparable to the accretion rate and their mechanical power can correspond to a significant fraction of the bolometric luminosity and is comparable to their typical jet power. Therefore, they can possibly play a significant role in the expected feedback from AGNs and can give us further clues on the relation between the accretion disk and the formation of winds/jets.

  2. The Suzaku observation of the nucleus of the radio loud active galaxy Centaurus A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowitz, Alex

    2007-01-01

    A Suzaku observation of the nucleus of the radio-loud AGN Centaurus A in 2005 has yielded a broadband spectrum spanning 0.3 to 250 keV. The hard X-rays are fit by two power laws, absorbed by columns of 1.5 and 7x10 23 cm -2 respectively. The spectrum consistent with previous suggestions that the power-law components are X-ray emission from the sub-pc VLBI jet and from Bondi accretion at the core, or are consistent with a partial covering interpretation. The soft band is dominated by thermal emission from the diffuse plasma and is fit well by a two-temperature collisional ionization emission model, plus a third power-law component to account for scattered nuclear emission, kpc-scale jet emission, and emission from X-ray Binaries and other point sources. Narrow fluorescent emission lines from Fe, Si, S, Ar, Ca and Ni are detected. The width of the Fe Kα line yields a 200 light-day lower limit on the distance from the black hole to the line-emitting gas. K-shell absorption edges due to Fe, Ca, and S are detected. The high metallicity ([Fe/H]=+0.1) of the circumnuclear material suggests that the accreting material could not have originated in the metal-poor outer halo unless enrichment by local star formation has occurred. Relative element abundances are consistent with enrichment due to local star formation processes. (author)

  3. Millimeter Astronomy at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decarli, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    Our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution critically depends on our ability of exposing the properties of the gaseous content of galaxies throughout cosmic history: how much gas is there, in which phase (ionized, atomic, molecular?), in which physical conditions (temperature, density), how efficiently does it turn into stars? We are now entering an exciting era where these questions can be addressed via observations of various gas tracers, especially at mm and sub-mm wavelengths. I will review how to observe various gas phases at high redshift, and discuss lessons we have learned so far from campaigns aimed at characterizing the gas content in galaxies in various cosmic epochs.

  4. Fermi monitoring of radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Stalin, C. S.; Ravikumar, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    We present detailed analysis of the γ-ray flux variability and spectral properties of the five radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 (RL-NLSy1) galaxies, detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, namely 1H 0323+342, SBS 0846+513, PMN J0948+0022, PKS 1502+036, and PKS 2004−447. The first three sources show significant flux variations, including the rapid variability of a few hours by 1H 0323+342. The average γ-ray spectrum of 1H 0323+342 and PMN J0948+0022 shows deviation from a simple power-law (PL) behavior, whereas the PL model gives a better fit for the other three sources. The spectra of 1H 0323+342, SBS 0846+513, and PMN J0948+0022, which are in low, flaring, and moderately active states, respectively, show significant curvature. Such curvature in the γ-ray spectrum of 1H 0323+342 and PMN J0948+0022 could be due to the emission region located inside the broad line region (BLR) where the primary mechanism of the γ-ray emission is inverse-Compton (IC) scattering of BLR photons occurring in the Klein–Nishina regime. The γ-ray emission of SBS 0846+513 is explained by IC scattering of dusty torus photons, which puts the emission region outside the BLR and thus under the Thomson regime. Therefore, the observed curvature of SBS 0846+513 could be intrinsic to the particle energy distribution. The presence of curvature in the γ-ray spectrum and flux variability amplitudes of some of the RL-NLSy1 galaxies suggests that these sources could be akin to low/moderate jet power flat spectrum radio quasars.

  5. The peculiar radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0323+342

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Stalin, C. S. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Block-II, Koramangala, Bangalore-560034 (India); Sahayanathan, S. [Astrophysical Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai-400085 (India); Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Anjum, Ayesha [Department of Physics, Christ University, Bangalore-560029 (India); Pandey, S. B., E-mail: vaidehi@iiap.res.in [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Manora peak, Nainital-263129 (India)

    2014-07-10

    We present a multiwavelength study of the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLSy1) 1H 0323+342, detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Multiband light curves show many orphan X-ray and optical flares having no corresponding γ-ray counterparts. Such anomalous variability behavior can be due to different locations of the emission region from the central source. During a large flare, a γ-ray flux doubling timescale as small as ∼3 hr is noticed. We built spectral energy distributions (SEDs) during different activity states and modeled them using a one-zone leptonic model. The shape of the optical/UV component of the SEDs is dominated by accretion disk emission in all the activity states. In the X-ray band, significant thermal emission from the hot corona is inferred during quiescent and first flaring states; however, during subsequent flares, the nonthermal jet component dominates. The γ-ray emission in all the states can be well explained by inverse-Compton scattering of accretion disk photons reprocessed by the broad-line region. The source showed violent intra-night optical variability, coinciding with one of the high γ-ray activity states. An analysis of the overall X-ray spectrum fitted with an absorbed power-law plus relativistic reflection component hints at the presence of an Fe Kα line and returns a high black hole spin value of a = 0.96 ± 0.14. We argue that 1H 0323+342 possesses dual characteristics, akin to both flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and radio-quiet NLSy1 galaxies, though at a low jet power regime compared to powerful FSRQs.

  6. Fermi monitoring of radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Stalin, C. S. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Block II, Koramangala, Bangalore-560034 (India); Ravikumar, C. D., E-mail: vaidehi@iiap.res.in [Department of Physics, University of Calicut, Malappuram-673635 (India)

    2015-02-01

    We present detailed analysis of the γ-ray flux variability and spectral properties of the five radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 (RL-NLSy1) galaxies, detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, namely 1H 0323+342, SBS 0846+513, PMN J0948+0022, PKS 1502+036, and PKS 2004−447. The first three sources show significant flux variations, including the rapid variability of a few hours by 1H 0323+342. The average γ-ray spectrum of 1H 0323+342 and PMN J0948+0022 shows deviation from a simple power-law (PL) behavior, whereas the PL model gives a better fit for the other three sources. The spectra of 1H 0323+342, SBS 0846+513, and PMN J0948+0022, which are in low, flaring, and moderately active states, respectively, show significant curvature. Such curvature in the γ-ray spectrum of 1H 0323+342 and PMN J0948+0022 could be due to the emission region located inside the broad line region (BLR) where the primary mechanism of the γ-ray emission is inverse-Compton (IC) scattering of BLR photons occurring in the Klein–Nishina regime. The γ-ray emission of SBS 0846+513 is explained by IC scattering of dusty torus photons, which puts the emission region outside the BLR and thus under the Thomson regime. Therefore, the observed curvature of SBS 0846+513 could be intrinsic to the particle energy distribution. The presence of curvature in the γ-ray spectrum and flux variability amplitudes of some of the RL-NLSy1 galaxies suggests that these sources could be akin to low/moderate jet power flat spectrum radio quasars.

  7. KILOPARSEC-SCALE JETS IN THREE RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Joseph L.; Lister, Matthew L., E-mail: jlr@purdue.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    We have discovered kiloparsec-scale extended radio emission in three narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) in sub-arcsecond resolution 9 GHz images from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. We find all sources show two-sided, mildly core-dominated jet structures with diffuse lobes dominated by termination hotspots. These span 20–70 kpc with morphologies reminiscent of FR II radio galaxies, while the extended radio luminosities are intermediate between FR I and FR II sources. In two cases the structure is linear, while a 45° bend is apparent in the third. Very Long Baseline Array images at 7.6 GHz reveal parsec-scale jet structures, in two cases with extended structure aligned with the inner regions of the kiloparsec-scale jets. Based on this alignment, the ratio of the radio core–luminosity to the optical luminosity, the jet/counter-jet intensity and extension length ratios, and moderate core brightness temperatures (≲10{sup 10} K), we conclude these jets are mildly relativistic (β≲0.3, δ∼1−1.5) and aligned at moderately small angles to the line of sight (10–15°). The derived kinematic ages of ∼10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} yr are much younger than radio galaxies but comparable to other NLS1s. Our results increase the number of radio-loud NLS1s with known kiloparsec-scale extensions from 7 to 10 and suggest that such extended emission may be common, at least among the brightest of these sources.

  8. The Curious Molecular Gas Conditions in a z=2.6 Radio-loud Quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Chelsea; Riechers, Dominik A.; Kuk Leung, Tsz; Weiss, Axel; Walter, Fabian; Carilli, Chris; Kraiburg Knudsen, Kirsten; Hodge, Jacqueline

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical work suggests that AGN play an important role in quenching star formation in massive galaxies. In addition to molecular outflows observed in the local universe, emission from very high-J CO rotational transitions has been one of the key pieces of evidence for AGN directly affecting the molecular gas reservoirs that fuel star formation. However, very few observations of Jupper>9 transitions exist for galaxies in the early universe. Here we will present the peculiar molecular gas conditions in MG 0414+0534 (MG 0414 hereafter), one of the few high-z galaxies with very high-J CO detections. MG 0414 is a strongly lensed IR-bright radio-loud quasar with broad Hα emission at z=2.6390. We recently confirmed the CO(3–2) detection from Barvainis et al. (1998), but were unable to detect the CO(1–0) line. The 3σ lower limit on the 3–2/1–0 line ratio (in units of brightness temperature) is r3,1>5.72, which is significantly higher than the r3,1≤1 typical for thermalized optically thick emission in other z˜2–3 AGN host galaxies. In addition, the CO(11–10) line was detected to high significance using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, and the CO(11–10) line FWHM is nearly double that of the CO(3–2) line. We will discuss possible explanations for the peculiar line ratios in MG 0414 (such as optically thin emission, molecular outflows, and differential lensing) and what the origin of these ratios imply for molecular gas observations of other high-z AGN host galaxies.

  9. Pox 186: A Nearby Protogalaxy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Michael

    1999-07-01

    Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies {BCDGs} typically consist of clusters of early-type stars embedded in older, evolved stellar populations similar in size and shape to normal dwarf ellipticals. However, deep ground-based CCD images of one faint BCDG, Pox 186, reveal a very compact { 5" diameter} structure with no evidence of an underlying older population. Optical spectroscopy of this object also indicates that a large number of Wolf-Rayet stars are present, which implies that a burst of star formation must have occurred very recently {Pox 186 is a protogalaxy, forming its very first generation of stars. Further investigation of this possibility requires the high angular resolution and ultraviolet spectral coverage that only HST can provide. Using WFPC2, we propose to image the galaxy in the U, V, and I bands, in order to better test for the presence of an underlying evolved population and to reveal any substructure in its star-forming regions. Using STIS, we will obtain low-resolution ultraviolet spectra of the galaxy for combination with ground-based spectra covering the optical through near infrared. This will allow us to determine its spectral energy distribution, metallicity, and dust content, which will in turn constrain its age and star formation history.

  10. Jet launching radius in low-power radio-loud AGNs in advection-dominated accretion flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Truong; Newman, William; Edge, Brinkley

    2018-06-01

    Using our theory for the production of relativistic outflows, we estimate the jet launching radius and the inferred mass accretion rate for 52 low-power radio-loud AGNs based on the observed jet powers. Our analysis indicates that (1) a significant fraction of the accreted energy is required to convert the accreted mass to relativistic energy particles for the production of the jets near the event horizon, (2) the jet's launching radius moves radially towards the horizon as the mass accretion rate or jet's power increases, and (3) no jet/outflow formation is possible beyond 44 gravitational radii.

  11. RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 AS A NEW CLASS OF GAMMA-RAY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Cameron, R. A.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Caliandro, G. A.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery with Fermi/LAT of γ-ray emission from three radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies: PKS 1502+036 (z = 0.409), 1H 0323+342 (z = 0.061), and PKS 2004 - 447 (z = 0.24). In addition to PMN J0948+0022 (z = 0.585), the first source of this type to be detected in γ rays, they may form an emerging new class of γ-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These findings can have strong implications on our knowledge about relativistic jets and the unified model of the AGN.

  12. Evidence for Infrared-faint Radio Sources as z > 1 Radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh T.; Norris, Ray P.; Siana, Brian; Middelberg, Enno

    2010-02-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRSs) are a class of radio objects found in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey which have no observable mid-infrared counterpart in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) survey. The extended Chandra Deep Field South now has even deeper Spitzer imaging (3.6-70 μm) from a number of Legacy surveys. We report the detections of two IFRS sources in IRAC images. The non-detection of two other IFRSs allows us to constrain the source type. Detailed modeling of the spectral energy distribution of these objects shows that they are consistent with high-redshift (z >~ 1) active galactic nuclei.

  13. The X-Ray Reflection Spectrum of the Radio-loud Quasar 4C 74.26

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohfink, Anne M.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Ballantyne, David R.

    2017-01-01

    The relativistic jets created by some active galactic nuclei are important agents of AGN feedback. In spite of this, our understanding of what produces these jets is still incomplete. X-ray observations, which can probe the processes operating in the central regions in the immediate vicinity of t...... the three months covered by our NuSTAR campaign. This lack of variation could mean that the jet formation in this radio-loud quasar differs from what is observed in broad-line radio galaxies.......The relativistic jets created by some active galactic nuclei are important agents of AGN feedback. In spite of this, our understanding of what produces these jets is still incomplete. X-ray observations, which can probe the processes operating in the central regions in the immediate vicinity...... of the supermassive black hole, the presumed jet launching point, are potentially particularly valuable in illuminating the jet formation process. Here, we present the hard X-ray NuSTAR observations of the radio-loud quasar 4C 74.26 in a joint analysis with quasi-simultaneous, soft X-ray Swift observations. Our...

  14. The X-Ray Reflection Spectrum of the Radio-Loud Quasar 4C 74.26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohfink, Ann M.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Ballantyne, David R.; Boggs, S. E.; Boorman, Peter; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Farrah, Duncan; Garcia, Javier; Hailey, C. J.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The relativistic jets created by some active galactic nuclei are important agents of AGN feedback. In spite of this, our understanding of what produces these jets is still incomplete. X-ray observations, which can probe the processes operating in the central regions in the immediate vicinity of the supermassive black hole, the presumed jet launching point, are potentially particularly valuable in illuminating the jet formation process. Here, we present the hard X-ray NuSTAR observations of the radio-loud quasar 4C 74.26 in a joint analysis with quasi-simultaneous, soft X-ray Swift observations. Our spectral analysis reveals a high-energy cutoff of -183+3551 keV and confirms the presence of ionized reflection in the source. From the average spectrum we detect that the accretion disk is mildly recessed, with an inner radius of Rin4180 Rg. However, no significant evolution of the inner radius is seen during the three months covered by our NuSTAR campaign. This lack of variation could mean that the jet formation in this radio-loud quasar differs from what is observed in broad-line radio galaxies.

  15. Radio imaging of core-dominated high redshift quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Peter D.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Lonsdale, Colin J.

    1999-01-01

    VLA imaging at kiloparsec-scale resolution of sixteen core-dominated radio-loud QSOs is presented. Many objects appear to display variable radio emission and their radio morphologies are significantly smaller than those of steep-spectrum quasars, consistent with these objects being observed...

  16. Gamma-ray bursts at high redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are much brighter than supernovae, and could therefore possibly probe the Universe to high redshift. The presently established GRB redshifts range from 0.83 to 5, and quite possibly even beyond that. Since most proposed mechanisms for GRB link them closely to deaths of massive

  17. RAPID INFRARED VARIABILITY OF THREE RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES: A VIEW FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Ning; Zhou Hongyan; Wang Tinggui; Dong Xiaobo; Jiang Peng [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Yuan Weimin [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Ji Tuo; Tian Qiguo, E-mail: jnac@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200136 (China)

    2012-11-10

    Using newly released data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we report the discovery of rapid infrared variability in three radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) selected from the 23 sources in the sample of Yuan et al. J0849+5108 and J0948+0022 clearly show intraday variability, while J1505+0326 has a longer measurable timescale within 180 days. Their variability amplitudes, corrected for measurement errors, are {approx}0.1-0.2 mag. The detection of intraday variability restricts the size of the infrared-emitting region to {approx}10{sup -3} pc, significantly smaller than the scale of the torus but consistent with the base of a jet. The three variable sources are exceptionally radio-loud, have the highest radio brightness temperature among the whole sample, and all show detected {gamma}-ray emission in Fermi/LAT observations. Their spectral energy distributions resemble those of low-energy-peaked blazars, with a synchrotron peak around infrared wavelengths. This result strongly confirms the view that at least some radio-loud NLS1s are blazars with a relativistic jet close to our line of sight. The beamed synchrotron emission from the jet contributes significantly to and probably dominates the spectra in the infrared and even optical bands.

  18. RADIO-QUIET AND RADIO-LOUD PULSARS: SIMILAR IN GAMMA-RAYS BUT DIFFERENT IN X-RAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marelli, M.; Mignani, R. P.; Luca, A. De; Salvetti, D. [INAF—Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Parkinson, P. M. Saz [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hartog, P. R. Den [Stanford University HEPL/KIPAC, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Wolff, M. T., E-mail: marelli@iasf-milano.inaf.it [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    We present new Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a sample of eight radio-quiet (RQ) γ-ray pulsars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. For all eight pulsars we identify the X-ray counterpart, based on the X-ray source localization and the best position obtained from γ-ray pulsar timing. For PSR J2030+4415 we found evidence for a ∼10″-long pulsar wind nebula. Our new results consolidate the work from Marelli et al. and confirm that, on average, the γ-ray-to-X-ray flux ratios (F{sub γ}/F{sub X}) of RQ pulsars are higher than for the radio-loud (RL) ones. Furthermore, while the F{sub γ}/F{sub X} distribution features a single peak for the RQ pulsars, the distribution is more dispersed for the RL ones, possibly showing two peaks. We discuss possible implications of these different distributions based on current models for pulsar X-ray emission.

  19. The extreme behavior of the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy J0849+5108

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maune, Jeremy D.; Eggen, Joseph R.; Miller, H. Richard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303-3083 (United States); Marshall, Kevin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Widener University, Chester, PA 19013 (United States); Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Hovatta, Talvikki; King, Oliver, E-mail: maune@chara.gsu.edu [Cahill Laboratory of Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    Simultaneous radio, optical (both photometry and polarimetry), X-ray, and γ-ray observations of the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (RL-NLSy1) galaxy J0849+5108 are presented. A massive three-magnitude optical flare across five nights in 2013 April is detected, along with associated flux increases in the γ-ray, infrared, and radio regimes; no comparable event was detected in the X-rays, though this may be due to poor coverage. A spectral energy distribution (SED) for the object using quasi-simultaneous data centered on the optical flare is compared to the previously published SEDs for the object by D'Ammando et al. The flare event coincided with a high degree of optical polarization. High amplitude optical microvariability is clearly detected, and is found to be of comparable amplitude when the object is observed in both faint and bright states. The object is also seen to undergo rapid shifts in polarization in both degree and electric vector position angle within a single night. J0849+5108 appears to show even more extreme variability than that previously reported for the similar object J0948+0022. These observations appear to support the growing claim that some RL-NLSy1 galaxies constitute a sub-class of blazar-like active galactic nuclei.

  20. The extreme behavior of the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy J0849+5108

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maune, Jeremy D.; Eggen, Joseph R.; Miller, H. Richard; Marshall, Kevin; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Hovatta, Talvikki; King, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous radio, optical (both photometry and polarimetry), X-ray, and γ-ray observations of the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (RL-NLSy1) galaxy J0849+5108 are presented. A massive three-magnitude optical flare across five nights in 2013 April is detected, along with associated flux increases in the γ-ray, infrared, and radio regimes; no comparable event was detected in the X-rays, though this may be due to poor coverage. A spectral energy distribution (SED) for the object using quasi-simultaneous data centered on the optical flare is compared to the previously published SEDs for the object by D'Ammando et al. The flare event coincided with a high degree of optical polarization. High amplitude optical microvariability is clearly detected, and is found to be of comparable amplitude when the object is observed in both faint and bright states. The object is also seen to undergo rapid shifts in polarization in both degree and electric vector position angle within a single night. J0849+5108 appears to show even more extreme variability than that previously reported for the similar object J0948+0022. These observations appear to support the growing claim that some RL-NLSy1 galaxies constitute a sub-class of blazar-like active galactic nuclei.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radio-loud AGN with relativistic jets (Olguin-Iglesias+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin-Iglesias, A.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Kotilainen, J. K.; Chavushyan, V.; Tornikoski, M.; Valtaoja, E.; Anorve, C.; Valdes, J.; Carrasco, L.

    2017-11-01

    The sample of sources analysed in this work is a sub-sample of variable radio-loud AGN monitored at 7mm (S7mm>1Jy) with the Aalto University Metsahovi Radio Observatory, in Finland (http://metsahovi.aalto.fi/en/) since the last 30 years (Terasranta et al., 1992A&AS...94..121T; Teraesranta et al., 1998, Cat. J/A+AS/132/305; Leon-Tavares et al., 2011A&A...532A.146L; Nieppola et al., 2011, Cat. J/A+A/535/A69). According to the AGN unification scheme (Antonucci, 1993ARA&A..31..473A; Urry & Padovani, 1995PASP..107..803U), FSRQ and BL Lacs are those AGN whose relativistic jets point towards the Earth. Observations were made with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) at La Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Canarias, Spain. They were conducted between 2011 May 09 and September 15 using the near-infrared Camera (NOTCam)3 on the NOT. NOTcam field of view is 4'x4' with a pixel scale of 0.234-arcsec/pixel designed to be used in the range from 0.8 to 2.5um in the bands J, H and K. (1 data file).

  2. NUCLEAR X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE PECULIAR RADIO-LOUD HIDDEN AGN 4C+29.30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolewska, M. A.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Migliori, G.; Evans, D.; Stawarz, Ł.; Jamrozy, M.; Cheung, C. C.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from a study of nuclear emission from a nearby radio galaxy, 4C+29.30, over a broad 0.5-200 keV X-ray band. This study used new XMM-Newton (∼17 ks) and Chandra (∼300 ks) data, and archival Swift/BAT data from the 58 month catalog. The hard (>2 keV) X-ray spectrum of 4C+29.30 can be decomposed into an intrinsic hard power law (Γ ∼ 1.56) modified by a cold absorber with an intrinsic column density N H,z ∼ 5 × 10 23 cm –2 , and its reflection (|Ω/2π| ∼ 0.3) from a neutral matter including a narrow iron Kα emission line at a rest-frame energy ∼6.4 keV. The reflected component is less absorbed than the intrinsic one with an upper limit on the absorbing column of N refl H,z 22 cm –2 . The X-ray spectrum varied between the XMM-Newton and Chandra observations. We show that a scenario invoking variations of the normalization of the power law is favored over a model with variable intrinsic column density. X-rays in the 0.5-2 keV band are dominated by diffuse emission modeled with a thermal bremsstrahlung component with temperature ∼0.7 keV, and contain only a marginal contribution from the scattered power-law component. We hypothesize that 4C+29.30 belongs to a class of 'hidden' active galactic nuclei containing a geometrically thick torus. However, unlike the majority of hidden AGNs, 4C+29.30 is radio-loud. Correlations between the scattering fraction and Eddington luminosity ratio, and between black hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion, imply that 4C+29.30 hosts a black hole with ∼10 8 M ☉ mass.

  3. MAPPING THE POLARIZATION OF THE RADIO-LOUD Ly α NEBULA B3 J2330+3927

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Chang; Zabludoff, Ann; Smith, Paul; Jannuzi, Buell [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Yang, Yujin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eunchong; Lee, Myung Gyoon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 88226 (Korea, Republic of); Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, 1320 Frenger Mall, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Matsuda, Yuichi, E-mail: yyang@kasi.re.kr [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-01-10

    Ly α nebulae, or “Ly α blobs,” are extended (up to ∼100 kpc), bright (L{sub Lyα}  ≳ 10{sup 43} erg s{sup −1}) clouds of Ly α emitting gas that tend to lie in overdense regions at z  ∼ 2–5. The origin of the Ly α emission remains unknown, but recent theoretical work suggests that measuring the polarization might discriminate among powering mechanisms. Here we present the first narrowband imaging polarimetry of a radio-loud Ly α nebula, B3 J2330+3927, at z = 3.09, with an embedded active galactic nucleus (AGN). The AGN lies near the blob’s Ly α emission peak, and its radio lobes align roughly with the blob’s major axis. With the SPOL polarimeter on the 6.5 m MMT telescope, we map the total (Ly α + continuum) polarization in a grid of circular apertures of a radius of 0.″6 (4.4 kpc), detecting a significant (>2 σ ) polarization fraction P {sub %} in nine apertures and achieving strong upper limits (as low as 2%) elsewhere. P{sub %} increases from <2% at ∼5 kpc from the blob center to 17% at ∼15–25 kpc. The detections are distributed asymmetrically, roughly along the nebula’s major axis. The polarization angles θ are mostly perpendicular to this axis. Comparing the Ly α flux to that of the continuum and conservatively assuming that the continuum is highly polarized (20%–100%) and aligned with the total polarization, we place lower limits on the polarization of the Ly α emission P{sub %,Lyα} ranging from no significant polarization at ∼5 kpc from the blob center to 3%–17% at 10–25 kpc. Like the total polarization, the Ly α polarization detections occur more often along the blob’s major axis.

  4. MAPPING THE POLARIZATION OF THE RADIO-LOUD Ly α NEBULA B3 J2330+3927

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Chang; Zabludoff, Ann; Smith, Paul; Jannuzi, Buell; Yang, Yujin; Kim, Eunchong; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Prescott, Moire K. M.; Matsuda, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    Ly α nebulae, or “Ly α blobs,” are extended (up to ∼100 kpc), bright (L Lyα  ≳ 10 43 erg s −1 ) clouds of Ly α emitting gas that tend to lie in overdense regions at z  ∼ 2–5. The origin of the Ly α emission remains unknown, but recent theoretical work suggests that measuring the polarization might discriminate among powering mechanisms. Here we present the first narrowband imaging polarimetry of a radio-loud Ly α nebula, B3 J2330+3927, at z = 3.09, with an embedded active galactic nucleus (AGN). The AGN lies near the blob’s Ly α emission peak, and its radio lobes align roughly with the blob’s major axis. With the SPOL polarimeter on the 6.5 m MMT telescope, we map the total (Ly α + continuum) polarization in a grid of circular apertures of a radius of 0.″6 (4.4 kpc), detecting a significant (>2 σ ) polarization fraction P % in nine apertures and achieving strong upper limits (as low as 2%) elsewhere. P % increases from <2% at ∼5 kpc from the blob center to 17% at ∼15–25 kpc. The detections are distributed asymmetrically, roughly along the nebula’s major axis. The polarization angles θ are mostly perpendicular to this axis. Comparing the Ly α flux to that of the continuum and conservatively assuming that the continuum is highly polarized (20%–100%) and aligned with the total polarization, we place lower limits on the polarization of the Ly α emission P %,Lyα ranging from no significant polarization at ∼5 kpc from the blob center to 3%–17% at 10–25 kpc. Like the total polarization, the Ly α polarization detections occur more often along the blob’s major axis.

  5. Moderate resolution spectrophotometry of high redshift quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1991-01-01

    A uniform set of photometry and high signal-to-noise moderate resolution spectroscopy of 33 quasars with redshifts larger than 3.1 is presented. The sample consists of 17 newly discovered quasars (two with redshifts in excess of 4.4) and 16 sources drawn from the literature. The objects in this sample have r magnitudes between 17.4 and 21.4; their luminosities range from -28.8 to -24.9. Three of the 33 objects are broad absorption line quasars. A number of possible high redshift damped Ly-alpha systems were found.

  6. Fermi LAT Detection of a GeV Flare from the Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Sy1 1H 0323+342

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Bryce; Ojha, Roopesh

    2013-08-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed increasing gamma-ray flux from a source positionally consistent with 1H 0323+342 (RA=03h24m41.1613s, Dec=+34d10m45.856s, J2000; Beasley et al. 2002, ApJS, 141, 13) at z= 0.061 (Marcha et al. 1996, MNRAS, 281, 425). This is the second nearest radio-loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxy, a small and important class of gamma-ray loud AGN (Abdo et al.

  7. A multi-wavelength investigation of the radio-loud supernova PTF11qcj and its circumstellar environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsi, A. [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st St, NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Ofek, E. O.; Gal-Yam, A.; Xu, D. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Frail, D. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kulkarni, S. R.; Horesh, A.; Carpenter, J.; Arcavi, I.; Cao, Y.; Mooley, K.; Sesar, B. [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fox, D. B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kasliwal, M. M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Sullivan, M.; Maguire, K.; Pan, Y.-C. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Cenko, S. B. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 685, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sternberg, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astrophysik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Bersier, D., E-mail: corsi@gwu.edu [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-02-10

    We present the discovery, classification, and extensive panchromatic (from radio to X-ray) follow-up observations of PTF11qcj, a supernova (SN) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Our observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array show that this event is radio-loud: PTF11qcj reached a radio peak luminosity comparable to that of the famous gamma-ray-burst-associated SN 1998bw (L {sub 5} {sub GHz} ≈ 10{sup 29} erg s{sup –1} Hz{sup –1}). PTF11qcj is also detected in X-rays with the Chandra Observatory, and in the infrared band with Spitzer. Our multi-wavelength analysis probes the SN interaction with circumstellar material. The radio observations suggest a progenitor mass-loss rate of ∼10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} × (v{sub w} /1000 km s{sup –1}), and a velocity of ≈0.3-0.5 c for the fastest moving ejecta (at ≈10 days after explosion). However, these estimates are derived assuming the simplest model of SN ejecta interacting with a smooth circumstellar wind, and do not account for possible inhomogeneities in the medium and asphericity of the explosion. The radio data show deviations from such a simple model, as well as a late-time re-brightening. The X-ray flux from PTF11qcj is compatible with the high-frequency extrapolation of the radio synchrotron emission (within the large uncertainties). A light echo from pre-existing dust is in agreement with our infrared data. Our pre-explosion data from the PTF suggest that a precursor eruption of absolute magnitude M{sub r} ≈ –13 mag may have occurred ≈2.5 yr prior to the SN explosion. Overall, PTF11qcj fits the expectations from the explosion of a Wolf-Rayet star. Precursor eruptions may be a feature characterizing the final pre-explosion evolution of such stars.

  8. A CHANDRA SURVEY OF THE X-RAY PROPERTIES OF BROAD ABSORPTION LINE RADIO-LOUD QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Garmire, G. P.; Gibson, R. R.; Shemmer, O.

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the results of a Chandra study of 21 broad absorption line (BAL) radio-loud quasars (RLQs). We conducted a Chandra snapshot survey of 12 bright BAL RLQs selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data/Faint Images of the Radio Sky data and possessing a wide range of radio and C IV absorption properties. Optical spectra were obtained nearly contemporaneously with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope; no strong flux or BAL variability was seen between epochs. In addition to the snapshot targets, we include in our sample nine additional BAL RLQs possessing archival Chandra coverage. We compare the properties of (predominantly high-ionization) BAL RLQs to those of non-BAL RLQs as well as to BAL radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) and non-BAL RQQs for context. All 12 snapshots and 8/9 archival BAL RLQs are detected, with observed X-ray luminosities less than those of non-BAL RLQs having comparable optical/UV luminosities by typical factors of 4.1-8.5. (BAL RLQs are also X-ray weak by typical factors of 2.0-4.5 relative to non-BAL RLQs having both comparable optical/UV and radio luminosities.) However, BAL RLQs are not as X-ray weak relative to non-BAL RLQs as are BAL RQQs relative to non-BAL RQQs. While some BAL RLQs have harder X-ray spectra than typical non-BAL RLQs, some have hardness ratios consistent with those of non-BAL RLQs, and there does not appear to be a correlation between X-ray weakness and spectral hardness, in contrast to the situation for BAL RQQs. RLQs are expected to have X-ray continuum contributions from both accretion-disk corona and small-scale jet emission. While the entire X-ray continuum in BAL RLQs cannot be obscured to the same degree as in BAL RQQs, we calculate that the jet is likely partially covered in many BAL RLQs. We comment briefly on implications for geometries and source ages in BAL RLQs.

  9. Dust in High-Redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettini, Max; King, David L.; Smith, Linda J.; Hunstead, Richard W.

    1997-03-01

    Measurements of Zn and Cr abundances in 18 damped Lyα systems (DLAs) at absorption redshifts zabs = 0.692-3.390 (but mostly between zabs ~= 2 and 3) show that metals and dust are much less abundant in high-redshift galaxies than in the Milky Way today. Typically, [Zn/H] ~= -1.2 as Zn tracks Fe closely in Galactic stars of all metallicities and is only lightly depleted onto interstellar grains, we conclude that the overall degree of metal enrichment of damped Lyα galaxies ~13.5 Gyr ago (H0 = 50 km s-1 Mpc-1, q0 = 0.05) was ~1/15 solar. Values of [Cr/Zn] span the range from ~=0 to account correctly, it is possible to misinterpret the clues to early nucleosynthesis provided by nonsolar element ratios.

  10. The visibility of high-redshift galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Davies, J.I.; Disney, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The most visible galaxies - that is, those which have the largest apparent sizes and isophotal luminosities when seen at a given distance - are those with a particular observed surface brightness. Extending this argument to high-redshift galaxies, it is clear that this optimum surface brightness moves progressively to brighter intrinsic surface brightnesses, so as to counteract the effect of K-corrections and cosmological dimming. Thus the galaxies appearing in faint surveys will be from a population distinctly different from those 'normal' galaxies observed nearby. Galaxies in deep surveys are more likely to be spirals and to be of high surface brightness. This has very important implications for observational studies of galaxy evolution. (author)

  11. Protogalaxy formation from inhomogeneities in cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Equations governing the growth of protogalaxies in general homogeneous cosmological models were derived. Both non-relativistic Newtonian theory and general relativistic theory were covered. For the Newtonian case, by means of the concept of comoving Fourier analysis, the perturbation equations became coupled first order ordinary differential equations and were then further simplified. Bonnor's equation of galaxy formation in isotropic Newtonian cosmologies was generalized to anisotropic cases. The growth equations were solved for various background Newtonian models and gravitationally unstable solutions were found. By an approach analogous to Bonnor's non-relativistic approach, a relativistic version of the galaxy growth equation for the homogeneous isotropic cosmologies was derived. Galaxy growth in the anisotropic homogeneous Bianchi type I cosmologies was also considered. The full set of Einstein equations in synchronous coordinates was perturbed then simplified. The resulting equation was discussed in special cases of dust, axial symmetry and Kasner backgrounds. Finally the tetrad equations for perturbations in steady state cosmologies was set up with a view to considering the effect of rotation

  12. DISCOVERY OF DRAMATIC OPTICAL VARIABILITY IN SDSS J1100+4421: A PECULIAR RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Masaomi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Morokuma, Tomoki; Doi, Mamoru; Kikuchi, Yuki [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Itoh, Ryosuke [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Akitaya, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Kawabata, Koji S. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Tominaga, Nozomu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Saito, Yoshihiko; Kawai, Nobuyuki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Stawarz, Łukasz [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Gandhi, Poshak [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1-3LE (United Kingdom); Ali, Gamal; Essam, Ahmad; Hamed, Gamal [National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Helwan, Cairo (Egypt); Aoki, Tsutomu [Kiso Observatory, Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Kiso, Nagano 397-0101 (Japan); Contreras, Carlos; Hsiao, Eric Y. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Iwata, Ikuru, E-mail: masaomi.tanaka@nao.ac.jp [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); and others

    2014-10-01

    We present our discovery of dramatic variability in SDSS J1100+4421 by the high-cadence transient survey Kiso Supernova Survey. The source brightened in the optical by at least a factor of three within about half a day. Spectroscopic observations suggest that this object is likely a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1) at z = 0.840, however, with unusually strong narrow emission lines. The estimated black hole mass of ∼10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} implies bolometric nuclear luminosity close to the Eddington limit. SDSS J1100+4421 is also extremely radio-loud, with a radio loudness parameter of R ≅ 4 × 10{sup 2}-3 × 10{sup 3}, which implies the presence of relativistic jets. Rapid and large-amplitude optical variability of the target, reminiscent of that found in a few radio- and γ-ray-loud NLS1s, is therefore produced most likely in a blazar-like core. The 1.4 GHz radio image of the source shows an extended structure with a linear size of about 100 kpc. If SDSS J1100+4421 is a genuine NLS1, as suggested here, this radio structure would then be the largest ever discovered in this type of active galaxies.

  13. Galaxy luminosity function: evolution at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, N.; Durret, F.; Guennou, L.; Adami, C.

    2014-12-01

    There are some disagreements about the abundance of faint galaxies in high redshift clusters. DAFT/FADA (Dark energy American French Team) is a medium redshift (0.4

  14. Luminosity function of high redshift quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaucher, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    Data from ten different emission-line surveys are included in a study of the luminosity function of high redshift quasars. Five of the surveys are analyzed through microdensitometric techniques and the data for new quasars are given. The uncertainties in magnitudes, redshifts, and line equivalent widths are assessed and found to be +-0.3 mag. +-0.04 in z and approx. 30%, respectively. Criteria for selecting the redshift range 1.8 less than or equal to z - 1 Mpc - 1 for each of two cosmologies (q 0 = 1 and q 0 = 0). For either cosmology, the function exhibits a steep increase with magnitude at high luminosities and a gentler increase at intermediate luminosities. Data from the new surveys indicate a possible turnover at the faint end of the distribution. Total volume densities of quasars are computed for each of three extrapolations of the trend of the data to low luminosities. These densities are compared to those of active galaxies and field galaxies

  15. Highly Accreting Quasars at High Redshift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L. Martínez-Aldama

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results of a spectroscopic analysis for a sample of type 1 highly accreting quasars (L/LEdd ~ 1.0 at high redshift, z ~2–3. The quasars were observed with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the GTC 10.4 m telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The highly accreting quasars were identified using the 4D Eigenvector 1 formalism, which is able to organize type 1 quasars over a broad range of redshift and luminosity. The kinematic and physical properties of the broad line region have been derived by fitting the profiles of strong UV emission lines such as Aliiiλ1860, Siiii]λ1892 and Ciii]λ1909. The majority of our sources show strong blueshifts in the high-ionization lines and high Eddington ratios which are related with the productions of outflows. The importance of highly accreting quasars goes beyond a detailed understanding of their physics: their extreme Eddington ratio makes them candidates standard candles for cosmological studies.

  16. Highly Accreting Quasars at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; Del Olmo, Ascensión; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; Negrete, C. Alenka; Dultzin, Deborah; Perea, Jaime; D'Onofrio, Mauro

    2017-12-01

    We present preliminary results of a spectroscopic analysis for a sample of type 1 highly accreting quasars (LLedd>0.2) at high redshift, z 2-3. The quasars were observed with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the GTC 10.4 m telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The highly accreting quasars were identified using the 4D Eigenvector 1 formalism, which is able to organize type 1 quasars over a broad range of redshift and luminosity. The kinematic and physical properties of the broad line region have been derived by fitting the profiles of strong UV emission lines such as AlIII, SiIII and CIII. The majority of our sources show strong blueshifts in the high-ionization lines and high Eddington ratios which are related with the productions of outflows. The importance of highly accreting quasars goes beyond a detailed understanding of their physics: their extreme Eddington ratio makes them candidates standard candles for cosmological studies.

  17. High redshift quasars and high metallicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, Gary J.

    1997-01-01

    A large-scale code called Cloudy was designed to simulate non-equilibrium plasmas and predict their spectra. The goal was to apply it to studies of galactic and extragalactic emission line objects in order to reliably deduce abundances and luminosities. Quasars are of particular interest because they are the most luminous objects in the universe and the highest redshift objects that can be observed spectroscopically, and their emission lines can reveal the composition of the interstellar medium (ISM) of the universe when it was well under a billion years old. The lines are produced by warm (approximately 10(sup 4)K) gas with moderate to low density (n less than or equal to 10(sup 12) cm(sup -3)). Cloudy has been extended to include approximately 10(sup 4) resonance lines from the 495 possible stages of ionization of the lightest 30 elements, an extension that required several steps. The charge transfer database was expanded to complete the needed reactions between hydrogen and the first four ions and fit all reactions with a common approximation. Radiative recombination rate coefficients were derived for recombination from all closed shells, where this process should dominate. Analytical fits to Opacity Project (OP) and other recent photoionization cross sections were produced. Finally, rescaled OP oscillator strengths were used to compile a complete set of data for 5971 resonance lines. The major discovery has been that high redshift quasars have very high metallicities and there is strong evidence that the quasar phenomenon is associated with the birth of massive elliptical galaxies.

  18. The cluster environments of powerful, high-redshift radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    We present deep imaging of a sample of 25 powerful radio galaxies in the redshift range 0.15 gr ) about each source, a measure of the richness of environment. The powerful radio galaxies in this sample at z>0.3 occupy environments nearly as rich on average as Abell class 0 clusters of galaxies, about three times richer than the environments of the z<0.3 radio galaxies. This trend in cluster environment is consistent with that seen in radio-loud quasars over the same redshift range. Our previous work on the 3CR sample suggested that the fundamental parameter which correlates with the richness of environment might be the radio luminosity of the galaxy, rather than its redshift. Our direct imaging confirms that the most powerful radio galaxies do inhabit rich environments. (author)

  19. The Gamma-Ray Emitting Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy PKS 2004-447 II. The Radio View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, R.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Kadler, M.; Ojha, R.; Ros, E.; Stevens, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Carpenter, B.; Elsaesser, D.; Gehrels, N.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Context. gamma-ray-detected radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (gamma-NLS1) galaxies constitute a small but interesting sample of the gamma-ray-loud AGN. The radio-loudest gamma-NLS1 known, PKS2004447, is located in the southern hemisphere and is monitored in the radio regime by the multiwavelength monitoring programme TANAMI. Aims. We aim for the first detailed study of the radio morphology and long-term radio spectral evolution of PKS2004447, which are essential for understanding the diversity of the radio properties of gamma-NLS1s. Methods. The TANAMI VLBI monitoring program uses the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) and telescopes in Antarctica, Chile, New Zealand, and South Africa to monitor the jets of radio-loud active galaxies in the southern hemisphere. Lower resolution radio flux density measurements at multiple radio frequencies over four years of observations were obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). Results. The TANAMI VLBI image at 8.4GHz shows an extended one-sided jet with a dominant compact VLBI core. Its brightness temperature is consistent with equipartition, but it is an order of magnitude below other gamma-NLS1s with the sample value varying over two orders of magnitude. We find a compact morphology with a projected large-scale size 11 kpc and a persistent steep radio spectrum with moderate flux-density variability. Conclusions. PKS2004447 appears to be a unique member of the gamma-NLS1 sample. It exhibits blazar-like features, such as a flat featureless X-ray spectrum and a core-dominated, one-sided parsec-scale jet with indications for relativistic beaming. However, the data also reveal properties atypical for blazars, such as a radio spectrum and large-scale size consistent with compact-steep-spectrum (CSS) objects, which are usually associated with young radio sources. These characteristics are unique among all gamma-NLS1s and extremely rare among gamma-ray-loud AGN.

  20. High-Redshift Radio Galaxies from Deep Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... High-Redshift Radio Galaxies from Deep Fields ... Here we present results from the deep 150 MHz observations of LBDS-Lynx field, which has been imaged at 327, ... Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately.

  1. Probing the bias of radio sources at high redshift

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Passmoor, S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the clustering of dark matter and that of luminous matter is often described using the bias parameter. Here, we provide a new method to probe the bias of intermediate-to-high-redshift radio continuum sources for which...

  2. High-redshift SDSS Quasars with Weak Emission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Brandt, W. N.

    2009-01-01

    We identify a sample of 74 high-redshift quasars (z > 3) with weak emission lines from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and present infrared, optical, and radio observations of a subsample of four objects at z > 4. These weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) constitute a promine...

  3. Broadband spectral study of the jet-disc emission in the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0323+342

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ritesh; Dewangan, Gulab C.; Mallick, Labani; Raychaudhuri, Biplab

    2018-06-01

    We present a broadband spectral study of the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0323+342 based on multi-epoch observations performed with NuSTAR on 2014 March 15, and two simultaneous observations performed with Suzaku and Swift on 2009 July 26 and 2013 March 1. We found the presence of a strong soft X-ray excess emission, a broad but weak Fe line and hard X-ray excess emission. We used the blurred reflection (relxill) and the intrinsic disc Comptonization (optxagnf), two physically motivated models, to describe the broadband spectra and to disentangle the disk/corona and jet emission. The relxill model is mainly constrained by the strong soft X-ray excess although the model failed to predict this excess when fitted above 3{keV} and extrapolated to lower energies. The joint spectral analysis of the three datasets above 3{keV} with this model resulted in a high black hole spin (a > 0.9) and moderate reflection fraction R ˜ 0.5. The optxagnf model fitted to the two simultaneous datasets resulted in an excess emission in the UV band. The simultaneous UV-to-hard X-ray spectra of 1H 0323+342 are best described by a model consisting of a primary X-ray power-law continuum with Γ ˜ 1.8, a blurred reflection component with R ˜ 0.5, Comptonised disk emission as the soft X-ray excess, optical/UV emission from a standard accretion disk around a black hole of mass ˜107M⊙ and a steep power law (Γ ˜ 3 - 3.5) component, most likely the jet emission in the UV band. The fractional RMS variability spectra suggest that both the soft excess and the powerlaw component are variable in nature.

  4. RADIATION MECHANISM AND JET COMPOSITION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND GeV-TeV-SELECTED RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jin; Lu Ye; Zhang Shuangnan [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liang Enwei; Sun Xiaona [Department of Physics and GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Zhang Bing, E-mail: lew@gxu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and GeV-TeV-selected radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are compared based on our systematic modeling of the observed spectral energy distributions of a sample of AGNs with a single-zone leptonic model. We show that the correlation between the jet power (P{sub jet}) and the prompt gamma-ray luminosity (L{sub jet}) of GRBs is consistent, within the uncertainties, with the correlation between jet power and the synchrotron peak luminosity (L{sub s,jet}) of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). Their radiation efficiencies ({epsilon}) are also comparable (>10% for most sources), which increase with the bolometric jet luminosity (L{sub bol,jet}) for FSRQs and with the L{sub jet} for GRBs with similar power-law indices. BL Lac objects (BL Lacs) do not follow the P{sub jet}-L{sub s,jet} relation of FSRQs. They have lower {epsilon} and L{sub bol,jet} values than FSRQs, and a tentative L{sub bol,jet}-{epsilon} relation is also found, with a power-law index different from that of the FSRQs. The magnetization parameters ({sigma}) of FSRQs are on average larger than that of BL Lacs. They are anti-correlated with {epsilon} for the FSRQs, but positively correlated with {epsilon} for the BL Lacs. GeV narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies potentially share similar properties with FSRQs. Based on the analogy between GRBs and FSRQs, we suggest that the prompt gamma-ray emission of GRBs is likely produced by the synchrotron process in a magnetized jet with high radiation efficiency, similar to FSRQs. The jets of BL Lacs, on the other hand, are less efficient and are likely more matter-dominated.

  5. The Suzaku Observation of the Nucleus of theRadio-Loud Active Galaxy Centaurus A: Constraints on Abundances of the Accreting Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowitz, A.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, S.; Nakazawa, K.; Fukazawa, Y.; Kokubun, M.; Makishima, K.; Awaki, H.; Bamba, A.; Isobe, N.; Kataoka, J.; Madejski, G.; Mushotzky,; Okajima, T.; Ptak, A.; Reeves, J.N.; Ueda, Y.; Yamasaki, T.; Yaqoob, T.

    2007-06-27

    A Suzaku observation of the nucleus of the radio-loud AGN Centaurus A in 2005 has yielded a broadband spectrum spanning 0.3 to 250 keV. The net exposure times after screening were: 70 ks per X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) camera, 60.8 ks for the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) PIN, and 17.1 ks for the HXD-GSO. The hard X-rays are fit by two power-laws of the same slope, absorbed by columns of 1.5 and 7 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2} respectively. The spectrum is consistent with previous suggestions that the power-law components are X-ray emission from the sub-pc VLBI jet and from Bondi accretion at the core, but it is also consistent with a partial covering interpretation. The soft band is dominated by thermal emission from the diffuse plasma and is fit well by a two-temperature vapec model, plus a third power-law component to account for scattered nuclear emission, jet emission, and emission from X-ray Binaries and other point sources. Narrow fluorescent emission lines from Fe, Si, S, Ar, Ca and Ni are detected. The Fe K{alpha} line width yields a 200 light-day lower limit on the distance from the black hole to the line-emitting gas. Fe, Ca, and S K-shell absorption edges are detected. Elemental abundances are constrained via absorption edge depths and strengths of the fluorescent and diffuse plasma emission lines. The high metallicity ([Fe/H]=+0.1) of the circumnuclear material suggests that it could not have originated in the relatively metal-poor outer halo unless enrichment by local star formation has occurred. Relative abundances are consistent with enrichment from Type II and Ia supernovae.

  6. High-Redshift galaxies light from the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Appenzeller, Immo

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive account of the scientific results on high-redshift galaxies accumulated during the past ten years. Apart from summarizing and critically discussing the wealth of observational data, the observational methods which made it possible to study these very distant and extremely faint objects are described in detail. Moreover, the technical feasibilities and physical limitations for existing and for future ground-based and space-based telescopes are discussed. Thus, apart from summarizing the knowledge accumulated so far, the book is designed as a tool for planning future observational and instrumental programs and projects. In view of the potential importance of the observational results of the high-redshift universe for basic physics the book is written for astronomers as well as for physicists without prior astronomical knowledge. For this purpose it contains introductory chapters describing the basic concepts and notations used in modern astronomy and a brief overview of the pr...

  7. Detectability of Gravitational Waves from High-Redshift Binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Pablo A; Lasky, Paul D; Thrane, Eric; Zhu, Xingjiang; Mandel, Ilya; Sesana, Alberto

    2016-03-11

    Recent nondetection of gravitational-wave backgrounds from pulsar timing arrays casts further uncertainty on the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries. We study the capabilities of current gravitational-wave observatories to detect individual binaries and demonstrate that, contrary to conventional wisdom, some are, in principle, detectable throughout the Universe. In particular, a binary with rest-frame mass ≳10^{10}M_{⊙} can be detected by current timing arrays at arbitrarily high redshifts. The same claim will apply for less massive binaries with more sensitive future arrays. As a consequence, future searches for nanohertz gravitational waves could be expanded to target evolving high-redshift binaries. We calculate the maximum distance at which binaries can be observed with pulsar timing arrays and other detectors, properly accounting for redshift and using realistic binary waveforms.

  8. Photometry of High-Redshift Gravitationally Lensed Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Annastasia

    2018-01-01

    Out of more than 1100 well-identified Type Ia Supernovae, only roughly 10 of them are at z> 1.5. High redshift supernovae are hard to detect but this is made easier by taking advantage of the effects of gravitational lensing, which magnifies objects in the background field of massive galaxy clusters. Supernova Nebra (z= ~1.8), among others, was discovered during observations taken as part of the RELICS survey, which focused on fields of view that experience strong gravitational lensing effects. SN Nebra, which sits behind galaxy cluster Abell 1763, is magnified and therefore appears closer and easier to see than with HST alone. Studying high-redshift supernovae like SN Nebra is an important step towards creating cosmological models that accurately describe the behavior of dark energy in the early Universe. Recent efforts have been focused on improving photometry and the building and fitting of preliminary light curves.

  9. Tunable filter imaging of high-redshift quasar fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinbank, J.; Baker, J.; Barr, J.; Hook, I.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2012-01-01

    We have used the Taurus Tunable Filter to search for Lyα emitters in the fields of three high-redshift quasars: two at z∼ 2.2 (MRC B1256−243 and MRC B2158−206) and one at z∼ 4.5 (BR B0019−1522). Our observations had a field of view of around 35 arcmin2, and reached AB magnitudes of ∼21 (MRC

  10. Quasar Winds as Dust Factories at High Redshift

    OpenAIRE

    Elvis, Martin; Marengo, Massimo; Karovska, Margarita

    2003-01-01

    Winds from AGN and quasars will form large amounts of dust, as the cool gas in these winds passes through the (pressure, temperature) region where dust is formed in AGB stars. Conditions in the gas are benign to dust at these radii. As a result quasar winds may be a major source of dust at high redshifts, obviating a difficulty with current observations, and requiring far less dust to exist at early epochs.

  11. Short-Term Variability and Power Spectral Density Analysis of the Radio-Loud Active Galactic Nucleus 3C 390.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliozzi, Mario; Papadakis, Iossif E.; Eracleous, Michael; Sambruna, Rita M.; Ballantyne, David R.; Braito, Valentina; Reeves, James N.

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the short-term variability properties and the power spectral density (PSD) of the broad-line radio galaxy (BLRG) 3C 390.3 using observations made by XMM-Newton, RXTE, and Suzaku on several occasions between 2004 October and 2006 December. The main aim of this work is to derive model-independent constraints on the origin of the X-ray emission and on the nature of the central engine in 3C 390.3. On timescales of the order of few hours, probed by uninterrupted XMM-Newton light curves, the flux of 3C 390.3 is consistent with being constant in all energy bands. On longer timescales, probed by the 2-day RXTE and Suzaku observations, the flux variability becomes significant. The latter observation confirms that the spectral variability behavior of 3C 390.3 is consistent with the spectral evolution observed in (radio-quiet) Seyfert galaxies: the spectrum softens as the source brightens. The correlated variability between soft and hard X-rays, observed during the Suzaku exposure and between the two XMM-Newton pointings, taken 1 week apart, argues against scenarios characterized by the presence of two distinct variable components in the 0.5-10 keV X-ray band. A detailed PSD analysis carried out over five decades in frequency suggests the presence of a break at T br = 43+34 -25 days at a 92% confidence level. This is the second tentative detection of a PSD break in a radio-loud, non-jet dominated active galactic nucleus (AGN), after the BLRG 3C 120, and appears to be in general agreement with the relation between T br, M BH, and L bol, followed by Seyfert galaxies. Our results indicate that the X-ray variability properties of 3C 390.3 are broadly consistent with those of radio-quiet AGN, suggesting that the X-ray emission mechanism in 3C 390.3 is similar to that of nearby Seyfert galaxies without any significant contribution from a jet component.

  12. SHORT-TERM VARIABILITY AND POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY ANALYSIS OF THE RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS 3C 390.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliozzi, Mario; Papadakis, Iossif E.; Eracleous, Michael; Sambruna, Rita M.; Ballantyne, David R.; Braito, Valentina; Reeves, James N.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the short-term variability properties and the power spectral density (PSD) of the broad-line radio galaxy (BLRG) 3C 390.3 using observations made by XMM-Newton, RXTE, and Suzaku on several occasions between 2004 October and 2006 December. The main aim of this work is to derive model-independent constraints on the origin of the X-ray emission and on the nature of the central engine in 3C 390.3. On timescales of the order of few hours, probed by uninterrupted XMM-Newton light curves, the flux of 3C 390.3 is consistent with being constant in all energy bands. On longer timescales, probed by the 2-day RXTE and Suzaku observations, the flux variability becomes significant. The latter observation confirms that the spectral variability behavior of 3C 390.3 is consistent with the spectral evolution observed in (radio-quiet) Seyfert galaxies: the spectrum softens as the source brightens. The correlated variability between soft and hard X-rays, observed during the Suzaku exposure and between the two XMM-Newton pointings, taken 1 week apart, argues against scenarios characterized by the presence of two distinct variable components in the 0.5-10 keV X-ray band. A detailed PSD analysis carried out over five decades in frequency suggests the presence of a break at T br = 43 +34 -25 days at a 92% confidence level. This is the second tentative detection of a PSD break in a radio-loud, non-jet dominated active galactic nucleus (AGN), after the BLRG 3C 120, and appears to be in general agreement with the relation between T br , M BH , and L bol , followed by Seyfert galaxies. Our results indicate that the X-ray variability properties of 3C 390.3 are broadly consistent with those of radio-quiet AGN, suggesting that the X-ray emission mechanism in 3C 390.3 is similar to that of nearby Seyfert galaxies without any significant contribution from a jet component.

  13. Bulge Growth Through Disc Instabilities in High-Redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bournaud, Frédéric

    The role of disc instabilities, such as bars and spiral arms, and the associated resonances, in growing bulges in the inner regions of disc galaxies have long been studied in the low-redshift nearby Universe. There it has long been probed observationally, in particular through peanut-shaped bulges (Chap. 14 10.1007/978-3-319-19378-6_14"). This secular growth of bulges in modern disc galaxies is driven by weak, non-axisymmetric instabilities: it mostly produces pseudobulges at slow rates and with long star-formation timescales. Disc instabilities at high redshift (z > 1) in moderate-mass to massive galaxies (1010 to a few 1011 M⊙ of stars) are very different from those found in modern spiral galaxies. High-redshift discs are globally unstable and fragment into giant clumps containing 108-9 M⊙ of gas and stars each, which results in highly irregular galaxy morphologies. The clumps and other features associated to the violent instability drive disc evolution and bulge growth through various mechanisms on short timescales. The giant clumps can migrate inward and coalesce into the bulge in a few 108 years. The instability in the very turbulent media drives intense gas inflows toward the bulge and nuclear region. Thick discs and supermassive black holes can grow concurrently as a result of the violent instability. This chapter reviews the properties of high-redshift disc instabilities, the evolution of giant clumps and other features associated to the instability, and the resulting growth of bulges and associated sub-galactic components.

  14. Identifying high-redshift gamma-ray bursts with RATIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlejohns, O. M.; Butler, N. R. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Cucchiara, A. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Watson, A. M.; Lee, W. H.; Richer, M. G.; De Diego, J. A.; Georgiev, L.; González, J.; Román-Zúñiga, C. G. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-264, 04510 México, D. F. (Mexico); Kutyrev, A. S.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.; Moseley, H. [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Klein, C. R.; Fox, O. D.; Bloom, J. S. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We present a template-fitting algorithm for determining photometric redshifts, z {sub phot}, of candidate high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Using afterglow photometry, obtained by the Reionization and Transients InfraRed (RATIR) camera, this algorithm accounts for the intrinsic GRB afterglow spectral energy distribution, host dust extinction, and the effect of neutral hydrogen (local and cosmological) along the line of sight. We present the results obtained by this algorithm and the RATIR photometry of GRB 130606A, finding a range of best-fit solutions, 5.6 < z {sub phot} < 6.0, for models of several host dust extinction laws (none, the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Clouds, and Small Magellanic Clouds), consistent with spectroscopic measurements of the redshift of this GRB. Using simulated RATIR photometry, we find that our algorithm provides precise measures of z {sub phot} in the ranges of 4 < z {sub phot} ≲ 8 and 9 < z {sub phot} < 10 and can robustly determine when z {sub phot} > 4. Further testing highlights the required caution in cases of highly dust-extincted host galaxies. These tests also show that our algorithm does not erroneously find z {sub phot} < 4 when z {sub sim} > 4, thereby minimizing false negatives and allowing us to rapidly identify all potential high-redshift events.

  15. Identifying high-redshift gamma-ray bursts with RATIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlejohns, O. M.; Butler, N. R.; Cucchiara, A.; Watson, A. M.; Lee, W. H.; Richer, M. G.; De Diego, J. A.; Georgiev, L.; González, J.; Román-Zúñiga, C. G.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.; Moseley, H.; Klein, C. R.; Fox, O. D.; Bloom, J. S.; Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.

    2014-01-01

    We present a template-fitting algorithm for determining photometric redshifts, z phot , of candidate high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Using afterglow photometry, obtained by the Reionization and Transients InfraRed (RATIR) camera, this algorithm accounts for the intrinsic GRB afterglow spectral energy distribution, host dust extinction, and the effect of neutral hydrogen (local and cosmological) along the line of sight. We present the results obtained by this algorithm and the RATIR photometry of GRB 130606A, finding a range of best-fit solutions, 5.6 < z phot < 6.0, for models of several host dust extinction laws (none, the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Clouds, and Small Magellanic Clouds), consistent with spectroscopic measurements of the redshift of this GRB. Using simulated RATIR photometry, we find that our algorithm provides precise measures of z phot in the ranges of 4 < z phot ≲ 8 and 9 < z phot < 10 and can robustly determine when z phot > 4. Further testing highlights the required caution in cases of highly dust-extincted host galaxies. These tests also show that our algorithm does not erroneously find z phot < 4 when z sim > 4, thereby minimizing false negatives and allowing us to rapidly identify all potential high-redshift events.

  16. Bimodal star formation - constraints from galaxy colors at high redshift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyse, R.F.G.; Silk, J.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility that at early epochs the light from elliptical galaxies is dominated by stars with an initial mass function (IMF) which is deficient in low-mass stars, relative to the solar neighborhood is investigated. V-R colors for the optical counterparts of 3CR radio sources offer the most severe constraints on the models. Reasonable fits are obtained to both the blue, high-redshift colors and the redder, low-redshift colors with a model galaxy which forms with initially equal star formation rates in each of two IMF modes: one lacking low-mass stars, and one with stars of all masses. The net effect is that the time-integrated IMF has twice as many high-mass stars as the solar neighborhood IMF, relative to low mass stars. A conventional solar neighborhood IMF does not simultaneously account for both the range in colors at high redshift and the redness of nearby ellipticals, with any single star formation epoch. Models with a standard IMF require half the stellar population to be formed in a burst at low redshift z of about 1. 38 references

  17. THE FIRST HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASAR FROM Pan-STARRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morganson, Eric; De Rosa, Gisella; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Rix, Hans-Walter; Chambers, Ken; Burgett, William; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene; Sweeney, Bill; Waters, Christopher; McGreer, Ian; Fan, Xiaohui; Greiner, Jochen; Price, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of the first high-redshift (z > 5.7) quasar from the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1 or PS1). This quasar was initially detected as an i P1 dropout in PS1, confirmed photometrically with the SAO Wide-field InfraRed Camera at Arizona's Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) and the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector at the MPG 2.2 m telescope in La Silla. The quasar was verified spectroscopically with the MMT Spectrograph, Red Channel and the Cassegrain Twin Spectrograph at the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. Its near-infrared spectrum was taken at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBT) with the LBT Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral Field Unit for Extragalactic Research. It has a redshift of 5.73, an AB z P1 magnitude of 19.4, a luminosity of 3.8 × 10 47 erg s –1 , and a black hole mass of 6.9 × 10 9 M ☉ . It is a broad absorption line quasar with a prominent Lyβ peak and a very blue continuum spectrum. This quasar is the first result from the PS1 high-redshift quasar search that is projected to discover more than 100 i P1 dropout quasars and could potentially find more than 10 z P1 dropout (z > 6.8) quasars.

  18. Discovery and spectrophotometry of high-redshift quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAlpine, G.M.; Feldman, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    We report on the discovery and spectrophotometry of 30 new high-redshift quasars, which were detected using the Curtis Schmidt technique. We also discuss new follow-up spectrophotometry for 23 quasar candidates from University of Michigan Lists I--IV. Our program sample contains eight quasars with z>3, at least five objects exhibiting broad absorption troughs, and a pair of quasars which are 1' apart on the sky and nearly identical in redshift, at z near 2.13. The redshift distribution for the majority of quasars in UM List IV suggests that most of the single-line quasar candidates in the UM List have low to moderate redshifts, with the reported line often being Mg II lambda2798 or C III] lambda1909. For 17 high-redshift quasars where lambda912 at the emission-line redshift could be examined, we did not find any definite Lyman limit cutoffs. Although three objects show a decline of the continuum within 100 A of lambda912, we do not believe them to be unambiguous examples for emission-line clouds situated in the line of sight. When our O I lambda1304 measurements are combined with the data of others to yield a composite spectrum, we obtain O I lambda1304/lambda8446 = 1.35. This suggests reddening with E/sub B/-Vroughly-equal0.23. Finally, our data exhibit a correlation between Lyα emission line velocity widths and redshift. The higher z quasars in the sample tend to have narrower lines, due, at least in part, to bias in the detection technique

  19. THE DARK SIDE OF QSO FORMATION AT HIGH REDSHIFTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano-Diaz, Emilio; Shlosman, Isaac; Trenti, Michele; Hoffman, Yehuda

    2011-01-01

    Observed high-redshift QSOs, at z ∼ 6, may reside in massive dark matter (DM) halos of more than 10 12 M sun and are thus expected to be surrounded by overdense regions. In a series of 10 constrained simulations, we have tested the environment of such QSOs. The usage of constrained realizations has enabled us to address the issue of cosmic variance and to study the statistical properties of the QSO host halos. Comparing the computed overdensities with respect to the unconstrained simulations of regions empty of QSOs, assuming there is no bias between the DM and baryon distributions, and invoking an observationally constrained duty cycle for Lyman break galaxies, we have obtained the galaxy count number for the QSO environment. We find that a clear discrepancy exists between the computed and observed galaxy counts in the Kim et al. samples. Our simulations predict that on average eight z ∼ 6 galaxies per QSO field should have been observed, while Kim et al. detect on average four galaxies per QSO field compared to an average of three galaxies in a control sample (GOODS fields). While we cannot rule out a small number of statistics for the observed fields to high confidence, the discrepancy suggests that galaxy formation in the QSO neighborhood proceeds differently than in the field. We also find that QSO halos are the most massive of the simulated volume at z ∼ 6 but this is no longer true at z ∼ 3. This implies that QSO halos, even in a case where they are the most massive ones at high redshifts, do not evolve into the most massive galaxy clusters at z = 0.

  20. THE FIRST HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASAR FROM Pan-STARRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganson, Eric; De Rosa, Gisella; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Chambers, Ken; Burgett, William; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene; Sweeney, Bill; Waters, Christopher [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); McGreer, Ian; Fan, Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Greiner, Jochen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Price, Paul, E-mail: morganson@mpia.de [Princeton University Observatory, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    We present the discovery of the first high-redshift (z > 5.7) quasar from the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1 or PS1). This quasar was initially detected as an i{sub P1} dropout in PS1, confirmed photometrically with the SAO Wide-field InfraRed Camera at Arizona's Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) and the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector at the MPG 2.2 m telescope in La Silla. The quasar was verified spectroscopically with the MMT Spectrograph, Red Channel and the Cassegrain Twin Spectrograph at the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. Its near-infrared spectrum was taken at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBT) with the LBT Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral Field Unit for Extragalactic Research. It has a redshift of 5.73, an AB z{sub P1} magnitude of 19.4, a luminosity of 3.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 47} erg s{sup -1}, and a black hole mass of 6.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }. It is a broad absorption line quasar with a prominent Ly{beta} peak and a very blue continuum spectrum. This quasar is the first result from the PS1 high-redshift quasar search that is projected to discover more than 100 i{sub P1} dropout quasars and could potentially find more than 10 z{sub P1} dropout (z > 6.8) quasars.

  1. Close companions to two high-redshift quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Bian, Fuyan [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Strauss, Michael A. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Haiman, Zoltàn [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Jiang, Linhua [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Schneider, Donald P., E-mail: imcgreer@as.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and the Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We report the serendipitous discoveries of companion galaxies to two high-redshift quasars. SDSS J025617.7+001904 is a z = 4.79 quasar included in our recent survey of faint quasars in the SDSS Stripe 82 region. The initial MMT slit spectroscopy shows excess Lyα emission extending well beyond the quasar's light profile. Further imaging and spectroscopy with LBT/MODS1 confirms the presence of a bright galaxy (i {sub AB} = 23.6) located 2'' (12 kpc projected) from the quasar with strong Lyα emission (EW{sub 0} ≈ 100 Å) at the redshift of the quasar, as well as faint continuum. The second quasar, CFHQS J005006.6+344522 (z = 6.25), is included in our recent HST SNAP survey of z ∼ 6 quasars searching for evidence of gravitational lensing. Deep imaging with ACS and WFC3 confirms an optical dropout ∼4.5 mag fainter than the quasar (Y {sub AB} = 25) at a separation of 0.''9. The red i {sub 775} – Y {sub 105} color of the galaxy and its proximity to the quasar (5 kpc projected if at the quasar redshift) strongly favor an association with the quasar. Although it is much fainter than the quasar, it is remarkably bright when compared to field galaxies at this redshift, while showing no evidence for lensing. Both systems may represent late-stage mergers of two massive galaxies, with the observed light for one dominated by powerful ongoing star formation and for the other by rapid black hole growth. Observations of close companions are rare; if major mergers are primarily responsible for high-redshift quasar fueling then the phase when progenitor galaxies can be observed as bright companions is relatively short.

  2. Close Companions to Two High-redshift Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Strauss, Michael A.; Haiman, Zoltàn; Richards, Gordon T.; Jiang, Linhua; Bian, Fuyan; Schneider, Donald P.

    2014-10-01

    We report the serendipitous discoveries of companion galaxies to two high-redshift quasars. SDSS J025617.7+001904 is a z = 4.79 quasar included in our recent survey of faint quasars in the SDSS Stripe 82 region. The initial MMT slit spectroscopy shows excess Lyα emission extending well beyond the quasar's light profile. Further imaging and spectroscopy with LBT/MODS1 confirms the presence of a bright galaxy (i AB = 23.6) located 2'' (12 kpc projected) from the quasar with strong Lyα emission (EW0 ≈ 100 Å) at the redshift of the quasar, as well as faint continuum. The second quasar, CFHQS J005006.6+344522 (z = 6.25), is included in our recent HST SNAP survey of z ~ 6 quasars searching for evidence of gravitational lensing. Deep imaging with ACS and WFC3 confirms an optical dropout ~4.5 mag fainter than the quasar (Y AB = 25) at a separation of 0.''9. The red i 775 - Y 105 color of the galaxy and its proximity to the quasar (5 kpc projected if at the quasar redshift) strongly favor an association with the quasar. Although it is much fainter than the quasar, it is remarkably bright when compared to field galaxies at this redshift, while showing no evidence for lensing. Both systems may represent late-stage mergers of two massive galaxies, with the observed light for one dominated by powerful ongoing star formation and for the other by rapid black hole growth. Observations of close companions are rare; if major mergers are primarily responsible for high-redshift quasar fueling then the phase when progenitor galaxies can be observed as bright companions is relatively short. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs #12184 and #12493. Observations were also made with the LBT and MMT.

  3. Metallicity gradient of the thick disc progenitor at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Daisuke; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Brook, Chris B.; Casagrande, Luca; Ciucă, Ioana; Gibson, Brad K.; Grand, Robert J. J.; Hayden, Michael R.; Hunt, Jason A. S.

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a novel Markov Chain Monte Carlo chemical 'painting' technique to explore possible radial and vertical metallicity gradients for the thick disc progenitor. In our analysis, we match an N-body simulation to the data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment survey. We assume that the thick disc has a constant scaleheight and has completed its formation at an early epoch, after which time radial mixing of its stars has taken place. Under these assumptions, we find that the initial radial metallicity gradient of the thick disc progenitor should not be negative, but either flat or even positive, to explain the current negative vertical metallicity gradient of the thick disc. Our study suggests that the thick disc was built-up in an inside-out and upside-down fashion, and older, smaller and thicker populations are more metal poor. In this case, star-forming discs at different epochs of the thick disc formation are allowed to have different radial metallicity gradients, including a negative one, which helps to explain a variety of slopes observed in high-redshift disc galaxies. This scenario helps to explain the positive slope of the metallicity-rotation velocity relation observed for the Galactic thick disc. On the other hand, radial mixing flattens the slope of an existing gradient.

  4. One millimeter continuum observations of high redshift quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennis, D.J.; Soifer, B.T.

    1981-01-01

    Upper limits to the one-millimeter continuum flux densities of the high redshift quasars B2 1225 + 31, Ton 490, and PHL 957 are presented. The upper limit to the power observed from these quasars at 1 mm is, on the average, one half of the observed power in the continuum at L-alpha. These observations are used to constrain the temperature of a hypothetical dust shell which reddens the quasar line and continuum emission by an extinction optical depth sufficient to account for the anomalously low L-alpha/H-alpha emission line ratio observed in each of these quasars. For the quasars studied, dust shell temperatures between 25 K and 50 to 95 K are prohibited by the present data. A dust shell at a temperature within this span reradiating all the power absorbed from the quasar ultraviolet continuum would produce a one-millimeter flux density greater than the measured upper limit. The average radius of the model dust shell cannot be between 70 kpc and 1 Mpc

  5. HIGH-REDSHIFT SDSS QUASARS WITH WEAK EMISSION LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Jiang Linhua; Kim, J. Serena; Schmidt, Gary D.; Smith, Paul S.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Young, Jason E.; Brandt, W. N.; Shemmer, Ohad; Gibson, Robert R.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.; Shen Yue; Anderson, Scott F.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2009-01-01

    We identify a sample of 74 high-redshift quasars (z > 3) with weak emission lines from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and present infrared, optical, and radio observations of a subsample of four objects at z > 4. These weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) constitute a prominent tail of the Lyα + N v equivalent width distribution, and we compare them to quasars with more typical emission-line properties and to low-redshift active galactic nuclei with weak/absent emission lines, namely BL Lac objects. We find that WLQs exhibit hot (T ∼ 1000 K) thermal dust emission and have rest-frame 0.1-5 μm spectral energy distributions that are quite similar to those of normal quasars. The variability, polarization, and radio properties of WLQs are also different from those of BL Lacs, making continuum boosting by a relativistic jet an unlikely physical interpretation. The most probable scenario for WLQs involves broad-line region properties that are physically distinct from those of normal quasars.

  6. Population III Stars and Remnants in High-redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Wise, John H.; Norman, Michael L.

    2013-08-01

    Recent simulations of Population III star formation have suggested that some fraction form in binary systems, in addition to having a characteristic mass of tens of solar masses. The deaths of metal-free stars result in the initial chemical enrichment of the universe and the production of the first stellar-mass black holes. Here we present a cosmological adaptive mesh refinement simulation of an overdense region that forms a few 109 M ⊙ dark matter halos and over 13,000 Population III stars by redshift 15. We find that most halos do not form Population III stars until they reach M vir ~ 107 M ⊙ because this biased region is quickly enriched from both Population III and galaxies, which also produce high levels of ultraviolet radiation that suppress H2 formation. Nevertheless, Population III stars continue to form, albeit in more massive halos, at a rate of ~10-4 M ⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3 at redshift 15. The most massive starless halo has a mass of 7 × 107 M ⊙, which could host massive black hole formation through the direct gaseous collapse scenario. We show that the multiplicity of the Population III remnants grows with halo mass above 108 M ⊙, culminating in 50 remnants located in 109 M ⊙ halos on average. This has implications that high-mass X-ray binaries and intermediate-mass black holes that originate from metal-free stars may be abundant in high-redshift galaxies.

  7. Protogalaxy interactions in newly formed clusters: Galaxy luminosities, colors, and intergalactic gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1978-01-01

    The role of protogalaxy interactions in galactic evolution is studied during the formation of galaxy clusters. In the early stages of the collapse, coalescent encounters of protogalaxies lead to the development of a galactic luminosity function. Once galaxies acquire appreciable random motions, mutual collisions between galaxies in rich clusters will trigger the collapse of interstellar clouds to form stars. This provides both a source for enriched intracluster gas and an interpretation of the correlation between luminosity and color for cluster elliptical galaxies. Other observational consequences that are considered include optical, X-ray, and diffuse nonthermal radio emission from newly formed clusters of galaxies

  8. High-redshift Blazars through NuSTAR Eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcotulli, L.; Paliya, V. S.; Ajello, M.; Kaur, A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Gasparrini, D.; Greiner, J.; Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Baloković, M.; Stern, D.; Madejski, G.

    2017-01-01

    The most powerful sources among the blazar family are MeV blazars. Often detected at z > 2, they usually display high X- and γ -ray luminosities, larger-than-average jet powers, and black hole masses ≳10 9 M ☉ . In the present work, we perform a multiwavelength study of three high-redshift blazars: 3FGL J0325.5+2223 ( z = 2.06), 3FGL J0449.0+1121 ( z = 2.15), and 3FGL J0453.2−2808 ( z = 2.56), analyzing quasi-simultaneous data from GROND, Swift -UVOT and XRT, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array ( NuSTAR ), and Fermi -LAT. Our main focus is on the hard X-ray band recently unveiled by NuSTAR (3–79 keV) where these objects show a hard spectrum that enables us to constrain the inverse Compton (IC) peak and the jet power. We found that all three targets resemble the most powerful blazars, with the synchrotron peak located in the submillimeter range and the IC peak in the MeV range, and therefore belong to the MeV blazar class. Using a simple one-zone leptonic emission model to reproduce the spectral energy distributions, we conclude that a simple combination of synchrotron and accretion disk emission reproduces the infrared–optical spectra, while the X-ray to γ -ray part is well reproduced by the IC scattering of low-energy photons supplied by the broad-line region. The black hole masses for each of the three sources are calculated to be ≳4 × 10 8 M ☉ . The three studied sources have jet power at the level of, or beyond, the accretion luminosity.

  9. Implications of multiple high-redshift galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, Ben; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2011-01-01

    To date, 14 high-redshift (z>1.0) galaxy clusters with mass measurements have been observed, spectroscopically confirmed, and are reported in the literature. These objects should be exceedingly rare in the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model. We conservatively approximate the selection functions of these clusters' parent surveys and quantify the tension between the abundances of massive clusters as predicted by the standard ΛCDM model and the observed ones. We alleviate the tension, considering non-Gaussian primordial perturbations of the local type, characterized by the parameter f NL , and derive constraints on f NL arising from the mere existence of these clusters. At the 95% confidence level, f NL >467, with cosmological parameters fixed to their most likely WMAP5 values, or f NL > or approx. 123 (at 95% confidence) if we marginalize over prior WMAP5 parameters. In combination with f NL constraints from cosmic microwave background and halo bias, this determination implies a scale dependence of f NL at ≅3σ. Given the assumptions made in the analysis, we expect any future improvements to the modeling of the non-Gaussian mass function, survey volumes, or selection functions to increase the significance of f NL >0 found here. In order to reconcile these massive, high-z clusters with f NL =0, their masses would need to be systematically lowered by 1.5σ, or the σ 8 parameter should be ∼3σ higher than cosmic microwave background (and large-scale structure) constraints. The existence of these objects is a puzzle: it either represents a challenge to the ΛCDM paradigm or it is an indication that the mass estimates of clusters are dramatically more uncertain than we think.

  10. Probing black hole accretion in quasar pairs at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignali, C.; Piconcelli, E.; Perna, M.; Hennawi, J.; Gilli, R.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Dotti, M.; Mathur, S.

    2018-06-01

    Models and observations suggest that luminous quasar activity is triggered by mergers, so it should preferentially occur in the most massive primordial dark matter haloes, where the frequency of mergers is expected to be the highest. Since the importance of galaxy mergers increases with redshift, we identify the high-redshift Universe as the ideal laboratory for studying dual AGN. Here, we present the X-ray properties of two systems of dual quasars at z = 3.0-3.3 selected from the SDSS DR6 at separations of 6-8 arcsec (43-65 kpc) and observed by Chandra for ≈65 ks each. Both members of each pair are detected with good photon statistics to allow us to constrain the column density, spectral slope and intrinsic X-ray luminosity. We also include a recently discovered dual quasar at z = 5 (separation of 21 arcsec, 136 kpc) for which XMM-Newton archival data allow us to detect the two components separately. Using optical spectra we derived bolometric luminosities, BH masses and Eddington ratios that were compared to those of luminous SDSS quasars in the same redshift ranges. We find that the brighter component of both quasar pairs at z ≈ 3.0-3.3 has high luminosities compared to the distribution of SDSS quasars at similar redshift, with J1622A having an order magnitude higher luminosity than the median. This source lies at the luminous end of the z ≈ 3.3 quasar luminosity function. While we cannot conclusively state that the unusually high luminosities of our sources are related to their having a close companion, for J1622A there is only a 3 per cent probability that it is by chance.

  11. Probing black hole accretion in quasar pairs at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignali, C.; Piconcelli, E.; Perna, M.; Hennawi, J.; Gilli, R.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Dotti, M.; Mathur, S.

    2018-03-01

    Models and observations suggest that luminous quasar activity is triggered by mergers, so it should preferentially occur in the most massive primordial dark matter haloes, where the frequency of mergers is expected to be the highest. Since the importance of galaxy mergers increases with redshift, we identify the high-redshift Universe as the ideal laboratory for studying dual AGN. Here we present the X-ray properties of two systems of dual quasars at z=3.0-3.3 selected from the SDSS DR6 at separations of 6-8 arcsec (43-65 kpc) and observed by Chandra for ≈65 ks each. Both members of each pair are detected with good photon statistics to allow us to constrain the column density, spectral slope and intrinsic X-ray luminosity. We also include a recently discovered dual quasar at z=5 (separation of 21″, 136 kpc) for which XMM-Newton archival data allow us to detect the two components separately. Using optical spectra we derived bolometric luminosities, BH masses and Eddington ratios that were compared to those of luminous SDSS quasars in the same redshift ranges. We find that the brighter component of both quasar pairs at z ≈ 3.0-3.3 has high luminosities compared to the distribution of SDSS quasars at similar redshift, with J1622A having an order magnitude higher luminosity than the median. This source lies at the luminous end of the z ≈ 3.3 quasar luminosity function. While we cannot conclusively state that the unusually high luminosities of our sources are related to their having a close companion, for J1622A there is only a 3% probability that it is by chance.

  12. High-redshift Blazars through NuSTAR Eyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcotulli, L.; Paliya, V. S.; Ajello, M.; Kaur, A.; Hartmann, D. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Gasparrini, D. [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Greiner, J.; Rau, A.; Schady, P. [Max Planck Institute für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Baloković, M. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Madejski, G., E-mail: lmarcot@g.clemson.edu, E-mail: vpaliya@g.clemson.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    The most powerful sources among the blazar family are MeV blazars. Often detected at z > 2, they usually display high X- and γ -ray luminosities, larger-than-average jet powers, and black hole masses ≳10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. In the present work, we perform a multiwavelength study of three high-redshift blazars: 3FGL J0325.5+2223 ( z = 2.06), 3FGL J0449.0+1121 ( z = 2.15), and 3FGL J0453.2−2808 ( z = 2.56), analyzing quasi-simultaneous data from GROND, Swift -UVOT and XRT, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array ( NuSTAR ), and Fermi -LAT. Our main focus is on the hard X-ray band recently unveiled by NuSTAR (3–79 keV) where these objects show a hard spectrum that enables us to constrain the inverse Compton (IC) peak and the jet power. We found that all three targets resemble the most powerful blazars, with the synchrotron peak located in the submillimeter range and the IC peak in the MeV range, and therefore belong to the MeV blazar class. Using a simple one-zone leptonic emission model to reproduce the spectral energy distributions, we conclude that a simple combination of synchrotron and accretion disk emission reproduces the infrared–optical spectra, while the X-ray to γ -ray part is well reproduced by the IC scattering of low-energy photons supplied by the broad-line region. The black hole masses for each of the three sources are calculated to be ≳4 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}. The three studied sources have jet power at the level of, or beyond, the accretion luminosity.

  13. POPULATION III STARS AND REMNANTS IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Wise, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent simulations of Population III star formation have suggested that some fraction form in binary systems, in addition to having a characteristic mass of tens of solar masses. The deaths of metal-free stars result in the initial chemical enrichment of the universe and the production of the first stellar-mass black holes. Here we present a cosmological adaptive mesh refinement simulation of an overdense region that forms a few 10 9 M ☉ dark matter halos and over 13,000 Population III stars by redshift 15. We find that most halos do not form Population III stars until they reach M vir ∼ 10 7 M ☉ because this biased region is quickly enriched from both Population III and galaxies, which also produce high levels of ultraviolet radiation that suppress H 2 formation. Nevertheless, Population III stars continue to form, albeit in more massive halos, at a rate of ∼10 –4 M ☉ yr –1 Mpc –3 at redshift 15. The most massive starless halo has a mass of 7 × 10 7 M ☉ , which could host massive black hole formation through the direct gaseous collapse scenario. We show that the multiplicity of the Population III remnants grows with halo mass above 10 8 M ☉ , culminating in 50 remnants located in 10 9 M ☉ halos on average. This has implications that high-mass X-ray binaries and intermediate-mass black holes that originate from metal-free stars may be abundant in high-redshift galaxies

  14. Formation and early evolution of galaxies: Constraints on the properties of hot protogalaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, V.G.; Suchkov, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    In the framework of the hot model of galaxy formation, the following results are obtained: (1) to explain the mass and chemical composition of the intergalactic medium, the mass of the stellar component, and the mass of the x-ray coronas of giant elliptical and spiral galaxies (M s ∼ 10 11 Mass Sun ) the protogalaxies must have been heated to temperatures approximately five times greater than the virial temperature; (2) the x-ray luminosities of the coronas of models of spiral galaxies are less than for the analogous models of elliptical galaxies. Moreover, for unit potential of hidden mass the stellar mass of spiral galaxies is an order of magnitude greater; (3) if a hot protogalaxy is initially compact (R ∼ 20 kpc), then the stellar component is formed rapidly, during a time t ∼ 1 x 10 9 yr; but if the protogalaxy is diffuse (R ∼ 100 kpc), then t ∼ (5-7) x 10 9 yr; (4) coronas are not formed in models of heat-conducting protogalaxies; (5) hidden mass cannot be formed by low-mass stars formed in cooling flows - such flows do not arise if hidden mass is not present from the beginning. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  15. WISH: Wide-field Imaging Durvayor for High-redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toru

    2015-08-01

    We introduce the concept and current status of WISH project and discuss the science cases. WISH is a proposed space science mission for JAXA, which is dedicated for the deep and wide-field near-infrared imaging surveys. The mission contains the 1.5m cooled telescope as well as the imager with the FoV of ~850 square arcmin. The main goal of WISH is to detect and study galaxies at z=8-15 in the earliest history of structure formation in the universe. The key feature is to conduct WISH Ultra Deep Survey, which images in total of 100 square degrees in 6 broad-band filters at 0.9-4.5 micron down to 28AB magnitude. While more than 10^5 galaxies at z=8-9, 10^4 galaxies at z=11-12 will be detected, WISH-UDS is designed to constrain UV luminosity function at z=15. Depending on the models of the earliest evolution history, 1-1000 galaxies at z~15 (~100 galaxies for the moderate cases) will be detected. The UV spectral properties as well as the clustering properties of galaxies at z=8-15 can be studied as well; UV slope can be measured up to z=15, and the stellar and dark-matter-halo masses can be obtained up to z=9. WISH UDS can provide excellent opportunities for studying SNe at high redshift. Up to ~7000 type Ia SNe at z>1 can be detected and the distance modulus can be constrained with the precision of 0.9-1.5% at z>1.5. More than 100 Super Luminous SNe at z>6, and 10 SLSN at z>10 can also be detected, which allow us to study the earliest history of massive star formation in the universe. WISH imaging surveys as well as WISHSpec, which is an optional parallel-operation simple IFU spectrograph, also provide unique opportunities in various astronomical fields. WISH mission proposal was submitted to JAXA in February 2015 for the first down selection of JAXA Large Strategic Science Mission targeting the launch date in 2020-22. International collaborations including SAO (G.Fazio et al.), LAM (D. Burgarella et al.) and Canada (M.Sawicki et al.) are also actively coordinated.

  16. Molecular gas in dusty high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Chelsea Electra

    2013-12-01

    We present high-resolution observations of carbon monoxide (CO) emission lines for three high-redshift galaxies in order to determine their molecular gas and star formation properties. These galaxies (SMM J14011+0252, SMM J00266+1708, and SDSS J0901+1814) have large infrared luminosities, which imply high dust enshrouded star formation rates and substantial molecular gas masses. We observed these sources using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, the Plateau de Bure Interferometer, and the Submillimeter Array in order to obtain measurements of multiple CO spectral lines, allowing us to determine the physical conditions of the molecular gas. Our high resolution and multi-line CO mapping of SMM J00266+1708 reveals that it is a pair of merging galaxies, whose two components have different gas excitation conditions and different gas kinematics. For SMM J14011+0252 (J14011), we find a near-unity CO(3--2)/CO(1--0) intensity ratio, consistent with a single phase (i.e., a single temperature and density) of molecular gas and different from the average population value for dusty galaxies selected at submillimeter wavelengths. Our radiative transfer modeling (using the large velocity gradient approximation) indicates that converting the CO line luminosity to molecular gas mass requires a Galactic (disk-like) scale factor rather than the typical conversion factor assumed for starbursts. Despite this choice of conversion factor, J14011 falls in the same region of star formation rate surface density and gas mass surface density (the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation) as other starburst galaxies. SDSS J0901+1814 (J0901) was initially selected as a star-forming galaxy at ultraviolet wavelengths, but also has a large infrared luminosity. We use the magnification provided by the strong gravitational lensing affecting this system to examine the spatial variation of the CO excitation within J0901. We find that the CO(3--2)/CO(1--0) line ratio is

  17. Suzaku View of the Swift/BAT Active Galactic Nuclei. V. Torus Structure of Two Luminous Radio-Loud Active Galactic Nuclei (3C 206 and PKS 0707-35)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazaki, Fumie; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Tombesi, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    We present the results from broadband X-ray spectral analysis of 3C 206 and PKS 0707-35 with Suzaku and Swift/BAT, two of the most luminous unobscured and obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with hard X-ray luminosities of 10(sup 45.5) erg per second and 10(sup 44.9) erg per second (14-195 keV), respectively. Based on the radio core luminosity, we estimate that the X-ray spectrum of 3C 206 contains a significant (60% in the 14-195 keV band) contribution from the jet, while it is negligible in PKS 0707-35.We can successfully model the spectra with the jet component (for 3C 206), the transmitted emission, and two reflection components from the torus and the accretion disk. The reflection strengths from the torus are found to be R(sub torus)(=Omega/2pi) = 0.29 +/- 0.18 and 0.41 +/- 0.18 for 3C 206 and PKS 0707-35, respectively, which are smaller than those in typical Seyfert galaxies. Utilizing the torus model by Ikeda et al., we quantify the relation between the half-opening angle of a torus (theta(sub oa)) and the equivalent width of an iron-K line. The observed equivalent width of 3C 206, less than 71 eV, constrains the column density in the equatorial plane to N(sup eq)(sub H) lesst han 10(sup 23) per square centimeter, or the half-opening angle to theta(sub oa) greater than 80 deg. if N(sup eq)(sub H) = 10(sup 24) per square centimeter is assumed. That of PKS 0707-35, 72 +/- 36 eV, is consistent with N(sup eq)(sub H) 10(sup 23) per square centimeter. Our results suggest that the tori in luminous radio-loud AGNs are only poorly developed. The trend is similar to that seen in radio-quiet AGNs, implying that the torus structure is not different between AGNs with jets and without jets.

  18. Star formation and mass assembly in high redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, P.; Fontana, A.; Grazian, A.; Salimbeni, S.; Fiore, F.; Fontanot, F.; Boutsia, K.; Castellano, M.; Cristiani, S.; de Santis, C.; Gallozzi, S.; Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Nonino, M.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.; Vanzella, E.

    2009-09-01

    Aims: The goal of this work is to infer the star formation properties and the mass assembly process of high redshift (0.3 ≤ z MUSIC catalog, which has multiwavelength coverage from 0.3 to 24 μm and either spectroscopic or accurate photometric redshifts. We describe how the catalog has been extended by the addition of mid-IR fluxes derived from the MIPS 24 μm image. We compared two different estimators of the star formation rate (SFR hereafter). One is the total infrared emission derived from 24 μm, estimated using both synthetic and empirical IR templates. The other one is a multiwavelength fit to the full galaxy SED, which automatically accounts for dust reddening and age-star formation activity degeneracies. For both estimates, we computed the SFR density and the specific SFR. Results: We show that the two SFR indicators are roughly consistent, once the uncertainties involved are taken into account. However, they show a systematic trend, IR-based estimates exceeding the fit-based ones as the star formation rate increases. With this new catalog, we show that: a) at z>0.3, the star formation rate is correlated well with stellar mass, and this relationship seems to steepen with redshift if one relies on IR-based estimates of the SFR; b) the contribution to the global SFRD by massive galaxies increases with redshift up to ≃ 2.5, more rapidly than for galaxies of lower mass, but appears to flatten at higher z; c) despite this increase, the most important contributors to the SFRD at any z are galaxies of about, or immediately lower than, the characteristic stellar mass; d) at z≃ 2, massive galaxies are actively star-forming, with a median {SFR} ≃ 300 M_⊙ yr-1. During this epoch, our targeted galaxies assemble a substantial part of their final stellar mass; e) the specific SFR (SSFR) shows a clear bimodal distribution. Conclusions: The analysis of the SFR density and the SSFR seems to support the downsizing scenario, according to which high mass galaxies

  19. X-ray emission from high-redshift miniquasars: self-regulating the population of massive black holes through global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takamitsu; Perna, Rosalba; Haiman, Zoltán.

    2012-10-01

    Observations of high-redshift quasars at z ≳6 imply that supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with masses M≳109 M were in place less than 1 Gyr after the big bang. If these SMBHs assembled from 'seed' BHs left behind by the first stars, then they must have accreted gas at close to the Eddington limit during a large fraction (>rsim 50 per cent) of the time. A generic problem with this scenario, however, is that the mass density in M ˜ 106 M⊙ SMBHs at z ˜ 6 already exceeds the locally observed SMBH mass density by several orders of magnitude; in order to avoid this overproduction, BH seed formation and growth must become significantly less efficient in less massive protogalaxies through some form of feedback, while proceeding unabated in the most massive galaxies that formed first. Using Monte Carlo realizations of the merger and growth history of BHs, we show that X-rays from the earliest accreting BHs can provide such a feedback mechanism, on a global scale. Our calculations paint a self-consistent picture of BH-made climate change, in which the first miniquasars - among them the ancestors of the z ˜ 6 quasar SMBHs - globally warm the intergalactic medium and suppress the formation and growth of subsequent generations of BHs. We present two specific models with global miniquasar feedback that provide excellent agreement with recent estimates of the z = 6 SMBH mass function. For each of these models, we estimate the rate of BH mergers at z > 6 that could be detected by the proposed gravitational-wave observatory eLISA/NGO.

  20. Science from the Avo 1ST Light: the High Redshift Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Nicholas A.

    The Astrophysical Virtual Observatory science working group defined a number of key science drivers for which the AVO should develop capabilities. At the AVO's Jan 2003 'First Light' event the AVO prototype data access and manipulation tool was demonstrated. In particular its use in enabling discovery in deep multi wavelength data sets was highlighted. In this presentation I will describe how the AVO demonstrator has enabled investigation into the high redshift universe and in particular its use in discovering rare populations of high redshift galaxies from deep Hubble and ground based imaging data obtained through the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) programme.

  1. BINARY QUASARS AT HIGH REDSHIFT. I. 24 NEW QUASAR PAIRS AT z ∼ 3-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennawi, Joseph F.; Myers, Adam D.; Shen, Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Glikman, Eilat; Mahabal, Ashish; Fan Xiaohui; Martin, Crystal L.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shankar, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The clustering of quasars on small scales yields fundamental constraints on models of quasar evolution and the buildup of supermassive black holes. This paper describes the first systematic survey to discover high-redshift binary quasars. Using color-selection and photometric redshift techniques, we searched 8142 deg 2 of Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data for binary quasar candidates, and confirmed them with follow-up spectroscopy. Our sample of 27 high-redshift binaries (24 of them new discoveries) at redshifts 2.9 perpendicular perpendicular 3.5. The completeness and efficiency of our well-defined selection algorithm are quantified using simulated photometry and we find that our sample is ∼50% complete. Our companion paper uses this knowledge to make the first measurement of the small-scale clustering (R -1 Mpc comoving) of high-redshift quasars. High-redshift binaries constitute exponentially rare coincidences of two extreme (M ∼> 10 9 M sun ) supermassive black holes. At z ∼ 4, there is about one close binary per 10 Gpc 3 , thus these could be the highest sigma peaks, the analogs of superclusters, in the early universe.

  2. RUNAWAY STARS AND THE ESCAPE OF IONIZING RADIATION FROM HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, Charlie; Kratter, Kaitlin M.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 30% of all massive stars in the Galaxy are runaways with velocities exceeding 30 km s –1 . Their high speeds allow them to travel ∼0.1-1 kpc away from their birthplace before they explode at the end of their several Myr lifetimes. At high redshift, when galaxies were much smaller than in the local universe, runaways could venture far from the dense inner regions of their host galaxies. From these large radii, and therefore low column densities, much of their ionizing radiation is able to escape into the intergalactic medium. Runaways may therefore significantly enhance the overall escape fraction of ionizing radiation, f esc , from small galaxies at high redshift. We present simple models of the high-redshift runaway population and its impact on f esc as a function of halo mass, size, and redshift. We find that the inclusion of runaways enhances f esc by factors of ≈1.1-8, depending on halo mass, galaxy geometry, and the mechanism of runaway production, implying that runaways may contribute 50%-90% of the total ionizing radiation escaping from high-redshift galaxies. Runaways may therefore play an important role in reionizing the universe.

  3. Constraining omega from X-ray properties of clusters of galaxies at high redshifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadat, R.; Blanchard, A.; Oukbir, J.

    1997-01-01

    Properties of high redshift clusters are a fundamental source of information for cosmology. It has been shown by Oukbir and Blanchard (1997) that the combined knowledge of the redshift distribution of X-ray clusters of galaxies and the luminosity-temperature correlation, L-X - T-X, provides a pow...

  4. ON THE EFFECT OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND IN HIGH-REDSHIFT (SUB-)MILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Cunha, Elisabete; Groves, Brent; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Weiss, Axel [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Bertoldi, Frank [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Carilli, Chris [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Pete V. Domenici Array Science Center, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Elbaz, David; Ivison, Rob [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Maiolino, Roberto [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Riechers, Dominik [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Smail, Ian, E-mail: cunha@mpia.de [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-20

    Modern (sub-)millimeter interferometers enable the measurement of the cool gas and dust emission of high-redshift galaxies (z > 5). However, at these redshifts the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature is higher, approaching, and even exceeding, the temperature of cold dust and molecular gas observed in the local universe. In this paper, we discuss the impact of the warmer CMB on (sub-)millimeter observations of high-redshift galaxies. The CMB affects the observed (sub-)millimeter dust continuum and the line emission (e.g., carbon monoxide, CO) in two ways: (1) it provides an additional source of (both dust and gas) heating and (2) it is a non-negligible background against which the line and continuum emission are measured. We show that these two competing processes affect the way we interpret the dust and gas properties of high-redshift galaxies using spectral energy distribution models. We quantify these effects and provide correction factors to compute what fraction of the intrinsic dust (and line) emission can be detected against the CMB as a function of frequency, redshift, and temperature. We discuss implications on the derived properties of high-redshift galaxies from (sub-)millimeter data. Specifically, the inferred dust and molecular gas masses can be severely underestimated for cold systems if the impact of the CMB is not properly taken into account.

  5. Beyond Jcrit: a critical curve for suppression of H2-cooling in protogalaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolcott-Green, J.; Haiman, Z.; Bryan, G. L.

    2017-08-01

    Suppression of H2-cooling in early protogalaxies has important implications for the formation of supermassive black hole seeds, the first generation of stars and the epoch of reionization. This suppression can occur via photodissociation of H2 (by ultraviolet Lyman-Werner [LW] photons) or by photodetachment of H-, a precursor in H2 formation (by infrared [IR] photons). Previous studies have typically adopted idealized spectra, with a blackbody or a power-law shape, in modelling the chemistry of metal-free protogalaxies, and utilized a single parameter, the critical UV flux, or Jcrit, to determine whether H2-cooling is prevented. This can be misleading, as independent of the spectral shape, there is a critical curve in the (k_LW,k_H^-) plane, where kLW and k_H^- are the H2-dissocation rates by LW and IR photons, which determines whether a protogalaxy can cool below ˜1000 K. We use a one-zone model to follow the chemical and thermal evolution of gravitationally collapsing protogalactic gas, to compute this critical curve and provide an accurate analytical fit for it. We improve on previous works by considering a variety of more realistic Pop III or Pop II-type spectra from population synthesis models and perform fully frequency-dependent calculations of the H2-photodissociation rates for each spectrum. We compute the ratio k_LW/k_H^- for each spectrum, as well as the minimum stellar mass M*, for various IMFs and metallicities, required to prevent cooling in a neighbouring halo a distance d away. We provide critical M*/d2 values for suppression of H2-cooling, with analytic fits, which can be used in future studies.

  6. The rest-frame submillimeter spectrum of high-redshift, dusty, star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilker, J. S.; Marrone, D. P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aguirre, J. E. [University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Aravena, M. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001 Vitacura Santiago (Chile); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Béthermin, M. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bradford, C. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bothwell, M. S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thompson Ave, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Carlstrom, J. E.; Crawford, T. M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); De Breuck, C.; Gullberg, B. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fassnacht, C. D. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hezaveh, Y. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Holzapfel, W. L., E-mail: jspilker@as.arizona.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2014-04-20

    We present the average rest-frame spectrum of high-redshift dusty, star-forming galaxies from 250 to 770 GHz. This spectrum was constructed by stacking Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 3 mm spectra of 22 such sources discovered by the South Pole Telescope and spanning z = 2.0-5.7. In addition to multiple bright spectral features of {sup 12}CO, [C I], and H{sub 2}O, we also detect several faint transitions of {sup 13}CO, HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and CN, and use the observed line strengths to characterize the typical properties of the interstellar medium of these high-redshift starburst galaxies. We find that the {sup 13}CO brightness in these objects is comparable to that of the only other z > 2 star-forming galaxy in which {sup 13}CO has been observed. We show that the emission from the high-critical density molecules HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and CN is consistent with a warm, dense medium with T {sub kin} ∼ 55 K and n{sub H{sub 2}}≳10{sup 5.5} cm{sup –3}. High molecular hydrogen densities are required to reproduce the observed line ratios, and we demonstrate that alternatives to purely collisional excitation are unlikely to be significant for the bulk of these systems. We quantify the average emission from several species with no individually detected transitions, and find emission from the hydride CH and the linear molecule CCH for the first time at high redshift, indicating that these molecules may be powerful probes of interstellar chemistry in high-redshift systems. These observations represent the first constraints on many molecular species with rest-frame transitions from 0.4 to 1.2 mm in star-forming systems at high redshift, and will be invaluable in making effective use of ALMA in full science operations.

  7. GALAXY CLUSTERS AT HIGH REDSHIFT AND EVOLUTION OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Z. L.; Han, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of high-redshift clusters is important for studies of cosmology and cluster evolution. Using photometric redshifts of galaxies, we identify 631 clusters from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) wide field, 202 clusters from the CFHT deep field, 187 clusters from the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field, and 737 clusters from the Spitzer Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE) field. The redshifts of these clusters are in the range 0.1 ∼ + - m 3.6 μ m colors of the BCGs are consistent with a stellar population synthesis model in which the BCGs are formed at redshift z f ≥ 2 and evolved passively. The g' - z' and B - m 3.6μm colors of the BCGs at redshifts z > 0.8 are systematically bluer than the passive evolution model for galaxies formed at z f ∼ 2, indicating star formation in high-redshift BCGs.

  8. Lyman Break Analogs: Constraints on the Formation of Extreme Starbursts at Low and High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Thiago S.; Overzier, Roderik; Basu-Zych, Antara; Martin, D. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs), characterized by high far-UV luminosities and surface brightnesses as detected by GALEX, are intensely star-forming galaxies in the low-redshift universe (z approximately equal to 0.2), with star formation rates reaching up to 50 times that of the Milky Way. These objects present metallicities, morphologies and other physical properties similar to higher redshift Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs), motivating the detailed study of LBAs as local laboratories of this high-redshift galaxy population. We present results from our recent integral-field spectroscopy survey of LBAs with Keck/OSIRIS, which shows that these galaxies have the same nebular gas kinematic properties as high-redshift LBGs. We argue that such kinematic studies alone are not an appropriate diagnostic to rule out merger events as the trigger for the observed starburst. Comparison between the kinematic analysis and morphological indices from HST imaging illustrates the difficulties of properly identifying (minor or major) merger events, with no clear correlation between the results using either of the two methods. Artificial redshifting of our data indicates that this problem becomes even worse at high redshift due to surface brightness dimming and resolution loss. Whether mergers could generate the observed kinematic properties is strongly dependent on gas fractions in these galaxies. We present preliminary results of a CARMA survey for LBAs and discuss the implications of the inferred molecular gas masses for formation models.

  9. Detecting Massive, High-Redshift Galaxy Clusters Using the Thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Carson; Steinhardt, Charles L.; Loeb, Abraham; Karim, Alexander; Staguhn, Johannes; Erler, Jens; Capak, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    We develop the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect as a direct astrophysical measure of the mass distribution of dark matter halos. The SZ effect increases with cosmological distance, a unique astronomical property, and is highly sensitive to halo mass. We find that this presents a powerful methodology for distinguishing between competing models of the halo mass function distribution, particularly in the high-redshift domain just a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. Recent surveys designed to probe this epoch of initial galaxy formation such as CANDELS and SPLASH report an over-abundance of highly massive halos as inferred from stellar ultraviolet (UV) luminosities and the stellar mass to halo mass ratio estimated from nearby galaxies. If these UV luminosity to halo mass relations hold to high-redshift, observations estimate several orders of magnitude more highly massive halos than predicted by hierarchical merging and the standard cosmological paradigm. Strong constraints on the masses of these galaxy clusters are essential to resolving the current tension between observation and theory. We conclude that detections of thermal SZ sources are plausible at high-redshift only for the halo masses inferred from observation. Therefore, future SZ surveys will provide a robust determination between theoretical and observational predictions.

  10. The fate of high redshift massive compact galaxies in dense environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, Tobias; /Zurich, ETH; Mayer, Lucio; /Zurich U.; Carollo, Marcella; /Zurich, ETH; Feldmann, Robert; /Fermilab /Chicago U., KICP

    2012-01-01

    Massive compact galaxies seem to be more common at high redshift than in the local universe, especially in denser environments. To investigate the fate of such massive galaxies identified at z {approx} 2 we analyse the evolution of their properties in three cosmological hydrodynamical simulations that form virialized galaxy groups of mass {approx} 10{sup 13} M{sub {circle_dot}} hosting a central massive elliptical/S0 galaxy by redshift zero. We find that at redshift {approx} 2 the population of galaxies with M{sub *} > 2 x 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} is diverse in terms of mass, velocity dispersion, star formation and effective radius, containing both very compact and relatively extended objects. In each simulation all the compact satellite galaxies have merged into the central galaxy by redshift 0 (with the exception of one simulation where one of such satellite galaxy survives). Satellites of similar mass at z = 0 are all less compact than their high redshift counterparts. They form later than the galaxies in the z = 2 sample and enter the group potential at z < 1, when dynamical friction times are longer than the Hubble time. Also, by z = 0 the central galaxies have increased substantially their characteristic radius via a combination of in situ star formation and mergers. Hence in a group environment descendants of compact galaxies either evolve towards larger sizes or they disappear before the present time as a result of the environment in which they evolve. Since the group-sized halos that we consider are representative of dense environments in the {Lambda}CDM cosmology, we conclude that the majority of high redshift compact massive galaxies do not survive until today as a result of the environment.

  11. DETECTING RELATIVISTIC X-RAY JETS IN HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeough, Kathryn [Department of Statistics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Siemiginowska, Aneta; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lee, N. P.; Harris, D. E.; Schwartz, D. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cheung, C. C. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Stawarz, Łukasz [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30-244, Kraków (Poland); Stein, Nathan [Department of Statistics, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 400 Jon M. Huntsman Hall, 3730 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6340 (United States); Stampoulis, Vasileios; Dyk, David A. van [Statistics Section, Imperial College London, Huxley Building, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 (United Kingdom); Wardle, J. F. C. [Department of Physics, MS 057, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Donato, Davide [CRESST and Astroparticle Physics Laboratory NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Maraschi, Laura; Tavecchio, Fabrizio, E-mail: kathrynmckeough@g.harvard.edu [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Brera 28, I-20124, Milano (Italy)

    2016-12-10

    We analyze Chandra X-ray images of a sample of 11 quasars that are known to contain kiloparsec scale radio jets. The sample consists of five high-redshift ( z  ≥ 3.6) flat-spectrum radio quasars, and six intermediate redshift (2.1 <  z  < 2.9) quasars. The data set includes four sources with integrated steep radio spectra and seven with flat radio spectra. A total of 25 radio jet features are present in this sample. We apply a Bayesian multi-scale image reconstruction method to detect and measure the X-ray emission from the jets. We compute deviations from a baseline model that does not include the jet, and compare observed X-ray images with those computed with simulated images where no jet features exist. This allows us to compute p -value upper bounds on the significance that an X-ray jet is detected in a pre-determined region of interest. We detected 12 of the features unambiguously, and an additional six marginally. We also find residual emission in the cores of three quasars and in the background of one quasar that suggest the existence of unresolved X-ray jets. The dependence of the X-ray to radio luminosity ratio on redshift is a potential diagnostic of the emission mechanism, since the inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons (IC/CMB) is thought to be redshift dependent, whereas in synchrotron models no clear redshift dependence is expected. We find that the high-redshift jets have X-ray to radio flux ratios that are marginally inconsistent with those from lower redshifts, suggesting that either the X-ray emissions are due to the IC/CMB rather than the synchrotron process, or that high-redshift jets are qualitatively different.

  12. High-Redshift QSOs in the SWIRE Survey and the z~3 QSO Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siana, Brian; Polletta, Maria del Carmen; Smith, Harding E.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Gonzalez-Solares, Eduardo; Farrah, Duncan; Babbedge, Tom S. R.; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Surace, Jason; Shupe, David; Fang, Fan; Franceschini, Alberto; Oliver, Seb

    2008-03-01

    We use a simple optical/infrared (IR) photometric selection of high-redshift QSOs that identifies a Lyman break in the optical photometry and requires a red IR color to distinguish QSOs from common interlopers. The search yields 100 z ~ 3 (U-dropout) QSO candidates with 19 dropout) sample suffers from both unreliability and incompleteness but present seven previously unidentified QSOs at 3.50 University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  13. Selecting ultra-faint dwarf candidate progenitors in cosmological N-body simulations at high redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher; Ji, Alexander P.; Dooley, Gregory A.; Frebel, Anna; Scannapieco, Evan; Gómez, Facundo A.; O'Shea, Brian W.

    2018-06-01

    The smallest satellites of the Milky Way ceased forming stars during the epoch of reionization and thus provide archaeological access to galaxy formation at z > 6. Numerical studies of these ultrafaint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) require expensive cosmological simulations with high mass resolution that are carried out down to z = 0. However, if we are able to statistically identify UFD host progenitors at high redshifts with relatively high probabilities, we can avoid this high computational cost. To find such candidates, we analyse the merger trees of Milky Way type haloes from the high-resolution Caterpillar suite of dark matter only simulations. Satellite UFD hosts at z = 0 are identified based on four different abundance matching (AM) techniques. All the haloes at high redshifts are traced forward in time in order to compute the probability of surviving as satellite UFDs today. Our results show that selecting potential UFD progenitors based solely on their mass at z = 12 (8) results in a 10 per cent (20 per cent) chance of obtaining a surviving UFD at z = 0 in three of the AM techniques we adopted. We find that the progenitors of surviving satellite UFDs have lower virial ratios (η), and are preferentially located at large distances from the main MW progenitor, while they show no correlation with concentration parameter. Haloes with favorable locations and virial ratios are ≈3 times more likely to survive as satellite UFD candidates at z = 0.

  14. CONTINUUM OBSERVATIONS AT 350 MICRONS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT MOLECULAR EMISSION LINE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jingwen; Evans, Neal J.; Dunham, Michael M.; Vanden Bout, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    We report observations of 15 high-redshift (z = 1 - 5) galaxies at 350 μm using the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory and Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II array detector. Emission was detected from eight galaxies, for which far-infrared luminosities, star formation rates (SFRs), total dust masses, and minimum source size estimates are derived. These galaxies have SFRs and star formation efficiencies comparable to other high-redshift molecular emission line galaxies. The results are used to test the idea that star formation in these galaxies occurs in a large number of basic units, the units being similar to star-forming clumps in the Milky Way. The luminosity of these extreme galaxies can be reproduced in a simple model with (0.9-30)x10 6 dense clumps, each with a luminosity of 5 x 10 5 L sun , the mean value for such clumps in the Milky Way. Radiative transfer models of such clumps can provide reasonable matches to the overall spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the galaxies. They indicate that the individual clumps are quite opaque in the far-infrared. Luminosity-to-mass ratios vary over two orders of magnitude, correlating strongly with the dust temperature derived from simple fits to the SED. The gas masses derived from the dust modeling are in remarkable agreement with those from CO luminosities, suggesting that the assumptions going into both calculations are reasonable.

  15. CLASH: EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON SELECTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Shu, Xinwen; Zheng, Wei; Ford, Holland; Lemze, Doron; Moustakas, John; Van der Wel, Arjen; Zitrin, Adi; Frye, Brenda L.; Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan; Bartelmann, Matthias; Benítez, Narciso; Broadhurst, Tom; Donahue, Megan; Infante, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    We utilize the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y 105 ) and F125W (J 125 ), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] λλ4959, 5007 at redshifts of ∼0.93-1.14 and 1.57-1.79, respectively. The multiband observations help to constrain the equivalent widths (EWs) of emission lines. Thanks to cluster lensing, we are able to identify 52 candidates down to an intrinsic limiting magnitude of 28.5 and to a rest-frame [O III] λλ4959, 5007 EW of ≅ 3700 Å. Our samples include a number of EELGs at lower luminosities that are missed in other surveys, and the extremely high EW can only be found in such faint galaxies. These EELGs can mimic a dropout feature similar to that of high-redshift galaxies and contaminate the color-color selection of high-redshift galaxies when the signal-to-noise ratio is limited or the band coverage is incomplete

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VANDELS High-Redshift Galaxy Evolution (McLure+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, R.; Pentericci, L.; Vandels Team

    2017-11-01

    This is the first data release (DR1) of the VANDELS survey, an ESO public spectroscopy survey targeting the high-redshift Universe. The VANDELS survey uses the VIMOS spectrograph on ESO's VLT to obtain ultra-deep, medium resolution, optical spectra of galaxies within the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey (UDS) and Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) survey fields (0.2 sq. degree total area). Using robust photometric redshift pre-selection, VANDELS is targeting ~2100 galaxies in the redshift interval 1.0=3. In addition, VANDELS is targeting a substantial number of passive galaxies in the redshift interval 1.0filter, which covers the wavelength range 4800-10000Å at a dispersion of 2.5Å/pix and a spectral resolution of R~600. Each galaxy receives between a minimum of 20-hours and a maximum of 80-hours of on-source integration time. The fundamental aim of the survey is to provide the high signal-to-noise spectra necessary to measure key physical properties such as stellar population ages, metallicities and outflow velocities from detailed absorption-line studies. By targeting two extra-galactic survey fields with superb multi-wavelength imaging data, VANDELS is designed to produce a unique legacy dataset for exploring the physics underpinning high-redshift galaxy evolution. (2 data files).

  17. Radio polarization properties of quasars and active galaxies at high redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernstrom, T.; Gaensler, B. M.; Vacca, V.; Farnes, J. S.; Haverkorn, M.; O'Sullivan, S. P.

    2018-04-01

    We present the largest ever sample of radio polarization properties for z > 4 sources, with 14 sources having significant polarization detections. Using wide-band data from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, we obtained the rest-frame total intensity and polarization properties of 37 radio sources, nine of which have spectroscopic redshifts in the range 1 ≤ z ≤ 1.4, with the other 28 having spectroscopic redshifts in the range 3.5 ≤ z ≤ 6.21. Fits are performed for the Stokes I and fractional polarization spectra, and Faraday rotation measures are derived using rotation measure synthesis and QU fitting. Using archival data of 476 polarized sources, we compare high-redshift (z > 3) source properties to a 15 GHz rest-frame luminosity matched sample of low-redshift (z 3 sources and 57 ± 4 rad m-2 for z < 3. Although there is some indication of lower intrinsic rotation measures at high-z possibly due to higher depolarization from the high-density environments, using several statistical tests we detect no significant difference between low- and high-redshift sources. Larger samples are necessary to determine any true physical difference.

  18. A supernova origin for dust in a high-redshift quasar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, R; Schneider, R; Oliva, E; Bianchi, S; Ferrara, A; Mannucci, F; Pedani, M; Sogorb, M Roca

    2004-09-30

    Interstellar dust plays a crucial role in the evolution of the Universe by assisting the formation of molecules, by triggering the formation of the first low-mass stars, and by absorbing stellar ultraviolet-optical light and subsequently re-emitting it at infrared/millimetre wavelengths. Dust is thought to be produced predominantly in the envelopes of evolved (age >1 Gyr), low-mass stars. This picture has, however, recently been brought into question by the discovery of large masses of dust in the host galaxies of quasars at redshift z > 6, when the age of the Universe was less than 1 Gyr. Theoretical studies, corroborated by observations of nearby supernova remnants, have suggested that supernovae provide a fast and efficient dust formation environment in the early Universe. Here we report infrared observations of a quasar at redshift 6.2, which are used to obtain directly its dust extinction curve. We then show that such a curve is in excellent agreement with supernova dust models. This result demonstrates a supernova origin for dust in this high-redshift quasar, from which we infer that most of the dust at high redshifts probably has the same origin.

  19. CLASH: EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON SELECTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Shu, Xinwen [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Wei; Ford, Holland; Lemze, Doron [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Zitrin, Adi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Frye, Brenda L. [Steward Observatory/Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Bartelmann, Matthias [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P. O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Benítez, Narciso [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huétor 24, Granada E-18008 (Spain); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU E-Bilbao (Spain); Donahue, Megan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Infante, Leopoldo, E-mail: hxx@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Departamento de Astronoía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, V. Mackenna 4860 Santiago 22 (Chile); and others

    2015-03-01

    We utilize the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y {sub 105}) and F125W (J {sub 125}), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] λλ4959, 5007 at redshifts of ∼0.93-1.14 and 1.57-1.79, respectively. The multiband observations help to constrain the equivalent widths (EWs) of emission lines. Thanks to cluster lensing, we are able to identify 52 candidates down to an intrinsic limiting magnitude of 28.5 and to a rest-frame [O III] λλ4959, 5007 EW of ≅ 3700 Å. Our samples include a number of EELGs at lower luminosities that are missed in other surveys, and the extremely high EW can only be found in such faint galaxies. These EELGs can mimic a dropout feature similar to that of high-redshift galaxies and contaminate the color-color selection of high-redshift galaxies when the signal-to-noise ratio is limited or the band coverage is incomplete.

  20. Dust Formation, Evolution, and Obscuration Effects in the Very High-Redshift Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes; Arendt, Richard G.; Kovacs, Attila; Su, Ting; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of dust at redshifts z > or approx. 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally-condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-to-gas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production comported to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This "silicate-UV break" may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxies' photometric redshift. In this paper we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution (SED) of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high redshift universe. Subject headings: galaxies: high-redshift - galaxies: evolution - galaxies: individual (MACS1149- JD) - Interstellar medium (ISM), nebulae: dust, extinction - physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances.

  1. Planck intermediate results XXXIX. The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    on a component-separation procedure using a combination of Planck and IRAS data, has been validated and characterized on numerous simulations, and applied to select the most luminous cold submillimetre sources with spectral energy distributions peaking between 353 and 857 GHz at 5' resolution. A total of 2151......The Planck mission, thanks to its large frequency range and all-sky coverage, has a unique potential for systematically detecting the brightest, and rarest, submillimetre sources on the sky, including distant objects in the high-redshift Universe traced by their dust emission. A novel method, based...... Planck high-z source candidates (the PHZ) have been detected in the cleanest 26% of the sky, with flux density at 545 GHz above 500 mJy. Embedded in the cosmic infrared background close to the confusion limit, these high-z candidates exhibit colder colours than their surroundings, consistent...

  2. MAGNIFICATION AS A PROBE OF DARK MATTER HALOS AT HIGH REDSHIFTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Waerbeke, L.; Ford, J.; Milkeraitis, M.; Hildebrandt, H.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new approach for measuring the mass profile of dark matter halos by stacking the lensing magnification of distant background galaxies behind groups and clusters of galaxies. The main advantage of lensing magnification is that, unlike lensing shear, it relies on accurate photometric redshifts only and not on galaxy shapes, thus enabling the study of the dark matter distribution with unresolved source galaxies. We present a feasibility study, using a real population of z ≥ 2.5 Lyman break galaxies as source galaxies, and where, similar to galaxy-galaxy lensing, foreground lenses are stacked in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. We find that there is an interesting new observational window for gravitational lensing as a probe of dark matter halos at high redshift, which does not require a measurement of galaxy shapes.

  3. Absorption by Spinning Dust: A Contaminant for High-redshift 21 cm Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draine, B. T.; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi

    2018-05-01

    Spinning dust grains in front of the bright Galactic synchrotron background can produce a weak absorption signal that could affect measurements of high-redshift 21 cm absorption. At frequencies near 80 MHz where the Experiment to Detect the Global EoR Signature (EDGES) has reported 21 cm absorption at z≈ 17, absorption could be produced by interstellar nanoparticles with radii a≈ 50 \\mathringA in the cold interstellar medium (ISM), with rotational temperature T ≈ 50 K. Atmospheric aerosols could contribute additional absorption. The strength of the absorption depends on the abundance of such grains and on their dipole moments, which are uncertain. The breadth of the absorption spectrum of spinning dust limits its possible impact on measurement of a relatively narrow 21 cm absorption feature.

  4. Spectroscopy of 10 γ -Ray BL Lac Objects at High Redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiano, Simona; Falomo, Renato [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Landoni, Marco [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Treves, Aldo [Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Scarpa, Riccardo [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/O Via Lactea, s/n E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2017-08-01

    We present optical spectra with high signal-to-noise ratio of 10 BL Lac objects detected at GeV energies by the Fermi satellite (3FGL catalog), which previous observations suggested are at relatively high redshift. The new observations, obtained at the 10 m Gran Telescopio Canarias, allowed us to find the redshift for J0814.5+2943 ( z = 0.703), and we can set a spectroscopic lower limit for J0008.0+4713 ( z > 1.659) and J1107.7+0222 ( z > 1.0735) on the basis of Mg ii intervening absorption features. In addition we confirm the redshifts for J0505.5+0416 ( z = 0.423) and J1450+5200 ( z > 2.470). Finally we contradict the previous z estimates for five objects (J0049.7+0237, J0243.5+7119, J0802.0+1005, J1109.4+2411, and J2116.1+3339).

  5. Early growth of typical high-redshift black holes seeded by direct collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Muhammad A.; Volonteri, Marta; Wise, John H.

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the growth of high-redshift massive black holes (MBHs) is a problem of great astrophysical interest. The most luminous quasars at z > 6 are frequently observed but they represent only the tip of the iceberg as the majority of the low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN) population remains undetected. In this study, we perform a radiation hydrodynamics cosmological simulation to study the growth of `normal' black holes in the high-redshift universe. In our simulation, we model the formation of Pop III and Pop II stars along with their chemical, mechanical, and radiative feedback. We consider both UV and X-ray emission from an accreting BH to simulate its radiative feedback. The selected halo has a mass of 3 × 10^{10} M_{⊙} at z = 7.5 and we turn on radiative feedback from a MBH seed of 10^5 M_{⊙} along with in situ star formation at z = 12 when the halo mass reaches well above the atomic cooling limit. We find that the MBH accretes only about 2200 M_{⊙} during 320 Myr and the average mass accretion on to the MBH is a few times 10^{-6} M_{⊙} yr^{-1}. Our results suggest that the stunted growth of MBH is a consequence of supernovae in tandem with MBH feedback which drive large outflows and evacuate the gas from MBH vicinity. This may explain why a population of low-luminosity AGN has not been detected so-far at z > 6; the large contrast between the star formation rate and the MBH accretion rate may make then hard to detect even in upcoming deep surveys.

  6. On the contribution of active galactic nuclei to the high-redshift metagalactic ionizing background

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aloisio, Anson; Upton Sanderbeck, Phoebe R.; McQuinn, Matthew; Trac, Hy; Shapiro, Paul R.

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by the claimed detection of a large population of faint active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at high redshift, recent studies have proposed models in which AGNs contribute significantly to the z > 4 H I ionizing background. In some models, AGNs are even the chief sources of reionization. If proved true, these models would make necessary a complete revision to the standard view that galaxies dominated the high-redshift ionizing background. It has been suggested that AGN-dominated models can better account for two recent observations that appear to be in conflict with the standard view: (1) large opacity variations in the z ˜ 5.5 H I Ly α forest, and (2) slow evolution in the mean opacity of the He II Ly α forest. Large spatial fluctuations in the ionizing background from the brightness and rarity of AGNs may account for the former, while the earlier onset of He II reionization in these models may account for the latter. Here we show that models in which AGN emissions source ≳50 per cent of the ionizing background generally provide a better fit to the observed H I Ly α forest opacity variations compared to standard galaxy-dominated models. However, we argue that these AGN-dominated models are in tension with constraints on the thermal history of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Under standard assumptions about the spectra of AGNs, we show that the earlier onset of He II reionization heats up the IGM well above recent temperature measurements. We further argue that the slower evolution of the mean opacity of the He II Ly α forest relative to simulations may reflect deficiencies in current simulations rather than favour AGN-dominated models as has been suggested.

  7. COSMOLOGICAL CONCORDANCE OR CHEMICAL COINCIDENCE? DEUTERATED MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ABUNDANCES AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumlinson, J.; Malec, A. L.; Murphy, M. T.; Carswell, R. F.; Jorgenson, R. A.; Buning, R.; Ubachs, W.; Milutinovic, N.; Ellison, S. L.; Prochaska, J. X.; Wolfe, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    We report two detections of deuterated molecular hydrogen (HD) in QSO absorption-line systems at z>2. Toward J2123-0500, we find N(HD) =13.84 ± 0.2 for a sub-Damped Lyman Alpha system (DLA) with metallicity ≅0.5Z sun and N(H 2 ) = 17.64 ± 0.15 at z = 2.0594. Toward FJ0812+32, we find N(HD) =15.38 ± 0.3 for a solar-metallicity DLA with N(H 2 ) = 19.88 ± 0.2 at z = 2.6265. These systems have ratios of HD to H 2 above that observed in dense clouds within the Milky Way disk and apparently consistent with a simple conversion from the cosmological ratio of D/H. These ratios are not readily explained by any available model of HD chemistry, and there are no obvious trends with metallicity or molecular content. Taken together, these two systems and the two published z>2 HD-bearing DLAs indicate that HD is either less effectively dissociated or more efficiently produced in high-redshift interstellar gas, even at low molecular fraction and/or solar metallicity. It is puzzling that such diverse systems should show such consistent HD/H 2 ratios. Without clear knowledge of all the aspects of HD chemistry that may help determine the ratio HD/H 2 , we conclude that these systems are potentially more revealing of gas chemistry than of D/H itself and that it is premature to use such systems to constrain D/H at high redshift.

  8. Accounting for Cosmic Variance in Studies of Gravitationally Lensed High-redshift Galaxies in the Hubble Frontier Field Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Brant E.; Ellis, Richard S.; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; Stark, Dan P.; McLeod, Derek

    2014-12-01

    Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful means for studying faint galaxies in the distant universe. By magnifying the apparent brightness of background sources, massive clusters enable the detection of galaxies fainter than the usual sensitivity limit for blank fields. However, this gain in effective sensitivity comes at the cost of a reduced survey volume and, in this Letter, we demonstrate that there is an associated increase in the cosmic variance uncertainty. As an example, we show that the cosmic variance uncertainty of the high-redshift population viewed through the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field cluster Abell 2744 increases from ~35% at redshift z ~ 7 to >~ 65% at z ~ 10. Previous studies of high-redshift galaxies identified in the Frontier Fields have underestimated the cosmic variance uncertainty that will affect the ultimate constraints on both the faint-end slope of the high-redshift luminosity function and the cosmic star formation rate density, key goals of the Frontier Field program.

  9. The [CII] 158 μm line emission in high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagache, G.; Cousin, M.; Chatzikos, M.

    2018-02-01

    Gas is a crucial component of galaxies, providing the fuel to form stars, and it is impossible to understand the evolution of galaxies without knowing their gas properties. The [CII] fine structure transition at 158 μm is the dominant cooling line of cool interstellar gas, and is the brightest of emission lines from star forming galaxies from FIR through metre wavelengths, almost unaffected by attenuation. With the advent of ALMA and NOEMA, capable of detecting [CII]-line emission in high-redshift galaxies, there has been a growing interest in using the [CII] line as a probe of the physical conditions of the gas in galaxies, and as a star formation rate (SFR) indicator at z ≥ 4. In this paper, we have used a semi-analytical model of galaxy evolution (G.A.S.) combined with the photoionisation code CLOUDY to predict the [CII] luminosity of a large number of galaxies (25 000 at z ≃ 5) at 4 ≤ z ≤ 8. We assumed that the [CII]-line emission originates from photo-dominated regions. At such high redshift, the CMB represents a strong background and we discuss its effects on the luminosity of the [CII] line. We studied the L[CII ]-SFR and L[ CII ]-Zg relations and show that they do not strongly evolve with redshift from z = 4 and to z = 8. Galaxies with higher [CII] luminosities tend to have higher metallicities and higher SFRs but the correlations are very broad, with a scatter of about 0.5 and 0.8 dex for L[ CII ]-SFR and L[ CII ]-Zg, respectively. Our model reproduces the L[ CII ]-SFR relations observed in high-redshift star-forming galaxies, with [CII] luminosities lower than expected from local L[ CII ]-SFR relations. Accordingly, the local observed L[ CII ]-SFR relation does not apply at high-z (z ≳ 5), even when CMB effects are ignored. Our model naturally produces the [CII] deficit (i.e. the decrease of L[ CII ]/LIR with LIR), which appears to be strongly correlated with the intensity of the radiation field in our simulated galaxies. We then predict the

  10. High-Redshift Quasars Found in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data. II. The Spring Equatorial Stripe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Xiaohui; Strauss, Michael A.; Schneider, Donald P.; Gunn, James E.; Lupton, Robert H.; Anderson, Scott F.; Voges, Wolfgang; Margon, Bruce; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the second paper in a series aimed at finding high-redshift quasars from five-color (u ' g ' r ' i ' z ' ) imaging data taken along the Celestial Equator by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) during its commissioning phase. In this paper, we present 22 high-redshift quasars (z>3.6) discovered from ∼250 deg2 of data in the spring Equatorial Stripe, plus photometry for two previously known high-redshift quasars in the same region of the sky. Our success rate in identifying high-redshift quasars is 68%. Five of the newly discovered quasars have redshifts higher than 4.6 (z=4.62, 4.69, 4.70, 4.92, and 5.03). All the quasars have i * B 0 =0.5). Several of the quasars show unusual emission and absorption features in their spectra, including an object at z=4.62 without detectable emission lines, and a broad absorption line (BAL) quasar at z=4.92. (c) (c) 2000. The American Astronomical Society

  11. FORMATION OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT: COLD STREAMS, CLUMPY DISKS, AND COMPACT SPHEROIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekel, Avishai; Sari, Re'em; Ceverino, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple theoretical framework for massive galaxies at high redshift, where the main assembly and star formation occurred, and report on the first cosmological simulations that reveal clumpy disks consistent with our analysis. The evolution is governed by the interplay between smooth and clumpy cold streams, disk instability, and bulge formation. Intense, relatively smooth streams maintain an unstable dense gas-rich disk. Instability with high turbulence and giant clumps, each a few percent of the disk mass, is self-regulated by gravitational interactions within the disk. The clumps migrate into a bulge in ∼ sun yr -1 , and each clump converts into stars in ∼0.5 Gyr. While the clumps coalesce dissipatively to a compact bulge, the star-forming disk is extended because the incoming streams keep the outer disk dense and susceptible to instability and because of angular momentum transport. Passive spheroid-dominated galaxies form when the streams are more clumpy: the external clumps merge into a massive bulge and stir up disk turbulence that stabilize the disk and suppress in situ clump and star formation. We predict a bimodality in galaxy type by z ∼ 3, involving giant-clump star-forming disks and spheroid-dominated galaxies of suppressed star formation. After z ∼ 1, the disks tend to be stabilized by the dominant stellar disks and bulges. Most of the high-z massive disks are likely to end up as today's early-type galaxies.

  12. Fluctuations in radiation backgrounds at high redshift and the first stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzbauer, Lauren Nicole

    The first stars to light up our universe are as yet unseen, but there have been many attempts to elucidate their properties. The characteristics of these stars (`Population/Pop III' stars) that we do know lie mostly within theory; they formed out of metal-free hydrogen and helium gas contained in dark matter minihalos at redshifts z 20-30. The extent to which Pop III star formation reached into later times is unknown. Current and near future instruments are incapable of resolving individual Pop III stars. Consequently, astronomers must devise creative means with which to indirectly predict and measure and their properties. In this thesis, we will investigate a few of those means. We use a new method to model fluctuations of the Lyman-Werner (LW) and Lyman-alpha radiation backgrounds at high redshift. At these early epochs the backgrounds are symptoms of a universe newly lit with its first stars. LW photons (11.5-13.6 eV) are of particular interest because they dissociate molecular hydrogen, the primary coolant in the first minihalos that is necessary for star formation. By using a variation of the `halo model', which describes the spatial distribution and clustering of halos, we can efficiently generate power spectra for these backgrounds. Spatial fluctuations in the LW and (indirectly) the Lyman-alpha BG can tell us about the transition from primordial star formation to a more metal-enriched mode that marks the beginning of the second generation of stars in our Universe. The Near Infrared Background (NIRB) has for some time been considered a potential tool with which to indirectly observe the first stars. Ultraviolet (UV) emission from these stars is redshifted into the NIR band, making the NIRB amenable for hunting Pop III stellar signatures. There have been several measurements of the NIRB and subsequent theoretical studies attempting to explain them in recent years. Though controversial, residual levels of the mean NIRB intensity and anisotropies have been

  13. WEAK LINE QUASARS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: EXTREMELY HIGH ACCRETION RATES OR ANEMIC BROAD-LINE REGIONS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Netzer, Hagai; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Lira, Paulina; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z = 3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z = 3.49. In both sources, we detect an unusually weak broad Hβ line and place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, Hβ-based black hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/L Edd =0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of Γ = 1.91 +0.24 -0.22 , which supports the virial L/L Edd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad emission line region properties.

  14. The Abundance of Low-Luminosity Lyα Emitters at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Michael R.; Ellis, Richard S.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Richard, Johan; Kuijken, Konrad

    2004-05-01

    We derive the luminosity function of high-redshift Lyα-emitting sources from a deep, blind, spectroscopic survey that utilized strong-lensing magnification by intermediate-redshift clusters of galaxies. We observed carefully selected regions near nine clusters, consistent with magnification factors generally greater than 10 for the redshift range 4.5account our varying intrinsic Lyα line sensitivity as a function of wavelength and sky position. By virtue of the strong magnification factor, we provide constraints on the Lyα luminosity function to unprecedented limits of 1040 ergs s -1, corresponding to a star formation rate of 0.01 Msolar yr-1. Our cumulative z~=5 Lyα luminosity function is consistent with a power-law form n(>L)~L-1 over 1041-1042.5 ergs s-1. When combined with the results of other surveys, limited at higher luminosities, our results suggest evidence for the suppression of star formation in low-mass halos, as predicted in popular models of galaxy formation. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  15. Physical conditions of the interstellar medium in high-redshift submillimetre bright galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chentao

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of a population of high- redshift dust-obscured submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) from ground-based submm cameras has revolutionised our understanding of galaxy evolution and star formation in extreme conditions. They are the strongest starbursts in the Universe approaching the Eddington limit and are believed to be the progenitors of the most massive galaxies today. However, theoretical models of galaxy evolution have even been challenged by a large number of detections of high-redshift SMGs. A very few among them are gravitationally lensed by an intervening galaxy. Recent wide-area extragalactic surveys have discovered hundreds of such strongly lensed SMGs, opening new exciting opportunities for observing the interstellar medium in these exceptional objects. We have thus carefully selected a sample of strongly gravitational lensed SMGs based on the submillimeter flux limit from the Herschel-ATLAS sample. Using IRAM telescopes, we have built a rich H2O-line-detected sample of 16 SMGs. We found a close-to-linear tight correlation between the H2O line and total infrared luminosity. This indicates the importance of far-IR pumping to the excitation of the H2O lines. Using a far-IR pumping model, we have derived the physical properties of the H2O gas and the dust. We showed that H2O lines trace a warm dense gas that may be closely related to the active star formation. Along with the H2O lines, several H2O+ lines have also been detected in three of our SMGs. We also find a tight correlation between the luminosity of the lines of H2O and H2O+ from local ULIRGs to high-redshift SMGs. The flux ratio between H2O+ and H2O suggests that cosmic rays from strong star forming activities are possibly driving the related oxygen chemistry. Another important common molecular gas tracer is the CO line. We have observed multiple transitions of the CO lines in each of our SMGs with IRAM 30m telescope. By analysing the CO line profile, we discovered a significant differential

  16. The Origin and Evolution of Interstellar Dust in the Local and High-redshift Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2012-01-01

    In this talk I will begin by reviewing our current state of knowledge regarding the origin and evolution of dust in the local solar neighborhood. using chemical evolution models, I will discuss their many different input parameters and their uncertainties. An important consequence of these models is the delayed injection of dust from AGB stars, compared to supernova-condensed dust, into the interstellar medium. I will show that these stellar evolutionary effects on dust composition are manifested in the infrared spectra of local galaxies. The delayed production of dust in AGB stars has also important consequences for the origin of the large amount of dust detected in high-redshift galaxies, when the universe was less that approx. 1 Gyr old. Supernovae may have been the only viable dust sources in those galaxies. Recent observations of sN1987a show a significant mass of dust in the ejecta of this SN. Is that production rate high enough to account for the observed dust mass in these galaxies? If not, what are the alternative viable sources of dust, and how do they depend on the nature of the galaxy (starburst or AGN) and its star formation history .

  17. Clustering of High Redshift (z>2.9) Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Fan, Xiaohui; Richards, Gordon T.; Hall, Patrick B.; Schneider, Donald P.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thakar, Anirudda R.; Berk, Daniel E.Vanden; Anderson, Scott F.; Bahcall, Neta A.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-11-30

    We study the two-point correlation function of a uniformly selected sample of 4,428 optically selected luminous quasars with redshift 2.9 {le} z {le} 5.4 selected over 4041 deg{sup 2} from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We fit a power-law to the projected correlation function w{sub p}(r{sub p}) to marginalize over redshift space distortions and redshift errors. For a real-space correlation function of the form {zeta}(r) = (r/r{sub 0}){sup -{gamma}}, the fitted parameters in comoving coordinates are r{sub 0} = 15.2 {+-} 2.7 h{sup -1} Mpc and {gamma} = 2.0 {+-} 0.3, over a scale range 4 {le} r{sub p} {le} 150 h{sup -1} Mpc. Thus high-redshift quasars are appreciably more strongly clustered than their z {approx} 1.5 counterparts, which have a comoving clustering length r{sub 0} {approx} 6.5 h{sup -1} Mpc. Dividing our sample into two redshift bins: 2.9 {le} z {le} 3.5 and z {ge} 3.5, and assuming a power-law index {gamma} = 2.0, we find a correlation length of r{sub 0} = 16.9 {+-} 1.7 h{sup -1} Mpc for the former, and r{sub 0} = 24.3 {+-} 2.4 h{sup -1} Mpc for the latter. Strong clustering at high redshift indicates that quasars are found in very massive, and therefore highly biased, halos. Following Martini & Weinberg, we relate the clustering strength and quasar number density to the quasar lifetimes and duty cycle. Using the Sheth & Tormen halo mass function, the quasar lifetime is estimated to lie in the range 4 {approx} 50 Myr for quasars with 2.9 {le} z {le} 3.5; and 30 {approx} 600 Myr for quasars with z {ge} 3.5. The corresponding duty cycles are 0.004 {approx} 0.05 for the lower redshift bin and 0.03 {approx} 0.6 for the higher redshift bin. The minimum mass of halos in which these quasars reside is 2-3 x 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} for quasars with 2.9 {le} z {le} 3.5 and 4-6 x 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} for quasars with z {ge} 3.5; the effective bias factor b{sub eff} increases with redshift, e.g., b

  18. High Redshift Radio Galaxies at Low Redshift, and Some Other Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Robert

    Cygnus A is the only high redshift radio galaxy at low redshift, that is it's the only nearby object with radio power in the range of the high redshift 3C objects. It is clear now that this is somewhat misleading in that Cyg A is an overachiever in the radio, and that its actual bolometric luminosity is much more modest than this would indicate. (This point has been explored and generalized in Barthel and Arnaud 1996; also see Carilli and Barthel 1996 for a detailed review of Cyg A). But the energy content of the lobes is famously large. There is a whole history of attempts to show that Cygnus A fits the Unified Model, and our particular contribution was detecting an apparent broad MgII line with the HST (Antonucci, Kinney and Hurt 1994, which includes references to previous work). The spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was less than amazing; furthermore an unflagged dead diode took out ~12 Å from the line profile; and there was an uncertain ``noise" contribution from confusing narrow lines (gory details in Antonucci 1994). One of the referees of our paper - the favorable one - stated that ``only a mother could love that line." Thus we reobserved it with somewhat better SNR and with the bad diode flagged, and the old and new data are presented to the same scale in Figure 1. Most of the bins are within the combined 1 σ statistical errors, and the many statistically significant wiggles are almost all present in NGC1068 as well (Antonucci, Hurt and Miller 1994). The point is that the errors are believable, and that the continuum should be set low. I believe the MgII line is there and is broader than we thought originally. (A detailed discussion of the spectrum is in prep.) In the 1994 paper we also stated that the polarization in the UV (F320W FOC filter) is ~6 %, and perpendicular to the radio axis, indicating that there is a fairly large contribution from scattered light from a quasar in this region. This is consistent with the scenario of Jackson and Tadhunter

  19. Gas clump formation via thermal instability in high-redshift dwarf galaxy mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Shohei; Yajima, Hidenobu; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2018-04-01

    Star formation in high-redshift dwarf galaxies is a key to understand early galaxy evolution in the early Universe. Using the three-dimensional hydrodynamics code GIZMO, we study the formation mechanism of cold, high-density gas clouds in interacting dwarf galaxies with halo masses of ˜3 × 107 M⊙, which are likely to be the formation sites of early star clusters. Our simulations can resolve both the structure of interstellar medium on small scales of ≲ 0.1 pc and the galactic disc simultaneously. We find that the cold gas clouds form in the post-shock region via thermal instability due to metal-line cooling, when the cooling time is shorter than the galactic dynamical time. The mass function of cold clouds shows almost a power-law initially with an upper limit of thermally unstable scale. We find that some clouds merge into more massive ones with ≳104 M⊙ within ˜ 2 Myr. Only the massive cold clouds with ≳ 103 M⊙ can keep collapsing due to gravitational instability, resulting in the formation of star clusters. We find that the clump formation is more efficient in the prograde-prograde merger than the prograde-retrograde case due to the difference in the degree of shear flow. In addition, we investigate the dependence of cloud mass function on metallicity and H2 abundance, and show that the cases with low metallicities (≲10-2 Z⊙) or high H2 abundance (≳10-3) cannot form massive cold clouds with ≳103 M⊙.

  20. SHOCK BREAKOUT IN TYPE II PLATEAU SUPERNOVAE: PROSPECTS FOR HIGH-REDSHIFT SUPERNOVA SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, N.; Morokuma, T.; Blinnikov, S. I.; Nomoto, K.; Baklanov, P.; Sorokina, E. I.

    2011-01-01

    Shock breakout is the brightest radiative phenomenon in a supernova (SN) but is difficult to be observed owing to the short duration and X-ray/ultraviolet (UV)-peaked spectra. After the first observation from the rising phase reported in 2008, its observability at high redshift is attracting enormous attention. We perform multigroup radiation hydrodynamics calculations of explosions for evolutionary presupernova models with various main-sequence masses M MS , metallicities Z, and explosion energies E. We present multicolor light curves of shock breakouts in Type II plateau SNe, being the most frequent core-collapse SNe, and predict apparent multicolor light curves of shock breakout at various redshifts z. We derive the observable SN rate and reachable redshift as functions of filter x and limiting magnitude m x,lim by taking into account an initial mass function, cosmic star formation history, intergalactic absorption, and host galaxy extinction. We propose a realistic survey strategy optimized for shock breakout. For example, the g'-band observable SN rate for m g',lim = 27.5 mag is 3.3 SNe deg -2 day -1 and half of them are located at z ≥ 1.2. It is clear that the shock breakout is a beneficial clue for probing high-z core-collapse SNe. We also establish ways to identify shock breakout and constrain SN properties from the observations of shock breakout, brightness, timescale, and color. We emphasize that the multicolor observations in blue optical bands with ∼hour intervals, preferably over ≥2 continuous nights, are essential to efficiently detect, identify, and interpret shock breakout.

  1. Jetted tidal disruptions of stars as a flag of intermediate mass black holes at high redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-11-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) of stars by single or binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) brighten galactic nuclei and reveal a population of otherwise dormant black holes. Adopting event rates from the literature, we aim to establish general trends in the redshift evolution of the TDE number counts and their observable signals. We pay particular attention to (I) jetted TDEs whose luminosity is boosted by relativistic beaming and (II) TDEs around binary black holes. We show that the brightest (jetted) TDEs are expected to be produced by massive black hole binaries if the occupancy of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) in low-mass galaxies is high. The same binary population will also provide gravitational wave sources for the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. In addition, we find that the shape of the X-ray luminosity function of TDEs strongly depends on the occupancy of IMBHs and could be used to constrain scenarios of SMBH formation. Finally, we make predictions for the expected number of TDEs observed by future X-ray telescopes finding that a 50 times more sensitive instrument than the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board the Swift satellite is expected to trigger ˜10 times more events than BAT, while 6-20 TDEs are expected in each deep field observed by a telescope 50 times more sensitive than the Chandra X-ray Observatory if the occupation fraction of IMBHs is high. Because of their long decay times, high-redshift TDEs can be mistaken for fixed point sources in deep field surveys and targeted observations of the same deep field with year-long intervals could reveal TDEs.

  2. THE QUEST FOR DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT z ≳ 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, C.; Lapi, A.; Shi, J.; Aversa, R.; Danese, L.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the continuity equation approach and “main-sequence” star formation timescales to show that the observed high abundance of galaxies with stellar masses ≳ a few 10 10 M ⊙ at redshift z ≳ 4 implies the existence of a galaxy population featuring large star formation rates (SFRs) ψ ≳ 10 2 M ⊙ yr −1 in heavily dust-obscured conditions. These galaxies constitute the high-redshift counterparts of the dusty star-forming population already surveyed for z ≲ 3 in the far-IR band by the Herschel Space Observatory . We work out specific predictions for the evolution of the corresponding stellar mass and SFR functions out to z ∼ 10, determining that the number density at z ≲ 8 for SFRs ψ ≳ 30 M ⊙ yr −1 cannot be estimated relying on the UV luminosity function alone, even when standard corrections for dust extinction based on the UV slope are applied. We compute the number counts and redshift distributions (including galaxy-scale gravitational lensing) of this galaxy population, and show that current data from the AzTEC - LABOCA , SCUBA-2 , and ALMA - SPT surveys are already addressing it. We demonstrate how an observational strategy based on color preselection in the far-IR or (sub-)millimeter band with Herschel and SCUBA-2 , supplemented by photometric data from on-source observations with ALMA , can allow us to reconstruct the bright end of the SFR functions out to z ≲ 8. In parallel, such a challenging task can be managed by exploiting current UV surveys in combination with (sub-)millimeter observations by ALMA and NIKA2 and/or radio observations by SKA and its precursors.

  3. The coevolution of supermassive black holes and massive galaxies at high redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapi, A.; Raimundo, S.; Aversa, R.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Celotti, A.; De Zotti, G.; Danese, L. [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Negrello, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2014-02-20

    We exploit the recent, wide samples of far-infrared (FIR) selected galaxies followed up in X-rays and of X-ray/optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) followed up in the FIR band, along with the classic data on AGNs and stellar luminosity functions at high redshift z ≳ 1.5, to probe different stages in the coevolution of supermassive black holes (BHs) and host galaxies. The results of our analysis indicate the following scenario: (1) the star formation in the host galaxy proceeds within a heavily dust-enshrouded medium at an almost constant rate over a timescale ≲ 0.5-1 Gyr and then abruptly declines due to quasar feedback, over the same timescale; (2) part of the interstellar medium loses angular momentum, reaches the circum-nuclear regions at a rate proportional to the star formation, and is temporarily stored in a massive reservoir/proto-torus wherefrom it can be promptly accreted; (3) the BH grows by accretion in a self-regulated regime with radiative power that can slightly exceed the Eddington limit L/L {sub Edd} ≲ 4, particularly at the highest redshifts; (4) for massive BHs, the ensuing energy feedback at its maximum exceeds the stellar one and removes the interstellar gas, thus stopping the star formation and the fueling of the reservoir; (5) afterward, if the latter has retained enough gas, a phase of supply-limited accretion follows, exponentially declining with a timescale of about two e-folding times. We also discuss how the detailed properties and the specific evolution of the reservoir can be investigated via coordinated, high-resolution observations of star-forming, strongly lensed galaxies in the (sub-)mm band with ALMA and in the X-ray band with Chandra and the next-generation X-ray instruments.

  4. THE QUEST FOR DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT z ≳ 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, C.; Lapi, A.; Shi, J.; Aversa, R.; Danese, L. [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, C. Calvo Sotelo s/n, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-06-01

    We exploit the continuity equation approach and “main-sequence” star formation timescales to show that the observed high abundance of galaxies with stellar masses ≳ a few 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙} at redshift z ≳ 4 implies the existence of a galaxy population featuring large star formation rates (SFRs) ψ ≳ 10{sup 2} M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} in heavily dust-obscured conditions. These galaxies constitute the high-redshift counterparts of the dusty star-forming population already surveyed for z ≲ 3 in the far-IR band by the Herschel Space Observatory . We work out specific predictions for the evolution of the corresponding stellar mass and SFR functions out to z ∼ 10, determining that the number density at z ≲ 8 for SFRs ψ ≳ 30 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} cannot be estimated relying on the UV luminosity function alone, even when standard corrections for dust extinction based on the UV slope are applied. We compute the number counts and redshift distributions (including galaxy-scale gravitational lensing) of this galaxy population, and show that current data from the AzTEC - LABOCA , SCUBA-2 , and ALMA - SPT surveys are already addressing it. We demonstrate how an observational strategy based on color preselection in the far-IR or (sub-)millimeter band with Herschel and SCUBA-2 , supplemented by photometric data from on-source observations with ALMA , can allow us to reconstruct the bright end of the SFR functions out to z ≲ 8. In parallel, such a challenging task can be managed by exploiting current UV surveys in combination with (sub-)millimeter observations by ALMA and NIKA2 and/or radio observations by SKA and its precursors.

  5. GALEX FAR-ULTRAVIOLET COLOR SELECTION OF UV-BRIGHT HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worseck, Gabor; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We study the small population of high-redshift (z em >2.7) quasars detected by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer(GALEX), whose far-UV emission is not extinguished by intervening H I Lyman limit systems. These quasars are of particular importance to detect intergalactic He II absorption along their sight lines. We correlate almost all verified z em >2.7 quasars to the GALEX GR4 source catalog covering ∼ 25,000 deg 2 , yielding 304 sources detected at signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) >3. However, ∼50% of these are only detected in the GALEX NUV band, signaling the truncation of the FUV flux by low-redshift optically thick Lyman limit systems. We exploit the GALEX UV color m FUV - m NUV to cull the most promising targets for follow-up studies, with blue (red) GALEX colors indicating transparent (opaque) sight lines. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations indicate an He II detection rate of ∼60% for quasars with m FUV - m NUV ∼ em ∼ 3 to be most promising for Hubble Space Telescope follow-up, with an additional 114 quasars if we consider S/N >2 detections in the FUV. Combining the statistical properties of H I absorbers with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar luminosity function, we predict a large all-sky population of ∼200 quasars with z em >2.7 and i ∼ 304 em ∼ em ∼ em ∼< 3.5 quasars have likely underestimated their space density by selecting intergalactic medium sight lines with an excess of strong H I absorbers.

  6. Big Data in the SHELA Field: Investigating Galaxy Quenching at High Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevans, Matthew L.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Wold, Isak; Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee; Sherman, Sydney; Gebhardt, Karl; Jogee, Shardha; Papovich, Casey J.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Gawiser, Eric J.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Casey, Caitlin; Florez, Jonathan; HETDEX Team

    2017-06-01

    We present a measurement of the z ~ 4 Lyman break galaxy (LBG) rest-frame UV luminosity function to investigate the onset of quenching in the early universe. The bright-end of the galaxy luminosity function typically shows an exponential decline far steeper than that of the underlying halo mass function. This is typically attributed to negative feedback from past active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity as well as dust attenuation. Constraining the abundance of bright galaxies at early times (z > 3) can provide a key insight into the mechanisms regulating star formation in galaxies. However, existing studies suffer from low number statistics and/or the inability to robustly remove stellar and AGN contaminants. In this study we take advantage of the unprecedentedly large (24 deg^2) Spitzer/HETDEX Exploratory Large Area (SHELA) field and its deep multi-wavelength photometry, which includes DECam ugriz, NEWFIRM K-band, Spitzer/IRAC, Herschel/SPIRE, and X-ray from XMM-Newton and Chandra. With SHELA’s deep imaging over a large area we are uniquely positioned to study statistically significant samples of massive galaxies at high redshifts (z > 3) when the first massive galaxies began quenching. We select our sample using photometric redshifts from the EAZY software package (Brammer et al. 2008) based on the optical and far-infrared imaging. We directly identify and remove stellar contaminants and AGN with IRAC colors and X-ray detections, respectively. By pinning down the exact shape of the bright-end of the z ~ 4 LBG luminosity function, we provide the deepest probe yet into the baryonic physics dominating star formation and quenching in the early universe.

  7. CONSTRAINTS ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STELLAR MASS AND HALO MASS AT LOW AND HIGH REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moster, Benjamin P.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Maulbetsch, Christian; Van den Bosch, Frank C.; Maccio, Andrea V.; Naab, Thorsten; Oser, Ludwig

    2010-01-01

    We use a statistical approach to determine the relationship between the stellar masses of galaxies and the masses of the dark matter halos in which they reside. We obtain a parameterized stellar-to-halo mass (SHM) relation by populating halos and subhalos in an N-body simulation with galaxies and requiring that the observed stellar mass function be reproduced. We find good agreement with constraints from galaxy-galaxy lensing and predictions of semi-analytic models. Using this mapping, and the positions of the halos and subhalos obtained from the simulation, we find that our model predictions for the galaxy two-point correlation function (CF) as a function of stellar mass are in excellent agreement with the observed clustering properties in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at z = 0. We show that the clustering data do not provide additional strong constraints on the SHM function and conclude that our model can therefore predict clustering as a function of stellar mass. We compute the conditional mass function, which yields the average number of galaxies with stellar masses in the range m ± dm/2 that reside in a halo of mass M. We study the redshift dependence of the SHM relation and show that, for low-mass halos, the SHM ratio is lower at higher redshift. The derived SHM relation is used to predict the stellar mass dependent galaxy CF and bias at high redshift. Our model predicts that not only are massive galaxies more biased than low-mass galaxies at all redshifts, but also the bias increases more rapidly with increasing redshift for massive galaxies than for low-mass ones. We present convenient fitting functions for the SHM relation as a function of redshift, the conditional mass function, and the bias as a function of stellar mass and redshift.

  8. The progenitors of the compact early-type galaxies at high redshift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Christina C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Lee, Bomee; Cassata, Paolo; Tundo, Elena; Conselice, Christopher J.; Wiklind, Tommy; Guo, Yicheng; Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandra M.; Koo, David C.; Wuyts, Stijn; Bell, Eric F.; Dekel, Avishai; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton; Hathi, Nimish; Huang, Kuang-Han; Kocevski, Dale

    2014-01-01

    We use GOODS and CANDELS images to identify progenitors of massive (M > 10 10 M ☉ ) compact early-type galaxies (ETGs) at z ∼ 1.6. Because merging and accretion increase the size of the stellar component of galaxies, if the progenitors are among known star-forming galaxies, these must be compact themselves. We select candidate progenitors among compact Lyman-break galaxies at z ∼ 3 on the basis of their mass, star-formation rate (SFR), and central stellar density, and we find that these account for a large fraction of, and possibly all, compact ETGs at z ∼ 1.6. We find that the average far-UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of the candidates is redder than that of the non-candidates, but the optical and mid-IR SED are the same, implying that the redder UV of the candidates is inconsistent with larger dust obscuration and consistent with more evolved (aging) star formation. This is in line with other evidence suggesting that compactness is a sensitive predictor of passivity among high-redshift massive galaxies. We also find that the light distribution of both the compact ETGs and their candidate progenitors does not show any extended 'halos' surrounding the compact 'core,' both in individual images and in stacks. We argue that this is generally inconsistent with the morphology of merger remnants, even if gas rich, as predicted by N-body simulations. This suggests that the compact ETGs formed via highly dissipative, mostly gaseous accretion of units whose stellar components are very small and undetected in the Hubble Space Telescope images, with their stellar mass assembling in situ, and that they have not experienced any major merging until the epoch of observations at z ∼ 1.6.

  9. The progenitors of the compact early-type galaxies at high redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Christina C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Lee, Bomee [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Cassata, Paolo [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Tundo, Elena; Conselice, Christopher J. [The School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Wiklind, Tommy [Joint ALMA Observatory, ESO, Santiago (Chile); Guo, Yicheng; Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandra M.; Koo, David C. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wuyts, Stijn [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hathi, Nimish [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Huang, Kuang-Han [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kocevski, Dale, E-mail: ccwillia@astro.umass.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    We use GOODS and CANDELS images to identify progenitors of massive (M > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}) compact early-type galaxies (ETGs) at z ∼ 1.6. Because merging and accretion increase the size of the stellar component of galaxies, if the progenitors are among known star-forming galaxies, these must be compact themselves. We select candidate progenitors among compact Lyman-break galaxies at z ∼ 3 on the basis of their mass, star-formation rate (SFR), and central stellar density, and we find that these account for a large fraction of, and possibly all, compact ETGs at z ∼ 1.6. We find that the average far-UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of the candidates is redder than that of the non-candidates, but the optical and mid-IR SED are the same, implying that the redder UV of the candidates is inconsistent with larger dust obscuration and consistent with more evolved (aging) star formation. This is in line with other evidence suggesting that compactness is a sensitive predictor of passivity among high-redshift massive galaxies. We also find that the light distribution of both the compact ETGs and their candidate progenitors does not show any extended 'halos' surrounding the compact 'core,' both in individual images and in stacks. We argue that this is generally inconsistent with the morphology of merger remnants, even if gas rich, as predicted by N-body simulations. This suggests that the compact ETGs formed via highly dissipative, mostly gaseous accretion of units whose stellar components are very small and undetected in the Hubble Space Telescope images, with their stellar mass assembling in situ, and that they have not experienced any major merging until the epoch of observations at z ∼ 1.6.

  10. A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS TO THE HIGH-REDSHIFT OVERPRODUCTION OF STARS IN MODELED DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Catherine E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Somerville, Rachel S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Both numerical hydrodynamic and semi-analytic cosmological models of galaxy formation struggle to match observed star formation histories of galaxies in low-mass halos (M {sub H} ≲ 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}), predicting more star formation at high redshift and less star formation at low redshift than observed. The fundamental problem is that galaxies' gas accretion and star formation rates are too closely coupled in the models: the accretion rate largely drives the star formation rate. Observations point to gas accretion rates that outpace star formation at high redshift, resulting in a buildup of gas and a delay in star formation until lower redshifts. We present three empirical adjustments of standard recipes in a semi-analytic model motivated by three physical scenarios that could cause this decoupling: (1) the mass-loading factors of outflows driven by stellar feedback may have a steeper dependence on halo mass at earlier times, (2) the efficiency of star formation may be lower in low-mass halos at high redshift, and (3) gas may not be able to accrete efficiently onto the disk in low-mass halos at high redshift. These new recipes, once tuned, better reproduce the evolution of f {sub *}≡ M {sub *}/M {sub H} as a function of halo mass as derived from abundance matching over redshifts z = 0 to 3, though they have different effects on cold gas fractions, star formation rates, and metallicities. Changes to gas accretion and stellar-driven winds are promising, while direct modification of the star formation timescale requires drastic measures that are not physically well motivated.

  11. The SPT+Herschel+ALMA+Spitzer Legacy Survey: The stellar content of high redshift strongly lensed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joaquin; Ashby, Matt; Carlstrom, John; Chapman, Scott; DeBreuck, Carlos; Fassnacht, Chris; Gonzalez, Anthony; Phadke, Kedar; Marrone, Dan; Malkan, Matt; Reuter, Cassie; Rotermund, Kaja; Spilker, Justin; Weiss, Axel

    2018-05-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has systematically identified 90 high-redshift strongly gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in a 2500 square-degree cosmological survey of the millimeter (mm) sky. These sources are selected by their extreme mm flux, which is largely independent of redshift and lensing configuration. We are undertaking a comprehensive and systematic followup campaign to use these "cosmic magnifying glasses" to study the infrared background in unprecedented detail, inform the condition of the interstellar medium in starburst galaxies at high redshift, and place limits on dark matter substructure. Here we ask for 115.4 hours of deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging to complete our survey of 90 systems to a uniform depth of 30min integrations at 3.6um and 60min at 4.5um. In our sample of 90 systems, 16 have already been fully observed, 30 have been partially observed, and 44 have not been observed at all. Our immediate goals are to: 1) constrain the specific star formation rates of the background high-redshift submillimeter galaxies by combining these Spitzer observations with our APEX, Herschel, and ALMA data, 2) robustly determine the stellar masses and mass-to-light ratios of all the foreground lensing galaxies in the sample by combining these observations with our VLT and Gemini data, the Dark Energy Survey, and ALMA; and 3) provide complete, deep, and uniform NIR coverage of our entire sample of lensed systems to characterize the environments of high redshift SMGs, maximize the discovery potential for additional spectacular and rare sources, and prepare for JWST. This program will provide the cornerstone data set for two PhD theses: Kedar Phadke at Illinois will lead the analysis of stellar masses for the background SMGs, and Kaja Rotermund at Dalhousie will lead the analysis of stellar masses for the foreground lenses.

  12. IGMtransmission: A Java GUI to model the effects of the Intergalactic Medium on the colours of high redshift galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Christopher M.; Meiksin, Avery; Stock, David

    2011-01-01

    IGMtransmission is a Java graphical user interface that implements Monte Carlo simulations to compute the corrections to colours of high-redshift galaxies due to intergalactic attenuation based on current models of the Intergalactic Medium. The effects of absorption due to neutral hydrogen are considered, with particular attention to the stochastic effects of Lyman Limit Systems. Attenuation curves are produced, as well as colours for a wide range of filter responses and model galaxy spectra....

  13. HYDRODYNAMICS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXY COLLISIONS: FROM GAS-RICH DISKS TO DISPERSION-DOMINATED MERGERS AND COMPACT SPHEROIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bournaud, Frederic; Chapon, Damien; Teyssier, Romain; Powell, Leila C.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Contini, Thierry; Epinat, Benoit; Shapiro, Kristen L.

    2011-01-01

    Disk galaxies at high redshift (z ∼ 2) are characterized by high fractions of cold gas, strong turbulence, and giant star-forming clumps. Major mergers of disk galaxies at high redshift should then generally involve such turbulent clumpy disks. Merger simulations, however, model the interstellar medium as a stable, homogeneous, and thermally pressurized medium. We present the first merger simulations with high fractions of cold, turbulent, and clumpy gas. We discuss the major new features of these models compared to models where the gas is artificially stabilized and warmed. Gas turbulence, which is already strong in high-redshift disks, is further enhanced in mergers. Some phases are dispersion dominated, with most of the gas kinetic energy in the form of velocity dispersion and very chaotic velocity fields, unlike merger models using a thermally stabilized gas. These mergers can reach very high star formation rates, and have multi-component gas spectra consistent with SubMillimeter Galaxies. Major mergers with high fractions of cold turbulent gas are also characterized by highly dissipative gas collapse to the center of mass, with the stellar component following in a global contraction. The final galaxies are early type with relatively small radii and high Sersic indices, like high-redshift compact spheroids. The mass fraction in a disk component that survives or re-forms after a merger is severely reduced compared to models with stabilized gas, and the formation of a massive disk component would require significant accretion of external baryons afterwards. Mergers thus appear to destroy extended disks even when the gas fraction is high, and this lends further support to smooth infall as the main formation mechanism for massive disk galaxies.

  14. ACCOUNTING FOR COSMIC VARIANCE IN STUDIES OF GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES IN THE HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELD CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Brant E.; Stark, Dan P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ellis, Richard S. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; McLeod, Derek, E-mail: brant@email.arizona.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful means for studying faint galaxies in the distant universe. By magnifying the apparent brightness of background sources, massive clusters enable the detection of galaxies fainter than the usual sensitivity limit for blank fields. However, this gain in effective sensitivity comes at the cost of a reduced survey volume and, in this Letter, we demonstrate that there is an associated increase in the cosmic variance uncertainty. As an example, we show that the cosmic variance uncertainty of the high-redshift population viewed through the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field cluster Abell 2744 increases from ∼35% at redshift z ∼ 7 to ≳ 65% at z ∼ 10. Previous studies of high-redshift galaxies identified in the Frontier Fields have underestimated the cosmic variance uncertainty that will affect the ultimate constraints on both the faint-end slope of the high-redshift luminosity function and the cosmic star formation rate density, key goals of the Frontier Field program.

  15. ACCOUNTING FOR COSMIC VARIANCE IN STUDIES OF GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES IN THE HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELD CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Brant E.; Stark, Dan P.; Ellis, Richard S.; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; McLeod, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful means for studying faint galaxies in the distant universe. By magnifying the apparent brightness of background sources, massive clusters enable the detection of galaxies fainter than the usual sensitivity limit for blank fields. However, this gain in effective sensitivity comes at the cost of a reduced survey volume and, in this Letter, we demonstrate that there is an associated increase in the cosmic variance uncertainty. As an example, we show that the cosmic variance uncertainty of the high-redshift population viewed through the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field cluster Abell 2744 increases from ∼35% at redshift z ∼ 7 to ≳ 65% at z ∼ 10. Previous studies of high-redshift galaxies identified in the Frontier Fields have underestimated the cosmic variance uncertainty that will affect the ultimate constraints on both the faint-end slope of the high-redshift luminosity function and the cosmic star formation rate density, key goals of the Frontier Field program

  16. Probing Pre-Galactic Metal Enrichment with High-Redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F. Y.; Bromm, Volker; Greif, Thomas H.; Stacy, Athena; Dai, Z. G.; Loeb, Abraham; Cheng, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    We explore high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as promising tools to probe pre-galactic metal enrichment. We utilize the bright afterglow of a Population III (Pop III) GRB exploding in a primordial dwarf galaxy as a luminous background source, and calculate the strength of metal absorption lines that are imprinted by the first heavy elements in the intergalactic medium (IGM). To derive the GRB absorption line diagnostics, we use an existing highly resolved simulation of the formation of a first galaxy which is characterized by the onset of atomic hydrogen cooling in a halo with virial temperature approximately greater than10(exp 4) K.We explore the unusual circumburst environment inside the systems that hosted Pop III stars, modeling the density evolution with the self-similar solution for a champagne flow. For minihalos close to the cooling threshold, the circumburst density is roughly proportional to (1 + z) with values of about a few cm(exp -3). In more massive halos, corresponding to the first galaxies, the density may be larger, n approximately greater than100 cm(exp -3). The resulting afterglow fluxes are weakly dependent on redshift at a fixed observed time, and may be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope and Very Large Array in the near-IR and radio wavebands, respectively, out to redshift z approximately greater than 20. We predict that the maximum of the afterglow emission shifts from near-IR to millimeter bands with peak fluxes from mJy to Jy at different observed times. The metal absorption line signature is expected to be detectable in the near future. GRBs are ideal tools for probing the metal enrichment in the early IGM, due to their high luminosities and featureless power-law spectra. The metals in the first galaxies produced by the first supernova (SN) explosions are likely to reside in low-ionization stages (C II, O I, Si II and Fe II). We show that, if the afterglow can be observed sufficiently early, analysis of the metal lines may

  17. GALAXY EVOLUTION AT HIGH REDSHIFT: OBSCURED STAR FORMATION, GRB RATES, COSMIC REIONIZATION, AND MISSING SATELLITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapi, A.; Mancuso, C.; Celotti, A.; Danese, L. [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2017-01-20

    We provide a holistic view of galaxy evolution at high redshifts z ≳ 4, which incorporates the constraints from various astrophysical/cosmological probes, including the estimate of the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) density from UV/IR surveys and long gamma-ray burst (GRBs) rates, the cosmic reionization history following the latest Planck measurements, and the missing satellites issue. We achieve this goal in a model-independent way by exploiting the SFR functions derived by Mancuso et al. on the basis of an educated extrapolation of the latest UV/far-IR data from HST / Herschel , and already tested against a number of independent observables. Our SFR functions integrated down to a UV magnitude limit M {sub UV} ≲ −13 (or SFR limit around 10{sup −2} M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) produce a cosmic SFR density in excellent agreement with recent determinations from IR surveys and, taking into account a metallicity ceiling Z ≲ Z {sub ⊙}/2, with the estimates from long GRB rates. They also yield a cosmic reionization history consistent with that implied by the recent measurements of the Planck mission of the electron scattering optical depth τ {sub es} ≈ 0.058; remarkably, this result is obtained under a conceivable assumption regarding the average value f {sub esc} ≈ 0.1 of the escape fraction for ionizing photons. We demonstrate via the abundance-matching technique that the above constraints concurrently imply galaxy formation becoming inefficient within dark matter halos of mass below a few 10{sup 8} M {sub ⊙}; pleasingly, such a limit is also required so as not to run into the missing satellites issue. Finally, we predict a downturn of the Galaxy luminosity function faintward of M {sub UV} ≲ −12, and stress that its detailed shape, to be plausibly probed in the near future by the JWST , will be extremely informative on the astrophysics of galaxy formation in small halos, or even on the microscopic nature of the dark matter.

  18. Morphological Evolution in High-Redshift Radio Galaxies and the Formation of Giant Elliptical Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breugel, W.J. van; Stanford, S.A.; Spinrad, H.; Stern, D.; Graham, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    We present deep near-infrared images of high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) obtained with the near-infrared camera (NIRC) on the Keck I telescope. In most cases, the near-IR data sample rest wavelengths that are free of contamination from strong emission lines and at λ rest > 4000 Angstrom, where older stellar populations, if present, might dominate the observed flux. At z > 3, the rest-frame optical morphologies generally have faint, large-scale (∼50 kpc) emission surrounding multiple, ∼10 kpc components. The brightest of these components are often aligned with the radio structures. These morphologies change dramatically at 2 rest ) ∼ -20 to -22] of the individual components in the z > 3 HzRGs are similar to the total sizes and luminosities of normal radio-quiet star forming galaxies at z = 3 - 4. For objects where such data are available, our observations show that the line-free, near-IR colors of the z > 3 galaxies are very blue, consistent with models in which recent star formation dominates the observed light. Direct spectroscopic evidence for massive star formation in one of the z > 3 HzRGs exists (4C 41.17). Our results suggest that the z > 3 HzRGs evolve into much more massive systems than the radio-quiet galaxies and that they are qualitatively consistent with models in which massive galaxies form in hierarchical fashion through the merging of smaller star-forming systems. The presence of relatively luminous subcomponents along the radio axes of the z > 3 galaxies suggests a causal connection with the AGN. We compare the radio and near-IR sizes as a function of redshift and suggest that this parameter may be a measure of the degree to which the radio sources have induced star formation in the parent objects. We also discuss the Hubble diagram of radio galaxies, the possibility of a radio power dependence in the K-z relation, and its implications for radio galaxy formation. Finally, we present for the first time in published format basic radio and

  19. A POPULATION OF X-RAY WEAK QUASARS: PHL 1811 ANALOGS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianfeng; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Hall, Patrick B.; Gibson, Robert R.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Richards, Gordon T.; Shemmer, Ohad; Just, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results from Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a sample of 10 type 1 quasars selected to have unusual UV emission-line properties (weak and blueshifted high-ionization lines; strong UV Fe emission) similar to those of PHL 1811, a confirmed intrinsically X-ray weak quasar. These quasars were identified by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at high redshift (z ∼ 2.2); eight are radio quiet while two are radio intermediate. All of the radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs, without exception, are notably X-ray weak by a mean factor of ∼13. These sources lack broad absorption lines and have blue UV/optical continua, supporting the hypothesis that they are intrinsically X-ray weak like PHL 1811 itself. However, their average X-ray spectrum appears to be harder than those of typical quasars, which may indicate the presence of heavy intrinsic X-ray absorption. Our sample of radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs supports a connection between an X-ray weak spectral energy distribution and PHL 1811-like UV emission lines; this connection provides an economical way to identify X-ray weak type 1 quasars. The fraction of radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs in the radio-quiet quasar population is estimated to be ∼< 1.2%. We have investigated correlations between relative X-ray brightness and UV emission-line properties (e.g., C IV equivalent width and blueshift) for a sample combining our radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs, PHL 1811 itself, and typical type 1 quasars. These correlation analyses suggest that PHL 1811 analogs may have extreme wind-dominated broad emission-line regions. Observationally, the radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs appear to be a subset (∼30%) of radio-quiet weak-line quasars (WLQs). The existence of a subset of quasars in which high-ionization 'shielding gas' covers most of the broad emission-line region (BELR), but little more than the BELR, could potentially unify the PHL 1811 analogs and WLQs. The two radio-intermediate PHL 1811 analogs are X-ray bright. X

  20. Bayesian Multiscale Analysis of X-Ray Jet Features in High Redshift Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeough, Kathryn; Siemiginowska, A.; Kashyap, V.; Stein, N.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray emission of powerful quasar jets may be a result of the inverse Compton (IC) process in which the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons gain energy by interactions with the jet’s relativistic electrons. However, there is no definite evidence that IC/CMB process is responsible for the observed X-ray emission of large scale jets. A step toward understanding the X-ray emission process is to study the Radio and X-ray morphologies of the jet. We implement a sophisticated Bayesian image analysis program, Low-count Image Reconstruction and Analysis (LIRA) (Esch et al. 2004; Conners & van Dyk 2007), to analyze jet features in 11 Chandra images of high redshift quasars (z ~ 2 - 4.8). Out of the 36 regions where knots are visible in the radio jets, nine showed detectable X-ray emission. We measured the ratios of the X-ray and radio luminosities of the detected features and found that they are consistent with the CMB radiation relationship. We derived a range of the bulk lorentz factor (Γ) for detected jet features under the CMB jet emission model. There is no discernible trend of Γ with redshift within the sample. The efficiency of the X-ray emission between the detected jet feature and the corresponding quasar also shows no correlation with redshift. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation REU and the Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no.1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution, and by NASA Contract NAS8-39073 to the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC). This research has made use of data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive and Chandra Source Catalog, and software provided by the CXC in the application packages CIAO, ChIPS, and Sherpa. We thank Teddy Cheung for providing the VLA radio images. Connors, A., & van Dyk, D. A. 2007, Statistical Challenges in Modern Astronomy IV, 371, 101 Esch, D. N., Connors, A., Karovska, M., & van Dyk, D. A. 2004, ApJ, 610, 1213

  1. Superluminous supernovae as standardizable candles and high-redshift distance probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inserra, C.; Smartt, S. J., E-mail: c.inserra@qub.ac.uk [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the use of type Ic superluminous supernovae (SLSN Ic) as standardizable candles and distance indicators. Their appeal as cosmological probes stems from their remarkable peak luminosities, hot blackbody temperatures, and bright rest-frame ultraviolet emission. We present a sample of 16 published SLSN, from redshifts 0.1 to 1.2, and calculate accurate K corrections to determine uniform magnitudes in 2 synthetic rest-frame filter bandpasses with central wavelengths at 400 nm and 520 nm. At 400 nm, we find an encouragingly low scatter in their uncorrected, raw mean magnitudes with M(400) = –21.86 ± 0.35 mag for the full sample of 16 objects. We investigate the correlation between their decline rates and peak magnitude and find that the brighter events appear to decline more slowly. In a manner similar to the Phillips relation for type Ia SNe (SNe Ia), we define a ΔM {sub 20} decline relation. This correlates peak magnitude and decline over 20 days and can reduce the scatter in standardized peak magnitudes to ±0.22 mag. We further show that M(400) appears to have a strong color dependence. Redder objects are fainter and also become redder faster. Using this peak magnitudecolor evolution relation, a surprisingly low scatter of between ±0.08 mag and ±0.13 mag can be found in peak magnitudes, depending on sample selection. However, we caution that only 8 to 10 objects currently have enough data to test this peak magnitudecolor evolution relation. We conclude that SLSN Ic are promising distance indicators in the high-redshift universe in regimes beyond those possible with SNe Ia. Although the empirical relationships are encouraging, the unknown progenitor systems, how they may evolve with redshift, and the uncertain explosion physics are of some concern. The two major measurement uncertainties are the limited numbers of low-redshift, well-studied objects available to test these relationships and internal dust extinction in the host galaxies.

  2. Measurements of Ω and Λ from 42 High-Redshift Supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlmutter, S.; Aldering, G.; Goldhaber, G.; Knop, R.A.; Nugent, P.; Castro, P.G.; Deustua, S.; Fabbro, S.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.E.; Hook, I.M.; Kim, A.G.; Kim, M.Y.; Lee, J.C.; Nunes, N.J.; Pain, R.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Quimby, R.; Lidman, C.; Ellis, R.S.; Irwin, M.; McMahon, R.G.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Walton, N.; Schaefer, B.; Boyle, B.J.; Filippenko, A.V.; Matheson, T.; Fruchter, A.S.; Panagia, N.; Newberg, H.J.; Couch, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    We report measurements of the mass density, Ω M , and cosmological-constant energy density, Ω Λ , of the universe based on the analysis of 42 type Ia supernovae discovered by the Supernova Cosmology Project. The magnitude-redshift data for these supernovae, at redshifts between 0.18 and 0.83, are fitted jointly with a set of supernovae from the Calacute an/Tololo Supernova Survey, at redshifts below 0.1, to yield values for the cosmological parameters. All supernova peak magnitudes are standardized using a SN Ia light-curve width-luminosity relation. The measurement yields a joint probability distribution of the cosmological parameters that is approximated by the relation 0.8Ω M -0.6Ω Λ ∼-0.2±0.1 in the region of interest (Ω M approx-lt 1.5). For a flat (Ω M +Ω Λ =1) cosmology we find Ω flat M =0.28 +0.09 -0.08 (1 σ statistical) +0.05 -0.04 (identified systematics). The data are strongly inconsistent with a Λ=0 flat cosmology, the simplest inflationary universe model. An open, Λ=0 cosmology also does not fit the data well: the data indicate that the cosmological constant is nonzero and positive, with a confidence of P(Λ>0)=99%, including the identified systematic uncertainties. The best-fit age of the universe relative to the Hubble time is t flat 0 =14.9 +1.4 -1.1 (0.63/h) Gyr for a flat cosmology. The size of our sample allows us to perform a variety of statistical tests to check for possible systematic errors and biases. We find no significant differences in either the host reddening distribution or Malmquist bias between the low-redshift Calacute an/Tololo sample and our high-redshift sample. Excluding those few supernovae that are outliers in color excess or fit residual does not significantly change the results. The conclusions are also robust whether or not a width-luminosity relation is used to standardize the supernova peak magnitudes. We discuss and constrain, where possible, hypothetical alternatives to a cosmological constant

  3. Ultraviolet spectropolarimetry of high-redshift quasars with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, C. D.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Webb, Wayne; Petry, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectropolarimetry of three bright high-redshift low-polarization quasars (LPQs) was obtained with the Faint Object Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Two of the quasars, PG 1634+706 and PG 2302+029, had polarizations p approximately = 0.5%-1.0% throughout the ultraviolet, and showed no significant variation of polarization amplitude or position angle with wavelength. PG 2302+029 was also marginally (2.4 sigma) circularly polarized in the optical continuum. For the highest redshift quasar, PG 1222+228 (Ton 1530), the polarization was measured down to rest wavelengths below 800 A. Although the continuum of PG 1222+228 was weakened by Lyman limit absorption from an intergalactic gas cloud, the polarization increased sharply from 1% to about 4.5%, a change of 4 sigma significance. This abrupt rise in polarization does not appear attributable to any known instrumental artifact. These UV polarizations were only slightly less than those previously observed for these same objects in the optical. The polarization spectra were flat with a typical slope of the polarized flux pF(sub nu) proportional to nu(exp -0.8 +/- 0.5). Unlike the case of several high luminosity Seyfert 1 nuclei studied previously, polarization caused by scattering from dust grains does not provide the best fit to the polarization spectra of these luminous quasars. These observed spectra are consistent with a wavelength-independent polarization proportional to the total nonstellar light or, possibly, to the contribution of the blue thermal component. The polarization spectra have insufficient signal-to-noise to locate the scatterers with respect to the continuum source and the much larger broad line region. A decrease in amplitude and rotation of the position angle of the polarization vector at the shortest wavelengths, which could result from general relativistic effects near a spinning black hole, was not observed. In fact, in PG 1222+228, the polarization was observed to

  4. MILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS OF A SAMPLE OF HIGH-REDSHIFT OBSCURED QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Sansigre, Alejo; Karim, Alexander; Schinnerer, Eva

    2009-01-01

    found at an earlier evolutionary phase than those of unobscured quasars. For one source at z = 2.767, we detect the CO(3-2) transition, with S CO Δν = 630 ± 50 mJy km s -1 , corresponding to L CO(3-2) = 3.2 x10 7 L sun , or a brightness-temperature luminosity of L' CO(3-2) = 2.4 x 10 10 K km s -1 pc 2 . For another source at z = 4.17, the lack of detection of the CO(4-3) line suggests the line to have a brightness-temperature luminosity L' CO(4-3) 10 K km s -1 pc 2 . Under the assumption that in these objects the high-J transitions are thermalized, we can estimate the molecular gas contents to be M H 2 =1.9x10 10 M sun and 9 M sun , respectively. The estimated gas depletion timescales are τ g = 4 Myr and g /M d = 19 and <20 are inferred. These values are at the low end but consistent with those of other high-redshift galaxies.

  5. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Lighting Up the High-Redshift Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Vicki Louise

    overlapping NHI and redshift ranges, our GRB-DLA galaxies have much larger SFRs than the QSO-DLA host galaxy sample; this may suggest that the QSO-DLA and GRB-DLA galaxy populations are different. We also compare star formation efficiencies to the local Universe and simulations at z = 3. A large portion of this thesis has focused on the development of a new ground- based GRB afterglow follow-up instrument, the Rapid infrared IMAger-Spectrometer (RIMAS), that will target high-redshift GRB afterglows to study early galaxy envi- ronments. RIMAS covers 0.97-2.37 mum and can simultaneously observe two band-passes in any observing mode: photometry, low-resolution spectroscopy (R ˜ 30), or high-resolution spectroscopy (R ˜ 4000). In particular, this thesis focuses on RIMAS's three detectors: two science grade Teledyne HgCdTe Astronomy Wide Area Infrared Imager with 2K x 2K, Reference Pixels and Guide Mode (H2RG) and a slit-viewer Spitzer Legacy Indium-Antimonide (InSb) array. We describe the detector hardware and characterization in detail and discuss general infrared detector troubleshooting methods at both cryogenic and room temperatures. Several software packages have been developed for RIMAS throughout this thesis work. We introduce RIMAS's quick reduction pipeline that takes raw images from a single acquisition and returns a single result frame. We then present a generalized data reduction pipeline that we have tested on two currently operational photometers. We also describe our detailed and realistic RIMAS throughput models for all three observing modes as well as our online observer calculators with these throughput models. All of our data products are open source and are publicly available on Github repositories with detailed documentation.

  6. The long lives of giant clumps and the birth of outflows in gas-rich galaxies at high redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bournaud, Frédéric; Renaud, Florent; Daddi, Emanuele; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Elbaz, David; Gabor, Jared M.; Juneau, Stéphanie; Kraljic, Katarina; Le Floch' , Emeric [CEA, IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Perret, Valentin; Amram, Philippe; Epinat, Benoit [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille), F-13388 Marseille (France); Dekel, Avishai [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, Debra M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Teyssier, Romain [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-01-01

    Star-forming disk galaxies at high redshift are often subject to violent disk instability, characterized by giant clumps whose fate is yet to be understood. The main question is whether the clumps disrupt within their dynamical timescale (≤50 Myr), like the molecular clouds in today's galaxies, or whether they survive stellar feedback for more than a disk orbital time (≈300 Myr) in which case they can migrate inward and help building the central bulge. We present 3.5-7 pc resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of high-redshift disks including photoionization, radiation pressure, and supernovae feedback. Our modeling of radiation pressure determines the mass loading and initial velocity of winds from basic physical principles. We find that the giant clumps produce steady outflow rates comparable to and sometimes somewhat larger than their star formation rate, with velocities largely sufficient to escape the galaxy. The clumps also lose mass, especially old stars, by tidal stripping, and the stellar populations contained in the clumps hence remain relatively young (≤200 Myr), as observed. The clumps survive gaseous outflows and stellar loss, because they are wandering in gas-rich turbulent disks from which they can reaccrete gas at high rates compensating for outflows and tidal stripping, overall keeping realistic and self-regulated gaseous and stellar masses. The outflow and accretion rates have specific timescales of a few 10{sup 8} yr, as opposed to rapid and repeated dispersion and reformation of clumps. Our simulations produce gaseous outflows with velocities, densities, and mass loading consistent with observations, and at the same time suggest that the giant clumps survive for hundreds of Myr and complete their migration to the center of high-redshift galaxies. These long-lived clumps are gas-dominated and contain a moderate mass fraction of stars; they drive inside-out disk evolution, thickening, spheroid growth, and fueling of the central

  7. GOODS-HERSCHEL: IMPACT OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY ON INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Alexander, David M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Daddi, Emmanuele; Elbaz, David; Gabor, Jared; Mullaney, James; Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Bournaud, Frederic; Dasyra, Kalliopi [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hwang, Ho Seong [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ivison, Rob [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Altieri, Bruno; Coia, Daniela [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Buat, Veronique [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM), Universite d' Aix-Marseille, CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Dannerbauer, Helmut, E-mail: kirkpatr@astro.umass.edu [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); and others

    2012-11-10

    We explore the effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation activity on the infrared (0.3-1000 {mu}m) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of luminous infrared galaxies from z = 0.5 to 4.0. We have compiled a large sample of 151 galaxies selected at 24 {mu}m (S {sub 24} {approx}> 100 {mu}Jy) in the GOODS-N and ECDFS fields for which we have deep Spitzer IRS spectroscopy, allowing us to decompose the mid-IR spectrum into contributions from star formation and AGN activity. A significant portion ({approx}25%) of our sample is dominated by an AGN (>50% of the mid-IR luminosity) in the mid-IR. Based on the mid-IR classification, we divide our full sample into four sub-samples: z {approx} 1 star-forming (SF) sources, z {approx} 2 SF sources, AGNs with clear 9.7 {mu}m silicate absorption, and AGNs with featureless mid-IR spectra. From our large spectroscopic sample and wealth of multi-wavelength data, including deep Herschel imaging at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m, we use 95 galaxies with complete spectral coverage to create a composite SED for each sub-sample. We then fit a two-temperature component modified blackbody to the SEDs. We find that the IR SEDs have similar cold dust temperatures, regardless of the mid-IR power source, but display a marked difference in the warmer dust temperatures. We calculate the average effective temperature of the dust in each sub-sample and find a significant ({approx}20 K) difference between the SF and AGN systems. We compare our composite SEDs to local templates and find that local templates do not accurately reproduce the mid-IR features and dust temperatures of our high-redshift systems. High-redshift IR luminous galaxies contain significantly more cool dust than their local counterparts. We find that a full suite of photometry spanning the IR peak is necessary to accurately account for the dominant dust temperature components in high-redshift IR luminous galaxies.

  8. A RADIO-LOUD MAGNETAR IN X-RAY QUIESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Lina; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, N. D. Ramesh; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Van Straten, Willem; Bates, Samuel; Kramer, Michael; Stappers, Ben; Burgay, Marta; D'Amico, Nichi; Milia, Sabrina; Possenti, Andrea; Johnston, Simon; Keith, Michael; Rea, Nanda

    2010-01-01

    As part of a survey for radio pulsars with the Parkes 64 m telescope, we have discovered PSR J1622-4950, a pulsar with a 4.3 s rotation period. Follow-up observations show that the pulsar has the highest inferred surface magnetic field of the known radio pulsars (B ∼3 x 10 14 G), and it exhibits significant timing noise and appears to have an inverted spectrum. Unlike the vast majority of the known pulsar population, PSR J1622-4950 appears to switch off for many hundreds of days and even in its on-state exhibits extreme variability in its flux density. Furthermore, the integrated pulse profile changes shape with epoch. All of these properties are remarkably similar to the only two magnetars previously known to emit radio pulsations. The position of PSR J1622-4950 is coincident with an X-ray source that, unlike the other radio pulsating magnetars, was found to be in quiescence. We conclude that our newly discovered pulsar is a magnetar-the first to be discovered via its radio emission.

  9. The Overdense Environments of WISE-Selected, Ultra-Luminous, High-Redshift AGN in the Submillimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Suzy F., E-mail: suzy.jones@chalmers.se [Department of Space, Earth, and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, Onsala (Sweden)

    2017-11-21

    The environments around WISE-selected hot dust obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) and WISE/radio-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at average redshifts of z = 2.7 and z = 1.7, respectively, were found to have overdensities of companion Submillimeter-selected sources. The overdensities were of ~2–3 and ~5–6, respectively, compared with blank field submm surveys. The space densities in both samples were found to be overdense compared to normal star-forming galaxies and Submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). All of the companion sources have consistent mid-IR colors and mid-IR to submm ratios to SMGs. Monte Carlo simulations show no angular correlation, which could indicate protoclusters on scales larger than the SCUBA-2 1.5 arcmin scale maps. WISE-selected AGNs appear to be good indicators of overdense areas of active galaxies at high redshift.

  10. The variance of dispersion measure of high-redshift transient objects as a probe of ionized bubble size during reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiura, Shintaro; Takahashi, Keitaro

    2018-01-01

    The dispersion measure (DM) of high-redshift (z ≳ 6) transient objects such as fast radio bursts can be a powerful tool to probe the intergalactic medium during the Epoch of Reionization. In this paper, we study the variance of the DMs of objects with the same redshift as a potential probe of the size distribution of ionized bubbles. We calculate the DM variance with a simple model with randomly distributed spherical bubbles. It is found that the DM variance reflects the characteristics of the probability distribution of the bubble size. We find that the variance can be measured precisely enough to obtain the information on the typical size with a few hundred sources at a single redshift.

  11. CONTAMINATION OF BROADBAND PHOTOMETRY BY NEBULAR EMISSION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES: INVESTIGATIONS WITH KECK'S MOSFIRE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenker, Matthew A; Ellis, Richard S; Konidaris, Nick P; Stark, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Earlier work has raised the potential importance of nebular emission in the derivation of the physical characteristics of high-redshift Lyman break galaxies. Within certain redshift ranges, and especially at z ≅ 6-7, such lines may be strong enough to reduce estimates of the stellar masses and ages of galaxies compared with those derived assuming the broadband photometry represents stellar light alone. To test this hypothesis at the highest redshifts where such lines can be probed with ground-based facilities, we examine the near-infrared spectra of a representative sample of 28 3.0 < z < 3.8 Lyman break galaxies using the newly commissioned MOSFIRE near-infrared spectrograph at the Keck I telescope. We use these data to derive the rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) of [O III] emission and show that these are comparable with estimates derived using the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting technique introduced for sources of known redshift by Stark et al. Although our current sample is modest, its [O III] EW distribution is consistent with that inferred for Hα based on SED fitting of Stark et al.'s larger sample of 3.8 < z < 5 galaxies. For a subset of survey galaxies, we use the combination of optical and near-infrared spectroscopy to quantify kinematics of outflows in z ≅ 3.5 star-forming galaxies and discuss the implications for reionization measurements. The trends we uncover underline the dangers of relying purely on broadband photometry to estimate the physical properties of high-redshift galaxies and emphasize the important role of diagnostic spectroscopy

  12. Galaxy Size Evolution at High Redshift and Surface Brightness Selection Effects: Constraints from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Franx, M.

    2004-08-01

    We use the exceptional depth of the Ultra Deep Field (UDF) and UDF-parallel Advanced Camera for Surveys fields to study the sizes of high-redshift (z~2-6) galaxies and address long-standing questions about possible biases in the cosmic star formation rate due to surface brightness dimming. Contrasting B-, V-, and i-dropout samples culled from the deeper data with those obtained from the shallower Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey fields, we demonstrate that the shallower data are essentially complete at bright magnitudes to z~0.4", >~3 kpc) low surface brightness galaxies are rare. A simple comparison of the half-light radii of the Hubble Deep Field-North + Hubble Deep Field-South U-dropouts with B-, V-, and i-dropouts from the UDF shows that the sizes follow a (1+z)-1.05+/-0.21 scaling toward high redshift. A more rigorous measurement compares different scalings of our U-dropout sample with the mean profiles for a set of intermediate-magnitude (26.0dropouts from the UDF. The best fit is found with a (1+z)-0.94+0.19-0.25 size scaling (for fixed luminosity). This result is then verified by repeating this experiment with different size measures, low-redshift samples, and magnitude ranges. Very similar scalings are found for all comparisons. A robust measurement of size evolution is thereby demonstrated for galaxies from z~6 to 2.5 using data from the UDF. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  13. A UNIVERSAL, LOCAL STAR FORMATION LAW IN GALACTIC CLOUDS, NEARBY GALAXIES, HIGH-REDSHIFT DISKS, AND STARBURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumholz, Mark R.; Dekel, Avishai; McKee, Christopher F.

    2012-01-01

    Star formation laws are rules that relate the rate of star formation in a particular region, either an entire galaxy or some portion of it, to the properties of the gas, or other galactic properties, in that region. While observations of Local Group galaxies show a very simple, local star formation law in which the star formation rate per unit area in each patch of a galaxy scales linearly with the molecular gas surface density in that patch, recent observations of both Milky Way molecular clouds and high-redshift galaxies apparently show a more complicated relationship in which regions of equal molecular gas surface density can form stars at quite different rates. These data have been interpreted as implying either that different star formation laws may apply in different circumstances, that the star formation law is sensitive to large-scale galaxy properties rather than local properties, or that there are high-density thresholds for star formation. Here we collate observations of the relationship between gas and star formation rate from resolved observations of Milky Way molecular clouds, from kpc-scale observations of Local Group galaxies, and from unresolved observations of both disk and starburst galaxies in the local universe and at high redshift. We show that all of these data are in fact consistent with a simple, local, volumetric star formation law. The apparent variations stem from the fact that the observed objects have a wide variety of three-dimensional size scales and degrees of internal clumping, so even at fixed gas column density the regions being observed can have wildly varying volume densities. We provide a simple theoretical framework to remove this projection effect, and we use it to show that all the data, from small solar neighborhood clouds with masses ∼10 3 M ☉ to submillimeter galaxies with masses ∼10 11 M ☉ , fall on a single star formation law in which the star formation rate is simply ∼1% of the molecular gas mass per local

  14. The effects of the small-scale DM power on the cosmological neutral hydrogen (HI) distribution at high redshifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Abir; Sethi, Shiv K.; Mondal, Rajesh; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Das, Subinoy; Marsh, David J.E.

    2016-01-01

    The particle nature of dark matter remains a mystery. In this paper, we consider two dark matter models—Late Forming Dark Matter (LFDM) and Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) models—where the matter power spectra show novel effects on small scales. The high redshift universe offers a powerful probe of their parameters. In particular, we study two cosmological observables: the neutral hydrogen (HI) redshifted 21-cm signal from the epoch of reionization, and the evolution of the collapsed fraction of HI in the redshift range 2 < z < 5. We model the theoretical predictions of the models using CDM-like N-body simulations with modified initial conditions, and generate reionization fields using an excursion set model. The N-body approximation is valid on the length and halo mass scales studied. We show that LFDM and ULA models predict an increase in the HI power spectrum from the epoch of reionization by a factor between 2–10 for a range of scales 0.1 < k < 4 Mpc −1 . Assuming a fiducial model where a neutral hydrogen fraction x-bar HI  = 0.5 must be achieved by z = 8, the reionization process allows us to put approximate bounds on the redshift of dark matter formation z f  > 4 × 10 5 (for LFDM) and the axion mass m a  > 2.6 × 10 −23  eV (for ULA). The comparison of the collapsed mass fraction inferred from damped Lyman-α observations to the theoretical predictions of our models lead to the weaker bounds: z f  > 2 × 10 5 and m a  > 10 −23  eV. These bounds are consistent with other constraints in the literature using different observables; we briefly discuss how these bounds compare with possible constraints from the observation of luminosity function of galaxies at high redshifts. In the case of ULAs, these constraints are also consistent with a solution to the cusp-core problem of CDM

  15. The ionizing photon production efficiency of compact z similar to 0.3 Lyman continuum leakers and comparison with high-redshift galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schaerer, D.; Izotov, Y.I.; Verhamme, A.; Orlitová, Ivana; Thuan, T.X.; Worseck, G.; Guseva, N.G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 591, July (2016), L8/1-L8/4 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : galaxies * starburst * high-redshift Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  16. The combined effect of AGN and supernovae feedback in launching massive molecular outflows in high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Pawel; Teyssier, Romain

    2018-04-01

    We have recently improved our model of active galactic nucleus (AGN) by attaching the supermassive black hole (SMBH) to a massive nuclear star cluster (NSC). Here, we study the effects of this new model in massive, gas-rich galaxies with several simulations of different feedback recipes with the hydrodynamics code RAMSES. These simulations are compared to a reference simulation without any feedback, in which the cooling halo gas is quickly consumed in a burst of star formation. In the presence of strong supernovae (SN) feedback, we observe the formation of a galactic fountain that regulates star formation over a longer period, but without halting it. If only AGN feedback is considered, as soon as the SMBH reaches a critical mass, strong outflows of hot gas are launched and prevent the cooling halo gas from reaching the disc, thus efficiently halting star formation, leading to the so-called `quenching'. If both feedback mechanisms act in tandem, we observe a non-linear coupling, in the sense that the dense gas in the supernovae-powered galactic fountain is propelled by the hot outflow powered by the AGN at much larger radii than without AGN. We argue that these particular outflows are able to unbind dense gas from the galactic halo, thanks to the combined effect of SN and AGN feedback. We speculate that this mechanism occurs at the end of the fast growing phase of SMBH, and is at the origin of the dense molecular outflows observed in many massive high-redshift galaxies.

  17. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy formation simulation-XI. Clustering and halo masses of high redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehong; Kim, Han-Seek; Liu, Chuanwu; Trenti, Michele; Duffy, Alan R.; Geil, Paul M.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the clustering properties of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z ∼ 6 - 8. Using the semi-analytical model MERAXES constructed as part of the dark-ages reionization and galaxy-formation observables from numerical simulation (DRAGONS) project, we predict the angular correlation function (ACF) of LBGs at z ∼ 6 - 8. Overall, we find that the predicted ACFs are in good agreement with recent measurements at z ∼ 6 and z ∼ 7.2 from observations consisting of the Hubble eXtreme Deep Field, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and cosmic sssembly near-infrared deep extragalactic legacy survey field. We confirm the dependence of clustering on luminosity, with more massive dark matter haloes hosting brighter galaxies, remains valid at high redshift. The predicted galaxy bias at fixed luminosity is found to increase with redshift, in agreement with observations. We find that LBGs of magnitude MAB(1600) < -19.4 at 6 ≲ z ≲ 8 reside in dark matter haloes of mean mass ∼1011.0-1011.5 M⊙, and this dark matter halo mass does not evolve significantly during reionisation.

  18. Observations of High-Redshift X-Ray Selected Clusters with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchovej, Stephen; Carlstrom, John E.; Cartwright, John; Greer, Christopher; Hawkins, David; Hennessey, Ryan; Joy, Marshall; Lamb, James; Leitch, Erik M.; Loh, Michael; hide

    2006-01-01

    We report measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in three high redshift (0.89 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 1.03), X-ray selected galaxy clusters. The observations were obtained at 30 GHz during the commissioning period of a new, eight-element interferometer - the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array (SZA) - built for dedicated SZ effect observations. The SZA observations are sensitive to angular scales larger than those subtended by the virial radii of the clusters. Assuming isothermality and hydrostatic equilibrium for the intracluster medium, and gas-mass fractions consistent with those for clusters at moderate redshift, we calculate electron temperatures, gas masses, and total cluster masses from the SZ data. The SZ-derived masses, integrated approximately to the virial radii, are 1.9 (sup +0.5)(sub -0.4) x 10(exp 14) solar mass for Cl J1415.1+3612, 3.4 (sup +0.6)(sub -0.5) x 10(exp 14) solar mass for Cl J1429.0+4241 and 7.2 (sup +1.3)(sub -0.9) x 10(exp 14) solar mass for Cl J1226.9+3332. The SZ-derived quantities are in good agreement with the cluster properties derived from X-ray measurements.

  19. Efficient cold outflows driven by cosmic rays in high-redshift galaxies and their global effects on the IGM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samui, Saumyadip; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2018-05-01

    We present semi-analytical models of galactic outflows in high-redshift galaxies driven by both hot thermal gas and non-thermal cosmic rays. Thermal pressure alone may not sustain a large-scale outflow in low-mass galaxies (i.e. M ˜ 108 M⊙), in the presence of supernovae feedback with large mass loading. We show that inclusion of cosmic ray pressure allows outflow solutions even in these galaxies. In massive galaxies for the same energy efficiency, cosmic ray-driven winds can propagate to larger distances compared to pure thermally driven winds. On an average gas in the cosmic ray-driven winds has a lower temperature which could aid detecting it through absorption lines in the spectra of background sources. Using our constrained semi-analytical models of galaxy formation (that explains the observed ultraviolet luminosity functions of galaxies), we study the influence of cosmic ray-driven winds on the properties of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at different redshifts. In particular, we study the volume filling factor, average metallicity, cosmic ray and magnetic field energy densities for models invoking atomic cooled and molecular cooled haloes. We show that the cosmic rays in the IGM could have enough energy that can be transferred to the thermal gas in presence of magnetic fields to influence the thermal history of the IGM. The significant volume filling and resulting strength of IGM magnetic fields can also account for recent γ-ray observations of blazars.

  20. UV Continuum Slope and Dust Obscuration from z ~ 6 to z ~ 2: The Star Formation Rate Density at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Franx, M.; Chary, R.-R.; Meurer, G. R.; Conselice, C. J.; Ford, H.; Giavalisco, M.; van Dokkum, P.

    2009-11-01

    We provide a systematic measurement of the rest-frame UV continuum slope β over a wide range in redshift (z ~ 2-6) and rest-frame UV luminosity (0.1 L* z = 3 to 2 L* z = 3) to improve estimates of the star formation rate (SFR) density at high redshift. We utilize the deep optical and infrared data (Advanced Camera for Surveys/NICMOS) over the Chandra Deep Field-South and Hubble Deep Field-North Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey fields, as well as the UDF for our primary UBVi "dropout" Lyman Break Galaxy sample. We also use strong lensing clusters to identify a population of very low luminosity, high-redshift dropout galaxies. We correct the observed distributions for both selection biases and photometric scatter. We find that the UV-continuum slope of the most luminous galaxies is substantially redder at z ~ 2-4 than it is at z ~ 5-6 (from ~-2.4 at z ~ 6 to ~-1.5 at z ~ 2). Lower luminosity galaxies are also found to be bluer than higher luminosity galaxies at z ~ 2.5 and z ~ 4. We do not find a large number of galaxies with β's as red as -1 in our dropout selections at z ~ 4, and particularly at z gsim 5, even though such sources could be readily selected from our data (and also from Balmer Break Galaxy searches at z ~ 4). This suggests that star-forming galaxies at z gsim 5 almost universally have very blue UV-continuum slopes, and that there are not likely to be a substantial number of dust-obscured galaxies at z gsim 5 that are missed in "dropout" searches. Using the same relation between UV-continuum slope and dust extinction as has been found to be appropriate at both z ~ 0 and z ~ 2, we estimate the average dust extinction of galaxies as a function of redshift and UV luminosity in a consistent way. As expected, we find that the estimated dust extinction increases substantially with cosmic time for the most UV luminous galaxies, but remains small (lsim2 times) at all times for lower luminosity galaxies. Because these same lower luminosity galaxies

  1. ABSORPTION-LINE SPECTROSCOPY OF GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED GALAXIES: FURTHER CONSTRAINTS ON THE ESCAPE FRACTION OF IONIZING PHOTONS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leethochawalit, Nicha; Ellis, Richard S.; Zitrin, Adi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jones, Tucker A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Stark, Daniel P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The fraction of ionizing photons escaping from high-redshift star-forming galaxies is a key obstacle in evaluating whether galaxies were the primary agents of cosmic reionization. We previously proposed using the covering fraction of low-ionization gas, measured via deep absorption-line spectroscopy, as a proxy. We now present a significant update, sampling seven gravitationally lensed sources at 4 < z < 5. We show that the absorbing gas in our sources is spatially inhomogeneous, with a median covering fraction of 66%. Correcting for reddening according to a dust-in-cloud model, this implies an estimated absolute escape fraction of ≃19% ± 6%. With possible biases and uncertainties, collectively we find that the average escape fraction could be reduced to no less than 11%, excluding the effect of spatial variations. For one of our lensed sources, we have sufficient signal-to-noise ratio to demonstrate the presence of such spatial variations and scatter in its dependence on the Ly α equivalent width, consistent with recent simulations. If this source is typical, our lower limit to the escape fraction could be reduced by a further factor ≃2. Across our sample, we find a modest anticorrelation between the inferred escape fraction and the local star formation rate, consistent with a time delay between a burst and leaking Lyman continuum photons. Our analysis demonstrates considerable variations in the escape fraction, consistent with being governed by the small-scale behavior of star-forming regions, whose activities fluctuate over short timescales. This supports the suggestion that the escape fraction may increase toward the reionization era when star formation becomes more energetic and burst-like.

  2. RAPID, MACHINE-LEARNED RESOURCE ALLOCATION: APPLICATION TO HIGH-REDSHIFT GAMMA-RAY BURST FOLLOW-UP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, A N; Richards, Joseph W; Butler, Nathaniel R; Bloom, Joshua S [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Long, James; Broderick, Tamara [Department of Statistics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3860 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    As the number of observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) continues to grow, follow-up resources need to be used more efficiently in order to maximize science output from limited telescope time. As such, it is becoming increasingly important to rapidly identify bursts of interest as soon as possible after the event, before the afterglows fade beyond detectability. Studying the most distant (highest redshift) events, for instance, remains a primary goal for many in the field. Here, we present our Random Forest Automated Triage Estimator for GRB redshifts (RATE GRB-z ) for rapid identification of high-redshift candidates using early-time metrics from the three telescopes onboard Swift. While the basic RATE methodology is generalizable to a number of resource allocation problems, here we demonstrate its utility for telescope-constrained follow-up efforts with the primary goal to identify and study high-z GRBs. For each new GRB, RATE GRB-z provides a recommendation-based on the available telescope time-of whether the event warrants additional follow-up resources. We train RATE GRB-z using a set consisting of 135 Swift bursts with known redshifts, only 18 of which are z > 4. Cross-validated performance metrics on these training data suggest that {approx}56% of high-z bursts can be captured from following up the top 20% of the ranked candidates, and {approx}84% of high-z bursts are identified after following up the top {approx}40% of candidates. We further use the method to rank 200 + Swift bursts with unknown redshifts according to their likelihood of being high-z.

  3. Hitomi observations of the LMC SNR N 132 D: Highly redshifted X-ray emission from iron ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi Collaboration; Aharonian, Felix; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Akimoto, Fumie; Allen, Steven W.; Angelini, Lorella; Audard, Marc; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Axelsson, Magnus; Bamba, Aya; Bautz, Marshall W.; Blandford, Roger; Brenneman, Laura W.; Brown, Gregory V.; Bulbul, Esra; Cackett, Edward M.; Chernyakova, Maria; Chiao, Meng P.; Coppi, Paolo S.; Costantini, Elisa; de Plaa, Jelle; de Vries, Cor P.; den Herder, Jan-Willem; Done, Chris; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ebisawa, Ken; Eckart, Megan E.; Enoto, Teruaki; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Fabian, Andrew C.; Ferrigno, Carlo; Foster, Adam R.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Gallo, Luigi C.; Gandhi, Poshak; Giustini, Margherita; Goldwurm, Andrea; Gu, Liyi; Guainazzi, Matteo; Haba, Yoshito; Hagino, Kouichi; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Harrus, Ilana M.; Hatsukade, Isamu; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Hayashi, Takayuki; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Hiraga, Junko S.; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hoshino, Akio; Hughes, John P.; Ichinohe, Yuto; Iizuka, Ryo; Inoue, Hajime; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Ishida, Manabu; Ishikawa, Kumi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Iwai, Masachika; Kaastra, Jelle; Kallman, Tim; Kamae, Tsuneyoshi; Kataoka, Jun; Katsuda, Satoru; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Kitaguchi, Takao; Kitamoto, Shunji; Kitayama, Tetsu; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Kokubun, Motohide; Koyama, Katsuji; Koyama, Shu; Kretschmar, Peter; Krimm, Hans A.; Kubota, Aya; Kunieda, Hideyo; Laurent, Philippe; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Limousin, Olivier; Loewenstein, Michael; Long, Knox S.; Lumb, David; Madejski, Greg; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Maier, Daniel; Makishima, Kazuo; Markevitch, Maxim; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; McCammon, Dan; McNamara, Brian R.; Mehdipour, Missagh; Miller, Eric D.; Miller, Jon M.; Mineshige, Shin; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Miyazawa, Takuya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Mori, Hideyuki; Mori, Koji; Mukai, Koji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Nakagawa, Takao; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nakamori, Takeshi; Nakashima, Shinya; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Nobukawa, Kumiko K.; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Noda, Hirofumi; Odaka, Hirokazu; Ohashi, Takaya; Ohno, Masanori; Okajima, Takashi; Ota, Naomi; Ozaki, Masanobu; Paerels, Frits; Paltani, Stéphane; Petre, Robert; Pinto, Ciro; Porter, Frederick S.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Safi-Harb, Samar; Saito, Shinya; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Toru; Sato, Goro; Sato, Kosuke; Sato, Rie; Sato, Toshiki; Sawada, Makoto; Schartel, Norbert; Serlemtsos, Peter J.; Seta, Hiromi; Shidatsu, Megumi; Simionescu, Aurora; Smith, Randall K.; Soong, Yang; Stawarz, Łukasz; Sugawara, Yasuharu; Sugita, Satoshi; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Takei, Yoh; Tamagawa, Toru; Tamura, Takayuki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Tawara, Yuzuru; Terada, Yukikatsu; Terashima, Yuichi; Tombesi, Francesco; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yohko; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Hideki; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Ueda, Shutaro; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Uno, Shin'ichiro; Urry, C. Megan; Ursino, Eugenio; Watanabe, Shin; Werner, Norbert; Wilkins, Dan R.; Williams, Brian J.; Yamada, Shinya; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Yaqoob, Tahir; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Zhuravleva, Irina; Zoghbi, Abderahmen

    2018-03-01

    We present Hitomi observations of N 132 D, a young, X-ray bright, O-rich core-collapse supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Despite a very short observation of only 3.7 ks, the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) easily detects the line complexes of highly ionized S K and Fe K with 16-17 counts in each. The Fe feature is measured for the first time at high spectral resolution. Based on the plausible assumption that the Fe K emission is dominated by He-like ions, we find that the material responsible for this Fe emission is highly redshifted at ˜ 800 km s-1 compared to the local LMC interstellar medium (ISM), with a 90% credible interval of 50-1500 km s-1 if a weakly informative prior is placed on possible line broadening. This indicates (1) that the Fe emission arises from the supernova ejecta, and (2) that these ejecta are highly asymmetric, since no blueshifted component is found. The S K velocity is consistent with the local LMC ISM, and is likely from swept-up ISM material. These results are consistent with spatial mapping that shows the He-like Fe concentrated in the interior of the remnant and the S tracing the outer shell. The results also show that even with a very small number of counts, direct velocity measurements from Doppler-shifted lines detected in extended objects like supernova remnants are now possible. Thanks to the very low SXS background of ˜ 1 event per spectral resolution element per 100 ks, such results are obtainable during short pointed or slew observations with similar instruments. This highlights the power of high-spectral-resolution imaging observations, and demonstrates the new window that has been opened with Hitomi and will be greatly widened with future missions such as the X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission (XARM) and Athena.

  4. QUEST FOR COSMOS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY COUNTERPARTS USING CARMA AND VLA: IDENTIFYING THREE HIGH-REDSHIFT STARBURST GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolčić, V.; Navarrete, F.; Bertoldi, F.; Aravena, M.; Sheth, K.; Ilbert, O.; Yun, M. S.; Salvato, M.; Finoguenov, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Diener, C.; Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D.; Wilson, G.; Riechers, D. A.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N. Z.; Karim, A.; Schinnerer, E.

    2012-01-01

    We report on interferometric observations at 1.3 mm at 2''-3'' resolution using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We identify multi-wavelength counterparts of three submillimeter galaxies (SMGs; F 1m > 5.5 mJy) in the COSMOS field, initially detected with MAMBO and AzTEC bolometers at low, ∼10''-30'', resolution. All three sources—AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8—are identified to coincide with positions of 20 cm radio sources. Cosbo-3, however, is not associated with the most likely radio counterpart, closest to the MAMBO source position, but with that farther away from it. This illustrates the need for intermediate-resolution (∼2'') mm-observations to identify the correct counterparts of single-dish-detected SMGs. All of our three sources become prominent only at NIR wavelengths, and their mm-to-radio flux based redshifts suggest that they lie at redshifts z ∼> 2. As a proof of concept, we show that photometric redshifts can be well determined for SMGs, and we find photometric redshifts of 5.6 ± 1.2, 1.9 +0.9 –0.5 , and ∼4 for AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8, respectively. Using these we infer that these galaxies have radio-based star formation rates of ∼> 1000 M ☉ yr –1 and IR luminosities of ∼10 13 L ☉ consistent with properties of high-redshift SMGs. In summary, our sources reflect a variety of SMG properties in terms of redshift and clustering, consistent with the framework that SMGs are progenitors of z ∼ 2 and today's passive galaxies.

  5. GOODS-HERSCHEL: SEPARATING HIGH-REDSHIFT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES USING INFRARED COLOR DIAGNOSTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Daddi, Emmanuele; Elbaz, David; Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Dasyra, Kalliopi; Leiton, Roger [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hwang, Ho Seong [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Scott, Douglas; Magnelli, Benjamin; Popesso, Paola [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Postfach 1312, D-85741, Garching (Germany); Altieri, Bruno; Coia, Daniela; Valtchanov, Ivan [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Dannerbauer, Helmut [Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Astrophysik, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Dickinson, Mark; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Magdis, Georgios [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    We have compiled a large sample of 151 high-redshift (z = 0.5-4) galaxies selected at 24 {mu}m (S {sub 24} > 100 {mu}Jy) in the GOODS-N and ECDFS fields for which we have deep Spitzer IRS spectroscopy, allowing us to decompose the mid-infrared spectrum into contributions from star formation and activity in the galactic nuclei. In addition, we have a wealth of photometric data from Spitzer IRAC/MIPS and Herschel PACS/SPIRE. We explore how effective different infrared color combinations are at separating our mid-IR spectroscopically determined active galactic nuclei from our star-forming galaxies. We look in depth at existing IRAC color diagnostics, and we explore new color-color diagnostics combining mid-IR, far-IR, and near-IR photometry, since these combinations provide the most detail about the shape of a source's IR spectrum. An added benefit of using a color that combines far-IR and mid-IR photometry is that it is indicative of the power source driving the IR luminosity. For our data set, the optimal color selections are S {sub 250}/S {sub 24} versus S {sub 8}/S {sub 3.6} and S {sub 100}/S {sub 24} versus S {sub 8}/S {sub 3.6}; both diagnostics have {approx}10% contamination rate in the regions occupied primarily by star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei, respectively. Based on the low contamination rate, these two new IR color-color diagnostics are ideal for estimating both the mid-IR power source of a galaxy when spectroscopy is unavailable and the dominant power source contributing to the IR luminosity. In the absence of far-IR data, we present color diagnostics using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-IR bands which can efficiently select out high-z (z {approx} 2) star-forming galaxies.

  6. GRB 120521C at z ∼ 6 and the properties of high-redshift γ-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskar, Tanmoy; Berger, Edo; Zauderer, B. Ashley; Margutti, Raffaella; Fong, Wen-fai [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tanvir, Nial; Wiersema, Klaas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Levan, Andrew [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Perley, Daniel [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Menten, Karl [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Hrudkova, Marie [Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, Apartado de Correos 321, E-387 00 Santa Cruz de la Palma, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2014-01-20

    We present optical, near-infrared, and radio observations of the afterglow of GRB 120521C. By modeling the multi-wavelength data set, we derive a photometric redshift of z ≈ 6.0, which we confirm with a low signal-to-noise ratio spectrum of the afterglow. We find that a model with a constant-density environment provides a good fit to the afterglow data, with an inferred density of n ≲ 0.05 cm{sup –3}. The radio observations reveal the presence of a jet break at t {sub jet} ≈ 7 d, corresponding to a jet opening angle of θ{sub jet} ≈ 3°. The beaming-corrected γ-ray and kinetic energies are E {sub γ} ≈ E{sub K} ≈ 3 × 10{sup 50} erg. We quantify the uncertainties in our results using a detailed Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis, which allows us to uncover degeneracies between the physical parameters of the explosion. To compare GRB 120521C to other high-redshift bursts in a uniform manner we re-fit all available afterglow data for the two other bursts at z ≳ 6 with radio detections (GRBs 050904 and 090423). We find a jet break at t {sub jet} ≈ 15 d for GRB 090423, in contrast to previous work. Based on these three events, we find that γ-ray bursts (GRBs) at z ≳ 6 appear to explode in constant-density environments, and exhibit a wide range of energies and densities that span the range inferred for lower redshift bursts. On the other hand, we find a hint for narrower jets in the z ≳ 6 bursts, potentially indicating a larger true event rate at these redshifts. Overall, our results indicate that long GRBs share a common progenitor population at least to z ∼ 8.

  7. Are High-redshift Galaxies Hot? Temperature of z > 5 Galaxies and Implications for Their Dust Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisst, Andreas L.; Capak, Peter L.; Masters, Daniel C.; Yan, Lin; Pavesi, Riccardo; Riechers, Dominik A.; Barišić, Ivana; Cooke, Kevin C.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have found a significant evolution and scatter in the relationship between the UV spectral slope ( β UV ) and the infrared excess (IRX; L IR / L UV ) at z > 4, suggesting different dust properties of these galaxies. The total far-infrared (FIR) luminosity is key for this analysis, but it is poorly constrained in normal (main-sequence) star-forming z > 5 galaxies, where often only one single FIR point is available. To better inform estimates of the FIR luminosity, we construct a sample of local galaxies and three low-redshift analogues of z > 5 systems. The trends in this sample suggest that normal high-redshift galaxies have a warmer infrared (IR) spectral energy distribution (SED) compared to average z < 4 galaxies that are used as priors in these studies. The blueshifted peak and mid-IR excess emission could be explained by a combination of a larger fraction of metal-poor interstellar medium being optically thin to ultraviolet (UV) light and a stronger UV radiation field due to high star formation densities. Assuming a maximally warm IR SED suggests a 0.6 dex increase in total FIR luminosities, which removes some tension between the dust attenuation models and observations of the IRX− β relation at z > 5. Despite this, some galaxies still fall below the minimum IRX− β relation derived with standard dust cloud models. We propose that radiation pressure in these highly star-forming galaxies causes a spatial offset between dust clouds and young star-forming regions within the lifetime of O/B stars. These offsets change the radiation balance and create viewing-angle effects that can change UV colors at fixed IRX. We provide a modified model that can explain the location of these galaxies on the IRX− β diagram.

  8. THE MOST METAL-POOR DAMPED Lyα SYSTEMS: AN INSIGHT INTO DWARF GALAXIES AT HIGH-REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Jorgenson, Regina A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the kinematics, chemistry, and physical properties of a sample of the most metal-poor damped Lyα systems (DLAs), to uncover their links to modern-day galaxies. We present evidence that the DLA population as a whole exhibits a ''knee'' in the relative abundances of the α-capture and Fe-peak elements when the metallicity is [Fe/H] ≅ –2.0, assuming that Zn traces the buildup of Fe-peak elements. In this respect, the chemical evolution of DLAs is clearly different from that experienced by Milky Way halo stars, but resembles that of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group. We also find a close correspondence between the kinematics of Local Group dwarf galaxies and of high-redshift metal-poor DLAs, which further strengthens this connection. On the basis of such similarities, we propose that the most metal-poor DLAs provide us with a unique opportunity to directly study the dwarf galaxy population more than ten billion years in the past, at a time when many dwarf galaxies were forming the bulk of their stars. To this end, we have measured some of the key physical properties of the DLA gas, including their neutral gas mass, size, kinetic temperature, density, and turbulence. We find that metal-poor DLAs contain a warm neutral medium with T gas ≅ 9600 K predominantly held up by thermal pressure. Furthermore, all of the DLAs in our sample exhibit a subsonic turbulent Mach number, implying that the gas distribution is largely smooth. These results are among the first empirical descriptions of the environments where the first few generations of stars may have formed in the universe

  9. THE ESTIMATION OF STAR FORMATION RATES AND STELLAR POPULATION AGES OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES FROM BROADBAND PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong-Kook; Ferguson, Henry C.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Wiklind, Tommy; Giavalisco, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    We explore methods to improve the estimates of star formation rates and mean stellar population ages from broadband photometry of high-redshift star-forming galaxies. We use synthetic spectral templates with a variety of simple parametric star formation histories to fit broadband spectral energy distributions. These parametric models are used to infer ages, star formation rates, and stellar masses for a mock data set drawn from a hierarchical semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution. Traditional parametric models generally assume an exponentially declining rate of star formation after an initial instantaneous rise. Our results show that star formation histories with a much more gradual rise in the star formation rate are likely to be better templates, and are likely to give better overall estimates of the age distribution and star formation rate distribution of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). For B- and V-dropouts, we find the best simple parametric model to be one where the star formation rate increases linearly with time. The exponentially declining model overpredicts the age by 100% and 120% for B- and V-dropouts, on average, while for a linearly increasing model, the age is overpredicted by 9% and 16%, respectively. Similarly, the exponential model underpredicts star formation rates by 56% and 60%, while the linearly increasing model underpredicts by 15% and 22%, respectively. For U-dropouts, the models where the star formation rate has a peak (near z ∼ 3) provide the best match for age-overprediction is reduced from 110% to 26%-and star formation rate-underprediction is reduced from 58% to 22%. We classify different types of star formation histories in the semi-analytic models and show how the biases behave for the different classes. We also provide two-band calibration formulae for stellar mass and star formation rate estimations.

  10. Properties of z ~ 3-6 Lyman break galaxies. II. Impact of nebular emission at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, S.; Schaerer, D.; Stark, D. P.

    2014-03-01

    Context. To gain insight on the mass assembly and place constraints on the star formation history (SFH) of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), it is important to accurately determine their properties. Aims: We estimate how nebular emission and different SFHs affect parameter estimation of LBGs. Methods: We present a homogeneous, detailed analysis of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of ~1700 LBGs from the GOODS-MUSIC catalogue with deep multi-wavelength photometry from the U band to 8 μm to determine stellar mass, age, dust attenuation, and star formation rate. Using our SED fitting tool, which takes into account nebular emission, we explore a wide parameter space. We also explore a set of different star formation histories. Results: Nebular emission is found to significantly affect the determination of the physical parameters for the majority of z ~ 3-6 LBGs. We identify two populations of galaxies by determining the importance of the contribution of emission lines to broadband fluxes. We find that ~65% of LBGs show detectable signs of emission lines, whereas ~35% show weak or no emission lines. This distribution is found over the entire redshift range. We interpret these groups as actively star-forming and more quiescent LBGs, respectively. We find that it is necessary to considerer SED fits with very young ages (mass, higher dust attenuation, higher star formation rate, and a large scatter in the SFR-M⋆ relation. Our analysis yields a trend of increasing specific star formation rate with redshift, as predicted by recent galaxy evolution models. Conclusions: The physical parameters of approximately two thirds of high redshift galaxies are significantly modified when we account for nebular emission. The SED models, which include nebular emission shed new light on the properties of LBGs with numerous important implications. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. THE XMM CLUSTER SURVEY: THE BUILD-UP OF STELLAR MASS IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stott, J. P.; Collins, C. A.; Hilton, M.; Capozzi, D.; Sahlen, M.; Lloyd-Davies, E.; Hosmer, M.; Liddle, A. R.; Mehrtens, N.; Romer, A. K.; Miller, C. J.; Stanford, S. A.; Viana, P. T. P.; Davidson, M.; Hoyle, B.; Kay, S. T.; Nichol, R. C.

    2010-01-01

    We present deep J- and K s -band photometry of 20 high redshift galaxy clusters between z = 0.8 and1.5, 19 of which are observed with the MOIRCS instrument on the Subaru telescope. By using near-infrared light as a proxy for stellar mass we find the surprising result that the average stellar mass of Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) has remained constant at ∼9 x 10 11 M sun since z ∼ 1.5. We investigate the effect on this result of differing star formation histories generated by three well-known and independent stellar population codes and find it to be robust for reasonable, physically motivated choices of age and metallicity. By performing Monte Carlo simulations we find that the result is unaffected by any correlation between BCG mass and cluster mass in either the observed or model clusters. The large stellar masses imply that the assemblage of these galaxies took place at the same time as the initial burst of star formation. This result leads us to conclude that dry merging has had little effect on the average stellar mass of BCGs over the last 9-10 Gyr in stark contrast to the predictions of semi-analytic models, based on the hierarchical merging of dark matter halos, which predict a more protracted mass build-up over a Hubble time. However, we discuss that there is potential for reconciliation between observation and theory if there is a significant growth of material in the intracluster light over the same period.

  12. Are High-redshift Galaxies Hot? Temperature of z > 5 Galaxies and Implications for Their Dust Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faisst, Andreas L.; Capak, Peter L.; Masters, Daniel C. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Yan, Lin [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pavesi, Riccardo; Riechers, Dominik A. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Barišić, Ivana [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Cooke, Kevin C.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S., E-mail: afaisst@ipac.caltech.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, 84 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    Recent studies have found a significant evolution and scatter in the relationship between the UV spectral slope ( β {sub UV}) and the infrared excess (IRX; L {sub IR}/ L {sub UV}) at z > 4, suggesting different dust properties of these galaxies. The total far-infrared (FIR) luminosity is key for this analysis, but it is poorly constrained in normal (main-sequence) star-forming z > 5 galaxies, where often only one single FIR point is available. To better inform estimates of the FIR luminosity, we construct a sample of local galaxies and three low-redshift analogues of z > 5 systems. The trends in this sample suggest that normal high-redshift galaxies have a warmer infrared (IR) spectral energy distribution (SED) compared to average z < 4 galaxies that are used as priors in these studies. The blueshifted peak and mid-IR excess emission could be explained by a combination of a larger fraction of metal-poor interstellar medium being optically thin to ultraviolet (UV) light and a stronger UV radiation field due to high star formation densities. Assuming a maximally warm IR SED suggests a 0.6 dex increase in total FIR luminosities, which removes some tension between the dust attenuation models and observations of the IRX− β relation at z > 5. Despite this, some galaxies still fall below the minimum IRX− β relation derived with standard dust cloud models. We propose that radiation pressure in these highly star-forming galaxies causes a spatial offset between dust clouds and young star-forming regions within the lifetime of O/B stars. These offsets change the radiation balance and create viewing-angle effects that can change UV colors at fixed IRX. We provide a modified model that can explain the location of these galaxies on the IRX− β diagram.

  13. Contamination of Broad-Band Photometry by Nebular Emission in High Redshift Galaxies: Investigations with Keck's MOSFIRE Near-Infrared Spectrograph

    OpenAIRE

    Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S.; Konidaris, Nick P.; Stark, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Earlier work has raised the potential importance of nebular emission in the derivation of the physical characteristics of high-redshift Lyman break galaxies. Within certain redshift ranges, and especially at z ≃ 6-7, such lines may be strong enough to reduce estimates of the stellar masses and ages of galaxies compared with those derived assuming the broadband photometry represents stellar light alone. To test this hypothesis at the highest redshifts where such lines can be probed with ground...

  14. New solution to the problem of the tension between the high-redshift and low-redshift measurements of the Hubble constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    During my talk I will present results suggesting that the phenomenon of emerging spatial curvature could resolve the conflict between Planck's (high-redshift) and Riess et al. (low-redshift) measurements of the Hubble constant. The phenomenon of emerging spatial curvature is absent in the Standard Cosmological Model, which has a flat and fixed spatial curvature (small perturbations are considered in the Standard Cosmological Model but their global average vanishes, leading to spatial flatness at all times).In my talk I will show that with the nonlinear growth of cosmic structures the global average deviates from zero. As a result, the spatial curvature evolves from spatial flatness of the early universe to a negatively curved universe at the present day, with Omega_K ~ 0.1. Consequently, the present day expansion rate, as measured by the Hubble constant, is a few percent higher compared to the high-redshift constraints. This provides an explanation why there is a tension between high-redshift (Planck) and low-redshift (Riess et al.) measurements of the Hubble constant. In the presence of emerging spatial curvature these two measurements should in fact be different: high redshift measurements should be slightly lower than the Hubble constant inferred from the low-redshift data.The presentation will be based on the results described in arXiv:1707.01800 and arXiv:1708.09143 (which discuss the phenomenon of emerging spatial curvature) and on a paper that is still work in progress but is expected to be posted on arxiv by the AAS meeting (this paper uses mock low-redshift data to show that starting from the Planck's cosmological models (in the early universe) but with the emerging spatial curvature taken into account, the low-redshift Hubble constant should be 72.4 km/s/Mpc.

  15. SPITZER 70/160 μm OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT ULIRGs AND HyLIRGs IN THE BOOeTES FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, Krystal D.; Floc'h, Emeric Le; Rieke, George H.; Papovich, Casey; Blaylock, Myra; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Armus, Lee; Desai, Vandana; Brand, Kate; Borys, Colin; Dole, Herve; Brown, Michael J. I.; Higdon, Sarah J. U.; Higdon, James L.; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Smith, Howard A.

    2009-01-01

    We present new 70 and 160 μm observations of a sample of extremely red (R - [24] ∼> 15 mag), mid-infrared bright, high-redshift (1.7 ∼ bol ∼ 4 x 10 12 L sun to ∼3 x 10 13 L sun (ULIRGs/hyper-luminous IR galaxies (HyLIRGs)), representing the first robust constraints on L bol for this class of object.

  16. Dark-ages Reionization and Galaxy Formation Simulation - XIV. Gas accretion, cooling, and star formation in dwarf galaxies at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuxiang; Duffy, Alan R.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Geil, Paul M.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2018-06-01

    We study dwarf galaxy formation at high redshift (z ≥ 5) using a suite of high-resolution, cosmological hydrodynamic simulations and a semi-analytic model (SAM). We focus on gas accretion, cooling, and star formation in this work by isolating the relevant process from reionization and supernova feedback, which will be further discussed in a companion paper. We apply the SAM to halo merger trees constructed from a collisionless N-body simulation sharing identical initial conditions to the hydrodynamic suite, and calibrate the free parameters against the stellar mass function predicted by the hydrodynamic simulations at z = 5. By making comparisons of the star formation history and gas components calculated by the two modelling techniques, we find that semi-analytic prescriptions that are commonly adopted in the literature of low-redshift galaxy formation do not accurately represent dwarf galaxy properties in the hydrodynamic simulation at earlier times. We propose three modifications to SAMs that will provide more accurate high-redshift simulations. These include (1) the halo mass and baryon fraction which are overestimated by collisionless N-body simulations; (2) the star formation efficiency which follows a different cosmic evolutionary path from the hydrodynamic simulation; and (3) the cooling rate which is not well defined for dwarf galaxies at high redshift. Accurate semi-analytic modelling of dwarf galaxy formation informed by detailed hydrodynamical modelling will facilitate reliable semi-analytic predictions over the large volumes needed for the study of reionization.

  17. Dark-ages Reionization and Galaxy Formation Simulation - XIV. Gas accretion, cooling and star formation in dwarf galaxies at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuxiang; Duffy, Alan R.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Geil, Paul M.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2018-03-01

    We study dwarf galaxy formation at high redshift (z ≥ 5) using a suite of high-resolution, cosmological hydrodynamic simulations and a semi-analytic model (SAM). We focus on gas accretion, cooling and star formation in this work by isolating the relevant process from reionization and supernova feedback, which will be further discussed in a companion paper. We apply the SAM to halo merger trees constructed from a collisionless N-body simulation sharing identical initial conditions to the hydrodynamic suite, and calibrate the free parameters against the stellar mass function predicted by the hydrodynamic simulations at z = 5. By making comparisons of the star formation history and gas components calculated by the two modelling techniques, we find that semi-analytic prescriptions that are commonly adopted in the literature of low-redshift galaxy formation do not accurately represent dwarf galaxy properties in the hydrodynamic simulation at earlier times. We propose 3 modifications to SAMs that will provide more accurate high-redshift simulations. These include 1) the halo mass and baryon fraction which are overestimated by collisionless N-body simulations; 2) the star formation efficiency which follows a different cosmic evolutionary path from the hydrodynamic simulation; and 3) the cooling rate which is not well defined for dwarf galaxies at high redshift. Accurate semi-analytic modelling of dwarf galaxy formation informed by detailed hydrodynamical modelling will facilitate reliable semi-analytic predictions over the large volumes needed for the study of reionization.

  18. CONTAMINATION OF BROADBAND PHOTOMETRY BY NEBULAR EMISSION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES: INVESTIGATIONS WITH KECK'S MOSFIRE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenker, Matthew A; Ellis, Richard S; Konidaris, Nick P [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stark, Daniel P, E-mail: schenker@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Earlier work has raised the potential importance of nebular emission in the derivation of the physical characteristics of high-redshift Lyman break galaxies. Within certain redshift ranges, and especially at z ≅ 6-7, such lines may be strong enough to reduce estimates of the stellar masses and ages of galaxies compared with those derived assuming the broadband photometry represents stellar light alone. To test this hypothesis at the highest redshifts where such lines can be probed with ground-based facilities, we examine the near-infrared spectra of a representative sample of 28 3.0 < z < 3.8 Lyman break galaxies using the newly commissioned MOSFIRE near-infrared spectrograph at the Keck I telescope. We use these data to derive the rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) of [O III] emission and show that these are comparable with estimates derived using the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting technique introduced for sources of known redshift by Stark et al. Although our current sample is modest, its [O III] EW distribution is consistent with that inferred for Hα based on SED fitting of Stark et al.'s larger sample of 3.8 < z < 5 galaxies. For a subset of survey galaxies, we use the combination of optical and near-infrared spectroscopy to quantify kinematics of outflows in z ≅ 3.5 star-forming galaxies and discuss the implications for reionization measurements. The trends we uncover underline the dangers of relying purely on broadband photometry to estimate the physical properties of high-redshift galaxies and emphasize the important role of diagnostic spectroscopy.

  19. High-redshift Galaxies and Black Holes Detectable with the JWST: A Population Synthesis Model from Infrared to X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonteri, Marta; Reines, Amy E.; Atek, Hakim; Stark, Daniel P.; Trebitsch, Maxime

    2017-11-01

    The first billion years of the Universe has been a pivotal time: stars, black holes (BHs), and galaxies formed and assembled, sowing the seeds of galaxies as we know them today. Detecting, identifying, and understanding the first galaxies and BHs is one of the current observational and theoretical challenges in galaxy formation. In this paper we present a population synthesis model aimed at galaxies, BHs, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at high redshift. The model builds a population based on empirical relations. The spectral energy distribution of galaxies is determined by age and metallicity, and that of AGNs by BH mass and accretion rate. We validate the model against observations, and predict properties of galaxies and AGN in other wavelength and/or luminosity ranges, estimating the contamination of stellar populations (normal stars and high-mass X-ray binaries) for AGN searches from the infrared to X-rays, and vice versa for galaxy searches. For high-redshift galaxies with stellar ages < 1 {Gyr}, we find that disentangling stellar and AGN emission is challenging at restframe UV/optical wavelengths, while high-mass X-ray binaries become more important sources of confusion in X-rays. We propose a color-color selection in the James Webb Space Telescope bands to separate AGN versus star-dominated galaxies in photometric observations. We also estimate the AGN contribution, with respect to massive, hot, and metal-poor stars, at driving high-ionization lines, such as C IV and He II. Finally, we test the influence of the minimum BH mass and occupation fraction of BHs in low-mass galaxies on the restframe UV/near-IR and X-ray AGN luminosity function.

  20. GOODS-HERSCHEL MEASUREMENTS OF THE DUST ATTENUATION OF TYPICAL STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT: OBSERVATIONS OF ULTRAVIOLET-SELECTED GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, N.; Dickinson, M.; Kartaltepe, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Elbaz, D.; Daddi, E.; Magdis, G.; Aussel, H.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dasyra, K.; Hwang, H. S. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Morrison, G. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Giavalisco, M. [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Ivison, R. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Papovich, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Scott, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Buat, V.; Burgarella, D. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, OAMP, Universite Aix-Marseille, CNRS, 38 Rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Murphy, E. [Spitzer Science Center, MC 314-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Altieri, B. [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de la Canada, 28691 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2012-01-10

    We take advantage of the sensitivity and resolution of the Herschel Space Observatory at 100 and 160 {mu}m to directly image the thermal dust emission and investigate the infrared luminosities (L{sub IR}) and dust obscuration of typical star-forming (L*) galaxies at high redshift. Our sample consists of 146 UV-selected galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts 1.5 {<=} z{sub spec} < 2.6 in the GOODS-North field. Supplemented with deep Very Large Array and Spitzer imaging, we construct median stacks at the positions of these galaxies at 24, 100, and 160 {mu}m, and 1.4 GHz. The comparison between these stacked fluxes and a variety of dust templates and calibrations implies that typical star-forming galaxies with UV luminosities L{sub UV} {approx}> 10{sup 10} L{sub Sun} at z {approx} 2 are luminous infrared galaxies with a median L{sub IR} = (2.2 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }. Their median ratio of L{sub IR} to rest-frame 8 {mu}m luminosity (L{sub 8}) is L{sub IR}/L{sub 8} = 8.9 {+-} 1.3 and is Almost-Equal-To 80% larger than that found for most star-forming galaxies at z {approx}< 2. This apparent redshift evolution in the L{sub IR}/L{sub 8} ratio may be tied to the trend of larger infrared luminosity surface density for z {approx}> 2 galaxies relative to those at lower redshift. Typical galaxies at 1.5 {<=} z < 2.6 have a median dust obscuration L{sub IR}/L{sub UV} = 7.1 {+-} 1.1, which corresponds to a dust correction factor, required to recover the bolometric star formation rate (SFR) from the unobscured UV SFR, of 5.2 {+-} 0.6. This result is similar to that inferred from previous investigations of the UV, H{alpha}, 24 {mu}m, radio, and X-ray properties of the same galaxies studied here. Stacking in bins of UV slope ({beta}) implies that L* galaxies with redder spectral slopes are also dustier and that the correlation between {beta} and dustiness is similar to that found for local starburst galaxies. Hence, the rest-frame {approx_equal} 30 and

  1. New Constraints on ΩM, ΩΛ, and w from an Independent Set of 11 High-Redshift Supernovae Observed with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, R. A.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Blanc, G.; Burns, M. S.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S. E.; Doi, M.; Ellis, R.; Fabbro, S.; Folatelli, G.; Fruchter, A. S.; Garavini, G.; Garmond, S.; Garton, K.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I.; Howell, D. A.; Kim, A. G.; Lee, B. C.; Lidman, C.; Mendez, J.; Nobili, S.; Nugent, P. E.; Pain, R.; Panagia, N.; Pennypacker, C. R.; Perlmutter, S.; Quimby, R.; Raux, J.; Regnault, N.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Sainton, G.; Schaefer, B.; Schahmaneche, K.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stanishev, V.; Sullivan, M.; Walton, N. A.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Yasuda, N.

    2003-11-01

    We report measurements of ΩM, ΩΛ, and w from 11 supernovae (SNe) at z=0.36-0.86 with high-quality light curves measured using WFPC2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This is an independent set of high-redshift SNe that confirms previous SN evidence for an accelerating universe. The high-quality light curves available from photometry on WFPC2 make it possible for these 11 SNe alone to provide measurements of the cosmological parameters comparable in statistical weight to the previous results. Combined with earlier Supernova Cosmology Project data, the new SNe yield a measurement of the mass density ΩM=0.25+0.07-0.06(statistical)+/-0.04 (identified systematics), or equivalently, a cosmological constant of ΩΛ=0.75+0.06-0.07(statistical)+/-0.04 (identified systematics), under the assumptions of a flat universe and that the dark energy equation-of-state parameter has a constant value w=-1. When the SN results are combined with independent flat-universe measurements of ΩM from cosmic microwave background and galaxy redshift distortion data, they provide a measurement of w=-1.05+0.15-0.20(statistical)+/-0.09 (identified systematic), if w is assumed to be constant in time. In addition to high-precision light-curve measurements, the new data offer greatly improved color measurements of the high-redshift SNe and hence improved host galaxy extinction estimates. These extinction measurements show no anomalous negative E(B-V) at high redshift. The precision of the measurements is such that it is possible to perform a host galaxy extinction correction directly for individual SNe without any assumptions or priors on the parent E(B-V) distribution. Our cosmological fits using full extinction corrections confirm that dark energy is required with P(ΩΛ>0)>0.99, a result consistent with previous and current SN analyses that rely on the identification of a low-extinction subset or prior assumptions concerning the intrinsic extinction distribution. Based in part on

  2. Hard X-ray spectral investigations of gamma-ray bursts 120521C and 130606A at high-redshift z ˜ 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, T.; Urata, Y.; Enomoto, J.; Tashiro, M. S.

    2017-04-01

    This study presents a temporal and spectral analysis of the prompt emission of two high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), 120521C at z ˜ 6 and 130606A at z ˜ 5.91, using data obtained from the Swift-XRT/BAT and the Suzaku-WAM simultaneously. Based on follow-up XRT observations, the longest durations of the prompt emissions were approximately 80 s (120521C) and 360 s (130606A) in the rest-frames of the two GRBs. These objects are thus categorized as long-duration GRBs; however, the durations are short compared with the predicted duration of GRBs originating from first-generation stars. Because of the wide bandpass of the instruments, covering the ranges 15 keV-5 MeV (BAT-WAM) and 0.3 keV-5.0 MeV (XRT-BAT-WAM), we could successfully determine the νFν peak energies E_peak^src in the rest-frame and isotropic-equivalent radiated energies Eiso; E^src_peak = 682^{+845}_{-207} keV and E_iso = (8. 25^{+2.24}_{-1.96}) × 10^{52} erg for 120521C, and E^src_peak = 1209^{+553}_{-304} keV and E_iso = (2.82^{+0.17}_{-0.71}) × 10^{53} erg for 130606A. These obtained characteristic parameters are in accordance with the well-known relationship between E_peak^src and Eiso (Amati relationship). In addition, we examined the relationships between E_peak^src and the 1-s peak luminosity, Lp, and between E_peak^src and the geometrical corrected radiated energy, Eγ, and confirmed the E_peak^src-Lp (Yonetoku) and E_peak^src-Eγ (Ghirlanda) relationships. The results imply that these high-redshift GRBs at z ˜ 6, which are expected to have radiated during the reionization epoch, have properties similar to those of low-redshift GRBs regarding X-ray prompt emission.

  3. Infrared-faint radio sources are at high redshifts. Spectroscopic redshift determination of infrared-faint radio sources using the Very Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Sharp, R.; Spitler, L. R.; Parker, Q. A.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are characterised by relatively high radio flux densities and associated faint or even absent infrared and optical counterparts. The resulting extremely high radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousands were previously known only for high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs), suggesting a link between the two classes of object. However, the optical and infrared faintness of IFRS makes their study difficult. Prior to this work, no redshift was known for any IFRS in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) fields which would help to put IFRS in the context of other classes of object, especially of HzRGs. Aims: This work aims at measuring the first redshifts of IFRS in the ATLAS fields. Furthermore, we test the hypothesis that IFRS are similar to HzRGs, that they are higher-redshift or dust-obscured versions of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of IFRS was spectroscopically observed using the Focal Reducer and Low Dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The data were calibrated based on the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) and redshifts extracted from the final spectra, where possible. This information was then used to calculate rest-frame luminosities, and to perform the first spectral energy distribution modelling of IFRS based on redshifts. Results: We found redshifts of 1.84, 2.13, and 2.76, for three IFRS, confirming the suggested high-redshift character of this class of object. These redshifts and the resulting luminosities show IFRS to be similar to HzRGs, supporting our hypothesis. We found further evidence that fainter IFRS are at even higher redshifts. Conclusions: Considering the similarities between IFRS and HzRGs substantiated in this work, the detection of IFRS, which have a significantly higher sky density than HzRGs, increases the number of active galactic nuclei in the early universe and adds to the problems of explaining the formation of

  4. UV CONTINUUM SLOPE AND DUST OBSCURATION FROM z ∼ 6 TO z ∼ 2: THE STAR FORMATION RATE DENSITY AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Franx, M.; Chary, R.-R.; Meurer, G. R.; Ford, H.; Conselice, C. J.; Giavalisco, M.; Van Dokkum, P.

    2009-01-01

    We provide a systematic measurement of the rest-frame UV continuum slope β over a wide range in redshift (z ∼ 2-6) and rest-frame UV luminosity (0.1 L* z = 3 to 2 L* z= 3 ) to improve estimates of the star formation rate (SFR) density at high redshift. We utilize the deep optical and infrared data (Advanced Camera for Surveys/NICMOS) over the Chandra Deep Field-South and Hubble Deep Field-North Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey fields, as well as the UDF for our primary UBVi 'dropout' Lyman Break Galaxy sample. We also use strong lensing clusters to identify a population of very low luminosity, high-redshift dropout galaxies. We correct the observed distributions for both selection biases and photometric scatter. We find that the UV-continuum slope of the most luminous galaxies is substantially redder at z ∼ 2-4 than it is at z ∼ 5-6 (from ∼-2.4 at z ∼ 6 to ∼-1.5 at z ∼ 2). Lower luminosity galaxies are also found to be bluer than higher luminosity galaxies at z ∼ 2.5 and z ∼ 4. We do not find a large number of galaxies with β's as red as -1 in our dropout selections at z ∼ 4, and particularly at z ∼> 5, even though such sources could be readily selected from our data (and also from Balmer Break Galaxy searches at z ∼ 4). This suggests that star-forming galaxies at z ∼> 5 almost universally have very blue UV-continuum slopes, and that there are not likely to be a substantial number of dust-obscured galaxies at z ∼> 5 that are missed in 'dropout' searches. Using the same relation between UV-continuum slope and dust extinction as has been found to be appropriate at both z ∼ 0 and z ∼ 2, we estimate the average dust extinction of galaxies as a function of redshift and UV luminosity in a consistent way. As expected, we find that the estimated dust extinction increases substantially with cosmic time for the most UV luminous galaxies, but remains small (∼ 4.

  5. Planck intermediate results XXVII. High-redshift infrared galaxy overdensity candidates and lensed sources discovered by Planck and confirmed by Herschel-SPIRE⋆

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Altieri, B.; Arnaud, M.

    2015-01-01

    We have used the Planck all-sky submillimetre and millimetre maps to search for rare sources distinguished by extreme brightness, a few hundred millijanskies, and their potential for being situated at high redshift. These "cold" Planck sources, selected using the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) d...

  6. The effect of stellar evolution uncertainties on the rest-frame ultraviolet stellar lines of C IV and He II in high-redshift Lyman-break galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, John J.; Stanway, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    Young, massive stars dominate the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra of star-forming galaxies. At high redshifts (z > 2), these rest-frame UV features are shifted into the observed-frame optical and a combination of gravitational lensing, deep spectroscopy and spectral stacking analysis allows the stellar population characteristics of these sources to be investigated. We use our stellar population synthesis code Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis (BPASS) to fit two strong rest-frame UV spectral features in published Lyman-break galaxy spectra, taking into account the effects of binary evolution on the stellar spectrum. In particular, we consider the effects of quasi-homogeneous evolution (arising from the rotational mixing of rapidly rotating stars), metallicity and the relative abundance of carbon and oxygen on the observed strengths of He IIλ1640 Å and C IVλ1548, 1551 Å spectral lines. We find that Lyman-break galaxy spectra at z ˜ 2-3 are best fitted with moderately sub-solar metallicities, and with a depleted carbon-to-oxygen ratio. We also find that the spectra of the lowest metallicity sources are best fitted with model spectra in which the He II emission line is boosted by the inclusion of the effect of massive stars being spun-up during binary mass transfer so these rapidly rotating stars experience quasi-homogeneous evolution.

  7. Red galaxies at high redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuyts, Stijn Elisabeth Raphaël

    2007-01-01

    From its origin at the center of a star to the edge, through the surrounding gas and dust in the distant galaxy, through the intergalactic medium, traveling billions of light years only to be reflected by a mirror and captured by a detector; the little amount of light observed from galaxies in the

  8. Twenty-Three High-Redshift Supernovae from the Institute for Astronomy Deep Survey: Doubling the Supernova Sample at z > 0.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barris, Brian J.; Tonry, John L.; Blondin, Stéphane; Challis, Peter; Chornock, Ryan; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Garnavich, Peter; Holland, Stephen T.; Jha, Saurabh; Kirshner, Robert P.; Krisciunas, Kevin; Leibundgut, Bruno; Li, Weidong; Matheson, Thomas; Miknaitis, Gajus; Riess, Adam G.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Smith, R. Chris; Sollerman, Jesper; Spyromilio, Jason; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Aussel, Hervé; Chambers, K. C.; Connelley, M. S.; Donovan, D.; Henry, J. Patrick; Kaiser, Nick; Liu, Michael C.; Martín, Eduardo L.; Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2004-02-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of 23 high-redshift supernovae (SNe) spanning a range of z=0.34-1.03, nine of which are unambiguously classified as Type Ia. These SNe were discovered during the IfA Deep Survey, which began in 2001 September and observed a total of 2.5 deg2 to a depth of approximately m~25-26 in RIZ over 9-17 visits, typically every 1-3 weeks for nearly 5 months, with additional observations continuing until 2002 April. We give a brief description of the survey motivations, observational strategy, and reduction process. This sample of 23 high-redshift SNe includes 15 at z>=0.7, doubling the published number of objects at these redshifts, and indicates that the evidence for acceleration of the universe is not due to a systematic effect proportional to redshift. In combination with the recent compilation of Tonry et al. (2003), we calculate cosmological parameter density contours that are consistent with the flat universe indicated by the cosmic microwave background (Spergel et al. 2003). Adopting the constraint that Ωtotal=1.0, we obtain best-fit values of (Ωm,ΩΛ)=(0.33,0.67) using 22 SNe from this survey augmented by the literature compilation. We show that using the empty-beam model for gravitational lensing does not eliminate the need for ΩΛ>0. Experience from this survey indicates great potential for similar large-scale surveys while also revealing the limitations of performing surveys for z>1 SNe from the ground. CFHT: Based in part on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. CTIO: Based in part on observations taken at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. Keck: Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership

  9. Cluster Mass Calibration at High Redshift: HST Weak Lensing Analysis of 13 Distant Galaxy Clusters from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrabback, T.; et al.

    2016-11-11

    We present an HST/ACS weak gravitational lensing analysis of 13 massive high-redshift (z_median=0.88) galaxy clusters discovered in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey. This study is part of a larger campaign that aims to robustly calibrate mass-observable scaling relations over a wide range in redshift to enable improved cosmological constraints from the SPT cluster sample. We introduce new strategies to ensure that systematics in the lensing analysis do not degrade constraints on cluster scaling relations significantly. First, we efficiently remove cluster members from the source sample by selecting very blue galaxies in V-I colour. Our estimate of the source redshift distribution is based on CANDELS data, where we carefully mimic the source selection criteria of the cluster fields. We apply a statistical correction for systematic photometric redshift errors as derived from Hubble Ultra Deep Field data and verified through spatial cross-correlations. We account for the impact of lensing magnification on the source redshift distribution, finding that this is particularly relevant for shallower surveys. Finally, we account for biases in the mass modelling caused by miscentring and uncertainties in the mass-concentration relation using simulations. In combination with temperature estimates from Chandra we constrain the normalisation of the mass-temperature scaling relation ln(E(z) M_500c/10^14 M_sun)=A+1.5 ln(kT/7.2keV) to A=1.81^{+0.24}_{-0.14}(stat.) +/- 0.09(sys.), consistent with self-similar redshift evolution when compared to lower redshift samples. Additionally, the lensing data constrain the average concentration of the clusters to c_200c=5.6^{+3.7}_{-1.8}.

  10. COMPLETE IONIZATION OF THE NEUTRAL GAS: WHY THERE ARE SO FEW DETECTIONS OF 21 cm HYDROGEN IN HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO GALAXIES AND QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, S. J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Whiting, M. T., E-mail: sjc@physics.usyd.edu.au [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2012-11-10

    From the first published z {approx}> 3 survey of 21 cm absorption within the hosts of radio galaxies and quasars, Curran et al. found an apparent dearth of cool neutral gas at high redshift. From a detailed analysis of the photometry, each object is found to have a {lambda} = 1216 A continuum luminosity in excess of L {sub 1216} {approx} 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1}, a critical value above which 21 cm has never been detected at any redshift. At these wavelengths, and below, hydrogen is excited above the ground state so that it cannot absorb in 21 cm. In order to apply the equation of photoionization equilibrium, we demonstrate that this critical value also applies to the ionizing ({lambda} {<=} 912 A) radiation. We use this to show, for a variety of gas density distributions, that upon placing a quasar within a galaxy of gas, there is always an ultraviolet luminosity above which all of the large-scale atomic gas is ionized. While in this state, the hydrogen cannot be detected or engage in star formation. Applying the mean ionizing photon rate of all of the sources searched, we find, using canonical values for the gas density and recombination rate coefficient, that the observed critical luminosity gives a scale length (3 kpc) similar that of the neutral hydrogen (H I) in the Milky Way, a large spiral galaxy. Thus, this simple yet physically motivated model can explain the critical luminosity (L {sub 912} {approx} L {sub 1216} {approx} 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1}), above which neutral gas is not detected. This indicates that the non-detection of 21 cm absorption is not due to the sensitivity limits of current radio telescopes, but rather that the lines of sight to the quasars, and probably the bulk of the host galaxies, are devoid of neutral gas.

  11. Cluster Mass Calibration at High Redshift: HST Weak Lensing Analysis of 13 Distant Galaxy Clusters from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel’dovich Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrabback, T.; Applegate, D.; Dietrich, J. P.; Hoekstra, H.; Bocquet, S.; Gonzalez, A. H.; der Linden, A. von; McDonald, M.; Morrison, C. B.; Raihan, S. F.; Allen, S. W.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Chiu, I.; Desai, S.; Foley, R. J.; de Haan, T.; High, F. W.; Hilbert, S.; Mantz, A. B.; Massey, R.; Mohr, J.; Reichardt, C. L.; Saro, A.; Simon, P.; Stern, C.; Stubbs, C. W.; Zenteno, A.

    2017-10-14

    We present an HST/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) weak gravitational lensing analysis of 13 massive high-redshift (z(median) = 0.88) galaxy clusters discovered in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey. This study is part of a larger campaign that aims to robustly calibrate mass-observable scaling relations over a wide range in redshift to enable improved cosmological constraints from the SPT cluster sample. We introduce new strategies to ensure that systematics in the lensing analysis do not degrade constraints on cluster scaling relations significantly. First, we efficiently remove cluster members from the source sample by selecting very blue galaxies in V - I colour. Our estimate of the source redshift distribution is based on Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) data, where we carefully mimic the source selection criteria of the cluster fields. We apply a statistical correction for systematic photometric redshift errors as derived from Hubble Ultra Deep Field data and verified through spatial cross-correlations. We account for the impact of lensing magnification on the source redshift distribution, finding that this is particularly relevant for shallower surveys. Finally, we account for biases in the mass modelling caused by miscentring and uncertainties in the concentration-mass relation using simulations. In combination with temperature estimates from Chandra we constrain the normalization of the mass-temperature scaling relation ln (E(z) M-500c/10(14)M(circle dot)) = A + 1.5ln (kT/7.2 keV) to A = 1.81(-0.14)(+0.24)(stat.)+/- 0.09(sys.), consistent with self-similar redshift evolution when compared to lower redshift samples. Additionally, the lensing data constrain the average concentration of the clusters to c(200c) = 5.6(-1.8)(+3.7).

  12. Cluster mass calibration at high redshift: HST weak lensing analysis of 13 distant galaxy clusters from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrabback, T.; Applegate, D.; Dietrich, J. P.; Hoekstra, H.; Bocquet, S.; Gonzalez, A. H.; von der Linden, A.; McDonald, M.; Morrison, C. B.; Raihan, S. F.; Allen, S. W.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Chiu, I.; Desai, S.; Foley, R. J.; de Haan, T.; High, F. W.; Hilbert, S.; Mantz, A. B.; Massey, R.; Mohr, J.; Reichardt, C. L.; Saro, A.; Simon, P.; Stern, C.; Stubbs, C. W.; Zenteno, A.

    2018-02-01

    We present an HST/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) weak gravitational lensing analysis of 13 massive high-redshift (zmedian = 0.88) galaxy clusters discovered in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey. This study is part of a larger campaign that aims to robustly calibrate mass-observable scaling relations over a wide range in redshift to enable improved cosmological constraints from the SPT cluster sample. We introduce new strategies to ensure that systematics in the lensing analysis do not degrade constraints on cluster scaling relations significantly. First, we efficiently remove cluster members from the source sample by selecting very blue galaxies in V - I colour. Our estimate of the source redshift distribution is based on Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) data, where we carefully mimic the source selection criteria of the cluster fields. We apply a statistical correction for systematic photometric redshift errors as derived from Hubble Ultra Deep Field data and verified through spatial cross-correlations. We account for the impact of lensing magnification on the source redshift distribution, finding that this is particularly relevant for shallower surveys. Finally, we account for biases in the mass modelling caused by miscentring and uncertainties in the concentration-mass relation using simulations. In combination with temperature estimates from Chandra we constrain the normalization of the mass-temperature scaling relation ln (E(z)M500c/1014 M⊙) = A + 1.5ln (kT/7.2 keV) to A=1.81^{+0.24}_{-0.14}(stat.) {± } 0.09(sys.), consistent with self-similar redshift evolution when compared to lower redshift samples. Additionally, the lensing data constrain the average concentration of the clusters to c_200c=5.6^{+3.7}_{-1.8}.

  13. First Detections of the [N II] 122 micron Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [N II] 122 micron line from a high-redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (>6(sigma)) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and H1413 + 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift (zeta) and Early Universe Spectrometer on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line to far-infrared (FIR) continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0 x 10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1 x 10(exo -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line to continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8%-17% of the molecUlar gas mass. The [O III]/[N II] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using Our previous detection of the [O III] 88 micron line, the [O III]/[N II]line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates that the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar H II regions ionized by O9.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter log(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30%-50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82-like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [N II]line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This war!< demonstrates the utility of the [N II] and [O III] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  14. First Detections of the [NII] 122 Micrometer Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [NIl] 122 {\\mu} m line from a high redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (> 6{\\sigma}) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and HI413+ 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS) on the CSO. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line-to-FIR continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0x10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1x10(exp -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line-to-continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8 to 17% of the molecular gas mass. The [OIII]/[NII] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an AGN. Using our previous detection of the [01II] 88 {\\mu}m line, the [OIII]/ [NIl] line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar HII regions ionized by 09.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter 10g(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30 to 50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [NIl] line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This work demonstrates the utility of the [NIl] and [OIII] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  15. An Infrared Census of DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS). IV. Discovery of High-redshift AGB Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, M. L.; McQuinn, K. B. W.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Whitelock, P. A.; van Loon, J. Th.; Sonneborn, G.; Sloan, G. C.; Skillman, E. D.; Meixner, M.; McDonald, I.; Jones, O. C.; Javadi, A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Britavskiy, N.; Bonanos, A. Z.

    2017-12-01

    The survey for DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS) identified several candidate Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars in nearby dwarf galaxies and showed that dust can form even in very metal-poor systems ({\\boldsymbol{Z}}∼ 0.008 {Z}ȯ ). Here, we present a follow-up survey with WFC3/IR on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), using filters that are capable of distinguishing carbon-rich (C-type) stars from oxygen-rich (M-type) stars: F127M, F139M, and F153M. We include six star-forming DUSTiNGS galaxies (NGC 147, IC 10, Pegasus dIrr, Sextans B, Sextans A, and Sag DIG), all more metal-poor than the Magellanic Clouds and spanning 1 dex in metallicity. We double the number of dusty AGB stars known in these galaxies and find that most are carbon rich. We also find 26 dusty M-type stars, mostly in IC 10. Given the large dust excess and tight spatial distribution of these M-type stars, they are most likely on the upper end of the AGB mass range (stars undergoing Hot Bottom Burning). Theoretical models do not predict significant dust production in metal-poor M-type stars, but we see evidence for dust excess around M-type stars even in the most metal-poor galaxies in our sample (12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})=7.26{--}7.50). The low metallicities and inferred high stellar masses (up to ∼10 {M}ȯ ) suggest that AGB stars can produce dust very early in the evolution of galaxies (∼30 Myr after they form), and may contribute significantly to the dust reservoirs seen in high-redshift galaxies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-14073.

  16. EVOLUTION OF GASEOUS DISK VISCOSITY DRIVEN BY SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION. II. STRUCTURE AND EMISSIONS FROM STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Changshuo; Wang Jianmin

    2010-01-01

    High spatial resolution observations show that high-redshift galaxies are undergoing intensive evolution of dynamical structure and morphologies displayed by the Hα, Hβ, [O III], and [N II] images. It has been shown that supernova explosion (SNexp) of young massive stars during the star formation epoch, as kinetic feedback to host galaxies, can efficiently excite the turbulent viscosity. We incorporate the feedback into the dynamical equations through mass dropout and angular momentum transportation driven by the SNexp-excited turbulent viscosity. The empirical Kennicutt-Schmidt law is used for star formation rates (SFRs). We numerically solve the equations and show that there can be intensive evolution of structure of the gaseous disk. Secular evolution of the disk shows interesting characteristics: (1) high viscosity excited by SNexp can efficiently transport the gas from 10 kpc to ∼1 kpc forming a stellar disk whereas a stellar ring forms for the case with low viscosity; (2) starbursts trigger SMBH activity with a lag of ∼10 8 yr depending on SFRs, prompting the joint evolution of SMBHs and bulges; and (3) the velocity dispersion is as high as ∼100 km s -1 in the gaseous disk. These results are likely to vary with the initial mass function (IMF) that the SNexp rates rely on. Given the IMF, we use the GALAXEV code to compute the spectral evolution of stellar populations based on the dynamical structure. In order to compare the present models with the observed dynamical structure and images, we use the incident continuum from the simple stellar synthesis and CLOUDY to calculate emission line ratios of Hα, Hβ, [O III], and [N II], and Hα brightness of gas photoionized by young massive stars formed on the disks. The models can produce the main features of emission from star-forming galaxies. We apply the present model to two galaxies, BX 389 and BX 482 observed in the SINS high-z sample, which are bulge and disk-dominated, respectively. Two successive

  17. The Hyperluminous Infrared Quasar 3C 318 and Its Implications for Interpreting Sub-MM Detections of High-Redshift Radio Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willott, Chris J.; Rawlings, Steve; Jarvis, Matt J.

    1999-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the compact steep-spectrum radio source 3C 318 which shows it to be a quasar at redshift z = 1.574 (the z = 0.752 value previously reported is incorrect). 3C 318 is an IRAS, ISO and SCUBA source so its new redshift makes it the most intrinsically luminous far-infrared (FIR) source in the 3C catalogue (there is no evidence of strong gravitational lensing effects). Its bolometric luminosity greatly exceeds the 10(exp 13) solar luminosity level above which an object is said to be hyperluminous. Its spectral energy distribution (SED) requires that the quasar heats the dust responsible for the FIR flux, as is believed to be the case in other hyperluminous galaxies, and contributes (at the greater than 10% level) to the heating of the CIA dust responsible for the sub-mm emission. We cannot determine whether a starburst makes an important contribution to the heating of the coolest dust, so evidence for a high star-formation rate is circumstantial being based on the high dust, and hence gas, C-1 mass required by its sub-mm detection. We show that the current sub-mm and FIR data available for the highest-redshift radio galaxies are consistent with SEDs similar to that of 3C 318. This indicates that at least some of this population may be detected in the sub-mm because of dust heated by the quasar nucleus, and that interpreting sub-mm detection as evidence for very high (approx. less than 1000 solar mass/yr) star-formation rates may not always be valid. We show that the 3C318 quasar is slightly reddened (A(sub v) approx. = 0.5), the most likely cause of which is SMC-type dust in the host galaxy. If very distant radio galaxies are reddened in a similar way then we show that only slightly greater amounts of dust could obscure the quasars in these sources. We speculate that the low fraction of quasars amongst the very high redshift (z approx. greater than 3) objects in low-frequency radio-selected samples is the result of

  18. On the Superluminal Motion of Radio-Loud AGNs Zhi-Bin Zhang1,2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    xies—radiation mechanisms: non-thermal—quasars: general. 1. Introduction. Rees (1966) predicted that the transverse velocity of an object moving relativistically in some special directions may appear to exceed the speed of light. The apparent superluminal motion (SM) is essentially a geometric effect or a light travel-time.

  19. Duty-cycle and energetics of remnant radio-loud AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ross J.

    2018-05-01

    Deriving the energetics of remnant and restarted active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is much more challenging than for active sources due to the complexity in accurately determining the time since the nucleus switched-off. I resolve this problem using a new approach that combines spectral ageing and dynamical models to tightly constrain the energetics and duty-cycles of dying sources. Fitting the shape of the integrated radio spectrum yields the fraction of the source age the nucleus is active; this, in addition to the flux density, source size, axis ratio, and properties of the host environment, provides a constraint on dynamical models describing the remnant radio source. This technique is used to derive the intrinsic properties of the well-studied remnant radio source B2 0924+30. This object is found to spend 50_{-12}^{+14} Myr in the active phase and a further 28_{-5}^{+6} Myr in the quiescent phase, have a jet kinetic power of 3.6_{-1.7}^{+3.0}× 10^{37} W, and a lobe magnetic field strength below equipartition at the 8σ level. The integrated spectra of restarted and intermittent radio sources are found to yield a `steep-shallow' shape when the previous outburst occurred within 100 Myr. The duty-cycle of B2 0924+30 is hence constrained to be δ < 0.15 by fitting the shortest time to the previous comparable outburst that does not appreciably modify the remnant spectrum. The time-averaged feedback energy imparted by AGNs into their host galaxy environments can in this manner be quantified.

  20. Facets of radio-loud AGN evolution : a LOFAR surveys perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Wendy L.

    2015-01-01

    Radio observations provide a unique view of black holes in the Universe. This thesis presents low frequency radio images and uses the radio sources in those images to study the evolution of black holes and galaxies through the age of the Universe.

  1. A Search for Blazar-Like Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh R. Miller

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of an observational program to investigate the gamma-ray and optical variability properties of the vRL NLSY1 galaxies listed in the Yuan et al. sample. We have identified 17 members of the Yuan et al. sample possibly associated with gamma-ray sources based on a combination of their optical polarization and optical variability and their gamma-ray properties. Eight have previously been associated with gamma-ray sources. We find nine additional members that we predict are excellent candidates to be associated with gamma-ray sources in the future. All 17 sources have many properties in common with flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs, suggesting that they may, in fact, constitute a new subclass of FSRQs.

  2. THE JET POWER AND EMISSION-LINE CORRELATIONS OF RADIO-LOUD OPTICALLY SELECTED QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punsly, Brian; Zhang Shaohua

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, the properties of the extended radio emission form Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 quasars with 0.4 20-30 kpc). The frequency of quasars with FR II level extended radio emission is ∼2.3% and >0.4% of quasars have FR I level extended radio emission. The lower limit simply reflects the flux density limit of the survey. The distribution of the long-term time-averaged jet powers of these quasars, Q-bar , has a broad peak ∼3 x 10 44 erg s -1 that turns over below 10 44 erg s -1 and sources above 10 45 erg s -1 are extremely rare. It is found that the correlation between the bolometric (total thermal) luminosity of the accretion flow, L bol , and Q-bar is not strong. The correlation of Q-bar with narrow line luminosity is stronger than the correlation with broad line luminosity and the continuum luminosity. It is therefore concluded that previous interpretations of correlations of Q-bar with narrow line strengths in radio galaxies as a direct correlation of jet power and accretion power have been overstated. It is explained why this interpretation mistakenly overlooks the sizeable fraction of sources with weak accretion luminosity and powerful jets discovered by Ogle et al.

  3. Galaxy halo occupation at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how current and future data on the clustering and number density of z~3 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) can be used to constrain their relationship to dark matter haloes. We explore a three-parameter model in which the number of LBGs per dark halo scales like a power law in the halo mass: N(M)=(M/M1)S for M>Mmin. Here, Mmin is the minimum mass halo that can host an LBG, M1 is a normalization parameter, associated with the mass above which haloes host more than one observed LBG, and S determines the strength of the mass-dependence. We show how these three parameters are constrained by three observable properties of LBGs: the number density, the large-scale bias and the fraction of objects in close pairs. Given these three quantities, the three unknown model parameters may be estimated analytically, allowing a full exploration of parameter space. As an example, we assume a ΛCDM cosmology and consider the observed properties of a recent sample of spectroscopically confirmed LBGs. We find that the favoured range for our model parameters is Mmin~=(0.4-8)×1010h- 1Msolar, M1~=(6-10)×1012h- 1Msolar, and 0.9acceptable if the allowed range of bg is permitted to span all recent observational estimates. We also discuss how the observed clustering of LBGs as a function of luminosity can be used to constrain halo occupation, although because of current observational uncertainties we are unable to reach any strong conclusions. Our methods and results can be used to constrain more realistic models that aim to derive the occupation function N(M) from first principles, and offer insight into how basic physical properties affect the observed properties of LBGs.

  4. Quasar Elemental Abundances at High Redshifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Hamann, F.; Shields, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    the framework of the most recent photoionization models to estimate the metallicity of the gas associated with the high-z quasars. Standard photoionization parameters and the assumption of secondary nitrogen enrichment indicate an average abundance of Z/Z_sol = 4 to 5 in the line emitting gas. Assuming a time...

  5. High Redshift Lyman-α Hunt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kochiashvili, Ia

    Galaxy formation and evolution has been intensively studied in the past two decades. Resultsand discoveries revolutionized the field and we now have much better understandingof how these huge conglomerates of baryonic and dark matter evolve.In the framework of two different projects, which...

  6. HIGH-REDSHIFT OBJECTS IN DUST ENVIRONMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    E. E. Martínez-García; G. Bruzual; G. Magris; R. A. González-Lópezlira; M. Rosado

    2011-01-01

    Se da una introducción para un proyecto relacionado con el estudio de objetos a alto corrimiento al rojo (principalmente galaxias formando estrellas), que pueden albergar grandes cantidades de polvo en su interior. La entrada de telescopios más poderosos en las longitudes de onda infrarrojas y submilimétricas (e.g., ALMA, JWST), junto con modelos de síntesis de poblaciones estelares, de transferencia radiativa, y de evolución del polvo, ayudarán a desenmascarar la evolución cósmica del conten...

  7. AN X-RAY VIEW OF THE JET CYCLE IN THE RADIO-LOUD AGN 3C120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohfink, Anne M.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Tombesi, Francesco [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Marscher, Alan P. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Miller, Eric D.; Nowak, Michael A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Aller, Hugh; Aller, Margo F.; Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Brenneman, Laura W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States); Fabian, Andrew C., E-mail: alohfink@astro.umd.edu [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    We present a study of the central engine in the broad-line radio galaxy 3C120 using a multi-epoch analysis of a deep XMM-Newton observation and two deep Suzaku pointings (in 2012). In order to place our spectral data into the context of the disk-disruption/jet-ejection cycles displayed by this object, we monitor the source in the UV/X-ray bands, and in the radio band. We find three statistically acceptable spectral models: a disk-reflection model, a jet model, and a jet+disk model. Despite being good descriptions of the data, the disk-reflection model violates the radio constraints on the inclination, and the jet model has a fine-tuning problem, requiring a jet contribution exceeding that expected. Thus, we argue for a composite jet+disk model. Within the context of this model, we verify the basic predictions of the jet-cycle paradigm, finding a truncated/refilling disk during the Suzaku observations and a complete disk extending down to the innermost stable circular orbit during the XMM-Newton observation. The idea of a refilling disk is further supported by the detection of the ejection of a new jet knot approximately one month after the Suzaku pointings. We also discover a step-like event in one of the Suzaku pointings in which the soft band lags the hard band. We suggest that we are witnessing the propagation of a disturbance from the disk into the jet on a timescale set by the magnetic field.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars sample (Gupta+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M.; Sikora, M.; Nalewajko, K.

    2017-11-01

    We performed matching of the FR II quasar sample of van Velzen et al. (2015, Cat. J/MNRAS/446/2985) (1108 sources) with the SDSS DR7 quasar catalogue (Schneider et al., 2010AJ....139.2360S, Cat. VII/260) (105 783 sources). We used a matching radius of 5 arcsec and obtained 899 objects. This resulting sample of FR II quasars was then matched with the sample of SDSS DR7 quasars detected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) (Wu et al., 2012, Cat. J/AJ/144/49). This gave us 895 FR II quasars detected in the MIR band. The RQ sample with MIR data is constructed by matching the DR7 quasar catalogue (Schneider et al., 2010AJ....139.2360S, Cat. VII/260) and Wise all-sky catalogue (Wu et al., 2012, Cat. J/AJ/144/49), using a matching radius of 1 arcsec, resulting in 101 853 objects. From these we remove the 899 RL quasars matched with the catalogue by van Velzen et al. (2015, Cat. J/MNRAS/446/2985), this leaves us with 100 958 quasars. We then remove objects that were detected by the FIRST survey (Becker et al. 1995ApJ...450..559B, Cat. VIII/92), this gives us 92 648. We repeat the same process with the NVSS (Condon, Cotton & Broderick, 1998AJ....115.1693C, Cat. VIII/65) and end up with 92 445 objects. We also removed those objects that were outside the FIRST observation region. (2 data files).

  9. Particle content, radio-galaxy morphology, and jet power: all radio-loud AGN are not equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croston, J. H.; Ineson, J.; Hardcastle, M. J.

    2018-05-01

    Ongoing and future radio surveys aim to trace the evolution of black hole growth and feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) throughout cosmic time; however, there remain major uncertainties in translating radio luminosity functions into a reliable assessment of the energy input as a function of galaxy and/or dark matter halo mass. A crucial and long-standing problem is the composition of the radio-lobe plasma that traces AGN jet activity. In this paper, we carry out a systematic comparison of the plasma conditions in Fanaroff & Riley class I and II radio galaxies to demonstrate conclusively that their internal composition is systematically different. This difference is best explained by the presence of an energetically dominant proton population in the FRI, but not the FRII radio galaxies. We show that, as expected from this systematic difference in particle content, radio morphology also affects the jet-power/radio-luminosity relationship, with FRII radio galaxies having a significantly lower ratio of jet power to radio luminosity than the FRI cluster radio sources used to derive jet-power scaling relations via X-ray cavity measurements. Finally, we also demonstrate conclusively that lobe composition is unconnected to accretion mode (optical excitation class): the internal conditions of low- and high-excitation FRII radio lobes are indistinguishable. We conclude that inferences of population-wide AGN impact require careful assessment of the contribution of different jet subclasses, particularly given the increased diversity of jet evolutionary states expected to be present in deep, low-frequency radio surveys such as the LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey.

  10. Mean and extreme radio properties of quasars and the origin of radio emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratzer, Rachael M.; Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the evolution of both the radio-loud fraction (RLF) and (using stacking analysis) the mean radio loudness of quasars. We consider how these properties evolve as a function of redshift and luminosity, black hole (BH) mass and accretion rate, and parameters related to the dominance of a wind in the broad emission-line region. We match the FIRST source catalog to samples of luminous quasars (both spectroscopic and photometric), primarily from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. After accounting for catastrophic errors in BH mass estimates at high redshift, we find that both the RLF and the mean radio luminosity increase for increasing BH mass and decreasing accretion rate. Similarly, both the RLF and mean radio loudness increase for quasars that are argued to have weaker radiation line driven wind components of the broad emission-line region. In agreement with past work, we find that the RLF increases with increasing optical/UV luminosity and decreasing redshift, while the mean radio loudness evolves in the exact opposite manner. This difference in behavior between the mean radio loudness and the RLF in L−z may indicate selection effects that bias our understanding of the evolution of the RLF; deeper surveys in the optical and radio are needed to resolve this discrepancy. Finally, we argue that radio-loud (RL) and radio-quiet (RQ) quasars may be parallel sequences, but where only RQ quasars at one extreme of the distribution are likely to become RL, possibly through slight differences in spin and/or merger history.

  11. Simulating the [CII] emission of high redshift galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Pardos; Greve, Thomas Rodriguez; Narayanan, Desika

    2016-01-01

    and radiative transfer, the photoionization code CLOUDY isimplemented. I will show results for z=2 star-forming galaxies yet to beobserved, as well as preliminary results for galaxies at z~6-7 whereobservations have presented contradictory detections and non-detectionsof star-forming galaxies....

  12. Nature of the Background Ultraviolet Radiation Field at High Redshifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2000) 21, 19-27 .... to know the shape of the ionizing radiation to determine the ionization parameter from the C II to C IV ratio. ... different shapes of the background radiation spectrum as explained in the text. The solid lines.

  13. OUTFLOW AND HOT DUST EMISSION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huiyuan; Xing, Feijun; Wang, Tinggui; Zhou, Hongyan; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Correlations of hot dust emission with outflow properties are investigated, based on a large z ∼ 2 non-broad absorption line quasar sample built from the Wide-field Infrared Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data releases. We use the near-infrared slope and the infrared to UV luminosity ratio to indicate the hot dust emission relative to the emission from the accretion disk. In our luminous quasars, these hot dust emission indicators are almost independent of the fundamental parameters, such as luminosity, Eddington ratio and black hole mass, but moderately dependent on the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) and FWHM of C IV lines. Interestingly, the latter two correlations dramatically strengthen with increasing Eddington ratio. We suggest that, in high Eddington ratio quasars, C IV regions are dominated by outflows so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) can reliably reflect the general properties and velocity of outflows, respectively. In low Eddington ratio quasars, on the other hand, C IV lines are primarily emitted by virialized gas so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) become less sensitive to outflows. Therefore, the correlations for the highest Eddington ratio quasars are more likely to represent the true dependence of hot dust emission on outflows and the correlations for the entire sample are significantly diluted by the low Eddington ratio quasars. Our results show that an outflow with a large BAI or velocity can double the hot dust emission on average. We suggest that outflows either contain hot dust in themselves or interact with the dusty interstellar medium or torus

  14. The Environments of High-Redshift Quasi-Stellar Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Stiavelli, Massimo; Trenti, M.; Pavlovsky, C. M.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Scarlata, C.; Stern, D.; Mahabal, A.; Thompson, D.; Dickinson, M.; Panagia, N.; Meylan, G.

    2009-04-01

    We present a sample of i 775-dropout candidates identified in five Hubble Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) fields centered on Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) at redshift z ~ 6. Our fields are as deep as the GOODS ACS images, which are used as a reference field sample. We find them to be overdense in two fields, underdense in two fields, and as dense as the average density of GOODS in one field. The two excess fields show significantly different color distributions from that of GOODS at the 99% confidence level, strengthening the idea that the excess objects are indeed associated with the QSO. The distribution of i 775-dropout counts in the five fields is broader than that derived from GOODS at the 80%-96% confidence level, depending on which selection criteria were adopted to identify i 775-dropouts; its width cannot be explained by cosmic variance alone. Thus, QSOs seem to affect their environments in complex ways. We suggest the picture where the highest redshift QSOs are located in very massive overdensities and are therefore surrounded by an overdensity of lower mass halos. Radiative feedback by the QSO can in some cases prevent halos from becoming galaxies, thereby generating in extreme cases an underdensity of galaxies. The presence of both enhancement and suppression is compatible with the expected differences between lines of sight at the end of reionization as the presence of residual diffuse neutral hydrogen would provide young galaxies with shielding from the radiative effects of the QSO. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities of Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  15. On the Number of Galaxies at High Redshift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Zaninetti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of galaxies at a given flux as a function of the redshift, z, is derived when the z-distance relation is non-standard. In order to compare different models, the same formalism is also applied to the standard cosmology. The observed luminosity function for galaxies of the zCOSMOS catalog at different redshifts is modeled by a new luminosity function for galaxies, which is derived by the truncated beta probability density function. Three astronomical tests, which are the photometric maximum as a function of the redshift for a fixed flux, the mean value of the redshift for a fixed flux, and the luminosity function for galaxies as a function of the redshift, compare the theoretical values of the standard and non-standard model with the observed value. The tests are performed on the FORS Deep Field (FDF catalog up to redshift z = 1.5 and on the zCOSMOS catalog extending beyond z = 4. These three tests show minimal differences between the standard and the non-standard models.

  16. High Redshift Quasars, Emission Lines and ‘Cloudy’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferland Gary J.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available I describe some of the outstanding “big picture” questions in quasar research and how the development of the plasma simulation code Cloudy is being guided to answer them. QSO spectra are complex and challenge even the most sophisticated spectral codes. Particular emphasis is given to a central question - how do the properties of the central black hole and the accretion disk are manifested in the observed spectrum.

  17. Galaxy correlations at high redshift and the environment of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, Steven

    1986-01-01

    In close line-of-sight pairs of quasars absorption lines may be seen in the spectrum of the further quasar at a redshift corresponding to that of the nearer quasar. This is indicative of the presence of an intervening galaxy belonging to the same cluster as the (galaxy containing the) nearer quasar. The likelihood of this occurring is calculated in terms of the galaxy correlation function and it is found that present results already suggest that quasars at redshifts above one must be associated with rich clusters. (author)

  18. Selection and Physical Properties of High-redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, G. W.

    2014-09-01

    Extremely Red Objects (EROs) and BzKs continue to attract considerable interest. It has been suggested that they may be the direct progenitors of present-day massive E/S0 galaxies, and can provide crucial constraints on the current galaxy formation and evolution models. Therefore, the key question is to measure the relative fraction of OGs (old galaxies) and DGs (young, and dusty starburst galaxies) in the sample of EROs. Many groups have been currently investigating the fractions of these two ERO populations using a variety of observational approaches, but the fraction of OGs and DGs from different surveys is different. In the meantime, a number of observations suggest that the epoch of z˜2 also plays an important role in galaxy formation and evolution for various reasons: the cosmic star formation rate density (SFRD) begins to drop at z˜2 from a flat plateau at higher redshifts; the morphological type mix of field galaxies changes remarkably at z˜2; the number density of QSOs has a peak at z˜2; and about 50% to 70% of the stellar mass assembly of galaxies took place in the redshift range 1distribution (SED), [3.6]-[8.0] color, and the nonparametric measures of galaxy morphology, we classify EROs into two classes: DGs and OGs. We find that the fraction of OGs and DGs in our sample (COSMOS) is similar, about 52% of them are DGs, and the other 48% are OGs. For 24 EROs in the UDF, 16 fall into DGs, while 8 are OGs. To reduce the redundancy of these three different classification methods, we perform a principal component analysis on the measurements of EROs, and find that the nonparametric measures and SEDs are efficient in segregating DGs and OGs. We investigate the dependence of the fraction of EROs on their observational properties, and the results suggest that DGs become increasingly important toward fainter magnitudes, redder colors, and higher redshifts. Moreover, we find that the clustering of EROs is much stronger than that of full K-limited samples of galaxies; and the clustering amplitude of OGs is a factor of ˜2 larger than DGs. In Chapter 3, we pick out 1609 star-forming galaxies (sgzKs: gzK=(z-K)_{AB}-1.4(g-z)_{AB}≥ 0.2) and 422 passively evolving galaxies (pgzKs: gzK2.7) at z˜2 in the AEGIS field (K_{AB} rate (SFR) and specific SFR (sSFR) of sgzKs increase with redshift at all masses, implying that star-forming galaxies were much more active on average in the past. Moreover, the sSFR of massive galaxies is lower at all redshifts, suggesting that the mass growth of low-mass galaxies is more attributed to the star formation while comparing with high-mass galaxies. From the HST WFC3/F160W imaging data, we find that gzKs not only have diffuse structures, but also have single-object morphologies, implying that there are morphological variety and different formation processes for these galaxies at z˜2. In addition, we also find ˜ 10% of 828 gzKs can be classified as AGNs. In Chapter 4, we present Spitzer/IRS spectra of a sample of 14 ULIRGs with 0.2 {mJy} 10^{11} M_{⊙} and 410 M_⊙\\cdot yr^{-1}< SFR <1022 M_⊙\\cdot yr^{-1}, respectively. Their rest-frame optical morphologies are very diversified including string-like, extended/diffused, and even early type spiral morphologies, implying that there are different formation processes for these galaxies. We also search for active galactic nucleus (AGN) signature in our sample using X-ray, radio, and mid-infrared (MIR) observations. EGS22, EGS25, EGS27, and EGS34 are detected in the X-ray imaging. The X-ray luminosities for EGS22 and EGS34 can be accounted for by their intensive star formation. EGS25 and EGS27 have higher L_{2-10 keV}, indicating that they harbor AGNs. About 14% to 29% of the sample show signatures of AGNs in X-ray, MIR or radio. Finally, the summary of the whole thesis and outlook are presented in Chapter 5.

  19. Confronting quintessence models with recent high-redshift supernovae data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, G. Barro; Maroto, A. L.

    2006-01-01

    We confront the predictions of different quintessence models with recent measurements of the luminosity distance from two sets of supernovae type Ia. In particular, we consider the 157 SNe Ia in the Gold dataset with z M -α and Ω M -w φ planes for the different models and compare their predictions with dark energy models with constant equation of state

  20. THE ENVIRONMENTS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASI-STELLAR OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soyoung; Stiavelli, Massimo; Trenti, M.; Pavlovsky, C. M.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Scarlata, C.; Stern, D.; Mahabal, A.; Thompson, D.; Panagia, N.; Dickinson, M.; Meylan, G.

    2009-01-01

    We present a sample of i 775 -dropout candidates identified in five Hubble Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) fields centered on Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) at redshift z ∼ 6. Our fields are as deep as the GOODS ACS images, which are used as a reference field sample. We find them to be overdense in two fields, underdense in two fields, and as dense as the average density of GOODS in one field. The two excess fields show significantly different color distributions from that of GOODS at the 99% confidence level, strengthening the idea that the excess objects are indeed associated with the QSO. The distribution of i 775 -dropout counts in the five fields is broader than that derived from GOODS at the 80%-96% confidence level, depending on which selection criteria were adopted to identify i 775 -dropouts; its width cannot be explained by cosmic variance alone. Thus, QSOs seem to affect their environments in complex ways. We suggest the picture where the highest redshift QSOs are located in very massive overdensities and are therefore surrounded by an overdensity of lower mass halos. Radiative feedback by the QSO can in some cases prevent halos from becoming galaxies, thereby generating in extreme cases an underdensity of galaxies. The presence of both enhancement and suppression is compatible with the expected differences between lines of sight at the end of reionization as the presence of residual diffuse neutral hydrogen would provide young galaxies with shielding from the radiative effects of the QSO.

  1. Predicting the High Redshift Galaxy Population for JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Zoey; Benson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will be launched in Oct 2018 with the goal of observing galaxies in the redshift range of z = 10 - 15. As redshift increases, the age of the Universe decreases, allowing us to study objects formed only a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. This will provide a valuable opportunity to test and improve current galaxy formation theory by comparing predictions for mass, luminosity, and number density to the observed data. We have made testable predictions with the semi-analytical galaxy formation model Galacticus. The code uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to determine viable sets of model parameters that match current astronomical data. The resulting constrained model was then set to match the specifications of the JWST Ultra Deep Field Imaging Survey. Predictions utilizing up to 100 viable parameter sets were calculated, allowing us to assess the uncertainty in current theoretical expectations. We predict that the planned UDF will be able to observe a significant number of objects past redshift z > 9 but nothing at redshift z > 11. In order to detect these faint objects at redshifts z = 11-15 we need to increase exposure time by at least a factor of 1.66.

  2. FROM NEARBY LOW LUMINOSITY AGN TO HIGH REDSHIFT ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    44

    6Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Sector 125, Noida ... We present detailed science cases that a large fraction of the Indian AGN ..... kiloparsec-scale radio study of the MOJAVE6 blazar sample. Kharb et al.

  3. A spectroscopic study of the high-redshift Universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Galaxies are systems in which stars are formed out of gas and dust. In each galaxy, millions to hundreds of billions of stars reside and evolve as time moves on. The first galaxies were probably formed as early as 200 million years after the Big Bang, in other words, 13.6 billion years ago. Young

  4. Stellar populations a guide from low to high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Renzini, Alvio

    2011-01-01

    This up-to-date reference on stellar populations and development models includes coverage of distant galaxies, chemical evolution and supernovae. Written by highly acclaimed authorities in the field, the book makes use of specific problems to reveal the ""kitchen secrets.""

  5. Spectral energy distributions for galaxies in high-redshift clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.S.; Couch, W.J.; MacLaren, Iain

    1985-01-01

    The distant cluster 0016+16 (z=0.54) has been imaged through six intermediate-bandwidth filters ranging in wavelength from 418 to 862 nm, maintaining a photometric precision of 10 per cent to a limiting magnitude of F=22. It is found that the field-subtracted colour distributions are not compatible with a single uniformly red population of early-type members at z=0.54. A significant intermediate colour component identified with a spectroscopic object at z=0.30 is also present, thus reducing the possibility that the z=0.54 cluster exhibits an excess of blue galaxies. It is demonstrated how the six-colour data can be used to individually classify the galaxies by type and approximate redshift so that it is possible to identify which objects are members of the z=0.54 cluster. (author)

  6. THE SPITZER HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO GALAXY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Breuck, Carlos; Galametz, Audrey; Vernet, Joel; Seymour, Nick; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Lacy, Mark; Rettura, Alessandro; Rocca-Volmerange, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    We present results from a comprehensive imaging survey of 70 radio galaxies at redshifts 1 3 μ m /S 1.6 μ m versus S 5 μ m /S 3 μ m criterion, we identify 42 sources where the rest-frame 1.6 μm emission from the stellar population can be measured. For these radio galaxies, the median stellar mass is high, 2 x 10 11 M sun , and remarkably constant within the range 1 3, there is tentative evidence for a factor of two decrease in stellar mass. This suggests that radio galaxies have assembled the bulk of their stellar mass by z ∼ 3, but confirmation by more detailed decomposition of stellar and active galactic nucleus (AGN) emission is needed. The rest-frame 500 MHz radio luminosities are only marginally correlated with stellar mass but are strongly correlated with the rest-frame 5 μm hot dust luminosity. This suggests that the radio galaxies have a large range of Eddington ratios. We also present new Very Large Array 4.86 and 8.46 GHz imaging of 14 radio galaxies and find that radio core dominance-an indicator of jet orientation-is strongly correlated with hot dust luminosity. While all of our targets were selected as narrow-lined, type 2 AGNs, this result can be understood in the context of orientation-dependent models if there is a continuous distribution of orientations from obscured type 2 to unobscured type 1 AGNs rather than a clear dichotomy. Finally, four radio galaxies have nearby (<6'') companions whose mid-IR colors are suggestive of their being AGNs. This may indicate an association between radio galaxy activity and major mergers.

  7. JET PROPERTIES OF GeV-SELECTED RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES AND POSSIBLE CONNECTION TO THEIR DISK AND CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiao-Na; Lin, Da-Bin; Liang, En-Wei [Department of Physics and GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Zhang, Jin [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Xue, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Shuang-Nan, E-mail: zhang.jin@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2015-01-01

    The observed spectral energy distributions of five GeV-selected narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies are fitted with a model including the radiation ingredients from the relativistic jet, the accretion disk, and the corona. We compare the properties of these GeV NLS1 galaxies with flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs), and radio-quiet (RQ) Seyfert galaxies, and explore possible hints for jet-disk/corona connection. Our results show that the radiation physics and the jet properties of the GeV NLS1 galaxies resemble that of FSRQs. The luminosity variations of PMN J0948+0022 and 1H 0323+342 at the GeV band is tightly correlated with the beaming factor (δ), similar to that observed in FSRQ 3C 279. The accretion disk luminosities and the jet powers of the GeV NLS1 galaxies cover both the ranges of FSRQs and BL Lacs. With the detection of bright corona emission in 1H 0323+342, we show that the ratio of the corona luminosity (L {sub corona}) to the accretion disk luminosity (L {sub d}) is marginally within the high end of this ratio distribution for an RQ Seyfert galaxy sample, and the variation of jet luminosity may connect with L {sub corona}. However, it is still unclear whether a system with a high L {sub corona}/L {sub d} ratio prefers to power a jet.

  8. Quasars as probes of gas in extended protogalaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The formation of a galaxy involves infall of gas from radii ∼ 100 kpc, at epochs corresponding to redshifts z 4 K would become largely neutral. Clouds or sheets of such gas, in galaxies along the line-of-sight to a background quasar, could readily give rise to at least as many HI absorption systems of high column density as are observed. (author)

  9. X-ray studies of quasars with the Einstein observatory. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamorani, G.; Henry, J.P.; Maccacaro, T.; Tananbaum, H.; Soltan, A.; Avni, Y.; Liebert, J.; Stocke, J.; Strittmatter, P.A.; Weymann, R.J.; Smith, M.G.; Condon, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    Using the Einstein Observatory, we have carried out X-ray observations of 107 quasars and have detected 79. From the analysis of this sample of objects we find a correlation between optical emission and X-ray emission. Our data for radio-loud quasars also show a correlation between radio emission and X-ray emission. For a given optical luminosity, the average X-ray emission of radio-loud quasars is approx.3 times higher than that of ratio-quiet quasars. In addition, our data suggest that the radio of X-ray to optical luminosity is decreasing with increasing redshift and/or optical luminosity. Taking into account the differences in X-ray luminosity between radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, and between low-redshift and high-redshift quasars, we estimate that approx.30% of the observed X-ray background is contributed by quasars brighter than m/sub B/roughly-equal20, while much of the remainder can be contributed by still fainter quasars. Our data also imply that the optical log N--m/sub B/ relation for quasars cannot be extrapolated much beyond m/sub B/roughly-equal20 with the steep slope used to characterize optical source counts at brighter magnitudes. This situation supports the picture in which luminosity evolution, rather than pure density evolution, describes the quasar behavior as a function of redshift. We briefly discuss the observed correlation of X-ray luminosity with radio luminosity in the context of current quasar models

  10. Spectroscopy of optically selected BL Lac objects and their γ-ray emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrinelli, A.; Treves, A.; Farina, E. P.; Landoni, M. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Falomo, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Foschini, L.; Sbarufatti, B., E-mail: angela.sandrinelli@brera.inaf.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    We present Very Large Telescope optical spectroscopy of nine BL Lac objects of unknown redshift belonging to the list of optically selected radio-loud BL Lac candidates. We explore their spectroscopic properties and possible link with gamma-ray emission. From the new observations we determine the redshifts of four objects from faint emission lines or from absorption features of their host galaxies. In three cases we find narrow intervening absorptions from which a lower limit to the redshift is inferred. For the remaining two featureless sources, lower limits to the redshift are deduced from the absence of spectral lines. A search for γ counterpart emission shows that six out of the nine candidates are Fermi γ-ray emitters and we find two new detections. Our analysis suggests that most of the BL Lac objects still lacking redshift information are most likely located at high redshifts.

  11. RADIO-SELECTED QUASARS IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Helfand, David J.; White, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    We have conducted a pilot survey for z > 3.5 quasars by combining the FIRST radio survey with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). While SDSS already targets FIRST sources for spectroscopy as quasar candidates, our survey includes fainter quasars and greatly improves the discovery rate by using strict astrometric criteria for matching the radio and optical positions. Our method allows for selection of high-redshift quasars with less color bias than with optical selection, as using radio selection essentially eliminates stellar contamination. We report the results of spectroscopy for 45 candidates, including 29 quasars in the range 0.37 3.5. We compare quasars selected using radio and optical criteria, and find that radio-selected quasars have a much higher fraction of moderately reddened objects. We derive a radio-loud quasar luminosity function at 3.5 < z < 4.0, and find that it is in good agreement with expectations from prior SDSS results.

  12. Infrared-faint radio sources remain undetected at far-infrared wavelengths. Deep photometric observations using the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Spitler, L. R.; Leipski, C.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Showing 1.4 GHz flux densities in the range of a few to a few tens of mJy, infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a type of galaxy characterised by faint or absent near-infrared counterparts and consequently extreme radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousand. Recent studies showed that IFRS are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at redshifts ≳2, potentially linked to high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs). Aims: This work explores the far-infrared emission of IFRS, providing crucial information on the star forming and AGN activity of IFRS. Furthermore, the data enable examining the putative relationship between IFRS and HzRGs and testing whether IFRS are more distant or fainter siblings of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of six IFRS was observed with the Herschel Space Observatory between 100 μm and 500 μm. Using these results, we constrained the nature of IFRS by modelling their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Furthermore, we set an upper limit on their infrared SED and decomposed their emission into contributions from an AGN and from star forming activity. Results: All six observed IFRS were undetected in all five Herschel far-infrared channels (stacking limits: σ = 0.74 mJy at 100 μm, σ = 3.45 mJy at 500 μm). Based on our SED modelling, we ruled out the following objects to explain the photometric characteristics of IFRS: (a) known radio-loud quasars and compact steep-spectrum sources at any redshift; (b) starburst galaxies with and without an AGN and Seyfert galaxies at any redshift, even if the templates were modified; and (c) known HzRGs at z ≲ 10.5. We find that the IFRS analysed in this work can only be explained by objects that fulfil the selection criteria of HzRGs. More precisely, IFRS could be (a) known HzRGs at very high redshifts (z ≳ 10.5); (b) low-luminosity siblings of HzRGs with additional dust obscuration at lower redshifts; (c) scaled or unscaled versions of Cygnus A at any

  13. The Infrared-Radio Correlation of Dusty Star Forming Galaxies at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower, Sidney; Vieira, Joaquin Daniel; Jarugula, Sreevani

    2018-01-01

    Far-infrared (FIR) and radio continuum emission in galaxies are related by a common origin: massive stars and the processes triggered during their birth, lifetime, and death. FIR emission is produced by cool dust, heated by the absorption of UV emission from massive stars, which is then re-emitted in the FIR. Thermal free-free radiation emitted from HII regions dominates the spectral energy density (SED) of galaxies at roughly 30 GHz, while non-thermal synchrotron radiation dominates at lower frequencies. At low redshift, the infrared radio correlation (IRC, or qIR) holds as a tight empirical relation for many star forming galaxy types, but until recently, there has not been sensitive enough radio observations to extend this relation to higher redshifts. Many selection biases cloud the results of these analyses, leaving the evolution of the IRC with redshift ambiguous. In this poster, I present CIGALE fitted spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 24 gravitationally-lensed sources selected in the mm-wave from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey. I fit the IRC from infrared and submillimeter fluxes obtained with Herschel, Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX), and SPT and radio fluxes obtained with ATCA at 2.1, 5.5, 9, and 30 GHz. This sample of SPT sources has a spectroscopic redshift range of 2.1poster, I will present the results of this study and compare our results to various results in the literature.

  14. Simulating the detection and classification of high-redshift supernovae with HARMONI on the ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounissou, S.; Thatte, N.; Zieleniewski, S.; Houghton, R. C. W.; Tecza, M.; Hook, I.; Neichel, B.; Fusco, T.

    2018-02-01

    We present detailed simulations of integral field spectroscopic observations of a supernova in a host galaxy at z ˜ 3, as observed by the HARMONI spectrograph on the Extremely Large Telescope, asssisted by laser tomographic adaptive optics. The goal of the simulations, using the HSIM simulation tool, is to determine whether HARMONI can discern the supernova Type from spectral features in the supernova spectrum. We find that in a 3 hour observation, covering the near-infrared H and K bands, at a spectral resolving power of ˜3000, and using the 20×20 mas spaxel scale, we can classify supernova Type Ia and their redshift robustly up to 80 days past maximum light (20 days in the supernova rest frame). We show that HARMONI will provide spectra at z ˜ 3 that are of comparable (or better) quality to the best spectra we can currently obtain at z ˜ 1, thus allowing studies of cosmic expansion rates to be pushed to substantially higher redshifts.

  15. Spatial distribution of the gamma-ray bursts at very high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, Attila

    2018-05-01

    The author - with his collaborators - already in years 1995-96 have shown - purely from the analyses of the observations - that the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be till redshift 20. Since that time several other statistical studies of the spatial distribution of GRBs were provided. Remarkable conclusions concerning the star-formation rate and the validity of the cosmological principle were obtained about the regions of the cosmic dawn. In this contribution these efforts are surveyed.

  16. An Investigation of Blazars without Redshifts: Not a Missing Population at High Redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Peiyuan; Urry, C. Megan [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics Department, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    We investigate a sample of 622 blazars with measured fluxes at 12 wavebands across the radio-to-gamma-ray spectrum but without spectroscopic or photometric redshifts. This sample includes hundreds of sources with newly analyzed X-ray spectra reported here. From the synchrotron peak frequencies, estimated by fitting the broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs), we find that the fraction of high-synchrotron-peaked blazars in these 622 sources is roughly the same as in larger samples of blazars that do have redshifts. We characterize the no-redshift blazars using their infrared colors, which lie in the distinct locus called the WISE blazar strip, then estimate their redshifts using a KNN regression based on the redshifts of the closest blazars in the WISE color–color plot. Finally, using randomly drawn values from plausible redshift distributions, we simulate the SEDs of these blazars and compare them to known blazar SEDs. Based on all these considerations, we conclude that blazars without redshift estimates are unlikely to be high-luminosity, high-synchrotron-peaked objects, which had been suggested in order to explain the “blazar sequence”—an observed trend of SED shape with luminosity—as a selection effect. Instead, the observed properties of no-redshift blazars are compatible with a causal connection between jet power and electron cooling, i.e., a true blazar sequence.

  17. High-redshift supernova rates measured with the gravitational telescope A 1689

    OpenAIRE

    Petrushevska, T.; Amanullah, R.; Goobar, A.; Fabbro, S.; Johansson, J.; Kjellsson, T.; Lidman, C.; Paech, K.; Richard, J.; Dahle, Håkon; Ferretti, R.; Kneib, J.-P.; Limousin, M.; Nordin, J.; Stanishev, V.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We present a ground-based, near-infrared search for lensed supernovae behind the massive cluster Abell 1689 at z = 0.18, which is one of the most powerful gravitational telescopes that nature provides. Methods. Our survey was based on multi-epoch J-band observations with the HAWK-I instrument on VLT, with supporting optical data from the Nordic Optical Telescope. Results. Our search resulted in the discovery of five photometrically classified, core-collapse supernovae with high re...

  18. The Bright and Dark Sides of High-redshift Starburst Galaxies from Herschel and Subaru Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puglisi, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, L.; Mancini, C.; Franceschini, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Daddi, E.; Valentino, F.; Calabrò, A.; Jin, S. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Renzini, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio, 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Silverman, J. D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Kashino, D. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Mainieri, V.; Man, A. [ESO, Karl-Schwarschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Darvish, B. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Maier, C. [University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Kartaltepe, J. S. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Sanders, D. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present rest-frame optical spectra from the FMOS-COSMOS survey of 12 z ∼ 1.6 Herschel starburst galaxies, with star formation rate (SFR) elevated by ×8, on average, above the star-forming main sequence (MS). Comparing the H α to IR luminosity ratio and the Balmer decrement, we find that the optically thin regions of the sources contain on average only ∼10% of the total SFR, whereas ∼90% come from an extremely obscured component that is revealed only by far-IR observations and is optically thick even in H α . We measure the [N ii]{sub 6583}/H α ratio, suggesting that the less obscured regions have a metal content similar to that of the MS population at the same stellar masses and redshifts. However, our objects appear to be metal-rich outliers from the metallicity–SFR anticorrelation observed at fixed stellar mass for the MS population. The [S ii]{sub 6732}/[S ii]{sub 6717} ratio from the average spectrum indicates an electron density n {sub e} ∼ 1100 cm{sup −3} , larger than what was estimated for MS galaxies but only at the 1.5 σ level. Our results provide supporting evidence that high- z MS outliers are analogous of local ULIRGs and are consistent with a major-merger origin for the starburst event.

  19. FIRST Bent-Double Radio Sources: Tracers of High-Redshift Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, E. L.; Gregg, M. D.; Helfand, D. J.; Becker, R. H.; White, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Bent-double radio sources can act as tracers for clusters of galaxies. We present imaging and spectroscopic observations of the environments surrounding 10 of these sources (most of them wide-angle tails [WATs]) selected from the VLA FIRST survey. Our results reveal a previously unknown cluster associated with eight of the radio sources with redshifts in the range 0.33< z<0.85; furthermore, we cannot rule out that the other two bent doubles may be associated with clusters at higher redshift. Richness measurements indicate that these clusters are typical of the majority of those found in the Abell catalog, with a range of Abell richness classes from 0 to 2. The line-of-sight velocity dispersions are very different from cluster to cluster, ranging from approximately 300 to 1100 km s-1. At the upper end of these intervals, we may be sampling some of the highest redshift massive clusters known. Alternatively, the large velocity dispersions measured in some of the clusters may indicate that they are merging systems with significant substructure, consistent with recent ideas concerning WAT formation (Burns et al.). (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society

  20. HIGH-REDSHIFT METALS. I. THE DECLINE OF C IV AT z > 5.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, George D.; Rauch, Michael; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results from our search for C IV absorption systems at redshifts z = 5.3-6.0. We have observed four z ∼ 6 QSOs with Keck/NIRSPEC in echelle mode. The data are the most sensitive yet taken to search for C IV at these redshifts, being 50% complete at column densities log N CIV ∼ 13.4(cm -2 ). We find no clear C IV systems in any of the four sight lines. Taking into account our completeness, this translates into a decline in the number density of C IV absorbers in the range 13.2 CIV < 15.0 of at least a factor ∼4.1 (95% confidence) from z ∼ 2-4.5, over which the number density is relatively constant. We use our lack of detections, along with results from previous studies, to set limits on the slope and normalization of the column density distribution at z = 5.3-6.0. The rapid evolution of C IV at these redshifts suggests that the decrease in the number density may largely be due to ionization effects, in which case many of the metals in the z ∼ 4.5 intergalactic medium (IGM) could already be in place at z ∼ 5.3, but in lower ionization states. The lack of weak systems in our data, combined with the presence of strong C IV absorbers along at least one other sight line, further suggests that there may be large-scale variations in the enrichment and/or ionization state of the z ∼ 6 IGM. Alternatively, the known C IV absorbers at these redshifts may not reside in the general IGM, but may be associated with rare, UV-bright star-forming galaxies.

  1. Efficient adiabatic hydrodynamical simulations of the high-redshift intergalactic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Prakash; Choudhury, Tirthankar Roy; Srianand, Raghunathan; Khaire, Vikram

    2018-02-01

    We present a post-processing tool for GADGET-2 adiabatic simulations to model various observed properties of the Ly α forest at 2.5 ≤ z ≤ 4 that enables an efficient parameter estimation. In particular, we model the thermal and ionization histories that are not computed self-consistently by default in GADGET-2. We capture the effect of pressure smoothing by running GADGET-2 at an elevated temperature floor and using an appropriate smoothing kernel. We validate our procedure by comparing different statistics derived from our method with those derived using self-consistent simulations with GADGET-3. These statistics are: line-of-sight density field power spectrum, flux probability distribution function, flux power spectrum, wavelet statistics, curvature statistics, H I column density (N_{H I}) distribution function, linewidth (b) distribution and b versus log N_{H I} scatter. For the temperature floor of 104 K and typical signal-to-noise ratio of 25, the results agree well within 20 per cent of the self-consistent GADGET-3 simulation. However, this difference is smaller than the expected 1σ sample variance for an absorption path length of ˜5.35 at z = 3. Moreover for a given cosmology, we gain a factor of ˜N in computing time for modelling the intergalactic medium under N ≫ 1 different thermal histories. In addition, our method allows us to simulate the non-equilibrium evolution of thermal and ionization state of the gas and include heating due to non-standard sources like cosmic rays and high-energy γ-rays from Blazars.

  2. Gamma-ray bursts from stellar remnants - Probing the universe at high redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Bloom, J.S.; Bagla, J.S.; Natarajan, P.

    1998-01-01

    A gamma-ray burst (GRB) releases an amount of energy similar to that of a supernova explosion, which combined with its rapid variability suggests an origin related to neutron stars or black holes. Since these compact stellar remnants form from the most massive stars not long after their birth, GRBs

  3. FeII/MgII Emission Line Ratio in High Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Hamann, F.; Appenzeller, I.

    2003-01-01

    the evolution of the FeII/MgII ratio over a wider range in cosmic time, we measured this ratio for composite quasar spectra which cover a redshift range of 0 4 quasars must have started already at an epoch corresponding to z_f = 6 to 9, when the age of the universe was ~0.5 Gyr (H_o = 72 km/s/Mpc, Omega_M = 0...

  4. Formation of S0s via disc accretion around high-redshift compact ellipticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jonathan; Bekki, Kenji; Forbes, Duncan A.; Couch, Warrick J.; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Deeley, Simon

    2018-06-01

    We present hydrodynamical N-body models which demonstrate that elliptical galaxies can transform into S0s by acquiring a disc. In particular, we show that the merger with a massive gas-rich satellite can lead to the formation of a baryonic disc around an elliptical. We model the elliptical as a massive, compact galaxy which could be observed as a `red nugget' in the high-z universe. This scenario contrasts with existing S0 formation scenarios in the literature in two important ways. First, the progenitor is an elliptical galaxy whereas scenarios in the literature typically assume a spiral progenitor. Secondly, the physical conditions underlying our proposed scenario can exist in low-density environments such as the field, in contrast to scenarios in the literature which typically address dense environments like clusters and groups. As a consequence, S0s in the field may be the most likely candidates to have evolved from elliptical progenitors. Our scenario also naturally explains recent observations which indicate that field S0s may have older bulges than discs, contrary to cluster S0s which seem to have older discs than bulges.

  5. RED NUGGETS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: STRUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF QUIESCENT GALAXIES OVER 10 Gyr OF COSMIC HISTORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damjanov, Ivana; Abraham, Roberto G.; Carlberg, Raymond G.; Mentuch, Erin; Glazebrook, Karl; Caris, Evelyn; Green, Andrew W.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Crampton, David; Murowinski, Richard; Joergensen, Inger; Roth, Kathy; Juneau, Stephanie; Le Borgne, Damien; Marzke, Ronald O.; Savaglio, Sandra; Yan Haojing

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the size growth seen in early-type galaxies over 10 Gyr of cosmic time. Our analysis is based on a homogeneous synthesis of published data from 16 spectroscopic surveys observed at similar spatial resolution, augmented by new measurements for galaxies in the Gemini Deep Deep Survey. In total, our sample contains structural data for 465 galaxies (mainly early-type) in the redshift range 0.2 e ∝(1 + z) -1.62±0.34 . Surprisingly, this power law seems to be in good agreement with the recently reported continuous size evolution of UV-bright galaxies in the redshift range z ∼ 0.5-3.5. It is also in accordance with the predictions from recent theoretical models.

  6. Dark-Energy Equation-of-State parameter for high redshifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montiel, Ariadna; Breton, Nora

    2011-01-01

    Since the elucidation of the nature of dark energy depends strongly on redshift observations, it is desirable to measure them over a wider range, but supernovae cannot be detected out past redshift 1.7. Gamma-ray-bursts (GRBs) offer means to extend the analysis to at least redshifts of > 6. The reason is that GRBs are visible across much larger distances than supernovae. GRBs are now known to have several light-curve and spectral properties from which the luminosity of the burst can be calculated, and it might GRBs become into standard candles. We have used data of 69 GRB to study the behavior of the parameter of the dark energy equation of state as a function of redshift.

  7. The parameter of the dark energy equation of state for high redshifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montiel, Ariadna; Breton, Nora

    2011-01-01

    We study the behavior of the parameter w(z) of the dark-energy equation of state, P x = w(z)ρ x , as function of the redshift data from GRBs, to check its deviations from its most accepted value of -1. To this end we first find a reasonable calibration for the GRB in order to extract the luminosity distance d L as a function of the redshift. Then we proceed to calculate the Hubble function H(z) and w(z).

  8. The evolution of grain mantles and silicate dust growth at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Viti, Serena; Balucani, Nadia; Taquet, Vianney

    2018-05-01

    In dense molecular clouds, interstellar grains are covered by mantles of iced molecules. The formation of the grain mantles has two important consequences: it removes species from the gas phase and promotes the synthesis of new molecules on the grain surfaces. The composition of the mantle is a strong function of the environment that the cloud belongs to. Therefore, clouds in high-zeta galaxies, where conditions - like temperature, metallicity, and cosmic ray flux - are different from those in the Milky Way, will have different grain mantles. In the last years, several authors have suggested that silicate grains might grow by accretion of silicon-bearing species on smaller seeds. This would occur simultaneously with the formation of the iced mantles and be greatly affected by its composition as a function of time. In this work, we present a numerical study of the grain mantle formation in high-zeta galaxies, and we quantitatively address the possibility of silicate growth. We find that the mantle thickness decreases with increasing redshift, from about 120 to 20 layers for z varying from 0 to 8. Furthermore, the mantle composition is also a strong function of the cloud redshift, with the relative importance of CO, CO2, ammonia, methane, and methanol highly varying with z. Finally, being Si-bearing species always a very minor component of the mantle, the formation of silicates in molecular clouds is practically impossible.

  9. Globular clusters in high-redshift dwarf galaxies: a case study from the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Tom O.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2018-06-01

    We present the reconstructed evolution of rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosities of the most massive Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxy, Fornax, and its five globular clusters (GCs) across redshift, based on analysis of the stellar fossil record and stellar population synthesis modelling. We find that (1) Fornax's (proto-)GCs can generate 10-100 times more UV flux than the field population, despite comprising 3. (3) GC formation can introduce order-of-magnitude errors in abundance matching. We also find that some compact HFF objects are consistent with the reconstructed properties of Fornax's GCs at the same redshifts (e.g. surface brightness, star formation rate), suggesting we may have already detected proto-GCs in the early Universe. Finally, we discuss the prospects for improving the connections between local GCs and proto-GCs detected in the early Universe.

  10. DISENTANGLING AGN AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY AT HIGH REDSHIFT USING HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE GRISM SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek; Schneider, Donald P., E-mail: jsbridge@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation in z ∼ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line-ratio diagnostics, change with redshift, while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGNs. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines using the Hubble Space Telescope /Wide Field Camera 3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O iii]/H β line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ∼40% more low-mass and obscured AGNs than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps the stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O iii]/H β gradient to the AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ∼ 2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. This gradient method will also be able to inform other areas of galaxy evolution science, such as inside-out quenching and metallicity gradients, and will be widely applicable to future spatially resolved James Webb Space Telescope data.

  11. Observing quasars and galaxies at high redshifts: Searching for the formation epoch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weedman, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results are reviewed which demonstrate that finding the earliest quasars and galaxies in the universe will require infrared spectroscopy between 1 and 10 microns. Technical limitations on such observations from the Moon are summarized, which depend primarily on background emission from the telescope and the zodiacal dust. Detection of the most distant star forming galaxies will require exceptional background stability for which angular resolution better than about 1 arcsecond is not critical, so a large filled-aperture telescope of nominal image quality will be adequate. For quasars, detection improves with increasing angular resolution, so the best possible image quality is important, particularly to obtain diffraction limited performance shortward of 3 microns. A summary is given of what could be seen as a function of available telescope aperture

  12. Early Growth and Efficient Accretion of Massive Black Holes at High Redshift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Black-hole masses of the highest redshift quasars (4 ~ 4 quasars are very massive (>~ 10^9 solar masses). It is argued that the mass estimates of the high-z quasars are not subject to larger uncertainties than those for nearby quasars. Specifically, the large masses are not overestimates and the ......Black-hole masses of the highest redshift quasars (4 ~ 4 quasars are very massive (>~ 10^9 solar masses). It is argued that the mass estimates of the high-z quasars are not subject to larger uncertainties than those for nearby quasars. Specifically, the large masses are not overestimates...... and the lack of similarly large black-hole masses in the nearby Universe does not rule out their existence at high-z. However, AGN host galaxies do not typically appear fully formed or evolved at these early epochs. This supports scenarios in which black holes build up mass very fast in a radiatively...... inefficient (or obscured) phase relative to the stars in their galaxies. Additionally, upper envelopes of black-hole mass of approximately 10^{10} solar masses and bolometric luminosity of ~ 10^{48} erg/s are observed at all redshifts....

  13. Pieces to the puzzle of high-redshift galaxies falling into place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geier, Stefan Johannes

    Our Universe is filled with a mind-blowing diversity and different types and appearances of galaxies. Finding out about how they formed and evolved is one of the most challenging tasks in astronomy. When looking about 10 billion years back, to an epoch about 3 billion years after the big bang, we...

  14. The Diversity of Diffuse Ly α Nebulae around Star-forming Galaxies at High Redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Rui; Lee, Kyoung-Soo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Inami, Hanae [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Reddy, Naveen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Hong, Sungryong [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88001 (United States); Jannuzi, Buell T. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    We report the detection of diffuse Ly α emission, or Ly α halos (LAHs), around star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 3.78 and 2.66 in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Boötes field. Our samples consist of a total of ∼1400 galaxies, within two separate regions containing spectroscopically confirmed galaxy overdensities. They provide a unique opportunity to investigate how the LAH characteristics vary with host galaxy large-scale environment and physical properties. We stack Ly α images of different samples defined by these properties and measure their median LAH sizes by decomposing the stacked Ly α radial profile into a compact galaxy-like and an extended halo-like component. We find that the exponential scale-length of LAHs depends on UV continuum and Ly α luminosities, but not on Ly α equivalent widths or galaxy overdensity parameters. The full samples, which are dominated by low UV-continuum luminosity Ly α emitters ( M {sub UV} ≳ −21), exhibit LAH sizes of 5–6 kpc. However, the most UV- or Ly α- luminous galaxies have more extended halos with scale-lengths of 7–9 kpc. The stacked Ly α radial profiles decline more steeply than recent theoretical predictions that include the contributions from gravitational cooling of infalling gas and from low-level star formation in satellites. However, the LAH extent matches what one would expect for photons produced in the galaxy and then resonantly scattered by gas in an outflowing envelope. The observed trends of LAH sizes with host galaxy properties suggest that the physical conditions of the circumgalactic medium (covering fraction, H i column density, and outflow velocity) change with halo mass and/or star formation rates.

  15. Infrared-faint radio sources in the SERVS deep fields. Pinpointing AGNs at high redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maini, A.; Prandoni, I.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Mignano, A.; Lacy, M.; Morganti, R.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) represent an unexpected class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelength, but unusually faint at infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. A recent and extensive campaign on the radio-brightest IFRSs (S1.4 GHz≳ 10 mJy) has provided evidence

  16. The light up and early evolution of high redshift Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comastri, Andrea; Brusa, Marcella; Aird, James; Lanzuisi, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    The known AGN population at z > 6 is made by luminous optical QSO hosting Supermassive Black Holes (M > 10 ^{9}solar masses), likely to represent the tip of the iceberg of the luminosity and mass function. According to theoretical models for structure formation, Massive Black Holes (M _{BH} 10^{4-7} solar masses) are predicted to be abundant in the early Universe (z > 6). The majority of these lower luminosity objects are expected to be obscured and severely underepresented in current optical near-infrared surveys. The detection of such a population would provide unique constraints on the Massive Black Holes formation mechanism and subsequent growth and is within the capabilities of deep and large area ATHENA surveys. After a summary of the state of the art of present deep XMM and Chandra surveys, at z >3-6 also mentioning the expectations for the forthcoming eROSITA all sky survey; I will present the observational strategy of future multi-cone ATHENA Wide Field Imager (WFI) surveys and the expected breakthroughs in the determination of the luminosity function and its evolution at high (> 4) and very high (>6) redshifts.

  17. Potential microwave probes of the proton-to-electron mass ratio at very high redshifts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Augustovičová, L.; Soldán, P.; Kraemer, W. P.; Špirko, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 439, č. 1 (2014), s. 1136-1139 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11022 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : molecular data * molecular processes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.107, year: 2014

  18. Exploratory X-ray monitoring of luminous radio-quiet quasars at high redshift: Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Stein, Matthew S. [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Paolillo, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università Federico II di Napoli, via Cinthia 6, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Kaspi, Shai [School of Physics and Astronomy and the Wise Observatory, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Vignali, Cristian [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università degli studi di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Lira, Paulina [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Santiago (Chile); Gibson, Robert R., E-mail: ohad@unt.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We present initial results from an exploratory X-ray monitoring project of two groups of comparably luminous radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). The first consists of four sources at 4.10 ≤ z ≤ 4.35, monitored by Chandra, and the second is a comparison sample of three sources at 1.33 ≤ z ≤ 2.74, monitored by Swift. Together with archival X-ray data, the total rest-frame temporal baseline spans ∼2-4 yr and ∼5-13 yr for the first and second group, respectively. Six of these sources show significant X-ray variability over rest-frame timescales of ∼10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} days; three of these also show significant X-ray variability on rest-frame timescales of ∼1-10 days. The X-ray variability properties of our variable sources are similar to those exhibited by nearby and far less luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). While we do not directly detect a trend of increasing X-ray variability with redshift, we do confirm previous reports of luminous AGNs exhibiting X-ray variability above that expected from their luminosities, based on simplistic extrapolation from lower luminosity sources. This result may be attributed to luminous sources at the highest redshifts having relatively high accretion rates. Complementary UV-optical monitoring of our sources shows that variations in their optical-X-ray spectral energy distribution are dominated by the X-ray variations. We confirm previous reports of X-ray spectral variations in one of our sources, HS 1700+6416, but do not detect such variations in any of our other sources in spite of X-ray flux variations of up to a factor of ∼4. This project is designed to provide a basic assessment of the X-ray variability properties of RQQs at the highest accessible redshifts that will serve as a benchmark for more systematic monitoring of such sources with future X-ray missions.

  19. High-redshift post-reionization cosmology with 21cm intensity mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuljen, Andrej; Castorina, Emanuele; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the possibility of performing cosmological studies in the redshift range 2.5place on the growth rate, the BAO distance scale parameters, the sum of the neutrino masses and the number of relativistic degrees of freedom at decoupling, N eff. We point out that quantities that depend on the amplitude of the 21cm power spectrum, like fσ8, are completely degenerate with ΩHI and bHI, and propose several strategies to independently constrain them through cross-correlations with other probes. Assuming 5% priors on ΩHI and bHI, kmax=0.2 h Mpc‑1 and the primary beam wedge, we find that a HIRAX extension can constrain, within bins of Δ z=0.1: 1) the value of fσ8 at simeq4%, 2) the value of DA and H at simeq1%. In combination with data from Euclid-like galaxy surveys and CMB S4, the sum of the neutrino masses can be constrained with an error equal to 23 meV (1σ), while Neff can be constrained within 0.02 (1σ). We derive similar constraints for the extensions of the other instruments. We study in detail the dependence of our results on the instrument, amplitude of the HI bias, the foreground wedge coverage, the nonlinear scale used in the analysis, uncertainties in the theoretical modeling and the priors on bHI and Ω HI. We conclude that 21cm intensity mapping surveys operating in this redshift range can provide extremely competitive constraints on key cosmological parameters.

  20. Large turbulent reservoirs of cold molecular gas around high-redshift starburst galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falgarone, E; Zwaan, M A; Godard, B; Bergin, E; Ivison, R J; Andreani, P M; Bournaud, F; Bussmann, R S; Elbaz, D; Omont, A; Oteo, I; Walter, F

    2017-08-24

    Starburst galaxies at the peak of cosmic star formation are among the most extreme star-forming engines in the Universe, producing stars over about 100 million years (ref. 2). The star-formation rates of these galaxies, which exceed 100 solar masses per year, require large reservoirs of cold molecular gas to be delivered to their cores, despite strong feedback from stars or active galactic nuclei. Consequently, starburst galaxies are ideal for studying the interplay between this feedback and the growth of a galaxy. The methylidyne cation, CH + , is a most useful molecule for such studies because it cannot form in cold gas without suprathermal energy input, so its presence indicates dissipation of mechanical energy or strong ultraviolet irradiation. Here we report the detection of CH + (J = 1-0) emission and absorption lines in the spectra of six lensed starburst galaxies at redshifts near 2.5. This line has such a high critical density for excitation that it is emitted only in very dense gas, and is absorbed in low-density gas. We find that the CH + emission lines, which are broader than 1,000 kilometres per second, originate in dense shock waves powered by hot galactic winds. The CH + absorption lines reveal highly turbulent reservoirs of cool (about 100 kelvin), low-density gas, extending far (more than 10 kiloparsecs) outside the starburst galaxies (which have radii of less than 1 kiloparsec). We show that the galactic winds sustain turbulence in the 10-kiloparsec-scale environments of the galaxies, processing these environments into multiphase, gravitationally bound reservoirs. However, the mass outflow rates are found to be insufficient to balance the star-formation rates. Another mass input is therefore required for these reservoirs, which could be provided by ongoing mergers or cold-stream accretion. Our results suggest that galactic feedback, coupled jointly to turbulence and gravity, extends the starburst phase of a galaxy instead of quenching it.

  1. STRUCTURES OF LOCAL GALAXIES COMPARED TO HIGH-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, Sara M.; De Mello, DuIlia F.; Gallagher, John S.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Matt Mountain, C.; Smith, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    The rest-frame far-ultraviolet morphologies of eight nearby interacting and starburst galaxies (Arp 269, M 82, Mrk 8, NGC 520, NGC 1068, NGC 3079, NGC 3310, and NGC 7673) are compared with 54 galaxies at z ∼ 1.5 and 46 galaxies at z ∼ 4 observed in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The nearby sample is artificially redshifted to z ∼ 1.5 and 4 by applying luminosity and size scaling. We compare the simulated galaxy morphologies to real z ∼ 1.5 and 4 UV-bright galaxy morphologies. We calculate the Gini coefficient (G), the second-order moment of the brightest 20% of the galaxy's flux (M 20 ), and the Sersic index (n). We explore the use of nonparametric methods with two-dimensional profile fitting and find the combination of M 20 with n an efficient method to classify galaxies as having merger, exponential disk, or bulge-like morphologies. When classified according to G and M 20 20/30% of real/simulated galaxies at z ∼ 1.5 and 37/12% at z ∼ 4 have bulge-like morphologies. The rest have merger-like or intermediate distributions. Alternatively, when classified according to the Sersic index, 70% of the z ∼ 1.5 and z ∼ 4 real galaxies are exponential disks or bulge-like with n>0.8, and ∼ 30% of the real galaxies are classified as mergers. The artificially redshifted galaxies have n values with ∼ 35% bulge or exponential at z ∼ 1.5 and 4. Therefore, ∼ 20%-30% of Lyman-break galaxies have structures similar to local starburst mergers, and may be driven by similar processes. We assume merger-like or clumpy star-forming galaxies in the GOODS field have morphological structure with values n 20 > - 1.7. We conclude that Mrk 8, NGC 3079, and NGC 7673 have structures similar to those of merger-like and clumpy star-forming galaxies observed at z ∼ 1.5 and 4.

  2. Is there a maximum star formation rate in high-redshift galaxies? , , ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.; Chen, C.-C.; Casey, C. M.; Lee, N.; Sanders, D. B.; Williams, J. P.; Owen, F. N.; Wang, W.-H.

    2014-01-01

    We use the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope's SCUBA-2 camera to image a 400 arcmin 2 area surrounding the GOODS-N field. The 850 μm rms noise ranges from a value of 0.49 mJy in the central region to 3.5 mJy at the outside edge. From these data, we construct an 850 μm source catalog to 2 mJy containing 49 sources detected above the 4σ level. We use an ultradeep (11.5 μJy at 5σ) 1.4 GHz image obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array together with observations made with the Submillimeter Array to identify counterparts to the submillimeter galaxies. For most cases of multiple radio counterparts, we can identify the correct counterpart from new and existing Submillimeter Array data. We have spectroscopic redshifts for 62% of the radio sources in the 9' radius highest sensitivity region (556/894) and 67% of the radio sources in the GOODS-N region (367/543). We supplement these with a modest number of additional photometric redshifts in the GOODS-N region (30). We measure millimetric redshifts from the radio to submillimeter flux ratios for the unidentified submillimeter sample, assuming an Arp 220 spectral energy distribution. We find a radio-flux-dependent K – z relation for the radio sources, which we use to estimate redshifts for the remaining radio sources. We determine the star formation rates (SFRs) of the submillimeter sources based on their radio powers and their submillimeter fluxes and find that they agree well. The radio data are deep enough to detect star-forming galaxies with SFRs >2000 M ☉ yr –1 to z ∼ 6. We find galaxies with SFRs up to ∼6000 M ☉ yr –1 over the redshift range z = 1.5-6, but we see evidence for a turn-down in the SFR distribution function above 2000 M ☉ yr –1 .

  3. LOW-METALLICITY STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES AT z ∼ 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Shioya, Y.; Trump, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the recent very deep near-infrared imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field with WFC3 on the Hubble Space Telescope, five groups published the most probable samples of galaxies at z ∼ 8, selected by the so-called dropout method or photometric redshift; e.g., Y 105 -dropouts (Y 105 - J 125 > 0.8). These studies are highly useful for investigating both the early star formation history of galaxies and the sources of cosmic re-ionization. In order to better understand these issues, we carefully examine whether there are low-z interlopers in the samples of z ∼ 8 galaxy candidates. We focus on the strong emission-line galaxies at z ∼ 2 in this paper. Such galaxies may be selected as Y 105 -dropouts since the [O III] λ5007 emission line is redshifted into the J 125 band. We have found that the contamination from such low-z interlopers is negligibly small. Therefore, all objects found by the five groups are free from this type of contamination. However, it remains difficult to extract real z ∼ 8 galaxies because all the sources are very faint and the different groups have found different candidates. With this in mind, we construct a robust sample of eight galaxies at z ∼ 8 from the objects found by the five groups: each of these eight objects has been selected by at least two groups. Using this sample, we discuss their UV continuum slope. We also discuss the escape fraction of ionizing photons adopting various metallicities. Our analysis suggests that massive stars forming in low-metallicity gas (Z ∼ 5 x 10 -4 Z sun ) can be responsible for the completion of cosmic re-ionization if the escape fraction of the ionizing continuum from galaxies is as large as 0.5, and this is consistent with the observed blue UV continua.

  4. EVIDENCE FOR MORPHOLOGY AND LUMINOSITY TRANSFORMATION OF GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Changbom

    2009-01-01

    We study the galaxy morphology-luminosity-environmental relation and its redshift evolution using a spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey. In the redshift range of 0.4 ≤ z ≤ 1.0, we detect conformity in morphology between neighboring galaxies. The realm of conformity is confined within the virialized region associated with each galaxy plus dark matter halo system. When a galaxy is located within the virial radius of its nearest neighbor galaxy, its morphology strongly depends on the neighbor's distance and morphology: the probability for a galaxy to be an early type (f E ) increases as it approaches an early-type neighbor, but decreases as it approaches a late-type neighbor. We find that f E evolves much faster in high-density regions than in low-density regions, and that the morphology-density relation becomes significantly weaker at z ∼ 1. This may be because the rate of galaxy-galaxy interactions is higher in high-density regions, and a series of interactions and mergers over the course of galaxy life eventually transform late types into early types. We find more isolated galaxies are more luminous, which supports luminosity transformation through mergers at these redshifts. Our results are consistent with those from nearby galaxies, and demonstrate that galaxy-galaxy interactions have been strongly affecting the galaxy evolution over a long period of time.

  5. The intrinsic far-UV spectrum of the high-redshift quasar B1422+231

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dowd, M.; Bate, N. F.; Webster, R. L.; Labrie, K.; King, A. L.; Yong, S.-. Y.

    2018-02-01

    We present new spectroscopy of the z = 3.62 gravitationally lensed quasar B1422+117 from the Gemini North GMOS integral field spectrograph. We observe significant differential magnifications between the broad emission lines and the continuum, as well as across the velocity structure of the Lyman-α line. We take advantage of this differential microlensing to algebraically decompose the quasar spectrum into the absorbed broad emission line and absorbed continuum components. We use the latter to derive the intrinsic Ly α forest absorption spectrum. The proximity effect is clearly detected, with a proximity zone edge of 8.6-17.3 Mpc from the quasar, implying (perhaps intermittent) activity over at least 28 Myr. The Ly α line profile exhibits a blue excess that is inconsistent with a symmetric fit to the unabsorbed red side. This has important implications for the use of this fitting technique in estimating the absorbed blue Ly α wings of Gunn-Peterson trough quasars.

  6. Mass and metallicity scaling relations of high-redshift star-forming galaxies selected by GRBs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabsalmani, M.; Møller, P.; Perley, D.~A.

    2018-01-01

    -metallicity relation of the general population. It is hard to decide whether this relatively small offset is due to systematic effects or the intrinsic nature of GRB hosts. We also investigate the possibility of using absorption-line metallicity measurements of GRB hosts to study the mass-metallicity relation at high...

  7. Recovering the Properties of High-redshift Galaxies with Different JWST Broadband Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisigello, L.; Caputi, K. I.; Colina, L.

    2017-01-01

    Imaging with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will allow observations of the bulk of distant galaxies at the epoch of reionization. The recovery of their properties, such as age, color excess , specific star formation rate (sSFR), and stellar mass, will mostly rely on spectral energy...... of these galaxy properties. We performed our tests on a sample of 1542 simulated galaxies, with known input properties, at z = 7–10. We found that, with only eight NIRCam broadbands, we can recover the galaxy age within 0.1 Gyr and the color excess within 0.06 mag for 70% of the galaxies. Additionally...

  8. Is There a Maximum Star Formation Rate in High-redshift Galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.; Chen, C.-C.; Owen, F. N.; Wang, W.-H.; Casey, C. M.; Lee, N.; Sanders, D. B.; Williams, J. P.

    2014-03-01

    We use the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope's SCUBA-2 camera to image a 400 arcmin2 area surrounding the GOODS-N field. The 850 μm rms noise ranges from a value of 0.49 mJy in the central region to 3.5 mJy at the outside edge. From these data, we construct an 850 μm source catalog to 2 mJy containing 49 sources detected above the 4σ level. We use an ultradeep (11.5 μJy at 5σ) 1.4 GHz image obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array together with observations made with the Submillimeter Array to identify counterparts to the submillimeter galaxies. For most cases of multiple radio counterparts, we can identify the correct counterpart from new and existing Submillimeter Array data. We have spectroscopic redshifts for 62% of the radio sources in the 9' radius highest sensitivity region (556/894) and 67% of the radio sources in the GOODS-N region (367/543). We supplement these with a modest number of additional photometric redshifts in the GOODS-N region (30). We measure millimetric redshifts from the radio to submillimeter flux ratios for the unidentified submillimeter sample, assuming an Arp 220 spectral energy distribution. We find a radio-flux-dependent K - z relation for the radio sources, which we use to estimate redshifts for the remaining radio sources. We determine the star formation rates (SFRs) of the submillimeter sources based on their radio powers and their submillimeter fluxes and find that they agree well. The radio data are deep enough to detect star-forming galaxies with SFRs >2000 M ⊙ yr-1 to z ~ 6. We find galaxies with SFRs up to ~6000 M ⊙ yr-1 over the redshift range z = 1.5-6, but we see evidence for a turn-down in the SFR distribution function above 2000 M ⊙ yr-1. The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope is operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the National Research Council of Canada, and (until 2013 March 31) the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research. The W. M. Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  9. Spectroscopy of High-Redshift Supernovae from the ESSENCE Project: The First 2 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Thomas; Blondin, Stéphane; Foley, Ryan J.; Chornock, Ryan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Leibundgut, Bruno; Smith, R. Chris; Sollerman, Jesper; Spyromilio, Jason; Kirshner, Robert P.; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Aguilera, Claudio; Barris, Brian; Becker, Andrew C.; Challis, Peter; Covarrubias, Ricardo; Garnavich, Peter; Hicken, Malcolm; Jha, Saurabh; Krisciunas, Kevin; Li, Weidong; Miceli, Anthony; Miknaitis, Gajus; Prieto, Jose Luis; Rest, Armin; Riess, Adam G.; Salvo, Maria Elena; Schmidt, Brian P.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Tonry, John L.

    2005-05-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic observations of targets discovered during the first 2 years of the ESSENCE project. The goal of ESSENCE is to use a sample of ~200 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at moderate redshifts (0.2Canada], CONICYT [Chile], the Australian Research Council [Australia], CNPq [Brazil], and CONICET [Argentina] [programs GN-2002B-Q-14, GN-2003B-Q-14, and GS-2003B-Q-11]) the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory; the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona; and the F. L. Whipple Observatory, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; the Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  10. SU(2)CMB at high redshifts and the value of H0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Steffen; Hofmann, Ralf

    2017-07-01

    We investigate a high-z cosmological model to compute the comoving sound horizon rs at baryon-velocity freeze-out towards the end of hydrogen recombination. This model assumes a replacement of the conventional cosmic microwave background (CMB) photon gas by deconfining SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics, three flavours of massless neutrinos (Nν = 3) and a purely baryonic matter sector [no cold dark-matter (CDM)]. The according SU(2) temperature-redshift relation of the CMB is contrasted with recent measurements appealing to the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and CMB-photon absorption by molecular rotation bands or atomic hyperfine levels. Relying on a realistic simulation of the ionization history throughout recombination, we obtain z* = 1693.55 ± 6.98 and zdrag = 1812.66 ± 7.01. Due to considerable widths of the visibility functions in the solutions to the associated Boltzmann hierarchy and Euler equation, we conclude that z* and zdrag overestimate the redshifts for the respective photon and baryon-velocity freeze-out. Realistic decoupling values turn out to be zlf,* = 1554.89 ± 5.18 and zlf, drag = 1659.30 ± 5.48. With rs(zlf, drag) = (137.19 ± 0.45) Mpc and the essentially model independent extraction of rsH0 = constant from low-z data in Bernal, Verde & Riess, we obtain a good match with the value H0 = (73.24 ± 1.74) km s-1 Mpc-1 extracted in Riess et al. by appealing to Cepheid-calibrated Type Ia supernovae, new parallax measurements, stronger constraints on the Hubble flow and a refined computation of distance to NGC 4258 from maser data. We briefly comment on a possible interpolation of our high-z model, invoking percolated and unpercolated U(1) topological solitons of a Planck-scale axion field, to the phenomenologically successful low-z ΛCDM cosmology.

  11. DISENTANGLING AGN AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY AT HIGH REDSHIFT USING HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE GRISM SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation in z ∼ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line-ratio diagnostics, change with redshift, while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGNs. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines using the Hubble Space Telescope /Wide Field Camera 3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O iii]/H β line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ∼40% more low-mass and obscured AGNs than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps the stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O iii]/H β gradient to the AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ∼ 2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. This gradient method will also be able to inform other areas of galaxy evolution science, such as inside-out quenching and metallicity gradients, and will be widely applicable to future spatially resolved James Webb Space Telescope data.

  12. Star formation at high redshift and the importance of dust obscuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalowski, Michal

    One of the aspects of the understanding of the Universe evolution is its star formation history. In order to gain a complete picture of the Universe evolution it is important to know when the stars we see today were formed. One of the method to study this problem is to use far-infrared and radio...... emission of galaxies. In this way it is possible to investigate the sites of star formation that are totally obscured by dust and therefore invisible at the optical wavelengths. It is because the energy absorbed by dust in the optical is re-emitted in the infrared, whereas radio emission is unaffected...... and/or radio, namely their enhanced submillimeter / radio emission combined with optical faintness and blue colors. I find that these four galaxies are young, highly star-forming, low-mass and dusty....

  13. Escape of ionizing radiation from high redshift dwarf galaxies: role of AGN feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebitsch, Maxime; Volonteri, Marta; Dubois, Yohan; Madau, Piero

    2018-05-01

    While low mass, star forming galaxies are often considered as the primary driver of reionization, their actual contribution to the cosmic ultraviolet background is still uncertain, mostly because the escape fraction of ionizing photons is only poorly constrained. Theoretical studies have shown that efficient supernova feedback is a necessary condition to create paths through which ionizing radiation can escape into the intergalactic medium. We investigate the possibility that accreting supermassive black holes in early dwarf galaxies may provide additional feedback and enhance the leakage of ionizing radiation. We use a series of high resolution cosmological radiation hydrodynamics simulations where we isolate the different sources of feedback. We find that supernova feedback prevents the growth of the black hole, thus quenching its associated feedback. Even in cases where the black hole can grow, the structure of the interstellar medium is strongly dominated by supernova feedback. We conclude that, in the dwarf galaxy regime, supermassive black holes do not appear to play a significant role in enhancing the escape fraction and in contributing to the early UV background.

  14. Q0000-398 is a high-redshift quasar with a large angular size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gearhart, M.R.; Pacht, E.

    1977-01-01

    A study is described, using the three-element interferrometer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, West Virginia, to investigate whether any quasars exist that might be radio sources. It was found that Q0000-398 appeared to be a quasar of high red shift and large angular size. The interferrometer was operated with a 300-1200-1500 m baseline configuration at 2695 MHz. The radio map for Q0000-398 is shown, and has two weak components separated by 134 +- 40 arc s. If these components are associated with the optical object this quasar has the largest known angular size for its red shift value. The results reported for Q0000-398 and other quasars having considerable angular extent demonstrate the importance of considering radio selection effects in the angular diameter-red shift relationship, and since any radio selection effects are removed when quasars are selected optically, more extensive mapping programs should be undertaken, looking particularly for large scale structure around optically selected high-z quasars. (U.K.)

  15. Progress report on the Berkeley/Anglo-Australian Observatory high-redshift supernova search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, G.; Perlmutter, S.; Pennypacker, C.; Marvin, H.; Muller, R.A.; Couch, W.; Boyle, B.

    1990-11-01

    There are two main efforts related to supernovae in progress at Berkeley. The first is an automated supernova search for nearby supernovae, which was already discussed by Carl Pennypacker at this conference. The second is a search for distant supernovae, in the z = 0.3 to 0.5 region, aimed at measuring Ω. It is the latter that I want to discuss in this paper. 3 refs., 18 figs

  16. A New Diagnostic Diagram of Ionization Sources for High-redshift Emission Line Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Hao, Lei

    2018-04-01

    We propose a new diagram, the kinematics–excitation (KEx) diagram, which uses the [O III] λ5007/Hβ line ratio and the [O III] λ5007 emission line width (σ [O III]) to diagnose the ionization source and physical properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star-forming galaxies (SFGs). The KEx diagram is a suitable tool to classify emission line galaxies at intermediate redshift because it uses only the [O III] λ5007 and Hβ emission lines. We use the main galaxy sample of SDSS DR7 and the Baldwin‑Phillips‑Terlevich (BPT) diagnostic to calibrate the diagram at low redshift. The diagram can be divided into three regions: the KEx-AGN region, which consists mainly of pure AGNs, the KEx-composite region, which is dominated by composite galaxies, and the KEx-SFG region, which contains mostly SFGs. LINERs strongly overlap with the composite and AGN regions. AGNs are separated from SFGs in this diagram mainly because they preferentially reside in luminous and massive galaxies and have higher [O III]/Hβ than SFGs. The separation between AGNs and SFGs is even cleaner thanks to the additional 0.15/0.12 dex offset in σ [O III] at fixed luminosity/stellar mass. We apply the KEx diagram to 7866 galaxies at 0.3 Survey, and compare it to an independent X-ray classification scheme using Chandra observations. X-ray AGNs are mostly located in the KEx-AGN region, while X-ray SFGs are mostly located in the KEx-SFG region. Almost all Type 1 AGNs lie in the KEx-AGN region. These tests support the reliability of this classification diagram for emission line galaxies at intermediate redshift. At z ∼ 2, the demarcation line between SFGs and AGNs is shifted by ∼0.3 dex toward higher values of σ [O III] due to evolution effects.

  17. γ-Rays Radiation of High Redshift Fermi Blazars WG Liu1, SH Fu2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FSRQs), which is from the second Fermi-LAT AGNs catalogue. (2LAC), we studied the correlation between flux densities (FR,FK,Fγ ) in the radio, infrared and γ-ray wave bands. We found that there is a significant positive correlation between Fγ ...

  18. TRACING THE EVOLUTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES USING STELLAR ABUNDANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Brian D.; O’Shea, Brian W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA—Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Tumlinson, Jason, E-mail: crosby.bd@gmail.com [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    This paper presents the first results from a model for chemical evolution that can be applied to N-body cosmological simulations and quantitatively compared to measured stellar abundances from large astronomical surveys. This model convolves the chemical yield sets from a range of stellar nucleosynthesis calculations (including asymptotic giant branch stars, Type Ia and II supernovae, and stellar wind models) with a user-specified stellar initial mass function (IMF) and metallicity to calculate the time-dependent chemical evolution model for a “simple stellar population” (SSP) of uniform metallicity and formation time. These SSP models are combined with a semianalytic model for galaxy formation and evolution that uses merger trees from N-body cosmological simulations to track several α- and iron-peak elements for the stellar and multiphase interstellar medium components of several thousand galaxies in the early (z ≥ 6) universe. The simulated galaxy population is then quantitatively compared to two complementary data sets of abundances in the Milky Way stellar halo and is capable of reproducing many of the observed abundance trends. The observed abundance ratio distributions are best reproduced with a Chabrier IMF, a chemically enriched star formation efficiency of 0.2, and a redshift of reionization of 7. Many abundances are qualitatively well matched by our model, but our model consistently overpredicts the carbon-enhanced fraction of stars at low metallicities, likely owing to incomplete coverage of Population III stellar yields and supernova models and the lack of dust as a component of our model.

  19. Gas flows in the circumgalactic medium around simulated high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Peter D.; Blaizot, Jérémy; Devriendt, Julien; Kimm, Taysun; Michel-Dansac, Léo; Rosdahl, Joakim; Slyz, Adrianne

    2018-03-01

    We analyse the properties of circumgalactic gas around simulated galaxies in the redshift range z ≥ 3, utilizing a new sample of cosmological zoom simulations. These simulations are intended to be representative of the observed samples of Lyman α (Ly α) emitters recently obtained with the multi unit spectroscopic explorer (MUSE) instrument (halo masses ˜1010-1011 M⊙). We show that supernova feedback has a significant impact on both the inflowing and outflowing circumgalactic medium (CGM) by driving outflows, reducing diffuse inflow rates, and by increasing the neutral fraction of inflowing gas. By temporally stacking simulation outputs, we find that significant net mass exchange occurs between inflowing and outflowing phases: none of the phases are mass-conserving. In particular, we find that the mass in neutral outflowing hydrogen declines exponentially with radius as gas flows outwards from the halo centre. This is likely caused by a combination of both fountain-like cycling processes and gradual photoionization/collisional ionization of outflowing gas. Our simulations do not predict the presence of fast-moving neutral outflows in the CGM. Neutral outflows instead move with modest radial velocities (˜50 km s-1), and the majority of the kinetic energy is associated with tangential rather than radial motion.

  20. ASSOCIATIONS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASI-STELLAR OBJECTS WITH ACTIVE, LOW-REDSHIFT SPIRAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbidge, G.; Napier, W. M.

    2009-01-01

    Following the discovery in the 1960s of radio and optical QSOs it was found that some of them lie very close to low-redshift (z ≤ 0.01) spiral galaxies with separations of ∼<2 arcmin. These were discovered both serendipitously by many observers, and systematically by Arp. They are some of the brightest QSOs in radio and optical wavelengths and are very rare. We have carried out a new statistical analysis of most of those galaxy-QSO pairs and find that the configurations have high statistical significance. We show that gravitational microlensing due to stars or other dark objects in the halos of the galaxies apparently cannot account for the excess. Sampling or identification bias likewise seems unable to explain it. Following this up we selected all ∼4000 QSOs with g ≤ 18 from a catalog of confirmed QSOs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and compared them with various subsets of galaxies from the RC 3 galaxy catalog. In contrast to the earlier results, no significant excess of such QSOs was found around these galaxies. Possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed.

  1. Mean Occupation Function of High-redshift Quasars from the Planck Cluster Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Priyanka; Chatterjee, Suchetana; Dutta, Alankar; Myers, Adam D.

    2018-06-01

    We characterize the distribution of quasars within dark matter halos using a direct measurement technique for the first time at redshifts as high as z ∼ 1. Using the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) catalog for galaxy groups and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR12 quasar data set, we assign host clusters/groups to the quasars and make a measurement of the mean number of quasars within dark matter halos as a function of halo mass. We find that a simple power-law fit of {log} =(2.11+/- 0.01) {log}(M)-(32.77+/- 0.11) can be used to model the quasar fraction in dark matter halos. This suggests that the quasar fraction increases monotonically as a function of halo mass even to redshifts as high as z ∼ 1.

  2. Stellar Abundances and Molecular Hydrogen in High-Redshift Galaxies: The Far-Ultraviolet View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, William C.

    2006-06-01

    FUSE spectra of star-forming regions in nearby galaxies are compared to composite spectra of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), binned by strength of Lyα emission and by mid-UV luminosity. Several far-UV spectral features, including lines dominated by stellar wind and by photospheric components, are very sensitive to stellar abundances. Their measurement in LBGs is compromised by the strong interstellar absorption features, allowing in some cases only upper limits to be determined. The derived C and N abundances in the LBGs are no higher than half solar (scaled to oxygen abundance for comparison with emission-line analyses), independent of the strength of Lyα emission. P V absorption indicates abundances as low as 0.1 solar, with an upper limit near 0.4 solar in the reddest and weakest emission galaxies. Unresolved interstellar absorption components would further lower the derived abundances. Trends of line strength and derived abundances are stronger with mid-UV luminosity than with Lyα strength. H2 absorption in the Lyman and Werner bands is very weak in the LBGs. Template H2 absorption spectra convolved to the appropriate resolution show that strict upper limits N(H2)values appropriate for the stronger emission composites and for mixes of H2 level populations like those on Milky Way sight lines. Since the UV-bright regions are likely to be widespread in these galaxies, these results rule out massive diffuse reservoirs of primordial H2 and suggest that the dust-to-gas ratio is already fairly large at z~3. Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). FUSE is operated for NASA by The Johns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  3. Resolving the Formation of Protogalaxies. 3; Feedback from the First Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John H.; Abel, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The first stars form in dark matter halos of masses 106 M as suggested by an increasing number of numerical simulations. Radiation feedback from these stars expels most of the gas from the shallow potential well of their surrounding dark matter halos.We use cosmological adaptive mesh refinement simulations that include self-consistent Population III star formation and feedback to examine the properties of assembling early dwarf galaxies. Accurate radiative transport is modeled with adaptive ray tracing. We include supernova explosions and follow the metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium. The calculations focus on the formation of several dwarf galaxies and their progenitors. In these halos, baryon fractions in 10(exp 8) Stelar Mass halos decrease by a factor of 2 with stellar feedback and by a factor of 3 with supernova explosions.We find that radiation feedback and supernova explosions increase gaseous spin parameters up to a factor of 4 and vary with time. Stellar feedback, supernova explosions, and H2 cooling create a complex, multiphase interstellar medium whose densities and temperatures can span up to 6 orders of magnitude at a given radius. The pair-instability supernovae of Population III stars alone enrich the halos with virial temperatures of 10(exp 4) K to approximately 10(exp -3) of solar metallicity.We find that 40% of the heavy elements resides in the intergalactic medium (IGM) at the end of our calculations. The highest metallicity gas exists in supernova remnants and very dilute regions of the IGM.

  4. THE ROLE OF DUST IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE. I. PROTOGALAXY EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasawa, Daisuke; Habe, Asao; Kozasa, Takashi; Nozawa, Takaya; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Hideyuki

    2011-01-01

    We develop one-zone galaxy formation models in the early universe, taking into account dust formation and evolution by supernova (SN) explosions. We focus on the time evolution of dust size distribution, because H 2 formation on the dust surface plays a critical role in the star formation process in the early universe. In the model, we assume that star formation rate (SFR) is proportional to the total amount of H 2 . We consistently treat (1) the formation and size evolution of dust, (2) the chemical reaction networks including H 2 formation both on the surface of dust and in gas phase, and (3) the SFR in the model. First, we find that, because of dust destruction due to both reverse and forward shocks driven by SNe, H 2 formation is more suppressed than in situations without such dust destruction. At the galaxy age of ∼0.8 Gyr, for galaxy models with virial mass M vir = 10 9 M sun and formation redshift z vir = 10, the molecular fraction is 2.5 orders of magnitude less in the model with dust destruction by both shocks than that in the model without dust destruction. Second, we show that the H 2 formation rate strongly depends on the interstellar medium (ISM) density around SN progenitors. The SFR in higher ISM density is lower, since dust destruction by reverse shocks is more effective in higher ISM density. We conclude that not only the amount but also the size distribution of dust related to star formation activity strongly affects the evolution of galaxies in the early universe.

  5. Evolution of radio quasars from redshift 0.6-3.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, S.G.; Hutchings, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of VLA radio imaging of 58 radio-loud quasars with redshift 2.0 or higher, which fill the redshift-luminosity plane as evenly as possible. This work completes a survey of about 250 quasars covering redshifts from 0.6-3.7, which attempts to sample luminosity and look-back time in a uniform way. Within the constraints of possible selection effects it is found that the relative population of extended and unresolved sources changes with redshift in a way that suggests that radio quasars may live longer and spend more time as large triple sources in the present epoch than in the earlier universe. There appear to be few low-luminosity radio quasars at high redshift. Ejection of material appears to occur on one side at a time, with usually at least one reversal of direction in the source lifetime. The velocity of ejection appears to be mildly relativistic at high redshift, but of lower velocity in the present epoch. There is also evidence suggestive of changes in the IGM with cosmic time; however, the data presented do not show the minimum in density at z about 2 that has been suggested for cluster environments. 11 refs

  6. Star Formation Rates in Lyman Break Galaxies: Radio Stacking of LBGs in the COSMOS Field and the Sub-μJy Radio Source Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, C. L.; Lee, Nicholas; Capak, P.; Schinnerer, E.; Lee, K.-S.; McCraken, H.; Yun, M. S.; Scoville, N.; Smolčić, V.; Giavalisco, M.; Datta, A.; Taniguchi, Y.; Urry, C. Megan

    2008-12-01

    We present an analysis of the radio properties of large samples of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ~ 3, 4, and 5 from the COSMOS field. The median stacking analysis yields a statistical detection of the z ~ 3 LBGs (U-band dropouts), with a 1.4 GHz flux density of 0.90 +/- 0.21 μJy. The stacked emission is unresolved, with a size = 3 is smaller than at lower redshifts. Conversely, the radio luminosity for a given star formation rate may be systematically lower at very high redshift. Two possible causes for a suppressed radio luminosity are (1) increased inverse Compton cooling of the relativistic electron population due to scattering off the increasing CMB at high redshift or (2) cosmic-ray diffusion from systematically smaller galaxies. The radio detections of individual sources are consistent with a radio-loud AGN fraction of 0.3%. One source is identified as a very dusty, extreme starburst galaxy (a "submillimeter galaxy"). Based on observations in the COSMOS Legacy Survey including those taken on the HST, Keck, NRAO-VLA, Subaru, KPNO 4 m, CTIO 4 m, and CFHT 3.6 m. The Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  7. NuSTAR DETECTION OF THE BLAZAR B2 1023+25 AT REDSHIFT 5.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbarrato, T. [Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, Università dell' Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Tagliaferri, G.; Ghisellini, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Perri, M.; Puccetti, S.; Giommi, P. [ASI-Science Data Center, via Galileo Galilei, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Baloković, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Hovatta, T. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nardini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica G. Occhialini, Università di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Boggs, S. E. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Greiner, J.; Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Sudilovsky, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Madejski, G. M., E-mail: tullia.sbarrato@brera.inaf.it [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); and others

    2013-11-10

    B2 1023+25 is an extremely radio-loud quasar at z = 5.3 that was first identified as a likely high-redshift blazar candidate in the SDSS+FIRST quasar catalog. Here, we use the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) to investigate its non-thermal jet emission, whose high-energy component we detected in the hard X-ray energy band. The X-ray flux is ∼ 5.5 x 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (5-10 keV) and the photon spectral index is Γ{sub X} ≅ 1.3-1.6. Modeling the full spectral energy distribution, we find that the jet is oriented close to the line of sight, with a viewing angle of ∼3°, and has significant Doppler boosting, with a large bulk Lorentz factor ∼13, which confirms the identification of B2 1023+25 as a blazar. B2 1023+25 is the first object at redshift larger than 5 detected by NuSTAR, demonstrating the ability of NuSTAR to investigate the early X-ray universe and to study extremely active supermassive black holes located at very high redshift.

  8. DIFFUSE Lyα EMITTING HALOS: A GENERIC PROPERTY OF HIGH-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steidel, Charles C.; Bogosavljevic, Milan; Shapley, Alice E.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Erb, Dawn K.; Pettini, Max

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 92 UV continuum-selected, spectroscopically identified galaxies with (z) = 2.65, all of which have been imaged in the Lyα line with extremely deep narrow-band imaging, we examine galaxy Lyα emission profiles to very faint surface brightness limits. The galaxy sample is representative of spectroscopic samples of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at similar redshifts in terms of apparent magnitude, UV luminosity, inferred extinction, and star formation rate and was assembled without regard to Lyα emission properties. Approximately 45% (55%) of the galaxy spectra have Lyα appearing in net absorption (emission), with ≅ 20% satisfying commonly used criteria for the identification of 'Lyα emitters' (LAEs; W 0 (Lyα) ≥ 20 A). We use extremely deep stacks of rest-UV continuum and continuum-subtracted Lyα images to show that all sub-samples exhibit diffuse Lyα emission to radii of at least 10'' (∼80 physical kpc). The characteristic exponential scale lengths for Lyα line emission exceed that of the λ 0 = 1220 A UV continuum light by factors of ∼5-10. The surface brightness profiles of Lyα emission are strongly suppressed relative to the UV continuum light in the inner few kpc, by amounts that are tightly correlated with the galaxies' observed spectral morphology; however, all galaxy sub-subsamples, including that of galaxies for which Lyα appears in net absorption in the spectra, exhibit qualitatively similar diffuse Lyα emission halos. Accounting for the extended Lyα emission halos, which generally would not be detected in the slit spectra of individual objects or with typical narrow-band Lyα imaging, increases the total Lyα flux (and rest equivalent width W 0 (Lyα)) by an average factor of ∼5, and by a much larger factor for the 80% of LBGs not classified as LAEs. We argue that most, if not all, of the observed Lyα emission in the diffuse halos originates in the galaxy H II regions but is scattered in our direction by H I gas in the galaxy's circum-galactic medium. The overall intensity of Lyα halos, but not the surface brightness distribution, is strongly correlated with the emission observed in the central ∼1''-more luminous halos are observed for galaxies with stronger central Lyα emission. We show that whether or not a galaxy is classified as a giant 'Lyα blob' (LAB) depends sensitively on the Lyα surface brightness threshold reached by an observation. Accounting for diffuse Lyα halos, all LBGs would be LABs if surveys were sensitive to 10 times lower Lyα surface brightness thresholds; similarly, essentially all LBGs would qualify as LAEs.

  9. Constraints on cold dark matter theories from observations of massive x-ray-luminous clusters of galaxies at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppino, G. A.; Gioia, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    During the course of a gravitational lensing survey of distant, X-ray selected Einstein Observatory Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) clusters of galaxies, we have studied six X-ray-luminous (L(sub x) greater than 5 x 10(exp 44)(h(sub 50)(exp -2))ergs/sec) clusters at redshifts exceeding z = 0.5. All of these clusters are apparently massive. In addition to their high X-ray luminosity, two of the clusters at z approximately 0.6 exhibit gravitationally lensed arcs. Furthermore, the highest redshift cluster in our sample, MS 1054-0321 at z = 0.826, is both extremely X-ray luminous (L(sub 0.3-3.5keV)=9.3 x 10(exp 44)(h(sub 50)(exp -2))ergs/sec) and exceedingly rich with an optical richness comparable to an Abell Richness Class 4 cluster. In this Letter, we discuss the cosmological implications of the very existence of these clusters for hierarchical structure formation theories such as standard Omega = 1 CDM (cold dark matter), hybrid Omega = 1 C + HDM (hot dark matter), and flat, low-density Lambda + CDM models.

  10. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. II. Spectroscopic redshifts and comparisons to color selections of high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, H.; Bacon, R.; Brinchmann, J.; Richard, J.; Contini, T.; Conseil, S.; Hamer, S.; Akhlaghi, M.; Bouché, N.; Clément, B.; Desprez, G.; Drake, A. B.; Hashimoto, T.; Leclercq, F.; Maseda, M.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Paalvast, M.; Tresse, L.; Ventou, E.; Kollatschny, W.; Boogaard, L. A.; Finley, H.; Marino, R. A.; Schaye, J.; Wisotzki, L.

    2017-11-01

    We have conducted a two-layered spectroscopic survey (1' × 1' ultra deep and 3' × 3' deep regions) in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE). The combination of a large field of view, high sensitivity, and wide wavelength coverage provides an order of magnitude improvement in spectroscopically confirmed redshifts in the HUDF; i.e., 1206 secure spectroscopic redshifts for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) continuum selected objects, which corresponds to 15% of the total (7904). The redshift distribution extends well beyond z> 3 and to HST/F775W magnitudes as faint as ≈ 30 mag (AB, 1σ). In addition, 132 secure redshifts were obtained for sources with no HST counterparts that were discovered in the MUSE data cubes by a blind search for emission-line features. In total, we present 1338 high quality redshifts, which is a factor of eight increase compared with the previously known spectroscopic redshifts in the same field. We assessed redshifts mainly with the spectral features [O II] at zcolor selection (dropout) diagrams of high-z galaxies. The selection condition for F336W dropouts successfully captures ≈ 80% of the targeted z 2.7 galaxies. However, for higher redshift selections (F435W, F606W, and F775W dropouts), the success rates decrease to ≈ 20-40%. We empirically redefine the selection boundaries to make an attempt to improve them to ≈ 60%. The revised boundaries allow bluer colors that capture Lyα emitters with high Lyα equivalent widths falling in the broadbands used for the color-color selection. Along with this paper, we release the redshift and line flux catalog. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program IDs 094.A-0289(B), 095.A-0010(A), 096.A-0045(A) and 096.A-0045(B).MUSE Ultra Deep Field redshift catalogs (Full Table A.1) are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/608/A2

  11. Fine structure of Galactic foreground ISM towards high-redshift AGN - utilizing Herschel PACS and SPIRE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, K.; Pinter, S.; Frey, S.; Tóth, L. V.

    2018-05-01

    One of the most certain ways to determine star formation rate in galaxies is based on far infrared (FIR) measurements. To decide the origin of the observed FIR emission, subtracting the Galactic foreground is a crucial step. We utilized Herschel photometric data to determine the hydrogen column densities in three galactic latitude regions, at b = 27°, 50° and -80°. We applied a pixel-by-pixel fit to the spectral energy distribution (SED) for the images aquired from parallel PACS-SPIRE observations in all three sky areas. We determined the column densities with resolutions 45'' and 6', and compared the results with values estimated from the IRAS dust maps. Column densities at 27° and 50° galactic latitudes determined from the Herschel data are in a good agreement with the literature values. However, at the highest galactic latitude we found that the column densities from the Herschel data exceed those derived from the IRAS dust map.

  12. THE BARYON CYCLE AT HIGH REDSHIFTS: EFFECTS OF GALACTIC WINDS ON GALAXY EVOLUTION IN OVERDENSE AND AVERAGE REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadoun, Raphael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0830 (United States); Shlosman, Isaac; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Romano-Díaz, Emilio, E-mail: raphael.sadoun@utah.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    We employ high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations focusing on a high-sigma peak and an average cosmological field at z ∼ 6–12 in order to investigate the influence of environment and baryonic feedback on galaxy evolution in the reionization epoch. Strong feedback, e.g., galactic winds, caused by elevated star formation rates (SFRs) is expected to play an important role in this evolution. We compare different outflow prescriptions: (i) constant wind velocity (CW), (ii) variable wind scaling with galaxy properties (VW), and (iii) no outflows (NW). The overdensity leads to accelerated evolution of dark matter and baryonic structures, absent from the “normal” region, and to shallow galaxy stellar mass functions at the low-mass end. Although CW shows little dependence on the environment, the more physically motivated VW model does exhibit this effect. In addition, VW can reproduce the observed specific SFR (sSFR) and the sSFR–stellar mass relation, which CW and NW fail to satisfy simultaneously. Winds also differ substantially in affecting the state of the intergalactic medium (IGM). The difference lies in the volume-filling factor of hot, high-metallicity gas, which is near unity for CW, while such gas remains confined in massive filaments for VW, and locked up in galaxies for NW. Such gas is nearly absent from the normal region. Although all wind models suffer from deficiencies, the VW model seems to be promising in correlating the outflow properties with those of host galaxies. Further constraints on the state of the IGM at high z are needed to separate different wind models.

  13. On the detection of high-redshift black holes with ALMA through CO and H(2) emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, Marco; Meijerink, Rowin

    2008-01-01

    Many present-day galaxies are known to harbor supermassive, >= 10(6) M(circle dot), black holes. These central black holes must have grown through accretion from less massive seeds in the early universe. The molecules CO and H 2 can be used to trace this young population of accreting massive black

  14. Impact of Massive Neutrinos and Dark Radiation on the High-redshift Cosmic Web. I. Lyα Forest Observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Graziano

    2017-11-01

    With upcoming high-quality data from surveys such as the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey or the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, improving the theoretical modeling and gaining a deeper understanding of the effects of neutrinos and dark radiation on structure formation at small scales are necessary, to obtain robust constraints free from systematic biases. Using a novel suite of hydrodynamical simulations that incorporate dark matter, baryons, massive neutrinos, and dark radiation, we present a detailed study of their impact on Lyα forest observables. In particular, we accurately measure the tomographic evolution of the shape and amplitude of the small-scale matter and flux power spectra and search for unique signatures along with preferred scales where a neutrino mass detection may be feasible. We then investigate the thermal state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) through the temperature-density relation. Our findings suggest that at k˜ 5 h {{Mpc}}-1 the suppression on the matter power spectrum induced by \\sum {m}ν =0.1 {eV} neutrinos can reach ˜ 4 % at z˜ 3 when compared to a massless neutrino cosmology, and ˜ 10 % if a massless sterile neutrino is included; surprisingly, we also find good agreement (˜ 2 % ) with some analytic predictions. For the 1D flux power spectrum {P}{ F }1{{D}}, the highest response to free-streaming effects is achieved at k˜ 0.005 {[{km}/{{s}}]}-1 when \\sum {m}ν =0.1 {eV}; this k-limit falls in the Lyα forest regime, making the small-scale {P}{ F }1{{D}} an excellent probe for detecting neutrino and dark radiation imprints. Our results indicate that the IGM at z˜ 3 provides the best sensitivity to active and sterile neutrinos.

  15. DISCOVERY OF WATER VAPOR IN THE HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASAR APM 08279+5255 AT z = 3.91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lis, D. C.; Phillips, T. G.; Neufeld, D. A.; Gerin, M.; Neri, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report a detection of the excited 2 20 -2 11 rotational transition of para-H 2 O in APM 08279+5255 using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. At z = 3.91, this is the highest-redshift detection of interstellar water to date. From large velocity gradient modeling, we conclude that this transition is predominantly radiatively pumped and on its own does not provide a good estimate of the water abundance. However, additional water transitions are predicted to be detectable in this source, which would lead to an improved excitation model. We also present a sensitive upper limit for the hydrogen fluoride (HF) J = 1-0 absorption toward APM 08279+5255. While the face-on geometry of this source is not favorable for absorption studies, the lack of HF absorption is still puzzling and may be indicative of a lower fluorine abundance at z = 3.91 compared with the Galactic interstellar medium.

  16. A cosmic web filament revealed in Lyman-α emission around a luminous high-redshift quasar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Arrigoni-Battaia, Fabrizio; Prochaska, J Xavier; Hennawi, Joseph F; Madau, Piero

    2014-02-06

    Simulations of structure formation in the Universe predict that galaxies are embedded in a 'cosmic web', where most baryons reside as rarefied and highly ionized gas. This material has been studied for decades in absorption against background sources, but the sparseness of these inherently one-dimensional probes preclude direct constraints on the three-dimensional morphology of the underlying web. Here we report observations of a cosmic web filament in Lyman-α emission, discovered during a survey for cosmic gas fluorescently illuminated by bright quasars at redshift z ≈ 2.3. With a linear projected size of approximately 460 physical kiloparsecs, the Lyman-α emission surrounding the radio-quiet quasar UM 287 extends well beyond the virial radius of any plausible associated dark-matter halo and therefore traces intergalactic gas. The estimated cold gas mass of the filament from the observed emission-about 10(12.0 ± 0.5)/C(1/2) solar masses, where C is the gas clumping factor-is more than ten times larger than what is typically found in cosmological simulations, suggesting that a population of intergalactic gas clumps with subkiloparsec sizes may be missing in current numerical models.

  17. The Discovery of a High-Redshift Quasar without Emission Lines from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan; Strauss; Gunn; Lupton; Carilli; Rupen; Schmidt; Moustakas; Davis; Annis; Bahcall; Brinkmann; Brunner; Csabai; Doi; Fukugita; Heckman; Hennessy; Hindsley; Ivezic; Knapp; Lamb; Munn; Pauls; Pier; Rockosi; Schneider; Szalay; Tucker; York

    1999-12-01

    We report observations of a luminous unresolved object at redshift z=4.62, with a featureless optical spectrum redward of the Lyalpha forest region, discovered from Sloan Digital Sky Survey commissioning data. The redshift is determined by the onset of the Lyalpha forest at lambda approximately 6800 Å and a Lyman limit system at lambda=5120 Å. A strong Lyalpha absorption system with weak metal absorption lines at z=4.58 is also identified in the spectrum. The object has a continuum absolute magnitude of -26.6 at 1450 Å in the rest frame (h0=0.5, q0=0.5) and therefore cannot be an ordinary galaxy. It shows no radio emission (the 3 sigma upper limit of its flux at 6 cm is 60 µJy), indicating a radio-to-optical flux ratio at least as small as that of the radio-weakest BL Lacertae objects known. It is also not linearly polarized to a 3 sigma upper limit of 4% in the observed I band. Therefore, it is either the most distant BL Lac object known to date, with very weak radio emission, or a new type of unbeamed quasar, whose broad emission line region is very weak or absent.

  18. HIGH-REDSHIFT DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES: A MORPHOLOGY-SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION CONNECTION REVEALED BY KECK ADAPTIVE OPTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melbourne, J.; Matthews, K.; Soifer, B. T.

    2009-01-01

    A simple optical to mid-IR color selection, R - [24]>14, i.e., f ν (24 μm)/f ν (R) ∼> 1000, identifies highly dust obscured galaxies (DOGs) with typical redshifts of z ∼ 2 ± 0.5. Extreme mid-IR luminosities (L IR > 10 12-14 ) suggest that DOGs are powered by a combination of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation, possibly driven by mergers. In an effort to compare their photometric properties with their rest-frame optical morphologies, we obtained high-spatial resolution (0.''05-0.''1) Keck Adaptive Optics K'-band images of 15 DOGs. The images reveal a wide range of morphologies, including small exponential disks (eight of 15), small ellipticals (four of 15), and unresolved sources (two of 15). One particularly diffuse source could not be classified because of low signal-to-noise ratio. We find a statistically significant correlation between galaxy concentration and mid-IR luminosity, with the most luminous DOGs exhibiting higher concentration and smaller physical size. DOGs with high concentration also tend to have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) suggestive of AGN activity. Thus, central AGN light may be biasing the morphologies of the more luminous DOGs to higher concentration. Conversely, more diffuse DOGs tend to show an SED shape suggestive of star formation. Two of 15 in the sample show multiple resolved components with separations of ∼1 kpc, circumstantial evidence for ongoing mergers.

  19. Peculiar morphology of the high-redshift radio galaxies 3C 13 and 3C 256 in subarcsecond seeing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Fevre, O.; Hammer, F.; Nottale, L.; Mazure, A.; Christian, C.

    1988-01-01

    High-spatial-resolution imaging is presented for two radio galaxies from the 3C catalog, 3C 13 and 3C 256 with redshifts of 1.351 and 1.819, respectively. The excellent image quality obtained at CFHT, 0.6-arcsec FWHM for 3C 13 and 0.7-arcsec FWHM for 3C 256 in the R band, over long integration times, made it possible to resolve these distant galaxies into complex structures. As suggested by Le Fevre et al. (1987) for another source (the gravitational lens candidate 3C 324) an interpretation in terms of gravitational amplification by foreground galaxies or clusters of galaxies is proposed. 3C 13 appears to be the most serious candidate, since a foreground galaxy, with an absolute luminosity M(R) = 23.3 and a redshift z = 0.477, is only 3.9 in from the extended radio galaxy. 18 references

  20. Accounting for Cosmic Variance in Studies of Gravitationally Lensed High-redshift Galaxies in the Hubble Frontier Field Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Brant E.; Ellis, Richard S.; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; Stark, Dan P.; McLeod, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful means for studying faint galaxies in the distant universe. By magnifying the apparent brightness of background sources, massive clusters enable the detection of galaxies fainter than the usual sensitivity limit for blank fields. However, this gain in effective sensitivity comes at the cost of a reduced survey volume and, in this Letter, we demonstrate that there is an associated increase in the cosmic variance uncertainty. As an example, we sho...

  1. El Universo a alto redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, M. V.

    The Universe we see today is the result of structures and galaxies that have been evolving since earlier times. Looking the evolution of the galaxy population at z ˜ 1 has emphasized the important role played by high redshift data. This is the case of the morphology - density relationship, where the morphological type of galaxies in distant clusters has given us a clear vision of evolutionary processes, partly led by environmental effects. I review part of the data available at high redshifts that are fundamental today to check the validity of galaxy formation models in reproducing local and basic galaxy properties. Briefly, I will comment about high redshift studies, a still little explored portion of the Universe, and the current strategies that allow us the study. In this sense, the epoch of reionization is essential for understanding the formation of structures because it is the phase where the first protogalaxies were formed, creating stars and enriching the intergalactic medium. Because of the great distances involved in these studies, gamma-ray bursts, quasars and Lyman-α galaxies are the best tools to study these earlier times. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  2. Clues to quasar broad-line region geometry and kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vestergaard, M; Wilkes, BJ; Barthel, PD

    2000-01-01

    We present evidence that the high-velocity C IV lambda 1549 emission-line gas of radio-loud quasars may originate in a disklike configuration, in close proximity to the accretion disk often assumed to emit the low-ionization lines. For a sample of 36 radio-loud z approximate to 2 quasars, we find

  3. ENSEMBLE VARIABILITY OF NEAR-INFRARED-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzuma, S.; Yamaoka, H.

    2012-01-01

    We present the properties of the ensemble variability V for nearly 5000 near-infrared active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected from the catalog of Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei (13th Edition) and the SDSS-DR7 quasar catalog. From three near-infrared point source catalogs, namely, Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), Deep Near Infrared Survey (DENIS), and UKIDSS/LAS catalogs, we extract 2MASS-DENIS and 2MASS-UKIDSS counterparts for cataloged AGNs by cross-identification between catalogs. We further select variable AGNs based on an optimal criterion for selecting the variable sources. The sample objects are divided into subsets according to whether near-infrared light originates by optical emission or by near-infrared emission in the rest frame; and we examine the correlations of the ensemble variability with the rest-frame wavelength, redshift, luminosity, and rest-frame time lag. In addition, we also examine the correlations of variability amplitude with optical variability, radio intensity, and radio-to-optical flux ratio. The rest-frame optical variability of our samples shows negative correlations with luminosity and positive correlations with rest-frame time lag (i.e., the structure function, SF), and this result is consistent with previous analyses. However, no well-known negative correlation exists between the rest-frame wavelength and optical variability. This inconsistency might be due to a biased sampling of high-redshift AGNs. Near-infrared variability in the rest frame is anticorrelated with the rest-frame wavelength, which is consistent with previous suggestions. However, correlations of near-infrared variability with luminosity and rest-frame time lag are the opposite of these correlations of the optical variability; that is, the near-infrared variability is positively correlated with luminosity but negatively correlated with the rest-frame time lag. Because these trends are qualitatively consistent with the properties of radio-loud quasars reported

  4. NuSTAR J033202-2746.8: Direct constraints on the Compton reflection in a heavily obscured quasar at z ≈ 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Moro, A.; Mullaney, J. R.; Alexander, D. M.; Aird, J. A.; Gandhi, P. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Comastri, A.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Bauer, F. E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Treister, E. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Civano, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Ranalli, P. [National Observatory of Athens, Institute of Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, Metaxa and Pavlou St., 15236 Penteli (Greece); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Baloković, M. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, 1216 East California Boulevard, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Boggs, S. E. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Craig, W. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Hailey, C. J., E-mail: agnese.del-moro@durham.ac.uk [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 W 120th Street, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    We report Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of NuSTAR J033202-2746.8, a heavily obscured, radio-loud quasar detected in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South, the deepest layer of the NuSTAR extragalactic survey (∼400 ks, at its deepest). NuSTAR J033202-2746.8 is reliably detected by NuSTAR only at E > 8 keV and has a very flat spectral slope in the NuSTAR energy band (Γ=0.55{sub −0.64}{sup +0.62}; 3-30 keV). Combining the NuSTAR data with extremely deep observations by Chandra and XMM-Newton (4 Ms and 3 Ms, respectively), we constrain the broad-band X-ray spectrum of NuSTAR J033202-2746.8, indicating that this source is a heavily obscured quasar (N{sub H}=5.6{sub −0.8}{sup +0.9}×10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}) with luminosity L {sub 10-40} {sub keV} ≈ 6.4 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup –1}. Although existing optical and near-infrared (near-IR) data, as well as follow-up spectroscopy with the Keck and VLT telescopes, failed to provide a secure redshift identification for NuSTAR J033202-2746.8, we reliably constrain the redshift z = 2.00 ± 0.04 from the X-ray spectral features (primarily from the iron K edge). The NuSTAR spectrum shows a significant reflection component (R=0.55{sub −0.37}{sup +0.44}), which was not constrained by previous analyses of Chandra and XMM-Newton data alone. The measured reflection fraction is higher than the R ∼ 0 typically observed in bright radio-loud quasars such as NuSTAR J033202-2746.8, which has L {sub 1.4} {sub GHz} ≈ 10{sup 27} W Hz{sup –1}. Constraining the spectral shape of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), including bright quasars, is very important for understanding the AGN population, and can have a strong impact on the modeling of the X-ray background. Our results show the importance of NuSTAR in investigating the broad-band spectral properties of quasars out to high redshift.

  5. The Clustering of High-redshift (2.9 ≤ z ≤ 5.1) Quasars in SDSS Stripe 82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timlin, John D.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Richards, Gordon T.; Myers, Adam D.; Pellegrino, Andrew; Bauer, Franz E.; Lacy, Mark; Schneider, Donald P.; Wollack, Edward J.; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2018-05-01

    We present a measurement of the two-point autocorrelation function of photometrically selected high-z quasars over ∼100 deg2 on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 field. Selection is performed using three machine-learning algorithms in a six-dimensional optical/mid-infrared color space. Optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are combined with overlapping deep mid-infrared data from the Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey and the Spitzer-HETDEX Exploratory Large-Area survey. Our selection algorithms are trained on the colors of known high-z quasars. The selected quasar sample consists of 1378 objects and contains both spectroscopically confirmed quasars and photometrically selected quasar candidates. These objects span a redshift range of 2.9 ≤ z ≤ 5.1 and are generally fainter than i = 20.2, a regime that has lacked sufficient number density to perform autocorrelation function measurements of photometrically classified quasars. We compute the angular correlation function of these data, marginally detecting quasar clustering. We fit a single power law with an index of δ = 1.39 ± 0.618 and amplitude of θ 0 = 0.‧71 ± 0.‧546 . A dark matter model is fit to the angular correlation function to estimate the linear bias. At the average redshift of our survey ( =3.38), the bias is b = 6.78 ± 1.79. Using this bias, we calculate a characteristic dark matter halo mass of 1.70–9.83× {10}12{h}-1 {M}ȯ . Our bias estimate suggests that quasar feedback intermittently shuts down the accretion of gas onto the central supermassive black hole at early times. If confirmed, these results hint at a level of luminosity dependence in the clustering of quasars at high-z.

  6. Fast-Growing SMBHs in Fast-Growing Galaxies, at High Redshifts: The Role of Major Mergers As Revealed by ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny [Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Lira, Paulina [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Netzer, Hagai [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy and the Wise Observatory, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Cicone, Claudia [Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milan (Italy); Maiolino, Roberto [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Shemmer, Ohad, E-mail: benny.trakhtenbrot@phys.ethz.ch [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)

    2017-11-30

    We present a long-term, multi-wavelength project to understand the epoch of fastest growth of the most massive black holes by using a sample of 40 luminous quasars at z ≃ 4.8. These quasars have rather uniform properties, with typical accretion rates and black hole masses of L/L{sub Edd} ≃ 0.7 and M{sub BH} ≃ 10{sup 9}M{sub ⊙}. The sample consists of “FIR-bright” sources with a previous Herschel/SPIRE detection, suggesting SFR > 1,000 M{sub ⊙} yr−1, as well as of “FIR-faint” sources for which Herschel stacking analysis implies a typical SFR of ~400 M{sub ⊙} yr−1. Six of the quasars have been observed by ALMA in [C ii] λ157.74μm line emission and adjacent rest-frame 150μm continuum, to study the dusty cold ISM. ALMA detected companion, spectroscopically confirmed sub-mm galaxies (SMGs) for three sources—one FIR-bright and two FIR-faint. The companions are separated by ~14–45 kpc from the quasar hosts, and we interpret them as major galaxy interactions. Our ALMA data therefore clearly support the idea that major mergers may be important drivers for rapid, early SMBH growth. However, the fact that not all high-SFR quasar hosts are accompanied by interacting SMGs, and their ordered gas kinematics observed by ALMA, suggest that other processes may be fueling these systems. Our analysis thus demonstrates the diversity of host galaxy properties and gas accretion mechanisms associated with early and rapid SMBH growth.

  7. PROPERTIES OF QSO METAL-LINE ABSORPTION SYSTEMS AT HIGH REDSHIFTS: NATURE AND EVOLUTION OF THE ABSORBERS AND NEW EVIDENCE ON ESCAPE OF IONIZING RADIATION FROM GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boksenberg, Alec [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Sargent, Wallace L. W., E-mail: boksy@ast.cam.ac.uk [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Using Voigt-profile-fitting procedures on Keck High Resolution Spectrograph spectra of nine QSOs, we identify 1099 C IV absorber components clumped in 201 systems outside the Lyman forest over 1.6 ≲ z ≲ 4.4. With associated Si IV, C II, Si II  and N V where available, we investigate the bulk statistical and ionization properties of the components and systems and find no significant change in redshift for C IV and Si IV while C II, Si II  and N V change substantially. The C IV components exhibit strong clustering, but no clustering is detected for systems on scales from 150 km s{sup –1} out to 50,000 km s{sup –1}. We conclude that the clustering is due entirely to the peculiar velocities of gas present in the circumgalactic media of galaxies. Using specific combinations of ionic ratios, we compare our observations with model ionization predictions for absorbers exposed to the metagalactic ionizing radiation background augmented by proximity radiation from their associated galaxies and find that the generally accepted means of radiative escape by transparent channels from the internal star-forming sites is spectrally not viable for our stronger absorbers. We develop an active scenario based on runaway stars with resulting changes in the efflux of radiation that naturally enable the needed spectral convergence, and in turn provide empirical indicators of morphological evolution in the associated galaxies. Together with a coexisting population of relatively compact galaxies indicated by the weaker absorbers in our sample, the collective escape of radiation is sufficient to maintain the intergalactic medium ionized over the full range 1.9 < z ≲ 4.4.

  8. Nonparametric study of the evolution of the cosmological equation of state with SNeIa, BAO, and high-redshift GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postnikov, S. [Nuclear Theory Center, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN (United States); Dainotti, M. G. [Physics Department, Stanford University, Via Pueblo Mall 382, Stanford, CA (United States); Hernandez, X. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Capozziello, S., E-mail: spostnik@indiana.edu, E-mail: mdainott@stanford.edu, E-mail: dainotti@oa.uj.edu.pl, E-mail: xavier@astros.unam.mx, E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Napoli " Federico II," Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-03-10

    We study the dark energy equation of state as a function of redshift in a nonparametric way, without imposing any a priori w(z) (ratio of pressure over energy density) functional form. As a check of the method, we test our scheme through the use of synthetic data sets produced from different input cosmological models that have the same relative errors and redshift distribution as the real data. Using the luminosity-time L{sub X} -T{sub a} correlation for gamma-ray burst (GRB) X-ray afterglows (the Dainotti et al. correlation), we are able to utilize GRB samples from the Swift satellite as probes of the expansion history of the universe out to z ≈ 10. Within the assumption of a flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe and combining supernovae type Ia (SNeIa) data with baryonic acoustic oscillation constraints, the resulting maximum likelihood solutions are close to a constant w = –1. If one imposes the restriction of a constant w, we obtain w = –0.99 ± 0.06 (consistent with a cosmological constant) with the present-day Hubble constant as H {sub 0} = 70.0 ± 0.6km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1} and density parameter as Ω{sub Λ0} = 0.723 ± 0.025, while nonparametric w(z) solutions give us a probability map that is centered at H {sub 0} = 70.04 ± 1km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1} and Ω{sub Λ0} = 0.724 ± 0.03. Our chosen GRB data sample with a full correlation matrix allows us to estimate the amount, as well as quality (errors), of data needed to constrain w(z) in the redshift range extending an order of magnitude beyond the farthest SNeIa measured.

  9. POWERFUL ACTIVITY IN THE BRIGHT AGES. I. A VISIBLE/IR SURVEY OF HIGH REDSHIFT 3C RADIO GALAXIES AND QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, B.; Chiaberge, M.; Kotyla, J. P.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tremblay, G. R. [Yale University, Department of Astronomy, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Stanghellini, C. [INAF—Istituto di Radioastronomia, Via P. Gobetti, 101 I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Baum, S.; O’Dea, C. P. [University of Manitoba, Dept of Physics and Astronomy, 66 Chancellors Circle, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Capetti, A. [Osservatorio Astronomico de Torino, Corso Savona, I-10024 Moncalieri TO (Italy); Miley, G. K. [Universiteit Leiden, Rapenburg 70, 2311 EZ Leiden (Netherlands); Perlman, E. S. [Florida Institute of Technology, 150 W University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Quillen, A. [Rochester Institute of Technology, School of Physics and Astronomy, 84 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We present new rest-frame UV and visible observations of 22 high- z (1 < z < 2.5) 3C radio galaxies and QSOs obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope ’s Wide Field Camera 3 instrument. Using a custom data reduction strategy in order to assure the removal of cosmic rays, persistence signal, and other data artifacts, we have produced high-quality science-ready images of the targets and their local environments. We observe targets with regions of UV emission suggestive of active star formation. In addition, several targets exhibit highly distorted host galaxy morphologies in the rest frame visible images. Photometric analyses reveal that brighter QSOs generally tend to be redder than their dimmer counterparts. Using emission line fluxes from the literature, we estimate that emission line contamination is relatively small in the rest frame UV images for the QSOs. Using archival VLA data, we have also created radio map overlays for each of our targets, allowing for analysis of the optical and radio axes alignment.

  10. Why high-latitude clouds in our galaxy and the highly redshifted clouds observed in front of QSOs do not belong to the same parent population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of high-latitude gas in our Galaxy reveal the presence of both C II and C IV absorption in the spectra of stars with z>2 kpc. On the other hand, C II is generally absent from unbiased samples of QSO redshift systems with C IV absorption. Comparison between the equivalent-width distributions of the QSO sample and of the galactic sample (which is suitably corrected for contamination by disk absorption) shows that a probability that the two samples are drawn from the same parent population is less than 1% for C II and less than 10% for C IV. Thus, contrary to prevailing opinion, it is highly unlikely that gaseous halos comprised of material with properties of the high-latitude gas are responsible for the bulk of known QSO redshift systems. However, gaseous halos with bimodal states of ionization, or in which the ionization state is a unique function of redshift, are compatible with QSO absorption statistics

  11. THE RESPONSE OF METAL-RICH GAS TO X-RAY IRRADIATION FROM A MASSIVE BLACK HOLE AT HIGH REDSHIFT: PROOF OF CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aykutalp, A.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands); Wise, J. H., E-mail: aycin.aykutalp@sns.it, E-mail: meijerink@astro.rug.nl, E-mail: spaans@astro.rug.nl, E-mail: jwise@physics.gatech.edu [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Observational studies show that there is a strong link between the formation and evolution of galaxies and the growth of their supermassive black holes. However, the underlying physics behind this observed relation is poorly understood. In order to study the effects of X-ray radiation on black hole surroundings, we implement X-ray-dominated region physics into Enzo and use the radiation transport module Moray to calculate the radiative transfer for a polychromatic spectrum. In this work, we investigate the effects of X-ray irradiation, produced by a central massive black hole (MBH) with a mass of M = 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }, on ambient gas with solar and zero metallicity. We find that in the solar metallicity case, the energy deposition rate in the central region ({<=}20 pc) is high due to the high opacity of the metals. Hence, the central temperatures are on the order of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} K. Moreover, due to the cooling ability and high intrinsic opacity of solar metallicity gas, column densities of 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} are reached at a radius of 20 pc from the MBH. These column densities are about three orders of magnitudes higher than in the zero metallicity case. Furthermore, in the zero metallicity case, an X-ray-induced H II region is already formed after 5.8 Myr. This causes a significant outflow of gas ({approx}8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }) from the central region; the gas reaches outflow velocities up to {approx}100 km s{sup -1}. At later times, {approx}23 Myr after we insert the MBH, we find that the solar metallicity case also develops an X-ray-induced H II region, but it is delayed by {approx}17 Myr compared to the zero metallicity case.

  12. VERY STRONG EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES IN THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLEL SURVEY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atek, H.; Colbert, J.; Shim, H. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Siana, B.; Bridge, C. [Department of Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Scarlata, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McCarthy, P.; Dressler, A.; Hathi, N. P. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Teplitz, H. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Henry, A.; Martin, C. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bunker, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Fosbury, R. A. E. [Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-12-20

    The WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey uses the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) infrared grism capabilities to obtain slitless spectra of thousands of galaxies over a wide redshift range including the peak of star formation history of the universe. We select a population of very strong emission-line galaxies with rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) higher than 200 A. A total of 176 objects are found over the redshift range 0.35 < z < 2.3 in the 180 arcmin{sup 2} area that we have analyzed so far. This population consists of young and low-mass starbursts with high specific star formation rates (sSFR). After spectroscopic follow-up of one of these galaxies with Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, we report the detection at z = 0.7 of an extremely metal-poor galaxy with 12 + log(O/H) =7.47 {+-} 0.11. After estimating the active galactic nucleus fraction in the sample, we show that the high-EW galaxies have higher sSFR than normal star-forming galaxies at any redshift. We find that the nebular emission lines can substantially affect the total broadband flux density with a median brightening of 0.3 mag, with some examples of line contamination producing brightening of up to 1 mag. We show that the presence of strong emission lines in low-z galaxies can mimic the color-selection criteria used in the z {approx} 8 dropout surveys. In order to effectively remove low-redshift interlopers, deep optical imaging is needed, at least 1 mag deeper than the bands in which the objects are detected. Without deep optical data, most of the interlopers cannot be ruled out in the wide shallow HST imaging surveys. Finally, we empirically demonstrate that strong nebular lines can lead to an overestimation of the mass and the age of galaxies derived from fitting of their spectral energy distribution (SED). Without removing emission lines, the age and the stellar mass estimates are overestimated by a factor of 2 on average and up to a factor of 10 for the high-EW galaxies. Therefore, the contribution of emission lines should be systematically taken into account in SED fitting of star-forming galaxies at all redshifts.

  13. SMOOTH(ER) STELLAR MASS MAPS IN CANDELS: CONSTRAINTS ON THE LONGEVITY OF CLUMPS IN HIGH-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuyts, Stijn; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Genzel, Reinhard; Lutz, Dieter; Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro; Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandra M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; McGrath, Elizabeth; Bell, Eric F.; Dekel, Avishai; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lotz, Jennifer; Hathi, Nimish P.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Newman, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the resolved colors and stellar populations of a complete sample of 323 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 0.5 10 M ☉ and have specific star formation rates (SFRs) above 1/t H . We model the seven-band optical ACS + near-IR WFC3 spectral energy distributions of individual bins of pixels, accounting simultaneously for the galaxy-integrated photometric constraints available over a longer wavelength range. We analyze variations in rest-frame color, stellar surface mass density, age, and extinction as a function of galactocentric radius and local surface brightness/density, and measure structural parameters on luminosity and stellar mass maps. We find evidence for redder colors, older stellar ages, and increased dust extinction in the nuclei of galaxies. Big star-forming clumps seen in star formation tracers are less prominent or even invisible in the inferred stellar mass distributions. Off-center clumps contribute up to ∼20% to the integrated SFR, but only 7% or less to the integrated mass of all massive SFGs at z ∼ 1 and z ∼ 2, with the fractional contributions being a decreasing function of wavelength used to select the clumps. The stellar mass profiles tend to have smaller sizes and M20 coefficients, and higher concentration and Gini coefficients than the light distribution. Our results are consistent with an inside-out disk growth scenario with brief (100-200 Myr) episodic local enhancements in star formation superposed on the underlying disk. Alternatively, the young ages of off-center clumps may signal inward clump migration, provided this happens efficiently on the order of an orbital timescale.

  14. The hyperluminous infrared quasar 3C 318 and its implications for interpreting sub-mm detections of high-redshift radio galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Willott, Chris J.; Rawlings, Steve; Jarvis, Matt J.

    1999-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of the compact steep- spectrum radio source 3C 318 which shows it to be a quasar at redshift z=1.574 (the z=0.752 value previously reported is incorrect). 3C 318 is an IRAS, ISO and SCUBA source so its new redshift makes it the most intrinsically luminous far-infrared (FIR) source in the 3C catalogue (there is no evidence of strong gravitational lensing effects). Its bolometric luminosity greatly exceeds the 10^13 solar luminosity level above ...

  15. MEASURING STAR FORMATION RATES AND FAR-INFRARED COLORS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES USING THE CO(7–6) AND [N II] 205 μm LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Nanyao; Zhao, Yinghe; Xu, C. Kevin; Howell, Justin; Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Schulz, Bernhard [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gao, Yu; Liu, Lijie [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Armus, Lee [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Inami, Hanae [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Privon, George C. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160 C, Concepción (Chile); Lord, Steven D. [The SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Sanders, David B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Van der Werf, Paul P., E-mail: lu@ipac.caltech.edu [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-03-20

    To better characterize the global star formation activity in a galaxy, one needs to know not only the star formation rate (SFR) but also the rest-frame, far-infrared color (e.g., the 60–100 μm color, C(60/100)) of the dust emission. The latter probes the average intensity of the dust heating radiation field and scales statistically with the effective SFR surface density in star-forming galaxies including (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs). To this end, here we exploit a new spectroscopic approach involving only two emission lines: CO(7–6) at 372 μm and [N ii] at 205 μm([N ii]{sub 205μm}). For local (U)LIRGs, the ratios of the CO(7–6) luminosity (L{sub CO(7–6)}) to the total infrared luminosity (L{sub IR}; 8–1000 μm) are fairly tightly distributed (to within ∼0.12 dex) and show little dependence on C(60/100). This makes L{sub CO(7–6)} a good SFR tracer, which is less contaminated by active galactic nuclei than L{sub IR} and may also be much less sensitive to metallicity than L{sub CO(1–0)}. Furthermore, the logarithmic [N ii]{sub 205μm}/CO(7–6) luminosity ratio depends fairly strongly (at a slope of ∼ −1.4) on C(60/100), with a modest scatter (∼0.23 dex). This makes it a useful estimator on C(60/100) with an implied uncertainty of ∼0.15 (or ≲4 K in the dust temperature (T{sub dust}) in the case of a graybody emission with T{sub dust} ≳ 30 K and a dust emissivity index β ≥ 1). Our locally calibrated SFR and C(60/100) estimators are shown to be consistent with the published data of (U)LIRGs of z up to ∼6.5.

  16. Gas inflow and outflow in an interacting high-redshift galaxy. The remarkable host environment of GRB 080810 at z = 3.35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, P.; Perley, D. A.; Schady, P.; Prochaska, J. X.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Krühler, T.; Yates, R. M.; Greiner, J.

    2017-11-01

    We reveal multiple components of an interacting galaxy system at z ≈ 3.35 through a detailed analysis of the exquisite high-resolution Keck/HIRES spectrum of the afterglow of a gamma-ray burst (GRB). Through Voigt-profile fitting of absorption lines from the Lyman series, we constrain the neutral hydrogen column density to NH I ≤ 1018.35 cm-2 for the densest of four distinct systems at the host redshift of GRB 080810, which is among the lowest NH I ever observed in a GRB host, even though the line of sight passes within a projected 5 kpc of the galaxy centres. By detailed analysis of the corresponding metal absorption lines, we derive chemical, ionic, and kinematic properties of the individual absorbing systems, and thus build a picture of the host as a whole. Striking differences between the systems imply that the line of sight passes through several phases of gas: the star-forming regions of the GRB host; enriched material in the form of a galactic outflow; the hot and ionised halo of a second interacting galaxy falling towards the host at a line-of-sight velocity of 700 km s-1; and a cool metal-poor cloud that may represent one of the best candidates yet for the inflow of metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. The reduced spectrum is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/607/A107

  17. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AS MAIN CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ULTRAVIOLET IONIZING EMISSIVITY AT HIGH REDSHIFTS: PREDICTIONS FROM A Λ-CDM MODEL WITH LINKED AGN/GALAXY EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Fiore, F.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Grazian, A.; Pentericci, L.

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated the contribution of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) population to the ionization history of the universe based on a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and evolution in the cold dark matter cosmological scenario. The model connects the growth of black holes and of the ensuing AGN activity to galaxy interactions. In the model we have included a self-consistent physical description of the escape of ionizing UV photons; this is based on the blast-wave model for the AGN feedback we developed in a previous paper to explain the distribution of hydrogen column densities in AGNs of various redshifts and luminosities, due to absorption by the host galaxy gas. The model predicts UV luminosity functions for AGNs that are in good agreement with those derived from the observations especially at low and intermediate redshifts (z ∼ 3). At higher redshifts (z > 5), the model tends to overestimate the data at faint luminosities. Critical biases in both the data and in the model are discussed to explain such apparent discrepancies. The predicted hydrogen photoionization rate as a function of redshift is found to be consistent with that derived from the observations. All of the above suggests that we should reconsider the role of the AGNs as the main driver of the ionization history of the universe.

  18. A WIDE AREA SURVEY FOR HIGH-REDSHIFT MASSIVE GALAXIES. II. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF BzK-SELECTED MASSIVE STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Masato; Daddi, Emanuele; Arimoto, Nobuo; Renzini, Alvio; Kong Xu; Cimatti, Andrea; Broadhurst, Tom; Alexander, Dave M.

    2010-01-01

    Results are presented from near-infrared spectroscopic observations of a sample of BzK-selected, massive star-forming galaxies (sBzKs) at 1.5 < z < 2.3 that were obtained with OHS/CISCO at the Subaru telescope and with SINFONI at the Very Large Telescope. Among the 28 sBzKs observed, Hα emission was detected in 14 objects, and for 11 of them the [N II] λ6583 flux was also measured. Multiwavelength photometry was also used to derive stellar masses and extinction parameters, whereas Hα and [N II] emissions have allowed us to estimate star formation rates (SFRs), metallicities, ionization mechanisms, and dynamical masses. In order to enforce agreement between SFRs from Hα with those derived from rest-frame UV and mid-infrared, additional obscuration for the emission lines (that originate in H II regions) was required compared to the extinction derived from the slope of the UV continuum. We have also derived the stellar mass-metallicity relation, as well as the relation between stellar mass and specific SFR (SSFR), and compared them to the results in other studies. At a given stellar mass, the sBzKs appear to have been already enriched to metallicities close to those of local star-forming galaxies of similar mass. The sBzKs presented here tend to have higher metallicities compared to those of UV-selected galaxies, indicating that near-infrared selected galaxies tend to be a chemically more evolved population. The sBzKs show SSFRs that are systematically higher, by up to ∼2 orders of magnitude, compared to those of local galaxies of the same mass. The empirical correlations between stellar mass and metallicity, and stellar mass and SSFR are then compared with those of evolutionary population synthesis models constructed either with the simple closed-box assumption, or within an infall scenario. Within the assumptions that are built-in such models, it appears that a short timescale for the star formation (≅100 Myr) and large initial gas mass appear to be required if one wants to reproduce both relations simultaneously.

  19. Fast-Growing SMBHs in Fast-Growing Galaxies, at High Redshifts: The Role of Major Mergers As Revealed by ALMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Lira, Paulina; Netzer, Hagai; Cicone, Claudia; Maiolino, Roberto; Shemmer, Ohad

    2017-01-01

    We present a long-term, multi-wavelength project to understand the epoch of fastest growth of the most massive black holes by using a sample of 40 luminous quasars at z ≃ 4.8. These quasars have rather uniform properties, with typical accretion rates and black hole masses of L/L Edd ≃ 0.7 and M BH ≃ 10 9 M ⊙ . The sample consists of “FIR-bright” sources with a previous Herschel/SPIRE detection, suggesting SFR > 1,000 M ⊙ yr−1, as well as of “FIR-faint” sources for which Herschel stacking analysis implies a typical SFR of ~400 M ⊙ yr−1. Six of the quasars have been observed by ALMA in [C ii] λ157.74μm line emission and adjacent rest-frame 150μm continuum, to study the dusty cold ISM. ALMA detected companion, spectroscopically confirmed sub-mm galaxies (SMGs) for three sources—one FIR-bright and two FIR-faint. The companions are separated by ~14–45 kpc from the quasar hosts, and we interpret them as major galaxy interactions. Our ALMA data therefore clearly support the idea that major mergers may be important drivers for rapid, early SMBH growth. However, the fact that not all high-SFR quasar hosts are accompanied by interacting SMGs, and their ordered gas kinematics observed by ALMA, suggest that other processes may be fueling these systems. Our analysis thus demonstrates the diversity of host galaxy properties and gas accretion mechanisms associated with early and rapid SMBH growth.

  20. SMOOTH(ER) STELLAR MASS MAPS IN CANDELS: CONSTRAINTS ON THE LONGEVITY OF CLUMPS IN HIGH-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuyts, Stijn; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Genzel, Reinhard; Lutz, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstr., D-85741 Garching (Germany); Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandra M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; McGrath, Elizabeth [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lotz, Jennifer [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hathi, Nimish P. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Huang, Kuang-Han [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Newman, Jeffrey A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); and others

    2012-07-10

    We perform a detailed analysis of the resolved colors and stellar populations of a complete sample of 323 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 0.5 < z < 1.5 and 326 SFGs at 1.5 < z < 2.5 in the ERS and CANDELS-Deep region of GOODS-South. Galaxies were selected to be more massive than 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and have specific star formation rates (SFRs) above 1/t{sub H} . We model the seven-band optical ACS + near-IR WFC3 spectral energy distributions of individual bins of pixels, accounting simultaneously for the galaxy-integrated photometric constraints available over a longer wavelength range. We analyze variations in rest-frame color, stellar surface mass density, age, and extinction as a function of galactocentric radius and local surface brightness/density, and measure structural parameters on luminosity and stellar mass maps. We find evidence for redder colors, older stellar ages, and increased dust extinction in the nuclei of galaxies. Big star-forming clumps seen in star formation tracers are less prominent or even invisible in the inferred stellar mass distributions. Off-center clumps contribute up to {approx}20% to the integrated SFR, but only 7% or less to the integrated mass of all massive SFGs at z {approx} 1 and z {approx} 2, with the fractional contributions being a decreasing function of wavelength used to select the clumps. The stellar mass profiles tend to have smaller sizes and M20 coefficients, and higher concentration and Gini coefficients than the light distribution. Our results are consistent with an inside-out disk growth scenario with brief (100-200 Myr) episodic local enhancements in star formation superposed on the underlying disk. Alternatively, the young ages of off-center clumps may signal inward clump migration, provided this happens efficiently on the order of an orbital timescale.

  1. Constraining the radio jet proper motion of the high-redshift quasar J2134-0419 at z = 4.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, Krisztina; Frey, Sándor; Gabányi, Krisztina É.; An, Tao; Britzen, Silke; Cao, Hong-Min; Cseh, Dávid; Dennett-Thorpe, Jane; Gurvits, Leonid I.; Hong, Xiao-Yu; Hook, Isobel M.; Paragi, Zsolt; Schilizzi, Richard T.; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Yingkang

    2018-06-01

    To date, PMN J2134-0419 (at a redshift z = 4.33) is the second most distant quasar known with a milliarcsecond-scale morphology permitting direct estimates of the jet proper motion. Based on two-epoch observations, we constrained its radio jet proper motion using the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) technique. The observations were conducted with the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 5 GHz on 1999 November 26 and 2015 October 6. We imaged the central 10-pc scale radio jet emission and modelled its brightness distribution. By identifying a jet component at both epochs separated by 15.86 yr, a proper motion of μ = 0.035 ± 0.023 mas yr-1 is found. It corresponds to an apparent superluminal speed of βa = 4.1 ± 2.7 c. Relativistic beaming at both epochs suggests that the jet viewing angle with respect to the line of sight is smaller than 20°, with a minimum bulk Lorentz factor Γ = 4.3. The small value of the proper motion is in good agreement with the expectations from the cosmological interpretation of the redshift and the current cosmological model. Additionally we analysed archival Very Large Array observations of J2143-0419 and found indication of a bent jet extending to ˜30 kpc.

  2. Damped Lyman-alpha absorption by disk galaxies with large redshifts. III. Intermediate-resolution spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnshek, D.A.; Wolfe, A.M.; Lanzetta, K.M.; Briggs, F.H.; Cohen, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    New intermediate-resolution spectroscopy for six members of a sample of 68 moderate- to high-redshift QSOs is presented. Evidence is reported which indicates that seven strong absorption features in the QSO spectra are due to damped Ly-alpha absorption. A standard curve-of-growth analysis on five of the damped systems is performed, and relevant properties are tabulated and discussed. Six of the seven damped Ly-alpha systems have H I column densities of 2 x 10 to the 20th/sq cm or larger, while the remaining system has an H I column density of about 10 to the 20th/sq cm. It is suggested that damped Ly-alpha systems arise when a sight line intercepts a high-redshift protogalaxy disk containing a quiescent cloud component characterized by high column density and low effective velocity dispersion. At the same time, the sight line usually intercepts a broader turbulent component, which is identified as the halo, characterized by much lower column density and higher effective velocity dispersion. 42 refs

  3. Active galactic nuclei cores in infrared-faint radio sources. Very long baseline interferometry observations using the Very Long Baseline Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Deller, A. T.; Collier, J. D.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) form a new class of galaxies characterised by radio flux densities between tenths and tens of mJy and faint or absent infrared counterparts. It has been suggested that these objects are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at significant redshifts (z ≳ 2). Aims: Whereas the high redshifts of IFRS have been recently confirmed based on spectroscopic data, the evidence for the presence of AGNs in IFRS is mainly indirect. So far, only two AGNs have been unquestionably confirmed in IFRS based on very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. In this work, we test the hypothesis that IFRS contain AGNs in a large sample of sources using VLBI. Methods: We observed 57 IFRS with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) down to a detection sensitivity in the sub-mJy regime and detected compact cores in 35 sources. Results: Our VLBA detections increase the number of VLBI-detected IFRS from 2 to 37 and provide strong evidence that most - if not all - IFRS contain AGNs. We find that IFRS have a marginally higher VLBI detection fraction than randomly selected sources with mJy flux densities at arcsec-scales. Moreover, our data provide a positive correlation between compactness - defined as the ratio of milliarcsec- to arcsec-scale flux density - and redshift for IFRS, but suggest a decreasing mean compactness with increasing arcsec-scale radio flux density. Based on these findings, we suggest that IFRS tend to contain young AGNs whose jets have not formed yet or have not expanded, equivalent to very compact objects. We found two IFRS that are resolved into two components. The two components are spatially separated by a few hundred milliarcseconds in both cases. They might be components of one AGN, a binary black hole, or the result of gravitational lensing.

  4. Two populations of progenitors for Type Ia supernovae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, F.; Della Valle, M.; Panagia, N.

    2006-08-01

    We use recent observations of the evolution of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate with redshift, the dependence of the SN Ia rate on the colours of the parent galaxies, and the enhancement of the SN Ia rate in radio-loud early-type galaxies to derive on robust empirical grounds, the delay time distribution (DTD) between the formation of the progenitor star and its explosion as an SN. Our analysis finds: (i) delay times as long as 3-4 Gyr, derived from observations of SNe Ia at high redshift, cannot reproduce the dependence of the SN Ia rate on the colours and on the radio-luminosity of the parent galaxies, as observed in the local Universe; (ii) the comparison between observed SN rates and a grid of theoretical `single-population' DTDs shows that only a few of them are possibly consistent with observations. The most successful models are all predicting a peak of SN explosions soon after star formation and an extended tail in the DTD, and can reproduce the data but only at a modest statistical confidence level; (iii) present data are best matched by a bimodal DTD, in which about 50 per cent of SNe Ia (dubbed `prompt' SNe Ia) explode soon after their stellar birth, in a time of the order of 108 yr, while the remaining 50 per cent (`tardy' SNe Ia) have a much wider distribution, well described by an exponential function with a decay time of about 3 Gyr. The presence in the DTD of both a strong peak at early times and a prolonged exponential tail, coupled with the well-established bimodal distribution of the decay rate (Δm15) and the systematic difference observed in the expansion velocities of the ejecta of SNe Ia in ellipticals and spirals, suggests the existence of two classes of progenitors. We discuss the cosmological implications of this result and make simple predictions, which are testable with future instrumentation.

  5. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF RADIO-QUIET QUASARS WITH WEAK EMISSION LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Anderson, Scott F.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Shemmer, Ohad

    2010-01-01

    We present radio and X-ray observations, as well as optical light curves, for a subset of 26 BL Lac candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) lacking strong radio emission and with z < 2.2. Half of these 26 objects are shown to be stars, galaxies, or absorbed quasars. We conclude that the other 13 objects are active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with abnormally weak emission features; 10 of those 13 are definitively radio quiet, and, for those with available optical light curves, their level of optical flux variability is consistent with radio-quiet quasars. We cannot exclude the possibility that some of these 13 AGNs lie on the extremely radio-faint tail of the BL Lac distribution, but our study generally supports the notion that all BL Lac objects are radio-loud. These radio-quiet AGNs appear to have intrinsically weak or absent broad emission line regions (BELRs), and, based on their X-ray properties, we argue that some are low-redshift analogs to weak line quasars (WLQs). SDSS BL Lac searches are so far the only systematic surveys of the SDSS database capable of recovering such exotic low-redshift WLQs. There are 71 more z < 2.2 radio-quiet BL Lac candidates already identified in the SDSS, but not considered here, and many of those might be best unified with WLQs as well. Future studies combining low- and high-redshift WLQ samples will yield new insight on our understanding of the structure and formation of AGN BELRs.

  6. INVISIBLE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. RADIO MORPHOLOGIES AND FIVE NEW H i 21 cm ABSORPTION LINE DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ting; Stocke, John T.; Darling, Jeremy [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, UCB 389, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Momjian, Emmanuel [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Sharma, Soniya [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Mt Stromlo Observatory, ACT 2611 (Australia); Kanekar, Nissim [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Post Bag 3, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2016-03-15

    This is the second paper directed toward finding new highly redshifted atomic and molecular absorption lines at radio frequencies. To this end, we selected a sample of 80 candidates for obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and presented their basic optical/near-infrared (NIR) properties in Paper I. In this paper, we present both high-resolution radio continuum images for all of these sources and H i 21 cm absorption spectroscopy for a few selected sources in this sample. A-configuration 4.9 and 8.5 GHz Very Large Array continuum observations find that 52 sources are compact or have substantial compact components with size <0.″5 and flux densities >0.1 Jy at 4.9 GHz. The 36 most compact sources were then observed with the Very Long Baseline Array at 1.4 GHz. One definite and 10 candidate Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs) are newly identified, which is a detection rate of CSOs ∼three times higher than the detection rate previously found in purely flux-limited samples. Based on possessing compact components with high flux densities, 60 of these sources are good candidates for absorption-line searches. Twenty-seven sources were observed for H i 21 cm absorption at their photometric or spectroscopic redshifts with only six detections (five definite and one tentative). However, five of these were from a small subset of six CSOs with pure galaxy optical/NIR spectra (i.e., any AGN emission is obscured) and for which accurate spectroscopic redshifts place the redshifted 21 cm line in a radio frequency intereference (RFI)-free spectral “window” (i.e., the percentage of H i 21 cm absorption-line detections could be as high as ∼90% in this sample). It is likely that the presence of ubiquitous RFI and the absence of accurate spectroscopic redshifts preclude H i detections in similar sources (only 1 detection out of the remaining 22 sources observed, 13 of which have only photometric redshifts); that is, H i absorption may well be present but is masked by

  7. Variations in Canonical Star-Forming Laws at Low Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkiewicz, Jacqueline; Bowman, Judd D.; Scowen, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Empirically-determined star formation relations link observed galaxy luminosities to extrapolated star formation rates at almost every observable wavelength range. These laws are a cornerstone of extragalactic astronomy, and will be critically important for interpreting upcoming observations of early high-redshift protogalaxies with JWST and WFIRST. There are indications at a variety of wavelengths that these canonical relations may become unreliable at the lowest metallicities observed. This potentially complicates interpretation of the earliest protogalaxies, which are expected to be pristine and largely unenriched by stellar nucleosynthesis. Using a sample of 15 local dwarf galaxies with 12+[O/H] dwarf galaxies 1 Zw 18 and SBS 0335-052E suggest that the far-IR/radio relation probably deviates at low metallicities, but the low luminosity end of the relation is not well sampled. The upgraded Jansky Very Large Array has the sensitivity to fill in this gap. I have obtained 45 hours of L- and C-band continuum data of my dwarf galaxy sample. I present radio continuum imaging of an initial sub-sample of Local Group dwarfs, some of which have never before been detected in radio continuum. The H-alpha/UV relationship is likewise known to become unreliable for dwarf galaxies, though this has been attributed to dwarf galaxy "bursty-ness" rather than metallicity effects. I have conducted a parallel survey of emission line imaging to study the underlying astrophysics of the H-alpha/UV relation. Using Balmer decrement imaging, I map out the pixel-to-pixel dust distribution and geometry within the nearest galaxies in my sample. I compare this to GALEX UV imaging. I discuss implications for UV escape fraction, and present initial results of the canonical star-forming relations at low galaxy luminosity and metallicity. THIS IS A POSTER AND WILL BE LOCATED IN THE AAS BOOTH.

  8. Cumulative Neutrino and Gamma-Ray Backgrounds from Halo and Galaxy Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengchao; Mészáros, Peter; Murase, Kohta; Jeong, Donghui

    2018-04-01

    The merger of dark matter halos and the gaseous structures embedded in them, such as protogalaxies, galaxies, and groups and clusters of galaxies, results in strong shocks that are capable of accelerating cosmic rays (CRs) to ≳10 PeV. These shocks will produce high-energy neutrinos and γ-rays through inelastic pp collisions. In this work, we study the contributions of these halo mergers to the diffuse neutrino flux and to the nonblazar portion of the extragalactic γ-ray background. We formulate the redshift dependence of the shock velocity, galactic radius, halo gas content, and galactic/intergalactic magnetic fields over the dark matter halo distribution up to a redshift z = 10. We find that high-redshift mergers contribute a significant amount of the CR luminosity density, and the resulting neutrino spectra could explain a large part of the observed diffuse neutrino flux above 0.1 PeV up to several PeV. We also show that our model can somewhat alleviate tensions with the extragalactic γ-ray background. First, since a larger fraction of the CR luminosity density comes from high redshifts, the accompanying γ-rays are more strongly suppressed through γγ annihilations with the cosmic microwave background and the extragalactic background light. Second, mildly radiative-cooled shocks may lead to a harder CR spectrum with spectral indices of 1.5 ≲ s ≲ 2.0. Our study suggests that halo mergers, a fraction of which may also induce starbursts in the merged galaxies, can be promising neutrino emitters without violating the existing Fermi γ-ray constraints on the nonblazar component of the extragalactic γ-ray background.

  9. Reconstructing the massive black hole cosmic history through gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesana, Alberto; Gair, Jonathan; Berti, Emanuele; Volonteri, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The massive black holes we observe in galaxies today are the natural end-product of a complex evolutionary path, in which black holes seeded in proto-galaxies at high redshift grow through cosmic history via a sequence of mergers and accretion episodes. Electromagnetic observations probe a small subset of the population of massive black holes (namely, those that are active or those that are very close to us), but planned space-based gravitational wave observatories such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) can measure the parameters of 'electromagnetically invisible' massive black holes out to high redshift. In this paper we introduce a Bayesian framework to analyze the information that can be gathered from a set of such measurements. Our goal is to connect a set of massive black hole binary merger observations to the underlying model of massive black hole formation. In other words, given a set of observed massive black hole coalescences, we assess what information can be extracted about the underlying massive black hole population model. For concreteness we consider ten specific models of massive black hole formation, chosen to probe four important (and largely unconstrained) aspects of the input physics used in structure formation simulations: seed formation, metallicity ''feedback'', accretion efficiency and accretion geometry. For the first time we allow for the possibility of 'model mixing', by drawing the observed population from some combination of the 'pure' models that have been simulated. A Bayesian analysis allows us to recover a posterior probability distribution for the ''mixing parameters'' that characterize the fractions of each model represented in the observed distribution. Our work shows that LISA has enormous potential to probe the underlying physics of structure formation.

  10. Mean and Extreme Radio Properties of Quasars and the Origin of Radio Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gordon T.; Kratzer, R.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the evolution of the fraction of radio loud quasars and the mean radio properties of quasars. Although any quasar has only a ~10% chance of being radio loud and the average quasar has a radio luminosity of ~4x10^30 ergs/s/Hz, these properties are strong functions of not only luminosity, redshift, black hole mass, and accretion rate, but also the strength of the accretion disk wind (as characterized by CIV emission line properties). Quasars with higher optical luminosity and/or lower redshift have a higher than average probability of being radio loud, but their median radio luminosity (relative to optical) is much lower than average. We find that, while radio properties of quasars generally cannot be predicted from their optical properties, objects where one expects a strong radiation line driven wind (based on emission line features) have virtually no chance of being radio loud. The redder quasars are in the optical, the more radio flux (relative to optical) they have; this trend holds even for quasars that are not expected to be significantly dust reddened/extincted in the optical. Finally, we consider the radio properties of quasars in the framework of models which describe the radio loud extrema as being due to particularly high spin resulting from second generation mergers and in the context of star formation at lower levels of radio flux. This work was supported by NSF AAG grant 1108798.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Blazars equivalent widths and radio luminosity (Landt+, 2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landt, H.; Padovani, P.; Perlman, E. S.; Giommi, P.

    2004-07-01

    Blazars are currently separated into BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and flat spectrum radio quasars based on the strength of their emission lines. This is performed rather arbitrarily by defining a diagonal line in the Ca H&K break value-equivalent width plane, following Marcha et al. (1996MNRAS.281..425M). We readdress this problem and put the classification scheme for blazars on firm physical grounds. We study ~100 blazars and radio galaxies from the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey (DXRBS, Cat. and ) and 2-Jy radio survey and find a significant bimodality for the narrow emission line [OIII]{lambda}5007. This suggests the presence of two physically distinct classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). We show that all radio-loud AGN, blazars and radio galaxies, can be effectively separated into weak- and strong-lined sources using the [OIII]{lambda}5007-[OII]{lambda}3727 equivalent width plane. This plane allows one to disentangle orientation effects from intrinsic variations in radio-loud AGN. Based on DXRBS, the strongly beamed sources of the new class of weak-lined radio-loud AGN are made up of BL Lacs at the ~75 per cent level, whereas those of the strong-lined radio-loud AGN include mostly (~97 per cent) quasars. (4 data files).

  12. THE XMM-NEWTON X-RAY SPECTRA OF THE MOST X-RAY LUMINOUS RADIO-QUIET ROSAT BRIGHT SURVEY-QSOs: A REFERENCE SAMPLE FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QSO SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumpe, M.; Markowitz, A.; Lamer, G.; Corral, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the broadband X-ray properties of four of the most X-ray luminous (L X ≥ 10 45 erg s -1 in the 0.5-2 keV band) radio-quiet QSOs found in the ROSAT Bright Survey. This uniform sample class, which explores the extreme end of the QSO luminosity function, exhibits surprisingly homogenous X-ray spectral properties: a soft excess with an extremely smooth shape containing no obvious discrete features, a hard power law above 2 keV, and a weak narrow/barely resolved Fe Kα fluorescence line for the three high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectra. The soft excess can be well fitted with only a soft power law. No signatures of warm or cold intrinsic absorbers are found. The Fe Kα centroids and the line widths indicate emission from neutral Fe (E = 6.4 keV) originating from cold material from distances of only a few light days or further out. The well-constrained equivalent widths (EW) of the neutral Fe lines are higher than expected from the X-ray Baldwin effect which has been only poorly constrained at very high luminosities. Taking into account our individual EW measurements, we show that the X-ray Baldwin effect flattens above L X ∼ 10 44 erg s -1 (2-10 keV band) where an almost constant (EW) of ∼100 eV is found. We confirm the assumption of having very similar X-ray active galactic nucleus properties when interpreting stacked X-ray spectra. Our stacked spectrum serves as a superb reference for the interpretation of low S/N spectra of radio-quiet QSOs with similar luminosities at higher redshifts routinely detected by XMM-Newton and Chandra surveys.

  13. Revealing the ISM in high redshift starburst galaxies: An analysis of Herschel PACS and SPIRE FTS spectroscopic observations of HerMES and H-ATLAS-selected lensed galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha

    In the quest to develop a fundamental understanding of galaxy formation and evolution, observations of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) promise significant progress this decade. The importance of DSFGs is highlighted by the fact that half of the energy emitted by extragalactic sources emerges as dust-reprocessed light at infrared (IR) to sub millimeter wavelength. In the post-herschel\\ era, we are now at a unique position to tackle some of the key questions on galaxy formation and evolution because of the large area Herschel's Key Project surveys (HerMES and H-ATLAS). In particular those surveys have allowed us to identify a sample of 250 strongly gravitationally lensed DSFGs at z > 1. They give us a unique opportunity to dissect the detailed structures and kinematics of DSFGs. The Herschel Science Archive also contains individual follow up data on 44 and 25 of the brightest sources with SPIRE-FTS and PACS, respectively, in the spectroscopy mode, taking over 250 hours in four open-time programs. Only one of the 44 SPIRE FTS targets has yet to appear in the published literature. One of the four include an open-time 2 PACS spectroscopy program that was led at UCI by a former postdoc from the PI's group. That program was initially approved at Priority 2 in 2011, but was triggered in late 2012 and achieved 100% completion during the last two weeks of Herschel lifetime in May 2013. This archival analysis, interpretation, and modeling program involves two parts: (i) PACS spectroscopy in 50 to 200 microns of 25 lensed galaxies in the fine-structure emission lines [SiII]34, [SIII]33, [OIV]26, [OIII]52, [NIII]57 and [OI]63, and the molecular hydrogen H_2 S(0) and S(1). (ii) SPIRE FTS spectroscopy of 44 lensed galaxies, including above 25, over the wavelength range of 200 to 600 microns targeting [CII]158, [OIII]88, [OI]63/145, and [NI]122. The analysis will lead to a better understanding of the ISM of starbursting galaxies that span 1 research supports Goal 2 of the NASA 2010 Strategic Plan by addressing the Astrophysics Science Question of “How did the universe originate and evolve to produce the galaxies, stars, and planets we see today?”, and the Science Area Objective of “Understand the many phenomena and processes associated with galaxy, stellar, and planetary system formation and evolution from the earliest epochs to today”. The training of next-generation astrophysicists in the form of undergraduate students, graduate students, and postdoctoral fellows leading to experience and background in the analysis and interpretation of space-based astronomical data support the Goal 6 of the NASA 2011 Strategic Plan to share NASA with the public, educators, and students to provide opportunities to participate in our Mission, foster innovation, and contribute to a strong national economy. The PI's efforts to involve undergraduates in his research programs will specifically improve retention of students in STEM disciplines by providing opportunities and activities along the full length of the education pipeline (subgoal 6.1).

  14. THE CONTRIBUTION OF TP-AGB AND RHeB STARS TO THE NEAR-IR LUMINOSITY OF LOCAL GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR STELLAR MASS MEASUREMENTS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melbourne, J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Rosenfield, Philip; Weisz, D.

    2012-01-01

    Using high spatial resolution Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 and Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging of resolved stellar populations, we constrain the contribution of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars and red helium burning (RHeB) stars to the 1.6 μm near-infrared (NIR) luminosities of 23 nearby galaxies, including dwarfs and spirals. The TP-AGB phase contributes as much as 17% of the integrated F160W flux, even when the red giant branch is well populated. The RHeB population contribution can match or even exceed the TP-AGB contribution, providing as much as 21% (18% after a statistical correction for foreground) of the integrated F160W light. We estimate that these two short-lived phases may account for up to 70% of the rest-frame NIR flux at higher redshift. The NIR mass-to-light (M/L) ratio should therefore be expected to vary significantly due to fluctuations in the star formation rate (SFR) over timescales from 25 Myr to several Gyr, an effect that may be responsible for some of the lingering scatter in NIR galaxy scaling relations such as the Tully-Fisher and metallicity-luminosity relations. We compare our observational results to predictions based on optically derived star formation histories and stellar population synthesis (SPS) models, including models based on the 2008 Padova isochrones (used in popular SPS programs) and the updated 2010 Padova isochrones, which shorten the lifetimes of low-mass (old) low-metallicity TP-AGB populations. The updated (2010) SPS models generally reproduce the expected numbers of TP-AGB stars in the sample; indeed, for 65% of the galaxies, the discrepancy between modeled and observed numbers is smaller than the measurement uncertainties. The weighted mean model/data number ratio for TP-AGB stars is 1.5 (1.4 with outliers removed) with a standard deviation of 0.5. The same SPS models, however, give a larger discrepancy in the F160W flux contribution from the TP-AGB stars, overpredicting the flux by a weighted mean factor of 2.3 (2.2 with outliers removed) with a standard deviation of 0.8. This larger offset is driven by the prediction of modest numbers of high-luminosity TP-AGB stars at young (<300 Myr) ages. The best-fit SPS models simultaneously tend to underpredict the numbers and fluxes of stars on the RHeB sequence, typically by a factor of 2.0 ± 0.6 for galaxies with significant numbers of RHeBs. Possible explanations for both the TP-AGB and RHeB model results include (1) difficulties with measuring the SFHs of galaxies especially on the short timescales over which these stars evolve (several Myr), (2) issues with the way the SPS codes populate the color-magnitude diagrams (e.g., how they handle pulsations or self-extinction), and/or (3) lingering issues with the lifetimes of these stars in the stellar evolution codes. Coincidentally these two competing discrepancies—overprediction of the TP-AGB and underprediction of the RHeBs—result in a predicted NIR M/L ratio largely unchanged for a rapid SFR, after correcting for these effects. However, the NIR-to-optical flux ratio of galaxies could be significantly smaller than AGB-rich models would predict, an outcome that has been observed in some intermediate-redshift post-starburst galaxies.

  15. A Survey of Metal Lines at High Redshift. II. SDSS Absorption Line Studies—O VI Line Density, Space Density, and Gas Metallicity at z abs ~ 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S.; Mathur, S.; Pieri, M.; York, D. G.

    2010-09-01

    We have analyzed a large data set of O VI absorber candidates found in the spectra of 3702 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars, focusing on a subsample of 387 active galactic nuclei sight lines with an average S/N >=5.0, allowing for the detection of absorbers above a rest-frame equivalent width limit of W r >= 0.19 Å for the O VI 1032 Å component. Accounting for random interlopers mimicking an O VI doublet, we derive for the first time a secure lower limit for the redshift number density ΔN/Δz for redshifts z abs >= 2.8. With extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we quantify the losses of absorbers due to blending with the ubiquitous Lyα forest lines and estimate the success rate of retrieving each individual candidate as a function of its redshift, the emission redshift of the quasar, the strength of the absorber, and the measured signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the spectrum by modeling typical Lyman forest spectra. These correction factors allow us to derive the "incompleteness and S/N-corrected" redshift number densities of O VI absorbers: ΔN O VI,c /Δzc (2.8 secure lower limit for the contribution of O VI to the closure mass density at the redshifts probed here: ΩO VI (2.8 = 1.9 × 10-8 h -1. We show that the strong lines we probe account for over 65% of the mass in the O VI absorbers; the weak absorbers, while dominant in line number density, do not contribute significantly to the mass density. Making a conservative assumption about the ionization fraction, {O VI}/{O}, and adopting the Anders & Grevesse solar abundance values, we derive the mean metallicity of the gas probed in our search: ζ(2.8 = 3.6 × 10-4 h, in good agreement with other studies. These results demonstrate that large spectroscopic data sets such as SDSS can play an important role in QSO absorption line studies, in spite of the relatively low resolution.

  16. A SURVEY OF METAL LINES AT HIGH REDSHIFT. II. SDSS ABSORPTION LINE STUDIES-O VI LINE DENSITY, SPACE DENSITY, AND GAS METALLICITY AT zabs ∼ 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S.; Mathur, S.; Pieri, M.; York, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed a large data set of O VI absorber candidates found in the spectra of 3702 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars, focusing on a subsample of 387 active galactic nuclei sight lines with an average S/N ≥5.0, allowing for the detection of absorbers above a rest-frame equivalent width limit of W r ≥ 0.19 A for the O VI 1032 A component. Accounting for random interlopers mimicking an O VI doublet, we derive for the first time a secure lower limit for the redshift number density ΔN/Δz for redshifts z abs ≥ 2.8. With extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we quantify the losses of absorbers due to blending with the ubiquitous Lyα forest lines and estimate the success rate of retrieving each individual candidate as a function of its redshift, the emission redshift of the quasar, the strength of the absorber, and the measured signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the spectrum by modeling typical Lyman forest spectra. These correction factors allow us to derive the 'incompleteness and S/N-corrected' redshift number densities of O VI absorbers: ΔN O V I,c /Δz c (2.8 O V I,c /Δz c (3.2 O V I,c /Δz c (3.6 O V I (2.8 -8 h -1 . We show that the strong lines we probe account for over 65% of the mass in the O VI absorbers; the weak absorbers, while dominant in line number density, do not contribute significantly to the mass density. Making a conservative assumption about the ionization fraction, O VI /O, and adopting the Anders and Grevesse solar abundance values, we derive the mean metallicity of the gas probed in our search: ζ(2.8 -4 h, in good agreement with other studies. These results demonstrate that large spectroscopic data sets such as SDSS can play an important role in QSO absorption line studies, in spite of the relatively low resolution.

  17. The radio spectral energy distribution of infrared-faint radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Seymour, N.; Spitler, L. R.; Emonts, B. H. C.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Hunstead, R.; Intema, H. T.; Marvil, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Sirothia, S. K.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Callingham, J. R.; Deshpande, A. A.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; For, B.-Q.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hancock, P.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapińska, A. D.; Kaplan, D. L.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Morgan, J.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A.; Ord, S. M.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Zheng, Q.; Bannister, K. W.; Chippendale, A. P.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Heywood, I.; Indermuehle, B.; Popping, A.; Sault, R. J.; Whiting, M. T.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a class of radio-loud (RL) active galactic nuclei (AGN) at high redshifts (z ≥ 1.7) that are characterised by their relative infrared faintness, resulting in enormous radio-to-infrared flux density ratios of up to several thousand. Aims: Because of their optical and infrared faintness, it is very challenging to study IFRS at these wavelengths. However, IFRS are relatively bright in the radio regime with 1.4 GHz flux densities of a few to a few tens of mJy. Therefore, the radio regime is the most promising wavelength regime in which to constrain their nature. We aim to test the hypothesis that IFRS are young AGN, particularly GHz peaked-spectrum (GPS) and compact steep-spectrum (CSS) sources that have a low frequency turnover. Methods: We use the rich radio data set available for the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey fields, covering the frequency range between 150 MHz and 34 GHz with up to 19 wavebands from different telescopes, and build radio spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 34 IFRS. We then study the radio properties of this class of object with respect to turnover, spectral index, and behaviour towards higher frequencies. We also present the highest-frequency radio observations of an IFRS, observed with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer at 105 GHz, and model the multi-wavelength and radio-far-infrared SED of this source. Results: We find IFRS usually follow single power laws down to observed frequencies of around 150 MHz. Mostly, the radio SEDs are steep (α IFRS show statistically significantly steeper radio SEDs than the broader RL AGN population. Our analysis reveals that the fractions of GPS and CSS sources in the population of IFRS are consistent with the fractions in the broader RL AGN population. We find that at least % of IFRS contain young AGN, although the fraction might be significantly higher as suggested by the steep SEDs and the compact morphology of IFRS. The detailed multi

  18. Optical Variability of Narrow-line and Broad-line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Suvendu; Stalin, C. S.

    2017-06-01

    We studied the optical variability (OV) of a large sample of narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) and broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLSy1) galaxies with z anti-correlated with Fe II strength but correlated with the width of the Hβ line. The well-known anti-correlation of variability-luminosity and the variability-Eddington ratio is present in our data. Among the radio-loud sample, variability amplitude is found to be correlated with radio-loudness and radio-power, suggesting that jets also play an important role in the OV in radio-loud objects, in addition to the Eddington ratio, which is the main driving factor of OV in radio-quiet sources.

  19. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this work, we construct a sample of 1585 radio-loud quasars to measure their black hole masses using broad emission lines. We compare our black hole masses with the virial black hole masses measured by Shen et al. (2010).We find that there is a large deviation between them if our black hole mass is ...

  20. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We present the results of multi-years optical and radio monitoring of radio-loud quasars 0716+714 and 1633+382, aimed at searching the flux variations and possible correlation at different wave bands. Our radio observations were performed with a 22-m radio telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical ...

  1. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present the results of multi-years optical and radio moni- toring of radio-loud quasars 0716+714 and 1633+382, aimed at search- ing the flux variations and possible correlation at different wave bands. Our radio observations were performed with a 22-m radio telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory ...

  2. Radio and Gamma-Ray Monitoring of Strongly Lensed Quasars and Blazars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumbaugh, Nick; Fassnacht, Chris; McKean, John; Koopmans, Leon; Auger, Matthew; Suyu, Sherry; Marshall, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    We observed six strongly lensed, radio-loud quasars (MG 0414+0534, CLASS B0712+472, JVAS B1030+074, CLASS B1127+385, CLASS B1152+199, and JVAS B1938+666) in order to identify systems suitable for measuring cosmological parameters using time delays between their multiple images. Two separate

  3. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Estimating black hole masses of blazars is still a big challenge. Because of the contamination of jets, using the previously suggested size–continuum luminosity relation can overestimate the broad line region (BLR) size and black hole mass for radio-loud AGNs, including blazars. We propose a new relation ...

  4. The Origin of the Infrared Emission in Radio Galaxies : III. Analysis of 3CRR Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicken, D.; Tadhunter, C.; Axon, D.; Robinson, A.; Morganti, R.; Kharb, P.

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer photometric data for a complete sample of 19 low-redshift (z <0.1) 3CRR radio galaxies as part of our efforts to understand the origin of the prodigious mid-to far-infrared (MFIR) emission from radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our results show a correlation between AGN

  5. What Governs Lorentz Factors of Jet Components in Blazars? Xinwu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We use a sample of radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei. (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is ...

  6. Renyi Ma & Chong Ping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The similarities between blazars and radio-loud narrow-line. Seyfert 1 galaxies (RLNLS1s) have received much attention. In this paper, by using the magnetized slim disk model, we calculate the jet power and disk luminosity. It is found that the jet power is only a very small fraction of the disk luminosity, <10%.

  7. What Governs Lorentz Factors of Jet Components in Blazars?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We use a sample of radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is present ...

  8. Narrow CIV lambda 1549A Absorption Lines in Moderate-Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    A large, high-quality spectral data base of well-selected, moderate-redshift radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars is used to characterize the incidence of narrow associated CIV lambda 1549 absorption, and how this may depend on some quasar properties, including radio-type. Preliminary results...

  9. Occurrence and Global Properties of Narrow CIV lambda 1549 Absorption Lines in Moderate-Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    A statistical study is presented of (a) the frequency of narrow CIV lambda 1549 absorption lines in 1.5 ~50%) of narrow CIV absorbers is detected for the radio-quiet and radio-loud quasars, and a constant ~25% of all the quasars, irrespective of radio type display associated CIV absorbers stronger...

  10. Radio Jets Clearing the Way Through a Galaxy: Watching Feedback in Action in the Seyfert Galaxy IC 5063

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Frieswijk, W.; Tadhunter, C. N.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution (0.5 arcsec) CO(2-1) observations performed with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array have been used to trace the kinematics of the molecular gas in the Seyfert 2 galaxy{IC 5063}. Although one of the most radio-loud Seyfert galaxy, IC 5063 is a relatively weak radio

  11. Monolithic View of Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Chiosi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We review and critically discuss the current understanding of galaxy formation and evolution limited to Early Type Galaxies (ETGs as inferred from the observational data and briefly contrast the hierarchical and quasi-monolithic paradigms of formation and evolution. Since in Cold Dark Matter (CDM cosmogony small scale structures typically collapse early and form low-mass haloes that subsequently can merge to assembly larger haloes, galaxies formed in the gravitational potential well of a halo are also expected to merge thus assembling their mass hierarchically. Mergers should occur all over the Hubble time and large mass galaxies should be in place only recently. However, recent observations of high redshift galaxies tell a different story: massive ETGs are already in place at high redshift. To this aim, we propose here a revision of the quasi-monolithic scenario as an alternative to the hierarchical one, in which mass assembling should occur in early stages of a galaxy lifetime and present recent models of ETGs made of Dark and Baryonic Matter in a Λ-CDM Universe that obey the latter scheme. The galaxies are followed from the detachment from the linear regime and Hubble flow at z ≥ 20 down to the stage of nearly complete assembly of the stellar content (z ∼ 2 − 1 and beyond.  It is found that the total mass (Mh = MDM + MBM and/or initial over-density of the proto-galaxy drive the subsequent star formation histories (SFH. Massive galaxies (Mh ~ _1012M⊙ experience a single, intense burst of star formation (with rates ≥ 103M⊙/yr at early epochs, consistently with observations, with a weak dependence on the initial over-density; intermediate mass haloes (Mh~_ 1010 − 1011M⊙ have star formation histories that strongly depend on their initial over-density; finally, low mass haloes (Mh ~_ 109M⊙ always have erratic, burst-like star forming histories. The present-day properties (morphology, structure, chemistry and photometry of the

  12. Are the Formation and Abundances of Metal-poor Stars the Result of Dust Dynamics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Philip F. [TAPIR, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Conroy, Charlie, E-mail: phopkins@caltech.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Large dust grains can fluctuate dramatically in their local density, relative to the gas, in neutral turbulent disks. Small, high-redshift galaxies (before reionization) represent ideal environments for this process. We show via simple arguments and simulations that order-of-magnitude fluctuations are expected in local abundances of large grains (>100 Å) under these conditions. This can have important consequences for star formation and stellar metal abundances in extremely metal-poor stars. Low-mass stars can form in dust-enhanced regions almost immediately after some dust forms even if the galaxy-average metallicity is too low for fragmentation to occur. We argue that the metal abundances of these “promoted” stars may contain interesting signatures as the CNO abundances (concentrated in large carbonaceous grains and ices) and Mg and Si (in large silicate grains) can be enhanced and/or fluctuate almost independently. Remarkably, the otherwise puzzling abundance patterns of some metal-poor stars can be well fit by standard IMF-averaged core-collapse SNe yields if we allow for fluctuating local dust-to-gas ratios. We also show that the observed log-normal distribution of enhancements in pure SNe yields, shows very large enhancements and variations up to factors of ≳100 as expected in the dust-promoted model, preferentially in the [C/Fe]-enhanced metal-poor stars. Together, this suggests that (1) dust exists in second-generation star formation, (2) local dust-to-gas ratio fluctuations occur in protogalaxies and can be important for star formation, and (3) the light element abundances of these stars may be affected by the local chemistry of dust where they formed, rather than directly tracing nucleosynthesis from earlier populations.

  13. Are the Formation and Abundances of Metal-poor Stars the Result of Dust Dynamics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Conroy, Charlie

    2017-01-01

    Large dust grains can fluctuate dramatically in their local density, relative to the gas, in neutral turbulent disks. Small, high-redshift galaxies (before reionization) represent ideal environments for this process. We show via simple arguments and simulations that order-of-magnitude fluctuations are expected in local abundances of large grains (>100 Å) under these conditions. This can have important consequences for star formation and stellar metal abundances in extremely metal-poor stars. Low-mass stars can form in dust-enhanced regions almost immediately after some dust forms even if the galaxy-average metallicity is too low for fragmentation to occur. We argue that the metal abundances of these “promoted” stars may contain interesting signatures as the CNO abundances (concentrated in large carbonaceous grains and ices) and Mg and Si (in large silicate grains) can be enhanced and/or fluctuate almost independently. Remarkably, the otherwise puzzling abundance patterns of some metal-poor stars can be well fit by standard IMF-averaged core-collapse SNe yields if we allow for fluctuating local dust-to-gas ratios. We also show that the observed log-normal distribution of enhancements in pure SNe yields, shows very large enhancements and variations up to factors of ≳100 as expected in the dust-promoted model, preferentially in the [C/Fe]-enhanced metal-poor stars. Together, this suggests that (1) dust exists in second-generation star formation, (2) local dust-to-gas ratio fluctuations occur in protogalaxies and can be important for star formation, and (3) the light element abundances of these stars may be affected by the local chemistry of dust where they formed, rather than directly tracing nucleosynthesis from earlier populations.

  14. Gamma-Ray Bursts in Circumstellar Shells: A Possible Explanation for Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesler, Robert; Whalen, D. J.; Lloyd-Ronning, N. M.; Fryer, C. L.; Pihlstrom, Y. M.

    2012-05-01

    It is now generally accepted that long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are due to the collapse of massive rotating stars. The precise collapse process itself, however, is not yet fully understood. Strong winds, outbursts, and intense ionizing UV radiation from single stars or strongly interacting binaries are expected to destroy the molecular cloud cores that give birth to them and create highly complex circumburst environments for the explosion. Such environments might imprint features on GRB light curves that uniquely identify the nature of the progenitor and its collapse. We have performed numerical simulations of realistic environments for a variety of long-duration GRB progenitors with ZEUS-MP and have developed an analytical method for calculating detailed GRB light curves in these profiles. We find that, in the context of the standard afterglow model, massive shells around GRBs produce strong signatures in their light curves, and that this clearly distinguishes them from those occurring in uniform media or steady winds. These features can constrain the mass of the shell and the properties of the wind before and after the ejection. Moreover, the interaction of the GRB with the circumburst shell is seen to produce features that are consistent with observed X-ray flares that are often attributed to delayed energy injection by the central engine. Our algorithm for computing light curves is also applicable to GRBs in a variety of environments such as those in high-redshift cosmological halos or protogalaxies, both of which will soon be targets of future surveys such as JANUS or Lobster.

  15. Dynamically important magnetic fields near accreting supermassive black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamaninasab, M; Clausen-Brown, E; Savolainen, T; Tchekhovskoy, A

    2014-06-05

    Accreting supermassive black holes at the centres of active galaxies often produce 'jets'--collimated bipolar outflows of relativistic particles. Magnetic fields probably play a critical role in jet formation and in accretion disk physics. A dynamically important magnetic field was recently found near the Galactic Centre black hole. If this is common and if the field continues to near the black hole event horizon, disk structures will be affected, invalidating assumptions made in standard models. Here we report that jet magnetic field and accretion disk luminosity are tightly correlated over seven orders of magnitude for a sample of 76 radio-loud active galaxies. We conclude that the jet-launching regions of these radio-loud galaxies are threaded by dynamically important fields, which will affect the disk properties. These fields obstruct gas infall, compress the accretion disk vertically, slow down the disk rotation by carrying away its angular momentum in an outflow and determine the directionality of jets.

  16. No evidence for radio-quiet BL Lacertae objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocke, J.T.; Morris, S.L.; Gioia, I.; Maccacaro, T.; Schild, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Using a large, flux-limited sample of faint X-ray sources, a search has been conducted for radio-quiet BL Lacertae objects. None has been found. Thirty-two X-ray-selected BL Lac objects and BL Lac candidates have been found within the sources of the Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS). Thirty-one of these have been observed with the VLA and all have been detected at 5 GHz. While the optical magnitudes of the EMSS BL Lac objects range from 17 to 20.8, their radio-to-optical spectral indices occupy a very small range. The very bright X-ray-selected BL Lac objects like PKS 2155-304 and Markarian 501 have similar range values. Therefore, unlike the clear dichotomy between radio-loud quasars and radio-quiet QSOs, there is no evidence for two populations of Lacertids distinguished by radio loudness. 43 refs

  17. QUASAR CLUSTERING FROM SDSS DR5: DEPENDENCES ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Bahcall, Neta A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Hall, Patrick B.; Richards, Gordon T.; Weinberg, David H.; Shankar, Francesco; Connolly, Andrew J.; Fan Xiaohui; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Brunner, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Using a homogenous sample of 38,208 quasars with a sky coverage of ∼4000 deg. 2 drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Five quasar catalog, we study the dependence of quasar clustering on luminosity, virial black hole (BH) mass, quasar color, and radio loudness. At z 13 h -1 M sun , compared to ∼2 x 10 12 h -1 M sun for radio-quiet quasar hosts at z ∼ 1.5.

  18. Search for muon-neutrino emission from GeV and TeV gamma-ray flaring blazars using five years of data of the ANTARES telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J. -J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bogazzi, C.; Bormuth, R.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well-suited for detecting astrophysical transient neutrino sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all times with a high duty cycle. The background due to atmospheric particles can be drastically reduced, and the point-source sensitivity improved, by selecting a narrow time window around possible neutrino production periods. Blazars, being radio-loud active galactic nuclei with their jets pointing almost directly towards the observer, ...

  19. Optical Variability of Narrow-line and Broad-line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakshit, Suvendu; Stalin, C. S., E-mail: suvenduat@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Block II, Koramangala, Bangalore-560034 (India)

    2017-06-20

    We studied the optical variability (OV) of a large sample of narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) and broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLSy1) galaxies with z < 0.8 to investigate any differences in their OV properties. Using archival optical V -band light curves from the Catalina Real Time Transient Survey that span 5–9 years and modeling them using damped random walk, we estimated the amplitude of variability. We found that NLSy1 galaxies as a class show lower amplitude of variability than their broad-line counterparts. In the sample of both NLSy1 and BLSy1 galaxies, radio-loud sources are found to have higher variability amplitude than radio-quiet sources. Considering only sources that are detected in the X-ray band, NLSy1 galaxies are less optically variable than BLSy1 galaxies. The amplitude of variability in the sample of both NLSy1 and BLSy1 galaxies is found to be anti-correlated with Fe ii strength but correlated with the width of the H β line. The well-known anti-correlation of variability–luminosity and the variability–Eddington ratio is present in our data. Among the radio-loud sample, variability amplitude is found to be correlated with radio-loudness and radio-power, suggesting that jets also play an important role in the OV in radio-loud objects, in addition to the Eddington ratio, which is the main driving factor of OV in radio-quiet sources.

  20. FERMI/LAT OBSERVATIONS OF SWIFT/BAT SEYFERT GALAXIES: ON THE CONTRIBUTION OF RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI TO THE EXTRAGALACTIC γ-RAY BACKGROUND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Sambruna, Rita M.; Davis, David S.

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of 2.1 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data on 491 Seyfert galaxies detected by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey. Only the two nearest objects, NGC 1068 and NGC 4945, which were identified in the Fermi first year catalog, are detected. Using Swift/BAT and radio 20 cm fluxes, we define a new radio-loudness parameter R X,BAT where radio-loud objects have log R X,BAT > –4.7. Based on this parameter, only radio-loud sources are detected by Fermi/LAT. An upper limit to the flux of the undetected sources is derived to be ∼2 × 10 –11 photons cm –2 s –1 , approximately seven times lower than the observed flux of NGC 1068. Assuming a median redshift of 0.031, this implies an upper limit to the γ-ray (1-100 GeV) luminosity of ∼ 41 erg s –1 . In addition, we identified 120 new Fermi/LAT sources near the Swift/BAT Seyfert galaxies with significant Fermi/LAT detections. A majority of these objects do not have Swift/BAT counterparts, but their possible optical counterparts include blazars, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and quasars.

  1. THE RADIO AND OPTICAL LUMINOSITY EVOLUTION OF QUASARS. II. THE SDSS SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singal, J.; Petrosian, V.; Stawarz, Ł.; Lawrence, A.

    2013-01-01

    We determine the radio and optical luminosity evolutions and the true distribution of the radio-loudness parameter R, defined as the ratio of the radio to optical luminosity, for a set of more than 5000 quasars combining Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical and Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) radio data. We apply the method of Efron and Petrosian to access the intrinsic distribution parameters, taking into account the truncations and correlations inherent in the data. We find that the population exhibits strong positive evolution with redshift in both wavebands, with somewhat greater radio evolution than optical. With the luminosity evolutions accounted for, we determine the density evolutions and local radio and optical luminosity functions. The intrinsic distribution of the radio-loudness parameter R is found to be quite different from the observed one and is smooth with no evidence of a bimodality in radio loudness for log R ≥ –1. The results we find are in general agreement with the previous analysis of Singal et al., which used POSS-I optical and FIRST radio data.

  2. 3C 254: the alignment effect and unification schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, M. N.

    1997-01-01

    3C 254 is a radio-loud quasar at z=0.734. Optical line and continuum emission from the underlying galaxy is clearly extended and aligned with the radio axis; the object shows the so-called `alignment effect' which is often seen in powerful radio galaxies. This is the clearest case yet of the continuum alignment effect in a radio-loud quasar. The object is one of the most lobe-dominated 3C quasars; the significance of the aligned emission in this source is discussed in terms of orientation-based unification schemes for radio-loud quasars and radio galaxies. 3C 254 is a very asymmetric radio source and it is shown that the radio structure on the side with the shortest nucleus-hotspot distance is interacting with the emission-line gas surrounding the quasar. It is also shown that the quasar is surrounded by an overdensity of faint objects, consistent with a cluster or group of galaxies around the object.

  3. Fermi/LAT Observations of Swift/BAT Seyfert Galaxies: On the Contribution of Radio-Quiet Active Galactic Nuclei to the Extragalactic gamma-Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Sambruna, Rita M.; Davis, David S.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of 2.1 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data on 491 Seyfert galaxies detected by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey. Only the two nearest objects, NGC 1068 and NGC 4945, which were identified in the Fermi first year catalog, are detected. Using Swift/BAT and radio 20 cm fluxes, we define a new radio-loudness parameter R(sub X,BAT) where radio-loud objects have logR(sub X,BAT) > -4.7. Based on this parameter, only radio-loud sources are detected by Fermi/LAT. An upper limit to the flux of the undetected sources is derived to be approx.2x10(exp -11) photons/sq cm/s, approximately seven times lower than the observed flux of NGC 1068. Assuming a median redshift of 0.031, this implies an upper limit to the gamma-ray (1-100 GeV) luminosity of BAT Seyfert galaxies with significant Fermi/LAT detections. A majority of these objects do not have Swift/BAT counterparts, but their possible optical counterparts include blazars, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and quasars.

  4. The Origin of Powerful Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. S.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    1995-05-01

    Radio-loud active galaxies are associated with elliptical or elliptical-like galaxies, many of which appear to be the result of a recent merger. In contrast, radio-quiet active galaxies prefer spiral hosts. Despite the very large difference in radio luminosities between the two classes, their continua and line spectra from infrared through X-ray frequencies are very similar. In this paper, we describe recent developments of our model (Ap. J. 438, 62 1995) in which the radio-loud phenomenon is the result of a merger of two galaxies, with each galaxy nucleus containing a slowly (or non-) rotating supermassive black hole. It is envisaged that the two black holes eventually coalesce. For the small fraction of mergers in which the two holes are both massive and of comparable mass, a rapidly-spinning, high-mass hole results. The spin energy of a rapidly rotating 10(8-9) solar mass hole suffices to provide the ~ 10(60) ergs in relativistic particles and magnetic fields in the most energetic radio sources. Luminous radio-quiet active galaxies contain high-mass, slowly-rotating holes, with the infrared through X-ray emission of both classes being fuelled by accretion as commonly assumed. We discuss constraints on the model from the luminosity functions of radio-loud and radio-quiet galaxies and from the known cosmological evolution of the radio source population; this evolution is assumed to reflect higher galaxy merger rates in the past.

  5. Star formation rates and stellar masses in z ~ 1 gamma-ray burst hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro Cerón, José María; Michalowski, Michal; Hjorth, J.

    2006-01-01

    Cosmology: Observations, ISM: Dust, Extinction, Galaxies: High-Redshift, Galaxies: ISM, Gamma Rays: Bursts, Infrared: Galaxies Udgivelsesdato: Dec. 4......Cosmology: Observations, ISM: Dust, Extinction, Galaxies: High-Redshift, Galaxies: ISM, Gamma Rays: Bursts, Infrared: Galaxies Udgivelsesdato: Dec. 4...

  6. Velocity-metallicity correlation for high-z DLA galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledoux, C.; Petitjean, P.; Fynbo, J.P.U.

    2006-01-01

    Galaxies: halos, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: ISM, quasars: absorption lines, cosmology: observations Udgivelsesdato: Oct.......Galaxies: halos, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: ISM, quasars: absorption lines, cosmology: observations Udgivelsesdato: Oct....

  7. Detection of Lyman/alpha emission from a DLA galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Fynbo, Johan Peter Uldall; Fall, S.M

    2004-01-01

    HIGH-REDSHIFT; BREAK GALAXIES; STARFORMATION; DISK GALAXIES; METAL ENRICHMENT; HOST GALAXY; ABSORPTION; ABSORBER; SYSTEMS; SPECTROSCOPY......HIGH-REDSHIFT; BREAK GALAXIES; STARFORMATION; DISK GALAXIES; METAL ENRICHMENT; HOST GALAXY; ABSORPTION; ABSORBER; SYSTEMS; SPECTROSCOPY...

  8. CLUSTERING OF γ-RAY-SELECTED 2LAC FERMI BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Cappelluti, N. [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We present the first measurement of the projected correlation function of 485 γ-ray-selected blazars, divided into 175 BL Lacertae (BL Lacs) and 310 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) detected in the 2 year all-sky survey by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope. We find that Fermi BL Lacs and FSRQs reside in massive dark matter halos (DMHs) with log M{sub h} = 13.35{sub −0.14}{sup +0.20} and log M{sub h} = 13.40{sub −0.19}{sup +0.15} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}, respectively, at low (z ∼ 0.4) and high (z ∼ 1.2) redshift. In terms of clustering properties, these results suggest that BL Lacs and FSRQs are similar objects residing in the same dense environment typical of galaxy groups, despite their different spectral energy distributions, power, and accretion rates. We find no difference in the typical bias and hosting halo mass between Fermi blazars and radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs), supporting the unification scheme simply equating radio-loud objects with misaligned blazar counterparts. This similarity in terms of the typical environment they preferentially live in, suggests that blazars tend to occupy the center of DMHs, as already pointed out for radio-loud AGNs. This implies, in light of several projects looking for the γ-ray emission from DM annihilation in galaxy clusters, a strong contamination from blazars to the expected signal from DM annihilation.

  9. Large-Scale Environment Properties of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies at z < 0.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Järvelä, Emilia [Metsähovi Radio Observatory, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Lähteenmäki, A. [Metsähovi Radio Observatory, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Tartu Observatory, Tõravere (Estonia); Lietzen, H., E-mail: emilia.jarvela@aalto.fi [Tartu Observatory, Tõravere (Estonia)

    2017-11-30

    The large-scale environment is believed to affect the evolution and intrinsic properties of galaxies. It offers a new perspective on narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1) which have not been extensively studied in this context before. We study a large and diverse sample of 960 NLS1 galaxies using a luminosity-density field constructed using Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We investigate how the large-scale environment is connected to the properties of NLS1 galaxies, especially their radio loudness. Furthermore, we compare the large-scale environment properties of NLS1 galaxies with other active galactic nuclei (AGN) classes, for example, other jetted AGN and broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1) galaxies, to shed light on their possible relations. In general NLS1 galaxies reside in less dense large-scale environments than any of our comparison samples, thus supporting their young age. The average luminosity-density and distribution to different luminosity-density regions of NLS1 sources is significantly different compared to BLS1 galaxies. This contradicts the simple orientation-based unification of NLS1 and BLS1 galaxies, and weakens the hypothesis that BLS1 galaxies are the parent population of NLS1 galaxies. The large-scale environment density also has an impact on the intrinsic properties of NLS1 galaxies; the radio loudness increases with the increasing luminosity-density. However, our results suggest that the NLS1 population is indeed heterogeneous, and that a considerable fraction of them are misclassified. We support a suggested description that the traditional classification based on the radio loudness should be replaced with the division to jetted and non-jetted sources.

  10. Stellar Photometric Structures of the Host Galaxies of Nearby Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng, Chien Y. [Giant Magellan Telescope Corporation, 251 S. Lake Ave., Suite 300, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Im, Myungshin, E-mail: mkim@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: lho.pku@gmail.com, E-mail: peng@gmto.org, E-mail: barth@uci.edu, E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Frontier Physics Research Division (FPRD), Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-01

    We present detailed image analysis of rest-frame optical images of 235 low-redshift ( z ≲ 0.35) Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with the Hubble Space Telescope . The high-resolution images enable us to perform rigorous two-dimensional image modeling to decouple the luminous central point source from the host galaxy, which, when warranted, is further decomposed into its principal structural components (bulge, bar, and disk). In many cases, care must be taken to account for structural complexities such as spiral arms, tidal features, and overlapping or interacting companion galaxies. We employ Fourier modes to characterize the degree of asymmetry of the light distribution of the stars as a quantitative measure of morphological distortion due to interactions or mergers. We examine the dependence of the physical parameters of the host galaxies on the properties of the AGNs, namely, radio-loudness and the width of the broad emission lines. In accordance with previous studies, narrow-line (H β FWHM ≤ 2000 km s{sup −1}) Type 1 AGNs, in contrast to their broad-line (H β FWHM > 2000 km s{sup −1}) counterparts, are preferentially hosted in later-type, lower-luminosity galaxies, which have a higher incidence of pseudo-bulges, are more frequently barred, and are less morphologically disturbed. This suggests that narrow-line Type 1 AGNs experienced a more quiescent evolutionary history driven primarily by internal secular evolution instead of external dynamical perturbations. The fraction of AGN hosts showing merger signatures is larger for more luminous sources. Radio-loud AGNs generally preferentially live in earlier-type (bulge-dominated), more massive hosts, although a minority of them appear to contain a significant disk component. We do not find convincing evidence for enhanced merger signatures in the radio-loud population.

  11. KILOPARSEC-SCALE RADIO STRUCTURES IN NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Akihiro; Kino, Motoki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuou-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Nagira, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Kawakatu, Nozomu [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Nagai, Hiroshi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Asada, Keiichi, E-mail: akihiro.doi@vsop.isas.jaxa.jp [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2012-11-20

    We report the finding of kiloparsec (kpc)-scale radio structures in three radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-centimeters of the Very Large Array, which increases the number of known radio-loud NLS1s with kpc-scale structures to six, including two {gamma}-ray-emitting NLS1s (PMN J0948+0022 and 1H 0323+342) detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The detection rate of extended radio emissions in NLS1s is lower than that in broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with a statistical significance. We found both core-dominated (blazar-like) and lobe-dominated (radio-galaxy-like) radio structures in these six NLS1s, which can be understood in the framework of the unified scheme of radio-loud AGNs that considers radio galaxies as non-beamed parent populations of blazars. Five of the six NLS1s have (1) extended radio luminosities suggesting jet kinetic powers of {approx}> 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}, which is sufficient to make jets escape from hosts' dense environments; (2) black holes of {approx}> 10{sup 7} M {sub Sun }, which can generate the necessary jet powers from near-Eddington mass accretion; and (3) two-sided radio structures at kpc scales, requiring expansion rates of {approx}0.01c-0.3c and kinematic ages of {approx}> 10{sup 7} years. On the other hand, most typical NLS1s would be driven by black holes of {approx}< 10{sup 7} M {sub Sun} in a limited lifetime of {approx}10{sup 7} years. Hence, the kpc-scale radio structures may originate in a small window of opportunity during the final stage of the NLS1 phase just before growing into broad-line AGNs.

  12. Interstellar Scintillation and Scattering of Micro-arc-second AGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Jauncey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the first quasar 3C 273 led directly to the discovery of their variability at optical and radio wavelengths. We review the radio variability observations, in particular the variability found at frequencies below 1 GHz, as well as those exhibiting intra-day variability (IDV at cm wavelengths. Observations have shown that IDV arises principally from scintillation caused by scattering in the ionized interstellar medium of our Galaxy. The sensitivity of interstellar scintillation towards source angular sizes has provided a powerful tool for studying the most compact components of radio-loud AGN at microarcsecond and milliarcsecond scale resolution.

  13. The importance of jet bending in gamma-ray AGNs—revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, P. J. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Tingay, S. J. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA (Australia)

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that γ-ray-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have a greater tendency for jet bending than γ-ray-loud AGNs, revisiting the analysis of Tingay et al. We perform a statistical analysis using a large sample of 351 radio-loud AGNs along with γ-ray identifications from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Our results show no statistically significant differences in jet-bending properties between γ-ray-loud and γ-ray-quiet populations, indicating that jet bending is not a significant factor for γ-ray detection in AGNs.

  14. The nature of extragalactic radio-jets from high-resolution radio-interferometric observations

    OpenAIRE

    Perucho, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Extragalactic jets are a common feature of radio-loud active galaxies. The nature of the observed jets in relation to the bulk flow is still unclear. In particular it is not clear whether the observations of parsec-scale jets using the very long baseline interferometric technique (VLBI) reveal wave-like structures that develop and propagate along the jet, or trace the jet flow itself. In this contribution I review the evidence collected during the last years showing that the ridge-lines of he...

  15. Search for neutrino emission from gamma-ray flaring blazars with the ANTARES telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Al Samarai, Imen; Albert, A.; André, Michel; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well-suited to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all times with a high duty cycle. Radio-loud active galactic nuclei with jets pointing almost directly towards the observer, the so-called blazars, are particularly attractive potential neutrino point sources. The all-sky monitor LAT on board the Fermi satellite probes the variability of any given gamma-ray bright blazar in the sky on time scal...

  16. Testing Disk-Wind Models with Quasar CIV 1549Å Associated Absorption Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Narrow associated C IV 1549Å absorption lines (NALs) with a rest equivalent width EW =3 Å detected in z ˜ 2 radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, (a) exhibit evidence of an origin in radiatively accelerated gas, and (b) may be closely related to broad absorption line (BAL) outflows. These NALs...... and the few BALs detected in this quasar sample obey key predictions of models of radiatively driven disk-winds in which (1) the local disk luminosity launches the wind, (2) the central UV radiation drives it outwards, and (3) the wind acceleration (i.e., terminal velocity) depends on the strength of the X...

  17. The accretion history of the Universe with the SKA

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Matt J.; Rawlings, Steve

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) can aid in determining the evolutionary history of active galactic nuclei (AGN) from redshifts z= 0 ->6. Given the vast collecting area of the SKA, it will be sensitive to both `radio-loud' AGN and the much more abundant `radio-quiet' AGN, namely the radio-quiet quasars and their `Type-II' counterparts, out to the highest redshifts. Not only will the SKA detect these sources but it will also often be able to measure their redsh...

  18. Jet Physics of Accreting Super-Massive Black Holes in the Era of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ammando, Filippo, E-mail: dammando@ira.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Istituto di Radioastronomia (INAF), Bologna (Italy)

    2017-11-28

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with its main instrument on-board, the Large Area Telescope (LAT), opened a new era in the study of high-energy emission from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). When combined with contemporaneous ground- and space-based observations, Fermi-LAT achieves its full capability to characterize the jet structure and the emission mechanisms at work in radio-loud AGN with different black hole mass and accretion rate, from flat spectrum radio quasars to narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies. Here, I discuss important findings regarding the blazar population included in the third LAT catalog of AGN and the γ-ray emitting NLSy1. Moreover, the detection of blazars at redshift beyond three in γ rays allows us to constrain the growth and evolution of heavy black holes over cosmic time, suggesting that the radio-loud phase may be important for a fast black hole growth in the early Universe. Finally, results on extragalactic objects from the third catalog of hard LAT sources are presented.

  19. Relativistic jets in narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies. New discoveries and open questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Ammando F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Before the launch of the Fermi satellite only two classes of AGNs were known to produce relativistic jets and thus emit up to the γ-ray energy range: blazars and radio galaxies, both hosted in giant elliptical galaxies. The first four years of observations by the Large Area Telescope on board Fermi confirmed that these two are the most numerous classes of identified sources in the extragalactic γ-ray sky, but the discovery of γ-ray emission from 5 radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies revealed the presence of a possible emerging third class of AGNs with relativistic jets. Considering that narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies seem to be typically hosted in spiral galaxy, this finding poses intriguing questions about the nature of these objects, the onset of production of relativistic jets, and the cosmological evolution of radio-loud AGN. Here, we discuss the radio-to-γ-rays properties of the γ-ray emitting narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies, also in comparison with the blazar scenario.

  20. RESOLVING THE GEOMETRY OF THE INNERMOST RELATIVISTIC JETS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algaba, J. C.; Lee, S. S. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Nakamura, M.; Asada, K., E-mail: algaba@kasi.re.kr [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU. No.1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C (China)

    2017-01-01

    In the current paradigm, it is believed that the compact VLBI radio core of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) represents the innermost upstream regions of relativistic outflows. These regions of AGN jets have generally been modeled by a conical outflow with a roughly constant opening angle and flow speed. Nonetheless, some works suggest that a parabolic geometry would be more appropriate to fit the high energy spectral distribution properties and it has been recently found that, at least in some nearby radio galaxies, the geometry of the innermost regions of the jet is parabolic. We compile here multi-frequency core sizes of archival data to investigate the typically unresolved upstream regions of the jet geometry of a sample of 56 radio-loud AGNs. Data combined from the sources considered here are not consistent with the classic picture of a conical jet starting in the vicinity of the super-massive black hole (SMBH), and may exclude a pure parabolic outflow solution, but rather suggest an intermediate solution with quasi-parabolic streams, which are frequently seen in numerical simulations. Inspection of the large opening angles near the SMBH and the range of the Lorentz factors derived from our results support our analyses. Our result suggests that the conical jet paradigm in AGNs needs to be re-examined by millimeter/sub-millimeter VLBI observations.

  1. THE COMPLEX NORTH TRANSITION REGION OF CENTAURUS A: RADIO STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, Susan G. [NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory for Observational Cosmology, Mail Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Eilek, Jean A. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Owen, Frazer N., E-mail: susan.g.neff@nasa.gov [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O,  Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    We present deep radio images of the inner ∼50 kpc of Centaurus A, taken with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 90 cm. We focus on the Transition Regions between the inner galaxy—including the active nucleus, inner radio lobes, and star-forming disk—and the outer radio lobes. We detect previously unknown extended emission around the Inner Lobes, including radio emission from the star-forming disk. We find that the radio-loud part of the North Transition Region (NTR), known as the North Middle Lobe, is significantly overpressured relative to the surrounding interstellar medium. We see no evidence for a collimated flow from the active galactic nucleus through this region. Our images show that the structure identified by Morganti et al. as a possible large-scale jet appears to be part of a narrow ridge of emission within the broader, diffuse, radio-loud region. This knotty radio ridge is coincident with other striking phenomena: compact X-ray knots, ionized gas filaments, and streams of young stars. Several short-lived phenomena in the NTR, as well as the frequent re-energization required by the Outer Lobes, suggest that energy must be flowing through both Transition Regions at the present epoch. We suggest that the energy flow is in the form of a galactic wind.

  2. Baldwin Effect and Additional BLR Component in AGN with Superluminal Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patiño-Álvarez, Víctor M.; Torrealba, Janet; Chavushyan, Vahram [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Puebla (Mexico); Cruz-González, Irene [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City (Mexico); Arshakian, Tigran [Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Köln (Germany); Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, Byurakan (Armenia); Isaac Newton Institute of Chile in Estern Europe and Eurasia, Armenian Branch, Santiago (Chile); León-Tavares, Jonathan [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Puebla (Mexico); Popović, Luka, E-mail: chavushyanv@gmail.com [Astronomical Observatory, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-06-02

    We study the Baldwin Effect (BE) in 96 core-jet blazars with optical and ultraviolet spectroscopic data from a radio-loud AGN sample obtained from the MOJAVE 2 cm survey. A statistical analysis is presented of the equivalent widths (W{sub λ}) of emission lines Hβ λ4861, Mg II λ2798, C IV λ1549, and continuum luminosities at 5100 Å, 3000 Å, and 1350 Å. The BE is found statistically significant (with confidence level c.l.≥ 95%) in Hβ and C IV emission lines, while for Mg II the trend is slightly less significant (c.l. = 94.5%). The slopes of the BE in the studied samples for Hβ and Mg II are found steeper and with statistically significant difference than those of a comparison radio-quiet sample. We present simulations of the expected BE slopes produced by the contribution to the total continuum of the non-thermal boosted emission from the relativistic jet, and by variability of the continuum components. We find that the slopes of the BE between radio-quiet and radio-loud AGN should not be different, under the assumption that the broad line is only being emitted by the canonical broad line region around the black hole. We discuss that the BE slope steepening in radio AGN is due to a jet associated broad-line region.

  3. The three-dimensional properties and energetics of radio-jet-driven outflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan, E-mail: hsshih@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Extended emission-line regions (EELRs), found around radio-loud sources, are likely outflows driven by one form of powerful active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback mechanism. We seek to constrain the three-dimensional gas properties and the outflow energetics of the EELRs in this study. We used an integral field unit to observe EELRs around two samples of radio-loud AGNs with similar radio properties, but different orientations: a sample of quasars and a sample of radio galaxies. A morphological comparison suggests a scenario where the three-dimensional EELR gas distribution follows rough biconical shapes with wide opening angles. The average extent of the EELRs is ∼18.5 kpc. The estimated average mass of the EELRs, with reasonable assumptions for gas densities, is ∼3 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}, and the average mass outflow rate is ∼30 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. The EELRs around quasars and radio galaxies share similar kinematic properties. Both samples have velocity structures that display a range of complexities, they do not appear to correlate with the jet orientations, and both span a similar range of velocity dispersions. Around 30% of the detected EELRs show large-scale rotational motions, which may have originated from recent mergers involving gas-rich disk galaxies.

  4. A 1.1-1.9 GHz SETI SURVEY OF THE KEPLER FIELD. I. A SEARCH FOR NARROW-BAND EMISSION FROM SELECT TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Korpela, Eric; Werthimer, Dan; Cobb, Jeff; Lebofsky, Matt; Marcy, Geoffrey W. [University of California, Berkeley, 110 Sproul Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Demorest, Paul; Maddalena, Ron J.; Langston, Glen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 North A' ohoku Place, 209 Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Tarter, Jill [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave 100 Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    We present a targeted search for narrow-band (<5 Hz) drifting sinusoidal radio emission from 86 stars in the Kepler field hosting confirmed or candidate exoplanets. Radio emission less than 5 Hz in spectral extent is currently known to only arise from artificial sources. The stars searched were chosen based on the properties of their putative exoplanets, including stars hosting candidates with 380 K > T{sub eq} > 230 K, stars with five or more detected candidates or stars with a super-Earth (R{sub p} < 3 R{sub Circled-Plus }) in a >50 day orbit. Baseband voltage data across the entire band between 1.1 and 1.9 GHz were recorded at the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope between 2011 February and April and subsequently searched offline. No signals of extraterrestrial origin were found. We estimate that fewer than {approx}1% of transiting exoplanet systems host technological civilizations that are radio loud in narrow-band emission between 1 and 2 GHz at an equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) of {approx}1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} erg s{sup -1}, approximately eight times the peak EIRP of the Arecibo Planetary Radar, and we limit the number of 1-2 GHz narrow-band-radio-loud Kardashev type II civilizations in the Milky Way to be <10{sup -6} M{sub Sun }{sup -1}. Here we describe our observations, data reduction procedures and results.

  5. THE SECOND FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE CATALOG OF GAMMA-RAY PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A. A. [Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Allafort, A.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Baring, M. G. [Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Belfiore, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhattacharyya, B. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune 411 007 (India); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, and Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brigida, M., E-mail: hartog@stanford.edu [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' M. Merlin' ' dell' Università e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); and others

    2013-10-01

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence ≥0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.

  6. Jet Physics of Accreting Super-Massive Black Holes in the Era of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo D'Ammando

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with its main instrument on-board, the Large Area Telescope (LAT, opened a new era in the study of high-energy emission from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN. When combined with contemporaneous ground- and space-based observations, Fermi-LAT achieves its full capability to characterize the jet structure and the emission mechanisms at work in radio-loud AGN with different black hole mass and accretion rate, from flat spectrum radio quasars to narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1 galaxies. Here, I discuss important findings regarding the blazar population included in the third LAT catalog of AGN and the γ-ray emitting NLSy1. Moreover, the detection of blazars at redshift beyond three in γ rays allows us to constrain the growth and evolution of heavy black holes over cosmic time, suggesting that the radio-loud phase may be important for a fast black hole growth in the early Universe. Finally, results on extragalactic objects from the third catalog of hard LAT sources are presented.

  7. The second FERMI large area telescope catalog of gamma-ray pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burgay, M.; Burnett, T. H.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chaty, S.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cognard, I.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D' Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; DeCesar, M. E.; De Luca, A.; den Hartog, P. R.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desvignes, G.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Espinoza, C. M.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Freire, P. C. C.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hessels, J.; Hewitt, J.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Janssen, G. H.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Johnston, S.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kramer, M.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Lyne, A. G.; Manchester, R. N.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, F.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mignani, R. P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Pletsch, H. J.; Porter, T. A.; Possenti, A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Rea, N.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renault, N.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Rousseau, R.; Roy, J.; Ruan, J.; Sartori, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Shannon, R.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stappers, B. W.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Theureau, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Thorsett, S. E.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Venter, C.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Wang, N.; Weltevrede, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.

    2013-09-19

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence ≥0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.

  8. The second fermi large area telescope catalog of gamma-ray pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burgay, M.; Burnett, T. H.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chaty, S.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cognard, I.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D' Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; DeCesar, M. E.; De Luca, A.; den Hartog, P. R.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desvignes, G.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Espinoza, C. M.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Freire, P. C. C.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hessels, J.; Hewitt, J.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Janssen, G. H.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Johnston, S.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kramer, M.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Lyne, A. G.; Manchester, R. N.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, F.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mignani, R. P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Pletsch, H. J.; Porter, T. A.; Possenti, A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Rea, N.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renault, N.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Rousseau, R.; Roy, J.; Ruan, J.; Sartori, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Shannon, R.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stappers, B. W.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Theureau, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Thorsett, S. E.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Venter, C.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Wang, N.; Weltevrede, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.

    2013-09-19

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence ≥0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.

  9. NuSTAR J033202-2746.8: direct constraints on the Compton reflection in a heavily obscured quasar at z ≈ 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Moro, A.; Mullaney, J. R.; Alexander, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of NuSTAR J033202-2746.8, a heavily obscured, radio-loud quasar detected in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South, the deepest layer of the NuSTAR extragalactic survey (∼400 ks, at its deepest). NuSTAR J033202-2746.8 is reliably......-2746.8, indicating that this source is a heavily obscured quasar (NH = 5.6+−0.80.9 × 1023 cm−2) with luminosity L10-40 keV ≈ 6.4 × 1044 erg s−1. Although existing optical and near-infrared (near-IR) data, as well as follow-up spectroscopy with the Keck and VLT telescopes, failed to provide a secure redshift......-Newton data alone. The measured reflection fraction is higher than the R∼0 typically observed in bright radio-loud quasars such as NuSTAR J033202-2746.8, which has L1.4 GHz≈1027 W Hz−1. Constraining the spectral shape of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), including bright quasars, is very important...

  10. Baldwin Effect and Additional BLR Component in AGN with Superluminal Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Patiño Álvarez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the Baldwin Effect (BE in 96 core-jet blazars with optical and ultraviolet spectroscopic data from a radio-loud AGN sample obtained from the MOJAVE 2cm survey. A statistical analysis is presented of the equivalent widths W_lambda of emission lines H beta 4861, Mg II 2798, C IV 1549, and continuum luminosities at 5100, 3000, and 1350 angstroms. The BE is found statistically significant (with confidence level c.l. > 95% in H beta and C IV emission lines, while for Mg II the trend is slightly less significant (c.l. = 94.5%. The slopes of the BE in the studied samples for H beta and Mg II are found steeper and with statistically significant difference than those of a comparison radio-quiet sample. We present simulations of the expected BE slopes produced by the contribution to the total continuum of the non-thermal boosted emission from the relativistic jet, and by variability of the continuum components. We find that the slopes of the BE between radio-quiet and radio-loud AGN should not be different, under the assumption that the broad line is only being emitted by the canonical broad line region around the black hole. We discuss that the BE slope steepening in radio AGN is due to a jet associated broad-line region.

  11. The radio structure of the peculiar narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy candidate J1100+4421

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabányi, K. É.; Frey, S.; Paragi, Z.; Järvelä, E.; Morokuma, T.; An, T.; Tanaka, M.; Tar, I.

    2018-01-01

    Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1) are an intriguing subclass of active galactic nuclei. Their observed properties indicate low central black hole mass and high accretion rate. The extremely radio-loud NLS1 sources often show relativistic beaming and are usually regarded as younger counterparts of blazars. Recently, the object SDSS J110006.07+442144.3 was reported as a candidate NLS1 source. The characteristics of its dramatic optical flare indicated its jet-related origin. The spectral energy distribution of the object was similar to that of the γ-ray detected radio-loud NLS1, PMN J0948+0022. Our high-resolution European very long baseline interferometry network observations at 1.7 and 5 GHz revealed a compact core feature with a brightness temperature of ≳1010 K. Using the lowest brightness temperature value and assuming a moderate Lorentz factor of ∼9, the jet viewing angle is ≲26°. Archival Very Large Array data show a large-scale radio structure with a projected linear size of ∼150 kpc reminiscent of double-sided morphology.

  12. Multiwavelength Monitoring of the Enigmatic Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 PMN J0948 0022 in March-July 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A.A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Federal City Coll.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R. /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, T.H.; /Washington U., Seattle; Caliandro, G.A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /Milan Polytechnic /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard /CSST, Baltimore /SISSA, Trieste /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /George Mason U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Ecole Polytechnique /Brera Observ. /INFN, Trieste /Bonn, Max Planck Inst., Radioastron. /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; /more authors..

    2012-03-29

    Following the recent discovery of {gamma} rays from the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PMN J0948+0022 (z = 0.5846), we started a multiwavelength campaign from radio to {gamma} rays, which was carried out between the end of 2009 March and the beginning of July. The source displayed activity at all the observed wavelengths: a general decreasing trend from optical to {gamma}-ray frequencies was followed by an increase of radio emission after less than two months from the peak of the {gamma}-ray emission. The largest flux change, about a factor of about 4, occurred in the X-ray band. The smallest was at ultraviolet and near-infrared frequencies, where the rate of the detected photons dropped by a factor 1.6-1.9. At optical wavelengths, where the sampling rate was the highest, it was possible to observe day scale variability, with flux variations up to a factor of about 3. The behavior of PMN J0948+0022 observed in this campaign and the calculated power carried out by its jet in the form of protons, electrons, radiation, and magnetic field are quite similar to that of blazars, specifically of flat-spectrum radio quasars. These results confirm the idea that radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies host relativistic jets with power similar to that of average blazars.

  13. MULTIWAVELENGTH MONITORING OF THE ENIGMATIC NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 PMN J0948+0022 IN 2009 MARCH-JULY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.

    2009-01-01

    Following the recent discovery of γ rays from the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PMN J0948+0022 (z = 0.5846), we started a multiwavelength campaign from radio to γ rays, which was carried out between the end of 2009 March and the beginning of July. The source displayed activity at all the observed wavelengths: a general decreasing trend from optical to γ-ray frequencies was followed by an increase of radio emission after less than two months from the peak of the γ-ray emission. The largest flux change, about a factor of about 4, occurred in the X-ray band. The smallest was at ultraviolet and near-infrared frequencies, where the rate of the detected photons dropped by a factor 1.6-1.9. At optical wavelengths, where the sampling rate was the highest, it was possible to observe day scale variability, with flux variations up to a factor of about 3. The behavior of PMN J0948+0022 observed in this campaign and the calculated power carried out by its jet in the form of protons, electrons, radiation, and magnetic field are quite similar to that of blazars, specifically of flat-spectrum radio quasars. These results confirm the idea that radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies host relativistic jets with power similar to that of average blazars.

  14. Quasars: Active nuclei of young galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komberg, B. V.

    1980-01-01

    The hypothetical properties of 'young' galaxies and possible methods of observing them are discussed. It is proposed that star formation first takes place in the central regions of protogalaxies which may appear as quasar-like objects. An evolutionary scheme is outlined in which the radio quasars are transformed in time into the nuclei of radio galaxies.

  15. Stellar Photometric Structures of the Host Galaxies of Nearby Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjin; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.; Barth, Aaron J.; Im, Myungshin

    2017-10-01

    We present detailed image analysis of rest-frame optical images of 235 low-redshift (z ≲ 0.35) Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with the Hubble Space Telescope. The high-resolution images enable us to perform rigorous two-dimensional image modeling to decouple the luminous central point source from the host galaxy, which, when warranted, is further decomposed into its principal structural components (bulge, bar, and disk). In many cases, care must be taken to account for structural complexities such as spiral arms, tidal features, and overlapping or interacting companion galaxies. We employ Fourier modes to characterize the degree of asymmetry of the light distribution of the stars as a quantitative measure of morphological distortion due to interactions or mergers. We examine the dependence of the physical parameters of the host galaxies on the properties of the AGNs, namely, radio-loudness and the width of the broad emission lines. In accordance with previous studies, narrow-line (Hβ FWHM ≤ 2000 km s-1) Type 1 AGNs, in contrast to their broad-line (Hβ FWHM > 2000 km s-1) counterparts, are preferentially hosted in later-type, lower-luminosity galaxies, which have a higher incidence of pseudo-bulges, are more frequently barred, and are less morphologically disturbed. This suggests that narrow-line Type 1 AGNs experienced a more quiescent evolutionary history driven primarily by internal secular evolution instead of external dynamical perturbations. The fraction of AGN hosts showing merger signatures is larger for more luminous sources. Radio-loud AGNs generally preferentially live in earlier-type (bulge-dominated), more massive hosts, although a minority of them appear to contain a significant disk component. We do not find convincing evidence for enhanced merger signatures in the radio-loud population. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute

  16. Mergers at z = 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Lancelot L.

    1993-01-01

    Multiband images of nearby interacting pairs of galaxies, mergers, and normal field galaxies are used to simulate images of high redshift mergers by identifying distinctive morphological features. Preliminary results indicate that it is feasible for the HST to detect these high redshift objects.

  17. High-Sensitivity AGN Polarimetry at Sub-Millimeter Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Martí-Vidal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The innermost regions of radio loud Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN jets are heavily affected by synchrotron self-absorption, due to the strong magnetic fields and high particle densities in these extreme zones. The only way to overcome this absorption is to observe at sub-millimeter wavelengths, although polarimetric observations at such frequencies have so far been limited by sensitivity and calibration accuracy. However, new generation instruments such as the Atacama Large mm/sub-mm Array (ALMA overcome these limitations and are starting to deliver revolutionary results in the observational studies of AGN polarimetry. Here we present an overview of our state-of-the-art interferometric mm/sub-mm polarization observations of AGN jets with ALMA (in particular, the gravitationally-lensed sources PKS 1830−211 and B0218+359, which allow us to probe the magneto-ionic conditions at the regions closest to the central black holes.

  18. RECONCILING AGN-STAR FORMATION, THE SOLTAN ARGUMENT, AND MEIER’S PARADOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garofalo, David [Department of Physics, Kennesaw State University, Marietta GA, 30060 (United States); Kim, Matthew I.; Christian, Damian J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Northridge CA, 91330 (United States); Hollingworth, Emily [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA, 30332 (United States); Lowery, Aaron [Department of Geosciences, Mississippi State University, MS, 39762 (United States); Harmon, Matthew [Department of Physics, Southern Polytechnic State University, Marietta GA, 30060 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    We provide a theoretical context for understanding the recent work of Kalfountzou et al. showing that star formation is enhanced at lower optical luminosity in radio-loud quasars. Our proposal for coupling the assumption of collimated FRII quasar-jet-induced star formation with lower accretion optical luminosity also explains the observed jet power peak in active galaxies at higher redshift compared to the peak in accretion power, doing so in a way that predicts the existence of a family of radio-quiet active galactic nuclei associated with rapidly spinning supermassive black holes at low redshift, as mounting observations suggest. The relevance of this work lies in its promise to explain the observed cosmological evolution of accretion power, jet power, and star formation in a way that is both compatible with the Soltan argument and resolves the so-called “Meier Paradox.”.

  19. THE UNIFICATION OF POWERFUL QUASARS AND RADIO GALAXIES AND THEIR RELATION TO OTHER MASSIVE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podigachoski, Pece; Barthel, Peter [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Haas, Martin [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr Universität, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Leipski, Christian [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Wilkes, Belinda, E-mail: podigachoski@astro.rug.nl [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    The unification model for powerful radio galaxies (RGs) and radio-loud quasars postulates that these objects are intrinsically the same but viewed along different angles. Herschel Space Observatory data permit the assessment of that model in the far-infrared spectral window. We analyze photometry from Spitzer and Herschel for the distant 3CR hosts, and find that RGs and quasars have different mid-infrared, but indistinguishable far-infrared colors. Both these properties, the former being orientation dependent and the latter orientation invariant, are in line with expectations from the unification model. Adding powerful radio-quiet active galaxies and typical massive star-forming (SF) galaxies to the analysis, we demonstrate that infrared colors not only provide an orientation indicator, but can also distinguish active from SF galaxies.

  20. Black hole gravitohydromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Punsly, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...

  1. DISCOVERY OF A PSEUDOBULGE GALAXY LAUNCHING POWERFUL RELATIVISTIC JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotilainen, Jari K.; Olguín-Iglesias, Alejandro [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); León-Tavares, Jonathan; Baes, Maarten [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281-S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Anórve, Christopher [Facultad de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Espacio de la Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Blvd. de la Americas y Av. Universitarios S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 80010, Culiacán Sinaloa, México (Mexico); Chavushyan, Vahram; Carrasco, Luis, E-mail: jarkot@utu.fi [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Apartado Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2016-12-01

    Supermassive black holes launching plasma jets at close to the speed of light, producing gamma-rays, have ubiquitously been found to be hosted by massive elliptical galaxies. Since elliptical galaxies are generally believed to be built through galaxy mergers, active galactic nuclei (AGN) launching relativistic jets are associated with the latest stages of galaxy evolution. We have discovered a pseudobulge morphology in the host galaxy of the gamma-ray AGN PKS 2004-447. This is the first gamma-ray emitter radio-loud AGN found to have been launched from a system where both the black hole and host galaxy have been actively growing via secular processes. This is evidence of an alternative black hole–galaxy co-evolutionary path to develop powerful relativistic jets, which is not merger driven.

  2. RELATIVISTIC PLASMA AS THE DOMINANT SOURCE OF THE OPTICAL CONTINUUM EMISSION IN THE BROAD-LINE RADIO GALAXY 3C 120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon-Tavares, J.; Lobanov, A. P.; Arshakian, T. G.; Chavushyan, V. H.; Doroshenko, V. T.; Sergeev, S. G.; Efimov, Y. S.; Nazarov, S. V.

    2010-01-01

    We report a relation between radio emission in the inner jet of the Seyfert galaxy 3C 120 and optical continuum emission in this galaxy. Combining the optical variability data with multi-epoch high-resolution very long baseline interferometry observations reveals that an optical flare rises when a superluminal component emerges into the jet, and its maxima is related to the passage of such component through the location of a stationary feature at a distance of ∼1.3 pc from the jet origin. This indicates that a significant fraction of the optical continuum produced in 3C 120 is non-thermal, and it can ionize material in a sub-relativistic wind or outflow. We discuss implications of this finding for the ionization and structure of the broad emission line region, as well as for the use of broad emission lines for determining black hole masses in radio-loud active galactic nucleus.

  3. CONSTRAINING RADIO EMISSION FROM MAGNETARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, P.; Kaspi, V. M.; Dib, R. [Department of Physics, Rutherford Physics Building, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Champion, D. J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Hessels, J. W. T., E-mail: plazar@physics.mcgill.ca [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands)

    2012-01-10

    We report on radio observations of five magnetars and two magnetar candidates carried out at 1950 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope in 2006-2007. The data from these observations were searched for periodic emission and bright single pulses. Also, monitoring observations of magnetar 4U 0142+61 following its 2006 X-ray bursts were obtained. No radio emission was detected for any of our targets. The non-detections allow us to place luminosity upper limits of L{sub 1950} {approx}< 1.60 mJy kpc{sup 2} for periodic emission and L{sub 1950,single} {approx}< 7.6 Jy kpc{sup 2} for single pulse emission. These are the most stringent limits yet for the magnetars observed. The resulting luminosity upper limits together with previous results are discussed, as is the importance of further radio observations of radio-loud and radio-quiet magnetars.

  4. Quasar energy distributions. I. Soft X-ray spectra of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkes, B.J.; Elvis, M.

    1987-01-01

    As the initial stage of a study of quasar energy distributions (QEDs), Einstein IPC spectra of 24 quasars are presented. These are combined with previously reported IPC spectra to form a sample of 33 quasars with well-determined soft X-ray slopes. A correlation analysis shows that radio loudness, rather than redshift or luminosity, is fundamentally related to the X-ray slope. This correlation is not followed by higher energy spectra of active galaxies. Two components are required to explain both sets of results. The best-fit column densities are systematically smaller than the Galactic values. The same effect is not present in a sample of BL Lac objects, implying that the effect is intrinsic to the quasars and is caused by a low-energy turnup in the quasar spectra. 74 references

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Fourteen Low-Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganguly, Rajib; Brotherton, Michael S.; Arav, Nahum

    2007-01-01

    We present low-resolution ultraviolet spectra of 14 low redshift (z zz 1.4 Large Bright Quasar samples. By design, our objects sample luminosities in between these two surveys, and our four absorbed objects are consistent with the v ~ L^0.62 relation derived by Laor & Brandt (2002). Another quasar......, HE0441-2826, contains extremely weak emission lines and our spectrum is consistent with a simple power-law continuum. The quasar is radio-loud, but has a steep spectral index and a lobe-dominated morphology, which argues against it being a blazar. The unusual spectrum of this quasar resembles...... the spectra of the quasars PG1407+265, SDSSJ1136+0242, and PKS1004+13 for which several possible explanations have been entertained....

  6. X-ray monitoring of the radio and γ-ray loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy PKS2004–447

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreikenbohm A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results of the X-ray analysis of XMM-Newton and Swift observations as part of a multi-wavelength monitoring campaign in 2012 of the radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy PKS 2004–447. The source was recently detected in γ-rays by Fermi/LAT among only four other galaxies of that type. The 0:5 – 10 keV X-ray spectrum is well-described by a simple absorbed powerlaw (Γ ∼ 1.6. The source brightness exhibits variability on timescales of months to years with indications for spectral variability, which follows a “bluer-when-brighter” behaviour, similar to blazars.

  7. Active galactic nuclei. From the central engine to the host galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, Didier

    2008-01-01

    After some recalls on galaxies, on their classification, on the Universe expansion and on the Hubble law, this academic report addresses active galactic nuclei (AGN) by describing their anatomy (central black hole, accretion disk, jets and winds, Broad Line Region, Narrow Line Region, molecular torus and dusts, radio lobes). The author also presents the unified model. In the next part, he proposes an overview of active galaxies and active galactic nuclei by distinguishing galaxies with a strong stellar activity, radio-quiet and radio-loud active galactic nuclei. Examples are presented for each of these types. In the last part, the author draws perspectives for research in cosmology, and outlines questions which are still to be answered

  8. Astrophysics. The exceptionally powerful TeV γ-ray emitters in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-23

    The Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way, has been observed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) above an energy of 100 billion electron volts for a deep exposure of 210 hours. Three sources of different types were detected: the pulsar wind nebula of the most energetic pulsar known, N 157B; the radio-loud supernova remnant N 132D; and the largest nonthermal x-ray shell, the superbubble 30 Dor C. The unique object SN 1987A is, unexpectedly, not detected, which constrains the theoretical framework of particle acceleration in very young supernova remnants. These detections reveal the most energetic tip of a γ-ray source population in an external galaxy and provide via 30 Dor C the unambiguous detection of γ-ray emission from a superbubble. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. A composite plot of far-infrared versus radio luminosity, and the origin of far-infrared luminosity in quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopp, H.M.; Alexander, P.

    1991-01-01

    We have constructed a composite plot of far-infrared versus radioluminosity for late-type galaxies, Seyferts, quasars and radio galaxies. The most striking result is that the radio and far-infrared luminosities of radio-quiet quasars are correlated and follow the same correlation as normal star-forming galaxies and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, whereas the radio-loud quasars have luminosities in both bands similar to those of radio galaxies. We conclude that the far-infrared emission from radio-quiet quasars is from star-forming host galaxies and not from active galactic nuclei. The far-infrared radio plot may be a powerful discriminator between host galaxy type. (author)

  10. Infrared observations of Seyfert galaxies and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugebauer, G.

    1978-01-01

    The infrared energy distributions of the Seyfert galaxies apparently contain three components: a galactic stellar component, a thermal component from heated dust, plus a nonthermal component. The appearance of the infrared energy distribution depends on which component dominates. There is also a correlation observed between the infrared energy distribution and the Khachikian Weedman class. Preliminary data on bright quasars are given. The infrared energy distributions generally increase into the infrared with a power law slope of approximately 1. In detail they differ from power laws with a significant fraction emitting most of their energy near 3μm. No differences in radio loud and radio quiet are obvious from the infrared energy distributions. The variability of the quasars in the infrared is generally correlated with the variability in the visible, although significant exceptions have been observed. (Auth.)

  11. THE UNIFICATION OF POWERFUL QUASARS AND RADIO GALAXIES AND THEIR RELATION TO OTHER MASSIVE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podigachoski, Pece; Barthel, Peter; Haas, Martin; Leipski, Christian; Wilkes, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    The unification model for powerful radio galaxies (RGs) and radio-loud quasars postulates that these objects are intrinsically the same but viewed along different angles. Herschel Space Observatory data permit the assessment of that model in the far-infrared spectral window. We analyze photometry from Spitzer and Herschel for the distant 3CR hosts, and find that RGs and quasars have different mid-infrared, but indistinguishable far-infrared colors. Both these properties, the former being orientation dependent and the latter orientation invariant, are in line with expectations from the unification model. Adding powerful radio-quiet active galaxies and typical massive star-forming (SF) galaxies to the analysis, we demonstrate that infrared colors not only provide an orientation indicator, but can also distinguish active from SF galaxies

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF NEW GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR CANDIDATES WITH MULTIFREQUENCY ARCHIVAL OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowperthwaite, Philip S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Massaro, F. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); D' Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tosti, G., E-mail: pcowpert@umd.edu [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    Blazars are a highly variable, radio-loud subclass of active galactic nuclei. In order to better understand such objects we must be able to easily identify candidate blazars from the growing population of unidentified sources. Working toward this goal, we attempt to identify new gamma-ray blazar candidates from a sample of 102 previously unidentified sources. These sources are selected from The Astronomer's Telegram and the literature on the basis of non-periodic variability and multi-wavelength behavior. We then attempt to associate these objects to an IR counterpart in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer all-sky survey. We are able to identify 16 candidate sources whose IR colors are consistent with those of the blazar population. Of those, 13 sources have IR colors indicative of being gamma-ray emitting blazar candidates. These sources all possess archival multi-wavelength observations that support their blazar-like nature.

  13. The MIXR sample or: how I learned to stop worrying and love multiwavelength catalogue cross-correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingo, Beatriz; Watson, Mike; Stewart, Gordon; Rosen, Simon; Blain, Andrew; Hardcastle, Martin; Mateos, Silvia; Carrera, Francisco; Ruiz, Angel; Pineau, Francois-Xavier

    2016-08-01

    We cross-match 3XMM, WISE and FIRST/NVSS to create the largest-to-date mid-IR, X-ray, and radio (MIXR) sample of galaxies and AGN. We use MIXR to triage sources and efficiently and accurately pre-classify them as star-forming galaxies or AGN, and to highlight bias and shortcomings in current AGN sample selection methods, paving the way for the next generation of instruments. Our results highlight key questions in AGN science, such as the need for a re-definition of the radio-loud/radio-quiet classification, and our observed lack of correlation between the kinetic (jet) and radiative (luminosity) output in AGN, which has dramatic potential consequences on our current understanding of AGN accretion, variability and feedback.

  14. Short-term radio variability and parsec-scale structure in A gamma-ray narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0323+342

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wajima, Kiyoaki [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai 200030 (China); Fujisawa, Kenta [The Research Institute for Time Studies, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi 753-8511 (Japan); Hayashida, Masaaki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Isobe, Naoki [The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Ishida, Takafumi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshinori, E-mail: kwajima@shao.ac.cn [Center for Astronomy, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan)

    2014-02-01

    We made simultaneous single-dish and very long baseline interferometer (VLBI) observations of a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 323+342, showing gamma-ray activity revealed by Fermi/Large Area Telescope observations. We found significant variation of the total flux density at 8 GHz on the timescale of one month by the single-dish monitoring. The total flux density varied by 5.5% in 32 days, which is comparable to the gamma-ray variability timescale, corresponding to the variability brightness temperature of 7.0 × 10{sup 11} K. The source consists of central and southeastern components on the parsec (pc) scale. Only the flux of the central component decreased in the same way as the total flux density, indicating that the short-term radio variability, and probably the gamma-ray-emitting region, is associated with this component. From the VLBI observations, we obtained brightness temperatures of greater than (5.2 ± 0.3) × 10{sup 10} K and derived an equipartition Doppler factor of greater than 1.7, a variability Doppler factor of 2.2, and an 8 GHz radio power of 10{sup 24.6} W Hz{sup –1}. Combining them, we conclude that acceleration of radio jets and creation of high-energy particles are ongoing in the central engine and that the apparent very radio-loud feature of the source is due to the Doppler boosting effect, resulting in the intrinsic radio loudness being an order of magnitude smaller than the observed values. We also conclude that the pc-scale jet represents recurrent activity from the spectral fitting and the estimated kinematic age of pc- and kpc-scale extended components with different position angles.

  15. Imprints of quasar duty cycle on the 21cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgar, Florian; Eames, Evan; Hottier, Clément; Semelin, Benoit

    2018-05-01

    Quasars contribute to the 21-cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) primarily through their ionizing UV and X-ray emission. However, their radio continuum and Lyman-band emission also regulates the 21-cm signal in their direct environment, potentially leaving the imprint of their duty cycle. We develop a model for the radio and UV luminosity functions of quasars from the EoR, and constrain it using recent observations. Our model is consistent with the recent discovery of the quasar J1342+0928 at redshift ˜7.5, and also predicts only a few quasars suitable for 21-cm forest observations (˜10 mJy) in the sky. We exhibit a new effect on the 21-cm signal observed against the CMB: a radio-loud quasar can leave the imprint of its duty cycle on the 21-cm tomography. We apply this effect in a cosmological simulation and conclude that the effect of typical radio-loud quasars is most likely negligible in an SKA field of view. For a ˜10mJy quasar the effect is stronger though hardly observable at SKA resolution. Then we study the contribution of the lyman band (Ly-α to Ly-β) emission of quasars to the Wouthuisen-Field coupling. The collective effect of quasars on the 21-cm power spectrum is larger than the thermal noise at low k, though featureless. However, a distinctive pattern around the brightest quasars in an SKA field of view may be observable in the tomography, encoding the duration of their duty cycle. This pattern has a high signal-to-noise ratio for the brightest quasar in a typical SKA shallow survey.

  16. WHAT GOVERNS THE BULK VELOCITY OF THE JET COMPONENTS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Bo; Cao Xinwu; Gu Minfeng

    2012-01-01

    We use a sample of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. Based on Königl's inhomogeneous jet model, the jet parameters, such as the bulk motion Lorentz factor, magnetic field strength, and electron density in the jet, can be estimated with the very long baseline interferometry and X-ray data.. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is present between the bulk Lorentz factor and the Eddington ratio. The massive black holes will be spun up through accretion, as the black holes acquire mass and angular momentum simultaneously through accretion. Recent investigation indeed suggested that most supermassive black holes in elliptical galaxies have on average higher spins than the black holes in spiral galaxies, where random, small accretion episodes (e.g., tidally disrupted stars, accretion of molecular clouds) might have played a more important role. If this is true, then the correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components found in this work implies that the motion velocity of the jet components is probably governed by the black hole spin. No correlation is found between the magnetic field strength at 10R S (R S = 2GM/c 2 is the Schwarzschild radius) in the jets and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample. This is consistent with the black hole spin scenario, i.e., the faster moving jets are magnetically accelerated by the magnetic fields threading the horizon of more rapidly rotating black holes. The results imply that the Blandford-Znajek mechanism may dominate over the Blandford-Payne mechanism for the jet acceleration, at least in these radio-loud AGNs.

  17. Population Studies of Radio and Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K; Gonthier, Peter; Coltisor, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are one of the most promising candidates for at least some of the 40-50 EGRET unidentified gamma-ray sources that lie near the Galactic plane. Since the end of the EGRO mission, the more sensitive Parkes Multibeam radio survey has detected mere than two dozen new radio pulsars in or near unidentified EGRET sources, many of which are young and energetic. These results raise an important question about the nature of radio quiescence in gamma-ray pulsars: is the non-detection of radio emission a matter of beaming or of sensitivity? The answer is very dependent on the geometry of the radio and gamma-ray beams. We present results of a population synthesis of pulsars in the Galaxy, including for the first time the full geometry of the radio and gamma-ray beams. We use a recent empirically derived model of the radio emission and luminosity, and a gamma-ray emission geometry and luminosity derived theoretically from pair cascades in the polar slot gap. The simulation includes characteristics of eight radio surveys of the Princeton catalog plus the Parkes MB survey. Our results indicate that EGRET was capable of detecting several dozen pulsars as point sources, with the ratio of radio-loud to radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars increasing significantly to about ten to one when the Parkes Survey is included. Polar cap models thus predict that many of the unidentified EGRET sources could be radio-loud gamma- ray pulsars, previously undetected as radio pulsars due to distance, large dispersion and lack of sensitivity. If true, this would make gamma-ray telescopes a potentially more sensitive tool for detecting distant young neutron stars in the Galactic plane.

  18. The galaxy cluster mid-infrared luminosity function at 1.3 < z < 3.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Vernet, Joël; De Breuck, Carlos [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschildstr.2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brodwin, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Galametz, Audrey [INAF-Osservatorio di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio (Italy); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Jarvis, Matt [Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Hatch, Nina [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Seymour, Nick [CASS, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW, 1710 (Australia); Stanford, Spencer A. [Physics Department, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We present 4.5 μm luminosity functions for galaxies identified in 178 candidate galaxy clusters at 1.3 < z < 3.2. The clusters were identified as Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) color-selected overdensities in the Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN project, which imaged 420 powerful radio-loud active galactic nuclei (RLAGNs) at z > 1.3. The luminosity functions are derived for different redshift and richness bins, and the IRAC imaging reaches depths of m* + 2, allowing us to measure the faint end slopes of the luminosity functions. We find that α = –1 describes the luminosity function very well in all redshift bins and does not evolve significantly. This provides evidence that the rate at which the low mass galaxy population grows through star formation gets quenched and is replenished by in-falling field galaxies does not have a major net effect on the shape of the luminosity function. Our measurements for m* are consistent with passive evolution models and high formation redshifts (z{sub f} ∼ 3). We find a slight trend toward fainter m* for the richest clusters, implying that the most massive clusters in our sample could contain older stellar populations, yet another example of cosmic downsizing. Modeling shows that a contribution of a star-forming population of up to 40% cannot be ruled out. This value, found from our targeted survey, is significantly lower than the values found for slightly lower redshift, z ∼ 1, clusters found in wide-field surveys. The results are consistent with cosmic downsizing, as the clusters studied here were all found in the vicinity of RLAGNs—which have proven to be preferentially located in massive dark matter halos in the richest environments at high redshift—and they may therefore be older and more evolved systems than the general protocluster population.

  19. Revisiting the Gamma-Ray Source 2FGL J1823.8+4312

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.

    2013-02-01

    One of the great challenges of gamma-ray astronomy is identifying the lower energy counterparts to these high-energy sources. Recently, in this journal, Massaro et al. attempted to find the counterpart of 2FGL J1823.8+4312, a gamma-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN) of uncertain type from the Second Fermi Large Area Telescope catalog. After considering mid-infrared data in the field from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), those authors conclude that the preferred identification of 2FGL J1823.8+4312 is WISE J182352.33+431452.5, despite the fact that the mid-infrared source is undetected at radio energies. They claim that WISE J182352.33+431452.5 constitutes the discovery of a new class of extragalactic X-ray source, either a radio-faint blazar or the prototype of a new class of active galaxy with an enigmatic spectral energy distribution. This conclusion is claimed to be independent of whether or not the WISE source is the actual counterpart to 2FGL J1823.8+4312. Based on a re-analysis of public data in this field and new spectroscopy from Palomar, we conclude that WISE J182352.33+431452.5 is a dust-reddened quasar at z = 0.560, a representative example of a very common extragalactic AGN class. Were WISE J182352.33+431452.5 to be associated with the gamma-ray emission, this would be an unusual and exciting discovery. However, we argue that 2FGL J1823.8+4312 is more likely associated with either WISE J182409.25+431404.7 or, more likely, WISE J182419.04+430949.6, two radio-loud sources in the field. The former is a radio-loud quasar and the latter is an optically variable source with a featureless blue spectrum.

  20. The galaxy cluster mid-infrared luminosity function at 1.3 < z < 3.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Vernet, Joël; De Breuck, Carlos; Stern, Daniel; Brodwin, Mark; Galametz, Audrey; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Jarvis, Matt; Hatch, Nina; Seymour, Nick; Stanford, Spencer A.

    2014-01-01

    We present 4.5 μm luminosity functions for galaxies identified in 178 candidate galaxy clusters at 1.3 < z < 3.2. The clusters were identified as Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) color-selected overdensities in the Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN project, which imaged 420 powerful radio-loud active galactic nuclei (RLAGNs) at z > 1.3. The luminosity functions are derived for different redshift and richness bins, and the IRAC imaging reaches depths of m* + 2, allowing us to measure the faint end slopes of the luminosity functions. We find that α = –1 describes the luminosity function very well in all redshift bins and does not evolve significantly. This provides evidence that the rate at which the low mass galaxy population grows through star formation gets quenched and is replenished by in-falling field galaxies does not have a major net effect on the shape of the luminosity function. Our measurements for m* are consistent with passive evolution models and high formation redshifts (z f ∼ 3). We find a slight trend toward fainter m* for the richest clusters, implying that the most massive clusters in our sample could contain older stellar populations, yet another example of cosmic downsizing. Modeling shows that a contribution of a star-forming population of up to 40% cannot be ruled out. This value, found from our targeted survey, is significantly lower than the values found for slightly lower redshift, z ∼ 1, clusters found in wide-field surveys. The results are consistent with cosmic downsizing, as the clusters studied here were all found in the vicinity of RLAGNs—which have proven to be preferentially located in massive dark matter halos in the richest environments at high redshift—and they may therefore be older and more evolved systems than the general protocluster population.

  1. CONSTRAINING JET PRODUCTION SCENARIOS BY STUDIES OF NARROW-LINE RADIO GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, Marek [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Stasinska, Grazyna [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, Place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Koziel-Wierzbowska, Dorota [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Krakow (Poland); Madejski, Greg M. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Asari, Natalia V., E-mail: sikora@camk.edu.pl [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-01

    We study a large sample of narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs) with extended radio structures. Using 1.4 GHz radio luminosities L {sub 1.4}, narrow optical emission line luminosities L {sub [OIII]} and L{sub H{sub {alpha}}}, as well as black hole masses M {sub BH} derived from stellar velocity dispersions measured from the optical spectra obtained with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we find that (1) NLRGs cover about four decades of the Eddington ratio, {lambda} {identical_to} L {sub bol}/L {sub Edd}{proportional_to}L {sub line}/M {sub BH}; (2) L {sub 1.4}/M {sub BH} strongly correlates with {lambda}; and (3) radio loudness, R{identical_to}L{sub 1.4}/L{sub line}, strongly anti-correlates with {lambda}. A very broad range of the Eddington ratio indicates that the parent population of NLRGs includes both radio-loud quasars (RLQs) and broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs). The correlations they obey and their high jet production efficiencies favor a jet production model which involves the so-called magnetically choked accretion scenario. In this model, production of the jet is dominated by the Blandford-Znajek mechanism, and the magnetic fields in the vicinity of the central black hole are confined by the ram pressure of the accretion flow. Since large net magnetic flux accumulated in central regions of the accretion flow required by the model can take place only via geometrically thick accretion, we speculate that the massive, 'cold' accretion events associated with luminous emission-line active galactic nucleus can be accompanied by an efficient jet production only if preceded by a hot, very sub-Eddington accretion phase.

  2. DISCOVERY OF ULTRA-FAST OUTFLOWS IN A SAMPLE OF BROAD-LINE RADIO GALAXIES OBSERVED WITH SUZAKU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombesi, F.; Sambruna, R. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Reeves, J. N.; Gofford, J.; Braito, V.; Ballo, L.; Cappi, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a uniform and systematic search for blueshifted Fe K absorption lines in the X-ray spectra of five bright broad-line radio galaxies observed with Suzaku. We detect, for the first time in radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at X-rays, several absorption lines at energies greater than 7 keV in three out of five sources, namely, 3C 111, 3C 120, and 3C 390.3. The lines are detected with high significance according to both the F-test and extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Their likely interpretation as blueshifted Fe XXV and Fe XXVI K-shell resonance lines implies an origin from highly ionized gas outflowing with mildly relativistic velocities, in the range v ≅ 0.04-0.15c. A fit with specific photoionization models gives ionization parameters in the range log ξ ≅ 4-5.6 erg s -1 cm and column densities of N H ≅ 10 22 -10 23 cm -2 . These characteristics are very similar to those of the ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) previously observed in radio-quiet AGNs. Their estimated location within ∼0.01-0.3 pc of the central super-massive black hole suggests a likely origin related with accretion disk winds/outflows. Depending on the absorber covering fraction, the mass outflow rate of these UFOs can be comparable to the accretion rate and their kinetic power can correspond to a significant fraction of the bolometric luminosity and is comparable to their typical jet power. Therefore, these UFOs can play a significant role in the expected feedback from the AGN to the surrounding environment and can give us further clues on the relation between the accretion disk and the formation of winds/jets in both radio-quiet and radio-loud AGNs.

  3. THE VLA SURVEY OF CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH. V. EVOLUTION AND LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF SUB-MILLIJANSKY RADIO SOURCES AND THE ISSUE OF RADIO EMISSION IN RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padovani, P.; Mainieri, V.; Rosati, P.; Miller, N.; Kellermann, K. I.; Tozzi, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present the evolutionary properties and luminosity functions of the radio sources belonging to the Chandra Deep Field South Very Large Array survey, which reaches a flux density limit at 1.4 GHz of 43 μJy at the field center and redshift ∼5 and which includes the first radio-selected complete sample of radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We use a new, comprehensive classification scheme based on radio, far- and near-IR, optical, and X-ray data to disentangle star-forming galaxies (SFGs) from AGNs and radio-quiet from radio-loud AGNs. We confirm our previous result that SFGs become dominant only below 0.1 mJy. The sub-millijansky radio sky turns out to be a complex mix of SFGs and radio-quiet AGNs evolving at a similar, strong rate; non-evolving low-luminosity radio galaxies; and declining radio powerful (P ∼> 3 x 10 24 W Hz -1 ) AGNs. Our results suggest that radio emission from radio-quiet AGNs is closely related to star formation. The detection of compact, high brightness temperature cores in several nearby radio-quiet AGNs can be explained by the coexistence of two components, one non-evolving and AGN related and one evolving and star formation related. Radio-quiet AGNs are an important class of sub-millijansky sources, accounting for ∼30% of the sample and ∼60% of all AGNs, and outnumbering radio-loud AGNs at ∼< 0.1 mJy. This implies that future, large area sub-millijansky surveys, given the appropriate ancillary multiwavelength data, have the potential of being able to assemble vast samples of radio-quiet AGNs, bypassing the problems of obscuration that plague the optical and soft X-ray bands.

  4. FRESH ACTIVITY IN OLD SYSTEMS: RADIO AGNs IN FOSSIL GROUPS OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Kelley M.; Wilcots, Eric M.; Hartwick, Victoria L.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first systematic 1.4 GHz Very Large Array radio continuum survey of fossil galaxy group candidates. These are virialized systems believed to have assembled over a gigayear in the past through the merging of galaxy group members into a single, isolated, massive elliptical galaxy and featuring an extended hot X-ray halo. We use new photometric and spectroscopic data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to determine that three of the candidates are clearly not fossil groups. Of the remaining 30 candidates, 67% contain a radio-loud (L 1.4GHz > 10 23 W Hz –1 ) active galactic nucleus (AGN) at the center of their dominant elliptical galaxy. We find a weak correlation between the radio luminosity of the AGN and the X-ray luminosity of the halo suggesting that the AGN contributes to energy deposition into the intragroup medium. We only find a correlation between the radio and optical luminosity of the central elliptical galaxy when we include X-ray-selected, elliptically dominated non-fossil groups, indicating a weak relationship between AGN strength and the mass assembly history of the groups. The dominant elliptical galaxy of fossil groups is on average roughly an order of magnitude more luminous than normal group elliptical galaxies in optical, X-ray, and radio luminosities and our findings are consistent with previous results that the radio-loud fraction in elliptical galaxies is linked to the stellar mass of a population. The current level of activity in fossil groups suggests that AGN fueling continues long after the last major merger. We discuss several possibilities for fueling the AGN at the present epoch.

  5. A Uniformly Selected Sample of Low-mass Black Holes in Seyfert 1 Galaxies. II. The SDSS DR7 Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He-Yang; Yuan, Weimin; Dong, Xiao-Bo; Zhou, Hongyan; Liu, Wen-Juan

    2018-04-01

    A new sample of 204 low-mass black holes (LMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is presented with black hole masses in the range of (1–20) × 105 M ⊙. The AGNs are selected through a systematic search among galaxies in the Seventh Data Release (DR7) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and careful analyses of their optical spectra and precise measurement of spectral parameters. Combining them with our previous sample selected from SDSS DR4 makes it the largest LMBH sample so far, totaling over 500 objects. Some of the statistical properties of the combined LMBH AGN sample are briefly discussed in the context of exploring the low-mass end of the AGN population. Their X-ray luminosities follow the extension of the previously known correlation with the [O III] luminosity. The effective optical-to-X-ray spectral indices α OX, albeit with a large scatter, are broadly consistent with the extension of the relation with the near-UV luminosity L 2500 Å. Interestingly, a correlation of α OX with black hole mass is also found, with α OX being statistically flatter (stronger X-ray relative to optical) for lower black hole masses. Only 26 objects, mostly radio loud, were detected