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Sample records for radio frequency sputter

  1. Process effects on radio frequency diode reactively sputtered ZrO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.M.; Reith, T.M.; Lin, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The ZrO 2 thin film is deposited by means of a reactive radio frequency diode sputtering from an elemental zirconium target in an argon--oxygen mixture gas. The influence of the deposition process parameters on the microinstructure, composition, film stress, and refractive index is investigated. It is noted that the process parameters, in particular substrate bias, have a profound effect on the structure and properties. The possible mechanism, in terms of bombardment of energetic particles and adatom mobility on the film surface, is discussed

  2. Deposition of a conductive near-infrared cutoff filter by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Hyu; Yoo, Kwang-Lim; Kim, Nam-Young; Hwangbo, Chang Kwon

    2002-01-01

    We have designed a conductive near-infrared (NIR) cutoff filter for display application, i.e., a modified low-emissivity filter based on the three periods of the basic design of [TiO2|Ti|Ag| TiO2] upon a glass substrate and investigated the optical, structural, chemical, and electrical properties of the conductive NIR cutoff filter prepared by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. The results show that the average transmittance is 61.1% in the visible, that the transmittance in the NIR is less than 6.6%, and that the sheet resistance and emissivity are 0.9 Ω/□ (where □ stands for a square film) and 0.012, respectively, suggesting that the conductive NIR cutoff filter can be employed as a shield against the hazard of electromagnetic waves as well as to cut off the NIR

  3. Arsenic doped p-type zinc oxide films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, J. C.; Zhu, C. Y.; Fung, S.; To, C. K.; Yang, B.; Beling, C. D.; Ling, C. C.; Zhong, Y. C.; Wong, K. S.; Xie, Z.; Brauer, G.; Skorupa, W.; Anwand, W.

    2009-01-01

    As-doped ZnO films were grown by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering method. As the substrate temperature during growth was raised above ∼400 deg. C, the films changed from n type to p type. Hole concentration and mobility of ∼6x10 17 cm -3 and ∼6 cm 2 V -1 s -1 were achieved. The ZnO films were studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low temperature photoluminescence (PL), and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The results were consistent with the As Zn -2V Zn shallow acceptor model proposed by Limpijumnong et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 155504 (2004)]. The results of the XPS, PL, PAS, and thermal studies lead us to suggest a comprehensive picture of the As-related shallow acceptor formation.

  4. Electrochemical reaction of lithium with orthorhombic bismuth tungstate thin films fabricated by radio-frequency sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chilin; Sun Ke; Yu Le; Fu Zhengwen

    2009-01-01

    Bi 2 WO 6 thin films with fast deposition rate have been fabricated by radio-frequency (R.F.) sputtering deposition, and are used as positive electrodes in rechargeable thin film lithium batteries. An initial discharge capacity of 113 μAh/cm 2 -μm is obtainable for Bi 2 WO 6 film electrode with good capacity reversibility. A multiple-center reactive mechanism associated with both Bi 3+ /Bi 0 and W 6+ /W x+ (x 2 WO 6 electrochemical performance with those of Bi 2 O 3 and WO 3 thin films. A possible explanation about smooth capacity loss of Bi 2 WO 6 after long-term cycling is suggested from the incomplete reaction of Bi component. The advantages of Bi 2 WO 6 thin films over the singer-center Bi 2 O 3 or WO 3 thin films are shown in both the aspects of volumetric capacity and cycling life.

  5. Arsenic doped p-type zinc oxide films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J. C.; Zhu, C. Y.; Fung, S.; Zhong, Y. C.; Wong, K. S.; Xie, Z.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.; To, C. K.; Yang, B.; Beling, C. D.; Ling, C. C.

    2009-10-01

    As-doped ZnO films were grown by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering method. As the substrate temperature during growth was raised above ˜400 °C, the films changed from n type to p type. Hole concentration and mobility of ˜6×1017 cm-3 and ˜6 cm2 V-1 s-1 were achieved. The ZnO films were studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low temperature photoluminescence (PL), and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The results were consistent with the AsZn-2VZn shallow acceptor model proposed by Limpijumnong et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 155504 (2004)]. The results of the XPS, PL, PAS, and thermal studies lead us to suggest a comprehensive picture of the As-related shallow acceptor formation.

  6. Sn-doped β-Ga2O3 nanowires deposited by radio frequency powder sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Yong; Kang, Hyon Chol

    2018-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of Sn-doped β-Ga2O3 nanowires (NWs) deposited using radio frequency powder sputtering. The growth sequence of Sn-doped β-Ga2O3 NWs is similar to that of the undoped β-Ga2O3 NWs. Self-assembled Ga clusters act as seeds for initiating the growth of Sn-doped β-Ga2O3 NWs through a vapor-liquid-solid process, while Sn atoms are incorporated into the trunk of NWs uniformly. Different from the straight shape of undoped NWs, the conical shape of NWs is observed, which is attributed to the change in supersaturation conditions and the diffusion of the catalyst tip and reaction species.

  7. Reactive radio frequency sputtering deposition and characterization of zinc nitride and oxynitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Nanke; Georgiev, Daniel G.; Wen, Ting; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc nitride films were deposited on glass or silicon substrates by reactive magnetron radio frequency sputtering of zinc in either N 2 –Ar or N 2 –Ar–O 2 ambient. The effects of varying the nitrogen contents and the substrate temperature were investigated. X-ray diffraction data showed that the as-deposited films contain the zinc nitride cubic crystalline phase with a preferred orientation, and Raman scattering measurements revealed Zn-N related modes. According to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, the as-deposited films were nitrogen-rich and contained only a small fraction of oxygen. Hall-effect measurements showed that p-type zinc nitride with carrier concentration of ∼ 10 19 cm −3 , mobility of ∼ 10 1 cm 2 /Vs, resistivity of ∼ 10 −2 Ω ∗ cm, was obtained. The photon energy dependence of optical transmittance suggested that the material has an indirect bandgap.

  8. Properties of nickel films growth by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at elevated substrate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muslim, Noormariah, E-mail: 14h8702@ubd.edu.bn [Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 (Brunei Darussalam); Soon, Ying Woan [Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 (Brunei Darussalam); Physical and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 (Brunei Darussalam); Lim, Chee Ming; Voo, Nyuk Yoong [Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 (Brunei Darussalam)

    2016-08-01

    Pure nickel (Ni) thin films of thicknesses of 100 nm were deposited on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at a power of 100 W and at various substrate temperatures i.e., room temperature, 100, 200, and 300 °C. The crystalline structure, surface topography, surface morphology, electrical resistivity, and optical properties of the deposited films were studied. The properties of the Ni films could be controlled by altering the substrate temperature. Specifically, the films featured a face-centered cubic crystalline structure with predominant (111) crystallite orientation at all the substrate temperatures employed, as observed from the X-ray diffraction analysis. Films deposited at substrate temperatures greater than 200 °C additionally displayed crystalline (200) and (220) diffraction peaks. The surface morphology analysis revealed that the grain size of the Ni thin films increased with increasing substrate temperatures employed. This increase was accompanied with a decrease in the resistivity of the Ni films. The surface roughness of the films increased with increasing substrate temperatures employed, as observed from the atomic force microscopy analysis. - Highlights: • RF magnetron sputtering is a good alternative method to deposit Ni films. • Properties of Ni films could be controlled simply by tuning substrate temperatures. • Crystallite size and surface roughness increased with substrate temperatures. • Electrical resistivity reduced with increasing substrate temperatures. • Optical properties also changed with substrate temperatures.

  9. Fabrication of high-quality single-crystal Cu thin films using radio-frequency sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghun; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Tae-Woo; Kim, Won-Kyung; Kim, Bum-Su; Park, Ji Hun; Bae, Jong-Seong; Cho, Yong Chan; Kim, Jungdae; Oh, Min-Wook; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Jeong, Se-Young

    2014-08-29

    Copper (Cu) thin films have been widely used as electrodes and interconnection wires in integrated electronic circuits, and more recently as substrates for the synthesis of graphene. However, the ultra-high vacuum processes required for high-quality Cu film fabrication, such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), restricts mass production with low cost. In this work, we demonstrated high-quality Cu thin films using a single-crystal Cu target and radio-frequency (RF) sputtering technique; the resulting film quality was comparable to that produced using MBE, even under unfavorable conditions for pure Cu film growth. The Cu thin film was epitaxially grown on an Al2O3 (sapphire) (0001) substrate, and had high crystalline orientation along the (111) direction. Despite the 10(-3) Pa vacuum conditions, the resulting thin film was oxygen free due to the high chemical stability of the sputtered specimen from a single-crystal target; moreover, the deposited film had >5× higher adhesion force than that produced using a polycrystalline target. This fabrication method enabled Cu films to be obtained using a simple, manufacturing-friendly process on a large-area substrate, making our findings relevant for industrial applications.

  10. Ge Nanoislands Grown by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering: Comprehensive Investigation of Surface Morphology and Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Samavati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive investigation of the effect of growth parameters on structural and optical properties of Si-based single layer Ge nanoislands grown via Stranski-Krastanov mechanism employing radio frequency magnetron sputtering due to its high deposition rate, easy procedure, economical cost, and safety is carried out. The estimated width and height of Ge nanoislands produced by this technique are in the range of ∼8 to ∼30 and ∼2 to 8 nm, respectively. Varieties parameters are manipulated to optimize the surface morphology and structural and optical behavior of Ge nanoislands. The resulted nanoislands are analyzed using various analytical techniques including atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, room temperature photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. The optimum parameters for growing high quality samples having high number density and homogenous and small size distribution are found to be 400°C for substrate temperature, 300 sec for deposition time, 10 sccm for Ar flow, and 100 W for radio frequency power. The excellent features of the results suggest that our systematic investigation on the organized growth factors and their effects on surface parameters and photoluminescence emission energy may constitute a basis for the tunable growth of Ge nanoislands (100 nanoislands suitable in nanophotonics.

  11. The effect of sputtering gas pressure on the structure and optical properties of MgNiO films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wuze; Jiao, Shujie, E-mail: shujiejiao@gmail.com; Wang, Dongbo; Gao, Shiyong; Wang, Jinzhong; Yu, Qingjiang; Li, Hongtao

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • MgNiO thin films were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • The structure and optical properties of MgNiO films were studied. • The mechanism of phase separation was discussed in detail. • The effect of different sputtering pressure also was discussed. - Abstract: In this study, MgNiO thin films were grown on quartz substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The influence of different sputtering pressures on the crystalline and optical properties of MgNiO thin films has been studied. X-ray diffraction measurement indicates that the MgNiO films are cubic structure with (200) preferred orientation. UV–vis transmission spectra show that all the MgNiO thin films show more than 75% transmission at visible region, and the absorption edges of all thin films locate at solar-blind region (220 nm–280 nm). The lattice constant and Mg content of MgNiO samples were calculated using X-ray diffraction and transmission spectra data. The phase separation is observed both in the X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission spectra, and the phase separation is studied in detail based on the crystal growth theory and sputtering process.

  12. Synthesis and biological characterization of zirconium oxynitride thin film growth by radio-frequency sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubillos, G.I. [Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia); Olaya, J.J. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia); Clavijo, D. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia); Alfonso, J.E., E-mail: jealfonsoo@unal.edu.co [Grupo de materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnológicas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia); Cardozo, C. [Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia)

    2013-02-01

    Thin films of zirconium oxynitride were grown on common glass, silicon substrates (100) and on stainless steel 316L using the reactive RF magnetron sputtering technique. The films were analyzed through structural, morphological, and biocompatibility studies. The structural analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the morphological analysis was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These studies were done as a function of growth parameters, such as power applied to the target, substrate temperature, and flow ratios. The studies of biocompatibility were carried out on zirconium oxynitride films deposited on stainless steel 316L through proliferation and cellular adhesion. The XRD analysis showed that films deposited at 623 K, with a flow ratio ΦN{sub 2}/ΦO{sub 2} of 1.25 and a total deposit time of 30 min grew preferentially oriented along the (111) plane of the zirconium oxynitride monoclinic phase. The SEM analyses showed that the films grew homogeneously, and the AFM studies indicated that the average rugosity of the film was 5.9 nm and the average particle size was 150 nm. Finally, through the analysis of the biocompatibility, we established that the films have a better surface than the substrate (stainless steel 316L) in terms of adhesion and proliferation of bone cells. - Highlights: ►ZrO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films were deposited using reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. ►We studied the effect of deposition parameters on ZrO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films microstructure. ►We have been able to grow bone cells on ZrO{sub x}N{sub y} coated stainless steel 316L.

  13. Magneto-optical properties of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin films elaborated by radio frequency sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudiar, T.; Payet-Gervy, B.; Blanc-Mignon, M.-F.; Rousseau, J.-J.; Le Berre, M.; Joisten, H.

    2004-01-01

    Thin films of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) are grown by radio frequency magnetron non reactive sputtering system. Thin films are crystallised by heat-treatment to obtain magneto-optical properties. On quartz substrate, the network of cracks observed on the annealed samples can be explained by the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of substrate and YIG. Physico-chemical analysis shown that the obtained material has a correct stoichiometry and is crystallised as FCC. The Faraday rotation of thin films is measured with a classical ellipsometric system based on transmission which allows us to obtained an accuracy of 0.01 deg. The variation of Faraday rotation is studied on the one hand versus radio frequency power applied to the cathode during the deposition and on the other hand versus the applied magnetic field. The results are compared with those obtained by vibrating sample magnetometer analysis in perpendicular configuration. A maximum Faraday rotation is observed to be 1900 deg./cm at the wavelength of 594nm for a YIG thin film formed on quartz substrate and annealed at 740 deg. C. The values of the Faraday rotation coefficients obtained in the study versus the wavelength are comparable to those of the literature for the bulk material. In order to eliminate the stress due to the heat-treatment, we made some films on single crystals of gadolinium gallium garnet (111) substrates for which thermal expansion coefficient is near than the YIG one. The material crystallises with no crackles and the Faraday effect is equivalent

  14. Hydrogen ion sensors based on indium tin oxide thin film using radio frequency sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Jung-Lung; Jhan, Syun-Sheng; Hsieh, Shu-Chen; Huang, An-Li

    2009-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited onto Si and SiO 2 /Si substrates using a radio frequency sputtering system with a grain size of 30-50 nm and thickness of 270-280 nm. ITO/Si and ITO/SiO 2 /Si sensing structures were achieved and connected to a standard metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) as an ITO pH extended-gate field-effect transistor (ITO pH-EGFET). The semiconductor parameter analysis measurement (Keithley 4200) was utilized to measure the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics curves and study the sensing properties of the ITO pH-EGFET. The linear pH voltage sensitivities were about 41.43 and 43.04 mV/pH for the ITO/Si and ITO/SiO 2 /Si sensing structures, respectively. At the same time, both pH current sensitivities were about 49.86 and 51.73 μA/pH, respectively. Consequently, both sensing structures can be applied as extended-gate sensing heads. The separative structure is suitable for application as a disposable pH sensor.

  15. Field emission from ZnS nanorods synthesized by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P. K.; Maiti, U. N.; Jana, S.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2006-11-01

    The field emission property of zinc sulphides nanorods synthesized in the thin film form on Si substrates has been studied. It is seen that ZnS nanorod thin films showed good field emission properties with a low-macroscopic turn-on field (2.9-6.3 V/μm). ZnS nanorods were synthesized by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering of a polycrystalline prefabricated ZnS target at a relatively higher pressure (10 -1 mbar) and at a lower substrate temperature (233-273 K) without using any catalyst. Transmission electron microscopic image showed the formation of ZnS nanorods with high aspect ratio (>60). The field emission data were analysed using Fowler-Nordhiem theory and the nearly straight-line nature of the F-N plots confirmed cold field emission of electrons. It was also found that the turn-on field decreased with the decrease of nanorod's diameters. The optical properties of the ZnS nanorods were also studied. From the measurements of transmittance of the films deposited on glass substrates, the direct allowed bandgap values have been calculated and they were in the range 3.83-4.03 eV. The thickness of the films was ˜600 nm.

  16. Radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and wet thermal oxidation of ZnO thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H. F.; Chua, S. J.; Hu, G. X.; Gong, H.; Xiang, N.

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied the growth and wet thermal oxidation (WTO) of ZnO thin films using a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique. X-ray diffraction reveals a preferred orientation of [1010]ZnO(0002)//[1120]Al 2 O 3 (0002) coexisted with a small amount of ZnO (1011) and ZnO (1013) crystals on the Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrate. The ZnO (1011) and ZnO (1013) crystals, as well as the in-plane preferred orientation, are absent from the growth of ZnO on the GaAs(001) substrate. WTO at 550 deg. C improves the crystalline and the photoluminescence more significantly than annealing in air, N 2 and O 2 ambient; it also tends to convert the crystal from ZnO (1011) and ZnO (1013) to ZnO (0002). The evolution of the photoluminescence upon WTO and annealing reveals that the green and orange emissions, centered at 520 and 650 nm, are likely originated from oxygen vacancies and oxygen interstitials, respectively; while the 420 nm emission, which is very sensitive to the postgrowth thermal processing regardless of the substrate and the ambient gas, is likely originated from the surface-state related defects

  17. Germanium nanoislands grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering: Annealing time dependent surface morphology and photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samavati, Alireza; Othaman, Z.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Amjad, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Structural and optical properties of ∼ 20 nm Ge nanoislands grown on Si(100) by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering under varying annealing conditions are reported. Rapid thermal annealing at a temperature of 600°C for 30 s, 90 s, and 120 s are performed to examine the influence of annealing time on the surface morphology and photoluminescence properties. X-ray diffraction spectra reveal prominent Ge and GeO 2 peaks highly sensitive to the annealing time. Atomic force microscope micrographs of the as-grown sample show pyramidal nanoislands with relatively high-density 10 11 cm −2) ). The nanoislands become dome-shaped upon annealing through a coarsening process mediated by Oswald ripening. The room temperature photoluminescence peaks for both as-grown 3.29 eV) and annealed 3.19 eV) samples consist of high intensity and broad emission, attributed to the effect of quantum confinement. The red shift (∼0.10 eV) of the emission peak is attributed to the change in the size of the Ge nanoislands caused by annealing. Our easy fabrication method may contribute to the development of Ge nanostructure-based optoelectronics. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  18. Residual stress and texture in Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide layers deposited by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azanza Ricardo, C.L., E-mail: Cristy.Azanza@ing.unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy); Pastorelli, M.; D' Incau, M. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy); Aswath, P. [College of Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, TX (United States); Scardi, P. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy)

    2016-04-30

    Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide thin films were deposited on standard soda-lime substrates by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Residual stress and texture were studied by X-ray diffraction, while X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy provided information on the Al environment in the best performing thin films. The influence of deposition parameters on structural and microstructural properties is discussed. A correlation between microstructure and residual stress state with electrical and optical properties is proposed. - Highlights: • Al doped ZnO thin films were obtained by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • Correlation of stresses and texture with electrical and optical properties is shown. • Homogeneous and stress-free thin-films are the best performing ones. • XANES confirmed the doping mechanism and excluded some spurious phases.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of boron carbon nitride films by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.F.; Bello, I.; Lei, M.K.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, S.T. [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Dept. of Physics and Materials Science; Li, K.Y. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2000-06-01

    Boron carbon nitride (BCN) films were deposited on silicon substrates by radio frequency (r.f.) (13.56 MHz) magnetron sputtering from hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphite targets in an Ar-N{sub 2} gas mixture of a constant pressure of 1.0 Pa. During deposition, the substrates were maintained at a temperature of 400 C and negatively biased using a pulsed voltage with a frequency of 330 kHz. Different analysis techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning Auger electron microscopy (SAM) were used for characterization. In addition, the mechanical and tribological properties of the films were investigated by nano-indentation and micro-scratching. The carbon concentration in the films could be adjusted by the coverage area of a graphite sheet on the h-BN target, and decreased with increasing bias voltage. It was found that the ternary compound films within the B-C-N composition triangle possessed a less ordered structure. B--N, B--C and C--N chemical bonds were established in the films, and no phase separation of graphite and h-BN occurred. At zero bias voltage, amorphous BC{sub 2}N films with atomically smooth surface could be obtained, and the microfriction coefficient was 0.11 under a normal load of 1000 {mu}N. Hardness as determined by nano-indentation was usually in the range of 10-30 GPa, whereas the Young's modulus was within 100-200 GPa. (orig.)

  20. Thermoelectric properties of cobalt–antimonide thin films prepared by radio frequency co-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Aziz; Han, Seungwoo, E-mail: swhan@kimm.re.kr

    2015-07-31

    Co–Sb thin films with an Sb content in the range 65–76 at.%, were deposited on a thermally oxidized Si (100) substrate preheated at 200 °C using radio-frequency co-sputtering. Evaluation using scanning electron microscopy images and X-ray diffraction reveals that the films were polycrystalline, with a grain size in the range 100–250 nm. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis indicates single-phase CoSb{sub 2} and CoSb{sub 3} films, as well as multiphase thin films with either CoSb{sub 2} or CoSb{sub 3} as the dominant phase. The electrical and thermoelectric properties were measured and found to be strongly dependent on the observed phases and the defect concentrations. The CoSb{sub 2} thin films were found to exhibit a significant n-type thermoelectric effect, which, coupled with the very low electrical resistivity, resulted in a larger power factor than that of the CoSb{sub 3} thin films. We find power factors of 0.73 mWm{sup −1} K{sup −2} and 0.67 mWm{sup −1} K{sup −2} for the CoSb{sub 2} and CoSb{sub 3} thin films, respectively. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline Co–Sb thin films were obtained by present deposition strategy. • CoSb{sub 2} and CoSb{sub 3} have semimetal and semiconductor characteristics respectively. • The Seebeck coefficient depends heavily on defect concentration and impurity phases. • Film properties in the second heating cycle were different from the first. • CoSb{sub 2} is found to possess significant n-type thermopower.

  1. Mechanical, tribological and corrosion properties of CrBN films deposited by combined direct current and radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahodova, Vera; Ding, Xing-zhao; Seng, Debbie H.L.; Gulbinski, W.; Louda, P.

    2013-01-01

    Cr–B–N films were deposited on stainless steel substrates by a combined direct current and radio frequency (RF) reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering process using two elemental Cr and one compound BN targets. Boron content in the as-deposited films was qualitatively analyzed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Films' microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and pin-on-disk tribometer experiments. Corrosion behavior of the Cr–B–N films was evaluated by electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization method in a 3 wt.% NaCl solution. All the films were crystallized into a NaCl-type cubic structure. At lower RF power applied on the BN target (≤ 600 W), films are relatively randomly oriented, and films' crystallinity increased with increasing RF power. With increasing RF power further (≥ 800 W), films became (200) preferentially oriented, and films' crystallinity decreased gradually. With incorporation of a small amount of boron atoms into the CrN films, hardness, wear- and corrosion-resistance were all improved evidently. The best wear and corrosion resistance was obtained for the film deposited with 600 W RF power applied on the BN target. - Highlights: • CrBN films deposited by direct current and radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • CrBN exhibited higher hardness, wear- and corrosion-resistance than pure CrN. • The best wear- and corrosion-resistant film was deposited with 600 W RF power

  2. Heteroepitaxial growth of CuInS2 thin films on sapphire by radio frequency reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.B.; Kriegseis, W.; Meyer, B.K.; Polity, A.; Serafin, M.

    2003-01-01

    Direct heteroepitaxial growth of uniform stoichiometric CuInS 2 (CIS) thin films on sapphire (0001) substrates has been achieved by radio frequency reactive sputtering. X-ray ω-2θ scans reveal that the sputtered layers grow in a (112) orientation with a chalcopyrite structure. A rocking curve full width at half maximum of about 0.05 deg. (180 arc sec) for the (112) peak demonstrates a nearly perfect out-of-plane arrangement of CIS (112) parallel sapphire (0001). X-ray diffraction Phi scans further illustrate an excellent in-plane ordering of CIS [1-bar10] parallel sapphire (101-bar0). The sputtered thin CIS epilayers had a smooth surface with a typical root-mean-square roughness of about 3.3 nm as evaluated by atomic force microscopy. The epitaxial growth of tetragonal CIS on hexagonal sapphire provides evidence that heteroepitaxial growth may be realized between structures of different symmetry, such as films of cubic or tetragonal structures on hexagonal substrates or vice versa

  3. Determination of the sputter rate variation pattern of a silicon carbide target for radio frequency magnetron sputtering using optical transmission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez de la Puente, G.; Guerra Torres, J.A.; Erlenbach, O.; Steidl, M.; Weingaertner, R.; De Zela, F.; Winnacker, A.

    2010-01-01

    We produce amorphous silicon carbide thin films (a-SiC) by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from SiC bulk target. We present the emission pattern of the rf magnetron with SiC target as a function of process parameters, like target sample distance, rf power, sputtering rate and process gas pressure. The emission pattern is determined by means of thickness distribution of the deposited a-SiC films obtained from optical transmission measurements using a slightly improved method of Swanepoel concerning the determination of construction of the envelopes in the interference pattern of the transmission spectra. A calibration curve is presented which allows the conversion of integrated transmission to film thickness. Holding constant a set of process parameters and only varying the target sample distance the emission pattern of the rf magnetron with SiC target was determined, which allowed us to predict the deposition rate distribution for a wide range of process parameters and target geometry. In addition, we have found that the transmission spectra of the a-SiC films change with time and saturate after approximately 10 days. Within this process no change in thickness is involved, so that the determination of thickness using transmission data is justified.

  4. Optimizing electrical conductivity and optical transparency of IZO thin film deposited by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films of In2O3, SnO2, ZnO, and their mixtures have been extensively used in optoelectronic applications such as transparent electrodes in solar photovoltaic devices. In this project I deposited amorphous indium-zinc oxide (IZO) thin films by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering from a In2O3-10 wt.% ZnO sintered ceramic target to optimize the RF power, argon gas flowing rate, and the thickness of film to reach the maximum conductivity and transparency in visible spectrum. The results indicated optimized conductivity and transparency of IZO thin film is closer to ITO's conductivity and transparency, and is even better when the film was deposited with one specific tilted angle. National Science Foundation (NSF) MRSEC program at University of Nebraska Lincoln, and was hosted by Professor Jeff Shields lab.

  5. The properties of transparent conducting molybdenum-doped ZnO films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu Xian-Wu; Zhao Wen-Jing

    2012-01-01

    Transparent conducting molybdenum-doped zinc oxide films are prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering at ambient temperature. The MoO 3 content in the target varies from 0 to 5 wt%, and each film is polycrystalline with a hexagonal structure and a preferred orientation along the c axis. The resistivity first decreases and then increases with the increase in MoO 3 content. The lowest resistivity achieved is 9.2×10 −4 Ω·cm, with a high Hall mobility of 30 cm 2 ·V −1 ·s 1 and a carrier concentration of 2.3×10 20 cm −3 at an MoO 3 content of 2 wt%. The average transmittance in the visible range is reduced from 91% to 80% with the increase in the MoO 3 content in the target. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  6. Electrical properties of ZnO-based bottom-gate thin film transistors fabricated by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navamathavan, R. [Nano Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Cheju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: n_mathavan@yahoo.com; Choi, Chi Kyu [Nano Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Cheju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong-Ju [Nanophotonic Semiconductors Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-05

    We report on enhancement-mode thin film transistors (TFTs) using ZnO as an active channel layer deposited by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering at 300 deg. C. The TFT structure consisted of ZnO as a channel, SiN{sub x} as a gate insulator and indium tin oxide (ITO) as a gate which were deposited onto a Corning glass substrate. X-ray diffraction pattern revealed that dense columnar structure of closely packed ZnO nano grains along the c-axis. The transfer characteristics of a typical ZnO TFT exhibited a field effect mobility of 31 cm{sup 2}/V s, a drain current on/off ratio of 10{sup 4}, the low off-current value in the order of 10{sup -10} A, and a threshold voltage of 1.7 V. The transparent ZnO TFT exhibited n-channel enhancement mode behavior.

  7. Influence of substrate temperature on structural, morphological and electrical properties of PbSe film deposited by radio frequency sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Wenran, E-mail: fengwenran@bipt.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Special Elastomer Composite Materials, Beijing 102617 (China); Wang, Xiaoyang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen, Fei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Special Elastomer Composite Materials, Beijing 102617 (China); Liu, Wan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhou, Hai; Wang, Shuo; Li, Haoran [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Special Elastomer Composite Materials, Beijing 102617 (China)

    2015-03-02

    PbSe films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering from PbSe slices target under different substrate temperatures (from room temperature to 300 °C). The effect of substrate temperature on structural properties of PbSe thin film was investigated. The surface morphology and the crystal structure of film were determined using field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry, respectively. It was found that the grain shape changed with substrate temperature. When the substrate temperature was below 250 °C, most of the crystal grains were spherical in shape. For temperatures above 250 °C, the grains transformed to triangle or prismatic ones. Meanwhile, with increasing substrate temperature, the preferential orientation of the film changed from (200) to (220). To figure out the intrinsic mechanisms for this behavior, the texture coefficient, as well as the comparison between surface energy and elastic strain energy was performed. At lower temperature, the film growth was determined by surface energy, which was replaced by strain energy at higher temperature. Therefore, the diversity of crystal structure and morphology of the films at different substrate temperatures occurred. Moreover, the electrical properties of the p-type PbSe films are also quite dependent on substrate temperature. With substrate temperature increased, the electrical resistivity decreased from 1.88 to 0.14 Ω cm, while the carrier concentration increased from 1.74 × 10{sup 18} to 4.08 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} as the mobility was enhanced from 0.54 to 2.21 cm{sup 2}/Vs. - Highlights: • PbSe thin films were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • Substrate temperature determines crystal structure of PbSe films. • Transformation behaviors of PbSe films were explained by energy calculations.

  8. Changes in the structural and electrical properties of vacuum post-annealed tungsten- and titanium-doped indium oxide films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, L.T.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten- and titanium-doped indium oxide (IWO and ITiO) filmswere deposited at room temperature by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, and vacuum post-annealing was used to improve the electron mobility. With increasing deposition power, the as deposited films showed an increasingly

  9. Growth of amorphous TeOx (2≤x≤3) thin film by radio frequency sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewan, Namrata; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K.; Katiyar, R. S.

    2007-01-01

    Thin films of Tellurium oxide TeO x over a wide range of x (2 to 3) were prepared by radio frequency diode sputtering at room temperature on corning glass and quartz substrate. The deposited films are amorphous in nature and IR spectroscopy reveals the formation of Te-O bond. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the variation in the stoichiometry of TeO x film from x=2 to 3 with an increase in oxygen percentage (25 to 100%) in processing sputtering gas composition. Raman spectroscopy depicts the formation of TeO 3 trigonal pyramid besides TeO 4 disphenoid in the amorphous TeO x film with increase in the value of x. The varying stoichiometry of TeO x thin film (x=2 to 3) was found to influence the optical, electrical, and elastic properties. The optical band gap of film increases from 3.8 to 4.2 eV with increasing x and is attributed to the decrease in density. The elastic constants (C 11 and C 44 ) of the deposited films are lower than the corresponding value reported for TeO 2 single crystal

  10. Preparation of single-crystal TiC (111) by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Q.; Zhang, W.Z.; Shi, L.Q.; Zhang, W.Y.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, B.

    2012-01-01

    Single-crystal films of TiC (111) have been synthesized at room temperature on Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering using a compound Ti–C target. The substrate temperature and bias were varied to explore the influence of deposition parameters on the crystal structure. Both Al 2 O 3 (0001) and Si (100) substrates were used for epitaxial growth of TiC films. A series of characterizations of TiC films were carried out, including Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Single-crystal films of TiC (111) on the Al 2 O 3 (0001) were demonstrated. - Highlights: ► Single-crystal films of TiC (111) have been synthesized by RF magnetron sputtering. ► Both temperature and bias affect greatly the TiC crystal structure. ► Al 2 O 3 substrate is much better than Si substrate for TiC epitaxial growth. ► TiC (111) epitaxial film can be grown on Al 2 O 3 (0001) at room temperature.

  11. Comparison of the electrical and optical properties of direct current and radio frequency sputtered amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Jianke; Gong, Li; Xie, Lei; Zhang, Shengdong

    2013-01-01

    The electrical and optical properties of direct current and radio frequency (RF) sputtered amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) films are compared. It is found that the RF sputtered a-IGZO films have better stoichiometry (In:Ga:Zn:O = 1:1:1:2.5–3.0), lower electrical conductivity (σ < 8 S/cm), higher refractive index (n = 1.9–2.0) and larger band gap (E g = 3.02–3.29 eV), and show less shift of Fermi level (△ E F ∼ 0.26 eV) and increased concentration of electrons (△ N e ∼ 10 4 ) in the conduction band with the reduction concentration of oxygen vacancy (V O ). Although a-IGZO has intensively been studied for a semiconductor channel material of thin film transistors in next-generation flat panel displays, its fundamental material parameters have not been thoroughly reported. In this work, the work function (φ) of a-IGZO films is tested with the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. It is found that the φ of a-IGZO films is in the range of 4.0–5.0 eV depending on the V O . - Highlights: ► Amorphous InGaZnO 4 (a-IGZO) films were prepared with different sputtering modes. ► Electrical and optical properties of the different films were compared. ► Fermi level (△E F ) shift in a-IGZO films were tested by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. ► The relation of △E F with the properties of a-IGZO films were discussed. ► Work function was tested by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy

  12. Radio frequency sputtering equipment: design considerations for the disc and annulus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.M.; Cox, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The basic equations important in the design of rf sputtering equipment are presented. Attention is restricted to the 'disc and annulus' system and simple techniques in lead-through fabrication and electrode shielding are described. Also rf power oscillator theory is used to derive the important parameters of power generation. Load coupling and power matching techniques are discussed. Problems of the magnetic field coil design are analysed and a value for the thermal conductivity of coils wound from polyurethane coated wire is given, namely k = 0.64 W m -1 / 0 C -1 , permitting the steady state temperature distribution inside such coils to be predicted. (author)

  13. Origin of stress in radio frequency magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, Rashmi; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K.; Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C.

    2011-01-01

    Highly c-axis oriented ZnO thin films have been deposited on silicon substrates by planar rf magnetron sputtering under varying pressure (10-50 mTorr) and oxygen percentage (50-100%) in the reactive gas (Ar + O 2 ) mixture. The as-grown films were found to be stressed over a wide range from -1 x 10 11 to -2 x 10 8 dyne/cm 2 that in turn depends strongly on the processing conditions, and the film becomes stress free at a unique combination of sputtering pressure and reactive gas composition. Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) analyses identified the origin of stress as lattice distortion due to defects introduced in the ZnO thin film. FTIR study reveals that Zn-O bond becomes stronger with the increase in oxygen fraction in the reactive gas mixture. The lattice distortion or stress depends on the type of defects introduced during deposition. PL spectra show the formation of a shoulder in band emission with an increase in the processing pressure and are related to the presence of stress. The ratio of band emission to defect emission decreases with the increase in oxygen percentage from 50 to 100%. The studies show a correlation of stress with the structural, vibrational, and photoluminescence properties of the ZnO thin film. The systematic study of the stress will help in the fabrication of efficient devices based on ZnO film.

  14. Origin of stress in radio frequency magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Rashmi; Gupta, Vinay; Tan, H. H.; Sreenivas, K.; Jagadish, C.

    2011-03-01

    Highly c-axis oriented ZnO thin films have been deposited on silicon substrates by planar rf magnetron sputtering under varying pressure (10-50 mTorr) and oxygen percentage (50-100%) in the reactive gas (Ar + O2) mixture. The as-grown films were found to be stressed over a wide range from -1 × 1011 to -2 × 108 dyne/cm2 that in turn depends strongly on the processing conditions, and the film becomes stress free at a unique combination of sputtering pressure and reactive gas composition. Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) analyses identified the origin of stress as lattice distortion due to defects introduced in the ZnO thin film. FTIR study reveals that Zn-O bond becomes stronger with the increase in oxygen fraction in the reactive gas mixture. The lattice distortion or stress depends on the type of defects introduced during deposition. PL spectra show the formation of a shoulder in band emission with an increase in the processing pressure and are related to the presence of stress. The ratio of band emission to defect emission decreases with the increase in oxygen percentage from 50 to 100%. The studies show a correlation of stress with the structural, vibrational, and photoluminescence properties of the ZnO thin film. The systematic study of the stress will help in the fabrication of efficient devices based on ZnO film.

  15. Effects of hydrogen gas on properties of tin-doped indium oxide films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Geun; Lee, Sunghun; Lee, Gun-Hwan; Kwon, Sik-Chol

    2007-01-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films were deposited at ∼ 70 deg. C of substrate temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method using an In 2 O 3 -10% SnO 2 target. The effect of hydrogen gas ratio [H 2 / (H 2 + Ar)] on the electrical, optical and mechanical properties was investigated. With increasing the amount of hydrogen gas, the resistivity of the samples showed the lowest value of 3.5 x 10 -4 Ω.cm at the range of 0.8-1.7% of hydrogen gas ratio, while the resistivity increases over than 2.5% of hydrogen gas ratio. Hall effect measurements explained that carrier concentration and its mobility are strongly related with the resistivity of ITO films. The supplement of hydrogen gas also reduced the residual stress of ITO films up to the stress level of 110 MPa. The surface roughness and the crystallinity of the samples were investigated by using atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction, respectively

  16. Memory and Electrical Properties of (100-Oriented AlN Thin Films Prepared by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maw-Shung Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The (100-oriented aluminum nitride (AlN thin films were well deposited onto p-type Si substrate by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering method. The optimal deposition parameters were the RF power of 350 W, chamber pressure of 9 mTorr, and nitrogen concentration of 50%. Regarding the physical properties, the microstructure of as-deposited (002- and (100-oriented AlN thin films were obtained and compared by XRD patterns and TEM images. For electrical properties analysis, we found that the memory windows of (100-oriented AlN thin films are better than those of (002-oriented thin films. Besides, the interface and interaction between the silicon and (100-oriented AlN thin films was serious important problem. Finally, the current transport models of the as-deposited and annealed (100-oriented AlN thin films were also discussed. From the results, we suggested and investigated that large memory window of the annealed (100-oriented AlN thin films was induced by many dipoles and large electric field applied.

  17. Electrical properties of radio-frequency sputtered HfO{sub 2} thin films for advanced CMOS technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Pranab Kumar; Roy, Asim, E-mail: 28.asim@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Silchar, Silchar-788010, Assam, India Phone: +91-3842-224879 (India)

    2015-08-28

    The Hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) high-k thin films have been deposited by radio frequency (rf) sputtering technique on p-type Si (100) substrate. The thickness, composition and phases of films in relation to annealing temperatures have been investigated by using cross sectional FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope) and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GI-XRD), respectively. GI-XRD analysis revealed that at annealing temperatures of 350°C, films phases change to crystalline from amorphous. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the annealed HfO{sub 2} film have been studied employing Al/HfO{sub 2}/p-Si metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) structures. The electrical properties such as dielectric constant, interface trap density and leakage current density have been also extracted from C-V and I-V Measurements. The value of dielectric constant, interface trap density and leakage current density of annealed HfO{sub 2} film is obtained as 23,7.57×1011eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} and 2.7×10{sup −5} Acm{sup −2}, respectively. In this work we also reported the influence of post deposition annealing onto the trapping properties of hafnium oxide and optimized conditions under which no charge trapping is observed into the dielectric stack.

  18. Simulation, fabrication and characterization of ZnO based thin film transistors grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shaivalini; Chakrabarti, P

    2012-03-01

    We report the performance of the thin film transistors (TFTs) using ZnO as an active channel layer grown by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The bottom gate type TFT, consists of a conventional thermally grown SiO2 as gate insulator onto p-type Si substrates. The X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the ZnO films are preferentially orientated in the (002) plane, with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. A typical ZnO TFT fabricated by this method exhibits saturation field effect mobility of about 0.6134 cm2/V s, an on to off ratio of 102, an off current of 2.0 x 10(-7) A, and a threshold voltage of 3.1 V at room temperature. Simulation of this TFT is also carried out by using the commercial software modeling tool ATLAS from Silvaco-International. The simulated global characteristics of the device were compared and contrasted with those measured experimentally. The experimental results are in fairly good agreement with those obtained from simulation.

  19. Relationship between plasma parameters and film microstructure in radio frequency magnetron sputter deposition of barium strontium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, B.; Dhar, A.; Nigam, G. D.; Bhattacharya, D.; Ray, S. K.

    1998-01-01

    Radio frequency magnetron sputtered Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 thin films have been deposited on silicon and Si/SiO2/SiN/Pt substrates. The analysis of plasma discharge has been carried out using the Langmuir probe technique. Both the pressure and power have been found to influence the ion density and self-bias of the target. Introduction of oxygen into the discharge effectively decreases the ion density. The structural and electrical properties have been investigated using x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy of deposited films and capacitance-voltage, conductance-voltage, and current density-electric field characteristics of fabricated capacitors. The growth and orientation of the films have been found to depend upon the type of substrates and deposition temperatures. The texture in the film is promoted at a pressure 0.25 Torr with a moderately high value of ion density and low ion bombardment energy. Films deposited on Si/SiO2/SiN/Pt substrate have shown higher dielectric constant (191) and lower leakage current density (2.8×10-6 A/cm2 at 100 kV/cm) compared to that on silicon.

  20. The Photocatalytic Activity and Compact Layer Characteristics of TiO2 Films Prepared Using Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 compact layers are used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs to prevent charge recombination between the electrolyte and the transparent conductive substrate (indium tin oxide, ITO; fluorine-doped tin oxide, FTO. Thin TiO2 compact layers are deposited onto ITO/glass by means of radio frequency (rf magnetron sputtering, using deposition parameters that ensure greater photocatalytic activity and increased DSSC conversion efficiency. The photoinduced decomposition of methylene blue (MB and the photoinduced hydrophilicity of the TiO2 thin films are also investigated. The photocatalytic performance characteristics for the deposition of TiO2 films are improved by using the Grey-Taguchi method. The average transmittance in the visible region exceeds 85% for all samples. The XRD patterns of the TiO2 films, for sol-gel with spin coating of porous TiO2/TiO2 compact/ITO/glass, show a good crystalline structure. In contrast, without the TiO2 compact layer (only porous TiO2, the peak intensity of the anatase (101 plane in the XRD patterns for the TiO2 film has a lower value, which demonstrates inferior crystalline quality. With a TiO2 compact layer to prevent charge recombination, a higher short-circuit current density is obtained. The DSSC with the FTO/glass and Pt counter electrode demonstrates the energy conversion efficiency increased.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of porous crystalline SiC thin films prepared by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamar, Afzaal, E-mail: afzaalqamar@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, PIEAS, Nilore, Islamabad, Punjab 42600 (Pakistan); Mahmood, Arshad [National Institute of Laser and Optronics, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Sarwar, Tuba; Ahmed, Nadeem [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, PIEAS, Nilore, Islamabad, Punjab 42600 (Pakistan)

    2011-05-15

    Hexagonal SiC thin films have been deposited using radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering technique by varying the substrate temperature and other deposition conditions. Prior to deposition surface modification of the substrate Si(1 0 0) played an important role in deposition of the hexagonal SiC structure. The effect of substrate temperature during deposition on structure, composition and surface morphology of the SiC films has been analyzed using atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. X-ray diffraction in conventional {theta}-2{theta} mode and omega scan mode revealed that the deposited films were crystalline having 8H-SiC structure and crystallinity improved with increase of deposition temperature. The bonding order and Si-C composition within the films showed improvement with the increase of deposition temperature. The surface of thin films grew in the shape of globes and columns depending upon deposition temperature. The optical properties also showed improvement with increase of deposition temperature and the results obtained by ellipsometry reinforced the results of other techniques.

  2. Properties of reactively radio frequency-magnetron sputtered (Zr,Sn)TiO4 dielectric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.-L.; Hsu, C.-H.

    2004-01-01

    Zirconium tin titanium oxide doped 1 wt % ZnO thin films on n-type Si substrate were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering at a fixed rf power of 350 W with various argon-oxygen (Ar/O 2 ) mixture and different substrate temperatures. Electrical properties and microstructures of ZnO-doped (Zr 0.8 Sn 0.2 )TiO 4 thin films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering on n-type Si(100) substrates at different Ar/O 2 ratios and substrate temperatures have been investigated. The surface structural and morphological characteristics analyzed by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscope were sensitive to the deposition conditions, such as Ar/O 2 ratio (100/0-80/20) and substrate temperature (350 deg. C-450 deg. C). The selected-area diffraction pattern showed that the deposited films exhibited a polycrystalline microstructure. All films exhibited ZST (111) orientation perpendicular to the substrate surface and the grain size as well as the deposition rate of the films increased with the increase of both the Ar partial pressure and the substrate temperature. At a Ar/O 2 ratio of 100/0, rf power level of 350 W and substrate temperature of 450 deg. C, the Zr 0.8 Sn 0.2 TiO 4 films with 6.44 μm thickness possess a dielectric constant of 42 (at 10 MHz), a dissipation factor of 0.065 (at 10 MHz), and a leakage current density of 2x10 -7 A/cm 2 at an electrical field of 1 kV/cm

  3. Fabrication and characterization of He-charged ODS-FeCrNi films deposited by a radio-frequency plasma magnetron sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liang; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Le; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Wang; Jiang, Weibing; Zhang, Tao; Fang, Qianfeng; Liu, Changsong

    2017-04-01

    He-charged oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrNi films were prepared by a radio-frequency (RF) plasma magnetron sputtering method in a He and Ar mixed atmosphere at 150 °C. As a comparison, He-charged FeCrNi films were also fabricated at the same conditions through direct current (DC) plasma magnetron sputtering. The doping of He atoms and Y2O3 in the FeCrNi films was realized by the high backscattered rate of He ions and Y2O3/FeCrNi composite target sputtering method, respectively. Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the existence of Y2O3 in FeCrNi films, and Y2O3 content hardly changed with sputtering He/Ar ratio. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the FeCrNi films were composed of dense columnar nanocrystallines and the thickness of the films was obviously dependent on He/Ar ratio. Nanoindentation measurements revealed that the FeCrNi films fabricated through DC/RF plasma magnetron sputtering methods exhibited similar hardness values at each He/Ar ratio, while the dispersion of Y2O3 apparently increased the hardness of the films. Elastic recoil detection (ERD) showed that DC/RF magnetron sputtered FeCrNi films contained similar He amounts (˜17 at.%). Compared with the minimal change of He level with depth in DC-sputtered films, the He amount decreases gradually in depth in the RF-sputtered films. The Y2O3-doped FeCrNi films were shown to exhibit much smaller amounts of He owing to the lower backscattering possibility of Y2O3 and the inhibition effect of nano-sized Y2O3 particles on the He element.

  4. Preparation and properties of radio-frequency-sputtered half-Heusler films for use in solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieven, D., E-mail: david.kieven@helmholtz-berlin.d [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Grimm, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Beleanu, A.; Blum, C.G.F. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Staudingerweg 9, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Schmidt, J. [Fraunhofer Institut Fertigungstechnik Materialforschung IFAM, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Rissom, T.; Lauermann, I. [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Gruhn, T.; Felser, C. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Staudingerweg 9, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Klenk, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-01-03

    The class of half-Heusler compounds opens possibilities to find alternatives for II-VI or III-V compound semiconductors. We aim to find suitable substitutes for the cadmium sulphide buffer layer in chalcopyrite-based thin film solar cells, where the buffer layer is located between the p-type chalcopyrite absorber and an n-type transparent window layer. We report here the preparation of radio-frequency-sputtered lithium copper sulphide 'LiCuS' and lithium zinc phosphide 'LiZnP' films. The optical analysis of these films revealed band gaps between 1.8 and 2.5 eV, respectively. Chemical properties of the film surface and both interfaces between the film and a Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} layer and between the film and an (Zn,Mg)O layer were investigated by in-situ photoelectron spectroscopy. The valence band offsets to the Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} layer were estimated to be (0.4 {+-} 0.1) eV for 'LiCuS'/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} and (0.5 {+-} 0.8) eV for 'LiZnP'/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}. This leads to positive conduction band offsets of > 1 eV. These rather large offsets are not compatible with efficient solar cell devices. Under atmospheric conditions 'LiCuS' and 'LiZnP' films show rapid decomposition.

  5. Radio frequency magnetron sputter-deposited indium tin oxide for use as a cathode in transparent organic light-emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Choong-Heui; Ko, Young-Wook; Kim, Yong-Hae; Sohn, Choong-Yong; Hye Yong Chu; Ko Park, Sang-Hee; Lee, Jin Ho

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature, for use as a cathode in a transparent organic light-emitting diode (TOLED). To minimize damage to the TOLED by the ITO sputtering process, the target-to-substrate distance was increased to 20 cm. An ITO film deposited at the optimum oxygen partial pressure exhibited an electrical resistivity as low as 4.06 x 10 -4 Ω cm and a high optical transmittance of 91% in the visible range. The film was used as a transparent cathode for a TOLED with structure of an ITO coated glass substrate / Naphthylphenyldiamide (60 nm) / Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (60 nm) / LiF (1 nm) / Al (2 nm) / Ag (8 nm) / ITO cathode (100 nm). A maximum luminance of 37,000 cd/m 2 was obtained. The device performance was comparable to a conventional OLED

  6. Optimal series-parallel connection method of dye-sensitized solar cell for Pt thin film deposition using a radio frequency sputter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin-Young; Hong, Ji-Tae; Seo, Hyunwoong; Kim, Mijeong; Son, Min-Kyu; Lee, Kyoung-Jun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-Yoon [Advanced Materials and Application research Laboratory, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, 28-1, Seongju-dong, Changwon-city, Kyongnam, 641-120 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Je [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: heeje@pusan.ac.kr

    2008-11-28

    The counter electrode widely used in DSC (Dye-sensitized solar cells) is constructed of a conducting glass substrate coated with a Pt film, in which the platinum acts as a catalyst. The characteristics of the platinum electrode depend strongly on the fabrication process and the electrode's surface condition. In this study, Pt counter electrodes were deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering with 6.7 x 10{sup -1} Pa Ar, RF power of 120 W and substrate temperature of 100 deg. C . The surface morphology of Pt electrodes was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Comparison of samples prepared by RF sputtering and RF magnetron sputtering showed that the surface of the RF sputter deposited electrode had a larger surface area resulting in more effective catalytic characteristics. Finally, an open voltage of 4.8 V, a short circuit current of 569 mA and a photoelectric conversion efficiency of approximately 3.6% were achieved for cells composed of 30 DSC units of 6 cm x 4 cm DSC units with 6 cells in series and 5 cells in parallel.

  7. Research of the surface properties of the thermoplastic copolymer of vinilidene fluoride and tetrafluoroethylene modified with radio-frequency magnetron sputtering for medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tverdokhlebov, S.I.; Bolbasov, E.N.; Shesterikov, E.V.; Malchikhina, A.I.; Novikov, V.A.; Anissimov, Y.G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A method for surface modification of the thermoplastic copolymer of vinilidene fluoride and tetrafluoroethylene using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering of hydroxyapatite target is proposed. ► It is demonstrated that the thermoplastic copolymer of vinilidene fluoride and tetrafluoroethylene surface becomes hydrophilic as the result of the modification. ► It is shown, using atomic force microscopy that the surface potential biases into positive value field and the surface roughness parameters increase as the result of the modification. ► In vitro testing has not found bio-toxicity of investigated surfaces - Abstract: The properties of thin calcium-phosphate coatings formed by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering of a solid target made from hydroxyapatite on the surface of the thermoplastic copolymer of vinilidene fluoride and tetrafluoroethylene (VDF–TeFE) were investigated. Atomic force microscopy energy dispersive analysis and optical goniometry showed that deposited calcium-phosphate coatings change significantly the morphological, electrical, chemical, and contact properties of the surface of the initial polymeric substrates. These modified surfaces widen the scope of medical application of the thermoplastic copolymer.

  8. Combined effect of oxygen deficient point defects and Ni doping in radio frequency magnetron sputtering deposited ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, B., E-mail: biswajit.physics@gmail.com [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, 700 032 Kolkata (India); Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania 799046, Tripura (India); Das, N.S.; Chattopadhyay, K.K. [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, 700 032 Kolkata (India)

    2014-07-01

    Ni doped ZnO thin films with oxygen deficiency have been synthesized on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique using argon plasma. The combined effect of point defects generated due to oxygen vacancies and Ni doping on the optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films has been studied in this work. Ni doping concentrations were varied and the structural, optical and electrical properties of the films were studied as a function of doping concentrations. The films were characterized with X-ray diffractometer, UV–Vis–NIR spectrophotometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrical conductivity measurements. Oxygen deficient point defects (Schottky defects) made the ZnO thin film highly conducting while incorporation of Ni dopant made it more functional regarding their electrical and optical properties. The films were found to have tunable electrical conductivity with Ni doping concentrations. - Highlights: • ZnO thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique • Synthesis process was stimulated to introduce Schottky-type point defects. • Point defects and external doping of Ni made ZnO thin films more functional. • Point defect induced high electrical conductivity in ZnO thin film. • Significant shift in optical bandgap observed in ZnO with Ni doping concentrations.

  9. Comprehensive study of the p-type conductivity formation in radio frequency magnetron sputtered arsenic-doped ZnO film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, J. C.; Zhu, C. Y.; Yang, B.; Fung, S.; Beling, C. D.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Grambole, D.; Skorupa, W.; Wong, K. S.; Zhong, Y. C.; Xie, Z.; Ling, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic doped ZnO and ZnMgO films were deposited on SiO 2 using radio frequency magnetron sputtering and ZnO-Zn 3 As 2 and ZnO-Zn 3 As 2 -MgO targets, respectively. It was found that thermal activation is required to activate the formation of p-type conductivity. Hall measurements showed that p-type films with a hole concentration of ∼10 17 cm -3 and mobility of ∼8 cm 2 V -1 s -1 were obtained at substrate temperatures of 400-500 deg. C The shallow acceptor formation mechanism was investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, positron annihilation, low temperature photoluminescence, and nuclear reaction analysis. The authors suggest that the thermal annealing activates the formation of the As Zn -2V Zn shallow acceptor complex and removes the compensating hydrogen center.

  10. Crossover of the preferred growth orientation of AlN/Si(001) films during off-axis radio frequency sputter growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, H.W.; Kang, H.C.; Noh, D.Y.; Yi, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    We found that the crystallographic orientation of AlN/Si(001) thin films crosses over from the substrate normal towards the direction of incident flux during off-axis radio frequency magnetron sputter growth. At high growth temperatures, the crystalline c-axis orientation is maintained along the substrate normal direction initially, but jumps discontinuously towards the direction of incident flux. In contrast, at low growth temperatures, the c-axis direction shifts continuously towards the incident flux direction and saturates in the middle agreeing with the tangential rule of oblique deposition, i.e., tan β=1/2 tan α, where α and β denote the angles of incident flux and column incline, respectively. Selected area transmission electron diffraction patterns are consistent with the crossover measured by in situ x-ray scattering experiments

  11. Optimization of aluminum-doped zinc oxide films deposited at low temperature by radio-frequency sputtering on flexible substrates for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, S. [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Naranjo, F.B. [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica (GRIFO), Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala, Campus Universitario, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films were deposited at 100 C on polyethylene terephthalate by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The sputtering parameters such as RF power and Argon working pressure were varied from 25 to 125 W and from 1.1 to 0.2 Pa, respectively. The structural properties of as-deposited films were analysed by X-ray diffraction, showing that all the deposited films were polycrystalline, with hexagonal structure and a strong preferred c-axis orientation (0 0 2). Full width at half maximum and grain sizes were around 0.27 and ranged from 24 to 32 nm, respectively. The strain state of the samples was also estimated from X-ray diffraction measurements, obtaining compressive stresses from 0.29 to 0.05 GPa. Resistivity as low as 1.1 x 10{sup -3} {omega} cm was achieved for the film deposited at 75 W and 0.2 Pa, sample that showed a low strain state of -0.06 GPa. High optical transmittance ({proportional_to}80%) was exhibited when films were deposited at RF powers below 100 W. Band gap energies ranged from 3.36 to 3.39 eV and a refractive index of 1.80{+-}0.05, constant in the visible region, was also obtained. (author)

  12. Niobium-based catalysts prepared by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and arc plasma methods as non-noble metal cathode catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Ryohji; Katayama, Masao; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2010-01-01

    Two vacuum methods, reactive radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and arc plasma deposition, were used to prepare niobium-based catalysts for an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as non-noble metal cathodes for polymer electrode fuel cells (PEFCs). Thin films with various N and O contents, denoted as NbO x and Nb-O-N, were prepared on glassy carbon plates by RF magnetron sputtering with controlled partial pressures of oxygen and nitrogen. Electrochemical measurements indicated that the introduction of the nitrogen species into the thin film resulted in improved ORR activity compared to the oxide-only film. Using an arc plasma method, niobium was deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrates, and the sub-nanoscale surface morphology of the deposited particles was investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). To prepare practical cathode catalysts, niobium was deposited on carbon black (CB) powders by arc plasma method. STM and transmission electron microscopy observations of samples on HOPG and CB indicated that the prepared catalysts were highly dispersed at the atomic level. The onset potential of oxygen reduction on Nb-O-N/CB was 0.86 V vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode, and the apparent current density was drastically improved by the introduction of nitrogen.

  13. Ultraviolet emitting (Y1-xGd x)2O3-δ thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering; structure-property-thin film processing relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowlkes, J.D.; Fitz-Gerald, J.M.; Rack, P.D.

    2007-01-01

    The effects that the oxygen partial pressure, substrate temperature and annealing temperature have on the cathodoluminescence (CL) efficiency of radio frequency magnetron sputter deposited Gd-doped Y 2 O 3 thin films is investigated. Furthermore these sputtering parameters are correlated to the degree of crystallinity, the phases present (cubic (α) versus monoclinic (β) Y 2 O 3 ), and the stoichiometry of the thin films. Films deposited at room temperature (RT) did not CL, however, the films were activated by a post-deposition anneal at 1273 K for 6 h. Films deposited at 873 K had a very low CL efficiency which was significantly enhanced by a post-deposition anneal. For RT deposited films the external CL efficiency increased with increasing oxygen partial pressure for the range studied, however the opposite trend was observed for the 873 K deposited films. Examination of the morphology and grain size of the high temperature deposited films revealed that the average grain size increased with decreasing partial pressure and the observed increase in the external CL efficiency was attributed to enhanced anomalous diffraction. An intrinsic CL efficiency term was determined to circumvent the effects of the enhanced anomalous diffraction, and the CL efficiency was correlated to the integrated intensity of the (222) of the cubic α-Y 2 O 3 phase

  14. Radio frequency sputter deposition of high-quality conductive and transparent ZnO:Al films on polymer substrates for thin film solar cells applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, S. [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: susanamaria.fernandez@ciemat.es; Martinez-Steele, A.; Gandia, J.J. [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Naranjo, F.B. [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica (GRIFO), Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala. Campus Universitario, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-31

    Thick aluminum-doped zinc oxide films were deposited at substrate temperatures from 100 {sup o}C to room temperature on polyethylene terephthalate by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, varying the deposition parameters such as radio frequency power and working pressure. Structural, optical and electrical properties were analyzed using an x-ray diffractometer, a spectrophotometer and a four-point probe, respectively. Films were polycrystalline showing a strong preferred c-axis orientation (002). The best optical and electrical results were achieved using a substrate temperature of 100 {sup o}C. Furthermore, high transmittances close to 80% in the visible wavelength range were obtained for those films deposited at the lowest Argon pressure used of 0.2 Pa. In addition, resistivities as low as 1.1 x 10{sup -3} {omega} cm were reached deposited at a RF power of 75 W. Finally, a comparison of the properties of the films deposited on polymer and glass substrates was performed, obtaining values of the figure of merit for the films on polymer comparable to those obtained on glass substrates, 17,700 {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1} vs 14,900 {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, respectively.

  15. Radio frequency sputter deposition of high-quality conductive and transparent ZnO:Al films on polymer substrates for thin film solar cells applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, S.; Martinez-Steele, A.; Gandia, J.J.; Naranjo, F.B.

    2009-01-01

    Thick aluminum-doped zinc oxide films were deposited at substrate temperatures from 100 o C to room temperature on polyethylene terephthalate by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, varying the deposition parameters such as radio frequency power and working pressure. Structural, optical and electrical properties were analyzed using an x-ray diffractometer, a spectrophotometer and a four-point probe, respectively. Films were polycrystalline showing a strong preferred c-axis orientation (002). The best optical and electrical results were achieved using a substrate temperature of 100 o C. Furthermore, high transmittances close to 80% in the visible wavelength range were obtained for those films deposited at the lowest Argon pressure used of 0.2 Pa. In addition, resistivities as low as 1.1 x 10 -3 Ω cm were reached deposited at a RF power of 75 W. Finally, a comparison of the properties of the films deposited on polymer and glass substrates was performed, obtaining values of the figure of merit for the films on polymer comparable to those obtained on glass substrates, 17,700 Ω -1 cm -1 vs 14,900 Ω -1 cm -1 , respectively

  16. Indium--tin oxide films radio frequency sputtered from specially formulated high density indium--tin oxide targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Bayard, M.

    1991-01-01

    High density ITO (indium--tin oxide) targets doped with Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 manufactured in the Tektronix Ceramics Division have been used to rf sputter ITO films of various thicknesses on borosilicate glass substrates. Sputtering in an oxygen--argon gas mixture and annealing in forming gas, resulted in ITO films exhibiting 90% transmission at 550 nm and a sheet resistance of 15 Ω/sq for a thickness of 1100 A. Sputtering in an oxygen--argon gas mixture and annealing in air increased sheet resistance without a large effect on the transmission. Films sputtered in argon gas alone were transparent in the visible and the sheet resistance was found to be 100--180 Ω/sq for the same thickness, without annealing

  17. Structural and magnetic properties of NiZn-ferrite thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yingli; Li Yuanxun; Zhang Huaiwu; Chen Daming; Mu Chunhong

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline NiZn-ferrite thin films were deposited on Si(100) substrate by rf magnetron sputtering, using targets with a nominal composition of Ni 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 . The effects of substrate condition, sputtering pressure, and postannealing on the structure and magnetic properties of thin films have been investigated. Our results show that the preferred orientation of the NiZn spinel film changed from (311) to (400) with increasing the Ar pressure from 0.8 to 1.6 Pa, meanwhile, the grain size also increased. Atomic force microscopy analysis indicates that perfect surface morphology of the film can be obtained at a relatively lower sputtering pressure of 1.0 Pa. The relative percentage of residual oxygen increases significantly on a condition of lower sputtering pressure, and plays an important role in film structure due to the strong molecular adsorption tendency of oxygen on the film surface during the deposition process. A thin film with a typical thickness of 1 μm, a saturation magnetization of 150 emu/cm 3 , and a coercivity of 8.8 kA/m has been obtained after annealing at 800 deg. C, which has the potential application in magnetic integrated circuits.

  18. Structural investigation of ZnO:Al films deposited on the Si substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.Y.; Yang, J.R.; Cheng, S.L.; Shiojiri, M.

    2013-01-01

    ZnO:Al films 400 nm thick were prepared on (100) Si substrates by magnetron sputtering. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that in the initial stage of the deposition, an amorphous silicon oxide layer about 4 nm thick formed from damage to the Si substrate due to sputtered particle bombardment and the incorporation of Si atoms with oxygen. Subsequently, a crystalline Si (Zn) layer about 30 nm thick grew on the silicon oxide layer by co-deposition of Si atoms sputtered away from the substrate with Zn atoms from the target. Finally, a ZnO:Al film with columnar grains was deposited on the Si (Zn) layer. The sputtered particle bombardment greatly influenced the structure of the object films. The (0001) lattice fringes of the ZnO:Al film were observed in high-resolution TEM images, and the forbidden 0001 reflection spots in electron diffraction patterns were attributed to double diffraction. Therefore, the appearance of the forbidden reflection did not imply any ordering of Al atoms and/or O vacancies in the ZnO:Al film. - Highlights: • ZnO:Al films were deposited on (100) Si substrate using magnetron sputtering. • An amorphous silicon oxide layer with a thickness of 4 nm was formed on Si substrate. • Crystalline Si (Zn) layer about 30 nm thick grew on amorphous silicon oxide layer. • ZnO:Al film comprising columnar grains was deposited on the Si(Zn) layer. • Lattice image of the ZnO:Al film has been interpreted

  19. On performance limitations and property correlations of Al-doped ZnO deposited by radio-frequency sputtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Ottsen, Tobias Sand; Stamate, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    -pressure regime, we find a generalized dependence of the electrical properties, grain size, texture, and Al content on compressive stress, regardless of sputtering pressure or position on the substrate. In a high-pressure regime, a porous microstructure limits the achievable resistivity and causes it to increase......The electrical properties of RF-sputtered Al-doped ZnO are often spatially inhomogeneous and strongly dependent on deposition parameters. In this work, we study the mechanisms that limit the minimum resistivity achievable under different deposition regimes. In a low- and intermediate...... over time as well. The primary cause of inhomogeneity in the electrical properties is identified as energetic particle bombardment. Inhomogeneity in oxygen content is also observed, but its effect on the electrical properties is small and limited to the carrier mobility....

  20. Oxygen-doped zirconium nitride based transparent resistive random access memory devices fabricated by radio frequency sputtering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee-Dong, E-mail: khd0708@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sejong University, Neungdong-ro 209, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Min Ju [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sejong University, Neungdong-ro 209, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong Heon [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 163-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sungho, E-mail: sungho85.kim@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sejong University, Neungdong-ro 209, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-05

    In this work, we present a feasibility of bipolar resistive switching (RS) characteristics for Oxygen-doped zirconium nitride (O-doped ZrN{sub x}) films, produced by sputtering method, which shows a high optical transmittance of approximately 78% in the visible region as well as near ultra-violet region. In addition, in a RS test, the device has a large current ratio of 5 × 10{sup 3} in positive bias region and 5 × 10{sup 5} in negative bias region. Then, to evaluate an ability of data storage for the proposed memory devices, we measured a retention time for 10{sup 4} s at room temperature (RT) and 85 °C as well. As a result, the set and reset states were stably maintained with a current ratio of ∼10{sup 2} at 85 °C to ∼10{sup 3} at RT. This result means that the transparent memory by controlling the working pressure during sputtering process to deposit the ZrN{sub x} films could be a milestone for future see-through electronic devices. - Highlights: • The resistive switching characteristics of the transparent O-doped ZrN{sub x}-based RRAM cells have investigated. • Oxygen doping concentration within ZrN{sub x} is optimized using working pressure of sputter. • Long retention time were observed.

  1. Oxygen-doped zirconium nitride based transparent resistive random access memory devices fabricated by radio frequency sputtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee-Dong; Yun, Min Ju; Kim, Kyeong Heon; Kim, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a feasibility of bipolar resistive switching (RS) characteristics for Oxygen-doped zirconium nitride (O-doped ZrN_x) films, produced by sputtering method, which shows a high optical transmittance of approximately 78% in the visible region as well as near ultra-violet region. In addition, in a RS test, the device has a large current ratio of 5 × 10"3 in positive bias region and 5 × 10"5 in negative bias region. Then, to evaluate an ability of data storage for the proposed memory devices, we measured a retention time for 10"4 s at room temperature (RT) and 85 °C as well. As a result, the set and reset states were stably maintained with a current ratio of ∼10"2 at 85 °C to ∼10"3 at RT. This result means that the transparent memory by controlling the working pressure during sputtering process to deposit the ZrN_x films could be a milestone for future see-through electronic devices. - Highlights: • The resistive switching characteristics of the transparent O-doped ZrN_x-based RRAM cells have investigated. • Oxygen doping concentration within ZrN_x is optimized using working pressure of sputter. • Long retention time were observed.

  2. Growth of Ge/Si(100) Nanostructures by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering: the Role of Annealing Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALIREZA Samavati; S. K. Ghoshal; Z. Othaman

    2012-01-01

    Surface morphologies of Ge islands deposited on Si(100) substrates are characterized and their optical properties determined.Samples are prepared by rf magnetron sputtering in a high-vacuum chamber and are annealed at 600℃,700℃ and 800℃ for 2 min at nitrogen ambient pressure.Atomic force microscopy,field emission scanning electron microscopy,visible photoluminescence (PL) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are employed.The results for the annealing temperature-dependent sample morphology and the optical properties are presented.The density,size and roughness are found to be strongly influenced by the annealing temperature.A red shift of ~0.29 eV in the PL peak is observed with increasing annealing temperature.%Surface morphologies of Ge islands deposited on Si(100) substrates are characterized and their optical properties determined. Samples are prepared by rf magnetron sputtering in a high-vacuum chamber and are annealed at 600℃, 700℃ and 800℃ for 2 min at nitrogen ambient pressure. Atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, visible photoluminescence (PL) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are employed. The results for the annealing temperature-dependent sample morphology and the optical properties are presented. The density, size and roughness are found to be strongly influenced by the annealing temperature. A red shift of ~0.29 eV in the PL peak is observed with increasing annealing temperature.

  3. Comprehensive study of the p-type conductivity formation in radio frequency magnetron sputtered arsenic-doped ZnO film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, J. C.; Zhu, C. Y.; Yang, B.; Fung, S.; Beling, C. D.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Grambole, D.; Skorupa, W.; Wong, K. S.; Zhong, Y. C.; Xie, Z.; Ling, C. C. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 510119, D-01314, Dresden (Germany); Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 510119, D-01314, Dresden (Germany); Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 510119, D-01314, Dresden (Germany); Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); College of Physics and Microelectronic Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong)

    2011-05-15

    Arsenic doped ZnO and ZnMgO films were deposited on SiO{sub 2} using radio frequency magnetron sputtering and ZnO-Zn{sub 3}As{sub 2} and ZnO-Zn{sub 3}As{sub 2}-MgO targets, respectively. It was found that thermal activation is required to activate the formation of p-type conductivity. Hall measurements showed that p-type films with a hole concentration of {approx}10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and mobility of {approx}8 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} were obtained at substrate temperatures of 400-500 deg. C The shallow acceptor formation mechanism was investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, positron annihilation, low temperature photoluminescence, and nuclear reaction analysis. The authors suggest that the thermal annealing activates the formation of the As{sub Zn}-2V{sub Zn} shallow acceptor complex and removes the compensating hydrogen center.

  4. Post-growth annealing induced change of conductivity in As-doped ZnO grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    To, C. K.; Yang, B.; Su, S. C.; Ling, C. C.; Beling, C. D.; Fung, S. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic-doped ZnO films were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method at a relatively low substrate temperature of 200 deg. C. Post-growth annealing in air was carried out up to a temperature of 1000 deg. C. The samples were characterized by Hall measurement, positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and cathodoluminescence (CL). The as-grown sample was of n-type and it converted to p-type material after the 400 deg. C annealing. The resulting hole concentration was found to increase with annealing temperature and reached a maximum of 6 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} at the annealing temperature of 600 deg. C. The origin of the p-type conductivity was consistent with the As{sub Zn}(V{sub Zn}){sub 2} shallow acceptor model. Further increasing the annealing temperature would decrease the hole concentration of the samples finally converted the sample back to n-type. With evidence, it was suggested that the removal of the p-type conductivity was due to the dissociation of the As{sub Zn}(V{sub Zn}){sub 2} acceptor and the creation of the deep level defect giving rise to the green luminescence.

  5. Post-growth annealing induced change of conductivity in As-doped ZnO grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, C. K.; Yang, B.; Su, S. C.; Ling, C. C.; Beling, C. D.; Fung, S.

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic-doped ZnO films were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method at a relatively low substrate temperature of 200 °C. Post-growth annealing in air was carried out up to a temperature of 1000 °C. The samples were characterized by Hall measurement, positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and cathodoluminescence (CL). The as-grown sample was of n-type and it converted to p-type material after the 400 °C annealing. The resulting hole concentration was found to increase with annealing temperature and reached a maximum of 6 × 1017 cm-3 at the annealing temperature of 600 °C. The origin of the p-type conductivity was consistent with the AsZn(VZn)2 shallow acceptor model. Further increasing the annealing temperature would decrease the hole concentration of the samples finally converted the sample back to n-type. With evidence, it was suggested that the removal of the p-type conductivity was due to the dissociation of the AsZn(VZn)2 acceptor and the creation of the deep level defect giving rise to the green luminescence.

  6. Post-growth annealing induced change of conductivity in As-doped ZnO grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To, C. K.; Yang, B.; Su, S. C.; Ling, C. C.; Beling, C. D.; Fung, S.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic-doped ZnO films were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method at a relatively low substrate temperature of 200 deg. C. Post-growth annealing in air was carried out up to a temperature of 1000 deg. C. The samples were characterized by Hall measurement, positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and cathodoluminescence (CL). The as-grown sample was of n-type and it converted to p-type material after the 400 deg. C annealing. The resulting hole concentration was found to increase with annealing temperature and reached a maximum of 6 x 10 17 cm -3 at the annealing temperature of 600 deg. C. The origin of the p-type conductivity was consistent with the As Zn (V Zn ) 2 shallow acceptor model. Further increasing the annealing temperature would decrease the hole concentration of the samples finally converted the sample back to n-type. With evidence, it was suggested that the removal of the p-type conductivity was due to the dissociation of the As Zn (V Zn ) 2 acceptor and the creation of the deep level defect giving rise to the green luminescence.

  7. Influence of growth temperature on electrical, optical, and plasmonic properties of aluminum:zinc oxide films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dondapati, Hareesh; Santiago, Kevin; Pradhan, A. K. [Center for Materials Research, Norfolk State University, 700 Park Avenue, Norfolk, Virginia 23504 (United States)

    2013-10-14

    We have investigated the responsible mechanism for the observation of metallic conductivity at room temperature and metal-semiconductor transition (MST) at lower temperatures for aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films. AZO films were grown on glass substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering with varying substrate temperatures (T{sub s}). The films were found to be crystalline with the electrical resistivity close to 1.1 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm and transmittance more than 85% in the visible region. The saturated optical band gap of 3.76 eV was observed for the sample grown at T{sub s} of 400 °C, however, a slight decrease in the bandgap was noticed above 400 °C, which can be explained by Burstein–Moss effect. Temperature dependent resistivity measurements of these highly conducting and transparent films showed a MST at ∼110 K. The observed metal-like and metal-semiconductor transitions are explained by taking into account the Mott phase transition and localization effects due to defects. All AZO films demonstrate crossover in permittivity from positive to negative and low loss in the near-infrared region, illustrating its applications for plasmonic metamaterials, including waveguides for near infrared telecommunication region. Based on the results presented in this study, the low electrical resistivity and high optical transmittance of AZO films suggested a possibility for the application in the flexible electronic devices, such as transparent conducting oxide film on LEDs, solar cells, and touch panels.

  8. Sputter crater formation in the case of microsecond pulsed glow discharge in a Grimm-type source. Comparison of direct current and radio frequency modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimova, Varvara; Hoffmann, Volker; Eckert, Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    Depth profiling with pulsed glow discharge is a promising technique. The application of pulsed voltage for sputtering reduces the sputtering rate and thermal stress and hereby improves the analysis of thin layered and thermally fragile samples. However pulsed glow discharge is not well studied and this limits its practical use. The current work deals with the questions which usually arise when the pulsed mode is applied: Which duty cycle, frequency and pulse length must be chosen to get the optimal sputtering rate and crater shape? Are the well-known sputtering effects of the continuous mode valid also for the pulsed regime? Is there any difference between dc and rf pulsing in terms of sputtering? It is found that the pulse length is a crucial parameter for the crater shape and thermal effects. Sputtering with pulsed dc and rf modes is found to be similar. The observed sputtering effects at various pulsing parameters helped to interpret and optimize the depth resolution of GD OES depth profiles.

  9. Nanoscale Cu{sub 2}O films: Radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and structural and optical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryashov, D. A., E-mail: kudryashovda@apbau.ru; Gudovskikh, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg National Research Academic University — Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Babichev, A. V.; Filimonov, A. V. [Connector Optics LLC (Russian Federation); Mozharov, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg National Research Academic University — Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Agekyan, V. F.; Borisov, E. V.; Serov, A. Yu.; Filosofov, N. G. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Nanoscale copper (I) oxide layers are formed by magnetron-assisted sputtering onto glassy and silicon substrates in an oxygen-free environment at room temperature, and the structural and optical properties of the layers are studied. It is shown that copper oxide formed on a silicon substrate exhibits a lower degree of disorder than that formed on a glassy substrate, which is supported by the observation of a higher intensity and a smaller half-width of reflections in the diffraction pattern. The highest intensity of reflections in the diffraction pattern is observed for Cu{sub 2}O films grown on silicon at a magnetron power of 150 W. The absorption and transmittance spectra of these Cu{sub 2}O films are in agreement with the well-known spectra of bulk crystals. In the Raman spectra of the films, phonons inherent in the crystal lattice of cubic Cu{sub 2}O crystals are identified.

  10. Solid oxide fuel cells with apatite-type lanthanum silicate-based electrolyte films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Xin; Wang, Sea-Fue; Hsu, Yung-Fu; Wang, Chi-Hua

    2018-03-01

    In this study, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) containing high-quality apatite-type magnesium doped lanthanum silicate-based electrolyte films (LSMO) deposited by RF magnetron sputtering are successfully fabricated. The LSMO film deposited at an Ar:O2 ratio of 6:4 on an anode supported NiO/Sm0.2Ce0·8O2-δ (SDC) substrate followed by post-annealing at 1000 °C reveals a uniform and dense c-axis oriented polycrystalline structure, which is well adhered to the anode substrate. A composite SDC/La0·6Sr0·4Co0·2Fe0·8O3-δ cathode layer is subsequently screen-printed on the LSMO deposited anode substrate and fired. The SOFC fabricated with the LSMO film exhibits good mechanical integrity. The single cell with the LSMO layer of ≈2.8 μm thickness reports a total cell resistance of 1.156 and 0.163 Ωcm2, open circuit voltage of 1.051 and 0.982 V, and maximum power densities of 0.212 and 1.490 Wcm-2 at measurement temperatures of 700 and 850 °C, respectively, which are comparable or superior to those of previously reported SOFCs with yttria stabilized zirconia electrolyte films. The results of the present study demonstrate the feasibility of deposition of high-quality LSMO films by RF magnetron sputtering on NiO-SDC anode substrates for the fabrication of SOFCs with good cell performance.

  11. Effect of annealing on refractive indices of radio-frequency magnetron sputtered waveguiding zinc oxide films on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehan, Navina; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, Kondepudy; Mansingh, Abhai

    2004-01-01

    The effects of annealing and gas composition on the refractive indices of zinc oxide films were studied in light of the structural properties. ZnO films (1 μm) were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering in different oxygen:argon mixtures on glass and annealed at 380 deg. C in air, at different times. Waveguide modes were excited in the films by prism coupling using a He-Ne laser. The estimated values of the extraordinary and ordinary refractive indices of the films, which were close to the corresponding bulk values (n e =2.006, n o =1.990), initially decreased with annealing time and later increased before becoming constant with further annealing. The variation in refractive indices was explained on the basis of contribution from both packing density p and lattice constant c of the films. The initial decrease in refractive indices was attributed to the observed lattice contraction, and the latter increase was explained in terms of the increase in packing density (p) of the films on annealing. A relation is proposed to estimate the refractive indices of films, which have the lattice constant c different from the bulk value

  12. Irradiation response of radio-frequency sputtered Al/Gd2O3/p-Si MOS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, A.; Yilmaz, E.

    2017-10-01

    The usage of the Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) as sensitive region in the MOS (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor)-based dosimeters was investigated in the presented study. The Gd2O3 films grown on p-type Si (100) by RF magnetron sputtering were annealed at 800 °C under N2 ambient. The back and front metal contacts were establishes to produce MOS capacitors. The fabricated Gd2O3 MOS capacitors were irradiated in the dose range 0.5-50 Gy by 60Co gamma source. The performed Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) curves of the Gd2O3 MOS capacitors shifted to right side relative to pre-irradiation one. While continuous increments in the oxide trapped charges with increasing in gamma dose were observed, interface trapped charges fluctuated in the studied dose range. However, the variation of the interface trapped charge densities was found in the order of 1011 cm-2 and no significant variation was observed with applied dose. These results confirm that a significant deterioration does not occur in the capacitance during the irradiation. The higher oxide trapped charges compared to interface trapped charges showed that these traps were more responsible for the shift of the C-V curves. The sensitivity and percentage fading after 105 min of the Gd2O3 MOS capacitor were found as 39.7±1.4 mV/Gy and 14.5%, respectively. The devices sensitivity was found to be higher than that of capacitors composed of Er2O3, Sm2O3, La2O3, Al2O3, and SiO2, but, the high fading values is seen as a major problem for these capacitors. Finally, the barrier height was investigated with gamma exposure and the results showed that its value increased with increasing in radiation dose due to possible presence of the acceptor-like interface states.

  13. A study of TaxC1-x coatings deposited on biomedical 316L stainless steel by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, M.H.; Wang, B.L.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, Ta x C 1-x coatings were deposited on 316L stainless steel (316L SS) by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering at various substrate temperatures (T s ) in order to improve its corrosion resistance and hemocompatibility. XRD results indicated that T s could significantly change the microstructure of Ta x C 1-x coatings. When T s was x C 1-x coatings were in amorphous condition, whereas when T s was ≥150 deg. C, TaC phase was formed, exhibiting in the form of particulates with the crystallite sizes of about 15-25 nm (T s = 300 deg. C). Atomic force microscope (AFM) results showed that with the increase of T s , the root-mean-square (RMS) values of the Ta x C 1-x coatings decreased. The nano-indentation experiments indicated that the Ta x C 1-x coating deposited at 300 deg. C had a higher hardness and modulus. The scratch test results demonstrated that Ta x C 1-x coatings deposited above 150 deg. C exhibited good adhesion performance. Tribology tests results demonstrated that Ta x C 1-x coatings exhibited excellent wear resistance. The results of potentiodynamic polarization showed that the corrosion resistance of the 316L SS was improved significantly because of the deposited Ta x C 1-x coatings. The platelet adhesion test results indicated that the Ta x C 1-x coatings deposited at T s of 150 deg. C and 300 deg. C possessed better hemocompatibility than the coating deposited at T s of 25 deg. C. Additionally, the hemocompatibility of the Ta x C 1-x coating on the 316L SS was found to be influenced by its surface roughness, hydrophilicity and the surface energy.

  14. Influence of substrate bias voltage on the properties of TiO{sub 2} deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on 304L for biomaterials applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bait, L. [Division Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, CDTA,Cité du 20 aout 1956, Baba Hassen, BP n°. 17, Alger (Algeria); Azzouz, L. [Université de Amar Telidji, Laghouat (Algeria); Madaoui, N. [Division Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, CDTA,Cité du 20 aout 1956, Baba Hassen, BP n°. 17, Alger (Algeria); Saoula, N., E-mail: nsaoula@cdta.dz [Division Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, CDTA,Cité du 20 aout 1956, Baba Hassen, BP n°. 17, Alger (Algeria)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} films were deposited on stainless steel 304L RF magnetron sputtering at different substrate bias. • The hardness of TiO{sub 2} coated 304L are higher than those obtained for uncoated substrate. • TiO{sub 2} films provide good protection for stainless steel against corrosion in Ringer solution. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the substrate bias, varied from 0 to −100 V, on the structure and properties of the TiO{sub 2} thin films for biomaterials applications. The TiO{sub 2} films were grown onto 304L stainless steel substrate using radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from a pure titanium target in Ar-O{sub 2} gas mixture. The variation of substrate bias voltage from 0 to −100 V produces variations of structure and mechanical properties of the films. The deposited films were characterized by X-rays diffraction, nanoindentation and potentiodynamic polarization. Also, the friction and wear properties of TiO{sub 2} films sliding against alumina ball in air were investigated. Experimental results showed that the thickness increases for non-biased substrate voltage to Vs = −100 V from 820 nm to 1936 nm respectively. The roughness is in the range of 50 nm and 14 nm. XRD results show that all structures of the films are crystalline and changed with varying the bias voltage. The anatase phase is predominant in the low negative bias range (0–50 V). The hardness significantly increased from 2.2 to 6.4 GPa when the bias voltage was increased from 0 to 75 V and then slightly decrease to 5.1 GPa as further increased to 100 V. At the same time, the results indicate that TiO{sub 2} films deposited at −100 V exhibited better wear resistance compared to the other samples, i.e. the minimum wear rates and the lower coefficient of friction of 0.16. In order to simulate natural biological conditions, physiological serum (pH = 6.3), thermostatically controlled at 37 °C, was used as the electrolyte for the

  15. Influence of substrate bias voltage on the properties of TiO2 deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on 304L for biomaterials applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bait, L.; Azzouz, L.; Madaoui, N.; Saoula, N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 films were deposited on stainless steel 304L RF magnetron sputtering at different substrate bias. • The hardness of TiO 2 coated 304L are higher than those obtained for uncoated substrate. • TiO 2 films provide good protection for stainless steel against corrosion in Ringer solution. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the substrate bias, varied from 0 to −100 V, on the structure and properties of the TiO 2 thin films for biomaterials applications. The TiO 2 films were grown onto 304L stainless steel substrate using radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from a pure titanium target in Ar-O 2 gas mixture. The variation of substrate bias voltage from 0 to −100 V produces variations of structure and mechanical properties of the films. The deposited films were characterized by X-rays diffraction, nanoindentation and potentiodynamic polarization. Also, the friction and wear properties of TiO 2 films sliding against alumina ball in air were investigated. Experimental results showed that the thickness increases for non-biased substrate voltage to Vs = −100 V from 820 nm to 1936 nm respectively. The roughness is in the range of 50 nm and 14 nm. XRD results show that all structures of the films are crystalline and changed with varying the bias voltage. The anatase phase is predominant in the low negative bias range (0–50 V). The hardness significantly increased from 2.2 to 6.4 GPa when the bias voltage was increased from 0 to 75 V and then slightly decrease to 5.1 GPa as further increased to 100 V. At the same time, the results indicate that TiO 2 films deposited at −100 V exhibited better wear resistance compared to the other samples, i.e. the minimum wear rates and the lower coefficient of friction of 0.16. In order to simulate natural biological conditions, physiological serum (pH = 6.3), thermostatically controlled at 37 °C, was used as the electrolyte for the study of the electrochemical properties

  16. Influence of substrate bias voltage on the properties of TiO2 deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on 304L for biomaterials applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bait, L.; Azzouz, L.; Madaoui, N.; Saoula, N.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the substrate bias, varied from 0 to -100 V, on the structure and properties of the TiO2 thin films for biomaterials applications. The TiO2 films were grown onto 304L stainless steel substrate using radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from a pure titanium target in Ar-O2 gas mixture. The variation of substrate bias voltage from 0 to -100 V produces variations of structure and mechanical properties of the films. The deposited films were characterized by X-rays diffraction, nanoindentation and potentiodynamic polarization. Also, the friction and wear properties of TiO2 films sliding against alumina ball in air were investigated. Experimental results showed that the thickness increases for non-biased substrate voltage to Vs = -100 V from 820 nm to 1936 nm respectively. The roughness is in the range of 50 nm and 14 nm. XRD results show that all structures of the films are crystalline and changed with varying the bias voltage. The anatase phase is predominant in the low negative bias range (0-50 V). The hardness significantly increased from 2.2 to 6.4 GPa when the bias voltage was increased from 0 to 75 V and then slightly decrease to 5.1 GPa as further increased to 100 V. At the same time, the results indicate that TiO2 films deposited at -100 V exhibited better wear resistance compared to the other samples, i.e. the minimum wear rates and the lower coefficient of friction of 0.16. In order to simulate natural biological conditions, physiological serum (pH = 6.3), thermostatically controlled at 37 °C, was used as the electrolyte for the study of the electrochemical properties. Comparison between the corrosion resistance of the uncoated and coated samples showed a reduction in corrosion current density for coated samples compared to the uncoated one. The best corrosion current density of the film deposited at -75 V was 5.9 nA/cm2, which is about 11 times less than that of the uncoated steel 68.3 nA/cm2). The

  17. Radio Frequency Identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has been around sinceearly 2000. Its use has currently become commonplace as thecost of RFID tags has rapidly decreased. RFID tags have alsobecome more 'intelligent' with the incorporation of processorsand sensors in them. They are widely used now in manyinnovative ways.

  18. Influence of radio frequency power on structure and ionic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) thin films as solid electrolytes were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering of a Li3PO4 target in ambient nitrogen atmosphere. The influence of radio frequency (rf) power on the structure and the ionic conductivity of LiPON thin films has been investigated. The morphology ...

  19. Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, T.; Chen, X.; Mohan, P.; Lao, B. Q.

    2017-09-01

    The observational facilities of radio astronomy keep constant upgrades and developments to achieve better capabilities including increasing the time of the data recording and frequency resolutions, and increasing the receiving and recording bandwidth. However in contrast, only a limited spectrum resource has been allocated to radio astronomy by the International Telecommunication Union, resulting in that the radio observational instrumentations are inevitably exposed to undesirable radio frequency interference (RFI) signals which originate mainly from the terrestrial human activity and are becoming stronger with time. RFIs degrade the quality of data and even lead to invalid data. The impact of RFIs on scientific outcome becomes more and more serious. In this article, the requirement for RFI mitigation is motivated, and the RFI characteristics, mitigation techniques, and strategies are reviewed. The mitigation strategies adopted at some representative observatories, telescopes, and arrays are also introduced. The advantages and shortcomings of the four classes of RFI mitigation strategies are discussed and presented, applicable at the connected causal stages: preventive, pre-detection, pre-correlation, and post-correlation. The proper identification and flagging of RFI is the key to the reduction of data loss and improvement in data quality, and is also the ultimate goal of developing RFI mitigation technique. This can be achieved through a strategy involving a combination of the discussed techniques in stages. The recent advances in the high speed digital signal processing and high performance computing allow for performing RFI excision of the large data volumes generated from large telescopes or arrays in both real time and offline modes, aiding the proposed strategy.

  20. Radio frequency picosecond phototube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margaryan, A.; Carlini, R.; Ent, R.; Grigoryan, N.; Gyunashyan, K.; Hashimoto, O.; Hovater, K.; Ispiryan, M.; Knyazyan, S.; Kross, B.; Majewski, S.; Marikyan, G.; Mkrtchyan, M.; Parlakyan, L.; Popov, V.; Tang, L.; Vardanyan, H.; Yan, C.; Zhamkochyan, S.; Zorn, C.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a photon detector for recording low-level and ultra-fast optical signals, based on radio frequency (RF) analysis of low-energy photoelectrons (PEs). By using currently developed 500 MHz RF deflector, it is possible to scan circularly and detect single PEs, amplified in multi-channel plates (MCPs). The operation of the tube is investigated by means of thermionic electron source. It is demonstrated that the signals generated in the MCP can be processed event by event; by using available nanosecond electronics and that time resolution better than 20 ps can be achieved. Timing characteristics of the Cherenkov detector with RF phototube in a 'head-on' geometry is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulation

  1. Radio frequency picosecond phototube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaryan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia)]. E-mail: mat@mail.yerphi.am; Carlini, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Ent, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Grigoryan, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Gyunashyan, K. [Yerevan State University of Architecture and Construction, Yerevan (Armenia); Hashimoto, O. [Tohoku University, Sendai 98-77 (Japan); Hovater, K. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Ispiryan, M. [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Rd, Houston TX 77204 (United States); Knyazyan, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Kross, B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Majewski, S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Marikyan, G. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Mkrtchyan, M. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Parlakyan, L. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Popov, V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Tang, L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Vardanyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Yan, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States); Zhamkochyan, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Zorn, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News VA 23606 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    We propose a photon detector for recording low-level and ultra-fast optical signals, based on radio frequency (RF) analysis of low-energy photoelectrons (PEs). By using currently developed 500 MHz RF deflector, it is possible to scan circularly and detect single PEs, amplified in multi-channel plates (MCPs). The operation of the tube is investigated by means of thermionic electron source. It is demonstrated that the signals generated in the MCP can be processed event by event; by using available nanosecond electronics and that time resolution better than 20 ps can be achieved. Timing characteristics of the Cherenkov detector with RF phototube in a 'head-on' geometry is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulation.

  2. Radio frequency plasma excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, M.St.J.; Cross, K.B.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation into the use of rf sputtering for ion cleaning of insulating substrates before ion plating is reported. Initial experiments consisted of sputtering metals with rf power followed by the deposition of copper onto glass slides using rf plasma excitation and biasing supply. It was found that good quality films were obtained by rf ion plating onto plastics with excellent adhesion over a wide operating pressure range. A block schematic of the rf plasma excitation system is shown. (UK)

  3. Radio Frequency Anechoic Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the design, manufacture, and test of antenna systems. The facility is also used as an electromagnetic compatibility/radio frequency interference...

  4. radio frequency based radio frequency based water level monitor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    ABSTRACT. This paper elucidates a radio frequency (RF) based transmission and reception system used to remotely monitor and .... range the wireless can cover but in this prototype, it ... power supply to the system, the sensed water level is.

  5. Stoichiometry and phase purity control of radio frequency magnetron sputter deposited Ba0.45Sr0.55TiO3 thin films for tunable devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alema, Fikadu; Reinholz, Aaron; Pokhodnya, Konstantin

    2013-11-01

    The systematic study of the oxygen partial pressure (OPP) and total chamber gas pressure (TGP) effects on the stoichiometry and crystal structure of rf sputtered Ba0.45Sr0.55TiO3 (BST) films and their phase purity allowed identifying close to optimal sputtering parameters for BST single phase polycrystalline film. The film with a Ba/Sr ratio equal to that of the source target and (Ba + Sr)/Ti ratio close to unity demonstrated the enhanced permittivity value of 553 and tunability of 69%. It was confirmed that the increase of TGP enables better match of the film and target stoichiometry. However, using O2/Ar ratio as a parameter should be utilized cautiously since exceeding a threshold OPP (2 mTorr in our case) may facilitate secondary phase formation. Relatively large dielectric losses were observed in both films sputtered at high (30 mTorr) and low (5 mTor) TGPs. The presence of oxygen vacancies was identified as a probable cause of losses, which is indirectly confirmed by the deviation of the film lattice constant from that of the bulk target.

  6. Semitransparent ZnO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) based hybrid inorganic/organic heterojunction thin film diodes prepared by combined radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering and electrodeposition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Moreno, Jorge; Navarrete-Astorga, Elena; Martín, Francisco; Schrebler, Ricardo; Ramos-Barrado, José R.; Dalchiele, Enrique A.

    2012-01-01

    n-ZnO/p-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) semitransparent inorganic–organic hybrid vertical heterojunction thin film diodes have been fabricated with PEDOT and ZnO thin films grown by electrodeposition and radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering respectively, onto a tin doped indium oxide coated glass substrate. The diode exhibited an optical transmission of ∼ 40% to ∼ 50% in the visible region between 450 and 700 nm. The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the heterojunction show good rectifying diode characteristics, with a ratio of forward current to the reverse current as high as 35 in the range − 4 V to + 4 V. The I–V characteristic was examined in the framework of the thermionic emission model. The ideality factor and barrier height were obtained as 4.0 and 0.88 eV respectively. - Highlights: ► Semitransparent inorganic–organic heterojunction thin film diodes investigated ► n-ZnO/p-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythipohene) used for the heterojunction ► Diodes exhibited an optical transmission of ∼ 40%–∼ 50% in the visible region ► Heterojunction current–voltage features show good rectifying diode characteristics ► A forward to reverse current ratio as high as 35 (− 4 V to + 4 V range) was attained

  7. Spatial structure of radio frequency ring-shaped magnetized discharge sputtering plasma using two facing ZnO/Al2O3 cylindrical targets for Al-doped ZnO thin film preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sumiyama

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial structure of high-density radio frequency ring-shaped magnetized discharge plasma sputtering with two facing ZnO/Al2O3 cylindrical targets mounted in ring-shaped hollow cathode has been measured and Al-doped ZnO (AZO thin film is deposited without substrate heating. The plasma density has a peak at ring-shaped hollow trench near the cathode. The radial profile becomes uniform with increasing the distance from the target cathode. A low ion current flowing to the substrate of 0.19 mA/cm2 is attained. Large area AZO films with a resistivity of 4.1 – 6.7×10-4 Ω cm can be prepared at a substrate room temperature. The transmittance is 84.5 % in a visible region. The surface roughnesses of AZO films are 0.86, 0.68, 0.64, 1.7 nm at radial positions of r = 0, 15, 30, 40 mm, respectively, while diffraction peak of AZO films is 34.26°. The grains exhibit a preferential orientation along (002 axis.

  8. Semitransparent ZnO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) based hybrid inorganic/organic heterojunction thin film diodes prepared by combined radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering and electrodeposition techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Moreno, Jorge; Navarrete-Astorga, Elena; Martin, Francisco [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Departamentos de Fisica Aplicada and Ing. Quimica, Universidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain); Schrebler, Ricardo [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Ramos-Barrado, Jose R. [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Departamentos de Fisica Aplicada and Ing. Quimica, Universidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain); Dalchiele, Enrique A., E-mail: dalchiel@fing.edu.uy [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Herrera y Reissig 565, C.C. 30, 11000 Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-12-15

    n-ZnO/p-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) semitransparent inorganic-organic hybrid vertical heterojunction thin film diodes have been fabricated with PEDOT and ZnO thin films grown by electrodeposition and radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering respectively, onto a tin doped indium oxide coated glass substrate. The diode exhibited an optical transmission of {approx} 40% to {approx} 50% in the visible region between 450 and 700 nm. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the heterojunction show good rectifying diode characteristics, with a ratio of forward current to the reverse current as high as 35 in the range - 4 V to + 4 V. The I-V characteristic was examined in the framework of the thermionic emission model. The ideality factor and barrier height were obtained as 4.0 and 0.88 eV respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semitransparent inorganic-organic heterojunction thin film diodes investigated Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer n-ZnO/p-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythipohene) used for the heterojunction Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diodes exhibited an optical transmission of {approx} 40%-{approx} 50% in the visible region Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heterojunction current-voltage features show good rectifying diode characteristics Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A forward to reverse current ratio as high as 35 (- 4 V to + 4 V range) was attained.

  9. Solid-state electrical conductivity and alcohol sensing properties of radio frequency sputtered thin films of Ti4+ doped eskolaite Cr2O3 derived from citrate combustion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhrel, Suman; Huo Lihua; Zhao Hui; Gao Shan

    2008-01-01

    Fine powder of Cr 1.8 Ti 0.2 O 3 (CTO) was prepared by citrate combustion technique followed by compacting into discs of 40 mm diameter. Discs were used as radio frequency sputtering targets and coated on a hollow ceramic tube of 4 mm length comprising two Au-electrodes with 4-probe contact and on Al 2 O 3 slices with interdigitated gold electrodes. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques. The resistance of the film derived from alternate current impedance measurement in ambient air was found to decrease with increasing temperature. The activation energy was found to be 0.39 eV. These films were exposed to various concentrations of alcohols followed by determination of sensor response, reversibility, potential stability and reproducibility. The sensor response was attributed to the surface catalytic reaction of R-OH with O - (ads) to form adsorbed R-CHO

  10. Relation between the plasma characteristics and physical properties of functional zinc oxide thin film prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Che-Wei; Cheng, Tsung-Chieh; Huang, Wen-Hsien; Wu, Jong-Shinn; Cheng, Cheng-Chih; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Huang, Shih-Chiang

    2010-01-01

    The ZnO thin film was deposited on a glass substrate by a RF reactive magnetron sputtering method. Results showed that plasma density, electron temperature, deposition rate and estimated ion bombardment energy increase with increasing applied RF power. Three distinct power regimes were observed, which are strongly correlated with plasma properties. In the low-power regime, the largest grain size was observed due to slow deposition rate. In the medium-power regime, the smallest grain size was found, which is attributed to insufficient time for the adatoms to migrate on substrate surface. In the high-power regime, relatively larger grain size was found due to very large ion bombardment energy which enhances the thermal migration of adatoms. Regardless of pure ZnO thin film or ZnO on glass, high transmittance (> 80%) in the visible region can be generally observed. However, the film thickness plays a more important role for controlling optical properties, especially in the UV region, than the applied RF power. In general, with properly coated ZnO thin film, we can obtain a glass substrate which is highly transparent in the visible region, is of good anti-UV characteristics, and is highly hydrophobic, which is highly suitable for applications in the glass industry.

  11. Characteristics of low-resistivity aluminum-doped zinc oxide films deposited at room temperature by off-axis radio-frequency sputtering on flexible plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Min; Wang, Chih-Yi; Jheng, Ciao-Ren; Wu, Syu-Jhan; Sai, Chen-Kai; Lee, Ya-Ju; Chiang, Ching-Yu; Shew, Bor-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    The crystalline structure, morphology, composition, electrical transport, and optical properties of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films are studied for applications in transparent electronics and optoelectronic devices. AZO thin films of c-axis-oriented growth and with different thickness were deposited on PET flexible plastic substrates at room temperature by rf magnetron sputtering. A larger grain size with a decreased strain ɛ value is observed in a thicker film, while changes in composition for films with different thicknesses are insignificant. Moreover, the resistivity of film decreases with increasing thickness, and the low-temperature electrical transport properties can be described by the scenario of quantum corrections to conductivity. With the room-temperature growth conditions, the resistivity of 4.5 × 10-4 Ω cm, carrier concentration of 6.4 × 1020 cm-3, and transmittance of 80 % for the 1100-nm-thick film are obtained. In addition, the optical bandgap energy decreases with increasing film thickness, which can be attributed to the bandgap renormalization and crystallite size effects.

  12. Artificial twin-layer configurations of Zn(O,S) films by radio frequency sputtering in all dry processed eco-friendly Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Fan, Yu; Li, Xiaodong; Lin, Shuping; Liu, Yang; Shi, Sihan; Wang, He; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Yun

    2018-03-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells are of great interest for research and industrial applications with their high conversion efficiencies, long-term stability and significant lifetimes. Such a solar cell of a p-n junction consists of p-type Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films as a light absorber and n-type CdS as a buffer layer, which often emerges with intrinsic ZnO. Aimed at eco-friendly fabrication protocols, a large number of strategies have been investigated to fabricate a Cd-free n-type buffer layer such as Zn(O,S) in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells. Also, if the Zn(O,S) films are prepared by coevaporation or sputtering, it will offer high compatibility with the preferred mass production. Here, we propose and optimize a dry method for Zn(O,S) deposition in a radio frequency sputtering. In particular, the strategy for the twin-layer configurations of Zn(O,S) films not only greatly improve their electrical conductance and suppress charge carrier recombination, but also avoid degradation of the Zn(O,S)/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 interfaces. Indeed, the high quality of such twin Zn(O,S) layers have been reflected in the similar conversion efficiencies of the complete solar cells as well as the large short-circuit current density, which exceeds the CdS reference device. In addition, Zn(O,S) twin layers have reduced the production time and materials by replacing the CdS/i-ZnO layers, which removes two fabrication steps in the multilayered thin film solar cells. Furthermore, the device physics for such improvements have been fully unveiled with both experimental current-voltage and capacitance-voltage spectroscopies and device simulations via wxAMPS program. Finally, the proposed twin-layer Zn(O,S)/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 interfaces account for the broadening of the depletion region of photogenerated charge carriers, which greatly suppress the carrier recombination at the space charge region, and eventually lead to the more efficient collection of charge carriers at both electrodes.

  13. Comparative study about Al-doped zinc oxide thin films deposited by Pulsed Electron Deposition and Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering as Transparent Conductive Oxide for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattini, F., E-mail: pattini@imem.cnr.it [IMEM-CNR, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Annoni, F.; Bissoli, F.; Bronzoni, M. [IMEM-CNR, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Garcia, J.P. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft Product and Process Design Institute, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands); Gilioli, E.; Rampino, S. [IMEM-CNR, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a comparison between Al-doped ZnO (AZO) as Transparent Conductive Oxide for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cells grown by Pulsed Electron Deposition (PED) and Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering (RFMS) was performed. PED yielded polycrystalline [002] mono-oriented thin films with low electrical resistivity and high optical transparency with heater temperatures ranging from room temperature (RT) to 250 °C. The electrical resistivity of these films can be tuned by varying the heater temperature, reaching a minimum value of 3.5 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm at 150 °C and an average transmittance over 90% in the visible range. An AZO film grown at RT was deposited by PED on an actual Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cell, resulting to an efficiency value of 15.2% on the best device. This result clearly shows that PED is a suitable technique for growing ZnO-based thin films for devices/applications where low deposition temperature is required. On the other hand, an optimized AZO thin film front contact for thin film solar cells was studied and fabricated via RFMS. The parameters of this technique were tweaked to obtain highly conductive and transparent AZO thin films. The lowest resistivity value of 3.7 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm and an average transmittance of 86% in the 400-1100 nm wavelength range was obtained with a heater temperature of 250 °C. A thick sputtered AZO film was deposited at RT onto an identical cell used for PED-grown AZO, reaching the highest conversion efficiency value of 14.7%. In both cases, neither antireflection coatings nor pure ZnO layer was used. - Highlights: • Pulsed Electron Deposition (PED) lets high quality films grow at low temperature. • Al:ZnO (AZO) thin films grown by PED present high optical and electrical quality. • AZO electrical resistivity can be tuned from 10{sup −4} to 10{sup −2} Ωcm in proper condition. • Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based simplified solar cells achieved efficiency of 15.2% for PED-grown AZO.

  14. Radio frequency modulation made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Faruque, Saleh

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces Radio Frequency Modulation to a broad audience. The author blends theory and practice to bring readers up-to-date in key concepts, underlying principles and practical applications of wireless communications. The presentation is designed to be easily accessible, minimizing mathematics and maximizing visuals.

  15. Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padamsee, Hasan S.

    2014-10-01

    Superconducting cavities have been operating routinely in a variety of accelerators with a range of demanding applications. With the success of completed projects, niobium cavities have become an enabling technology, offering upgrade paths for existing facilities and pushing frontier accelerators for nuclear physics, high-energy physics, materials science, and the life sciences. With continued progress in basic understanding of radio-frequency superconductivity, the performance of cavities has steadily improved to approach theoretical capabilities.

  16. LEP Radio Frequency Copper Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    The pulse of a particle accelerator. 128 of these radio frequency cavities were positioned around CERN's 27-kilometre LEP ring to accelerate electrons and positrons. The acceleration was produced by microwave electric oscillations at 352 MHz. The electrons and positrons were grouped into bunches, like beads on a string, and the copper sphere at the top stored the microwave energy between the passage of individual bunches. This made for valuable energy savings as it reduced the heat generated in the cavity.

  17. Coping with Radio Frequency Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    The radio spectrum is a finite resource, on which humanity makes many demands. And pressure on it is ever increasing with the development of new technology and ideas for radio services. After all, we all benefit from wifi and cell phones. Radio astronomers have a small percentage of the spectrum allocated to them at octave intervals in the metre-centimetre bands, and at important frequencies, such as that of the 21cm line of HI. Signals from other services, as well as from our own poorly-engineered equipment, sometimes contaminate our bands: these signals constitute RFI. These may totally obliterate the astronomical signal, or, in the case of CLOUDSAT, may be capable of completely destroying a receiver, which introduces us to the new possibility of 'destructive interference'. A geo-stationary satellite can block access to a piece of sky from one site. Good equipment design eliminates self-inflicted interference, while physical separation often provides adequate practical mitigation at many frequencies. However, new observatories end up being located in the West Australian desert or Antarctica. In future they may be on the back side of the Moon. But there is no Earth-bound protection via physical separation against satellite signals. Some mitigation can be achieved by frequent data dumps and the excision of RFI, or by real-time detection and blanking of the receiver, or by more sophisticated algoriths. Astronomers of necessity aim to achieve mitigation via coordination, at the local level, and by participating in spectrum management at the national and international levels. This involves them spending a lot of time in Geneva at the International Telegraphic Union protecting their access to spectrum, and access to clean spectrum from the L3 point and the far side of the Moon.

  18. Radio frequency system for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozeki, Shoichiro; Sagawa, Norimoto; Takizawa, Teruhiro

    1987-01-01

    The importance of radio frequency waves has been increasing in the area of nuclear fusion since they are indispensable for heating of plasma, etc. This report outlines radio frequency techniques used for nuclear fusion and describes the development of radio frequency systems (radio frequency plasma heating system and current drive system). Presently, in-depth studies are underway at various research institutes to achieve plasma heating by injection of radio frequency electric power. Three ranges of frequencies, ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequency), LHRF (lower hybrid range of frequency) and ECRF (electron cyclotron range of frequency), are considered promissing for radio frequency heating. Candidate waves for plasma current driving include ECW (electron cyclotron wave), LHW (lower hybrid wave), MSW (magnetic sound wave), ICW (ion cyclotron wave) with minority component, and FW (fast wave). FW is the greatest in terms of current drive efficiency. In general, a radio frequency system for nuclear fusion consists of a radio frequency power source, transmission/matching circuit component and plasma connection component. (Nogami, K.)

  19. Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Action NECHIBVUTE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This radio frequency (RF energy harvesting is an emerging technology and research area that promises to produce energy to run low-power wireless devices. The great interest that has recently been paid to RF harvesting is predominantly driven by the great progress in both wireless communication systems and broadcasting technologies that have availed a lot of freely propagating ambient RF energy. The principle aim of an RF energy harvesting system is to convert the received ambient RF energy into usable DC power. This paper presents a state of the art concise review of RF energy harvesting sources for low power applications, and also discusses open research questions and future research directions on ambient RF energy harvesting.

  20. Orbiting low frequency array for radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, Rai Thilak; Rajan, Raj; Engelen, Steven; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Verhoeven, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Recently new and interesting science drivers have emerged for very low frequency radio astronomy from 0.3 MHz to 30 MHz. However Earth bound radio observations at these wavelengths are severely hampered by ionospheric distortions, man made interference, solar flares and even complete reflection

  1. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External radio frequency power amplifiers. 2... AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Marketing of Radio-frequency Devices § 2.815 External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency power...

  2. Fabrication of superconducting niobium radio frequency structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, J.; Amato, J.; Brawley, J.

    1983-01-01

    During the last several years a variety of superconducting radio frequency structures have been designed, fabricated and tested. The diverse structures and fabrication techniques are described. This paper is a description of the authors' experiences in this field

  3. Radio frequency integrated circuit design for cognitive radio systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fahim, Amr

    2015-01-01

    This book fills a disconnect in the literature between Cognitive Radio systems and a detailed account of the circuit implementation and architectures required to implement such systems.  Throughout the book, requirements and constraints imposed by cognitive radio systems are emphasized when discussing the circuit implementation details.  In addition, this book details several novel concepts that advance state-of-the-art cognitive radio systems.  This is a valuable reference for anybody with background in analog and radio frequency (RF) integrated circuit design, needing to learn more about integrated circuits requirements and implementation for cognitive radio systems. ·         Describes in detail cognitive radio systems, as well as the circuit implementation and architectures required to implement them; ·         Serves as an excellent reference to state-of-the-art wideband transceiver design; ·         Emphasizes practical requirements and constraints imposed by cognitive radi...

  4. Radio Frequency Interference Site Survey for Thai Radio Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroenjittichai, P.; Punyawarin, S.; Singwong, D.; Somboonpon, P.; Prasert, N.; Bandudej, K.; Kempet, P.; Leckngam, A.; Poshyachinda, S.; Soonthornthum, B.; Kramer, B.

    2017-09-01

    Radio astronomical observations have increasingly been threaten by the march of today telecommunication and wireless technology. Performance of radio telescopes lies within the fact that astronomical sources are extremely weak. National Astronomy Research Institute of Thailand (NARIT) has initiated a 5-year project, known as the Radio Astronomy Network and Geodesy for Development (RANGD), which includes the establishment of 40-meter and 13-meter radio telescopes. Possible locations have been narrowed down to three candidates, situated in the Northern part of Thailand, where the atmosphere is sufficiently dry and suitable for 22 and 43 GHz observations. The Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) measurements were carried out with a DC spectrum analyzer and directional antennas at 1.5 meter above ground, from 20 MHz to 6 GHz with full azimuth coverage. The data from a 3-minute pointing were recorded for both horizontal and vertical polarizations, in maxhold and average modes. The results, for which we used to make preliminary site selection, show signals from typical broadcast and telecommunication services and aeronautics applications. The signal intensity varies accordingly to the presence of nearby population and topography of the region.

  5. Radio Frequency Fragment Separator at NSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazin, D.; Andreev, V.; Becerril, A.; Doleans, M.; Mantica, P.F.; Ottarson, J.; Schatz, H.; Stoker, J.B.; Vincent, J.

    2009-01-01

    A new device has been designed and built at NSCL which provides additional filtering of radioactive beams produced via projectile fragmentation. The Radio Frequency Fragment Separator (RFFS) uses the time micro structure of the beams accelerated by the cyclotrons to deflect particles according to their time-of-flight, in effect producing a phase filtering. The transverse RF (Radio Frequency) electric field of the RFFS has superior filtering performance compared to other electrostatic devices, such as Wien filters. Such filtering is critical for radioactive beams produced on the neutron-deficient side of the valley of stability, where strong contamination occurs at intermediate energies from 50 to 200 MeV/u.

  6. Radio-frequency integrated-circuit engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Cam

    2015-01-01

    Radio-Frequency Integrated-Circuit Engineering addresses the theory, analysis and design of passive and active RFIC's using Si-based CMOS and Bi-CMOS technologies, and other non-silicon based technologies. The materials covered are self-contained and presented in such detail that allows readers with only undergraduate electrical engineering knowledge in EM, RF, and circuits to understand and design RFICs. Organized into sixteen chapters, blending analog and microwave engineering, Radio-Frequency Integrated-Circuit Engineering emphasizes the microwave engineering approach for RFICs. Provide

  7. Radio frequency channel coding made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Faruque, Saleh

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces Radio Frequency Channel Coding to a broad audience. The author blends theory and practice to bring readers up-to-date in key concepts, underlying principles and practical applications of wireless communications. The presentation is designed to be easily accessible, minimizing mathematics and maximizing visuals.

  8. Stable radio frequency dissemination by simple hybrid frequency modulation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Longqiang; Wang, Rong; Lu, Lin; Zhu, Yong; Wu, Chuanxin; Zhang, Baofu; Wang, Peizhang

    2014-09-15

    In this Letter, we propose a fiber-based stable radio frequency transfer system by a hybrid frequency modulation scheme. Creatively, two radio frequency signals are combined and simultaneously transferred by only one laser diode. One frequency component is used to detect the phase fluctuation, and the other one is the derivative compensated signal providing a stable frequency for the remote end. A proper ratio of the frequencies of the components is well maintained by parameter m to avoid interference between them. Experimentally, a stable 200 MHz signal is transferred over 100 km optical fiber with the help of a 1 GHz detecting signal, and fractional instability of 2×10(-17) at 10(5) s is achieved.

  9. High Temperature Radio Frequency Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Grudiev, A; Montesinos, E; Syratchev, I

    2011-01-01

    In the context of energy saving and recovery requirements the design of reliable and robust RF power loads which permit a high outlet temperature and high pressure of the cooling water is desirable. Cooling water arriving at the outlet withmore than 150 ◦C and high pressure has a higher value than water with 50 ◦C under low pressure. Conventional RF power loads containing dielectric and magnetic materials as well as sensitive ceramic windows usually do not permit going much higher than 90 ◦C. Here we present and discuss several design concepts for "metal only" RF high power loads. One concept is the application of magnetic steel corrugated waveguides near cutoff – this concept could find practical use above several GHz. Another solution are resonant structures made of steel to be installed in large waveguides for frequencies of 500 MHz or lower. Similar resonant structures above 100 MHz taking advantage of the rather high losses of normal steel may also be used in coaxial line geometries with large di...

  10. Graphene radio frequency receiver integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen; Garcia, Alberto Valdes; Oida, Satoshi; Jenkins, Keith A; Haensch, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much interest as a future channel material in radio frequency electronics because of its superior electrical properties. Fabrication of a graphene integrated circuit without significantly degrading transistor performance has proven to be challenging, posing one of the major bottlenecks to compete with existing technologies. Here we present a fabrication method fully preserving graphene transistor quality, demonstrated with the implementation of a high-performance three-stage graphene integrated circuit. The circuit operates as a radio frequency receiver performing signal amplification, filtering and downconversion mixing. All circuit components are integrated into 0.6 mm(2) area and fabricated on 200 mm silicon wafers, showing the unprecedented graphene circuit complexity and silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process compatibility. The demonstrated circuit performance allow us to use graphene integrated circuit to perform practical wireless communication functions, receiving and restoring digital text transmitted on a 4.3-GHz carrier signal.

  11. Radio frequency-assisted fast superconducting switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav; Li, Qiang

    2017-12-05

    A radio frequency-assisted fast superconducting switch is described. A superconductor is closely coupled to a radio frequency (RF) coil. To turn the switch "off," i.e., to induce a transition to the normal, resistive state in the superconductor, a voltage burst is applied to the RF coil. This voltage burst is sufficient to induce a current in the coupled superconductor. The combination of the induced current with any other direct current flowing through the superconductor is sufficient to exceed the critical current of the superconductor at the operating temperature, inducing a transition to the normal, resistive state. A by-pass MOSFET may be configured in parallel with the superconductor to act as a current shunt, allowing the voltage across the superconductor to drop below a certain value, at which time the superconductor undergoes a transition to the superconducting state and the switch is reset.

  12. REVIEW OF IMPROVEMENTS IN RADIO FREQUENCY PHOTONICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0156 REVIEW OF IMPROVEMENTS IN RADIO FREQUENCY PHOTONICS Preetpaul S. Devgan RF/EO Subsystems Branch Aerospace Components...Center (DTIC) (http://www.dtic.mil). AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0156 HAS BEEN REVIEWED AND IS APPROVED FOR PUBLICATION IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASSIGNED DISTRIBUTION...public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions

  13. Review of Radio Frequency Photonics Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-06

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0157 REVIEW OF RADIO FREQUENCY PHOTONICS BASICS Preetpaul S. Devgan RF/EO Subsystems Branch Aerospace Components & Subsystems...Center (DTIC) (http://www.dtic.mil). AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0157 HAS BEEN REVIEWED AND IS APPROVED FOR PUBLICATION IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASSIGNED...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing

  14. Passive radio frequency peak power multiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Zoltan D.; Wilson, Perry B.

    1977-01-01

    Peak power multiplication of a radio frequency source by simultaneous charging of two high-Q resonant microwave cavities by applying the source output through a directional coupler to the cavities and then reversing the phase of the source power to the coupler, thereby permitting the power in the cavities to simultaneously discharge through the coupler to the load in combination with power from the source to apply a peak power to the load that is a multiplication of the source peak power.

  15. Inkjet Printed Radio Frequency Passive Components

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2015-12-01

    Inkjet printing is a mature technique for colourful graphic arts. It excels at customized, large area, high resolution, and small volume production. With the developments in conductive, and dielectric inks, there is potential for large area inkjet electronics fabrication. Passive radio frequency devices can benefit greatly from a printing process, since the size of these devices is defined by the frequency of operation. The large size of radio frequency passives means that they either take up expensive space “on chip” or that they are fabricated on a separate lower cost substrate and somehow bonded to the chips. This has hindered cost-sensitive high volume applications such as radio frequency identification tags. Substantial work has been undertaken on inkjet-printed conductors for passive antennas on microwave substrates and even paper, yet there has been little work on the printing of the dielectric materials aimed at radio frequency passives. Both the conductor and dielectric need to be integrated to create a multilayer inkjet printing process that is capable of making quality passives such as capacitors and inductors. Three inkjet printed dielectrics are investigated in this thesis: a ceramic (alumina), a thermal-cured polymer (poly 4 vinyl phenol), and a UV-cured polymer (acrylic based). For the conductor, both a silver nanoparticle ink as well as a custom in-house formulated particle-free silver ink are explored. The focus is on passives, mainly capacitors and inductors. Compared to low frequency electronics, radio frequency components have additional sensitivity regarding skin depth of the conductor and surface roughness, as well as dielectric constant and loss tangent of the dielectric. These concerns are investigated with the aim of making the highest quality components possible and to understand the current limitations of inkjet-fabricated radio frequency devices. An inkjet-printed alumina dielectric that provides quality factors of 200 and high

  16. Radio frequency transistors principles and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, Norm

    1993-01-01

    Cellular telephones, satellite communications and radar systems are adding to the increasing demand for radio frequency circuit design principles. At the same time, several generations of digitally-oriented graduates are missing the essential RF skills. This book contains a wealth of valuable design information difficult to find elsewhere.It's a complete 'tool kit' for successful RF circuit design. Written by experienced RF design engineers from Motorola's semiconductors product section.Book covers design examples of circuits (e.g. amplifiers; oscillators; switches; pulsed power; modular syst

  17. Radio Frequency Microelectromechanical Systems [Book Chapter Manuscript

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordquist, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olsson, Roy H. [Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Radio frequency microelectromechanical system (RF MEMS) devices are microscale devices that achieve superior performance relative to other technologies by taking advantage of the accuracy, precision, materials, and miniaturization available through microfabrication. To do this, these devices use their mechanical and electrical properties to perform a specific RF electrical function such as switching, transmission, or filtering. RF MEMS has been a popular area of research since the early 1990s, and within the last several years, the technology has matured sufficiently for commercialization and use in commercial market systems.

  18. Radio frequency identification applications in hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Angela M; Visich, John K; Li, Suhong

    2006-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has recently begun to receive increased interest from practitioners and academicians. This interest is driven by mandates from major retailers such as Wal-Mart, Target and Metro Group, and the United States Department of Defense, in order to increase the efficiency and visibility of material and information flows in the supply chain. However, supply chain managers do not have a monopoly on the deployment of RFID. In this article, the authors discuss the potential benefits, the areas of applications, the implementation challenges, and the corresponding strategies of RFID in hospital environments.

  19. Sub-wavelength imaging at radio frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, M C K; Pendry, J B; Hajnal, J V

    2006-01-01

    A slab of material with a negative permeability can act as a super-lens for magnetic fields and generate images with a sub-wavelength resolution. We have constructed an effective medium using a metamaterial with negative permeability in the region of 24 MHz, and used this to form images in free space of radio frequency magnetic sources. Measurements of these images show that a resolution of approximately λ/64 has been achieved, consistent with both analytical and numerical predictions. (letter to the editor)

  20. Optical generation of radio-frequency power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Meyer, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    An optical technique for high-power radio-frequency (RF) signal generation is described. The technique uses a unique photodetector based on a traveling-wave design driven by an appropriately modulated light source. The traveling-wave photodetector (TWPD) exhibits simultaneously a theoretical quantum efficiency approaching 100 % and a very large electrical bandwidth. Additionally, it is capable of dissipating the high-power levels required for the RF generation technique. The modulated light source is formed by either the beating together of two lasers or by the direct modulation of a light source. A system example is given which predicts RF power levels of 100's of mW's at millimeter wave frequencies with a theoretical ''wall-plug'' efficiency approaching 34%

  1. Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation From Streamer Collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Alejandro

    2017-10-16

    We present a full electromagnetic model of streamer propagation where the Maxwell equations are solved self-consistently together with electron transport and reactions including photoionization. We apply this model to the collision of counter-propagating streamers in gaps tens of centimeters wide and with large potential differences of hundreds of kilovolts. Our results show that streamer collisions emit electromagnetic pulses that, at atmospheric pressure, dominate the radio frequency spectrum of an extended corona in the range from about 100 MHz to a few gigahertz. We also investigate the fast penetration, after a collision, of electromagnetic fields into the streamer heads and show that these fields are capable of accelerating electrons up to about 100 keV. By substantiating the link between X-rays and high-frequency radio emissions and by describing a mechanism for the early acceleration of runaway electrons, our results support the hypothesis that streamer collisions are essential precursors of high-energy processes in electric discharges.

  2. The Radio And Very Low Frequency (VLF) Electromagnetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Radio And Very Low Frequency (VLF) Electromagnetic Response Of A Layered Earth Media With Variable Dielectric Permittivity. ... A radio frequency of 125 KHz and a very low frequency (VLF) of 20 KHz were used in the computations and the field parameters studied over a dimensionless induction number, B. The ...

  3. OLFAR - Orbiting low frequency antennas for radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2013-01-01

    One of the last unexplored frequency ranges in radio astronomy is the frequency band below 30 MHz. New interesting astronomical science drivers for low frequency radio astronomy have emerged, ranging from studies of the astronomical dark ages, the epoch of reionization, exoplanets, to ultra-high

  4. Water based fluidic radio frequency metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaobing; Zhao, Shaolin; Hu, Mingjun; Xiao, Junfeng; Zhang, Naibo; Yang, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Electromagnetic metamaterials offer great flexibility for wave manipulation and enable exceptional functionality design, ranging from negative refraction, anomalous reflection, super-resolution imaging, transformation optics to cloaking, etc. However, demonstration of metamaterials with unprecedented functionalities is still challenging and costly due to the structural complexity or special material properties. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the versatile fluidic radio frequency metamaterials with negative refraction using a water-embedded and metal-coated 3D architecture. Effective medium analysis confirms that metallic frames create an evanescent environment while simultaneously water cylinders produce negative permeability under Mie resonance. The water-metal coupled 3D architectures and the accessory devices for measurement are fabricated by 3D printing with post electroless deposition. Our study also reveals the great potential of fluidic metamaterials and versatility of the 3D printing process in rapid prototyping of customized metamaterials.

  5. Nb3Sn for Radio Frequency Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godeke, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the suitability of Nb3Sn to improve the performance of superconducting Radio-Frequency (RF) cavities is discussed. The use of Nb3Sn in RF cavities is recognized as an enabling technology to retain a very high cavity quality factor (Q0) at 4.2 K and to significantly improve the cavity accelerating efficiency per unit length (Eacc). This potential arises through the fundamental properties of Nb3Sn. The properties that are extensively characterized in the literature are, however, mainly related to improvements in current carrying capacity (Jc) in the vortex state. Much less is available for the Meissner state, which is of key importance to cavities. Relevant data, available for the Meissner state is summarized, and it is shown how this already validates the use of Nb3Sn. In addition, missing knowledge is highlighted and suggestions are given for further Meissner state specific research

  6. Measurement techniques for radio frequency nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wallis, T Mitch

    2017-01-01

    Connect basic theory with real-world applications with this practical, cross-disciplinary guide to radio frequency measurement of nanoscale devices and materials.• Learn the techniques needed for characterizing the performance of devices and their constituent building blocks, including semiconducting nanowires, graphene, and other two dimensional materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides• Gain practical insights into instrumentation, including on-wafer measurement platforms and scanning microwave microscopy• Discover how measurement techniques can be applied to solve real-world problems, in areas such as passive and active nanoelectronic devices, semiconductor dopant profiling, subsurface nanoscale tomography, nanoscale magnetic device engineering, and broadband, spatially localized measurements of biological materialsFeaturing numerous practical examples, and written in a concise yet rigorous style, this is the ideal resource for researchers, practicing engineers, and graduate students new to ...

  7. Radio frequency induction plasma spraying of molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xianliang

    2003-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) induction plasma was used to make free-standing deposition of molybdenum (Mo). The phenomena of particle melting, flattening, and stacking were investigated. The effect of process parameters such as plasma power, chamber pressure, and spray distance on the phenomena mentioned above was studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the plasma-processed powder, splats formed, and deposits obtained. Experimental results show that less Mo particles are spheroidized when compared to the number of spheroidized tungsten (W) particles at the same powder feed rate under the same plasma spray condition. Molten Mo particles can be sufficiently flattened on substrate. The influence of the process parameters on the flattening behavior is not significant. Mo deposit is not as dense as W deposit, due to the splash and low impact of molten Mo particles. Oxidation of the Mo powder with a large particle size is not evident under the low pressure plasma spray

  8. An improved integrally formed radio frequency quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, S.R.

    1987-10-05

    An improved radio frequency quadrupole is provided having an elongate housing with an elongate central axis and top, bottom and two side walls symmetrically disposed about the axis, and vanes formed integrally with the walls, the vanes each having a cross-section at right angles to the central axis which tapers inwardly toward the axis to form electrode tips spaced from each other by predetermined distances. Each of the four walls, and the vanes integral therewith, is a separate structural element having a central lengthwise plane passing through the tip of the vane, the walls having flat mounting surfaces at right angles to and parallel to the control plane, respectively, which are butted together to position the walls and vane tips relative to each other. 4 figs.

  9. Radio-frequency quadrupole linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.; Stokes, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is a new linear accelerator concept in which rf electric fields are used to focus, bunch, and accelerate the beam. Because the RFQ can provide strong focusing at low velocities, it can capture a high-current dc ion beam from a low-voltage source and accelerate it to an energy of 1 MeV/nucleon within a distance of a few meters. A recent experimental test at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has confirmed the expected performance of this structure and has stimulated interest in a wide variety of applications. The general properties of the RFQ are reviewed and examples of applications of this new accelerator are presented

  10. Arthroscopic surgery using radio-frequency electrocautery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuka, Shigeyuki; Yoshida, Kan; Nakagawa, Kiyomasa; Yamamoto, Etsuhide; Kubota, Yoshiyuki; Narinobou, Masayoshi; Terai, Koichi; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Arthroscopic surgery using radio-frequency electrocautery was carried out on 23 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) in 13 patients. Because these patients did not respond to conservative therapy, surgery was indicated. Preoperative MRI showed anterior disc displacement without reduction in all patients. Disturbed translation was also recognized in all of the discs and mandibular condyles. Intraoperative arthroscopic examination showed severe fibrous adhesion in the upper joint compartment and disc displacement. Four joints showed perforation between the disc and retrodiscal tissue. Postoperative findings included an increased range of vertical maximal mouth opening and decreased pain on mandibular movement. Analyses of postoperative MRI indicated recovery of disc and condylar translation. These results suggested that the introduction of arthroscopic surgery using radiofrequency electrocautery would significantly reduce the number of patients with osteoarthritic TMJ disorders. (author)

  11. TOUTATIS: A radio frequency quadrupole code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Duperrier

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A cw high power linear accelerator can only work with very low particle losses and structure activation. At low energy, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ is an accelerator element that is very sensitive to losses. To design this structure, a good understanding of the beam dynamics is required. Generally, the reference code PARMTEQM is enough to design the accelerator. TOUTATIS has been written with the goals of cross-checking results and obtaining more reliable dynamics. This paper relates the different numerical methods used in the code. It is time based, using multigrids methods and adaptive mesh for a fine description of the forces without being time consuming. The field is calculated through a Poisson solver and the vanes are fully described, allowing it to properly simulate the coupling gaps and the RFQs extremities. Theoretical and experimental tests are also described and show a good agreement between simulations and reference cases.

  12. An amplitude modulated radio frequency plasma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Fan; Li, Xiaoping; Liu, Yanming; Liu, Donglin; Yang, Min; Xie, Kai; Yao, Bo

    2017-04-01

    A glow discharge plasma generator and diagnostic system has been developed to study the effects of rapidly variable plasmas on electromagnetic wave propagation, mimicking the plasma sheath conditions encountered in space vehicle reentry. The plasma chamber is 400 mm in diameter and 240 mm in length, with a 300-mm-diameter unobstructed clear aperture. Electron densities produced are in the mid 1010 electrons/cm3. An 800 W radio frequency (RF) generator is capacitively coupled through an RF matcher to an internally cooled stainless steel electrode to form the plasma. The RF power is amplitude modulated by a waveform generator that operates at different frequencies. The resulting plasma contains electron density modulations caused by the varying power levels. A 10 GHz microwave horn antenna pair situated on opposite sides of the chamber serves as the source and detector of probe radiation. The microwave power feed to the source horn is split and one portion is sent directly to a high-speed recording oscilloscope. On mixing this with the signal from the pickup horn antenna, the plasma-induced phase shift between the two signals gives the path-integrated electron density with its complete time dependent variation. Care is taken to avoid microwave reflections and extensive shielding is in place to minimize electronic pickup. Data clearly show the low frequency modulation of the electron density as well as higher harmonics and plasma fluctuations.

  13. Wideband Radio Frequency Interference Detection for Microwave Radiometer Subsystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Anthropogenic Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) is threatening the quality and utility of multi-frequency passive microwave radiometry. The GPM Microwave Imager...

  14. K-Band Radio frequency Interference Survey of Southeastern Michigan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curry, Shannon; Ahlers, Michael Faursby; Elliot, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    The Radio frequency Interference Survey of Earth (RISE) is a new type of instrument used to survey and characterize the presence of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) that can affect microwave radiometers. It consists of a combined microwave radiometer and kurtosis spectrometer with broad frequen...

  15. Energy harvesting from radio frequency propagation using piezoelectric cantilevers

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    This work reports an induced strain in a piezoelectric cantilever due to radio frequency signal propagation. The piezoelectric actuator is coupled to radio frequency (RF) line through a gap of 0.25 mm. When a voltage signal of 10 Vpp propagates

  16. Radio Frequency Plasma Applications for Space Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baity, F.W. Jr.; Barber, G.C.; Carter, M.D.; Chang-Diaz, F.R.; Goulding, R.H.; Ilin, A.V.; Jaeger, E.F.; Sparks, D.O.; Squire, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments in solid-state radio frequency (RF) power technologies allow for the practical consideration of RF heated plasmas for space propulsion. These technologies permit the use of any electrical power source, de-couple the power and propellant sources, and allow for the efficient use of both the propellant mass and power. Efficient use of the propellant is obtained by expelling the rocket exhaust at the highest possible velocity, which can be orders of magnitude higher than those achieved in chemical rockets. Handling the hot plasma exhaust requires the use of magnetic nozzles, and the basic physics of ion detachment from the magnetic eld is discussed. The plasma can be generated by RF using helicon waves to heat electrons. Further direct heating of the ions helps to reduce the line radiation losses, and the magnetic geometry is tailored to allow ion cyclotron resonance heating. RF eld and ion trajectory calculations are presented to give a reasonably self-consistent picture of the ion acceleration process

  17. Radio-frequency plasma spraying of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, T.; Hamatani, H.; Yoshida, T.

    1989-01-01

    This study was aimed at developing a novel spraying process using a radio-frequency (rf) plasma. Experiments of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 - 8 wt% Y 2 O 3 spraying showed that the initial powder size was the most important parameter for depositing dense coatings. The optimum powder sizes of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 - 8 wt% Y 2 O 3 were considered to be around 100 and 80 μm, respectively. The use of such large-size powders compared with those used by conventional dc plasma spraying made it possible to deposit adherent ceramics coatings of 150 to 300 μm on as-rolled SS304 substrates. It was also shown that low particle velocity of about 10 m/s, which is peculiar to rf plasma spraying, was sufficient for particle deformation, though it imposed a severe limitation on the substrate position. These experimental results prove that rf plasma spraying is an effective process and a strong candidate to open new fields of spraying applications

  18. Method and apparatus for radio frequency ceramic sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Daniel J.; Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.

    1993-01-01

    Radio frequency energy is used to sinter ceramic materials. A coaxial waveguide resonator produces a TEM mode wave which generates a high field capacitive region in which a sample of the ceramic material is located. Frequency of the power source is kept in the range of radio frequency, and preferably between 60-80 MHz. An alternative embodiment provides a tunable radio frequency circuit which includes a series input capacitor and a parallel capacitor, with the sintered ceramic connected by an inductive lead. This arrangement permits matching of impedance over a wide range of dielectric constants, ceramic volumes, and loss tangents.

  19. Radio Frequency Interference: The Study of Rain Effect on Radio Signal Attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslan Umar; Roslan Umar; Shahirah Syafa Sulan; Atiq Wahidah Azlan; Zainol Abidin Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The intensity of radio waves received by radio telescopes is always not subject to human control. In the millimetre band, the propagation of the electromagnetic waves is severely affected by rain rate, dust particle size and drop size in the terms of attenuation, noise and depolarization. At the frequency above 10 GHz, the absorption and scattering by rain cause a reduction in the transmitted signal amplitude which will lead to the reducing of the availability, reliability and performance on the communications link. In this study, the rain effect on radio signal has been investigated. Spectrum analyzer and weather stations were used to obtain the RFI level and rain rate data respectively. The radio frequency interference (RFI) pattern due to rain factor was determined. This will benefit radio astronomer in managing sites for radio observation for radio astronomy purposes. (author)

  20. Development of Radio Frequency Antenna Radiation Simulation Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Idris Taib; Rozaimah Abd Rahim; Noor Ezati Shuib; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Antennas are widely used national wide for radio frequency propagation especially for communication system. Radio frequency is electromagnetic spectrum from 10 kHz to 300 GHz and non-ionizing. These radiation exposures to human being have radiation hazard risk. This software was under development using LabVIEW for radio frequency exposure calculation. For the first phase of this development, software purposely to calculate possible maximum exposure for quick base station assessment, using prediction methods. This software also can be used for educational purpose. Some results of this software are comparing with commercial IXUS and free ware NEC software. (author)

  1. The statistics of low frequency radio interference at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolowski, Marcin; Wayth, Randall B.; Lewis, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    We characterize the low frequency radio-frequency interference (RFI) environment at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO), the location selected for the low-frequency component of the Square Kilometre Array. Data were collected from the BIGHORNS instrument, located at the MRO, which records a contiguous bandwidth between 70 and 300 MHz, between November 2014 to March 2015 inclusive. The data were processed to identify RFI, and we describe a series of statistics in both the time and ...

  2. Tracking Galaxy Evolution Through Low-Frequency Radio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This justify focussing on transitional galaxies to find relic-evidences of the immediate past AGN-feedback which decide the future course of evolution of a galaxy. Relic radio lobes can be best detected in low frequency observations with the GMRT, LOFAR and in future SKA. The age of these relic radio plasma can be as old ...

  3. Olfar: orbiting low frequency antenna for radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, Albert Jan

    2009-01-01

    New interesting astronomical science drivers for very low frequency radio astronomy have emerged, ranging from studies of the astronomical dark ages, the epoch of reionization, exoplanets, to ultra-high energy cosmic rays. However, astronomical observations with Earth-bound radio telescopes at very

  4. Spectrum monitoring: Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI) profile for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was crucial to monitor the Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) in order to conduct the radio astronomical research with very minimum RFI. These RFI will be distorted the astronomical data. In this work, we have investigated the RFI strength (dBm) and presenting on how the nearby RFI affect to the OH lines window (1600 ...

  5. Solar observations with a low frequency radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myserlis, I.; Seiradakis, J.; Dogramatzidis, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have set up a low frequency radio monitoring station for solar bursts at the Observatory of the Aristotle University in Thessaloniki. The station consists of a dual dipole phased array, a radio receiver and a dedicated computer with the necessary software installed. The constructed radio receiver is based on NASA's Radio Jove project. It operates continuously, since July 2010, at 20.1 MHz (close to the long-wavelength ionospheric cut-off of the radio window) with a narrow bandwidth (~5 kHz). The system is properly calibrated, so that the recorded data are expressed in antenna temperature. Despite the high interference level of an urban region like Thessaloniki (strong broadcasting shortwave radio stations, periodic experimental signals, CBs, etc), we have detected several low frequency solar radio bursts and correlated them with solar flares, X-ray events and other low frequency solar observations. The received signal is monitored in ordinary ASCII format and as audio signal, in order to investigate and exclude man-made radio interference. In order to exclude narrow band interference and calculate the spectral indices of the observed events, a second monitoring station, working at 36 MHz, is under construction at the village of Nikiforos near the town of Drama, about 130 km away of Thessaloniki. Finally, we plan to construct a third monitoring station at 58 MHz, in Thessaloniki. This frequency was revealed to be relatively free of interference, after a thorough investigation of the region.

  6. Energy harvesting from radio frequency propagation using piezoelectric cantilevers

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud

    2012-02-01

    This work reports an induced strain in a piezoelectric cantilever due to radio frequency signal propagation. The piezoelectric actuator is coupled to radio frequency (RF) line through a gap of 0.25 mm. When a voltage signal of 10 Vpp propagates in the line it sets an alternating current in the actuator electrodes. This flowing current drives the piezoelectric cantilever to mechanical movement, especially when the frequency of the RF signal matches the mechanical resonant frequency of the cantilever. Output voltage signals versus frequency for both mechanical vibrational and RF signal excitations have been measured using different loads.© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma processing of superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Janardan

    The development of plasma processing technology of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities not only provides a chemical free and less expensive processing method, but also opens up the possibility for controlled modification of the inner surfaces of the cavity for better superconducting properties. The research was focused on the transition of plasma etching from two dimensional flat surfaces to inner surfaces of three dimensional (3D) structures. The results could be applicable to a variety of inner surfaces of 3D structures other than SRF cavities. Understanding the Ar/Cl2 plasma etching mechanism is crucial for achieving the desired modification of Nb SRF cavities. In the process of developing plasma etching technology, an apparatus was built and a method was developed to plasma etch a single cell Pill Box cavity. The plasma characterization was done with the help of optical emission spectroscopy. The Nb etch rate at various points of this cavity was measured before processing the SRF cavity. Cylindrical ring-type samples of Nb placed on the inner surface of the outer wall were used to measure the dependence of the process parameters on plasma etching. The measured etch rate dependence on the pressure, rf power, dc bias, temperature, Cl2 concentration and diameter of the inner electrode was determined. The etch rate mechanism was studied by varying the temperature of the outer wall, the dc bias on the inner electrode and gas conditions. In a coaxial plasma reactor, uniform plasma etching along the cylindrical structure is a challenging task due to depletion of the active radicals along the gas flow direction. The dependence of etch rate uniformity along the cylindrical axis was determined as a function of process parameters. The formation of dc self-biases due to surface area asymmetry in this type of plasma and its variation on the pressure, rf power and gas composition was measured. Enhancing the surface area of the inner electrode to reduce the

  8. A survey of radio frequency heating in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, Z.R.

    1998-01-01

    A brief summary is given of the plasma physics of radio frequency heating in tokamaks. The general features common to all schemes are described. The three main methods, ion cyclotron electron cyclotron, and lower hybrid are also discussed. (author)

  9. Radio-frequency wave enhanced runaway production rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, V.S.; McClain, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Enhancement of runaway electron production (over that of an Ohmic discharge) can be achieved by the addition of radio-frequency waves. This effect is studied analytically and numerically using a two-dimensional Fokker--Planck quasilinear equation

  10. Solar system radio astronomy at low frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desch, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The planetary radio-astronomy observations obtained with the two Voyager spacecraft since their launch in 1977 are briefly characterized and illustrated with graphs, diagrams, and sample spectra. Topics addressed include the spacecraft designs and trajectories, the wavelength coverage of the radio instruments, the Io-controlled LF emission of Jupiter, the solar-wind effect on the Saturn kilometric radiation, the Saturn electrostatic discharges, and the use of the clocklike feature of the Uranus emission to measure the planet's rotation period. 23 references

  11. Towards the Realization of Graphene Based Flexible Radio Frequency Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruthi N. Yogeesh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on our progress and development of high speed flexible graphene field effect transistors (GFETs with high electron and hole mobilities (~3000 cm2/V·s, and intrinsic transit frequency in the microwave GHz regime. We also describe the design and fabrication of flexible graphene based radio frequency system. This RF communication system consists of graphite patch antenna at 2.4 GHz, graphene based frequency translation block (frequency doubler and AM demodulator and graphene speaker. The communication blocks are utilized to demonstrate graphene based amplitude modulated (AM radio receiver operating at 2.4 GHz.

  12. High frequency pulse anodising of magnetron sputtered Al–Zr and Al–Ti Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Bordo, Kirill; Engberg, Sara

    2016-01-01

    High frequency pulse anodising of Al–Zr and Al–Ti coatings is studied as a surface finishing technique and compared to conventional decorative DC anodising. The Al–Zr and Al–Ti coatings were deposited using DC magnetron sputtering and were heat treated after deposition to generate a multiphase mi...

  13. Low-Frequency Radio Bursts and Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency radio phenomena are due to the presence of nonthermal electrons in the interplanetary (IP) medium. Understanding these phenomena is important in characterizing the space environment near Earth and other destinations in the solar system. Substantial progress has been made in the past two decades, because of the continuous and uniform data sets available from space-based radio and white-light instrumentation. This paper highlights some recent results obtained on IP radio phenomena. In particular, the source of type IV radio bursts, the behavior of type III storms, shock propagation in the IP medium, and the solar-cycle variation of type II radio bursts are considered. All these phenomena are closely related to solar eruptions and active region evolution. The results presented were obtained by combining data from the Wind and SOHO missions.

  14. Radio frequency powering of microelectronic sensor modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegel, Gerd vom; Meyer, Frederic; Kemmerling, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Mikroelektronische Schaltungen und Systeme, Duisburg (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    In RFID applications the power supply of transponders via electromagnetic field is state-of-the-art. In this presentation the use of electromagnetic energy will be discussed for the operation of sensor modules. Starting with the question, whether the omnipresent radiation from power supply networks, radio transmitters, and mobile phone base stations is useable (energy harvesting), the feasibility of the operation of self-sufficient sensor modules is explained. Ancillary conditions of typical applications (e.g. operating range) and technology are considered. (orig.)

  15. MASER: Measuring, Analysing, Simulating low frequency Radio Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; Savalle, R.; Bonnin, X.; Zarka, P. M.; Louis, C.; Coffre, A.; Lamy, L.; Denis, L.; Griessmeier, J. M.; Faden, J.; Piker, C.; André, N.; Genot, V. N.; Erard, S.; King, T. A.; Mafi, J. N.; Sharlow, M.; Sky, J.; Demleitner, M.

    2017-12-01

    The MASER (Measuring, Analysing and Simulating Radio Emissions) project provides a comprehensive infrastructure dedicated to low frequency radio emissions (typically Radioastronomie de Nançay and the CDPP deep archive. These datasets include Cassini/RPWS, STEREO/Waves, WIND/Waves, Ulysses/URAP, ISEE3/SBH, Voyager/PRA, Nançay Decameter Array (Routine, NewRoutine, JunoN), RadioJove archive, swedish Viking mission, Interball/POLRAD... MASER also includes a Python software library for reading raw data.

  16. Spectral Energy Distribution and Radio Halo of NGC 253 at Low Radio Frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapińska, A. D.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Meurer, G. R.; For, B.-Q. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, WA 6009 (Australia); Crocker, R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bhandari, S.; Callingham, J. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Hancock, P. J.; Lenc, E. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Sydney NSW (Australia); Hurley-Walker, N.; Seymour, N. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Offringa, A. R. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), P.O. Box 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Hanish, D. J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ekers, R. D.; Bell, M. E. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS), P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Dwarakanath, K. S. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Hindson, L. [Centre of Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Johnston-Hollitt, M. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); McKinley, B., E-mail: anna.kapinska@uwa.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); and others

    2017-03-20

    We present new radio continuum observations of NGC 253 from the Murchison Widefield Array at frequencies between 76 and 227 MHz. We model the broadband radio spectral energy distribution for the total flux density of NGC 253 between 76 MHz and 11 GHz. The spectrum is best described as a sum of a central starburst and extended emission. The central component, corresponding to the inner 500 pc of the starburst region of the galaxy, is best modeled as an internally free–free absorbed synchrotron plasma, with a turnover frequency around 230 MHz. The extended emission component of the spectrum of NGC 253 is best described as a synchrotron emission flattening at low radio frequencies. We find that 34% of the extended emission (outside the central starburst region) at 1 GHz becomes partially absorbed at low radio frequencies. Most of this flattening occurs in the western region of the southeast halo, and may be indicative of synchrotron self-absorption of shock-reaccelerated electrons or an intrinsic low-energy cutoff of the electron distribution. Furthermore, we detect the large-scale synchrotron radio halo of NGC 253 in our radio images. At 154–231 MHz the halo displays the well known X-shaped/horn-like structure, and extends out to ∼8 kpc in the z -direction (from the major axis).

  17. Progress on radio frequency auxiliary heating system designs in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowski, M.; Bosia, G.; Elio, F.

    1996-09-01

    ITER will require over 100 MW of auxiliary power for heating, on- and off-axis current drive, accessing the H-mode, and plasma shut-down. The Electron Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ECRF) and Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) are two forms of Radio Frequency (RF) auxiliary power being developed for these applications. Design concepts for both the ECRF and ICRF systems are presented, key features and critical design issues are discussed, and projected performances outlined

  18. A Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber link for large-array radio astronomy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mena, J; Bandura, K; Cliche, J-F; Dobbs, M; Gilbert, A; Tang, Q Y

    2013-01-01

    A prototype 425-850 MHz Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber (RFoF) link for the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) is presented. The design is based on a directly modulated Fabry-Perot (FP) laser, operating at ambient temperature, and a single-mode fiber. The dynamic performance, gain stability, and phase stability of the RFoF link are characterized. Tests on a two-element interferometer built at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory for CHIME prototyping demonstrate that RFoF can be successfully used as a cost-effective solution for analog signal transport on the CHIME telescope and other large-array radio astronomy applications

  19. Methods, Systems and Apparatuses for Radio Frequency Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Brown, Dewey T. (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A system for radio frequency identification (RFID) includes an enclosure defining an interior region interior to the enclosure, and a feed for generating an electromagnetic field in the interior region in response to a signal received from an RFID reader via a radio frequency (RF) transmission line and, in response to the electromagnetic field, receiving a signal from an RFID sensor attached to an item in the interior region. The structure of the enclosure may be conductive and may include a metamaterial portion, an electromagnetically absorbing portion, or a wall extending in the interior region. Related apparatuses and methods for performing RFID are provided.

  20. WOx cluster formation in radio frequency assisted pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipescu, M.; Ossi, P.M.; Dinescu, M.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of oxygen gas pressure and radio-frequency power on the characteristics of the WO x films produced by laser ablation of a W target at room temperature in oxygen reactive atmosphere were investigated. Changing buffer gas pressure in the hundreds of Pa range affects the bond coordination, roughness and morphology of the deposited films, as investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The combination of radio-frequency discharge and buffer gas pressure on film nanostructure, as reflected by bond coordination, surface morphology and roughness is discussed

  1. Experimental test of models of radio-frequency plasma sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolewski, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The ion current and sheath impedance were measured at the radio-frequency-powered electrode of an asymmetric, capacitively coupled plasma reactor, for discharges in argon at 1.33 endash 133 Pa. The measurements were used to test the models of the radio frequency sheath derived by Lieberman [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 17, 338 (1989)] and Godyak and Sternberg [Phys. Rev. A 42, 2299 (1990)], and establish the range of pressure and sheath voltage in which they are valid. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  2. Radio frequency heating of fusion plasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    The electron cyclotron range of frequencies has been used successfully for plasma heating perhaps longer than any other RF plasma heating scheme and is generally well understood. The problem has always been that the strong magnetic field required for fusion devices puts the electron cyclotron frequency so high that it is at or above the high power technology limit. The development of high power gyrotrons (> 200 kW) in recent years with steadily rising frequency limits, however, has brought about a renaissance of interest in ECRH as relativistic electron energies well in excess of those required for fusion have been obtained. The relativistic electron ring stabilization of the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT), which was achieved with ECRF, only at one point made the EBT the most promising new fusion concept of the last decade. The results also made clear that the physical understanding of the heating processes in this frequency range, so long neglected because of the technology limitation, are not fully understood so that more basic physics is necessary before ECRF can reach the potential that technology now seems to allow

  3. Inkjet Printed Radio Frequency Passive Components

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2015-01-01

    -resonant frequencies around 1GHz. These fully printed devices have quality factors less than 10. Finally, 3D inkjet-printed UV-cured material is utilized with a novel silver organo-complex ink at 80oC providing conductivity of 1x107 S/m. A lumped element filter

  4. Electrical characteristics for capacitively coupled radio frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MURAT TANISLI

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... b; 52.80.Pi. 1. Introduction. It is interesting to study the behaviour of plasma. There are many ... and then the model is described in §3. Graphs and ... inductor (Lbp) occur in the bulk plasma circuit. The ... the parallel plate, the electron density, the mass of the ... The electron neutral collision frequency may be.

  5. Low frequency radio observations of five rich clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanisch, R.J.; Erickson, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Observations have been made at 43.0 and 73.8 MHz of five rich x-ray emitting clusters of galaxies: Abell 399/401, Abell 426 (the Perseus cluster), Abell 1367, Abell 1656 (the Coma cluster), and the Virgo cluster. A fan beam synthesis system has been used to search for extended radio emission, i.e., radio halos, in these clusters. Radio halos were detected in the Coma and Virgo clusters. No evidence was found for the existence of 3C84B, the halo source previously thought to exist in the Perseus cluster. If halo sources exist in Abell 399/401 or Abell 1367, they must be quite weak at frequencies less than 100 MHz. The observed sizes of the extended sources in Coma and Virgo imply that the rate of particle propagation away from strong radio galaxies greatly exceeds the Alfven velocity and is probably independent of particle energy

  6. Radio frequency interference mitigation using deep convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeret, J.; Chang, C.; Lucchi, A.; Refregier, A.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel approach for mitigating radio frequency interference (RFI) signals in radio data using the latest advances in deep learning. We employ a special type of Convolutional Neural Network, the U-Net, that enables the classification of clean signal and RFI signatures in 2D time-ordered data acquired from a radio telescope. We train and assess the performance of this network using the HIDE &SEEK radio data simulation and processing packages, as well as early Science Verification data acquired with the 7m single-dish telescope at the Bleien Observatory. We find that our U-Net implementation is showing competitive accuracy to classical RFI mitigation algorithms such as SEEK's SUMTHRESHOLD implementation. We publish our U-Net software package on GitHub under GPLv3 license.

  7. Single Platform Geolocation of Radio Frequency Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    shown in Figure 2.1. The ECEF frame is a geocentric right handed 3D Cartesian coordinate system with the origin at the center of mass of the Earth. The...an iterative non-linear weighted least squares approach which has been shown to produce more accurate estimates of an emitter’s location than the LS...frequency CRLB over the range of N and η values. At low values of N and η, the MLE variance approaches a value of 12/12 = 8.33 × 10−2, which is the

  8. Low-frequency Radio Observatory on the Lunar Surface (LROLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDowall, Robert; Network for Exploration and Space Science (NESS)

    2018-06-01

    A radio observatory on the lunar surface will provide the capability to image solar radio bursts and other sources. Radio burst imaging will improve understanding of radio burst mechanisms, particle acceleration, and space weather. Low-frequency observations (less than ~20 MHz) must be made from space, because lower frequencies are blocked by Earth’s ionosphere. Solar radio observations do not mandate an observatory on the farside of the Moon, although such a location would permit study of less intense solar bursts because the Moon occults the terrestrial radio frequency interference. The components of the lunar radio observatory array are: the antenna system consisting of 10 – 100 antennas distributed over a square kilometer or more; the system to transfer the radio signals from the antennas to the central processing unit; electronics to digitize the signals and possibly to calculate correlations; storage for the data until it is down-linked to Earth. Such transmission requires amplification and a high-gain antenna system or possibly laser comm. For observatories on the lunar farside a satellite or other intermediate transfer system is required to direct the signal to Earth. On the ground, the aperture synthesis analysis is completed to display the radio image as a function of time. Other requirements for lunar surface systems include the power supply, utilizing solar arrays with batteries to maintain the system at adequate thermal levels during the lunar night. An alternative would be a radioisotope thermoelectric generator requiring less mass. The individual antennas might be designed with their own solar arrays and electronics to transmit data to the central processing unit, but surviving lunar night would be a challenge. Harnesses for power and data transfer from the central processing unit to the antennas are an alternative, but a harness-based system complicates deployment. The concept of placing the antennas and harnesses on rolls of polyimide and

  9. A simulation tool for radio frequency identification construction supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gassel, van F.J.M.; Jansen, G.; Zavadskas, E.K.; Kaklauskas, A.; Skibniewski, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology is being used more and more in the construction industry. RFID tags and peripheral equipment are becoming cheaper and more suitable for application in the supply chain. However, it is difficult for contractors to estimate the costs and benefits of

  10. Applications of radio frequency identification systems in the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hind, D [Davis Derby Limited (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The paper describes the application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems in the mining industry for both surface and underground mines. The history of the RFID system, types available, the transponder, and the various techniques used are described and compared. The design and certification of a system for use in a hazardous area are described, noting the hazard of inadvertent detonator ignition. 2 refs.

  11. Rectifier analysis for radio frequency energy harvesting and power transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyrouz, S.; Visser, H.J.; Tijhuis, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) is an attractive powering method for wireless sensor nodes, battery-less sensors, and Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. The key element on the receiving side of a WPT system is the rectifying antenna (rectenna) which captures the electromagnetic power and

  12. How can radio frequency identification technology impact nursing practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, Luanne; Wyld, David

    2014-12-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology can save nurses time, improve quality of care, en hance patient and staff safety, and decrease costs. However, without a better understanding of these systems and their benefits to patients and hospitals, nurses may be slower to recommend, implement, or adopt RFID technology into practice.

  13. Authentication of Radio Frequency Identification Devices Using Electronic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnappa Gounder Periaswamy, Senthilkumar

    2010-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are low-cost devices that are used to uniquely identify the objects to which they are attached. Due to the low cost and size that is driving the technology, a tag has limited computational capabilities and resources. This limitation makes the implementation of conventional security protocols to prevent…

  14. Cognitive radio transmitter with a broadband clean frequency spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    The tremendous increase in wireless communication over the last few decades has led to a congestion of the radio frequency (RF) spectrum, which is utilized for transmission and reception of information. As suitable RF spectrum is scarce, attempts are being made to use the RF spectrum in a more

  15. Radio-frequency energy in fusion power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.Q.; Becraft, W.R.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The history of radio-frequency (rf) energy in fusion experiments is reviewed, and the status of current efforts is described. Potential applications to tasks other than plasma heating are described, as are the research and development needs of rf energy technology

  16. Harmonic Phase Responses of Radio Frequency Electronics: Wireline Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    low- or intermediate -frequency port is terminated in a matched load. The radios were powered and left in standby mode (i.e., turned on and tuned, but...M HIGGINS D LIAO A MARTONE D MCNAMARA G MAZZARO K RANNEY M RESSLER K SHERBONDY G SMITH A SULLIVAN

  17. Localized radio frequency communication using asynchronous transfer mode protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzke, Edward L.; Robertson, Perry J.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2007-08-14

    A localized wireless communication system for communication between a plurality of circuit boards, and between electronic components on the circuit boards. Transceivers are located on each circuit board and electronic component. The transceivers communicate with one another over spread spectrum radio frequencies. An asynchronous transfer mode protocol controls communication flow with asynchronous transfer mode switches located on the circuit boards.

  18. Metal negative ion beam extraction from a radio frequency ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, S.; Yamada, N.; Kasuya, T.; Romero, C. F. P.; Wada, M.

    2015-04-08

    A metal ion source of magnetron magnetic field geometry has been designed and operated with a Cu hollow target. Radio frequency power at 13.56 MHz is directly supplied to the hollow target to maintain plasma discharge and induce self-bias to the target for sputtering. The extraction of positive and negative Cu ion beams have been tested. The ion beam current ratio of Cu{sup +} to Ar{sup +} has reached up to 140% when Ar was used as the discharge support gas. Cu{sup −} ion beam was observed at 50 W RF discharge power and at a higher Ar gas pressure in the ion source. Improvement of poor RF power matching and suppression of electron current is indispensable for a stable Cu{sup −} ion beam production from the source.

  19. TORE SUPRA fast reciprocating radio frequency probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.E. Jr.; Harris, J.H.; Haste, G.R.; Kwon, M.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Saoutic, B.; Becoulet, A.; Fraboulet, D.; Beaumont, B.; Kuus, H.; Ladurelle, L.; Pascal, J.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A fast reciprocating ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) probe was installed and operated on TORE SUPRA during 1992/1993. The body of the probe was originally used on the ATF experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The probe was adapted for use on TORE SUPRA, and mounted on one of the two fast reciprocating probe mounts. The probe consists of two orthogonal single-turn wire loops, mounted so that one loop senses toroidal rf magnetic fields and the other senses poloidal rf magnetic fields. The probe began operation in June, 1993. The probe active area is approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/s) of 30 cm and a fast stroke (1.5 m/s) of about 10 cm. The probe was operated at distances from the plasma edge ranging from 30 to -5 cm (i.e., inside the last closed flux surface). The probe design, electronics, calibration, data acquisition, and data processing are discussed. First data from the probe are presented as a function of ICRF power, distance from the plasma, loop orientation, and other plasma parameters. Initial data show parametric instabilities do not play an important role for ICRF in the TORE SUPRA edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas. Additionally it is observed that the probe signal has little or no dependence on position in the SOL/plasma edge

  20. Exposure to radio frequencies and child health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dore, Jean-Francois; Hours, Martine; Lelong, Joel; Letertre, Thierry; Moati, Frederique; Nadi, Mustapha; Ndagijimana, Fabien; Pereira De Vasconcelos, Anne; Yardin, Catherine; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Ducimetiere, Pierre; Bertho, Jean-Marc; Cesarini, Jean-Pierre; Couturier, Frederic; El Khatib, Aicha; Feltin, Nicolas; Bounouh, Alexandre; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Gaffet, Eric; Muzet, Alain; Lafaye, Murielle; Lepoutre, Philippe; Martinsons, Christophe; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Sicard, Yves; Soyez, Alain; Toppila, Esko; Beugnet, Laurent; Douki, Thierry; Roth-Delgado, Olivia Anses; Fite, Johanna; Merckel, Olivier; Saddoki, Sophia; Debuire, Brigitte

    2016-06-01

    Following a request by the Ministries of Health, Ecology and Consumer Affairs, ANSES conducted an expert assessment on the specific impact of radiofrequency waves on children. The conclusions of this assessment were published in July 2016. In its conclusions, the Agency emphasises that children can be more exposed than adults because of their morphological and anatomical features, in particular their small size, as well as the characteristics of some of their tissues. It is issuing a series of recommendations aimed at adapting the regulatory limit values in order to reduce the exposure of children to electromagnetic fields, which starts from a very early age due to the expansion of the use of new technologies. In this context, ANSES recommends moderate and supervised use of wireless communication technologies by children. Specifically concerning mobile telephones, ANSES reiterates the recommendation it had already formulated, calling for a reduction in exposure of children, by advocating moderate use and favouring the use of hands-free kits. Lastly, the expert appraisal identified several studies highlighting an association between intensive and inadequate use of mobile telephones by young people and mental health problems (risk behaviour, depression, suicidal thoughts, etc.). However, it was not possible to use these studies to explore the causality of the observed associations. ANSES recommends that additional studies assess the health and psychosocial impact (school learning, social and family relationships, etc.) in children associated with the use of mobile communication technologies, especially because of addictive phenomena, circadian rhythm disorders, etc. Pending these results, the Agency recommends that parents encourage their children to adopt reasonable use of mobile telephones, avoiding night-time communications and limiting the frequency and duration of calls

  1. Radio frequency system of the RIKEN ring cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, T.; Ogiwara, K.; Kohara, S.; Oikawa, Y.; Yokoyama, I.; Nagase, M.; Takeshita, I.; Chiba, Y.; Kumata, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The radio-frequency(RF) system of the RIKEN ring cyclotron(K = 540) is required to work in a frequency range of 20 to 45 MHz and to generate the maximum acceleration voltage 250 kV. A new movable box type variable frequency resonator was designed for that purpose. The final amplifier is capable to deliver 300 kW. The resonators and the amplifiers have been installed at RIKEN and the performances are studied. The result shows the movable box type resonator and the power amplifier system satisfy the design aim. (author)

  2. Applications of radio frequency identification systems in the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hind, D J [Davis Derby Ltd., Derby (United Kingdom)

    1994-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification Systems (RFID) are one of the automatic data capture technologies taking over from bar codes and magnetic swipe cards in many applications involving automatic hands free operation in arduous environments. RFID systems are based on the use of miniature radio transponders carrying encoded electronic data that is used to uniquely identify the identity of transponders. The paper reviews the types of system available and compares the various techniques involved in the different systems. The various types of transponder are described including the latest state of the art passive read/write high performance types. The problems involved in designing and certifying a system for use in hazardous areas are described, with particular reference to the problems of inadvertent detonator ignition by radio systems. Applications of RFID systems in the mining industry are described, covering applications both on the surface and underground. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  3. Frequency dependent characteristics of solar impulsive radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, T.K.; Das Gupta, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation was made of the impulsive radio bursts observed in the frequency range 0.245 to 35 GHz. Important results obtained are: (i) Simple type 1 bursts with intensities 0 to 10 f.u. and simple type 2 bursts with intensities 10 to 500 f.u. are predominant in the frequency ranges 1.415 to 4.995 GHz and 4.995 to 8.8 GHz, respectively; (ii) With maxima around 2.7 GHz and 4 GHz for the first and second types respectively, the durations of the radio bursts decrease gradually both towards lower and higher frequencies; (iii) As regards occurrences, the first type dominates in the southern solar hemisphere peaking around 8.8 GHz, whereas the second type favours the north with no well-defined maximum in any frequency; (iv) Both types prefer the eastern hemisphere, the peak occurrences being around 8.8 GHz and 5 GHz for the two successive types, respectively; (c) The spectra of impulsive radio bursts are generally of the inverted U-type with the maximum emission intensity between 5 and 15 GHz. (author)

  4. Relativistic runaway breakdown in low-frequency radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllekrug, Martin; Roussel-Dupré, Robert; Symbalisty, Eugene M. D.; Chanrion, Olivier; Odzimek, Anna; van der Velde, Oscar; Neubert, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic radiation emitted by an electron avalanche beam resulting from relativistic runaway breakdown within the Earth's atmosphere is investigated. It is found from theoretical modeling with a computer simulation that the electron beam emits electromagnetic radiation which is characterized by consecutive broadband pulses in the low-frequency radio range from ˜10 to 300 kHz at a distance of ˜800 km. Experimental evidence for the existence of consecutive broadband pulses is provided by low-frequency radio observations of sprite-producing lightning discharges at a distance of ˜550 km. The measured broadband pulses occur ˜4-9 ms after the sprite-producing lightning discharge, they exhibit electromagnetic radiation which mainly spans the frequency range from ˜50 to 350 kHz, and they exhibit complex waveforms without the typical ionospheric reflection of the first hop sky wave. Two consecutive pulses occur ˜4.5 ms and ˜3 ms after the causative lightning discharge and coincide with the sprite luminosity. It is concluded that relativistic runaway breakdown within the Earth's atmosphere can emit broadband electromagnetic pulses and possibly generates sprites. The source location of the broadband pulses can be determined with an interferometric network of wideband low-frequency radio receivers to lend further experimental support to the relativistic runaway breakdown theory.

  5. Wavelet Based Characterization of Low Radio Frequency Solar Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, A.; Sharma, R.; Das, S. B.; Oberoi, D.; Pankratius, V.; Lonsdale, C.

    2016-12-01

    Low-frequency solar radio observations with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) have revealed the presence of numerous short-lived, narrow-band weak radio features, even during quiet solar conditions. In their appearance in in the frequency-time plane, they come closest to the solar type III bursts, but with much shorter spectral spans and flux densities, so much so that they are not detectable with the usual swept frequency radio spectrographs. These features occur at rates of many thousand features per hour in the 30.72 MHz MWA bandwidth, and hence necessarily require an automated approach to determine robust statistical estimates of their properties, e.g., distributions of spectral widths, temporal spans, flux densities, slopes in the time-frequency plane and distribution over frequency. To achieve this, a wavelet decomposition approach has been developed for feature recognition and subsequent parameter extraction from the MWA dynamic spectrum. This work builds on earlier work by the members of this team to achieve a reliable flux calibration in a computationally efficient manner. Preliminary results show that the distribution of spectral span of these features peaks around 3 MHz, most of them last for less than two seconds and are characterized by flux densities of about 60% of the background solar emission. In analogy with the solar type III bursts, this non-thermal emission is envisaged to arise via coherent emission processes. There is also an exciting possibility that these features might correspond to radio signatures of nanoflares, hypothesized (Gold, 1964; Parker, 1972) to explain coronal heating.

  6. Vacuum arc localization in CLIC prototype radio frequency accelerating structures

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091976; Koivunen, Visa

    2016-04-04

    A future linear collider capable of reaching TeV collision energies should support accelerating gradients beyond 100 MV/m. At such high fields, the occurrence of vacuum arcs have to be mitigated through conditioning, during which an accelerating structure’s resilience against breakdowns is slowly increased through repeated radio frequency pulsing. Conditioning is very time and resource consuming, which is why developing more efficient procedures is desirable. At CERN, conditioning related research is conducted at the CLIC high-power X-band test stands. Breakdown localization is an important diagnostic tool of accelerating structure tests. Abnormal position distributions highlight issues in structure design, manufacturing or operation and may consequently help improve these processes. Additionally, positioning can provide insight into the physics of vacuum arcs. In this work, two established positioning methods based on the time-difference-ofarrival of radio frequency waves are extended. The first method i...

  7. First muon acceleration using a radio-frequency accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bae

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Muons have been accelerated by using a radio-frequency accelerator for the first time. Negative muonium atoms (Mu^{-}, which are bound states of positive muons (μ^{+} and two electrons, are generated from μ^{+}’s through the electron capture process in an aluminum degrader. The generated Mu^{-}’s are initially electrostatically accelerated and injected into a radio-frequency quadrupole linac (RFQ. In the RFQ, the Mu^{-}’s are accelerated to 89 keV. The accelerated Mu^{-}’s are identified by momentum measurement and time of flight. This compact muon linac opens the door to various muon accelerator applications including particle physics measurements and the construction of a transmission muon microscope.

  8. Plasma heating by radio frequency in the LISA linear machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Raposo, C. da.

    1985-05-01

    The characteristics of an experimental apparatus to produce helium plasma by radio frequency and to study its behavior when confined by a magnetic field with mirrors is shown. The plasma was produced by a microwave source of 2.45 GHz and 800 Watts, operating in steady and pulsed state. The plasma parameters were studied as a function of an external magnetic field, for large and small resonance regions. The axial and radial magnetic fields were mapped for each region in order to verify the spatial distribution, particle orbits, and energy confinement time according to the energy balance equation. As a consequence of the influence of the radio frequency (RF) voltage in the plasma the Bohm theory of plasma prob was modified. The diagnostic was done with plane movable electrostatic probe, Hall probe, magnetic probe, diamagnetic coil and spectrography. (Author) [pt

  9. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and patient safety

    OpenAIRE

    Ajami, Sima; Rajabzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems have been successfully applied in areas of manufacturing, supply chain, agriculture, transportation, healthcare, and services to name a few. However, the different advantages and disadvantages expressed in various studies of the challenges facing the technology of the use of the RFID technology have been met with skepticism by managers of healthcare organizations. The aim of this study was to express and display the role of RFID techno...

  10. Radio frequency conductivity of plasma in inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae; Nishikawa, Kyoji; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Itoh, Kimitaka.

    1985-01-01

    Nonlocal conductivity tensor is obtained to study the kinetic effects on propagation and absorption of radio frequency (rf) waves in dispersive plasmas. Generalized linear propagator in the presence of the inhomogeneity of magnetic field strength along the field line is calculated. The influence of the inhomogeneity to the rf wave-energy deposition is found to be appreciable. Application to toroidal plasmas is shown. (author)

  11. Diamond deposition using a planar radio frequency inductively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, S. P.; Tucker, D. A.; Stoner, B. R.; Glass, J. T.; Hooke, W. M.

    1995-06-01

    A planar radio frequency inductively coupled plasma has been used to deposit diamond onto scratched silicon. This plasma source has been developed recently for use in large area semiconductor processing and holds promise as a method for scale up of diamond growth reactors. Deposition occurs in an annulus which coincides with the area of most intense optical emission from the plasma. Well-faceted diamond particles are produced when the substrate is immersed in the plasma.

  12. Manufacture of Radio Frequency Micromachined Switches with Annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Cheng-Yang; Dai, Ching-Liang

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication and characterization of a radio frequency (RF) micromachined switch with annealing were presented. The structure of the RF switch consists of a membrane, coplanar waveguide (CPW) lines, and eight springs. The RF switch is manufactured using the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The switch requires a post-process to release the membrane and springs. The post-process uses a wet etching to remove the sacrificial silicon dioxide layer, and to obtain the suspe...

  13. Longitudinal capture in the radio-frequency-quadrupole structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, S.

    1980-03-01

    The radio-frequency-quadrupole (RFQ) linac structure not only can attain easily transverse focusing in the low-beta region, but also can obtain very high capture efficiency because of its low beta-lambda and low-particle rigidity. An optimization study of the zero space-charge longitudinal capture in an RFQ linac that yields configurations with large capture efficiency is described

  14. Radio frequency identification and its application in e-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Bahr, Witold; Price, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), which is one of the Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC) technologies (Wamba and Boeck, 2008) and discusses the application of RFID in E-Commerce. Firstly RFID is defined and the tag and reader components of the RFID system are explained. Then historical context of RFID is briefly discussed. Next, RFID is contrasted with other AIDC technologies, especially the use of barcodes which are commonly applied in E-Commerce. Las...

  15. Absorption of cosmic radio noise at different frequencies at Sanae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, T.F.J.

    1983-12-01

    Electron density profiles are simulated as a function of altitude for the D- and E-regions during disturbed ionospheric conditions using auroral absorption data from riometers recording cosmic radio noise at 20, 30 and 51 MHz at Sanae, Antarctica. An elliptical function was used to simulate, as a function of height, the electron density profiles. Using these profiles the measured absorption was calculated by utilizing the Appleton-Hartree treatment for radio waves crossing the ionosphere. The frequency dependence of the riometer absorption is represented by a power law of the frequency: A(f) = C.f -n , and values of n were determined from calculations of the absorptions from the simulated electron density profiles. This power law is a fairly accurate representation in the frequency range 20 to 51 MHz. It appears that the exponent of the power law and the height of maximum absorption are effective parameters to determine the hardness of the energy spectra of precipitating electrons. A method is discussed whereby interferences on the riometer recordings are filtered from the data. Quiet day curves are obtained by the superposition of successive riometer recordings with a period of one sidereal day. A Fourier series is fitted to the points of maximum density to represent the quiet day recordings. Absorption events on day 175 and day 178 (1982) are analized for each riometer frequency, and the hardness of the precipitating electrons is inferred from the n-values of power law presentation. It is shown that the absorption of cosmic radio noise increases by increasing the depth of ionization without increasing the ionization rate (number of electrons /m 3 ) in the upper D-region. This may mean that a hardening of a precipitation spectrum will increase the absorption of cosmic radio noise

  16. RADIO-FREQUENCY MASS SPECTROMETERS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN SPACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, Jr., A. S.

    1963-08-15

    The operation of three common radio-frequency mass spectrometers is described, and their performances are compared. Their limitations are pointed out. It is concluded that the quadrupole spectrometer has fewer limitations and is more generally useful in space probes than the other devices. Some present and proposed uses of spectrometers in space are discussed, and the problem of contamination of the atmosphere being sampled by the spectrometer is reviewed. (auth)

  17. Diagrams of ion stability in radio-frequency mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudakov, M.Yu.

    1994-01-01

    For solving radio-frequency mass spectrometry problems and dynamic ion containment are studied and systematized different ways for constructing the ion stability diagrams. A new universal set of parameters is proposed for diagram construction-angular variables, which are the phase raid of ion oscillational motion during positive and negative values of the supplying voltage. An effective analytical method is proposed for optimization of the parameters of the pulsed supplying voltage, in particular its repetition rate

  18. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID): its usage and libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiq, Muhammad

    2004-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is one of the most exciting technologies that revolutionize the working practices by increasing efficiencies, and improving profitability. The article provides details about RFID, its components, how it works, and its usage in different sectors i.e. retail sales and supply chains, livestock industry, courier services, military and prisons, automobiles and logistics, entertainment industry, publishing industry, wireless transaction, and, especially, in...

  19. Measurement Technique in Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) Study for Radio Astronomy Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslan Umar; Roslan Umar; Nor Hazmin Sabri; Zainol Abidin Ibrahim; Zamri Zainal Abidin; Asyaari Muhamad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we will review our method in making measurements of radio frequency interference (RFI) in order to investigate the sereneness of interference in selected radio interference in Malaysia and Thailand. The selected site are University of Malaya (UM), Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI), Ubon (UB) and Chiang Mai (CM). The major RFI affecting radio astronomical windows below 1 GHz are electronic equipment system specifically radio navigation between 73.1 MHz and 75.2 MHz, radio broadcasting (151 MHz, 151.8 MHz and 152 MHz), aeronautical navigation (245.5 MHz, 248.7 MHz and 249 MHz and also fixed mobile at 605 MHz, 608.3 MHz, 612.2 MHz, 613.3 MHz. It is obviously showed that all sites within this region are free from interference between 320MHz and 330 MHz and is the best specific region to be considered for solar burst monitoring. We also investigate the effect of RFI on discovery of solar burst. (author)

  20. Tailoring the soft magnetic properties of sputtered multilayers by microstructure engineering for high frequency applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu V. Falub

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Soft magnetic Ni78.5Fe21.5, Co91.5Ta4.5Zr4 and Fe52Co28B20 thin films laminated with SiO2, Al2O3, AlN, and Ta2O5 dielectric interlayers were deposited on 8” Si wafers using DC, pulsed DC and RF cathodes in the industrial, high-throughput Evatec LLS-EVO-II magnetron sputtering system. A typical multilayer consists of a bilayer stack up to 50 periods, with alternating (50-100 nm thick magnetic layers and (2-20 nm thick dielectric interlayers. We introduced the in-plane magnetic anisotropy in these films during sputtering by a combination of a linear magnetic field, seed layer texturing by means of linear collimators, and the oblique incidence inherent to the geometry of the sputter system. Depending on the magnetic material, the anisotropy field for these films was tuned in the range of ∼(7-120 Oe by choosing the appropriate interlayer thickness, the aspect ratios of the linear collimators in front of the targets, and the sputter process parameters (e.g. pressure, power, DC pulse frequency, while the coercivity was kept low, ∼(0.05-0.9 Oe. The alignment of the easy axis (EA on the 8” wafers was typically between ±1.5° and ±4°. We discuss the interdependence of structure and magnetic properties in these films, as revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM, X-ray reflectivity (XRR with reciprocal space mapping (RSM and magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE measurements.

  1. 77 FR 35426 - Certain Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits and Devices Containing Same; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... of certain radio frequency integrated circuits and devices containing same by reason of infringement... importation of certain radio frequency integrated circuits and devices containing same that infringe one or... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-848] Certain Radio Frequency Integrated...

  2. AURA-A radio frequency extension to IceCube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsman, H.; Ruckman, L.; Varner, G.S.

    2009-01-01

    The excellent radio frequency (RF) transparency of cold polar ice, combined with the coherent Cherenkov emission produced by neutrino-induced showers when viewed at wavelengths longer than a few centimeters, has spurred considerable interest in a large-scale radio-wave neutrino detector array. The AURA (Askaryan Under-ice Radio Array) experimental effort, within the IceCube collaboration, seeks to take advantage of the opportunity presented by IceCube [A. Karle, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A (2009), this issue, doi: (10.1016/j.nima.2009.03.180).; A. Achtenberg et al., The IceCube Collaboration, Astropart. Phys. 26 (2006) 155 ] drilling through 2010 to establish the RF technology needed to achieve 100-1000km 3 effective volumes. In the 2006-2007 Austral summer, three deep in-ice RF clusters were deployed at depths of ∼1300 and ∼300m on top of the IceCube strings. Additional three clusters will be deployed in the Austral summer of 2008-2009. Verification and calibration results from the current deployed clusters are presented, and the detector design and performances are discussed. Augmentation of IceCube with large-scale (1000km 3 sr) radio and acoustic arrays would extend the physics reach of IceCube into the EeV-ZeV regime and offer substantial technological redundancy.

  3. Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting for Long Lifetime Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Bo; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks energy scarcity is a major concern on energy consumption, and by properly designing on the node network architecture or selecting efficient protocols of the networks, the maximum energy can be reduced significantly thereby increasing the network lifetime. However......, in most of the cases, the sensor nodes are either powered by non-replaceable batteries, or there will be a considerable replacement cost. Thus a self-rechargeable sensor node design is necessary: the sensor node should be able to harvest energy from the environment. Among the existing techniques......, harvesting energy from the radio frequency (RF) waves gives the lowest system design. Previous research on RF energy harvesting is based on the model that the radio energy is omnidirectional in the air. In this paper, a directional transmission/receiving model is proposed which can further overcome the path...

  4. Galactic synchrotron emission from WIMPs at radio frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Università di Torino, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Lineros, Roberto A.; Taoso, Marco, E-mail: fornengo@to.infn.it, E-mail: rlineros@ific.uv.es, E-mail: regis@to.infn.it, E-mail: taoso@ific.uv.es [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Ed. Institutos, Apdo. Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter annihilations in the Galactic halo inject relativistic electrons and positrons which in turn generate a synchrotron radiation when interacting with the galactic magnetic field. We calculate the synchrotron flux for various dark matter annihilation channels, masses, and astrophysical assumptions in the low-frequency range and compare our results with radio surveys from 22 MHz to 1420 MHz. We find that current observations are able to constrain particle dark matter with ''thermal'' annihilation cross-sections, i.e. (σv) = 3 × 10{sup −26} cm{sup 3} s{sup −1}, and masses M{sub DM}∼<10 GeV. We discuss the dependence of these bounds on the astrophysical assumptions, namely galactic dark matter distribution, cosmic rays propagation parameters, and structure of the galactic magnetic field. Prospects for detection in future radio surveys are outlined.

  5. Galactic synchrotron emission from WIMPs at radio frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Lineros, Roberto A.; Taoso, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter annihilations in the Galactic halo inject relativistic electrons and positrons which in turn generate a synchrotron radiation when interacting with the galactic magnetic field. We calculate the synchrotron flux for various dark matter annihilation channels, masses, and astrophysical assumptions in the low-frequency range and compare our results with radio surveys from 22 MHz to 1420 MHz. We find that current observations are able to constrain particle dark matter with ''thermal'' annihilation cross-sections, i.e. (σv) = 3 × 10 −26 cm 3 s −1 , and masses M DM ∼<10 GeV. We discuss the dependence of these bounds on the astrophysical assumptions, namely galactic dark matter distribution, cosmic rays propagation parameters, and structure of the galactic magnetic field. Prospects for detection in future radio surveys are outlined

  6. A simple, tunable, and highly sensitive radio-frequency sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Sun, Jiwei; He, Yuxi; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Pingshan

    2013-08-05

    We report a radio frequency (RF) sensor that exploits tunable attenuators and phase shifters to achieve high-sensitivity and broad band frequency tunability. Three frequency bands are combined to enable sensor operations from ∼20 MHz to ∼38 GHz. The effective quality factor ( Q eff ) of the sensor is as high as ∼3.8 × 10 6 with 200  μ l of water samples. We also demonstrate the measurement of 2-proponal-water-solution permittivity at 0.01 mole concentration level from ∼1 GHz to ∼10 GHz. Methanol-water solution and de-ionized water are used to calibrate the RF sensor for the quantitative measurements.

  7. Transport Characteristics of Mesoscopic Radio-Frequency Single Electron Transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, A. H.; Kirah, K.; Aly, N. A. I.; El-Sayes, H. E.

    2008-01-01

    The transport property of a quantum dot under the influence of external time-dependent field is investigated. The mesoscopic device is modelled as semiconductor quantum dot coupled weakly to superconducting leads via asymmetric double tunnel barriers of different heights. An expression for the current is deduced by using the Landauer–Buttiker formula, taking into consideration of both the Coulomb blockade effect and the magnetic field. It is found that the periodic oscillation of the current with the magnetic field is controlled by the ratio of the frequency of the applied ac-field to the electron cyclotron frequency. Our results show that the present device operates as a radio-frequency single electron transistor

  8. Flexible Frequency Discrimination Subsystems for Reconfigurable Radio Front Ends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey-Smith Bruce E

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The required flexibility of the software-defined radio front end may currently be met with better overall performance by employing tunable narrowband circuits rather than pursuing a truly wideband approach. A key component of narrowband transceivers is appropriate filtering to reduce spurious spectral content in the transmitter and limit out-of-band interference in the receiver. In this paper, recent advances in flexible, frequency-selective, circuit components applicable to reconfigurable SDR front ends are reviewed. The paper contains discussion regarding the filtering requirements in the SDR context and the use of intelligent, adaptive control to provide environment-aware frequency discrimination. Wide tuning-range frequency-selective circuit elements are surveyed including bandpass and bandstop filters and narrowband tunable antennas. The suitability of these elements to the mobile wireless SDR environment is discussed.

  9. Radio frequency feedback method for parallelized droplet microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Conchouso Gonzalez, David

    2016-12-19

    This paper reports on a radio frequency micro-strip T-resonator that is integrated to a parallel droplet microfluidic system. The T-resonator works as a feedback system to monitor uniform droplet production and to detect, in real-time, any malfunctions due to channel fouling or clogging. Emulsions at different W/O flow-rate ratios are generated in a microfluidic device containing 8 parallelized generators. These emulsions are then guided towards the RF sensor, which is then read using a Network Analyzer to obtain the frequency response of the system. The proposed T-resonator shows frequency shifts of 45MHz for only 5% change in the emulsion\\'s water in oil content. These shifts can then be used as a feedback system to trigger alarms and notify production and quality control engineers about problems in the droplet generation process.

  10. Radio frequency feedback method for parallelized droplet microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; McKerricher, Garret; Castro, David; Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a radio frequency micro-strip T-resonator that is integrated to a parallel droplet microfluidic system. The T-resonator works as a feedback system to monitor uniform droplet production and to detect, in real-time, any malfunctions due to channel fouling or clogging. Emulsions at different W/O flow-rate ratios are generated in a microfluidic device containing 8 parallelized generators. These emulsions are then guided towards the RF sensor, which is then read using a Network Analyzer to obtain the frequency response of the system. The proposed T-resonator shows frequency shifts of 45MHz for only 5% change in the emulsion's water in oil content. These shifts can then be used as a feedback system to trigger alarms and notify production and quality control engineers about problems in the droplet generation process.

  11. Modeling of Doppler frequency shift in multipath radio channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penzin M.S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the modeling of propagation of a quasi-monochromatic radio signal, represented by a coherent pulse sequence, in a non-stationary multipath radio channel. In such a channel, signal propagation results in the observed frequency shift for each ray (Doppler effect. The modeling is based on the assumption that during propagation of a single pulse a channel can be considered stationary. A phase variation in the channel transfer function is shown to cause the observed frequency shift in the received signal. Thus, instead of measuring the Doppler frequency shift, we can measure the rate of variation in the mean phase of one pulse relative to another. The modeling is carried out within the framework of the method of normal waves. The method enables us to model the dynamics of the electromagnetic field at a given point with the required accuracy. The modeling reveals that a local change in ionospheric conditions more severely affects the rays whose reflection region is in the area where the changes occur.

  12. Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas: 12th Topical Conference. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P.M.; Intrator, T.

    1997-01-01

    The twelfth Topical Conference on Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas was held in April, 1997, in Georgia, USA under the sponsorship of Oak Ridge National Laboratory of the US Department of Energy, the University of Wisconsin, and the American Physical Society. A large part of the conference was devoted to the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. Radio frequency contributions to the creation and maintenance of transport barriers to both particle and heat flux received a lot of attention. In addition to plasma heating, the use of RF as a versatile tool to drive current, shape profiles and stabilize plasmas was also discussed. The RF systems designs for ITER, ICRF heating advances on helical devices were among the topics of interest, so were progress in ion cyclotron codes, advanced launchers and technology, RF startup, general wave theory and the application of RF plasmas to material processing. A total of 103 papers were presented and are included in these proceedings. Out of these, 54 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  13. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in healthcare: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokathi, Aikaterini; Rallis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Creating and maintaining a safe and high-quality health care environment is of great importance for global community. New technologies and their applications can help us achieve this goal. Radio-Frequency Identification (RIFD) technology is considered one of those technologies and even today there are some interesting deployments in the health industry. As a result, this work aims to present the basic idea behind RFID solutions, problems that can be addressed with the adoption of RFID and the benefits of relative applications.

  14. Radio frequency induction of intracellular ferromagnetic particles: Potential for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, I.A.; Pizzarello, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have been studying the therapeutic potential of ferromagnetic or paramagnetic particles as mediators for depositing tumoricidal doses of radio frequency (RF) energy. Ferric oxide suspended in dextrose or polyvinylpyrrolidone was administered to retired female rat breeders with spontaneous mammary tumors. The rats were then exposed to an intense 100-kHz RF field. Tumor doubling times were increased from 23 days for controls to 62 days for rats irradiated 6 days after the administration of the particle suspensions. There was no conclusive evidence of organ damage caused by treatment. They conclude that the treatment modality merits further investigation

  15. Radio-frequency quadrupole: general properties and specific applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, R.H.; Crandall, K.R.; Hamm, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac structure is being developed for the acceleration of low-velocity ions. Recent experimental tests have confirmed its expected performance and have led to an increased interest in a wide range of possible applications. The general properties of RFQ accelerators are reviewed and beam dynamics simulation results are presented for their use in a variety of accelerating systems. These include the low-beta sections of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Accelerator, a 200-MHz proton linear accelerator, and a xenon accelerator for heavy ion fusion

  16. Applications of radio frequency identification systems in underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knights, P F; Kairouz, J; Daneshmend, L K; Pathak, J [McGill University, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Canadian Centre for Automation and Robotics in Mining

    1994-12-31

    The paper describes the application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems in underground hardrock mines. The operating principles and some of the applications of RDIF systems are described. The system operates by the exchange of information between transponder tags and an antenna and controller device. The suitability of RFID systems for process control, inventory control, materials handling, control of access, security, and transportation in underground coal and hardrock mines is discussed. An ore tonnage tracking system is under development that uses RDIF transponder tags to locate vehicles in an underground mine. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Radio frequency quadrupole linac for the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrage, D.L.; Young, L.M.; Clark, W.L.; Billen, J.H.; DePaula, R.F.; Naranjo, A.C.; Neuschaefer, G.H.; Roybal, P.L.; Stovall, J.E.; Ray, K.; Richter, R.

    1993-01-01

    A 2.5 MeV, 428 MHz radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac has been designed and fabricated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and GAR Electroforming for the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory. This device is a two segment accelerator fabricated from tellurium-copper (CDA14500) vane/cavity quadrants which are joined by electroforming. The structure incorporates an integral vacuum jacket and has no longitudinal rf or mechanical joints. The SSC RFQ linac is an extension of the design of the 1.0 MeV RFQ which was successfully flown on the BEAR Project. (orig.)

  18. RFID explained a primer on radio frequency identification technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Want, Roy

    2006-01-01

    This lecture provides an introduction to Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), a technology enabling automatic identification of objects at a distance without requiring line-of-sight. Electronic tagging can be divided into technologies that have a power source (active tags), and those that are powered by the tag interrogation signal (passive tags); the focus here is on passive tags. An overview of the principles of the technology divides passive tags into devices that use either near field or far field coupling to communicate with a tag reader. The strengths and weaknesses of the approaches a

  19. Radio frequency ablation of small renal tumors:: intermediate results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J J; Walther, M M; Pautler, S E; Coleman, J A; Hvizda, J; Peterson, James; Linehan, W M; Wood, B J

    2004-05-01

    With evolving radio frequency technology, the clinical application of radio frequency ablation (RFA) has been actively investigated in the treatment for small renal tumors. We present our intermediate patient outcomes after RFA. Since January 2001, 17 patients with a total of 24 hereditary renal tumors ranging from 1.2 to 2.85 cm were treated with RFA using the 200 W Cool-tip RF System (Radionics, Burlington, Massachusetts) under laparoscopic (9) or percutaneous (8) guidance and had a minimum 1-year followup. A percutaneous approach was considered unsuitable if kidney tumors were contiguous to bowel, ureter or large vessels. Treatment eligibility criteria included an average tumor diameter of less than 3.0 cm, tumor growth during 1 year and solid appearance with contrast enhancement (HU change greater than 20) on computerized tomography (CT). Postoperative followup consisted of CT with and without intravenous contrast, and renal function assessment at regular intervals. Median patient age was 38 years (range 20 to 51). At a median followup of 385 days (range 342 to 691), median tumor or thermal lesion diameter decreased from 2.26 to 1.62 cm (p = 0.0013), and only 1 lesion (4%), which was located centrally near the hilum, exhibited contrast enhancement (HU change greater than 10) on CT at 12 months. Of the 15 renal tumors ablated laparoscopically, 13 were in direct contact with the bowel and 2 were abutting the ureter, necessitating mobilization before RFA. Laparoscopic ultrasound was used to guide radio frequency electrode placement and monitor the ablation process in these cases. Operative time and intraoperative blood loss (mean +/- standard mean of error) were 243 +/- 29 minutes and 67 +/- 9 cc, respectively. In 1 patient whose ureter was adherent to the tumor a ureteropelvic junction obstruction developed after laparoscopic RFA, requiring open repair. At the minimum 1-year followup 23 of 24 ablated tumors lacked contrast uptake on CT, meeting our radiographic

  20. Parallel simulation of radio-frequency plasma discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fivaz, M.; Howling, A.; Ruegsegger, L.; Schwarzenbach, W.; Baeumle, B.

    1994-01-01

    The 1D Particle-In-Cell and Monte Carlo collision code XPDP1 is used to model radio-frequency argon plasma discharges. The code runs faster on a single-user parallel system called MUSIC than on a CRAY-YMP. The low cost of the MUSIC system allows a 24-hours-per-day use and the simulation results are available one to two orders of magnitude quicker than with a super computer shared with other users. The parallelization strategy and its implementation are discussed. Very good agreement is found between simulation results and measurements done in an experimental argon discharge. (author) 2 figs., 3 refs

  1. Novel integrated design framework for radio frequency quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, Simon; Easton, Matthew; Lawrie, Scott; Letchford, Alan; Pozimski, Jürgen; Savage, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A novel design framework for Radio Frequency Quadrupoles (RFQs), developed as part of the design of the FETS RFQ, is presented. This framework integrates several previously disparate steps in the design of RFQs, including the beam dynamics design, mechanical design, electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical modelling and beam dynamics simulations. Each stage of the design process is described in detail, including the various software options and reasons for the final software suite selected. Results are given for each of these steps, describing how each stage affects the overall design process, with an emphasis on the resulting design choices for the FETS RFQ

  2. Electromagnetic induction imaging with a radio-frequency atomic magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deans, Cameron; Marmugi, Luca, E-mail: l.marmugi@ucl.ac.uk; Hussain, Sarah; Renzoni, Ferruccio [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-07

    We report on a compact, tunable, and scalable to large arrays imaging device, based on a radio-frequency optically pumped atomic magnetometer operating in magnetic induction tomography modality. Imaging of conductive objects is performed at room temperature, in an unshielded environment and without background subtraction. Conductivity maps of target objects exhibit not only excellent performance in terms of shape reconstruction but also demonstrate detection of sub-millimetric cracks and penetration of conductive barriers. The results presented here demonstrate the potential of a future generation of imaging instruments, which combine magnetic induction tomography and the unmatched performance of atomic magnetometers.

  3. Applications of radio frequency identification systems in the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hind, D J [Davis Derby Ltd., Derby (United Kingdom)

    1995-07-01

    Radio Frequency Identification Systems (RFID) are one of the automatic data capture technologies taking over from bar codes and magnetic swipe cards in many applications involving automatic hands free operation in arduous environments. RFID systems are based on the use of miniature radio transponders carrying encoded electronic data that is used to uniquely identify the identity of transponders. This paper reviews the types of system available and compares the various techniques involved in the different systems. The various types of transponder are described including the latest state of the art passive read/write high performance types. A review of the history of RFID systems in the mining industry is also given in the paper. The problems involved in designing and certifying a system for use in hazardous areas are also described, with particular reference to the problems of inadvertent detonator ignition by radio systems. Applications of RFID systems in the mining industry are described in considerable detail, covering applications both on the surface and underground. 1 ref., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Daris, a low-frequency distributed aperture array for radio astronomy in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.J.; Saks, N.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; van 't Klooster, K.; Falcke, H.

    2010-01-01

    DARIS (Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy in Space) is a radio astronomy space mission concept aimed at observing the low-frequency radio sky in the range 1-10 MHz. Because of the Earth's ionospheric disturbances and opaqueness, this frequency range can only be observed from space. The

  5. Low-frequency radio absorption in Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M.; Vink, J.; de Gasperin, F.; Salas, P.; Oonk, J. B. R.; van Weeren, R. J.; van Amesfoort, A. S.; Anderson, J.; Beck, R.; Bell, M. E.; Bentum, M. J.; Best, P.; Blaauw, R.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; de Geus, E.; Deller, A.; van Dijk, P. C. G.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J. M.; Gunst, A. W.; van Haarlem, M. P.; Heald, G.; Hessels, J.; Hörandel, J.; Holties, H. A.; van der Horst, A. J.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Krankowski, A.; van Leeuwen, J.; Mann, G.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; McKean, J. P.; Mulder, H.; Nelles, A.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pekal, R.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Rothkaehl, H.; Schwarz, D. J.; Smirnov, O.; Soida, M.; Steinmetz, M.; Tagger, M.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vocks, C.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Zarka, P.; Zucca, P.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Cassiopeia A is one of the best-studied supernova remnants. Its bright radio and X-ray emission is due to shocked ejecta. Cas A is rather unique in that the unshocked ejecta can also be studied: through emission in the infrared, the radio-active decay of 44Ti, and the low-frequency free-free absorption caused by cold ionised gas, which is the topic of this paper. Aims: Free-free absorption processes are affected by the mass, geometry, temperature, and ionisation conditions in the absorbing gas. Observations at the lowest radio frequencies can constrain a combination of these properties. Methods: We used Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) Low Band Antenna observations at 30-77 MHz and Very Large Array (VLA) L-band observations at 1-2 GHz to fit for internal absorption as parametrised by the emission measure. We simultaneously fit multiple UV-matched images with a common resolution of 17″ (this corresponds to 0.25 pc for a source at the distance of Cas A). The ample frequency coverage allows us separate the relative contributions from the absorbing gas, the unabsorbed front of the shell, and the absorbed back of the shell to the emission spectrum. We explored the effects that a temperature lower than the 100-500 K proposed from infrared observations and a high degree of clumping can have on the derived physical properties of the unshocked material, such as its mass and density. We also compiled integrated radio flux density measurements, fit for the absorption processes that occur in the radio band, and considered their effect on the secular decline of the source. Results: We find a mass in the unshocked ejecta of M = 2.95 ± 0.48 M⊙ for an assumed gas temperatureof T = 100 K. This estimate is reduced for colder gas temperatures and, most significantly, if the ejecta are clumped. We measure the reverse shock to have a radius of 114″± 6″ and be centred at 23:23:26, +58:48:54 (J2000). We also find that a decrease in the amount of mass in the unshocked ejecta

  6. Ground and space observations of medium frequency auroral radio emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Matthew C.

    The auroral zone is a rich source of natural radio emissions that can be observed in space and at ground-level. By studying these waves, scientists can gain insight into the plasma processes that generate them and use the near-Earth space environment as a large-scale plasma physics laboratory. This thesis uses both ground-level and in situ observations to study two kinds of natural radio emissions. First, we report observations of a new kind of auroral radio emission. The waves have frequencies ranging from 1.3-2.2 MHz, bandwidths ranging from 90-272 kHz, and durations ranging from 16-355 s. Spectral analysis of the waveform data has revealed that the emission has a complex combination of at least three kinds of fine structures. For model auroral electron distributions, calculations indicate that Langmuir waves could be excited at frequencies consistent with observations. The remainder of the thesis discusses auroral medium frequency (MF) burst, an impulsive, broadband natural radio emission observed at ground-level within a few minutes of local substorm onset. LaBelle [2011] proposed that MF burst originates as Langmuir/Z-mode waves on the topside of the ionosphere that subsequently mode convert to L-mode waves and propagate to ground-level. Using continuous waveform measurements and combined observations with the Sondrestrom Incoherent Scatter Radar, we have performed two tests of this mechanism. The results of these tests are consistent with the mechanism described in LaBelle [2011]. A survey of 8,624 half-orbits of the DEMETER spacecraft has revealed 68 observations of bursty MF waves. We have compared the wave properties of these waves to those of MF burst and have found that although it is uncertain, the balance of the evidence suggests that the bursty MF waves observed with DEMETER are the same phenomenon as the ground-level MF burst. Finally, we have used numerical simulations to model both the fine structure of MF burst and to estimate the attenuation the

  7. Scattering of radio frequency waves by blob-filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Radio frequency waves used for heating and current drive in magnetic confinement experiments must traverse the scrape-off-layer (SOL) and edge plasma before reaching the core. The edge and SOL plasmas are strongly turbulent and intermittent in both space and time. As a first approximation, the SOL can be treated as a tenuous background plasma upon which denser filamentary field-aligned blobs of plasma are superimposed. The blobs are approximately stationary on the rf time scale. The scattering of plane waves in the ion-cyclotron to lower-hybrid frequency range from a cylindrical blob is treated here in the cold plasma fluid model. Scattering widths are derived for incident fast and slow waves, and the scattered power fraction is estimated. Processes such as scattering-induced mode conversion, scattering resonances, and shadowing are investigated.

  8. Anomalous Capacitive Sheath with Deep Radio Frequency Electric Field Penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2002-01-01

    A novel nonlinear effect of anomalously deep penetration of an external radio-frequency electric field into a plasma is described. A self-consistent kinetic treatment reveals a transition region between the sheath and the plasma. Because of the electron velocity modulation in the sheath, bunches in the energetic electron density are formed in the transition region adjusted to the sheath. The width of the region is of order V(subscript T)/omega, where V(subscript T) is the electron thermal velocity, and w is frequency of the electric field. The presence of the electric field in the transition region results in a cooling of the energetic electrons and an additional heating of the cold electrons in comparison with the case when the transition region is neglected

  9. Radio-frequency ion deflector for mass separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlösser, Magnus, E-mail: magnus.schloesser@googlemail.com; Rudnev, Vitaly; Ureña, Ángel González, E-mail: laseres@pluri.ucm.es [Unidad de Láseres y Haces Moleculares, Instituto Plurisdisciplinar, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Electrostatic cylindrical deflectors act as energy analyzer for ion beams. In this article, we present that by imposing of a radio-frequency modulation on the deflecting electric field, the ion transmission becomes mass dependent. By the choice of the appropriate frequency, amplitude, and phase, the deflector can be used as mass filter. The basic concept of the new instrument as well as simple mathematic relations are described. These calculations and further numerical simulations show that a mass sensitivity is achievable. Furthermore, we demonstrate the proof-of-principle in experimental measurements, compare the results to those of from a 1 m linear time-of-flight spectrometer, and comment on the mass resolution of the method. Finally, some potential applications are indicated.

  10. Relativistic runaway breakdown in low-frequency radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fullekrug, M.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E.M.D.

    2011-01-01

    at a distance of similar to 550 km. The measured broadband pulses occur similar to 4-9 ms after the sprite-producing lightning discharge, they exhibit electromagnetic radiation which mainly spans the frequency range from similar to 50 to 350 kHz, and they exhibit complex waveforms without the typical...... electromagnetic pulses and possibly generates sprites. The source location of the broadband pulses can be determined with an interferometric network of wideband low-frequency radio receivers to lend further experimental support to the relativistic runaway breakdown theory.......The electromagnetic radiation emitted by an electron avalanche beam resulting from relativistic runaway breakdown within the Earth's atmosphere is investigated. It is found from theoretical modeling with a computer simulation that the electron beam emits electromagnetic radiation which...

  11. The Frequency Evolution of Interstellar Pulse Broadening from Radio Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhmer, O.; Mitra, D.; Gupta, Y.; Kramer, M.; Ahuja, A.

    2004-10-01

    Using radio pulsars as probes of the interstellar medium (ISM) we study the frequency evolution of interstellar scattering. The frequency dependence of scatter broadening times, τsc, for most of the pulsars with low and intermediate dispersion measures (DM ≲ 400 pc cm-3) is consistent with the Kolmogorov spectrum of electron density fluctuations in a turbulent medium. In contrast, the measured τsc's for highly dispersed pulsars in the central region of the Galaxy are larger than expected and show a spectrum which is flatter than the Kolmogorov law. We analyse the first measurements of spectral indices of scatter broadening over the full known DM range and discuss possible explanations for the anomalous scattering behaviour along peculiar lines of sight (LOS).

  12. Observation of radio frequency emissions from electrochemical loading experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidwell, D.A.; Grabowski, K.S.; Dominguez, D.D.; DeChiaro Jr, L.F.

    2015-01-01

    Palladium foil cathodes were electrochemically loaded with deuterium from alkaline solutions of heavy water in specially designed closed calorimeter cells. Here, one cell is described that showed low levels of constant heat (1-7 mW) and radio frequency (RF) emanations, but the RF was not correlated with the heat production. This cell is compared with Pd 90 Rh 10 alloy cathodes that showed excess energy bursts of 2.4-44.3 kJ. In these cells, RF coincident with the bursts was observed peaking at different frequencies from about 450 kHz and extending into the MHz range. Some of the excess energy production in LENR may be in the MHz RF range, which has no conventional explanation in electrochemistry. (author)

  13. Radio-frequency-modulated Rydberg states in a vapor cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. A.; Anderson, D. A.; Raithel, G.

    2016-05-01

    We measure strong radio-frequency (RF) electric fields using rubidium Rydberg atoms prepared in a room-temperature vapor cell as field sensors. Electromagnetically induced transparency is employed as an optical readout. We RF-modulate the 60{{{S}}}1/2 and 58{{{D}}}5/2 Rydberg states with 50 and 100 MHz fields, respectively. For weak to moderate RF fields, the Rydberg levels become Stark-shifted, and sidebands appear at even multiples of the driving frequency. In high fields, the adjacent hydrogenic manifold begins to intersect the shifted levels, providing rich spectroscopic structure suitable for precision field measurements. A quantitative description of strong-field level modulation and mixing of S and D states with hydrogenic states is provided by Floquet theory. Additionally, we estimate the shielding of DC electric fields in the interior of the glass vapor cell.

  14. Microminiature radio frequency transmitter for communication and tracking applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Richard I.; Emery, Mike S.; Falter, Kelly G.; Nowlin, C. H.; Rochelle, Jim M.; Clonts, Lloyd G.

    1997-02-01

    A micro-miniature radio frequency (rf) transmitter has been developed and demonstrated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The objective of the rf transmitter development was to maximize the transmission distance while drastically shrinking the overall transmitter size, including antenna. Based on analysis and testing, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with a 16-GHz gallium arsenide (GaAs) oscillator and integrated on-chip antenna was designed and fabricated using microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) technology. Details of the development and the results of various field tests are discussed. The rf transmitter is applicable to covert surveillance and tracking scenarios due to its small size of 2.2 multiplied by 2.2 mm, including the antenna. Additionally, the 16-GHz frequency is well above the operational range of consumer-grade radio scanners, providing a degree of protection from unauthorized interception. Variations of the transmitter design have been demonstrated for tracking and tagging beacons, transmission of digital data, and transmission of real-time analog video from a surveillance camera. Preliminary laboratory measurements indicate adaptability to direct-sequence spread-spectrum transmission, providing a low probability of intercept and/or detection. Concepts related to law enforcement applications are presented.

  15. Fundamental investigations of capacitive radio frequency plasmas: simulations and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donkó, Z; Derzsi, A; Hartmann, P; Korolov, I; Schulze, J; Czarnetzki, U; Schüngel, E

    2012-01-01

    Capacitive radio frequency (RF) discharge plasmas have been serving hi-tech industry (e.g. chip and solar cell manufacturing, realization of biocompatible surfaces) for several years. Nonetheless, their complex modes of operation are not fully understood and represent topics of high interest. The understanding of these phenomena is aided by modern diagnostic techniques and computer simulations. From the industrial point of view the control of ion properties is of particular interest; possibilities of independent control of the ion flux and the ion energy have been utilized via excitation of the discharges with multiple frequencies. ‘Classical’ dual-frequency (DF) discharges (where two significantly different driving frequencies are used), as well as discharges driven by a base frequency and its higher harmonic(s) have been analyzed thoroughly. It has been recognized that the second solution results in an electrically induced asymmetry (electrical asymmetry effect), which provides the basis for the control of the mean ion energy. This paper reviews recent advances on studies of the different electron heating mechanisms, on the possibilities of the separate control of ion energy and ion flux in DF discharges, on the effects of secondary electrons, as well as on the non-linear behavior (self-generated resonant current oscillations) of capacitive RF plasmas. The work is based on a synergistic approach of theoretical modeling, experiments and kinetic simulations based on the particle-in-cell approach. (paper)

  16. Extragalactic Peaked-spectrum Radio Sources at Low Frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callingham, J. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Sadler, E. M.; Lenc, E. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ekers, R. D.; Bell, M. E. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS), Marsfield, NSW 2122 (Australia); Line, J. L. B.; Hancock, P. J.; Kapińska, A. D.; McKinley, B.; Procopio, P. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Hurley-Walker, N.; Tingay, S. J.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Morgan, J. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Dwarakanath, K. S. [Raman Research Institute (RRI), Bangalore 560080 (India); For, B.-Q. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Offringa, A. R., E-mail: joseph.callingham@sydney.edu.au [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Dwingeloo (Netherlands); and others

    2017-02-20

    We present a sample of 1483 sources that display spectral peaks between 72 MHz and 1.4 GHz, selected from the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey. The GLEAM survey is the widest fractional bandwidth all-sky survey to date, ideal for identifying peaked-spectrum sources at low radio frequencies. Our peaked-spectrum sources are the low-frequency analogs of gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) and compact-steep spectrum (CSS) sources, which have been hypothesized to be the precursors to massive radio galaxies. Our sample more than doubles the number of known peaked-spectrum candidates, and 95% of our sample have a newly characterized spectral peak. We highlight that some GPS sources peaking above 5 GHz have had multiple epochs of nuclear activity, and we demonstrate the possibility of identifying high-redshift ( z > 2) galaxies via steep optically thin spectral indices and low observed peak frequencies. The distribution of the optically thick spectral indices of our sample is consistent with past GPS/CSS samples but with a large dispersion, suggesting that the spectral peak is a product of an inhomogeneous environment that is individualistic. We find no dependence of observed peak frequency with redshift, consistent with the peaked-spectrum sample comprising both local CSS sources and high-redshift GPS sources. The 5 GHz luminosity distribution lacks the brightest GPS and CSS sources of previous samples, implying that a convolution of source evolution and redshift influences the type of peaked-spectrum sources identified below 1 GHz. Finally, we discuss sources with optically thick spectral indices that exceed the synchrotron self-absorption limit.

  17. Resonant-frequency discharge in a multi-cell radio frequency cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popović, S.; Upadhyay, J.; Nikolić, M.; Vušković, L.; Mammosser, J.

    2014-01-01

    We are reporting experimental results on a microwave discharge operating at resonant frequency in a multi-cell radio frequency (RF) accelerator cavity. Although the discharge operated at room temperature, the setup was constructed so that it could be used for plasma generation and processing in fully assembled active superconducting radio-frequency cryo-module. This discharge offers a mechanism for removal of a variety of contaminants, organic or oxide layers, and residual particulates from the interior surface of RF cavities through the interaction of plasma-generated radicals with the cavity walls. We describe resonant RF breakdown conditions and address the issues related to resonant detuning due to sustained multi-cell cavity plasma. We have determined breakdown conditions in the cavity, which was acting as a plasma vessel with distorted cylindrical geometry. We discuss the spectroscopic data taken during plasma removal of contaminants and use them to evaluate plasma parameters, characterize the process, and estimate the volatile contaminant product removal

  18. Relics in galaxy clusters at high radio frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, M.; Beck, R.; Hoeft, M.; Klein, U.; van Weeren, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.

    2017-04-01

    Aims: We investigated the magnetic properties of radio relics located at the peripheries of galaxy clusters at high radio frequencies, where the emission is expected to be free of Faraday depolarization. The degree of polarization is a measure of the magnetic field compression and, hence, the Mach number. Polarization observations can also be used to confirm relic candidates. Methods: We observed three radio relics in galaxy clusters and one radio relic candidate at 4.85 and 8.35 GHz in total emission and linearly polarized emission with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope. In addition, we observed one radio relic candidate in X-rays with the Chandra telescope. We derived maps of polarization angle, polarization degree, and Faraday rotation measures. Results: The radio spectra of the integrated emission below 8.35 GHz can be well fitted by single power laws for all four relics. The flat spectra (spectral indices of 0.9 and 1.0) for the so-called Sausage relic in cluster CIZA J2242+53 and the so-called Toothbrush relic in cluster 1RXS 06+42 indicate that models describing the origin of relics have to include effects beyond the assumptions of diffuse shock acceleration. The spectra of the radio relics in ZwCl 0008+52 and in Abell 1612 are steep, as expected from weak shocks (Mach number ≈2.4). Polarization observations of radio relics offer a method of measuring the strength and geometry of the shock front. We find polarization degrees of more than 50% in the two prominent Mpc-sized radio relics, the Sausage and the Toothbrush, which are among the highest percentages of linear polarization detected in any extragalactic radio source to date. This is remarkable because the large beam size of the Effelsberg single-dish telescope corresponds to linear extensions of about 300 kpc at 8.35 GHz at the distances of the relics. The high degree of polarization indicates that the magnetic field vectors are almost perfectly aligned along the relic structure, as expected for shock

  19. Dispersive detection of radio-frequency-dressed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammi, Sindhu; Pyragius, Tadas; Bason, Mark G.; Florez, Hans Marin; Fernholz, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a method to dispersively detect alkali-metal atoms in radio-frequency-dressed states. In particular, we use dressed detection to measure populations and population differences of atoms prepared in their clock states. Linear birefringence of the atomic medium enables atom number detection via polarization homodyning, a form of common path interferometry. In order to achieve low technical noise levels, we perform optical sideband detection after adiabatic transformation of bare states into dressed states. The balanced homodyne signal then oscillates independently of field fluctuations at twice the dressing frequency, thus allowing for robust, phase-locked detection that circumvents low-frequency noise. Using probe pulses of two optical frequencies, we can detect both clock states simultaneously and obtain population difference as well as the total atom number. The scheme also allows for difference measurements by direct subtraction of the homodyne signals at the balanced detector, which should technically enable quantum noise limited measurements with prospects for the preparation of spin squeezed states. The method extends to other Zeeman sublevels and can be employed in a range of atomic clock schemes, atom interferometers, and other experiments using dressed atoms.

  20. Radio frequency electromagnetic field compliance assessment of multi-band and MIMO equipped radio base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thors, Björn; Thielens, Arno; Fridén, Jonas; Colombi, Davide; Törnevik, Christer; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, different methods for practical numerical radio frequency exposure compliance assessments of radio base station products were investigated. Both multi-band base station antennas and antennas designed for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) transmission schemes were considered. For the multi-band case, various standardized assessment methods were evaluated in terms of resulting compliance distance with respect to the reference levels and basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Both single frequency and multiple frequency (cumulative) compliance distances were determined using numerical simulations for a mobile communication base station antenna transmitting in four frequency bands between 800 and 2600 MHz. The assessments were conducted in terms of root-mean-squared electromagnetic fields, whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) and peak 10 g averaged SAR. In general, assessments based on peak field strengths were found to be less computationally intensive, but lead to larger compliance distances than spatial averaging of electromagnetic fields used in combination with localized SAR assessments. For adult exposure, the results indicated that even shorter compliance distances were obtained by using assessments based on localized and whole-body SAR. Numerical simulations, using base station products employing MIMO transmission schemes, were performed as well and were in agreement with reference measurements. The applicability of various field combination methods for correlated exposure was investigated, and best estimate methods were proposed. Our results showed that field combining methods generally considered as conservative could be used to efficiently assess compliance boundary dimensions of single- and dual-polarized multicolumn base station antennas with only minor increases in compliance distances. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Radio frequency identification enabled wireless sensing for intelligent food logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Chen, Qiang; Chen, Qing; Uysal, Ismail; Zheng, Lirong

    2014-06-13

    Future technologies and applications for the Internet of Things (IoT) will evolve the process of the food supply chain and create added value of business. Radio frequency identifications (RFIDs) and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been considered as the key technological enablers. Intelligent tags, powered by autonomous energy, are attached on objects, networked by short-range wireless links, allowing the physical parameters such as temperatures and humidities as well as the location information to seamlessly integrate with the enterprise information system over the Internet. In this paper, challenges, considerations and design examples are reviewed from system, implementation and application perspectives, particularly with focus on intelligent packaging and logistics for the fresh food tracking and monitoring service. An IoT platform with a two-layer network architecture is introduced consisting of an asymmetric tag-reader link (RFID layer) and an ad-hoc link between readers (WSN layer), which are further connected to the Internet via cellular or Wi-Fi. Then, we provide insights into the enabling technology of RFID with sensing capabilities. Passive, semi-passive and active RFID solutions are discussed. In particular, we describe ultra-wideband radio RFID which has been considered as one of the most promising techniques for ultra-low-power and low-cost wireless sensing. Finally, an example is provided in the form of an application in fresh food tracking services and corresponding field testing results.

  2. LoFASM: A Low Frequency All Sky Monitor for Radio Transients and Student Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-02

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The Low-Frequency All- Sky Monitor (LoFASM) is an innovative new radio astronomy observatory. Designed and built by...Feb-2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: LoFASM: A Low Frequency All Sky Monitor for Radio Transients and Student...reviewed journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: LoFASM: A Low Frequency All Sky Monitor for Radio Transients and

  3. The Radio Frequency Health Node Wireless Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, J. Emilio; Stanley, Priscilla C.; Mackey, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The Radio Frequency Health Node (RFHN) wireless sensor system differs from other wireless sensor systems in ways originally intended to enhance utility as an instrumentation system for a spacecraft. The RFHN can also be adapted to use in terrestrial applications in which there are requirements for operational flexibility and integrability into higher-level instrumentation and data acquisition systems. As shown in the figure, the heart of the system is the RFHN, which is a unit that passes commands and data between (1) one or more commercially available wireless sensor units (optionally, also including wired sensor units) and (2) command and data interfaces with a local control computer that may be part of the spacecraft or other engineering system in which the wireless sensor system is installed. In turn, the local control computer can be in radio or wire communication with a remote control computer that may be part of a higher-level system. The remote control computer, acting via the local control computer and the RFHN, cannot only monitor readout data from the sensor units but can also remotely configure (program or reprogram) the RFHN and the sensor units during operation. In a spacecraft application, the RFHN and the sensor units can also be configured more nearly directly, prior to launch, via a serial interface that includes an umbilical cable between the spacecraft and ground support equipment. In either case, the RFHN wireless sensor system has the flexibility to be configured, as required, with different numbers and types of sensors for different applications. The RFHN can be used to effect realtime transfer of data from, and commands to, the wireless sensor units. It can also store data for later retrieval by an external computer. The RFHN communicates with the wireless sensor units via a radio transceiver module. The modular design of the RFHN makes it possible to add radio transceiver modules as needed to accommodate additional sets of wireless sensor

  4. CERN Open Days 2013, Point 4: LHC Radio Frequency

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Photolab

    2013-01-01

    Stand description: At Point 4 visitors will descend into the LHC tunnel to see the "engine" of the collider: the accelerating cavities where the circulating particles get a small kick of energy as they pass by 11,000 times each second. During your visit underground, you will see the superconducting magnets as well as instruments for observing the beams. You will also walk through the huge cavern containing the Radio Frequency power plants which provide the particle beams with energy. On surface no restricted access  Above ground, you will see the cryogenics installations which keep the accelerator at a just few degrees above absolute zero. Lots of fascinating information and exhibits about CERN's accelerators and experiments will be on display, with CERN engineers and physicists on hand all day to answer your questions.

  5. Radio frequency plasma nitriding of aluminium at higher power levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gredelj, Sabina; Kumar, Sunil; Gerson, Andrea R.; Cavallaro, Giuseppe P.

    2006-01-01

    Nitriding of aluminium 2011 using a radio frequency plasma at higher power levels (500 and 700 W) and lower substrate temperature (500 deg. C) resulted in higher AlN/Al 2 O 3 ratios than obtained at 100 W and 575 deg. C. AlN/Al 2 O 3 ratios derived from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis (and corroborated by heavy ion elastic recoil time of flight spectrometry) for treatments preformed at 100 (575 deg. C), 500 (500 deg. C) and 700 W (500 deg. C) were 1.0, 1.5 and 3.3, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that plasma nitrided surfaces obtained at higher power levels exhibited much finer nodular morphology than obtained at 100 W

  6. Design and fabrication of the BNL radio frequency quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie-Wilson, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory polarized H - injection program for the AGS will utilize a Radio Frequency Quadrupole for acceleration between the polarized source and the Alvarez Linac. Although operation will commence with a few μ amperes of H - current, it is anticipated that future polarized H - sources will have a considerably improved output. The RFQ will operate at 201.25 MHz and will be capable of handling a beam current of 0.02 amperes with a duty cycle of 0.25%. The resulting low average power has allowed novel solutions to the problems of vane alignment, rf current contacts, and removal of heat from the vanes. The cavity design philosophy will be discussed together with the thermodynamics of heat removal from the vane. Details of the fabrication will be presented with a status report

  7. Radio frequency radiation (RFR) exposures from mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, K.H.; Lubinas, V.; Wood, M.P.; Saribalas, J.; Adams, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of the free space levels of radio frequency radiation (RFR) around a hand-held mobile phone and the specific absorption rate (SAR) induced in the ocular region of a phantom head exposed to RFR from a mobile phone are presented. The level of RFR measured 5 cm from the antenna of a mobile phone transmitting 600 mW was 0.27 mW/cm 2 . The average SAR level measured in the nearside eye of the phantom head containing tissue equivalent jellies was 0.7 W/kg for a 600 mW transmit power which is very much less than the spatial peak limit of 8 W/kg underlying the Australian and other national and international RFR exposure standards. (author)

  8. Radio-Frequency Applications for Food Processing and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Tang, Juming; Wang, Yifen; Koral, Tony L

    2018-03-25

    Radio-frequency (RF) heating, as a thermal-processing technology, has been extending its applications in the food industry. Although RF has shown some unique advantages over conventional methods in industrial drying and frozen food thawing, more research is needed to make it applicable for food safety applications because of its complex heating mechanism. This review provides comprehensive information regarding RF-heating history, mechanism, fundamentals, and applications that have already been fully developed or are still under research. The application of mathematical modeling as a useful tool in RF food processing is also reviewed in detail. At the end of the review, we summarize the active research groups in the RF food thermal-processing field, and address the current problems that still need to be overcome.

  9. Electrode design for soil decontamination with Radio-Frequency heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, U.; Holzer, F.; Kraus, M.; Trommler, U.; Kopinke, F.D. [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Environmental Engineering, Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Radio-frequency heating to enhance soil decontamination requires adjusted solutions for the electrode design depending on scale and remediation technique. Parallel plate electrodes provide widely homogeneous field and temperature distributions and are, therefore, most suitable for supporting biodegradation processes. For thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction, certain temperature gradients can be accepted and, therefore, the less-demanding geometry of rod-shaped electrodes is usually applied. For electrode lengths of some meters, a design with an air gap has to be used in order to focus heating to the desired depth. Perforated rod electrodes may be simultaneously employed as extraction wells. Placing an oxidation catalyst in situ within the electrodes is an option for handling of highly loaded air flows. Coaxial antenna may be utilized to selectively heat soil compartments far from the surface of the soil. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Radio-frequency glow discharge spectrometry: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchester, Michael R.; Payling, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a critical review of analytical radio frequency glow discharge spectrometry (rf-GDS). The historical foundations of rf-GDS are described, and current knowledge of the fundamental physics of analytical rf glow discharges is discussed. Additionally, instrumentation, methodologies, and applications of rf glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (rf-GDOES) and mass spectrometry (rf-GDMS) are reviewed. Although other rf-GDS techniques have appeared [e.g. rf glow discharge atomic absorption spectrophotometry (rf-GDAAS)], the emphasis is placed upon rf-GDOES and rf-GDMS, because they have received by far the most interest from analytical chemical metrologists. This review also provides explanations of some developments that are needed for further progress in the field of analytical rf-GDS

  11. SUPERCONDUCTING RADIO-FREQUENCY MODULES TEST FACILITY OPERATING EXPERIENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyars, W.; Bossert, R.; Darve, C.; Degraff, B.; Klebaner, A.; Martinez, A.; Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.

    2008-01-01

    Fermilab is heavily engaged and making strong technical contributions to the superconducting radio-frequency research and development program (SRF R and D). Four major SRF test areas are being constructed to enable vertical and horizontal cavity testing, as well as cryomodule testing. The existing Fermilab cryogenic infrastructure has been modified to service the SRF R and D needs. The project's first stage has been successfully completed, which allows for distribution of cryogens for a single-cavity cryomodule using the existing Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) that houses three Tevatron satellite refrigerators. The cooling capacity available for cryomodule testing at Meson Detector Building (MDB) results from the liquefaction capacity of the CTF cryogenic system. The cryogenic system for a single 9-cell cryomodule is currently operational. The paper describes the status, challenges and operational experience of the initial phase of the project

  12. NbN thin films for superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, W. M.; Skuza, J. R.; Beringer, D. B.; Li, Z.; Clavero, C.; Lukaszew, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    NbN thin films have the potential to be incorporated into radio frequency cavities in a multilayer coating to overcome the fundamental field gradient limit of 50 MV m-1 for the bulk niobium based technology that is currently implemented in particle accelerators. In addition to having a larger critical field value than bulk niobium, NbN films develop smoother surfaces which are optimal for cavity performance and lead to fewer losses. Here, we present a study on the correlation of film deposition parameters, surface morphology, microstructure, transport properties and superconducting properties of NbN thin films. We have achieved films with bulk-like lattice parameters and superconducting transition temperatures. These NbN films have a lower surface roughness than similarly grown niobium films of comparable thickness. The potential application of NbN thin films in accelerator cavities is discussed.

  13. Security risks associated with radio frequency identification in medical environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrylak, Peter J; Schimke, Nakeisha; Hale, John; Papa, Mauricio

    2012-12-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a form of wireless communication that is used to identify assets and people. RFID has significant benefits to the medical environment. However, serious security threats are present in RFID systems that must be addressed in a medical environment. Of particular interest are threats to patient privacy and safety based on interception of messages, interruption of communication, modification of data, and fabrication of messages and devices. This paper presents an overview of these security threats present in RFID systems in a medical environment and provides guidance on potential solutions to these threats. This paper provides a roadmap for researchers and implementers to address the security issues facing RFID in the medical space.

  14. Ischemic stroke associated with radio frequency ablation for nodal reentry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz M, Juan C; Duran R, Carlos E; Perafan B, Pablo; Pava M, Luis F

    2010-01-01

    Atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia is the most common type of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. In those patients in whom drug therapy is not effective or not desired, radio frequency ablation is an excellent therapeutic method. Although overall these procedures are fast and safe, several complications among which ischemic stroke stands out, have been reported. We present the case of a 41 year old female patient with repetitive episodes of tachycardia due to nodal reentry who was treated with radiofrequency ablation. Immediately after the procedure she presented focal neurologic deficit consistent with ischemic stroke in the right medial cerebral artery territory. Angiography with angioplastia and abxicimab was performed and then tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) was locally infused, with appropriate clinical and angiographic outcome.

  15. Muon implantation in inert gases studied by radio frequency spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C; Cottrell, S P; Ghandi, K; Fleming, D G

    2005-01-01

    Diamagnetic and muonium (Mu) fractions formed in low-pressure inert gases, by energetic muon implantation, have been studied using the technique of time-delayed radio frequency muon spin resonance (RF-μSR). Results obtained establish the validity of the long-held view that formation of these species is due only to prompt processes, and in turn confirms that the diamagnetic environment is due to a muon molecular ion, MMu + , and not a bare μ + . In addition, polarization fractions for the diamagnetic and Mu environments have been determined at different pressures, thereby complementing earlier data, and demonstrating that the RF-μSR technique provides polarization fractions in good accord with those obtained using conventional transverse-field muon spin resonance measurements

  16. Muon implantation in inert gases studied by radio frequency spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C [ISIS Facility, CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Cottrell, S P [ISIS Facility, CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Ghandi, K [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Fleming, D G [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2005-01-14

    Diamagnetic and muonium (Mu) fractions formed in low-pressure inert gases, by energetic muon implantation, have been studied using the technique of time-delayed radio frequency muon spin resonance (RF-{mu}SR). Results obtained establish the validity of the long-held view that formation of these species is due only to prompt processes, and in turn confirms that the diamagnetic environment is due to a muon molecular ion, MMu{sup +}, and not a bare {mu}{sup +}. In addition, polarization fractions for the diamagnetic and Mu environments have been determined at different pressures, thereby complementing earlier data, and demonstrating that the RF-{mu}SR technique provides polarization fractions in good accord with those obtained using conventional transverse-field muon spin resonance measurements.

  17. NbN thin films for superconducting radio frequency cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, W M; Clavero, C; Lukaszew, R A; Skuza, J R; Beringer, D B; Li, Z

    2012-01-01

    NbN thin films have the potential to be incorporated into radio frequency cavities in a multilayer coating to overcome the fundamental field gradient limit of 50 MV m −1 for the bulk niobium based technology that is currently implemented in particle accelerators. In addition to having a larger critical field value than bulk niobium, NbN films develop smoother surfaces which are optimal for cavity performance and lead to fewer losses. Here, we present a study on the correlation of film deposition parameters, surface morphology, microstructure, transport properties and superconducting properties of NbN thin films. We have achieved films with bulk-like lattice parameters and superconducting transition temperatures. These NbN films have a lower surface roughness than similarly grown niobium films of comparable thickness. The potential application of NbN thin films in accelerator cavities is discussed. (paper)

  18. Noninvasive radio frequency for skin tightening and body contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Robert A

    2013-03-01

    The medical use of radio frequency (RF) is based on an oscillating electrical current forcing collisions between charged molecules and ions, which are then transformed into heat. RF heating occurs irrespective of chromophore or skin type and is not dependent on selective photothermolysis. RF can be delivered using monopolar, bipolar, and unipolar devices, and each method has theoretical limits of depth penetration. A variant of bipolar delivery is fractional RF delivery. In monopolar configurations, RF will penetrate deeply and return via a grounding electrode. Multiple devices are available and are detailed later in the text. RF thermal stimulation is believed to result in a microinflammatory process that promotes new collagen. By manipulating skin cooling, RF can also be used for heating and reduction of fat. Currently, the most common uses of RF-based devices are to noninvasively manage and treat skin tightening of lax skin (including sagging jowls, abdomen, thighs, and arms), as well as wrinkle reduction, cellulite improvement, and body contouring.

  19. Technologies for Low Frequency Radio Observations of the Cosmic Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dayton L.

    2014-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is developing concepts and technologies for low frequency radio astronomy space missions aimed at observing highly redshifted neutral Hydrogen from the Dark Ages. This is the period of cosmic history between the recombination epoch when the microwave background radiation was produced and the re-ionization of the intergalactic medium by the first generation of stars (Cosmic Dawn). This period, at redshifts greater than about 20, is a critical epoch for the formation and evolution of large-scale structure in the universe. The 21-cm spectral line of Hydrogen provides the most promising method for directly studying the Dark Ages, but the corresponding frequencies at such large redshifts are only tens of MHz and thus require space-based observations to avoid terrestrial RFI and ionospheric absorption and refraction. This paper reports on the status of several low frequency technology development activities at JPL, including deployable bi-conical dipoles for a planned lunar-orbiting mission, and both rover-deployed and inflation-deployed long dipole antennas for use on the lunar surface.

  20. Radio frequency sheaths in an oblique magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The physics of radio-frequency (rf) sheaths near a conducting surface is studied for plasmas immersed in a magnetic field that makes an oblique angle θ with the surface. A set of one-dimensional equations is developed that describes the dynamics of the time-dependent magnetic presheath and non-neutral Debye sheath. The model employs Maxwell-Boltzmann electrons, and the magnetization and mobility of the ions is determined by the magnetic field strength, and wave frequency, respectively. The angle θ, assumed to be large enough to insure an electron-poor sheath, is otherwise arbitrary. Concentrating on the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies, the equations are solved numerically to obtain the rectified (dc) voltage, the rf voltage across the sheath, and the rf current flowing through the sheath. As an application of this model, the sheath voltage-current relation is used to obtain the rf sheath impedance, which in turn gives an rf sheath boundary condition for the electric field at the sheath-plasma interface that can be used in rf wave codes. In general, the impedance has both resistive and capacitive contributions, and generalizes previous sheath boundary condition models. The resistive part contributes to parasitic power dissipation at the wall

  1. Technologies for low radio frequency observations of the Cosmic Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. L.

    2014-03-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is developing concepts and technologies for low frequency radio astronomy space missions aimed at observing highly redshifted neutral Hydrogen from the Dark Ages. This is the period of cosmic history between the recombination epoch when the microwave background radiation was produced and the re-ionization of the intergalactic medium by the first generation of stars (Cosmic Dawn). This period, at redshifts z > ~20, is a critical epoch for the formation and evolution of large-scale structure in the universe. The 21-cm spectral line of Hydrogen provides the most promising method for directly studying the Dark Ages, but the corresponding frequencies at such large redshifts are only tens of MHz and thus require space-based observations to avoid terrestrial RFI and ionospheric absorption and refraction. This paper reports on the status of several low frequency technology development activities at JPL, including deployable bi-conical dipoles for a planned lunar-orbiting mission, and both rover-deployed and inflation-deployed long dipole antennas for use on the lunar surface. In addition, recent results from laboratory testing of low frequency receiver designs are presented. Finally, several concepts for space-based imaging interferometers utilizing deployable low frequency antennas are described. Some of these concepts involve large numbers of antennas and consequently a large digital cross-correlator will be needed. JPL has studied correlator architectures that greatly reduce the DC power required for this step, which can dominate the power consumption of real-time signal processing. Strengths and weaknesses of each mission concept are discussed in the context of the additional technology development required.

  2. Radio frequency superconductivity at CERN: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnolds-Mayer, G.; Benvenuti, C.; Bernard, P.

    1988-01-01

    Up to 1984 the efforts in superconducting (s.c.) cavity development at CERN were mainly concentrated on 500 MHz cavities, leading to the test of a 5-cell, 500 MHz cavity at PETRA. The results confirmed that the achievable accelerating fields do not decrease at lower frequencies as strongly as previously suspected. Therefore, it was decided in 1984 to concentrate efforts on 352 MHz cavities. This frequency choice is suggested by the fact that LEP will be equipped at the beginning with 128 Cu cavities at 352 MHz which will bring up energies to 55 GeV/beam [5]. There is an obvious interest to install at a later stage s.c. cavities with the same frequency and to use at maximum the existing installation of radio frequency (r.f.) power sources. With the installed r.f. power of 16 MW, LEP could be upgraded to ∼ 90 GeV by using s.c. cavities. This will require the construction, testing and installation of several hundred of s.c. cavities, therefore arguments of economy and reliability are of outstanding importance. The LEP program asks for many additional items and substantial work has gone into the development, construction and testing of cryostats, main couplers, Higher-Order Mode (HOM) couplers and frequency tuners. Besides the main line based on Nb-cavities another development has been pursued and that is the deposition of a thin niobium layer on copper cavities. Results look very promising but more efforts will be needed to reach the same level of know-how as for Nb cavities. 34 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  3. Wireless Chalcogenide Nanoionic-Based Radio-Frequency Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James; Miranda, Felix

    2013-01-01

    A new nonvolatile nanoionic switch is powered and controlled through wireless radio-frequency (RF) transmission. A thin layer of chalcogenide glass doped with a metal ion, such as silver, comprises the operational portion of the switch. For the switch to function, an oxidizable electrode is made positive (anode) with respect to an opposing electrode (cathode) when sufficient bias, typically on the order of a few tenths of a volt or more, is applied. This action causes the metal ions to flow toward the cathode through a coordinated hopping mechanism. At the cathode, a reduction reaction occurs to form a metal deposit. This metal deposit creates a conductive path that bridges the gap between electrodes to turn the switch on. Once this conductive path is formed, no further power is required to maintain it. To reverse this process, the metal deposit is made positive with respect to the original oxidizable electrode, causing the dissolution of the metal bridge thereby turning the switch off. Once the metal deposit has been completely dissolved, the process self-terminates. This switching process features the following attributes. It requires very little to change states (i.e., on and off). Furthermore, no power is required to maintain the states; hence, the state of the switch is nonvolatile. Because of these attributes the integration of a rectenna to provide the necessary power and control is unique to this embodiment. A rectenna, or rectifying antenna, generates DC power from an incident RF signal. The low voltages and power required for the nanoionic switch control are easily generated from this system and provide the switch with a novel capability to be operated and powered from an external wireless device. In one realization, an RF signal of a specific frequency can be used to set the switch into an off state, while another frequency can be used to set the switch to an on state. The wireless, miniaturized, and nomoving- part features of this switch make it

  4. Dynamical evolution in clusters of galaxies with low-frequency radio emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, B.N.G.

    1977-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies in which radio emission at low frequencies ( approximately 10 9 yr). Confinement would probably occur for radio sources associated with bright galaxies in the cores of clusters and cD galaxies in clusters. However, cD galaxies may have recurrent radio outbursts so that steep spectra are not always observed. (Auth.)

  5. GMRT Low Radio Frequency Study of the Wolf Rayet Galaxy NGC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we present the first low frequency (< 1.4 GHz) radio continuum study of a Wolf Rayet galaxy NGC 4214 using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We detect diffuse extended emission from the galaxy disk at 325 MHz and find that the radio emission closely follows the ultraviolet emission mapped by ...

  6. GMRT Low Radio Frequency Study of the Wolf Rayet Galaxy NGC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we present the first low frequency (< 1.4 GHz) radio continuum study of a Wolf Rayet galaxy NGC 4214 using the. Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We detect diffuse extended emission from the galaxy disk at 325 MHz and find that the radio emis- sion closely follows the ultraviolet emission ...

  7. Radio frequency radiation (RFR) from TV and radio transmitters at a pilot region in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirav, Bahriye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2009-09-01

    For the last 30 y, the biological effects of non-ionising radiation (NIR: 0-300 GHz) have been a major topic in bioelectromagnetism. Since the number of radiofrequency (RF) systems operating in this frequency range has shown an incredible increase over the last few decades, the dangers of exposure to the fields generated thereby has become an important public health issue. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the level of RF electromagnetic radiation in Yenimahalle Sentepe Dededoruk Hill in Ankara, Turkey that is a multiple-transmitter site hosting 64 different TV and radio towers and one base station for mobile phone communication. The site has been of interest as it is nearby a residential community. Within the technical input data available on 31 of the radio and TV transmitters, the calculated radiation level in this particular region was found to be approximately four times higher than the permitted standards of Turkey, which are the same as the ICNIRP standards. Electromagnetic field measurement is needed in the site.

  8. Radio frequency radiation (RFR) from TV and radio transmitters at a pilot region in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirav, B.; Seyhan, N.

    2009-01-01

    For the last 30 y, the biological effects of non-ionising radiation (NIR: 0-300 GHz) have been a major topic in bio-electromagnetism. Since the number of radiofrequency (RF) systems operating in this frequency range has shown an incredible increase over the last few decades, the dangers of exposure to the fields generated thereby has become an important public health issue. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the level of RF electromagnetic radiation in Yenimahalle Sentepe Dededoruk Hill in Ankara (Turkey) that is a multiple-transmitter site hosting 64 different TV and radio towers and one base station for mobile phone communication. The site has been of interest as it is nearby a residential community. Within the technical input data available on 31 of the radio and TV transmitters, the calculated radiation level in this particular region was found to be approximately four times higher than the permitted standards of Turkey, which are the same as the ICNIRP standards. Electromagnetic field measurement is needed in the site. (authors)

  9. A Wireless Phone Charging System using Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdulkadir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A wireless phone charging system using Radio Frequency (RF energy harvesting is presented in this paper. Battery size and extension of charge duration offer great challenge in mobile devices and the fact that one has to always connect it to the mains for charging. The research seeks to employ the RF received by its antenna to recharge mobile end devices. This study determined the suitable frequency for power transmission and chooses an efficient microstrip patch antenna which has a gain of 3.762dB, directivity of 5.906dB, and a power density of 7.358dBW/m2. A 7stage voltage doubler was employed to harvest the 3.75V dc from the RF which is suitable to charge a mobile phone. The antenna was designed and simulated using Computer Simulation Technology (CST studio suite while the RF to DC converter was design and simulated using Intelligent Schematic Input System (ISIS Proteus.

  10. On creating transport barrier by radio-frequency waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Cairns, R.A.; Dasgupta, B.; Pantis, G.

    1998-01-01

    The use of radio frequency (RF) waves in the range of Alfven frequencies is shown to stabilize the drift-ballooning modes in the tokamak if the radial profile of the RF field energy is properly chosen. Stabilization is achieved by the ponder motive force arising due to the radial gradient in the RF field energy. The estimate of the RF power required for this stabilization is found to be rather modest and hence should be easily obtained in the actual experiments. This result therefore shows that the use of the RF waves can create a transport barrier to reduce the loss of particle and energy from the plasma. The new improved mode produced by the RF is expected to have all the advantageous features of the enhanced reverse shear (ERS) modes and at the same time will, unlike the ERS plasma, be sustainable for unlimited period of time and hence should be an attractive choice for the reactor-grade self-sustaining plasma. (author)

  11. Low energy booster radio frequency cavity structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.

    1994-01-01

    The structural design of the Superconducting Super Collider Low Energy Booster (LEB) Radio Frequency (RF) Cavity is very unique. The cavity is made of three different materials which all contribute to its structural strength while at the same time providing a good medium for magnetic properties. Its outer conductor is made of thin walled stainless steel which is later copper plated to reduce the electrical losses. Its tuner housing is made of a fiber reinforced composite laminate, similar to G10, glued to stainless steel plating. The stainless steel of the tuner is slotted to significantly diminish the magnetically-induced eddy currents. The composite laminate is bonded to the stainless steel to restore the structural strength that was lost in slotting. The composite laminate is also a barrier against leakage of the pressurized internal ferrite coolant fluid. The cavity's inner conductor, made of copper and stainless steel, is subjected to high heat loads and must be liquid cooled. The requirements of the Cavity are very stringent and driven primarily by deflection, natural frequency and temperature. Therefore, very intricate finite element analysis was used to complement conventional hand analysis in the design of the cavity. Structural testing of the assembled prototype cavity is planned to demonstrate the compliance of the cavity design to all of its requirements

  12. Low energy booster radio frequency cavity structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.

    1993-04-01

    The structural design of the Superconducting Super Collider Low Energy Booster (LEB) Radio Frequency (RF) Cavity is very unique. The cavity is made of three different materials which all contribute to its structural strength while at the same time providing a good medium for magnetic properties. Its outer conductor is made of thin walled stainless steel which is later copper plated to reduce the electrical losses. Its tuner housing is made of a fiber reinforced composite laminate, similar to G10, glued to stainless steel plating. The stainless steel of the tuner is slotted to significantly diminish the magnetically-induced eddy currents. The composite laminate is bonded to the stainless steel to restore the structural strength that was lost in slotting. The composite laminate is also a barrier against leakage of the pressurized internal ferrite coolant fluid. The cavity's inner conductor, made of copper and stainless steel, is subjected to high heat loads and must be liquid cooled. The requirements of the Cavity are very stringent and driven primarily by deflection, natural frequency and temperature. Therefore, very intricate finite element analysis was used to complement conventional hand analysis in the design of the cavity. Structural testing of the assembled prototype cavity is planned to demonstrate the compliance of the cavity design to all of its requirements

  13. Ultra High-Speed Radio Frequency Switch Based on Photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Fok, Mable P

    2015-11-26

    Microwave switches, or Radio Frequency (RF) switches have been intensively used in microwave systems for signal routing. Compared with the fast development of microwave and wireless systems, RF switches have been underdeveloped particularly in terms of switching speed and operating bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a photonics based RF switch that is capable of switching at tens of picoseconds speed, which is hundreds of times faster than any existing RF switch technologies. The high-speed switching property is achieved with the use of a rapidly tunable microwave photonic filter with tens of gigahertz frequency tuning speed, where the tuning mechanism is based on the ultra-fast electro-optics Pockels effect. The RF switch has a wide operation bandwidth of 12 GHz and can go up to 40 GHz, depending on the bandwidth of the modulator used in the scheme. The proposed RF switch can either work as an ON/OFF switch or a two-channel switch, tens of picoseconds switching speed is experimentally observed for both type of switches.

  14. Tracking electric field exposure levels through radio frequency dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, P.D.; Moore, M.R.; Rochelle, R.W.; Thomas, R.S.; Hess, R.A.; Hoffheins, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    The radio-frequency (rf) dosimeter developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a portable, pocket-sized cumulative-dose recording device designed to detect and record the strengths and durations of electric fields present in the work areas of naval vessels. The device measures an integrated dose and records the electric fields that exceed the permissible levels set by the American National Standards Institute. Features of the rf dosimeter include a frequency range of 30 MHz to 10 GHz and a three-dimensional sensor. Data obtained with the rf dosimeter will be used to determine the ambient field-strength profile for shipboard personnel over an extended time. Readings are acquired and averaged over a 6-min period corresponding to the rise time of the core body temperature. These values are stored for up to 6 months, after which the data are transferred to a computer via the dosimeter's serial port. The rf dosimeter should increase knowledge of the levels of electric fields to which individuals are exposed. 5 refs., 4 figs

  15. Development of human exposure standards for radio frequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, James C.

    2000-01-01

    Historical aspects of the problem of developing human exposure standards for radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields are discussed. It is shown that biological effects and health implications of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields have been a subject of scientific investigation for more than 50 years. It has become a focus of attention because of the expanded use of RF radiation in the frequency range between 300 MHz and 6 GHz for wireless communication over the past decade. Another cause for the attention is the uncertainty of some observed responses and lack of understanding of the mechanism of interaction of RF electromagnetic fields with biological systems. At present, considerable efforts are devoted to developing and revising RF exposure standards. Each of these efforts should aim to make explicit the philosophy and process by which they reason and decide guidelines for deeming exposure as safe. Furthermore, the reconciliation of philosophies of protection will definitely be an asset, in practice, to those interested in international harmonization of RF exposure standards [ru

  16. Latitudinal beaming of Jupiter's low frequency radio emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.K.; Desch, M.D.; Kaiser, M.L.; Thieman, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    By comparing Rae 1 and Imp 6 satelite measurements of Jupiter's radio emissions near 1 MHz with recent Voyager 1 and 2 observations in the same frequency range it is now possible to study the properties of the low frequency radiation pattern over a 10 0 range of latitudes with respect to the Jovian rotation equator. These observations, which cover a wider latitudinal range than is possible from the earth, are consistent with many aspect of earlier ground-based measurements that have been used to infer a sharp beaming pattern for the decameter wavelength emissions. We find marked, systematic changes in the statistical occurrence probability distributions with system III central meridian longitude as the Jovigraphic latitude of the observer changes over this range. Moreover, simultaneous observations by the two Voyager spacecraft, which are separated by up to 3 0 in Jovigraphic latitude, suggest that the instantaneous beam width may be no more than a few degrees at times. The new hectometer wave results can be interpreted in terms of a narrow, curved sheet at a fixed magnetic latitude into which the emission is beamed to escape the planet

  17. Radio-Frequency Tank Eigenmode Sensor for Propellant Quantity Gauging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Buchanan, David A.; Follo, Jeffrey C.; Vaden, Karl R.; Wagner, James D.; Asipauskas, Marius; Herlacher, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Although there are several methods for determining liquid level in a tank, there are no proven methods to quickly gauge the amount of propellant in a tank while it is in low gravity or under low-settling thrust conditions where propellant sloshing is an issue. Having the ability to quickly and accurately gauge propellant tanks in low-gravity is an enabling technology that would allow a spacecraft crew or mission control to always know the amount of propellant onboard, thus increasing the chances for a successful mission. The Radio Frequency Mass Gauge (RFMG) technique measures the electromagnetic eigenmodes, or natural resonant frequencies, of a tank containing a dielectric fluid. The essential hardware components consist of an RF network analyzer that measures the reflected power from an antenna probe mounted internal to the tank. At a resonant frequency, there is a drop in the reflected power, and these inverted peaks in the reflected power spectrum are identified as the tank eigenmode frequencies using a peak-detection software algorithm. This information is passed to a pattern-matching algorithm, which compares the measured eigenmode frequencies with a database of simulated eigenmode frequencies at various fill levels. A best match between the simulated and measured frequency values occurs at some fill level, which is then reported as the gauged fill level. The database of simulated eigenmode frequencies is created by using RF simulation software to calculate the tank eigenmodes at various fill levels. The input to the simulations consists of a fairly high-fidelity tank model with proper dimensions and including internal tank hardware, the dielectric properties of the fluid, and a defined liquid/vapor interface. Because of small discrepancies between the model and actual hardware, the measured empty tank spectra and simulations are used to create a set of correction factors for each mode (typically in the range of 0.999 1.001), which effectively accounts for

  18. High-performance radio frequency transistors based on diameter-separated semiconducting carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yu; Che, Yuchi; Zhou, Chongwu, E-mail: chongwuz@usc.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Seo, Jung-Woo T.; Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Gui, Hui [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2016-06-06

    In this paper, we report the high-performance radio-frequency transistors based on the single-walled semiconducting carbon nanotubes with a refined average diameter of ∼1.6 nm. These diameter-separated carbon nanotube transistors show excellent transconductance of 55 μS/μm and desirable drain current saturation with an output resistance of ∼100 KΩ μm. An exceptional radio-frequency performance is also achieved with current gain and power gain cut-off frequencies of 23 GHz and 20 GHz (extrinsic) and 65 GHz and 35 GHz (intrinsic), respectively. These radio-frequency metrics are among the highest reported for the carbon nanotube thin-film transistors. This study provides demonstration of radio frequency transistors based on carbon nanotubes with tailored diameter distributions, which will guide the future application of carbon nanotubes in radio-frequency electronics.

  19. Radio-frequency transparent demodulation for broadband hybrid wireless-optical links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Sambaraju, Rakesh; Alemany, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    A novel demodulation technique which is transparent to radio-frequency (RF) carrier frequency is presented and experimentally demonstrated for multigigabit wireless signals. The presented demodulation technique employs optical single-sideband filtering, coherent detection, and baseband digital si...

  20. 48 CFR 552.211-92 - Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) using passive tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Identification (RFID) using passive tags. 552.211-92 Section 552.211-92 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Clauses 552.211-92 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) using passive tags. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(11), insert the following clause: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Using Passive Tags...

  1. DARIS, a fleet of passive formation flying small satellites for low frequency radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saks, Noah; Boonstra, Albert Jan; Rajan, Raj Thilak; Rajan, Raj; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Beliën, Frederik; van 't Klooster, Kees

    2010-01-01

    DARIS (Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy In Space) is a mission to conduct radio astronomy in the low frequency region from 1-10MHz. This region has not yet been explored, as the Earth's ionosphere is opaque to those frequencies, and so a space based observatory is the only solution.

  2. The RFI situation for a space-based low-frequency radio astronomy instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Space based ultra-long wavelength radio astronomy has recently gained a lot of interest. Techniques to open the virtually unexplored frequency band below 30 MHz are becoming within reach at this moment. Due to the ionosphere and the radio interference (RFI) on Earth exploring this frequency band

  3. 78 FR 19311 - Certain Radio Frequency Identification (“RFID”) Products And Components Thereof; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Identification (``RFID'') Products And Components Thereof; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C... sale within the United States after importation of certain radio frequency identification (``RFID... after importation of certain radio frequency identification (``RFID'') products and components thereof...

  4. Verification of frequency scaling laws for capacitive radio-frequency discharges using two-dimensional simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahedi, V.; Birdsall, C.K.; Lieberman, M.A.; DiPeso, G.; Rognlien, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    Weakly ionized processing plasmas are studied in two dimensions using a bounded particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code with a Monte Carlo collision (MCC) package. The MCC package models the collisions between charged and neutral particles, which are needed to obtain a self-sustained plasma and the proper electron and ion energy loss mechanisms. A two-dimensional capacitive radio-frequency (rf) discharge is investigated in detail. Simple frequency scaling laws for predicting the behavior of some plasma parameters are derived and then compared with simulation results, finding good agreements. It is found that as the drive frequency increases, the sheath width decreases, and the bulk plasma becomes more uniform, leading to a reduction of the ion angular spread at the target and an improvement of ion dose uniformity at the driven electrode

  5. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroletti, M.; Massaro, F.; D’Abrusco, R.; Lico, R.; Burlon, D.

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. In this paper, we characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency, compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. We cross-correlated the 6100 deg"2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detected by Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi-LAT. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray blazar candidates. The mean low-frequency (120–180 MHz) blazar spectral index is (α_l_o_w) = 0.57 ± 0.02: blazar spectra are flatter than the rest of the population of low-frequency sources, but are steeper than at ~GHz frequencies. Low-frequency radio flux density and gamma-ray energy flux display a mildly significant and broadly scattered correlation. Ten unidentified gamma-ray sources have a (probably fortuitous) positional match with low radio frequency sources. Low-frequency radio astronomy provides important information about sources with a flat radio spectrum and high energy. However, the relatively low sensitivity of the present surveys still misses a significant fraction of these objects. Finally, upcoming deeper surveys, such as the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA (GLEAM) survey, will provide further insight into this population.

  6. Resonant-frequency discharge in a multi-cell radio frequency cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, S; Upadhyay, J; Mammosser, J; Nikolic, M; Vuskovic, L

    2014-11-07

    We are reporting experimental results on microwave discharge operating at resonant frequency in a multi-cell radio frequency (RF) accelerator cavity. Although the discharge operated at room temperature, the setup was constructed so that it could be used for plasma generation and processing in fully assembled active superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cryomodule (in situ operation). This discharge offers an efficient mechanism for removal of a variety of contaminants, organic or oxide layers, and residual particulates from the interior surface of RF cavities through the interaction of plasma-generated radicals with the cavity walls. We describe resonant RF breakdown conditions and address the problems related to generation and sustaining the multi-cell cavity plasma, which are breakdown and resonant detuning. We have determined breakdown conditions in the cavity, which was acting as a plasma vessel with distorted cylindrical geometry. We discuss the spectroscopic data taken during plasma removal of contaminants and use them to evaluate plasma parameters, characterize the process, and estimate the volatile contaminant product removal.

  7. Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation in Radio Frequency Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Wyndham, E.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) has attracted wide interests since it emulates conventional ion-beam ion implantation (IBII) in niche applications. For instance, the technique has very high throughput, the implantation time is independent of the sample size, and samples with an irregular shape can be implanted without complex beam scanning or sample manipulation. For uniform ion implantation and deposition on to different substrates, like silicon, stainless steel etc., a capacitive coupled Radio frequency (RF), 13.6 MHz, plasma is used. During the PIII process, the physical parameters which are expected to play crucial rule in the deposition process like RF power, Negative pulse voltage and pulse duration, gas type and gas mixture, gas flow rates and the implantation dose are studied. The ion dose is calculated by dynamic sheath model and the plasma parameters are calculated from the V-I characteristic and power balance equation by homogeneous model of rf plasma discharge considering Ohmic as well as Stochastic heating. The correlations between the yield of the implantation process and the physical parameters as well as plasma parameters are discussed. (author)

  8. Synthesis of cobalt boride nanoparticles using radio frequency thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapitan, Jr. Lorico DS.; Ying Ying Chen; Seesoek Choe; Watanabe, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Nano size cobalt boride particles were synthesized from vapor phase using a 30 kw-4 MHz radio frequency (RF) thermal plasma. Cobalt and boron powder mixtures used as precursors in different composition and feed rate were evaporated immediately in the high temperature plasma and cobalt boride nanoparticles were produced through the quenching process. The x-ray diffractometry (XRD) patterns of cobalt boride nanoparticles prepared from the feed powder ratio of 1:2 and 1:3 for Co: B showed peaks that are associated with the Co 2 B and CoB crystal phases of cobalt boride. The XRD analysis revealed that increasing the powder feed rate results in a higher mass fraction and a larger crystalline diameter of cobalt boride nanoparticles. The images obtained by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) revealed that cobalt boride nanoparticles have a spherical morphology. The crystallite size of the particles estimated with XRD was found to be 18-22 nm. (author)

  9. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and patient safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Rajabzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems have been successfully applied in areas of manufacturing, supply chain, agriculture, transportation, healthcare, and services to name a few. However, the different advantages and disadvantages expressed in various studies of the challenges facing the technology of the use of the RFID technology have been met with skepticism by managers of healthcare organizations. The aim of this study was to express and display the role of RFID technology in improving patient safety and increasing the impact of it in healthcare. Materials and Methods: This study was non-systematical review, which the literature search was conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, PubMed databases and also search engines available at Google, Google scholar in which published between 2004 and 2013 during Febuary 2013. We employed the following keywords and their combinations; RFID, healthcare, patient safety, medical errors, and medication errors in the searching areas of title, keywords, abstract, and full text. Results: The preliminary search resulted in 68 articles. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, a total of 33 papers was selected based on their relevancy. Conclusion: We should integrate RFID with hospital information systems (HIS) and electronic health records (EHRs) and support it by clinical decision support systems (CDSS), it facilitates processes and reduce medical, medication and diagnosis errors. PMID:24381626

  10. HERA Broadband Feed Design for Low-Frequency Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Sierra; Trung, Vincent; Ewall-Wice, Aaron Michael; Li, Jianshu; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Riley, Daniel; Bradley, Richard F.; Makhija, Krishna

    2018-01-01

    As part of the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) project, we are designing a broadband low-frequency radio feed to extend the bandwidth from 100-200 MHz to 50-220 MHz. By extending the lower-limit to 50 MHz, we hope to detect the signatures of the first black holes heating the hydrogen gas in the intergalactic medium.The isolation of a very faint signal from vastly brighter foregrounds sets strict requirements on antenna spectral smoothness, polarization purity, forward gain, and internal reflections. We are currently working to meet these requirements with a broad-band sinuous antenna feed suspended over the 14-m parabolic HERA dish, using a combination of measurements and simulations to verify the performance of our design.A sinuous feed has been designed and simulated with Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software. We will present the construction of a prototype sinuous antenna and measurements of its reflection coefficient, S11, including laboratory characterization of baluns. Our measurements agree well with the CST simulations of the antenna’s performance, giving us confidence in our ability to model the feed and ensure that it meets the requirements of a 21cm cosmology measurement.

  11. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Rajabzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-09-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems have been successfully applied in areas of manufacturing, supply chain, agriculture, transportation, healthcare, and services to name a few. However, the different advantages and disadvantages expressed in various studies of the challenges facing the technology of the use of the RFID technology have been met with skepticism by managers of healthcare organizations. The aim of this study was to express and display the role of RFID technology in improving patient safety and increasing the impact of it in healthcare. This study was non-systematical review, which the literature search was conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, PubMed databases and also search engines available at Google, Google scholar in which published between 2004 and 2013 during Febuary 2013. We employed the following keywords and their combinations; RFID, healthcare, patient safety, medical errors, and medication errors in the searching areas of title, keywords, abstract, and full text. The preliminary search resulted in 68 articles. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, a total of 33 papers was selected based on their relevancy. We should integrate RFID with hospital information systems (HIS) and electronic health records (EHRs) and support it by clinical decision support systems (CDSS), it facilitates processes and reduce medical, medication and diagnosis errors.

  12. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology and patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ajami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radio frequency identification (RFID systems have been successfully applied in areas of manufacturing, supply chain, agriculture, transportation, healthcare, and services to name a few. However, the different advantages and disadvantages expressed in various studies of the challenges facing the technology of the use of the RFID technology have been met with skepticism by managers of healthcare organizations. The aim of this study was to express and display the role of RFID technology in improving patient safety and increasing the impact of it in healthcare. Materials and Methods: This study was non-systematical review, which the literature search was conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, PubMed databases and also search engines available at Google, Google scholar in which published between 2004 and 2013 during Febuary 2013. We employed the following keywords and their combinations; RFID, healthcare, patient safety, medical errors, and medication errors in the searching areas of title, keywords, abstract, and full text. Results: The preliminary search resulted in 68 articles. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, a total of 33 papers was selected based on their relevancy. Conclusion: We should integrate RFID with hospital information systems (HIS and electronic health records (EHRs and support it by clinical decision support systems (CDSS, it facilitates processes and reduce medical, medication and diagnosis errors.

  13. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawn M. Allan; Patricia M. Strickland; Holly S. Shulman

    2009-11-11

    Ceralink Inc. developed FastFuse™, a rapid, new, energy saving process for lamination of glass and composites using radio frequency (RF) heating technology. The Inventions and Innovations program supported the technical and commercial research and development needed to elevate the innovation from bench scale to a self-supporting technology with significant potential for growth. The attached report provides an overview of the technical and commerical progress achieved for FastFuse™ during the course of the project. FastFuse™ has the potential to revolutionize the laminate manufacturing industries by replacing energy intensive, multi-step processes with an energy efficient, single-step process that allows higher throughput. FastFuse™ transmits RF energy directly into the interlayer to generate heat, eliminating the need to directly heat glass layers and the surrounding enclosures, such as autoclaves or vacuum systems. FastFuse™ offers lower start-up and energy costs (up to 90% or more reduction in energy costs), and faster cycles times (less than 5 minutes). FastFuse™ is compatible with EVA, TPU, and PVB interlayers, and has been demonstrated for glass, plastics, and multi-material structures such as photovoltaics and transparent armor.

  14. Surface processing for bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M. P.; Reid, T.

    2017-04-01

    The majority of niobium cavities for superconducting particle accelerators continue to be fabricated from thin-walled (2-4 mm) polycrystalline niobium sheet and, as a final step, require material removal from the radio frequency (RF) surface in order to achieve performance needed for use as practical accelerator devices. More recently bulk niobium in the form of, single- or large-grain slices cut from an ingot has become a viable alternative for some cavity types. In both cases the so-called damaged layer must be chemically etched or electrochemically polished away. The methods for doing this date back at least four decades, however, vigorous empirical studies on real cavities and more fundamental studies on niobium samples at laboratories worldwide have led to seemingly modest improvements that, when taken together, constitute a substantial advance in the reproducibility for surface processing techniques and overall cavity performance. This article reviews the development of niobium cavity surface processing, and summarizes results of recent studies. We place some emphasis on practical details for real cavity processing systems which are difficult to find in the literature but are, nonetheless, crucial for achieving the good and reproducible cavity performance. New approaches for bulk niobium surface treatment which aim to reduce cost or increase performance, including alternate chemical recipes, barrel polishing and ‘nitrogen doping’ of the RF surface, continue to be pursued and are closely linked to the requirements for surface processing.

  15. Targeted Treatment With Radio Frequency Ablation for Lingual Tonsil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Renkonen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Benign enlargement of the lingual tonsils due to various causes may cause symptoms that warrant treatment. Conventional lingual tonsillectomy remains a challenging procedure, and there is no established standard procedure. We aimed to review the patients receiving different methods of lingual tonsil surgery for various indications at our institute. Methods: Retrospective clinical data on all patients with an ablative operation of the tongue base during the 8-year period between 2007 and 2014 at the Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, were reviewed. The larger cohort comprised 35 patients, of whom 26 were men (74%. Ten patients had undergone solely lingual tonsil radio frequency ablation (LTRFA. The minimum follow-up time for all patients was 2 years. Results: Of the 10 patients, 5 patients with LTRFA had been operated on because of symptomatic lingual tonsil hypertrophy and 5 because of periodic fever associated with possible lingual tonsil involvement. In 2 of the 5 patients with periodic fever, the fever cycles ended after the operation. Of the 5 patients, 3 patients with symptomatic lingual tonsil hypertrophy have been non-symptomatic after 1 to 3 treatment sessions. The last 2 patients continue to have persistent symptoms. There were no major complications. Conclusions: Development of new approaches for the management of various lingual tonsil conditions is warranted. Lingual tonsil volume reduction by LTRFA seems to be a treatment alternative with low morbidity but with limited curative effect only.

  16. Accoustic Localization of Breakdown in Radio Frequency Accelerating Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Peter Gwin [IIT, Chicago

    2016-07-01

    Current designs for muon accelerators require high-gradient radio frequency (RF) cavities to be placed in solenoidal magnetic fields. These fields help contain and efficiently reduce the phase space volume of source muons in order to create a usable muon beam for collider and neutrino experiments. In this context and in general, the use of RF cavities in strong magnetic fields has its challenges. It has been found that placing normal conducting RF cavities in strong magnetic fields reduces the threshold at which RF cavity breakdown occurs. To aid the effort to study RF cavity breakdown in magnetic fields, it would be helpful to have a diagnostic tool which can localize the source of breakdown sparks inside the cavity. These sparks generate thermal shocks to small regions of the inner cavity wall that can be detected and localized using microphones attached to the outer cavity surface. Details on RF cavity sound sources as well as the hardware, software, and algorithms used to localize the source of sound emitted from breakdown thermal shocks are presented. In addition, results from simulations and experiments on three RF cavities, namely the Aluminum Mock Cavity, the High-Pressure Cavity, and the Modular Cavity, are also given. These results demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the described technique for acoustic localization of breakdown.

  17. Manufacture of Radio Frequency Micromachined Switches with Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yang Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication and characterization of a radio frequency (RF micromachined switch with annealing were presented. The structure of the RF switch consists of a membrane, coplanar waveguide (CPW lines, and eight springs. The RF switch is manufactured using the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. The switch requires a post-process to release the membrane and springs. The post-process uses a wet etching to remove the sacrificial silicon dioxide layer, and to obtain the suspended structures of the switch. In order to improve the residual stress of the switch, an annealing process is applied to the switch, and the membrane obtains an excellent flatness. The finite element method (FEM software CoventorWare is utilized to simulate the stress and displacement of the RF switch. Experimental results show that the RF switch has an insertion loss of 0.9 dB at 35 GHz and an isolation of 21 dB at 39 GHz. The actuation voltage of the switch is 14 V.

  18. Manufacture of radio frequency micromachined switches with annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yang; Dai, Ching-Liang

    2014-01-17

    The fabrication and characterization of a radio frequency (RF) micromachined switch with annealing were presented. The structure of the RF switch consists of a membrane, coplanar waveguide (CPW) lines, and eight springs. The RF switch is manufactured using the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The switch requires a post-process to release the membrane and springs. The post-process uses a wet etching to remove the sacrificial silicon dioxide layer, and to obtain the suspended structures of the switch. In order to improve the residual stress of the switch, an annealing process is applied to the switch, and the membrane obtains an excellent flatness. The finite element method (FEM) software CoventorWare is utilized to simulate the stress and displacement of the RF switch. Experimental results show that the RF switch has an insertion loss of 0.9 dB at 35 GHz and an isolation of 21 dB at 39 GHz. The actuation voltage of the switch is 14 V.

  19. Spheroidization of molybdenum powder by radio frequency thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-ping; Wang, Kuai-she; Hu, Ping; Chen, Qiang; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2015-11-01

    To control the morphology and particle size of dense spherical molybdenum powder prepared by radio frequency (RF) plasma from irregular molybdenum powder as a precursor, plasma process parameters were optimized in this paper. The effects of the carrier gas flow rate and molybdenum powder feeding rate on the shape and size of the final products were studied. The molybdenum powder morphology was examined using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. The powder phases were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The tap density and apparent density of the molybdenum powder were investigated using a Hall flow meter and a Scott volumeter. The optimal process parameters for the spherical molybdenum powder preparation are 50 g/min powder feeding rate and 0.6 m3/h carrier gas rate. In addition, pure spherical molybdenum powder can be obtained from irregular powder, and the tap density is enhanced after plasma processing. The average size is reduced from 72 to 62 µm, and the tap density is increased from 2.7 to 6.2 g/cm3. Therefore, RF plasma is a promising method for the preparation of high-density and high-purity spherical powders.

  20. Analytical & Experimental Study of Radio Frequency Cavity Beam Profile Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, Mario D. [Fermilab; Yonehara, Katsuya [Fermilab

    2017-10-22

    The purpose of this analytical and experimental study is multifold: 1) To explore a new, radiation-robust, hadron beam profile monitor for intense neutrino beam applications; 2) To test, demonstrate, and develop a novel gas-filled Radio-Frequency (RF) cavity to use in this monitoring system. Within this context, the first section of the study analyzes the beam distribution across the hadron monitor as well as the ion-production rate inside the RF cavity. Furthermore a more effecient pixel configuration across the hadron monitor is proposed to provide higher sensitivity to changes in beam displacement. Finally, the results of a benchtop test of the tunable quality factor RF cavity will be presented. The proposed hadron monitor configuration consists of a circular array of RF cavities located at a radial distance of 7cm { corresponding to the standard deviation of the beam due to scatering { and a gas-filled RF cavity with a quality factor in the range 400 - 800.

  1. Plasma rotation study in Tore Supra radio frequency heated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouli, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    Toroidal flows are found to improve the performance of the magnetic confinement devices with increase of the plasma stability and confinement. In ITER or future reactors, the torque from NBI should be less important than in present-day tokamaks. Consequently, it is of interest to study other intrinsic mechanisms that can give rise to plasma rotation in order to predict the rotation profile in experiments. Intriguing observations of plasmas rotation have been made in radio frequency (RF) heated plasmas with little or no external momentum injection. Toroidal rotation in both the direction of the plasma current (co-current) and in the opposite direction (counter-current) has been observed depending on the heating schemes and plasma performance. In Tore Supra, most observations in L-mode plasmas have been in the counter-current direction. However, in this thesis, we show that in lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), the core toroidal rotation increment is in co- or counter-current direction depending on the plasma current amplitude. At low plasma current the rotation change is in the co-current direction while at high plasma current, the change is in the counter-current direction. In both low and high plasma current cases, rotation increments are found to increase linearly with the injected LH power. Several mechanisms in competition which can induce co- or counter-current rotation in Tore Supra LHCD plasmas are investigated and typical order of magnitude are discussed in this thesis. (author) [fr

  2. Evaluating the Readability of Radio Frequency Identification for Construction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghan Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID, which was originally introduced to improve material handling and speed production as part of supply chain management, has become a globally accepted technology that is now applied on many construction sites to facilitate real-time information visibility and traceability. This paper describes a senior undergraduate project for a Construction Management (CM program that was specifically designed to give the students a greater insight into technical research in the CM area. The students were asked to determine whether it would be possible to utilize an RFID system capable of tracking tagged equipment, personnel and materials across an entire construction site. This project required them to set up an experimental program, execute a series of experiments, analyze the results and summarize them in a report. The readability test was performed using an active Ultra-High frequency (UHF, 433.92 MHz RFID system with various construction materials, including metal, concrete, wood, plastic, and aluminum. The readability distance distances are measured for each of the six scenarios. The distance at which a tag was readable with no obstructions was found to be an average of 133.9m based on three measurements, with a standard deviation of 3.9m. This result confirms the manufacturer’s claimed distance of 137.2m. The RFID tag embedded under 50.8mm of concrete was readable for an average distance of only 12.2m, the shortest readable distance of any of the scenarios tested. At the end of the semester, faculty advisors held an open discussion session to gather feedback and elicit the students’ reflections on their research experiences, revealing that the students’ overall impressions of their undergraduate research had positively affected their postgraduate education plans.

  3. Status of radio frequency quadrupole accelerator at IUAC, New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, Rajeev; Kothari, Ashok; Kumar, Sugam; Safvan, C.P.; Shankar, Ram

    2015-01-01

    As part of the accelerator augmentation program at IUAC, a High Current Injector (HCI) is being developed to inject highly charged ions into the superconducting LINAC. The HCI consists of a superconducting (High TC) ECR source, producing the high currents of highly charged ions. The ion beams produced will be injected into a Radio Frequency Quadrupole Accelerator (RFQ) and be accelerated to 180 keV/u. RF power of about 100 kW at 48.5 MHz will be fed to the RFQ during its actual working. The ions will be further accelerated by a Drift Tube Linac (DTL), before being further velocity matched with a low beta cavity into the superconducting LINAC. RFQ at IUAC is a four rod cavity structure having individual demountable copper vanes held on vane posts with a total vane length of 2.536 m and a minimum aperture of 12mm. The vane posts hold twenty nos. of vanes. Water will flow into vanes through the vane posts. The copper plated stainless steel vacuum housing has been divided into two chambers for the ease of fabrication and copper plating. The RFQ stand has provision for alignment in all the three axes. After successfully validating all the electrical and mechanical design parameters on a prototype RFQ, the fabrication of final RFQ has been completed. Initial assembly to check the mechanical accuracies was carried out. Low power RF tests were conducted to validate the design parameters. The resonance frequency of the RFQ was measured as 44.12 MHz and Q value was measured ∼ 5500. The final assembly is in progress. This paper details the present status and future plan of RFQ. (author)

  4. Radio-frequency quadrupole: a new linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, R.H.; Wangler, T.P.; Crandall, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    In many Laboratories, great emphasis now is placed on the development of linear accelerators with very large ion currents. To achieve this goal, a primary concern must be the low-velocity part of the accelerator, where the current limit is determined and where most of the emittance growth occurs. The use of magnetic focusing, the conflicting requirements in the choice of linac frequency, and the limitations of high-voltage dc injectors, have tended to produce low-velocity designs that limit overall performance. The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator, invented in the Soviet Union and developed at Los Alamos, offers an attractive solution to many of these low-velocity problems. In the RFQ, the use of RF electric fields for radial focusing, combined with special programming of the bunching, allows high-current dc beams to be captured and accelerated with only small beam loss and low radial emittance growth. Advantages of the RFQ linac include a low injection energy (20 to 50 keV for protons) and a final energy high enough so the beam can be further accelerated with high efficiency in a Wideroee or Alvarez linac. These properties have been confirmed at Los Alamos in a highly successful experimental test performed during the past year. The success of this test and the advances in RFQ design procedures have led to the adoption of this linac for a wide range of applications. The beam-dynamics parameters of three RFQ systems are described. These are the final design for the protytype test of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) accelerator, the final design for the prototype test of the Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI), and an improved low-velocity linac for heavy ion fusion

  5. Pasteurization of shell eggs using radio frequency heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geveke, David J.; Bigley, Andrew B. W.; Brunkhorst, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    The USDA-FSIS estimates that pasteurization of all shell eggs in the U.S. would reduce the annual number of illnesses by more than 110,000. However, less than 3% of shell eggs are commercially pasteurized. One of the main reasons for this is that the commercial hot water process requires as much as 60 min to complete. In the present study, a radio frequency (RF) apparatus was constructed, and a two-step process was developed that uses RF energy and hot water, to pasteurize eggs in less than half the time. In order to select an appropriate RF generator, the impedance of shell eggs was measured in the frequency range of 10–70 MHz. The power density within the egg was modeled to prevent potential hotspots. Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218) was inoculated in the yolk to approximately 7.5 log CFU/ml. The combination process first heated the egg in 35.0 °C water for 3.5 min using 60 MHz RF energy. This resulted in the yolk being preferentially heated to 61 °C. Then, the egg was heated for an additional 20 min with 56.7 °C water. This two-step process reduced the population of E. coli by 6.5 log. The total time for the process was 23.5 min. By contrast, processing for 60 min was required to reduce the E. coli by 6.6 log using just hot water. The novel RF pasteurization process presented in this study was considerably faster than the existing commercial process. As a result, this should lead to an increase in the percentage of eggs being pasteurized, as well as a reduction of foodborne illnesses.

  6. The driving frequency effects on the atmospheric pressure corona jet plasmas from low frequency to radio frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, H.; Gweon, B.; Rhee, J. K.; Choe, W.; Moon, S. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Lately, the atmospheric pressure jet type corona plasma, which has been typically driven by dc to low frequency (LF: several tens of kHz), is often generated by using radio frequency of 13.56 MHz. Yet, the relationship between the plasma and its driving frequency has seldom been investigated. Hence, in this study, dependence of the atmospheric pressure corona plasma characteristics on the driving frequency was explored experimentally from LF to rf (5 kHz-13.56 MHz). The plasmas generated by the driving frequency under 2 MHz were cylindrical shape of several tens of millimeters long while the 13.56 MHz plasma is spherical and a few millimeters long. As the driving frequency was increased, the plasma length became shortened. At the lower driving frequencies (below 2 MHz), the plasmas existed as positive streamer and negative glow for each half period of the applied voltage, but the discharge was more continuous in time for the 13.56 MHz plasma. It was inferred from the measured I-V curves that the higher driving frequency induced higher discharge currents, and the gas temperature was increased as the driving frequency was increased.

  7. Nonlinear parametric phenomena in plasma during radio frequency heating in the ion cyclotron frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, K.N.

    1996-01-01

    Parametric phenomena in plasma which occur due to varying electric fields with the ion cyclotron frequency are reviewed. Beam-like lower hybrid instability emerges in strong pumping fields provided that the transverse relative velocity of particles is larger than the ion thermal speed (υ Ti ). The resulting turbulence and the following numerous manifestations observed experimentally are addressed. The turbulence may prove important for experiments aimed at plasma production or radio frequency (RF) cleaning of metallic surfaces of vacuum chambers in stellarators, tokamaks and helicon devices. In contrast, for a weak field (U Ti ) the kinetic parametric instabilities of ion cyclotron oscillations arise due to electrons. The issues of the turbulence, mathematical modelling, its role in turbulent heating observed on the torsatron Uragan-3M, decay instabilities associated with ion cyclotron oscillations and the triggering of ion quasimodes are considered. (author)

  8. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio-Frequency Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulman, Holly S.; Allan, Shawn M.

    2009-11-11

    This Inventions and Innovations program supported the technical and commercial research and development needed to elevate Ceralink's energy saving process for flat glass lamination from bench scale to a self-supporting technology with significant potential for growth. Radio-frequency heating was any un-explored option for laminating glass prior to this program. With significant commercial success through time and energy savings in the wood, paper, and plastics industries, RF heating was found to have significant promise for the energy intensive glass lamination industry. A major technical goal of the program was to demonstrate RF lamination across a wide range of laminate sizes and materials. This was successfully accomplished, dispelling many skeptics' concerns about the abilities of the technology. Ceralink laminated panels up to 2 ft x 3 ft, with four sets processed simultaneously, in a 3 minute cycle. All major categories of interlayer materials were found to work with RF lamination. In addition to laminating glass, other materials including photovoltaic silicon solar cells, light emitting diodes, metallized glass, plastics (acrylic and polycarbonate), and ceramics (alumina) were found compatible with the RF process. This opens up a wide range of commercial opportunities beyond the initially targeted automotive industry. The dramatic energy savings reported for RF lamination at the bench scale were found to be maintained through the scale up of the process. Even at 2 ft x 3 ft panel sizes, energy savings are estimated to be at least 90% compared to autoclaving or vacuum lamination. With targeted promotion through conference presentations, press releases and internet presence, RF lamination has gained significant attention, drawing large audiences at American Ceramic Society meetings. The commercialization success of the project includes the establishment of a revenue-generating business model for providing process development and demonstrations for

  9. Experimental study of a high intensity radio-frequency cooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Boussaid

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the DESIR/SPIRAL-2 project, a radio-frequency quadrupole cooler named SHIRaC has been studied. SHIRaC is a key device of SPIRAL-2, designed to enhance the beam quality required by DESIR. The preliminary study and development of this device has been carried out at Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de CAEN (LPC Caen, France. The goal of this paper is to present the experimental studies conducted on a SHIRaC prototype. The main peculiarity of this cooler is its efficient handling and cooling of ion beams with currents going up as high as 1  μA which has never before been achieved in any of the previous coolers. Much effort has been made lately into these studies for development of appropriate optics, vacuum and rf systems which allow cooling of beams of large emittance (∼80π  mm mrad and high current. The dependencies of SHIRaC’s transmission and the cooled beam parameters in terms of geometrical transverse emittance and the longitudinal energy spread have also been discussed. Investigation of beam purity at optimum cooling condition has also been done. Results from the experiments indicate that an emittance reduction of less than 2.5π  mm mrad and a longitudinal energy spread reduction of less than 4 eV are obtained with more than 70% of ion transmission. The emittance is at expected values whereas the energy spread is not.

  10. X-ray imaging of superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Susan Elizabeth

    The goal of this research was to develop an improved diagnostic technique to identify the location of defects that limit superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity performance during cavity testing or in existing accelerators. SRF cavities are primarily constructed of niobium. Electrons within the metal of a cavity under high electric field gradient have a probability of tunneling through the potential barrier. i e. leave the surface or are field emitted in regions where defects are encountered. Field emitted electrons are accelerated in the electric fields within the cavity. The electrons can have complicated trajectories and strike the cavity walls thus producing x-rays via Coulomb interactions and/or bremsstrahlung radiation. The endpoint energy of an x-ray spectrum predicts the electron maximum final kinetic energy within the cavity. Field emission simulations can then predict the source of the field-emitted electrons and the defect(s). In a multicell cavity the cells are coupled together and act as a set of coupled oscillators. There are multiple passbands of excitation for a multicell structure operating in a particular mode. For different passbands of operation the direction and amplitude of the fields within a cavity change from that of the normal accelerating mode. Field emitted electrons have different trajectories depending on the mode and thus produce x-rays in different locations. Using a collimated sodium iodide detector and subjecting a cavity to multiple passband modes at high electric field gradient the source of a cavity's x-rays can be determined. Knowing the location of the x-rays and the maximum electron kinetic energy; field emission simulations for different passband modes can be used to determine and verify the source of the field emitted electrons from mode to mode. Once identified, the defect(s) can be repaired or modifications made to the manufacturing process.

  11. Development of a superconducting radio frequency photoelectron injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, A.; Buettig, H.; Janssen, D.; Kamps, T.; Klemz, G.; Lehmann, W.D.; Lehnert, U.; Lipka, D.; Marhauser, F.; Michel, P.; Moeller, K.; Murcek, P.; Schneider, Ch.; Schurig, R.; Staufenbiel, F.; Stephan, J.; Teichert, J.; Volkov, V.; Will, I.; Xiang, R.

    2007-01-01

    A superconducting radio frequency (RF) photoelectron injector (SRF gun) is under development at the Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf. This project aims mainly at replacing the present thermionic gun of the superconducting electron linac ELBE. Thereby the beam quality is greatly improved. Especially, the normalized transverse emittance can be reduced by up to one order of magnitude depending on the operating conditions. The length of the electron bunches will be shortened by about two orders of magnitude making the present bunchers in the injection beam line dispensable. The maximum obtainable bunch charge of the present thermionic gun amounts to 80pC. The SRF gun is designed to deliver also higher bunch charge values up to 2.5nC. Therefore, this gun can be used also for advanced facilities such as energy recovery linacs (ERLs) and soft X-ray FELs. The SRF gun is designed as a 312 cell cavity structure with three cells basically TESLA cells supplemented by a newly developed gun cell and a choke filter. The exit energy is projected to be 9.5MeV. In this paper, we present a description of the design of the SRF gun with special emphasis on the physical and technical problems arising from the necessity of integrating a photocathode into the superconducting cavity structure. Preparation, transfer, cooling and alignment of the photocathode are discussed. In designing the SRF gun cryostat for most components wherever possible the technical solutions were adapted from the ELBE cryostat in some cases with major modifications. As concerns the status of the project the design is finished, most parts are manufactured and the gun is being assembled. Some of the key components are tested in special test arrangements such as cavity warm tuning, cathode cooling, the mechanical behavior of the tuners and the effectiveness of the magnetic screening of the cavity

  12. H- radio frequency source development at the Spallation Neutron Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, R F; Dudnikov, V G; Gawne, K R; Han, B X; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Roseberry, R T; Santana, M; Stockli, M P; Turvey, M W

    2012-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates nearly 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly persistent ∼38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of ∼90%. H(-) beam pulses (∼1 ms, 60 Hz) are produced by a Cs-enhanced, multicusp ion source closely coupled with an electrostatic low energy beam transport (LEBT), which focuses the 65 kV beam into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The source plasma is generated by RF excitation (2 MHz, ∼60 kW) of a copper antenna that has been encased with a thickness of ∼0.7 mm of porcelain enamel and immersed into the plasma chamber. The ion source and LEBT normally have a combined availability of ∼99%. Recent increases in duty-factor and RF power have made antenna failures a leading cause of downtime. This report first identifies the physical mechanism of antenna failure from a statistical inspection of ∼75 antennas which ran at the SNS, scanning electron microscopy studies of antenna surface, and cross sectional cuts and analysis of calorimetric heating measurements. Failure mitigation efforts are then described which include modifying the antenna geometry and our acceptance∕installation criteria. Progress and status of the development of the SNS external antenna source, a long-term solution to the internal antenna problem, are then discussed. Currently, this source is capable of delivering comparable beam currents to the baseline source to the SNS and, an earlier version, has briefly demonstrated unanalyzed currents up to ∼100 mA (1 ms, 60 Hz) on the test stand. In particular, this paper discusses plasma ignition (dc and RF plasma guns), antenna reliability, magnet overheating, and insufficient beam persistence.

  13. Review of radio-frequency, nonlinear effects on the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, W.E.; Duncan, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Modification of the ionosphere by high power radio waves in the megahertz band has been intensively investigated over the past two decades. This research has yielded advances in aeronomy, geophysics, and plasma physics with applications to radio communication and has provided a fruitful interaction of radio theorists and experimentalists. There being almost no linear effects of powerful radio waves on the ionosphere, we concentrate on the nonlinear effects. To put the subject in perspective we trace its history beginning in the early 1930s and highlight the important events up to the late 1960s. We then shift to a phenomenological approach and deal in order with ohmic heating, parametric instabilities, self-focusing and kilometer-scale irregularities, meter-scale irregularities, and a collection of recently discovered effects. We conclude with the observation that stronger international cooperation would benefit this research, and describe a list of promising, difficult challenges

  14. Calculus, Radio Dials and the Straight-Line Frequency Variable Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadzhiev, Khristo N.

    2010-01-01

    Most often radio dials of analogue radios are not uniformly graded; the frequencies are cramped on the left side or on the right side. This makes tuning more difficult. Why are dials made this way? We shall see here that simple calculus can help understand this problem and solve it. (Contains 7 figures.)

  15. Osteoid osteoma: our experience using radio-frequency (RF) treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrantuono, Donato; Martorano, Domenico; Verna, Valter; Mancini, Andrea; Faletti, Carlo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To present the results of two years experience with a minimally invasive radio-frequency technique designed by our team in the treatment of osteoid osteoma. Materials and methods: A total of 21 osteoid osteoma patients (15 males, 6 females, age ranged 13 to 34 yrs) were treated between January 2001 and April 2003. Localization of the osteoid osteoma were the pelvis (n=1), the femur (n=12), the tibia (n=3), the foot (n=3), and the humerus (n=2). All patients underwent an X-ray examination, a CT scan and a bone Scintiscan. In the initial phase, a K-wire just slightly larger than the 17G needle electrode is positioned manually at the zenith of the target area under CT guidance and using an orthopaedic drill it is inserted at the centre of the nidus. A tailor-made metal sheath is inserted on the K-wire to create a tunnel through which the needle electrode can substitute the K-wire; at the same time, the electrode needle is positioned inside the lesion. The temperature of the exposed tip of the needle in 90 o C and duration of hyperthermia is 6 minutes on average. Once the procedure has been completed, a scan os performed to measure the density of treated site and this measurement is then used as an evolution index for the evaluation of the healing process during follow-up. Results: No serious complications were observed at follow-up. General anaesthesia was only required in the case with hip involvement; peripheral anaesthesia was used in all the other cases. Complete resolution of the pain was reported in all cases after a maximum of three week. Discussion and conclusions: After two years experience, we believe percutaneous RF treatment of osteoid osteoma to be the first choice technique when compared to traditional surgery due to the fact that it is almost non-invasive, quick, repeatable if need be and offers a high reduction in costs. Moreover early weight bearing is the norm and the patient is dismissed after only one day of hospitalization. The clinical

  16. Radio Frequency Station - Beam Dynamics Interaction in Circular Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastoridis, Themistoklis [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The longitudinal beam dynamics in circular accelerators is mainly defined by the interaction of the beam current with the accelerating Radio Frequency (RF) stations. For stable operation, Low Level RF (LLRF) feedback systems are employed to reduce coherent instabilities and regulate the accelerating voltage. The LLRF system design has implications for the dynamics and stability of the closed-loop RF systems as well as for the particle beam, and is very sensitive to the operating range of accelerator currents and energies. Stability of the RF loop and the beam are necessary conditions for reliable machine operation. This dissertation describes theoretical formalisms and models that determine the longitudinal beam dynamics based on the LLRF implementation, time domain simulations that capture the dynamic behavior of the RF station-beam interaction, and measurements from the Positron-Electron Project (PEP-II) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that validate the models and simulations. These models and simulations are structured to capture the technical characteristics of the system (noise contributions, non-linear elements, and more). As such, they provide useful results and insight for the development and design of future LLRF feedback systems. They also provide the opportunity to study diverse longitudinal beam dynamics effects such as coupled-bunch impedance driven instabilities and single bunch longitudinal emittance growth. Coupled-bunch instabilities and RF station power were the performance limiting effects for PEP-II. The sensitivity of the instabilities to individual LLRF parameters, the effectiveness of alternative operational algorithms, and the possible tradeoffs between RF loop and beam stability were studied. New algorithms were implemented, with significant performance improvement leading to a world record current during the last PEP-II run of 3212 mA for the Low Energy Ring. Longitudinal beam emittance growth due to RF noise is a major concern for LHC

  17. Influence of driving frequency on oxygen atom density in O2 radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Takeshi; Noro, Kouichi; Nakano, Toshiki; Makabe, Toshiaki

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the driving frequency on the absolute oxygen atom density in an O 2 radio frequency (RF) capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) was investigated using vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy with pulse modulation of the main plasma. A low-power operation of a compact inductively coupled plasma light source was enabled to avoid the significant measurement errors caused by self-absorption in the light source. The pulse modulation of the main plasma enabled accurate absorption measurement for high plasma density conditions by eliminating background signals due to light emission from the main plasma. As for the effects of the driving frequency, the effect of VHF (100 MHz) drive on oxygen atom production was small because of the modest increase in plasma density of electronegative O 2 in contrast to the significant increase in electron density previously observed for electropositive Ar. The recombination coefficient of oxygen atoms on the electrode surface was obtained from a decay rate in the afterglow by comparison with a diffusion model, and it showed agreement with previously reported values for several electrode materials

  18. Radio frequency heating in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Both the theory of the absorption process in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies and some of the experiments which slow the promise and problems with radio frequency plasma heating in this range are discussed. It is shown that mode conversion is invariably involved in the process and so an extensive review of mode conversion theory, expecially as it applies to problems with back-to-back cutoff-resonance pairs, is included. This includes a discussion of the tunneling equation with and without absorption effects and with and without energy conservation. The general theory is applied to various ion-cyclotron harmonics, the two-ion hybrid resonance, and to a case where a wave converts to a Bernstein mode at the plasma edge. The results are given analytically for a variety of cases without absorption, and empirical formulas are given for the second and third harmonics of the ion-cyclotron frequency, which include effects of absorption. Various problem areas in the theory are also discussed with some of the limitations caused by the approximations involved. A number of experiments are also discussed which show effective heating, and some show the features of the mode conversion process, indicating that the general processes of absorption are reasonably well understood. Areas where further work is necessary, both in fundamental theory and in comparing theory with experiment, are also discussed

  19. A C-Band Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) Detection and Mitigation Testbed, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) can render microwave radiometer measurements useless. We propose a method and an architecture that can be used to identify sources...

  20. Electromagnetic interference from radio frequency identification inducing potentially hazardous incidents in critical care medical equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togt, R. van der; Lieshout, E.J. van; Hensbroek, R.; Beinat, E.; Binnekade, J.M.; Bakker, P.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Health care applications of autoidentification technologies, such as radio frequency identification (RFID), have been proposed to improve patient safety and also the tracking and tracing of medical equipment. However, electromagnetic interference (EMI) by RFID on medical devices has never

  1. Investigation of beech wood modified by radio-frequency discharge plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, I.; Popelka, A.; Špitalský, Z.; Mičušík, M.; Omastová, M.; Valentin, M.; Sedliačik, J.; Janigová, I.; Kleinová, A.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, September (2015), s. 88-94 ISSN 0042-207X Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : radio-frequency plasma * beech wood * adhesive properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.558, year: 2015

  2. Radio-frequency reflectometry on an undoped AlGaAs/GaAs single electron transistor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacLeod, S. J.; See, A. M.; Keane, Z. K.

    2014-01-01

    Radio frequency reflectometry is demonstrated in a sub-micron undoped AlGaAs/GaAs device. Undoped single electron transistors (SETs) are attractive candidates to study single electron phenomena, due to their charge stability and robust electronic properties after thermal cycling. However......, these devices require a large top-gate, which is unsuitable for the fast and sensitive radio frequency reflectometry technique. Here, we demonstrate that rf reflectometry is possible in an undoped SET....

  3. Radio Frequency (RF) Trap for Confinement of Antimatter Plasmas Using Rotating Wall Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William Herbert, III; Pearson, J. Boise

    2004-01-01

    Perturbations associated with a rotating wall electric field enable the confinement of ions for periods approaching weeks. This steady state confinement is a result of a radio frequency manipulation of the ions. Using state-of-the-art techniques it is shown that radio frequency energy can produce useable manipulation of the ion cloud (matter or antimatter) for use in containment experiments. The current research focuses on the improvement of confinement systems capable of containing and transporting antimatter.

  4. An in situ measurement of the radio-frequency attenuation in ice at Summit Station, Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Avva, J.; Kovac, J. M.; Miki, C.; Saltzberg, D.; Vieregg, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    We report an in situ measurement of the electric field attenuation length Lα at radio frequencies for the bulk ice at Summit Station, Greenland, made by broadcasting radio-frequency signals vertically through the ice and measuring the relative power in the return ground bounce signal. We find the depth-averaged field attenuation length to be hLαi = 947+92 −85 m at 75 MHz. While this measurement has clear radioglaciological applications, the radio clarity of the ice also has implications for t...

  5. LOFAR/H-ATLAS: the low-frequency radio luminosity-star formation rate relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkan, G.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Smith, D. J. B.; Best, P. N.; Bourne, N.; Calistro-Rivera, G.; Heald, G.; Jarvis, M. J.; Prandoni, I.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Sabater, J.; Shimwell, T.; Tasse, C.; Williams, W. L.

    2018-04-01

    Radio emission is a key indicator of star formation activity in galaxies, but the radio luminosity-star formation relation has to date been studied almost exclusively at frequencies of 1.4 GHz or above. At lower radio frequencies, the effects of thermal radio emission are greatly reduced, and so we would expect the radio emission observed to be completely dominated by synchrotron radiation from supernova-generated cosmic rays. As part of the LOFAR Surveys Key Science project, the Herschel-ATLAS NGP field has been surveyed with LOFAR at an effective frequency of 150 MHz. We select a sample from the MPA-JHU catalogue of Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies in this area: the combination of Herschel, optical and mid-infrared data enable us to derive star formation rates (SFRs) for our sources using spectral energy distribution fitting, allowing a detailed study of the low-frequency radio luminosity-star formation relation in the nearby Universe. For those objects selected as star-forming galaxies (SFGs) using optical emission line diagnostics, we find a tight relationship between the 150 MHz radio luminosity (L150) and SFR. Interestingly, we find that a single power-law relationship between L150 and SFR is not a good description of all SFGs: a broken power-law model provides a better fit. This may indicate an additional mechanism for the generation of radio-emitting cosmic rays. Also, at given SFR, the radio luminosity depends on the stellar mass of the galaxy. Objects that were not classified as SFGs have higher 150-MHz radio luminosity than would be expected given their SFR, implying an important role for low-level active galactic nucleus activity.

  6. Radio Gaga? Intra-team communication of Australian Rules Football umpires - effect of radio communication on content, structure and frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Timothy J; Salmon, Paul M; Read, Gemma J M

    2018-02-01

    Intra-team communication plays an important role in team effectiveness in various domains including sport. As such, it is a key consideration when introducing new tools within systems that utilise teams. The difference in intra-team communication of Australian Rules Football (AFL) umpiring teams was studied when umpiring with or without radio communications technology. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to analyse the verbal communication of seven umpiring teams (20 participants) grouped according to their experience with radio communication. The results identified that radio communication technology increased the frequency and altered the structure of intra-team communication. Examination of the content of the intra-team communication identified impacts on the 'Big Five' teamwork behaviours and associated coordinating mechanisms. Analysis revealed that the communications utilised did not align with the closed-loop form of communication described in the Big Five model. Implications for teamwork models, coaching and training of AFL umpires are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Assessing the impact of technology on performance is of interest to ergonomics practitioners. The impact of radio communications on teamwork is explored in the highly dynamic domain of AFL umpiring. When given radio technology, intra-team communication increased which supported teamwork behaviours, such as backup behaviour and mutual performance monitoring.

  7. OLFAR: the orbiting low frequency array, how a cube sat swarm becomes a novel radio astronomy instrument in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Meijerink, Arjan; Boonstra, Albert Jan; Verhoeven, Chris; van der Veen, Alle-Jan

    2010-01-01

    To study the physical processes in the Universe, observations are done at various wavelengths, from Gamma rays to optical and radio frequencies. At this moment research at low frequencies is one of the major topics in radio astronomy. Several Earth-based radio telescopes are being built and will be

  8. Printed Circuit Board Integrated Toroidal Radio Frequency Inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamby, Peter; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Modern power semiconductors allow for switching frequencies of power converters in the very high frequency (VHF) band (30 MHz to 300 MHz). The major advantage of this frequency increase is a remarkable reduction of the size of power converters due to smaller passive components. However crucial...

  9. Long range ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Nathan D.

    There is an ever-increasing demand for radio frequency identification (RFID) tags that are passive, long range, and mountable on multiple surfaces. Currently, RFID technology is utilized in numerous applications such as supply chain management, access control, and public transportation. With the combination of sensory systems in recent years, the applications of RFID technology have been extended beyond tracking and identifying. This extension includes applications such as environmental monitoring and healthcare applications. The available sensory systems usually operate in the medium or high frequency bands and have a low read range. However, the range limitations of these systems are being overcome by the development of RFID sensors focused on utilizing tags in the ultra-high frequency (UHF) band. Generally, RFID tags have to be mounted to the object that is being identified. Often the objects requiring identification are metallic. The inherent properties of metallic objects have substantial effects on nearby electromagnetic radiation; therefore, the operation of the tag antenna is affected when mounted on a metallic surface. This outlines one of the most challenging problems for RFID systems today: the optimization of tag antenna performance in a complex environment. In this research, a novel UHF RFID tag antenna, which has a low profile, long range, and is mountable on metallic surfaces, is designed analytically and simulated using a 3-D electromagnetic simulator, ANSYS HFSS. A microstrip patch antenna is selected as the antenna structure, as patch antennas are low profile and suitable for mounting on metallic surfaces. Matching and theoretical models of the microstrip patch antenna are investigated. Once matching and theory of a microstrip patch antenna is thoroughly understood, a unique design technique using electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures is explored. This research shows that the utilization of an EBG structure in the patch antenna design yields

  10. Rydberg-atom based radio-frequency electrometry using frequency modulation spectroscopy in room temperature vapor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Fan, Haoquan; Kübler, Harald; Jahangiri, Akbar J; Shaffer, James P

    2017-04-17

    Rydberg atom-based electrometry enables traceable electric field measurements with high sensitivity over a large frequency range, from gigahertz to terahertz. Such measurements are particularly useful for the calibration of radio frequency and terahertz devices, as well as other applications like near field imaging of electric fields. We utilize frequency modulated spectroscopy with active control of residual amplitude modulation to improve the signal to noise ratio of the optical readout of Rydberg atom-based radio frequency electrometry. Matched filtering of the signal is also implemented. Although we have reached similarly, high sensitivity with other read-out methods, frequency modulated spectroscopy is advantageous because it is well-suited for building a compact, portable sensor. In the current experiment, ∼3 µV cm-1 Hz-1/2 sensitivity is achieved and is found to be photon shot noise limited.

  11. Complex Signal Kurtosis and Independent Component Analysis for Wideband Radio Frequency Interference Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenwald, Adam; Mohammed, Priscilla; Bradley, Damon; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Wong, Englin; Gholian, Armen

    2016-01-01

    Radio-frequency interference (RFI) has negatively implicated scientific measurements across a wide variation passive remote sensing satellites. This has been observed in the L-band radiometers SMOS, Aquarius and more recently, SMAP [1, 2]. RFI has also been observed at higher frequencies such as K band [3]. Improvements in technology have allowed wider bandwidth digital back ends for passive microwave radiometry. A complex signal kurtosis radio frequency interference detector was developed to help identify corrupted measurements [4]. This work explores the use of ICA (Independent Component Analysis) as a blind source separation technique to pre-process radiometric signals for use with the previously developed real and complex signal kurtosis detectors.

  12. Tunable radio-frequency photonic filter based on an actively mode-locked fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigosa-Blanch, A; Mora, J; Capmany, J; Ortega, B; Pastor, D

    2006-03-15

    We propose the use of an actively mode-locked fiber laser as a multitap optical source for a microwave photonic filter. The fiber laser provides multiple optical taps with an optical frequency separation equal to the external driving radio-frequency signal of the laser that governs its repetition rate. All the optical taps show equal polarization and an overall Gaussian apodization, which reduces the sidelobes. We demonstrate continuous tunability of the filter by changing the external driving radio-frequency signal of the laser, which shows good fine tunability in the operating range of the laser from 5 to 10 GHz.

  13. Gas Breakdown of Radio Frequency Glow Discharges in Helium at near Atmospheric Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinkun; Xu Jinzhou; Cui Tongfei; Guo Ying; Zhang Jing; Shi Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    A one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model was developed for radio frequency glow discharge in helium at near atmospheric pressure, and was employed to study the gas breakdown characteristics in terms of breakdown voltage. The effective secondary electron emission coefficient and the effective electric field for ions were demonstrated to be important for determining the breakdown voltage of radio frequency glow discharge at near atmospheric pressure. The constant of A was estimated to be 64±4 cm −1 Torr −1 , which was proportional to the first Townsend coefficient and could be employed to evaluate the gas breakdown voltage. The reduction in the breakdown voltage of radio frequency glow discharge with excitation frequency was studied and attributed to the electron trapping effect in the discharge gap

  14. Measuring changes of radio-frequency dielectric properties of chicken meat during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in dielectric properties of stored chicken meat were tracked by using a radio-frequency dielectric spectroscopy method. For this purpose, the dielectric properties were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and vector network analyzer over a broad frequency range from 200 MHz to 20...

  15. Capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharges in nitrogen at low pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Alves, Luí s Lemos; Marques, Luí s S A; Pintassilgo, Carlos D.; Wattieaux, Gaë tan; Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Berndt, Johannes; Kovačević, Eva; Carrasco, Nathalie; Boufendi, Laï fa; Cernogora, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses experiments and modelling to study capacitively coupled radio-frequency (rf) discharges in pure nitrogen, at 13.56MHz frequency, 0.11 mbar pressures and 230W coupled powers. Experiments performed on two similar (not twin) setups

  16. Dielectric properties of almond shells in the development of radio frequency and microwave pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop pasteurization treatments based on radio frequency (RF) or microwave energy, dielectric properties of almond shells were determined using an open-ended coaxial-probe with an impedance analyzer over a frequency range of 10 to 1800 MHz. Both the dielectric constant and loss factor of almond...

  17. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Shawn M; Baranova, Inessa; Poley, Joseph; Reis, Henrique

    2012-02-27

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North

  18. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Shawn M.

    2012-02-27

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North

  19. Observation of solar radio bursts using swept-frequency radiospectrograph in 20 - 40 MHz band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Takashi; Oya, Hiroshi.

    1987-01-01

    A new station for the observation of solar decametric radio bursts has been developed at Miyagi Vocational Training College in Tsukidate, Miyagi, Japan. Using the swept frequency radiospectrograph covering a frequency range from 20 MHz to 40 MHz within 200 msec, with bandwidth of 30 kHz, the radio outbursts from the sun have been currently monitored with colored dynamic spectrum display. After July 1982, successful observations provide the data which include all types of solar radio bursts such as type I, II, III, IV and V in the decametric wavelength range. In addition to these typical radio bursts, rising tone bursts with fast drift rate followed by strong type III bursts and a series of bursts repeating rising and falling tone bursts with slow drift rate have been observed. (author)

  20. Coherent radio-frequency detection for narrowband direct comb spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstie, James D; Perrella, Christopher; Light, Philip S; Luiten, Andre N

    2016-02-22

    We demonstrate a scheme for coherent narrowband direct optical frequency comb spectroscopy. An extended cavity diode laser is injection locked to a single mode of an optical frequency comb, frequency shifted, and used as a local oscillator to optically down-mix the interrogating comb on a fast photodetector. The high spectral coherence of the injection lock generates a microwave frequency comb at the output of the photodiode with very narrow features, enabling spectral information to be further down-mixed to RF frequencies, allowing optical transmittance and phase to be obtained using electronics commonly found in the lab. We demonstrate two methods for achieving this step: a serial mode-by-mode approach and a parallel dual-comb approach, with the Cs D1 transition at 894 nm as a test case.

  1. Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Shen, Hao; Fan, Li; Wu, Rui; Niu, Ben; Varghese, Leo T; Xuan, Yi; Leaird, Daniel E; Wang, Xi; Gan, Fuwan; Weiner, Andrew M; Qi, Minghao

    2015-01-12

    Photonic methods of radio-frequency waveform generation and processing can provide performance advantages and flexibility over electronic methods due to the ultrawide bandwidth offered by the optical carriers. However, bulk optics implementations suffer from the lack of integration and slow reconfiguration speed. Here we propose an architecture of integrated photonic radio-frequency generation and processing and implement it on a silicon chip fabricated in a semiconductor manufacturing foundry. Our device can generate programmable radio-frequency bursts or continuous waveforms with only the light source, electrical drives/controls and detectors being off-chip. It modulates an individual pulse in a radio-frequency burst within 4 ns, achieving a reconfiguration speed three orders of magnitude faster than thermal tuning. The on-chip optical delay elements offer an integrated approach to accurately manipulating individual radio-frequency waveform features without constraints set by the speed and timing jitter of electronics, and should find applications ranging from high-speed wireless to defence electronics.

  2. Assessment of occupational exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Aniołczyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: European Union Directive 2013/35/UE provides for the implementation of EU regulations into national legislation. Our aim is to assess actual health hazards from radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF (range: 100 kHz – 300 GHz and indicate workplaces with the highest risk to employee health. Material and Methods: Data from measurements of RF EMF performed by the Laboratory of Electromagnetic Hazards in Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Łódź, Poland were analyzed. The analysis covered the results of electric field intensity (E for over 450 selected items. The ranges of protection zones and the extent to which maximum admissible intensity (MAI values were also analyzed. The determinations and measurements of EMF in the work environment met the requirements of Polish Standard, while Polish regulations on the MAI values were used as the criterion for the assessment of the exposure. Results: The highest values of E field intensity at workplaces were measured for: electrosurgery, to 400 V/m, and short-wave diathermy units, to 220 V/m, dielectric welders to 240 V/m, within the FM radio antenna systems, to 180 V/m. The widest protection zones were noted for prototype research instruments, short-wave diathermy units, and dielectric welders. The most excessive (up to 12-fold MAI values were recorded for dielectric welders, short-wave diathermy units (up to 11-fold and microwave diathermy units (up to 8-fold. Conclusions: Our results have confirmed the high RF EMF values for physiotherapists, operators of dielectric welders, and mast maintenance workers in radio communication facilities (especially radio and TV broadcasting stations. Med Pr 2015;66(2:199–212

  3. Operational characteristics of the VEC radio-frequency system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khemka, P K; Basu Mallik, D N; Bhattacharya, D S; Mukherjee, A K; Mukherjee, B; Ramamurthy, S S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Variable Energy Cyclotron Project

    1979-01-01

    The operating characteristics of the 400 kW rf system of the VEC, based on the RCA 6949 oscillator tube, and covering a frequency range of 5.5 to 16.5 MHz, are described. The frequency stability of the system is measured to be 1 part in 10/sup 5/, and a dee voltage of 40 kV at 8 MHz has been achieved. The results of experimental adjustments of ratio capacitor for proper excitation and appropriate fixed dee voltage over the entire frequency range are discussed. An analysis of the multi-pactoring encountered during beam trials is presented.

  4. Operational characteristics of the VEC radio frequency system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khemka, P.K.; Basu Mallik, D.N.; Bhattacharya, D.S.; Mukherjee, A.K.; Mukherjee, B.; Ramamurthy, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    The operating characteristics of the 400 KW RF system of the VEC, based on the RCA 6949 oscillator tube, and covering a frequency range of 5.5 to 16.5 MHZ, are described. The frequency stability of the system is measured to be 1 part in 10 5 , and a dee voltage of 40 kV at 8 MHZ has been achieved. The results of experimental adjustments of ratio capacitor for proper excitation and appropriate fixed dee voltage over the entire frequency range are discussed. An analysis of the multi-pactoring encountered during beam trials is presented. (auth.)

  5. Gnevyshev peaks in solar radio emissions at different frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Kane

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sunspots have a major 11-year cycle, but the years near the sunspot maximum show two or more peaks called GP (Gnevyshev Peaks. In this communication, it was examined whether these peaks in sunspots are reflected in other parameters such as Lyman-α (the chromospheric emission 121.6 nm, radio emissions 242–15 400 MHz emanating from altitude levels 2000–12 000 km, the low latitude (+45° to −45° solar open magnetic flux and the coronal green line emission (Fe XIV, 530.3 nm. In the different solar cycles 20–23, the similarity extended at least upto the level of 609 MHz, but in cycle 22, the highest level was of 242 MHz. The extension to the higher level in cycle 22 does not seem to be related to the cycle strength Rz(max, or to the cycle length.

  6. Non-exponential decoherence of radio-frequency resonance rotation of spin in storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleev, A.; Nikolaev, N. N.; Rathmann, F.; Hinder, F.; Pretz, J.; Rosenthal, M.

    2017-08-01

    Precision experiments, such as the search for electric dipole moments of charged particles using radio-frequency spin rotators in storage rings, demand for maintaining the exact spin resonance condition for several thousand seconds. Synchrotron oscillations in the stored beam modulate the spin tune of off-central particles, moving it off the perfect resonance condition set for central particles on the reference orbit. Here, we report an analytic description of how synchrotron oscillations lead to non-exponential decoherence of the radio-frequency resonance driven up-down spin rotations. This non-exponential decoherence is shown to be accompanied by a nontrivial walk of the spin phase. We also comment on sensitivity of the decoherence rate to the harmonics of the radio-frequency spin rotator and a possibility to check predictions of decoherence-free magic energies.

  7. Ion collection from laser-induced plasma by applying radio-frequency voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Takemasa; Ogura, Koichi

    1995-01-01

    Ions were collected on the electrodes from a laser resonance photoionized plasma by applying 1.8MHz radio-frequency voltage to the electrode. It was demonstrated that the ions are collected in a shorter time at the same kinetic energy of the collected ions compared with ion collection by applying DC voltage to the electrode. A simple one-dimensional model was extended for prediction of ion collection times in the cases of applications of not only the DC voltage but also the radio-frequency voltage. The ion collection times estimated using the simple one-dimensional model agreed with experimental values in both cases of DC and radio-frequency voltages. (author)

  8. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Absorption of A Monochromatic Light Controlled by a Radio Frequency Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption of a monochromatic light controlled by a radio frequency field in the cold multi-Zeeman-sublevel atoms are theoretically investigated. These Zeeman sublevels are coupled by a radio frequency (RF) field. Both electromagnetically induced transparency and electromagnetically induced absorption can be obtained by tuning the frequency of RF field for both the linear polarization and elliptical polarization monochromatic lights. When the transfer of coherence via spontaneous emission from the excited state to the ground state is considered, electromagnetically induced absorption can be changed into electromagnetically induced transparency with the change of intensity of radio field. The transparency windows controlled by the RF field can have potential applications in the magnetic-field measurement and quantum information processing. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  9. UTag: Long-range Ultra-wideband Passive Radio Frequency Tags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowla, F

    2007-03-14

    Long-range, ultra-wideband (UWB), passive radio frequency (RF) tags are key components in Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) system that will revolutionize inventory control and tracking applications. Unlike conventional, battery-operated (active) RFID tags, LLNL's small UWB tags, called 'UTag', operate at long range (up to 20 meters) in harsh, cluttered environments. Because they are battery-less (that is, passive), they have practically infinite lifetimes without human intervention, and they are lower in cost to manufacture and maintain than active RFID tags. These robust, energy-efficient passive tags are remotely powered by UWB radio signals, which are much more difficult to detect, intercept, and jam than conventional narrowband frequencies. The features of long range, battery-less, and low cost give UTag significant advantage over other existing RFID tags.

  10. Measurements of time average series resonance effect in capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Chuaqui, H.; Kakati, M.

    2011-01-01

    Self-excited plasma series resonance is observed in low pressure capacitvely coupled radio frequency discharges as high-frequency oscillations superimposed on the normal radio frequency current. This high-frequency contribution to the radio frequency current is generated by a series resonance between the capacitive sheath and the inductive and resistive bulk plasma. In this report, we present an experimental method to measure the plasma series resonance in a capacitively coupled radio frequency argon plasma by modifying the homogeneous discharge model. The homogeneous discharge model is modified by introducing a correction factor to the plasma resistance. Plasma parameters are also calculated by considering the plasma series resonances effect. Experimental measurements show that the self-excitation of the plasma series resonance, which arises in capacitive discharge due to the nonlinear interaction of plasma bulk and sheath, significantly enhances both the Ohmic and stochastic heating. The experimentally measured total dissipation, which is the sum of the Ohmic and stochastic heating, is found to increase significantly with decreasing pressure.

  11. Dispersive-cavity actively mode-locked fiber laser for stable radio frequency delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Yitang; Wang, Ruixin; Yin, Feifei; Xu, Kun; Li, Jianqiang; Lin, Jintong

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel technique for highly stable transfer of a radio frequency (RF) comb over long optical fiber link, which is highly dispersive and is a part of an actively mode-locked fiber laser. Phase fluctuation along the fiber link, which is mainly induced by physical vibration and temperature fluctuations, is automatically compensated by the self-adapted wavelength shifting. Without phase-locking loop or any tunable parts, stable radio frequency is transferred over a 2-km fiber link, with a time jitter suppression ratio larger than 110. (letter)

  12. The effect of plasma etching on the surface topography of niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjenović, B.; Radmilović-Radjenović, M.

    2014-11-01

    In this letter the evolution of the surface topography of a niobium superconducting radio frequency cavity caused by different plasma etching modes (isotropic and anisotropic) is studied by the three-dimensional level set method. The initial rough surface is generated starting from an experimental power spectral density. The time dependence of the rms roughness is analyzed and the growth exponential factors β are determined for two etching modes (isotropic and anisotropic) assuming that isotropic etching is a much more effective mechanism of smoothing. The obtained simulation results could be useful for optimizing the parameters of the etching processes needed to obtain high quality niobium surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavities.

  13. Possible Explanation for Cancer in Rats due to Cell Phone Radio Frequency Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    Very recently, the National Toxicology Program reported a correlation between exposure to whole body 900 MHz radio frequency radiation and cancer in the brains and hearts of Sprague Dawley male rats. Assuming that the National Toxicology Program is statistically significant, I propose the following explanation for these results. The neurons around the brain and heart form closed electrical circuits and, following Faraday's Law, 900 MHz radio frequency radiation induces 900 MHz electrical currents in these neural circuits. In turn, these 900 MHz currents in the neural circuits generate sufficient localized heat in the neural cells to shift the equilibrium concentration of carcinogenic radicals to higher levels and thus, to higher incidences of cancer.

  14. Frequency-Tunable and Pattern Diversity Antennas for Cognitive Radio Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ramadan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency-tunable microstrip antennas, for cognitive radio applications, are proposed herein. The approach is based on tuning the operating frequency of a bandpass filter that is incorporated into a wideband antenna. The integration of an open loop resonator- (OLR- based adjustable bandpass filter into a wideband antenna to transform it into a tunable filter-antenna is presented. The same technique is employed to design a cognitive radio pattern diversity tunable filter-antenna. A good agreement between the simulated and measured results for the fabricated prototypes is obtained. The radiation characteristics of each designed tunable filter-antenna are included herein.

  15. Influence of radio frequency power on structure and ionic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    frequency (rf) power on the structure and the ionic conductivity of LiPON thin films has been investigated. The morphology ... be used as a fine alternative to traditional sulfides and ... able lithium batteries (Kennedy and Zhang 1988; Ménétrier.

  16. Observations of a low-frequency cutoff in magnetospheric radio noise received on Imp 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesecky, J.F.; Frankel, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Observations of magnetospheric radio noise by the Goddard Space Flight Center radio experiment on the Imp 6 spacecraft have revealed a quasi-continuous component at frequencies between 30 and 110 kHz. When the spacecraft is in the interplanetary medium or the magnetosheath, a low-frequency cutoff often characterizes the otherwise power law (f - /sup alpha/) spectrum of this noise. A positive correlation is observed between this cutoff frequency f) and the solar wind plasma frequency f), deduced from the Los Alamos plasma experiment on the same spacecraft; on the average, f)approx. =1.3f). If one pictures the magnetosheath as a homogeneous layer of plasma lying between the radio noise source (at Lapprox.4--7) and the spacecraft in the interplanetary medium and having an electron density 2--3 times that of the solar wind, then one will expect f)approximately-greater-than2 1 / 2 f)--3 1 / 2 f). Within the limits of experimental error this simple model correctly accounts for the observations. A rough calculation shows that radio wave scattering by electron density fluctuations in the magnetosheath plasma is likely to be important for frequencies below 200 kHz. However, the effects of such scattering cannot be detected in the Imp 6 observations considered here because neither concurrent measurements nor sufficiently accurate models of the necessar []magnetosheath plasma parameters are presently available

  17. Optical properties of ITO films obtained by high-frequency magnetron sputtering with accompanying ion treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, P. N., E-mail: ftt@uni.udm.ru; Zakirova, R. M.; Fedotova, I. V. [Udmurt State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15

    A variation in the properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films obtained by the method of reactive magnetron sputtering with simultaneous ion treatment is reported. The ITO films feature the following parameters in the optical range of 450-1100 nm: a transmission coefficient of 80%, band gap of 3.50-3.60 eV, and a refractive index of 1.97-2.06. All characteristics of the films depend on the ion-treatment current. The latter, during the course of deposition, reduces the resistivity of the ITO films with the smallest value of the resistivity being equal to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm. The degradation of films with a high resistivity when kept in air is observed.

  18. Nonlinear nonresonant forces by radio-frequency waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhe; Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Qin, Hong; Myra, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Nonresonant forces by applied rf waves in plasmas are analyzed. Along the background dc magnetic field, the force arises from the gradient of the ponderomotive potential. Only when the dc magnetic field is straight, however, is this parallel force completely consistent with that from the single particle picture, where the ponderomotive force depends on the gradients of rf fields only. Across the dc magnetic field, besides the ponderomotive force from the particle picture, additional Reynolds stress and polarization stress contribute to the total force. For waves with frequency much lower than the cyclotron frequency, the perpendicular forces from the particle and fluid pictures can have opposite signs. In plasmas with a symmetry angle (e.g., toroidal systems), nonresonant forces cannot drive net flow or current in the flux surface, but the radial force may influence macroscopic behavior of plasma. Moreover, nonresonant forces may drive flow or current in linear plasmas or in a localized region of toroidal plasmas

  19. Test of superconducting radio-frequency cavity bombarded by protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J. M.; McCloud, B. J.; Morris, C. L.; McClelland, J. B.; Rusnak, B.; Thiessen, H. A.; Langenbrunner, J. L.

    1992-05-01

    A beam of 2 × 10 10 protons/s was focused onto a small area on the high-field iris of a superconducting cavity operating at the resonance frequency. The input, reflected, and stored power were monitored. The cavity remained in steady state during this test. We conclude that such superconducting cavities will remain viable in the high-proton-flux environments proposed in the design of a superconducting accelerator for pions (PILAC).

  20. Test of superconducting radio-frequency cavity bombarded by protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, J.M.; McCloud, B.J.; Morris, C.L.; McClelland, J.B.; Rusnak, B.; Thiessen, H.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Langenbrunner, J.L. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States))

    1992-05-10

    A beam of 2x10{sup 10} protons/s was focused onto a small area on the high-field iris of a superconducting cavity operating at the resonance frequency. The input, reflected, and stored power were monitored. The cavity remained in steady state during this test. We conclude that such superconducting cavities will remain viable in the high-proton-flux environments proposed in the design of a superconducting accelerator for pions (PILAC). (orig.).

  1. Theoretical Study of Amplitude Modulation Application during Radio Frequency Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karpuhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the investigation results of influence of the amplitude-modulated acting signal parameters on the thermoelectric characteristics of biological tissues for a specified geometry of the working electrode section during RF mono-polar electrocoagulation. The geometric model ‘electrode - a biological tissue’ was suggested to study the distribution of power and temperature fields in biological tissue during mono-polar coagulation. The model of biological tissue is represented as a cylinder and the needle electrode is an ellipsoid immersed in the biological tissue. The heat and quasi-electrostatics equations are used as a mathematical model. These equations are solved in Comsol Multiphysics environment.As a result, we have got the following findings: the technique of calculating parameters of the PAM acting signal which has a fixed carrier frequency for the needle electrode of a specified geometry and the immersion depth in biological tissues is suggested. Parameters of PAM signal are determined for this electrode geometry. These parameters provide a 60 ... 80°C heating range of biological tissues near the working part of the tool for different amplitudes of acting signal during RF coagulation. It has been found out that both the temperature and the relaxation frequency of biological tissue depend on exposure time for the needle electrode of a specified geometry and immersion depth of the working part of tool into biological tissue.It is shown that the relaxation frequency of the biological tissue, subjected to the radiofrequency pulses, linearly depends on its heating temperature and can be used as a numerical criterion for maintaining the specified temperature conditions. It is found that the relaxation frequency of the biological tissue depends on the contact area of the tool working part and biological tissues. To reduce this dependence it is necessary to provide automatic current control of the output action.

  2. Characterization of Passive Spectral Regrowth in Radio Frequency Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    as using RF absorber and Faraday cages around sensi- tive spots. To ensure maximum radiated isolation, each cable or component should be shielded...nonlinear effects of spectral-regrowth-generating phenomena on an RF signal. Detection of low-level passive spectral regrowth close in frequency to a...experimentally and analytically characterize the nonlinear effects of spectral- regrowth-generating phenomena on an RF signal. Detection of low-level passive

  3. Effects of electron inertia in capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Nong

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the electron inertia on the plasma and sheath dynamics in capacitively coupled rf discharges with frequency ωω pi are investigated (here, ω and ω pi are the rf frequency and bulk ion plasma frequency, respectively). It is found that the effects of the electron inertia on the plasma density and ion velocity in the quasi-neutral region depend on the ratio of the amplitudes of the discharge current I rf and ion current I B =en 0 C s (here, e is the unit charge, n 0 is the plasma density at center, and C s is the ion sound speed). If the ratio is small so that I rf /I B √(m i /m e ) (here, m i and m e are ion and electron masses, respectively), the ion and time-averaged electron densities, ion velocity, and electric fields are little affected by the electron inertia. Otherwise, the effects of the electron inertia are significant. It is also shown that the assumption that the electrons obey the Boltzmann distribution in the sheath is invalid when the electron flux flowing to the electrode is significant

  4. Demodulation Radio Frequency Interference Effects in Operational Amplifier Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutu, Yue-Hong

    A series of investigations have been carried out to determine RFI effects in analog circuits using monolithic integrated operational amplifiers (op amps) as active devices. The specific RFI effect investigated is how amplitude-modulated (AM) RF signals are demodulated in op amp circuits to produce undesired low frequency responses at AM-modulation frequency. The undesired demodulation responses were shown to be characterized by a second-order nonlinear transfer function. Four representative op amp types investigated were the 741 bipolar op amp, the LM10 bipolar op amp, the LF355 JFET-Bipolar op amp, and the CA081 MOS-Bipolar op amp. Two op amp circuits were investigated. The first circuit was a noninverting unity voltage gain buffer circuit. The second circuit was an inverting op amp configuration. In the second circuit, the investigation includes the effects of an RFI suppression capacitor in the feedback path. Approximately 30 units of each op amp type were tested to determine the statistical variations of RFI demodulation effects in the two op amp circuits. The Nonlinear Circuit Analysis Program, NCAP, was used to simulate the demodulation RFI response. In the simulation, the op amp was replaced with its incremental macromodel. Values of macromodel parameters were obtained from previous investigations and manufacturer's data sheets. Some key results of this work are: (1) The RFI demodulation effects are 10 to 20 dB lower in CA081 and LF355 FET-bipolar op amp than in 741 and LM10 bipolar op amp except above 40 MHz where the LM10 RFI response begins to approach that of CA081. (2) The experimental mean values for 30 741 op amps show that RFI demodulation responses in the inverting amplifier with a 27 pF feedback capacitor were suppressed from 10 to 35 dB over the RF frequency range 0.1 to 150 MHz except at 0.15 MHz where only 3.5 dB suppression was observed. (3) The NCAP program can predict RFI demodulation responses in 741 and LF355 unity gain buffer circuits

  5. Effect of deposition parameters on properties of ITO films prepared by reactive middle frequency pulsed dual magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogozin, A.I.; Vinnichenko, M.V.; Kolitsch, A.; Moeller, W.

    2004-01-01

    ITO layers with low resistivity and high visible transmittance were produced by means of middle frequency reactive dual magnetron sputtering. The influence of base pressure, Ar/O 2 ratio and magnetron pulse duration on the film composition, structure, electrical, and optical properties has been investigated. The deposition rate is proportional to the magnetron operation power at changing pulse duration and constant Ar and O 2 flows. At enhanced O 2 flows an onset of the magnetron target oxidation is discussed as a reason for the decrease of the deposition rate. The presence of water vapor in the residual gas is determined to be a reason for deterioration of resistivity and optical transmittance observed for ITO films produced at a base pressures higher than 5·10 -4 Pa. It is demonstrated that spectroscopic ellipsometry can be used as a noncontact tool to monitor the resistivity of ITO films

  6. Phenomenology of Dark Matter from radio to gamma ray frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmann, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Multiwavelength astronomical observations have been proven to be of crucial relevance in understanding the most fundamental questions in physics. One of the biggest mysteries of nature is the existence of a (still) unidentified type of matter that makes up most of the material universe. Although little is known about its nature, it is very likely that this exotic Dark Matter (DM) is made of so-called Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). In this thesis we investigate which strategies can best address the fundamental question: What is Dark Matter? Specifically, by following the ''WIMP'' paradigm as our guiding principle, we comprehensively discuss the phenomenology of prospective ''indirect'' detection scenarios of such WIMPs. Special consideration is given to extraterrestrial gamma rays and radio waves produced around the center of the Milky Way. In light of two recently highly debated claims of WIMP Dark Matter discovery, namely the 130 GeV gamma-ray line and the GeV gamma-ray excess, we invoke our methods to confront those hypotheses. In addition our study contains antiparticle cosmic-ray (antiproton and positron) data analyses. The phenomenology for indirect DM detection with these ''messengers'' is briefly discussed as well. By exploiting the high degree of symmetry of typical annihilating 2-WIMP initial states, we are able to employ a very powerful tool in theoretical particle physics: the generalized optical theorem. This theorem relates the amplitude of loop-suppressed processes, such as the 130 GeV line if interpreted as product of WIMP annihilations, with tree-level process which are constrained in the same way as with the GeV excess. Unprecedentedly reported analytical computations of partial-wave (and helicity) cross sections with general applicability are calculated and applied. The possibility that a non-trivial effect in the particle model for DM might enhance the strength of a gamma

  7. Signal Identification and Isolation Utilizing Radio Frequency Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    RF filter is the use of either a FIR or an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter. The FIR filter is simply the discrete convolution sum of the...by using a feedback loop of a fixed delay. In this case, the signal will ideally be a summation of an infinite number of delay round trips. While...and Infinite Impulse Response filters. A combination of FIR and IIR filters can be used to identify the center frequency of an RF signal, as seen in

  8. Antiproton-decelerating Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQD), inner structure.

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    The inner structure of the RFQD, withdrawn from its tank. In picture _06, the upstream end is in the back and the view is on the downstream exit. The RFQD has a length of 3.5 m and operates at a frequency of 202.4 MHz. It further decelerates antiprotons from the Antiproton Decelerator (3.5 MeV/c to 100 MeV/c, or 5.3 MeV) to very low energies around 50 keV.

  9. Additive manufactured Ti6Al4V scaffolds with the RF- magnetron sputter deposited hydroxyapatite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudinova, E; Surmeneva, M; Surmenev, R; Koptioug, A; Scoglund, P

    2016-01-01

    Present paper reports on the results of surface modification of the additively manufactured porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds. Radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was used to modify the surface of the alloy via deposition of the biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. The surface morphology, chemical and phase composition of the HA-coated alloy were studied. It was revealed that RF magnetron sputtering allows preparing a homogeneous HA coating onto the entire surface of scaffolds. (paper)

  10. Plasma properties during magnetron sputtering of lithium phosphorous oxynitride thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Stamate, Eugen; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2015-01-01

    The nitrogen dissociation and plasma parameters during radio frequency sputtering of lithium phosphorus oxynitride thin films in nitrogen gas are investigated by mass appearance spectrometry, electrostatic probes and optical emission spectroscopy, and the results are correlated with electrochemical...... properties and microstructure of the films. Low pressure and moderate power are associated with lower plasma density, higher electron temperature, higher plasma potential and larger diffusion length for sputtered particles. This combination of parameters favors the presence of more atomic nitrogen, a fact...

  11. Building of radio frequency cavity for Superconducting Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahammed, M.; DuttaGupta, A.; Mandal, B.Ch.; Saha, S.; Bhattacharya, P.; Manna, B.; Hembrom, B.; Murmu, S.; Sur, S.; Murali, S.; Chaudhuri, J.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: RF cavity for Superconducting Cyclotron is a room temperature cavity having 10 m tall coaxial structure placed symmetrically above and below the median plane. The structure is made of copper and operates within the frequency range of 9 to 27 MHz. The frequency is varied with the help of sliding shorts, which moves up and down. Part of the cavity is in air and rest is in vacuum. After fabrication of individual components, assembly of sub-system has been started by carrying out numeral critical (around 500 joints approx.) soldering and brazing joints of which some of them are located within centimeter of distance. All these joints were tested for vacuum and water sealing including many temporary joints sealed by O rings and C seals. Main criticalities involve in fabricating these sub-assemblies are maintaining dimensional accuracies, concentricity and parallelism. Moreover challenges faced during transportation and handling of this subassembly while carrying out soldering and actual site assembly, were overcome by employing several specially designed fixtures. Fixtures were used to control distortion that would take place during soldering and brazing and to avoid any damage which is likely to occur because of less mechanical strength of soldering and brazing joint. This paper highlights the above difficulties and challenges faced during the actual site assembly of the whole RF system because of its limited accessibility, compactness, requirements of upper and lower resonator cavity to be symmetric and ultra cleanliness. (author)

  12. CoSMOS: Performance of Kurtosis Algorithm for Radio Frequency Interference Detection and Mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misra, Sidharth; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Skou, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The performance of a previously developed algorithm for Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) detection and mitigation is experimentally evaluated. Results obtained from CoSMOS, an airborne campaign using a fully polarimetric L-band radiometer are analyzed for this purpose. Data is collected using two...

  13. Radio-frequency properties of stacked long Josephson junctions with nonuniform bias current distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filatrella, G; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1999-01-01

    We have numerically investigated the behavior of stacks of long Josephson junctions considering a nonuniform bias profile. In the presence of a microwave field the nonuniform bias, which favors the formation of fluxons, can give rise to a change of the sequence of radio-frequency induced steps...

  14. Graphene screen-printed radio-frequency identification devices on flexible substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arapov, K.; Jaakkola, K.; Ermolov, V.; Bex, G.; Rubingh, E.; Haque, S.; Sandberg, H.; Abbel, R.; de With, G.; Friedrich, H.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great promise of printed flexible electronics from 2D crystals, and especially graphene, few scalable applications have been reported so far that can be termed roll-to-roll compatible. Here we combine screen printed graphene with photonic annealing to realize radio-frequency

  15. Use of a radio-frequency resonance circuit in studies of alkali ionization in flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgers, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    The construction of a radio-frequency resonance system and its use in the study of alkali metal ionization in flames is described. The author re-determines the values of the alkali ionization rate constants for a CO flame with N 2 as diluent gas of known temperature using the RF resonance method. (Auth.)

  16. Scheme to funnel ion beams with a radio-frequency quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, R.H.; Minerbo, G.N.

    1985-01-01

    We describe a proposed method to funnel ion beams using a new form of the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) structure. This RFQ accepts two bunched ion beams and combines them into a single final beam with interlaced microstructure pulses. It also provides uninterrupted periodic transverse focusing to facilitate the funneling of beams with high current and low emittance

  17. Gold Nanoparticle-Based Sensors Activated by External Radio Frequency Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Vedova, Paolo; Ilieva, Mirolyuba; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2015-01-01

    A novel molecular beacon (a nanomachine) is constructed that can be actuated by a radio frequency (RF) field. The nanomachine consists of the following elements arranged in molecular beacon configuration: a gold nanoparticle that acts both as quencher for fluorescence and a localized heat source;...

  18. Breakdown criteria due to radio-frequency fields in vacuum. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.W.; Lohsen, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The factors that affect the voltage at which vacuum gaps break down are analyzed. Based on the literature and some simplifying assumptions, a functional dependence is hypothesized. The hypothesis is related to a proposed experiment using radio-frequency power to generate the breakdown voltage

  19. A superconducting radio-frequency cavity for manipulating the phase space of pion beams at LAMPF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, J.M.; Davis, J.; DeHaven, R.A.; Gray, E.; Johnson, R.; Lomax, R.E.; McCloud, B.J.; McGill, J.A.; Morris, C.L.; Novak, J.; Rusnak, B.; Tubb, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Applegate, J.M.; Averett, T.D.; Beck, J.; Ritchie, B.G. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)); Haebel, E. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Kiehlmann, D.; Klein, U.; Peniger, M.; Schaefer, P.; Vogel, H. (Siemens AG, Accelerator and Magnet Technology, Bergisch Gladbach (Germany)); Ward, H.; Moore, C.F. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

    1992-07-15

    The SCRUNCHER is a superconducting radio-frequency cavity for manipulating the longitudinal phase space of the secondary pion beam from the low energy pion channel at LAMPF. Test results of the cavity performance and initial results from in-beam tests are presented. (orig.).

  20. A superconducting radio-frequency cavity for manipulating the phase space of pion beams at LAMPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J. M.; Davis, J.; DeHaven, R. A.; Gray, E.; Johnson, R.; Lomax, R. E.; McCloud, B. J.; McGill, J. A.; Morris, C. L.; Novak, J.; Rusnak, B.; Tubb, G.; Applegate, J. M.; Averett, T. D.; Beck, J.; Ritchie, B. G.; Haebel, E.; Kiehlmann, D.; Klein, U.; Peiniger, M.; Schäfer, P.; Vogel, H.; Ward, H.; Fred Moore, C.

    1992-07-01

    The SCRUNCHER is a superconducting radio-frequency cavity for manipulating the longitudinal phase space of the secondary pion beam from the low energy pion channel at LAMPF. Test results of the cavity performance and initial results from in-beam tests are presented.

  1. Peculiarities of glow modes of argon atmospheric pressure radio-frequency capacitive discharge with isolated electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhenov, V.Yu.; Tsiolko, V.V.; Piun, V.M.; Chaplinskiy, R.Yu.; Kuzmichev, A.I.

    2013-01-01

    Glow characteristics of capacitive radio frequency discharge with isolated electrodes in low-current α and highcurrent gamma modes are determined experimentally. It is shown that transition from α mode to gamma mode occurs through a phase of coexistence of both modes in different parts of the discharge gap.

  2. Homogeneous spectral broadening of pulsed terahertz quantum cascade lasers by radio frequency modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, W J; Li, H; Cao, J C

    2018-01-22

    The authors present an experimental investigation of radio frequency modulation on pulsed terahertz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) emitting around 4.3 THz. The QCL chip used in this work is based on a resonant phonon design which is able to generate a 1.2 W peak power at 10 K from a 400-µm-wide and 4-mm-long laser with a single plasmon waveguide. To enhance the radio frequency modulation efficiency and significantly broaden the terahertz spectra, the QCLs are also processed into a double-metal waveguide geometry with a Silicon lens out-coupler to improve the far-field beam quality. The measured beam patterns of the double-metal QCL show a record low divergence of 2.6° in vertical direction and 2.4° in horizontal direction. Finally we perform the inter-mode beat note and terahertz spectra measurements for both single plasmon and double-metal QCLs working in pulsed mode. Since the double-metal waveguide is more suitable for microwave signal transmission, the radio frequency modulation shows stronger effects on the spectral broadening for the double-metal QCL. Although we are not able to achieve comb operation in this work for the pulsed lasers due to the large phase noise, the homogeneous spectral broadening resulted from the radio frequency modulation can be potentially used for spectroscopic applications.

  3. Integrated Common Radio Resource Management with Spectrum Aggregation over Non-Contiguous Frequency Bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabral, Orlando; Meucci, Filippo; Mihovska, Albena D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an integrated Common Radio Resource Management (iCRRM). The iCRRM performs classic CRRM functionalities jointly with Spectrum Aggregation (SA), being able to switch users between non-contiguous frequency bands. The SA scheduling is obtained with an optimised General Multi...

  4. The design of a radio frequency quadrupole LINAC for the RIB ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Logo of the Indian Academy of Sciences. Indian Academy of Sciences ... Physics; Volume 59; Issue 6. The design of a radio frequency quadrupole LINAC for the RIB project at VECC Kolkata ... rf structure design study. The beam dynamics and rf-structure design along with the results of the cold model tests will be presented.

  5. Inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum in apple cider using radio frequency electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radio frequency electric fields (RFEF) processing is effective at inactivating Gram negative bacteria in fruit juices at moderately low temperatures, but has yet to be shown to be effective at reducing Gram positive bacteria. Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 49445, a Gram positive bacterium, was inocula...

  6. 77 FR 67833 - Certain Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits and Devices Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-848] Certain Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits and Devices Containing Same; Notice of Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination Terminating the Investigation in its Entirety AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION...

  7. Construction Project Performance Improvement through Radio Frequency Identification Technology Application on a Project Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng

    2017-01-01

    Construction project productivity typically lags other industries and it has been the focus of numerous studies in order to improve the project performance. This research investigated the application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology on construction projects' supply chain and determined that RFID technology can improve the…

  8. Dielectric properties of dried vegetable powders and their temperature profile during radio frequency heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, Salmonella contamination was identified in low-moisture foods including dried vegetable powder. Radio Frequency (RF) dielectric heating is a potential alternative pasteurization method with short heating time. Dielectric properties of broccoli powder with 6.9, 9.1, 12.2, and 14.9%, w. b....

  9. Effects of 1.84 GHz radio-frequency electromagnetic field on sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    Key words: 1.84 GHz, radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF), epididymis, ... Author(s) agree that this article remains permanently open access under the terms of the ..... mouse testis after the long-term administration of nickel in feed.

  10. Radio frequency for particle accelerators: evolution and anatomy of a technology

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, M

    2011-01-01

    This introductory lecture outlines the impressive progress of radio frequency technology, from the first table-top equipment to the present gigantic installations. The outcome of 83 years of evolution is subsequently submitted to an anatomical analysis, which allows identifying the main components of a modern RF system and their interrelations.

  11. Heating uniformity and differential heating of insects in almonds associated with radio frequency energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radio frequency (RF) treatments have potential as alternatives to chemical fumigation for phytosanitary disinfestation treatments in the dried nut industry. To develop effective RF treatment protocols for almonds, it is desirable to determine heating uniformity and the occurrence of differential hea...

  12. Theoretical Feasibility of Digital Communication Over Ocean Areas by High Frequency Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    The theoretical reliability of digital data transmission via high frequency radio is examined for typical air traffic routes in the Atlantic and Pacific areas to assist the U.S. Department of Transportation in the evaluation of a system for improving...

  13. Vacuum pumping system for the JT-60 radio-frequency heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokokura, Kenji; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Imai, Tuyoshi; Suganuma, Kazuaki; Nagashima, Takashi

    1988-01-01

    The basic design requirements set up for the JT-60 radio-frequency heating system included: (1) rapid pumping of gas released upon application of a radio-frequency power to maintain the pressure in the launchers at 10 -2 - 10 -3 Pa or less, (2) incorporation of a gas analysis system that can operate under a strong field and high pressure (>10 -2 Pa) to permit remote controlled data collection and processing, and (3) low cost, multiple functions and high reliability. The vacuum pumping system, consisting of three units for low hybrid radio-frequency (LHRF) and one unit for ion cyclotron radio-frequency (ICRF), is connected to each launcher provided at the four ports of JT-60. The LHRF unit is composed of a main pump, an alumina joint for electrical insulation from the launcher, a metallic gate valve for isolation from the JT-60 vacuum region, and various vacuum gauges. Only a turbo-molecular pump is used for the ICRF system because a large-scale differential pumping is not required. A gas measuring system is incorporated which consists of a mass filter, personal computer, turbo-molecular pump, and variable flow valve equipped with an APG control. This system is designed to identify and make use of gas impurities released during the launcher aging process. The control system employed consists of a personal computer, interlock control board, data logger and other devices such as vacuum gages. (Nogami, K.)

  14. The Diffusion and Impact of Radio Frequency Identification in Supply Chains: A Multi-Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoran

    2012-01-01

    As a promising and emerging technology for supply chain management, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a new alternative to existing tracking technologies and also allows a range of internal control and supply chain coordination. RFID has generated a significant amount of interest and activities from both practitioners and researchers in…

  15. Self-excited nonlinear plasma series resonance oscillations in geometrically symmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donko, Z.; Schulze, J.; Czarnetzki, U.; Luggenhoelscher, D.

    2009-01-01

    At low pressures, nonlinear self-excited plasma series resonance (PSR) oscillations are known to drastically enhance electron heating in geometrically asymmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges by nonlinear electron resonance heating (NERH). Here we demonstrate via particle-in-cell simulations that high-frequency PSR oscillations can also be excited in geometrically symmetric discharges if the driving voltage waveform makes the discharge electrically asymmetric. This can be achieved by a dual-frequency (f+2f) excitation, when PSR oscillations and NERH are turned on and off depending on the electrical discharge asymmetry, controlled by the phase difference of the driving frequencies

  16. Flexible GaN for High Performance, Strainable Radio Frequency Devices (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-02

    wireless systems where consumers will benefit significantly from the high power densities achievable in GaN devices.[8] Further complicating the...future strainable and conformal devices for transmission of radio-frequency (RF) signals over large distances for more efficient wireless communication... power density of traditional RF amplifier materials at different frequencies and wireless generation bands, as well as an image of the flexible GaN

  17. High-Performance Control in Radio Frequency Power Amplification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Kofod

    . It is clearly shown that single-phase switch-mode control systems based on oscillation (controlled unstable operation) of the whole power train provide the highest possible control bandwidth. A study of the limitations of cartesian feedback is also included. It is shown that bandwidths in excess of 4MHz can...... frequency power amplifiers (RFPAs) in conjunction with cartesian feedback (CFB) used to linearize the overall transmitter system. On a system level, it is demonstrated how envelope tracking is particularly useful for RF carriers with high peak-to-average power ratios, such as TEDS with 10dB. It is also...... demonstrated how the envelope tracking technique introduces a number of potential pitfalls to the system, namely in the form of power supply ripple intermodulation (PSIM), reduced RFPA linearity and a higherimpedance supply rail for the RFPA. Design and analysis techniques for these three issues are introduced...

  18. Characterization and properties Ti-Al-Si-N nanocomposite coatings prepared by middle frequency magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C. W.; Zhang, J.; Xie, W.; Shao, L. X.; Guo, L. P.; Fu, D. J.

    2011-10-01

    TiN-containing amorphous Ti-Al-Si-N (nc-TiN/a-Si 3N 4 or a-AlN) nanocomposite coatings were deposited by using a modified closed field twin unbalanced magnetron sputtering system which is arc assisted and consists of two circles of targets, at a substrate temperature of 300 °C. XRD, XPS and High-resolution TEM experiments showed that the coatings contain TiN nanocrystals embedded in the amorphous Si 3N 4 or AlN matrix. The coatings exhibit good mechanical properties that are greatly influenced by the Si contents. The hardness of the Ti-Al-Si-N coatings deposited at Si targets currents of 5, 8, 10, and 12 A were 45, 47, 54 and 46 GPa, respectively. The high hardness of the deposited Ti-Al-Si-N coatings may be own to the plastic distortion and dislocation blocking by the nanocrystalline structure. On the other hand, the friction coefficient decreases monotonously with increasing Si contents. This result would be caused by tribo-chemical reactions, which often take place in many ceramics, e.g. Si 3N 4 reacts with H 2O to produce SiO 2 or Si(OH) 2 tribolay-layer.

  19. Flexible diodes for radio frequency (RF) electronics: a materials perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Semple, James

    2017-10-30

    Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in transferring the research advances in radiofrequency (RF) rectifiers, the quintessential element of the chip in the RF identification (RFID) tags, obtained on rigid substrates onto plastic (flexible) substrates. The growing demand for flexible RFID tags, wireless communications applications and wireless energy harvesting systems that can be produced at a low-cost is a key driver for this technology push. In this topical review, we summarise recent progress and status of flexible RF diodes and rectifying circuits, with specific focus on materials and device processing aspects. To this end, different families of materials (e.g. flexible silicon, metal oxides, organic and carbon nanomaterials), manufacturing processes (e.g. vacuum and solution processing) and device architectures (diodes and transistors) are compared. Although emphasis is placed on performance, functionality, mechanical flexibility and operating stability, the various bottlenecks associated with each technology are also addressed. Finally, we present our outlook on the commercialisation potential and on the positioning of each material class in the RF electronics landscape based on the findings summarised herein. It is beyond doubt that the field of flexible high and ultra-high frequency rectifiers and electronics as a whole will continue to be an active area of research over the coming years.

  20. TORE SUPRA fast reciprocating radio frequency probe (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.E. Jr.; Harris, J.H.; Haste, G.R.; Kwon, M.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Saoutic, B.; Becoulet, A.; Fraboulet, D.; Beaumont, B.; Kuus, H.; Ladurelle, L.; Pascal, J.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A fast reciprocating ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) probe was installed and operated on TORE SUPRA during 1992/1993. The body of the probe was originally used on the ATF experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The probe was adapted for use on TORE SUPRA, and mounted on one of the two fast reciprocating probe mounts. The probe consists of two orthogonal single-turn wire loops, mounted so that one loop senses toroidal rf magnetic fields and the other senses poloidal rf magnetic fields. The probe began operation in June, 1993. The probe active area is approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/s) of 30 cm and a fast stroke (1.5 m/s) of about 10 cm. The probe was operated at distances from the plasma edge ranging from 30 to -5 cm (i.e., inside the last closed flux surface). The probe design, electronics, calibration, data acquisition, and data processing are discussed. First data from the probe are presented as a function of ICRF power, distance from the plasma, loop orientation, and other plasma parameters. Initial data show parametric instabilities do not play an important role for ICRF in the TORE SUPRA edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas. Additionally it is observed that the probe signal has little or no dependence on position in the SOL/plasma edge

  1. Flexible diodes for radio frequency (RF) electronics: a materials perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Semple, James; Georgiadou, Dimitra G; Wyatt-Moon, Gwenhivir; Gelinck, Gerwin; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in transferring the research advances in radiofrequency (RF) rectifiers, the quintessential element of the chip in the RF identification (RFID) tags, obtained on rigid substrates onto plastic (flexible) substrates. The growing demand for flexible RFID tags, wireless communications applications and wireless energy harvesting systems that can be produced at a low-cost is a key driver for this technology push. In this topical review, we summarise recent progress and status of flexible RF diodes and rectifying circuits, with specific focus on materials and device processing aspects. To this end, different families of materials (e.g. flexible silicon, metal oxides, organic and carbon nanomaterials), manufacturing processes (e.g. vacuum and solution processing) and device architectures (diodes and transistors) are compared. Although emphasis is placed on performance, functionality, mechanical flexibility and operating stability, the various bottlenecks associated with each technology are also addressed. Finally, we present our outlook on the commercialisation potential and on the positioning of each material class in the RF electronics landscape based on the findings summarised herein. It is beyond doubt that the field of flexible high and ultra-high frequency rectifiers and electronics as a whole will continue to be an active area of research over the coming years.

  2. Flexible diodes for radio frequency (RF) electronics: a materials perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, James; Georgiadou, Dimitra G.; Wyatt-Moon, Gwenhivir; Gelinck, Gerwin; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in transferring the research advances in radiofrequency (RF) rectifiers, the quintessential element of the chip in the RF identification (RFID) tags, obtained on rigid substrates onto plastic (flexible) substrates. The growing demand for flexible RFID tags, wireless communications applications and wireless energy harvesting systems that can be produced at a low-cost is a key driver for this technology push. In this topical review, we summarise recent progress and status of flexible RF diodes and rectifying circuits, with specific focus on materials and device processing aspects. To this end, different families of materials (e.g. flexible silicon, metal oxides, organic and carbon nanomaterials), manufacturing processes (e.g. vacuum and solution processing) and device architectures (diodes and transistors) are compared. Although emphasis is placed on performance, functionality, mechanical flexibility and operating stability, the various bottlenecks associated with each technology are also addressed. Finally, we present our outlook on the commercialisation potential and on the positioning of each material class in the RF electronics landscape based on the findings summarised herein. It is beyond doubt that the field of flexible high and ultra-high frequency rectifiers and electronics as a whole will continue to be an active area of research over the coming years.

  3. A novel scaling law relating the geometrical dimensions of a photocathode radio frequency gun to its radio frequency properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shankar; Pant, K. K.; Krishnagopal, S.

    2011-12-01

    Developing a photocathode RF gun with the desired RF properties of the π-mode, such as field balance (eb) ˜1, resonant frequency fπ = 2856 MHz, and waveguide-to-cavity coupling coefficient βπ ˜1, requires precise tuning of the resonant frequencies of the independent full- and half-cells (ff and fh), and of the waveguide-to-full-cell coupling coefficient (βf). While contemporary electromagnetic codes and precision machining capability have made it possible to design and tune independent cells of a photocathode RF gun for desired RF properties, thereby eliminating the need for tuning, access to such computational resources and quality of machining is not very widespread. Therefore, many such structures require tuning after machining by employing conventional tuning techniques that are iterative in nature. Any procedure that improves understanding of the tuning process and consequently reduces the number of iterations and the associated risks in tuning a photocathode gun would, therefore, be useful. In this paper, we discuss a method devised by us to tune a photocathode RF gun for desired RF properties under operating conditions. We develop and employ a simple scaling law that accounts for inter-dependence between frequency of independent cells and waveguide-to-cavity coupling coefficient, and the effect of brazing clearance for joining of the two cells. The method has been employed to successfully develop multiple 1.6 cell BNL/SLAC/UCLA type S-band photocathode RF guns with the desired RF properties, without the need to tune them by a tiresome cut-and-measure process. Our analysis also provides a physical insight into how the geometrical dimensions affect the RF properties of the photo-cathode RF gun.

  4. T-gate aligned nanotube radio frequency transistors and circuits with superior performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yuchi; Lin, Yung-Chen; Kim, Pyojae; Zhou, Chongwu

    2013-05-28

    In this paper, we applied self-aligned T-gate design to aligned carbon nanotube array transistors and achieved an extrinsic current-gain cutoff frequency (ft) of 25 GHz, which is the best on-chip performance for nanotube radio frequency (RF) transistors reported to date. Meanwhile, an intrinsic current-gain cutoff frequency up to 102 GHz is obtained, comparable to the best value reported for nanotube RF transistors. Armed with the excellent extrinsic RF performance, we performed both single-tone and two-tone measurements for aligned nanotube transistors at a frequency up to 8 GHz. Furthermore, we utilized T-gate aligned nanotube transistors to construct mixing and frequency doubling analog circuits operated in gigahertz frequency regime. Our results confirm the great potential of nanotube-based circuit applications and indicate that nanotube transistors are promising building blocks in high-frequency electronics.

  5. POISSON SUPERFISH, Poisson Equation Solver for Radio Frequency Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colman, J.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: POISSON, SUPERFISH is a group of (1) codes that solve Poisson's equation and are used to compute field quality for both magnets and fixed electric potentials and (2) RF cavity codes that calculate resonant frequencies and field distributions of the fundamental and higher modes. The group includes: POISSON, PANDIRA, SUPERFISH, AUTOMESH, LATTICE, FORCE, MIRT, PAN-T, TEKPLOT, SF01, and SHY. POISSON solves Poisson's (or Laplace's) equation for the vector (scalar) potential with nonlinear isotropic iron (dielectric) and electric current (charge) distributions for two-dimensional Cartesian or three-dimensional cylindrical symmetry. It calculates the derivatives of the potential, the stored energy, and performs harmonic (multipole) analysis of the potential. PANDIRA is similar to POISSON except it allows anisotropic and permanent magnet materials and uses a different numerical method to obtain the potential. SUPERFISH solves for the accelerating (TM) and deflecting (TE) resonant frequencies and field distributions in an RF cavity with two-dimensional Cartesian or three-dimensional cylindrical symmetry. Only the azimuthally symmetric modes are found for cylindrically symmetric cavities. AUTOMESH prepares input for LATTICE from geometrical data describing the problem, (i.e., it constructs the 'logical' mesh and generates (x,y) coordinate data for straight lines, arcs of circles, and segments of hyperbolas). LATTICE generates an irregular triangular (physical) mesh from the input data, calculates the 'point current' terms at each mesh point in regions with distributed current density, and sets up the mesh point relaxation order needed to write the binary problem file for the equation-solving POISSON, PANDIRA, or SUPERFISH. FORCE calculates forces and torques on coils and iron regions from POISSON or PANDIRA solutions for the potential. MIRT optimizes magnet profiles, coil shapes, and current densities from POISSON output based on a

  6. Magnetic Resonance Mediated Radio Frequency Coagulation for Vascular Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming

    Purpose. Magnetic Resonance Mediated Radiofrequency Coagulation employs the RF heating effect of MRI scanning to coagulate biomaterials for repair of vascular defects. Coagulation of a protein biomaterial by MR-induced RF heating is a novel means to effect repair of defects such as aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations. Our novel method is to coagulate a thermosetting material (such as egg white, which can be used for investigating heat coagulation behavior and MR relaxation properties) delivered endovascularly by catheter and coagulated by RF-induced heating of an intracatheter resonant wire antenna in the scanner. Methods. Experiments were performed on a Siemens 1.5 T MRI scanner and a Bruker 14T NMR spectrometer. Egg white was brought to equilibrium at seven temperatures (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 37 °C) in sequence. Measurement of the water spin-lattice relaxation time Ti, spin-spin relaxation time T2, spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame T1p, or full width at half maximum of the MT spectrum were performed at each temperature. Relaxation parameters of raw egg white and egg white after coagulation at 70 °C were measured in the scanner at 20 °C to determine optimum inversion time, echo time and offset frequency for good image contrast between coagulated and uncoagulated protein. Finally, coagulation of egg white within a glass aneurysm phantom by RF heating in the scanner was performed to demonstrate the MR coagulation methodology and the ability to achieve image contrast between coagulated and uncoagulated biomaterial. Results. Water T2, T1p and MT gave the most definitive indication of the change from uncoagulated at low temperature to fully coagulated at 60 °C, while water T1 showed only the expected gradual increase with temperature, and no response to coagulation. MT weighted imaging is expected to be the optimum method to establish the coagulation condition of the biomaterial.

  7. Analysis of Radio Frequency Blackout for a Blunt-Body Capsule in Atmospheric Reentry Missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Takahashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical analysis of electromagnetic waves around the atmospheric reentry demonstrator (ARD of the European Space Agency (ESA in an atmospheric reentry mission was conducted. During the ARD mission, which involves a 70% scaled-down configuration capsule of the Apollo command module, radio frequency blackout and strong plasma attenuation of radio waves in communications with data relay satellites and air planes were observed. The electromagnetic interference was caused by highly dense plasma derived from a strong shock wave generated in front of the capsule because of orbital speed during reentry. In this study, the physical properties of the plasma flow in the shock layer and wake region of the ESA ARD were obtained using a computational fluid dynamics technique. Then, electromagnetic waves were expressed using a frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain method using the plasma properties. The analysis model was validated based on experimental flight data. A comparison of the measured and predicted results showed good agreement. The distribution of charged particles around the ESA ARD and the complicated behavior of electromagnetic waves, with attenuation and reflection, are clarified in detail. It is suggested that the analysis model could be an effective tool for investigating radio frequency blackout and plasma attenuation in radio wave communication.

  8. Radio-Frequency-Controlled Cold Collisions and Universal Properties of Unitary Bose Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yijue

    This thesis investigates two topics: ultracold atomic collisions in a radio-frequency field and universal properties of a degenerate unitary Bose gas. One interesting point of the unitary Bose gas is that the system has only one length scale, that is, the average interparticle distance. This single parameter determines all properties of the gas, which is called the universality of the system. We first introduce a renormalized contact interaction to extend the validity of the zero-range interaction to large scattering lengths. Then this renormalized interaction is applied to many-body theories to determined those universal relations of the system. From the few-body perspective, we discuss the scattering between atoms in a single-color radio-frequency field. Our motivation is proposing the radio-frequency field as an effective tool to control interactions between cold atoms. Such a technique may be useful in future experiments such as creating phase transitions in spinor condensates. We also discuss the formation of ultracold molecules using radio-freqency fields from a time-dependent approach.

  9. Hydroxyapatite formation on biomedical Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Division of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Prosthodontics and Restorative Science, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate hydroxyapatite formation on Ti-25Ta-xZr titanium alloys resulting from radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition. Electrochemical deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) was first carried out using a cyclic voltammetry (CV) method at 80 °C in 5 mM Ca (NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + 3 mM NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. Then a physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating was obtained by a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructures, phase transformations, and morphologies of the hydroxyapatite films deposited on the titanium alloys were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The morphologies of electrochemically deposited HA showed plate-like shapes on the titanium alloys, and the morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating had the appearance droplet particles on the plate-like precipitates that had formed by electrochemical deposition. For the RF-sputtered HA coatings, the Ca/P ratio was increased, compared to that for the electrochemically deposited HA surface. Moreover, the RF-sputtered HA coating, consisting of agglomerated droplet particles on the electrochemically deposited HA surface, had better wettability compared to the bulk titanium alloy surface. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and a cyclic voltammetry. • The morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating on electrochemical deposits presented plate-like shapes with a droplet particle. • The Ca/P ratio for RF-sputtered HA coatings was greater than that for electrochemical deposited HA coatings. • The RF-sputtered and electrochemical HA coatings had superior wettability compared to the electrochemically deposited coatings.

  10. Hydroxyapatite formation on biomedical Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol; Brantley, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate hydroxyapatite formation on Ti-25Ta-xZr titanium alloys resulting from radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition. Electrochemical deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) was first carried out using a cyclic voltammetry (CV) method at 80 °C in 5 mM Ca (NO 3 ) 2 + 3 mM NH 4 H 2 PO 4 . Then a physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating was obtained by a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructures, phase transformations, and morphologies of the hydroxyapatite films deposited on the titanium alloys were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The morphologies of electrochemically deposited HA showed plate-like shapes on the titanium alloys, and the morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating had the appearance droplet particles on the plate-like precipitates that had formed by electrochemical deposition. For the RF-sputtered HA coatings, the Ca/P ratio was increased, compared to that for the electrochemically deposited HA surface. Moreover, the RF-sputtered HA coating, consisting of agglomerated droplet particles on the electrochemically deposited HA surface, had better wettability compared to the bulk titanium alloy surface. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and a cyclic voltammetry. • The morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating on electrochemical deposits presented plate-like shapes with a droplet particle. • The Ca/P ratio for RF-sputtered HA coatings was greater than that for electrochemical deposited HA coatings. • The RF-sputtered and electrochemical HA coatings had superior wettability compared to the electrochemically deposited coatings

  11. Radio frequency interference noise reduction using a field programmable gate array for SQUID applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuta, K; Narita, Y; Itozaki, H

    2007-01-01

    It is important to remove large environmental noise in superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurement without magnetic shielding. Active noise control (ANC) is one of the effective methods to reduce environmental noise. Recently, SQUIDs have been used in various applications at high frequencies, such as nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR). The NQR frequency from explosives is in the range 0.5-5 MHz. In this case, an NQR sensor is exposed to AM radio frequency interference (RFI). The feasibility of the ANC system for RFI that used digital signal processing was studied. Our investigation showed that this digital ANC system can be applied to SQUID measurements for RFI suppression

  12. Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Shixing; Li, Long, E-mail: lilong@mail.xidian.edu.cn, E-mail: gmshi@xidian.edu.cn; Shi, Guangming, E-mail: lilong@mail.xidian.edu.cn, E-mail: gmshi@xidian.edu.cn; Zhu, Cheng; Shi, Yan [National Key Laboratory of Antennas and Microwave Technology, School of Electronic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center of Information Sensing and Understanding, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2016-06-13

    In this paper, an electromagnetic metasurface is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated to generate multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex beams in radio frequency domain. Theoretical formula of compensated phase-shift distribution is deduced and used to design the metasurface to produce multiple vortex radio waves in different directions with different OAM modes. The prototype of a practical configuration of square-patch metasurface is designed, fabricated, and measured to validate the theoretical analysis at 5.8 GHz. The simulated and experimental results verify that multiple OAM vortex waves can be simultaneously generated by using a single electromagnetic metasurface. The proposed method paves an effective way to generate multiple OAM vortex waves in radio and microwave wireless communication applications.

  13. The characteristics and residual stress of aluminum nitride films grown by two-stage sputtering of mid-frequency power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T.-C.; Cheng, H.-E.; Tang, S.-H.; Liu, W.-C.; Lee, Antony H.C.

    2008-01-01

    The [0 0 2] oriented aluminum nitride has a high surface acoustic wave speed and high mechanic-electron couple coefficient. It is a potential material for manufacturing piezoelectric devices in high frequency application. The AlN films deposited onto silicon substrates were fabricated by two-stage sputtering process with mid-frequency generator. The results showed that the film did not have well [0 0 2] preferred orientation at 1.0 and 1.5 kW, and exhibited a [0 0 2] preferred orientation at 2.0 kW. The adhesion was poor when the film had a high preferred orientation because the substrate was damaged by high energetic atoms bombardment. A two-stage growth method was investigated in order to get high [0 0 2] preferred orientation and good adhesion. A good performance was obtained at the first stage power of 1.5 kW and the second stage power of 2.0 kW. The film showed a tensile stress state when the film was deposited at 1.0 kW. In contrast, the stress state was changed to compressive when the films were grown at 2.0 kW. The two-stage growth could succeed not only to get a high [0 0 2] preferred orientation but also to develop a reducing global stress film

  14. See Also:physica status solidi (b)physica status solidi (c)Copyright © 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, WeinheimGet Sample CopyFree Online Trial -->Recommend to Your LibrarianSave Title to My ProfileSet E-Mail Alert var homepagelinks = new Array(new Array("Journal Home","/cgi-bin/jhome/40000761",""),new Array("Issues","/cgi-bin/jtoc/40000761/",""),new Array("Early View","/cgi-bin/jeview/40000761/",""),new Array("News","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/news/index.html",""),new Array("Reviews","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/reviews.html",""),new Array("Read Cover Story","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/cover/2231/current.html","e"),new Array("","","s"),new Array("Product Information","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/2231_info.html",""),new Array("Editorial Board","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/edbd.html",""),new Array("For Authors","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/authors.html",""),new Array("For Referees","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/refserv.html",""),new Array("Subscribe","http://jws-edcv.wiley.com/jcatalog/JournalsCatalogOrder/JournalOrder?PRINT_ISSN=0031-8965",""),new Array("Contact","/cgi-bin/jabout/40000761/contact.html",""),new Array("Online Submission","http://www.manuscriptxpress.org/osm/",""),new Array("","","x"));writeJournalLinks("", "40000761");issue nav --> Previous Issue | Next Issue >issue nav -->Volume 201, Issue14 (November 2004)Articles in the Current Issue:Rapid Research NoteHighly (001)-textured WS2-x films prepared by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellmer, K.; Mientus, R.; Seeger, S.; Weiß, V.

    2004-11-01

    Highly (001)-oriented WS2-x films were grown onto oxidized silicon substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering from a metallic tungsten target in argon-hydrogen sulfide mixtures. The best films with respect to the van-der-Waals orientation, i.e. with the (001) planes parallel to the substrate surface, were grown by excitation of the plasma with radio frequency of 27.12 MHz. These films exhibit the largest grains and the lowest film strain. It is shown that this effect is not due to the lower deposition rate at this high excitation frequency. Instead it was found that the lower DC voltage at the sputtering target is advantageous for the film growth since the bombardment of the growing film by highly energetic particles is avoided by this type of plasma excitation.

  15. FIRST SPECTROSCOPIC IMAGING OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUN AT LOW RADIO FREQUENCIES WITH THE MURCHISON WIDEFIELD ARRAY PROTOTYPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberoi, Divya; Matthews, Lynn D.; Lonsdale, Colin J.; Benkevitch, Leonid; Cairns, Iver H.; Lobzin, Vasili; Emrich, David; Wayth, Randall B.; Arcus, Wayne; Morgan, Edward H.; Williams, Christopher; Prabu, T.; Vedantham, Harish; Williams, Andrew; White, Stephen M.; Allen, G.; Barnes, David; Bernardi, Gianni; Bowman, Judd D.; Briggs, Frank H.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first spectroscopic images of solar radio transients from the prototype for the Murchison Widefield Array, observed on 2010 March 27. Our observations span the instantaneous frequency band 170.9- 201.6 MHz. Though our observing period is characterized as a period of 'low' to 'medium' activity, one broadband emission feature and numerous short-lived, narrowband, non-thermal emission features are evident. Our data represent a significant advance in low radio frequency solar imaging, enabling us to follow the spatial, spectral, and temporal evolution of events simultaneously and in unprecedented detail. The rich variety of features seen here reaffirms the coronal diagnostic capability of low radio frequency emission and provides an early glimpse of the nature of radio observations that will become available as the next generation of low-frequency radio interferometers come online over the next few years.

  16. Detection of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances by Medium Frequency Doppler Sounding Using AM Radio Transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcote, M. A.; Labelle, J. W.; Lind, F. D.; Coster, A. J.; Galkin, I. A.; Miller, E.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    Nighttime traveling ionosphere disturbances (TIDs) propagating in the lower F region of the ionosphere were detected from time variations in the Doppler shifts of commercial AM radio broadcast stations. Three separately deployed receivers, components of the Intercepted Signals for Ionospheric Science (ISIS) Array software radio instrumentation network, recorded signals from two radio stations during eleven nights in March-April, 2012. Combining these measurements established that variations in the frequencies of the received signals, with amplitudes up to a few tenths of a Hertz, resulted from Doppler shifts produced by the ionosphere. At times, TIDs were detected as large amplitude variations in the Doppler shift with approximately 40-minute period correlated across the array. For one study interval, 0000-0400 UT on April 13, 2012, simultaneous GPS-TEC, digisonde, and superDARN coherent backscatter radar measurements confirmed the detection of TIDs with the same period. Detection of the AM signals at widely spaced receivers allowed the phase velocity and wavelength of the TIDs to be inferred, with some limitations due to differing reflection heights for the different frequencies. These measurements will be compared to phase velocities and wavelengths determined from combining an array of GPS receivers; discrepancies due to the altitude sensitivity of the techniques or other effects will be discussed. These results demonstrate that AM radio signals can be used for detection of nighttime TIDs.

  17. Etching mechanism of niobium in coaxial Ar/Cl2 radio frequency plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, J.; Im, Do; Popović, S.; Vušković, L.; Valente-Feliciano, A.-M.; Phillips, L.

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of the Ar/Cl 2 plasma etching mechanism is crucial for the desired modification of inner surface of the three dimensional niobium (Nb) superconductive radio frequency cavities. Uniform mass removal in cylindrical shaped structures is a challenging task because the etch rate varies along the direction of gas flow. The study is performed in the asymmetric coaxial radio-frequency (rf) discharge with two identical Nb rings acting as a part of the outer electrode. The dependence of etch rate uniformity on pressure, rf power, dc bias, Cl 2 concentration, diameter of the inner electrode, temperature of the outer cylinder, and position of the samples in the structure is determined. To understand the plasma etching mechanisms, we have studied several factors that have important influence on the etch rate and uniformity, which include the plasma sheath potential, Nb surface temperature, and the gas flow rate

  18. Manipulation of ultracold atoms in dressed adiabatic radio-frequency potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesanovsky, Igor; Hofferberth, S.; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    We explore properties of atoms whose magnetic hyperfine sublevels are coupled by an external magnetic radio frequency (rf) field. We perform a thorough theoretical analysis of this driven system and present a number of systematic approximations which eventually give rise to dressed adiabatic radio...... frequency potentials. The predictions of this analytical investigation are compared to numerically exact results obtained by a wave packet propagation. We outline the versatility and flexibility of this class of potentials and demonstrate their potential use to build atom optical elements such as double...... wells, interferometers, and ringtraps. Moreover, we perform simulations of interference experiments carried out in rf induced double-well potentials. We discuss how the nature of the atom-field coupling mechanism gives rise to a decrease of the interference contrast....

  19. Radio frequency scanning tunneling spectroscopy for single-molecule spin resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllegger, Stefan; Tebi, Stefano; Das, Amal K; Schöfberger, Wolfgang; Faschinger, Felix; Koch, Reinhold

    2014-09-26

    We probe nuclear and electron spins in a single molecule even beyond the electromagnetic dipole selection rules, at readily accessible magnetic fields (few mT) and temperatures (5 K) by resonant radio-frequency current from a scanning tunneling microscope. We achieve subnanometer spatial resolution combined with single-spin sensitivity, representing a 10 orders of magnitude improvement compared to existing magnetic resonance techniques. We demonstrate the successful resonant spectroscopy of the complete manifold of nuclear and electronic magnetic transitions of up to ΔI(z)=±3 and ΔJ(z)=±12 of single quantum spins in a single molecule. Our method of resonant radio-frequency scanning tunneling spectroscopy offers, atom-by-atom, unprecedented analytical power and spin control with an impact on diverse fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  20. Etching mechanism of niobium in coaxial Ar/Cl2 radio frequency plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Janardan [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Im, Do [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Popovic, Svetozar [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Valente-Feliciano, Anne -Marie [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Phillips, H. Larry [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Vuskovic, Leposova [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The understanding of the Ar/Cl2 plasma etching mechanism is crucial for the desired modification of inner surface of the three dimensional niobium (Nb) superconductive radio frequency cavities. Uniform mass removal in cylindrical shaped structures is a challenging task because the etch rate varies along the direction of gas flow. The study is performed in the asymmetric coaxial radio-frequency (rf) discharge with two identical Nb rings acting as a part of the outer electrode. The dependence of etch rate uniformity on pressure, rf power, dc bias, Cl2 concentration, diameter of the inner electrode, temperature of the outer cylinder, and position of the samples in the structure is determined. Furthermore, to understand the plasma etching mechanisms, we have studied several factors that have important influence on the etch rate and uniformity, which include the plasma sheath potential, Nb surface temperature, and the gas flow rate.

  1. Remote Impedance-based Loose Bolt Inspection Using a Radio-Frequency Active Sensing Node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Hee; Yun, Chung Bang [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Inman, Daniel J. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This paper introduces an active sensing node using radio-frequency (RF) telemetry. This device has brought the traditional impedance-based structural health monitoring (SHM) technique to a new paradigm. The RF active sensing node consists of a miniaturized impedance measuring device (AD5933), a microcontroller (ATmega128L), and a radio frequency (RF) transmitter (XBee). A macro-fiber composite (MFC) patch interrogates a host structure by using a self-sensing technique of the miniaturized impedance measuring device. All the process including structural interrogation, data acquisition, signal processing, and damage diagnostic is being performed at the sensor location by the microcontroller. The RF transmitter is used to communicate the current status of the host structure. The feasibility of the proposed SHM strategy is verified through an experimental study inspecting loose bolts in a bolt-jointed aluminum structure

  2. Remote Impedance-based Loose Bolt Inspection Using a Radio-Frequency Active Sensing Node

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Hee; Yun, Chung Bang; Inman, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an active sensing node using radio-frequency (RF) telemetry. This device has brought the traditional impedance-based structural health monitoring (SHM) technique to a new paradigm. The RF active sensing node consists of a miniaturized impedance measuring device (AD5933), a microcontroller (ATmega128L), and a radio frequency (RF) transmitter (XBee). A macro-fiber composite (MFC) patch interrogates a host structure by using a self-sensing technique of the miniaturized impedance measuring device. All the process including structural interrogation, data acquisition, signal processing, and damage diagnostic is being performed at the sensor location by the microcontroller. The RF transmitter is used to communicate the current status of the host structure. The feasibility of the proposed SHM strategy is verified through an experimental study inspecting loose bolts in a bolt-jointed aluminum structure

  3. Failure data analysis of the SuperHILAC radio frequency subsystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, M.K.

    1978-12-01

    This report is a continuation of an earlier report by Liang with emphasis now on the Radio Frequency subsystem and its components, using current and improved data. It was stated in Liang's report that improvement in overall SuperHILAC availability, which must be very high for medical purposes, is best made by improving subsystems that are needed in all modes of operation. Two such subsystems were Radio Frequency (RF) and Other, with relatively low availabilities of .96 and .93 respectively. Since subsystem Other is not well defined, the RF became the object of this investigation. It was hoped that the components of the RF would show properties that were obscured at the higher level. The analytic procedure of this report is essentially identical to that in the earlier report, except that an operating period analysis is added

  4. Dual-frequency radio soundings of planetary ionospheres avoid misinterpretations of ionospheric features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paetzold, M.; Andert, T.; Bird, M. K.; Häusler, B.; Hinson, D. P.; Peter, K.; Tellmann, S.

    2017-12-01

    Planetary ionospheres are usually sounded at single frequency, e.g. S-band or X-band, or at dual-frequencies, e.g. simultaneous S-band and X-band frequencies. The differential Doppler is computed from the received dual-frequency sounding and it has the advantage that any residual motion by the spaceraft body is compensated. The electron density profile is derived from the propagation of the two radio signals through the ionospheric plasma. Vibrational motion of small amplitude by the spacecraft body may still be contained in the single frequency residuals and may be translated into electron densities. Examples from Mars Express and Venus Express shall be presented. Cases from other missions shall be presented where wave-like structures in the upper ionosphere may be a misinterpretation.

  5. Suppression of nonlinear frequency-sweeping of resonant interchange modes in a magnetic dipole with applied radio frequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslovsky, D.; Levitt, B.; Mauel, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Interchange instabilities excited by energetic electrons trapped by a magnetic dipole nonlinearly saturate and exhibit complex, coherent spectral characteristics and frequency sweeping [H. P. Warren and M. E. Mauel, Phys. Plasmas 2, 4185 (1995)]. When monochromatic radio frequency (rf) fields are applied in the range of 100-1000 MHz, the saturation behavior of the interchange instability changes dramatically. For applied fields of sufficient intensity and pulse-length, coherent interchange fluctuations are suppressed and frequency sweeping is eliminated. When rf fields are switched off, coherent frequency sweeping reappears. Since low frequency interchange instabilities preserve the electron's first and second adiabatic invariants, these observations can be interpreted as resulting from nonlinear resonant wave-particle interactions described within a particle phase-space, (ψ,φ), comprised of the third adiabatic invariant and the azimuthal angle. Self-consistent numerical simulation is used to study (1) the nonlinear development of the instability, (2) the radial mode structure of the interchange instability, and (3) the suppression of frequency sweeping. When the applied rf heating is modeled as an 'rf collisionality', the simulation reproduces frequency sweeping suppression and suggests an explanation for the observations that is consistent with Berk and co-workers [H. L. Berk et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 3102 (1999)

  6. Frequency, moisture content, and temperature dependent dielectric properties of potato starch related to drying with radio-frequency/microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuozhuo; Guo, Wenchuan

    2017-08-24

    To develop advanced drying methods using radio-frequency (RF) or microwave (MW) energy, dielectric properties of potato starch were determined using an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyzer at frequencies between 20 and 4,500 MHz, moisture contents between 15.1% and 43.1% wet basis (w.b.), and temperatures between 25 and 75 °C. The results showed that both dielectric constant (ε') and loss factor (ε″) were dependent on frequency, moisture content, and temperature. ε' decreased with increasing frequency at a given moisture content or temperature. At low moisture contents (≤25.4% w.b.) or low temperatures (≤45 °C), ε″ increased with increasing frequency. However, ε″ changed from decrease to increase with increasing frequency at high moisture contents or temperatures. At low temperatures (25-35 °C), both ε' and ε″ increased with increasing moisture content. At low moisture contents (15.1-19.5% w.b.), they increased with increasing temperature. The change trends of ε' and ε″ were different and dependent on temperature and moisture content at their high levels. The penetration depth (d p ) decreased with increasing frequency. RF treatments may provide potential large-scale industrial drying application for potato starch. This research offers useful information on dielectric properties of potato starch related to drying with electromagnetic energy.

  7. CrN/AlN nanolaminate coatings deposited via high power pulsed and middle frequency pulsed magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagcivan, N.; Bobzin, K.; Ludwig, A.; Grochla, D.; Brugnara, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Nanolaminate coatings based on transition metal nitrides such as CrN, AlN and TiN deposited via physical vapor deposition (PVD) have shown great advantage as protective coatings on tools and components subject to high loads in tribological applications. By varying the individual layer materials and their thicknesses it is possible to optimize the coating properties, e.g. hardness, Young's modulus and thermal stability. One way for further improvement of coating properties is the use of advanced PVD technologies. High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) is an advancement of pulsed magnetron sputtering (MS). The use of HPPMS allows a better control of the energetic bombardment of the substrate due to the higher ionization degree of metallic species. It provides an opportunity to influence chemical and mechanical properties by varying the process parameters. The present work deals with the development of CrN/AlN nanolaminate coatings in an industrial scale unit by using two different PVD technologies. Therefore, HPPMS and mfMS (middle frequency magnetron sputtering) technologies were used. The bilayer period Λ, i.e. the thickness of a CrN/AlN double layer, was varied between 6.2 nm and 47.8 nm by varying the rotational speed of the substrate holders. In a second step the highest rotational speed was chosen and further HPPMS CrN/AlN coatings were deposited applying different HPPMS pulse lengths (40, 80, 200 μs) at the same mean cathode power and frequency. Thickness, morphology, roughness and phase composition of the coatings were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser microscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The chemical composition was determined using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). Detailed characterization of the nanolaminate was conducted by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hardness and the Young's modulus were analyzed by nanoindentation measurements. The residual

  8. A technique to identify some typical radio frequency interference using support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanchao; Li, Mingtao; Li, Dawei; Zheng, Jianhua

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present a technique to automatically identify some typical radio frequency interference from pulsar surveys using support vector machine. The technique has been tested by candidates. In these experiments, to get features of SVM, we use principal component analysis for mosaic plots and its classification accuracy is 96.9%; while we use mathematical morphology operation for smog plots and horizontal stripes plots and its classification accuracy is 86%. The technique is simple, high accurate and useful.

  9. Mechanical design of SXLS [Superconducting X-ray Lithography Source] radio-frequency cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, P.; Sharma, S.; Keane, J.; Thomas, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical design of a Radio-Frequency (RF) cavity to be used on a compact storage ring for Superconducting X-ray Lithography Source (SXLS). Various design features of this cavity are discussed, including basic geometrical configuration, structural design, initial and operational tuning, vacuum multipactoring, power window, and damping of higher order modes. A second application of this cavity design for beam life extension in an existing storage ring is also described. 2 refs., 6 figs

  10. Near-Field Microwave Magnetic Nanoscopy of Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavity Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Tamin; Ghamsari, Behnood G.; Bieler, Thomas R.; Tan, Teng; Xi, X. X.; Anlage, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    A localized measurement of the RF critical field on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity materials is a key step to identify specific defects that produce quenches of SRF cavities. Two new measurements are performed to demonstrate these capabilities with a novel near-field scanning probe microwave microscope. The first is a third harmonic nonlinear measurement on a high Residual- Resistance-Ratio bulk Nb sample showing strong localized nonlinear response for the first time, with surfa...

  11. High performance superconducting radio frequency ingot niobium technology for continuous wave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati R.

    2015-01-01

    Future continuous wave (CW) accelerators require the superconducting radio frequency cavities with high quality factor and medium accelerating gradients (≤20 MV/m). Ingot niobium cavities with medium purity fulfill the specifications of both accelerating gradient and high quality factor with simple processing techniques and potential reduction in cost. This contribution reviews the current superconducting radiofrequency research and development and outlines the potential benefits of using ingot niobium technology for CW applications

  12. Mechanical design of SXLS (Superconducting X-ray Lithography Source) radio-frequency cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortazavi, P.; Sharma, S.; Keane, J.; Thomas, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical design of a Radio-Frequency (RF) cavity to be used on a compact storage ring for Superconducting X-ray Lithography Source (SXLS). Various design features of this cavity are discussed, including basic geometrical configuration, structural design, initial and operational tuning, vacuum multipactoring, power window, and damping of higher order modes. A second application of this cavity design for beam life extension in an existing storage ring is also described. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Flux pinning characteristics in cylindrical ingot niobium used in superconducting radio frequency cavity fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Dhavale, Asavari S.; Dhakal, Pashupati; Polyanskii, Anatolii A.; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of from DC magnetization and penetration depth measurements of cylindrical bulk large-grain (LG) and fine-grain (FG) niobium samples used for the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. The surface treatment consisted of electropolishing and low temperature baking as they are typically applied to SRF cavities. The magnetization data were fitted using a modified critical state model. The critical current density Jc and pinning force Fp are calculat...

  14. Niobium thin film deposition studies on copper surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    OpenAIRE

    W. M. Roach; D. B. Beringer; J. R. Skuza; W. A. Oliver; C. Clavero; C. E. Reece; R. A. Lukaszew

    2012-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the potential to increase both the thermal efficiency and accelerating gradient in superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities. However, before this potential can be realized, systematic studies on structure-property correlations in these thin films need to be carried out since the reduced geometry, combined with specific growth parameters, can modify the physical properties of the materials when compared to their bulk form. Here, we present our systematic stu...

  15. Radio frequency identification and time-driven activity based costing:RFID-TDABC application in warehousing

    OpenAIRE

    Bahr, Witold; Price, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper extends the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) data for accounting of warehouse costs and services. Time Driven Activity Based Costing (TDABC) methodology is enhanced with the real-time collected RFID data about duration of warehouse activities. This allows warehouse managers to have accurate and instant calculations of costs. The RFID enhanced TDABC (RFID-TDABC) is proposed as a novel application of the RFID technology. Research Approach: Application of RFID-TDA...

  16. Operational characteristics of a 100-mA, 2-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.F.; Cottingame, W.B.; Bolme, G.O.; Fortgang, C.M.; Ingalls, W.B.; Marquardt, J.; Rusthoi, D.P.; Sander, O.R.; Smith, M.; Worth, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    A 100-mA, 2.07-MeV Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ III) has been commissioned and operated routinely on the Accelerator Test Stand (ATS) [1] at Los Alamos National Laboratory. To characterize the RFQ output beam dynamics, measurements were made of the beam transmission and of the transverse and longitudinal phase-space distributions. Data were taken for different RFQ III operating conditions and compared to simulations

  17. Radio frequency regenerative oscillations in monolithic high-Q/V heterostructured photonic crystal cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jinghui; Gu, Tingyi; Zheng, Jiangjun; Wei Wong, Chee; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    2014-01-01

    We report temporal and spectral domain observation of regenerative oscillation in monolithic silicon heterostructured photonic crystals cavities with high quality factor to mode volume ratios (Q/V). The results are interpreted by nonlinear coupled mode theory (CMT) tracking the dynamics of photon, free carrier population, and temperature variations. We experimentally demonstrate effective tuning of the radio frequency tones by laser-cavity detuning and laser power levels, confirmed by the CMT simulations with sensitive input parameters

  18. History and Technology Developments of Radio Frequency (RF) Systems for Particle Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, A.; Chase, B.; Craievich, P.; Fabris, A.; Frischholz, H.; Jacob, J.; Jensen, E.; Jensen, M.; Kustom, R.; Pasquinelli, R.

    2016-04-01

    This article attempts to give a historical account and review of technological developments and innovations in radio frequency (RF) systems for particle accelerators. The evolution from electrostatic field to the use of RF voltage suggested by R. Wideröe made it possible to overcome the shortcomings of electrostatic accelerators, which limited the maximum achievable electric field due to voltage breakdown. After an introduction, we will provide reviews of technological developments of RF systems for particle accelerators.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Spheroidization Process of TiAl Alloy Powders in Radio Frequency Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    ZHU Langping; LU Xin; LIU Chengcheng; LI Jianchong; NAN Hai

    2017-01-01

    A numerical simulation method was used to study the radio frequency plasma spheroidization process of TiAl alloy powder. The effects of velocity field and temperature field on the motion trajectory and mass change of TiAl alloy powder with different particle size were analyzed.The results show that the temperature of powder particles increases rapidly under high temperature plasma, surface evaporation cause the reduction of particle size, and particles with small size tend to evaporate quickl...

  20. Adiabatic radio-frequency potentials for the coherent manipulation of matter waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesanovsky, Igor; Schumm, Thorsten; Hofferberth, S.

    2006-01-01

    Adiabatic dressed state potentials are created when magnetic substates of trapped atoms are coupled by a radio-frequency field. We discuss their theoretical foundations and point out fundamental advantages over potentials purely based on static fields. The enhanced flexibility enables one...... to implement numerous configurations, including double wells, Mach-Zehnder, and Sagnac interferometers which even allows for internal state-dependent atom manipulation. These can be realized using simple and highly integrated wire geometries on atom chips....

  1. Morphological aspects of poly-organic impact of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation in experiment

    OpenAIRE

    TASHPULATOVA GUZAL ALIEVNA; MAVLYAN-HODZHAEV RAVSHAN SHUKHRATOVICH

    2015-01-01

    The impact of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) on morphological responses of some organs of experimental animals has been studied. The RFEMR effect was shown to manifest itself by pathological changes in the structure of the majority of organs and tissues with the critical impact of the micro-vascular bed impairment on not only morphological, metabolic but also many other homeostasis shifts that occurred.

  2. Strong Meissner screening change in superconducting radio frequency cavities due to mild baking

    OpenAIRE

    Romanenko, A.; Grassellino, A.; Barkov, F.; Suter, A.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate "hot" regions with anomalous high field dissipation in bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators by using low energy muon spin rotation (LE-$\\mu$SR) on corresponding cavity cutouts. We demonstrate that superconducting properties at the hot region are well described by the non-local Pippard/BCS model for niobium in the clean limit with a London penetration depth $\\lambda_\\mathrm{L} = 23 \\pm 2$ nm. In contrast, a cutout sample from the 120$^\\...

  3. Nanostructural features degrading the performance of superconducting radio frequency niobium cavities revealed by TEM and EELS

    OpenAIRE

    Trenikhina, Y.; Romanenko, A.; Kwon, J.; Zuo, J. -M.; Zasadzinski, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale defect structure within the magnetic penetration depth of ~100nm is key to the performance limitations of niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Using a unique combination of advanced thermometry during cavity RF measurements, and TEM structural and compositional characterization of the samples extracted from cavity walls, we discover the existence of nanoscale hydrides in electropolished cavities limited by the high field Q slope, and show the decreased hydride for...

  4. Internet of things and radio frequency identification in care taking, facts and privacy challenges.

    OpenAIRE

    Frederix, Ines

    2009-01-01

    Internet of Things technologies such as radio frequency identification are about to be able to help aging and sick people and even compensate for some disabilities. The use of these technologies in health care represents a promising development in information technology, but also raises important ethical, legal and social issues. This paper explores the use of these technologies in health care environments and formulates recommendations for further research that can ensure that the pati...

  5. Branched carbon nanofiber network synthesis at room temperature using radio frequency supported microwave plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Boskovic, BO; Stolojan, V; Zeze, DA; Forrest, RD; Silva, SRP; Haq, S

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers have been grown at room temperature using a combination of radio frequency and microwave assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The nanofibers were grown, using Ni powder catalyst, onto substrates kept at room temperature by using a purposely designed water-cooled sample holder. Branched carbon nanofiber growth was obtained without using a template resulting in interconnected carbon nanofiber network formation on substrates held at room temperatur...

  6. Medical equipment management through the use of radio frequency identification (RFID)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Joaquin A.; Nixon, Richard A.; Chávez, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    MBA Professional Report Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited The purpose of this MBA project is to identify the potential value of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) use in the management of medical equipment at Naval Medical Center San Diego (NMCSD). In doing so, our project seeks to derive potential benefits through the use of RFID technology by comparing a group of medical equipment items that are tracked within NMCSD. The project includes a discussion of additio...

  7. Radio frequency selective addressing of localized atoms in a periodic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, H.; De Mirandes, E.; Ferlaino, F.; Roati, G.; Tuerck, V.; Modugno, G.; Inguscio, M.

    2004-01-01

    We study the localization and addressability of ultracold atoms in a combined parabolic and periodic potential. Such a potential supports the existence of localized stationary states and we show that applying a radio frequency field allows us to selectively address atoms in these states. This method is used to measure the energy and momentum distribution of the atoms in the localized states. We also discuss possible extensions of this scheme to address and manipulate atoms in single lattice sites

  8. Development of Hybrid Kiln Drying System with Radio Frequency Heating for the Sugi Heart Timber

    OpenAIRE

    Piao, Jinji; Fujimoto, Noboru; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Nagata, Soji

    2007-01-01

    In this study, proper applied stage of the radio-frequency (RF) heating during kiln drying based on the quality concerning the surface checks of the boxed heart timbers was examined. At the stage of the RF heating the moisture contents decreased clearly at the internal parts of timbers. The surface stress of the sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) boxed heart timber changed into the compression stress by the RF heating in any drying stage. The surface checks increased according to the decrease...

  9. Passive ultra high frequency radio frequency identification systems for single-item identification in food supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Barge

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the food industry, composition, size, and shape of items are much less regular than in other commodities sectors. In addition, a wide variety of packaging, composed by different materials, is employed. As material, size and shape of items to which the tag should be attached strongly influence the minimum power requested for tag functioning, performance improvements can be achieved only selecting suitable radio frequency (RF identifiers for the specific combination of food product and packaging. When dealing with logistics units, the dynamic reading of a vast number of tags could originate simultaneous broadcasting of signals (tag-to-tag collisions that could affect reading rates and the overall reliability of the identification procedure. This paper reports the results of an analysis of the reading performance of ultra high frequency radio frequency identification systems for multiple static and dynamic electronic identification of food packed products in controlled conditions. Products were considered when arranged on a logistics pallet. The effects on reading rate of different factors, among which the product type, the gate configuration, the field polarisation, the power output of the RF reader, the interrogation protocol configuration as well as the transit speed, the number of tags and their interactions were statistically analysed and compared.

  10. Design of radio frequency power amplifiers for cellular phones and base stations in modern mobile communication systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Lei

    2009-01-01

    The mobile radio communication has begun with Guglielmo Marconi's and Alexander Popov's experiments with ship-to-shore communication in the 1890's. Land mobile radio telephone systems have been used since the Detroit City Police Department installed the first wireless communication system in 1921. Since that time, radio systems have become more and more important for both voice and data communication. The modern mobile communication systems are mainly designed in high frequency ranges due...

  11. Transmission of Mössbauer rays through ferromagnets in radio-frequency magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyublik, A. Ya.; Sadykov, E. K.; Petrov, G. I.; Arinin, V. V.; Vagizov, F. G.; Spivak, V. Yu.

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of Mössbauer radiation through a thick ferromagnetic crystal, exposed to a radio-frequency (rf) magnetic field, is studied. The quantum-mechanical dynamical scattering theory is developed, taking into account the periodical reversals of the magnetic field at the nuclei. The Mössbauer forward scattering (FS) spectra of the weak ferromagnet FeBO 3 placed into rf field are measured. It is found that the coherent gamma wave in the crystal absorbs or emits only couples of the rf photons. As a result, the FS spectra consist of equidistant lines spaced by twice the frequency of the rf field in contrast to the absorption spectra

  12. Radio Frequency Interference Detection and Mitigation Techniques Using Data from Ecosar 2014 Flight Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Rincon, Rafael F.; Lee, SeungKuk; Fatoyinb, Temilola; Bollian, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Radio frequency interference (RFI) has strong influence on wide band airborne radar systems, especially operaingat L-band (1-2 GHz) or lower frequencies. EcoSAR is a P-band digital beamforming radar system, and RFI has tobe removed from raw echoes to obtain science quality data. In this paper we describe the current methodologyused to tackle RFI with EcoSAR, and provide an example on its performance. Finally, we discuss the advantagesand disadvantages of the method and mention potential improvements.

  13. Theoretical approach for plasma series resonance effect in geometrically symmetric dual radio frequency plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Chuaqui, H.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma series resonance (PSR) effect is well known in geometrically asymmetric capacitively couple radio frequency plasma. However, plasma series resonance effect in geometrically symmetric plasma has not been properly investigated. In this work, a theoretical approach is made to investigate the plasma series resonance effect and its influence on Ohmic and stochastic heating in geometrically symmetric discharge. Electrical asymmetry effect by means of dual frequency voltage waveform is applied to excite the plasma series resonance. The results show considerable variation in heating with phase difference between the voltage waveforms, which may be applicable in controlling the plasma parameters in such plasma.

  14. Design of Meander-Line Antennas for Radio Frequency Identification Based on Multiobjective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. L. Travassos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents optimization problem formulations to design meander-line antennas for passive UHF radio frequency identification tags based on given specifications of input impedance, frequency range, and geometric constraints. In this application, there is a need for directive transponders to select properly the target tag, which in turn must be ideally isotropic. The design of an effective meander-line antenna for RFID purposes requires balancing geometrical characteristics with the microchip impedance. Therefore, there is an issue of optimization in determining the antenna parameters for best performance. The antenna is analyzed by a method of moments. Some results using a deterministic optimization algorithm are shown.

  15. Bioactivity and Surface Reactivity of RF-sputtered Calcium Phosphate Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, Edwin van der

    2003-01-01

    Calcium phosphates (CaP) are known to be bioactive, i.e. able to bond to bone. This makes CaPs very suitable to be aplied as thin coatings on bone-implants. In this work we studied the physicochemical behaviour of CaP coatings applied with radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, a deposition

  16. The effects of thermal annealing in structural and optical properties of RF sputtered amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Fatah Awang Mat

    1988-01-01

    The effect of thermal annealing on structural and optical properties of amorphous silicon are studied on samples prepared by radio-frequency sputtering. The fundamental absorption edge of these films are investigated at room temperature and their respective parameters estimated. Annealing effect on optical properties is interpreted in terms of the removal of voids and a decrease of disorder. (author)

  17. CORRELATION OF FERMI PHOTONS WITH HIGH-FREQUENCY RADIO GIANT PULSES FROM THE CRAB PULSAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilous, A. V.; Kondratiev, V. I.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Mickaliger, M.; Ransom, S. M.; Lyutikov, M.; Langston, G. I.

    2011-01-01

    To constrain the giant pulse (GP) emission mechanism and test the model of Lyutikov for GP emission, we have carried out a campaign of simultaneous observations of the Crab pulsar at γ-ray (Fermi) and radio (Green Bank Telescope) wavelengths. Over 10 hr of simultaneous observations we obtained a sample of 2.1 x 10 4 GPs, observed at a radio frequency of 9 GHz, and 77 Fermi photons, with energies between 100 MeV and 5 GeV. The majority of GPs came from the interpulse (IP) phase window. We found no change in the GP generation rate within 10-120 s windows at lags of up to ±40 minutes of observed γ-ray photons. The 95% upper limit for a γ-ray flux enhancement in pulsed emission phase window around all GPs is four times the average pulsed γ-ray flux from the Crab. For the subset of IP GPs, the enhancement upper limit, within the IP emission window, is 12 times the average pulsed γ-ray flux. These results suggest that GPs, at least high-frequency IP GPs, are due to changes in coherence of radio emission rather than an overall increase in the magnetospheric particle density.

  18. Homogeneous spectral spanning of terahertz semiconductor lasers with radio frequency modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, W J; Li, H; Zhou, T; Cao, J C

    2017-03-08

    Homogeneous broadband and electrically pumped semiconductor radiation sources emitting in the terahertz regime are highly desirable for various applications, including spectroscopy, chemical sensing, and gas identification. In the frequency range between 1 and 5 THz, unipolar quantum cascade lasers employing electron inter-subband transitions in multiple-quantum-well structures are the most powerful semiconductor light sources. However, these devices are normally characterized by either a narrow emission spectrum due to the narrow gain bandwidth of the inter-subband optical transitions or an inhomogeneous broad terahertz spectrum from lasers with heterogeneous stacks of active regions. Here, we report the demonstration of homogeneous spectral spanning of long-cavity terahertz semiconductor quantum cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum and resonant phonon design under radio frequency modulation. At a single drive current, the terahertz spectrum under radio frequency modulation continuously spans 330 GHz (~8% of the central frequency), which is the record for single plasmon waveguide terahertz lasers with a bound-to-continuum design. The homogeneous broadband terahertz sources can be used for spectroscopic applications, i.e., GaAs etalon transmission measurement and ammonia gas identification.

  19. The Engineering Development Array: A Low Frequency Radio Telescope Utilising SKA Precursor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayth, Randall; Sokolowski, Marcin; Booler, Tom; Crosse, Brian; Emrich, David; Grootjans, Robert; Hall, Peter J.; Horsley, Luke; Juswardy, Budi; Kenney, David; Steele, Kim; Sutinjo, Adrian; Tingay, Steven J.; Ung, Daniel; Walker, Mia; Williams, Andrew; Beardsley, A.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Morales, M. F.; Pallot, D.; Trott, C. M.; Wu, C.

    2017-08-01

    We describe the design and performance of the Engineering Development Array, which is a low-frequency radio telescope comprising 256 dual-polarisation dipole antennas working as a phased array. The Engineering Development Array was conceived of, developed, and deployed in just 18 months via re-use of Square Kilometre Array precursor technology and expertise, specifically from the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. Using drift scans and a model for the sky brightness temperature at low frequencies, we have derived the Engineering Development Array's receiver temperature as a function of frequency. The Engineering Development Array is shown to be sky-noise limited over most of the frequency range measured between 60 and 240 MHz. By using the Engineering Development Array in interferometric mode with the Murchison Widefield Array, we used calibrated visibilities to measure the absolute sensitivity of the array. The measured array sensitivity matches very well with a model based on the array layout and measured receiver temperature. The results demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of using Murchison Widefield Array-style precursor technology for Square Kilometre Array-scale stations. The modular architecture of the Engineering Development Array allows upgrades to the array to be rolled out in a staged approach. Future improvements to the Engineering Development Array include replacing the second stage beamformer with a fully digital system, and to transition to using RF-over-fibre for the signal output from first stage beamformers.

  20. Radio frequency phototube and optical clock: High resolution, high rate and highly stable single photon timing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaryan, Amur

    2011-10-01

    A new timing technique for single photons based on the radio frequency phototube and optical clock or femtosecond optical frequency comb generator is proposed. The technique has a 20 ps resolution for single photons, is capable of operating with MHz frequencies and achieving 10 fs instability level.

  1. Electron heating mode transition induced by mixing radio frequency and ultrahigh frequency dual frequency powers in capacitive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, B. B.; Han, Jeon G.

    2016-01-01

    Electron heating mode transitions induced by mixing the low- and high-frequency power in dual-frequency nitrogen discharges at 400 mTorr pressure are presented. As the low-frequency (13.56 MHz) power decreases and high-frequency (320 MHz) power increases for the fixed power of 200 W, there is a transition of electron energy distribution function (EEDF) from Druyvesteyn to bi-Maxwellian type characterized by a distinguished warm electron population. It is shown that this EEDF evolution is attributed to the transition from collisional to collisionless stochastic heating of the low-energy electrons.

  2. A Novel L-Shape Ultra Wideband Chipless Radio-Frequency Identification Tag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Issa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel compact dual-polarized-spectral-signature-based chipless radio-frequency identification (RFID tag is presented. Specifically, an L-shape resonator-based structure is optimized to have different spectral signatures in both horizontal and vertical polarizations, in order to double the encoding capacity. Resonators’ slot width and the space between closely placed resonators are also optimized to enhance the mutual coupling, thereby helping in achieving high-data encoding density. The proposed RFID tag operates over 5 GHz to 10 GHz frequency band. As a proof of concept, three different 18-bit dual-polarized RFID tags are simulated, fabricated, and tested in an anechoic chamber environment. The measurement data show reasonable agreement with the simulation results, with respect to resonators’ frequency positions, null depth, and their bandwidth over the operational spectrum.

  3. Cryocooled wideband digital channelizing radio-frequency receiver based on low-pass ADC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernik, Igor V; Kirichenko, Dmitri E; Dotsenko, Vladimir V; Miller, Robert; Webber, Robert J; Shevchenko, Pavel; Talalaevskii, Andrei; Gupta, Deepnarayan; Mukhanov, Oleg A

    2007-01-01

    We have demonstrated a digital receiver performing direct digitization of radio-frequency signals over a wide frequency range from kilohertz to gigahertz. The complete system, consisting of a cryopackaged superconductor all-digital receiver (ADR) chip followed by room-temperature interface electronics and a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based post-processing module, has been developed. The ADR chip comprises a low-pass analog-to-digital converter (ADC) delta modulator with phase modulation-demodulation architecture together with digital in-phase and quadrature mixer and a pair of digital decimation filters. The chip is fabricated using a 4.5 kA cm -2 process and is cryopackaged using a commercial-off-the-shelf cryocooler. Experimental results in HF, VHF, UHF and L bands and their analysis, proving consistent operation of the cryopackaged ADR chip up to 24.32 GHz clock frequency, are presented and discussed

  4. Stamp transferred suspended graphene mechanical resonators for radio frequency electrical readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuefeng; Oksanen, Mika; Sillanpää, Mika A; Craighead, H G; Parpia, J M; Hakonen, Pertti J

    2012-01-11

    We present a simple micromanipulation technique to transfer suspended graphene flakes onto any substrate and to assemble them with small localized gates into mechanical resonators. The mechanical motion of the graphene is detected using an electrical, radio frequency (RF) reflection readout scheme where the time-varying graphene capacitor reflects a RF carrier at f = 5-6 GHz producing modulation sidebands at f ± f(m). A mechanical resonance frequency up to f(m) = 178 MHz is demonstrated. We find both hardening/softening Duffing effects on different samples and obtain a critical amplitude of ~40 pm for the onset of nonlinearity in graphene mechanical resonators. Measurements of the quality factor of the mechanical resonance as a function of dc bias voltage V(dc) indicates that dissipation due to motion-induced displacement currents in graphene electrode is important at high frequencies and large V(dc). © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. An interlaboratory comparison programme on radio frequency electromagnetic field measurements: the second round of the scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolopoulou, E.P.; Ztoupis, I.N.; Gonos, I.F.; Stathopulos, I.A.; Karabetsos, E.

    2015-01-01

    The second round of an interlaboratory comparison scheme on radio frequency electromagnetic field measurements has been conducted in order to evaluate the overall performance of laboratories that perform measurements in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations and broadcast antenna facilities. The participants recorded the electric field strength produced by two high frequency signal generators inside an anechoic chamber in three measurement scenarios with the antennas transmitting each time different signals at the FM, VHF, UHF and GSM frequency bands. In each measurement scenario, the participants also used their measurements in order to calculate the relative exposure ratios. The results were evaluated in each test level calculating performance statistics (z-scores and E n numbers). Subsequently, possible sources of errors for each participating laboratory were discussed, and the overall evaluation of their performances was determined by using an aggregated performance statistic. A comparison between the two rounds proves the necessity of the scheme. (authors)

  6. Experimental studies of the overshoot and undershoot in pulse-modulated radio-frequency atmospheric discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huo, W. G.; Li, R. M.; Shi, J. J. [School of Physics and Electronic Technology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Ding, Z. F., E-mail: huowg.wg@tom.com [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2016-08-15

    The overshoot and undershoot of the applied voltage on the electrodes, the discharge current, and radio frequency (RF) power were observed at the initial phase of pulse-modulated (PM) RF atmospheric pressure discharges, but factors influencing the overshoot and undershoot have not been fully elucidated. In this paper, the experimental studies were performed to seek the reasons for the overshoot and undershoot. The experimental results show that the overshoot and undershoot are associated with the pulse frequency, the rise time of pulse signal, and the series capacitor C{sub s} in the inversely L-shaped matching network. In the case of a high RF power discharge, these overshoot and undershoot become serious when shortening the rise time of a pulse signal (5 ns) or operating at a moderate pulse frequency (500 Hz or 1 kHz).

  7. MULTI-FREQUENCY STUDIES OF RADIO RELICS IN THE GALAXY CLUSTERS A4038, A1664, AND A786

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Ruta; Dwarakanath, K. S., E-mail: ruta@iucaa.ernet.in [Raman Research Institute, C. V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560 080 (India)

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-frequency study of radio relics associated with the galaxy clusters A4038, A1664, and A786. Radio images, integrated spectra, spectral index maps, and fits to the integrated spectra in the framework of the adiabatic compression model are presented. Images of the relic in A4038 at 150, 240, and 606 MHz with the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope have revealed extended ultra-steep spectrum ({alpha} {approx} -1.8 to -2.7) emission of extent 210 Multiplication-Sign 80 kpc{sup 2}. The model of passively evolving radio lobes compressed by a shock fits the integrated spectrum best. The relic with a circular morphology at the outskirts of the cluster A1664 has an integrated spectral index of {approx} - 1.10 {+-} 0.06 and is best fit by the model of radio lobes lurking for {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} yr. The relic near A786 has a curved spectrum and is best fit by a model of radio lobes lurking for {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} yr. At 4.7 GHz, a compact radio source, possibly the progenitor of the A786 relic, is detected near the center of the radio relic. The A786 radio relic is thus likely a lurking radio galaxy rather than a site of cosmological shock as has been considered in earlier studies.

  8. Communication Characteristics of Faulted Overhead High Voltage Power Lines at Low Radio Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Suljanović

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives a model of high-voltage overhead power line under fault conditions at low radio frequencies. The derived model is essential for design of communication systems to reliably transfer information over high voltage power lines. In addition, the model can also benefit advanced systems for power-line fault detection and classification exploiting the phenomenon of changed conditions on faulted power line, resulting in change of low radio frequency signal propagation. The methodology used in the paper is based on the multiconductor system analysis and propagation of electromagnetic waves over the power lines. The model for the high voltage power line under normal operation is validated using actual measurements obtained on 400 kV power line. The proposed model of faulted power lines extends the validated power-line model under normal operation. Simulation results are provided for typical power line faults and typical fault locations. Results clearly indicate sensitivity of power-line frequency response on different fault types.

  9. A NEW APPROACH TO MITIGATION OF RADIO FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE IN INTERFEROMETRIC DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athreya, Ramana

    2009-01-01

    Radio frequency interference (RFI) is the principal factor limiting the sensitivities of radio telescopes, particularly at frequencies below 1 GHz. I present a conceptually new approach to mitigation of RFI in interferometric data. This has been used to develop a software tool (RfiX) to remove RFI from observations using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, India. However, the concept can be used to excise RFI in any interferometer. Briefly, the fringe-stopped correlator output of an interferometer baseline oscillates with the fringe-stop period in the presence of RFI. RfiX works by identifying such a pattern and subtracting it from the data. It is perhaps the only purely software technique which can salvage the true visibility value from RFI-corrupted data. It neither requires high-speed hardware nor real-time processing and works best on normal correlator output integrated for 1-10 s. It complements other mitigation schemes with its different approach and the regime it addresses. Its ability to work with data integrated over many seconds gives it an advantage while excising weak, persistent RFI unlike most other techniques which use high-speed sampling to localize RFI in time-frequency plane. RfiX is also different in that it does not require RFI-free data to identify corrupted sections. Some results from the application of RfiX are presented including an image at 240 MHz with a peak/noise ratio of 43,000, the highest till date at wavelengths greater than 1 m.

  10. An experimental study on hepatic ablation using an expandable radio-frequency needle electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Il; Lim, Hyo Keun; Park, Jong Min; Kang, Bo Kyung; Woo, Ji Young; Jang, Hyun Jung; Kim, Seung Hoon; Lee, Won Jae; Park, Cheol Keun; Heo, Jin Seok

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors influencing on the size of thermal lesions after ablation using an expendable radio-frequency needle electrode in porcine liver. Ablation procedures involved the use of a monopolar radio-frequency generator and 15-G needle electrodes with four and seven retractable hooks (RITA Medical System, Mountain View, Cal., U.S.A.). The ablation protocol in fresh porcine liver comprised of combinations of varying hook deployment, highest set temperature, and ablation time. Following ablation, the maximum diameter of all thermal lesions was measured on a longitudinal section of the specimen. Ten representive lesions were examined by an experienced pathologist. At 3-cm hook deployment of the needle electrode with four lateral hooks, the size of spherical thermal lesions increased substantially with increases in the highest set temperature and ablation time until 11 minutes. After 11 minutes lesion size remained similar, with a maximum diameter of 3.3 cm. At 2-cm hook deployment, sizes decreased to about 2/3 of those at 3 cm , and at 1-cm hook deployment lesions were oblong. At 3-cm hook deployment of a needle electrode with seven hooks, the size of thermal lesions increased with increasing ablation time until 14 minutes, and the maximum diameter was 4.1 cm. Microscopic examination showed a wide zone of degeneration and focal coagulation necrosis. The size of thermal lesions produced by the use of an expandable radio-frequency needle electrode were predictable, varying according to degree of hook deployment, highest set temperature, and ablation time

  11. Adverse Influence of Radio Frequency Background on Trembling Aspen Seedlings: Preliminary Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Haggerty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous incidents of aspen decline have been recorded in North America over the past half century, and incidents of very rapid mortality of aspen clones have been observed in Colorado since 2004. The radio frequency (RF environment of the earth has undergone major changes in the past two centuries due to the development and use of electricity in power and communications applications, and the anthropogenic RF background continues to increase in intensity and complexity. This study suggests that the RF background may have strong adverse effects on growth rate and fall anthocyanin production in aspen, and may be an underlying factor in aspen decline.

  12. Occupational exposure to radio frequency/microwave radiation and the risk of brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Spallek, Jacob; Schüz, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    It is still under debate whether occupational exposure to radio frequency/microwave electromagnetic fields (RF/MW-EMF) contributes to the development of brain tumors. This analysis examined the role of occupational RF/MW-EMF exposure in the risk of glioma and meningioma. A population-based, case....... "High" exposure was defined as an occupational exposure that may exceed the RF/MW-EMF exposure limits for the general public recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Multiple conditional logistic regressions were performed separately for glioma and meningioma...

  13. Beam characterization of a new continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, A., E-mail: aperry4@hawk.iit.edu [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Dickerson, C.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Zinkann, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    A new Continuous Wave (CW) Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) for the ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System) Intensity Upgrade was developed, built and tested at Argonne National Laboratory. We present here a characterization of the RFQ output beam in the longitudinal phase space, as well as a measurement of the transverse beam halo. Measurement results are compared to simulations performed using the beam dynamics code TRACK. -- Highlights: • Beam commissioning of a new CW RFQ has been performed at Argonne National Laboratory. • Energy spread and bunch shape measurements were conducted. • The formation of a beam halo in the transverse phase space was studied.

  14. Transmission line theory for long plasma production by radio frequency discharges between parallel-plate electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.

    1991-01-01

    In order to seek for a radio frequency (RF) eigen-mode of waves in producing a plasma between a pair of long dielectric-covered parallel-plate RF electrodes, this paper analyzed all normal modes propagating along the electrodes by solving Maxwell's equations. The result showed that only an odd surface wave mode will produce the plasma in usual experimental conditions, which will become a basic transmission line theory when use of such long electrodes for on-line mass-production of amorphous silicon solar cells

  15. A radio frequency ring electrode cooler for low-energy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, S.; Aeystoe, J.; Habs, D.; Hegewisch, S.; Huikari, J.; Nieminen, A.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Schumann, M.; Szerypo, J.

    2004-01-01

    We are investigating a new concept for ion confinement while buffer-gas-cooling low-energy ion beams. Instead of applying the well-established technique of Radio Frequency Quadrupoles (RFQs) where the ions are transversely confined by a quadratic-pseudo potential we are using a stack of thin ring electrodes supplied by an RF field (RF funnel) which creates a box-shaped potential well. In Monte Carlo simulations we have investigated the transmission behavior and cooling performance of the RF funnel. First experimental investigations with ion currents up to 20 nA revealed a promising transmission characteristic which qualifies the RF funnel as high-current cooler

  16. Superconducting radio frequency technology: Expanding the horizons of physics and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.A.; Leemann, C.W.; Sundelin, R.M.; Hartline, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a major new technology supporting the further evolution of accelerators: superconducting radio frequency (SRF) technology, which is today on the verge of large-scale application in accelerators. Originally foreseen in the early 1960s as a promising technology, SRF only recently has overcome several technological and practical hurdles. SRF accelerating structures promise low rf losses and high gradients under cw operation. High-quality, intense cw beams can be accelerated without risk of melting the structure and without requiring enormous amounts of input rf power

  17. Impact of high temperature superconductors on the possibility of radio-frequency confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.O.

    1989-01-01

    Recent discoveries of superconducting materials that operate at high temperatures may have both technical and economic consequences for magnetic confinement fusion. In addition, they could also open up the possibility of plasma confinement by radio-frequency fields. The new, high temperature superconductors may impact the feasibility of rf confinement in two important ways: (1) higher temperature superconductors should have higher critical B fields and consequently may allow higher critical electric fields to be sustained in the cavity, thus allowing the necessary confining pressure to be achieved; and (2) the higher temperature superconductors lower the refrigeration power necessary to maintain the superconducting cavity, thus allowing a favorable energy balance

  18. Ignition and monitoring technique for plasma processing of multicell superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doleans, Marc

    2016-12-01

    An in-situ plasma processing technique has been developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to improve the performance of the superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities in operation. The technique uses a low-density reactive neon-oxygen plasma at room-temperature to improve the surface work function, to help remove adsorbed gases on the RF surface, and to reduce its secondary emission yield. SNS SRF cavities have six accelerating cells and the plasma typically ignites in the cell where the electric field is the highest. This article details the technique to ignite and monitor the plasma in each cell of the SNS cavities.

  19. Near-field microwave magnetic nanoscopy of superconducting radio frequency cavity materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Tamin; Ghamsari, Behnood G.; Bieler, Thomas R.; Tan, Teng; Xi, X. X.; Anlage, Steven M.

    2014-06-01

    A localized measurement of the RF critical field on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity materials is a key step to identify specific defects that produce quenches of SRF cavities. Two measurements are performed to demonstrate these capabilities with a near-field scanning probe microwave microscope. The first is a third harmonic nonlinear measurement on a high Residual-Resistance-Ratio bulk Nb sample showing strong localized nonlinear response, with surface RF magnetic field Bsurface˜102 mT. The second is a raster scanned harmonic response image on a MgB2 thin film demonstrating a uniform nonlinear response over large areas.

  20. Low temperature laser scanning microscopy of a superconducting radio-frequency cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Ciovati, G.; Anlage, Steven M.; Baldwin, C.; Cheng, G.; Flood, R.; Jordan, K.; Kneisel, P.; Morrone, M.; Nemes, G.; Turlington, L.; Wang, H.; Wilson, K.; Zhang, S.

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus was developed to obtain, for the first time, 2D maps of the surface resistance of the inner surface of an operating superconducting radio-frequency niobium cavity by a low-temperature laser scanning microscopy technique. This allows identifying non-uniformities of the surface resistance with a spatial resolution of about one order of magnitude better than with earlier methods and surface resistance resolution of ~ 1 micro-Ohm at 3.3 GHz. A signal-to-noise ratio of about 10 dB was...

  1. Laser Processing on the Surface of Niobium Superconducting Radio-Frequency Accelerator Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, Senthilraja; Klopf, Michael; Krafft, Geoffrey; Kelley, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Superconducting Radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities are at the heart of an increasing number of particle accelerators.~ Their performance is dominated by a several nm thick layer at the interior surface. ~Maximizing its smoothness is found to be critical and aggressive chemical treatments are employed to this end.~ We describe laser-induced surface melting as an alternative ``greener'' approach.~ Modeling guided selection of parameters for irradiation with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.~ The resulting topography was examined by SEM, AFM and Stylus Profilometry.

  2. Electromagnetic characterization of superconducting radio-frequency cavities for gw detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantini, R.; Bernard, Ph; Chincarini, A.; Gemme, G.; Parodi, R.; Picasso, E.

    2004-03-01

    The electromagnetic properties of a prototype gravitational wave detector, based on two coupled superconducting microwave cavities, were tested. The radio-frequency (rf) detection system was carefully analysed. With the use of piezoelectric crystals small harmonic displacements of the cavity walls were induced and the parametric conversion of the electromagnetic field inside the cavities explored. Experimental results of bandwidth and sensitivity of the parametric converter versus stored energy and voltage applied to the piezoelectric crystal are reported. A rf control loop, developed to stabilize phase changes on signal paths, gave a 125 dBc rejection of the drive mode on a time scale of 1 h.

  3. Electromagnetic characterization of superconducting radio-frequency cavities for gw detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballantini, R; Bernard, Ph; Chincarini, A; Gemme, G; Parodi, R; Picasso, E

    2004-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of a prototype gravitational wave detector, based on two coupled superconducting microwave cavities, were tested. The radio-frequency (rf) detection system was carefully analysed. With the use of piezoelectric crystals small harmonic displacements of the cavity walls were induced and the parametric conversion of the electromagnetic field inside the cavities explored. Experimental results of bandwidth and sensitivity of the parametric converter versus stored energy and voltage applied to the piezoelectric crystal are reported. A rf control loop, developed to stabilize phase changes on signal paths, gave a 125 dBc rejection of the drive mode on a time scale of 1 h

  4. Reactive hydroxyl radical-driven oral bacterial inactivation by radio frequency atmospheric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sung Kil; Lee, Jae Koo; Choi, Myeong Yeol; Koo, Il Gyo; Kim, Paul Y.; Kim, Yoonsun; Kim, Gon Jun; Collins, George J.; Mohamed, Abdel-Aleam H.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrated bacterial (Streptococcus mutans) inactivation by a radio frequency power driven atmospheric pressure plasma torch with H 2 O 2 entrained in the feedstock gas. Optical emission spectroscopy identified substantial excited state OH generation inside the plasma and relative OH formation was verified by optical absorption. The bacterial inactivation rate increased with increasing OH generation and reached a maximum 5-log 10 reduction with 0.6%H 2 O 2 vapor. Generation of large amounts of toxic ozone is drawback of plasma bacterial inactivation, thus it is significant that the ozone concentration falls within recommended safe allowable levels with addition of H 2 O 2 vapor to the plasma.

  5. Vital Signs Monitoring System Using Radio Frequency Communication: A Medical Care Terminal for Beddridden People Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio FERREIRA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the data transmission of an acquisition system for biomedical vital signs via Radio Frequency (RF communication is explored. This system can be considered a medical care terminal (MCT. It was developed a platform capable of recording the patient's physiological signals to check if any medical evolution/change occurred. The system allows also acquiring the environment data, as for example the room temperature and luminosity. The main achievement of this paper is the patients’ real-time health condition monitoring by the medical personnel or caregivers that will contribute to prevent health problems, especially for bedridden people with reduced mobility.

  6. Degradation of methylene blue by radio frequency plasmas in water under ultraviolet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehara, Tsunehiro, E-mail: maehara@phys.sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nishiyama, Kyohei; Onishi, Shingo; Mukasa, Shinobu; Toyota, Hiromichi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kuramoto, Makoto [Integrated Center for Science, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nomura, Shinfuku [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kawashima, Ayato [Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8566 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    The degradation of methylene blue by radio frequency (RF) plasmas in water under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was studied experimentally. When the methylene blue solution was exposed to RF plasma, UV irradiation from a mercury vapor lamp enhanced degradation significantly. A lamp without power supply also enhanced degradation since weak UV light was emitted weakly from the lamp due to the excitation of mercury vapor by stray RF power. Such an enhancement is explained by the fact that after hydrogen peroxide is produced via the recombination process of OH radicals around the plasma, OH radicals reproduced from hydrogen peroxide via the photolysis process degrade methylene blue.

  7. Note: Radio frequency surface impedance characterization system for superconducting samples at 7.5 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, B P; Reece, C E; Phillips, H L; Geng, R L; Wang, H; Marhauser, F; Kelley, M J

    2011-05-01

    A radio frequency (RF) surface impedance characterization (SIC) system that uses a novel sapphire-loaded niobium cavity operating at 7.5 GHz has been developed as a tool to measure the RF surface impedance of flat superconducting material samples. The SIC system can presently make direct calorimetric RF surface impedance measurements on the central 0.8 cm(2) area of 5 cm diameter disk samples from 2 to 20 K exposed to RF magnetic fields up to 14 mT. To illustrate system utility, we present first measurement results for a bulk niobium sample.

  8. Analysis of Higher Order Modes in Large Superconducting Radio Frequency Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Galek, Tomasz; Brackebusch, Korinna; Van Rienen, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities used for accelerating charged particle beams are commonly used in accelerator facilities around the world. The design and optimization of modern superconducting RF cavities requires intensive numerical simulations. Vast number of operational parameters must be calculated to ensure appropriate functioning of the accelerating structures. In this study, we primarily focus on estimation and behavior of higher order modes in superconducting RF cavities connected in chains. To calculate large RF models the state-space concatenation scheme, an efficient hybrid method, is employed.

  9. Low-beam-loss design of a compact, high-current deuteron radio frequency quadrupole accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhang

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A 201.5 MHz, 50 mA, 2.0 MeV deuteron radio frequency quadrupole accelerator is proposed as the neutron generator for the neutron experiment facility project at Peking University, China. Based on better understanding of beam losses, some new optimization procedures concerning both longitudinal and transverse dynamics are adopted. Accordingly, the beam transmission efficiency is improved from 91.2% to 98.3% and the electrode length is shortened from 2.91 to 2.71 m. The fundamental physical analyses are performed to look inside the new design recipe and explain why it works.

  10. Vane fabrication for the proof-of-principle radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.W.; Potter, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The electrodes for the Proof-of-Principle (POP) Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator were machined on a numerically controlled, three-axis, vertical mill. These pole tips, or vanes, were prepared for, and used, in the successful demonstration of RFQ practicality at Los Alamos National Laboratory in February 1980. The data set that described the vanes contained about 10 million bits of tool position data. The vanes were cut from OFHC copper blanks. The tolerances achieved were approximately +- 0.005 cm. The design and manufacturing procedures are described

  11. Epiphysiodesis Made with Radio Frequency Ablation: First Results From a Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Gottliebsen, Martin; Rahbek, Ole

    for a reliable and precise procedure which overcomes the complications. Development of a new technique for epiphysiodesis using radiofrequency ablation on an animal model that involves less scarring, less exposure to X-rays, and reduces the risk of injuring the surrounding structures compared to current methods...... the procedure and 12 weeks later. The length of both tibiae was measured. Both legs were equal at the beginning of the study and there was a leg length difference of around 4mm at the end. No damage to the surrounding cartilage structures was found. Epiphysiodesis using radio frequency ablation is an innovative...

  12. Synthesis of sheath voltage drops in asymmetric radio-frequency discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonemura, Shigeru; Nanbu, Kenichi; Iwata, Naoaki

    2004-01-01

    A sheath voltage drop in asymmetric discharges is one of the most important parameters of radio-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas because it determines the kinetic energy of the ions incident on the target or substrate. In this study, we developed a numerical simulation code to estimate the sheath voltage drops and, consequently, the self-bias voltage. We roughly approximated general asymmetric rf discharges to one-dimensional spherical ones. The results obtained by using our simulation code are consistent with measurements and Lieberman's theory

  13. Stabilized operation of the Spallation Neutron Source radio-frequency quadrupole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-ho Kim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ had resonance control instabilities at duty factors higher than approximately 4%. Systematic investigations have been carried out to understand the cause of the instability and to ensure the operational stability of the RFQ. The most critical source of the instability is revealed to be an interaction between hydrogen released by beam bombardments and the RFQ rf field resulting in a discharge, which consumes additional rf power and could cause the RFQ to operate in an unstable region. This paper reports improvement of the SNS RFQ operational stability based on the findings during the SNS operation.

  14. High resolution kilometric range optical telemetry in air by radio frequency phase measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillory, Joffray; García-Márquez, Jorge; Truong, Daniel; Wallerand, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-Cnam (LCM), LNE, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris (France); Šmíd, Radek [Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-Cnam (LCM), LNE, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris (France); Institute of Scientific Instruments of the CAS, Kralovopolska 147, 612 64 Brno (Czech Republic); Alexandre, Christophe [Centre d’Études et de Recherche en Informatique et Communications (CEDRIC), Cnam, 292 rue St-Martin, 75003 Paris (France)

    2016-07-15

    We have developed an optical Absolute Distance Meter (ADM) based on the measurement of the phase accumulated by a Radio Frequency wave during its propagation in the air by a laser beam. In this article, the ADM principle will be described and the main results will be presented. In particular, we will emphasize how the choice of an appropriate photodetector can significantly improve the telemeter performances by minimizing the amplitude to phase conversion. Our prototype, tested in the field, has proven its efficiency with a resolution better than 15 μm for a measurement time of 10 ms and distances up to 1.2 km.

  15. Improvement on control system of the JT-60 radio frequency heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozaki, Shin-ichi; Moriyama, Shinichi; Hiranai, Shinichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Sato, Fumiaki [Nippon Advanced Technology Co., Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    On the JT-60 radio frequency (RF) heating system, the decrease in the activity ratio was a problem because of the deterioration of the control system. To improve the reliability, we replaced CAMAC system for a power injection control system, which was a main cause of the trouble, with the microprocessor system. And, a function of computer supported programming function of RF power injection form was introduced, which contributed to reduce a load of operators. Furthermore, personal computers with network communication were introduced to improve a maintenance ability of the control system. As a result, the activity ratio of the RF heating system was improved significantly. (author)

  16. Novel radio-frequency gun structures for ultrafast relativistic electron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, P; Faillace, L; Fukasawa, A; Moody, J T; O'Shea, B; Rosenzweig, J B; Scoby, C M

    2009-08-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) photoinjector-based relativistic ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) is a promising new technique that has the potential to probe structural changes at the atomic scale with sub-100 fs temporal resolution in a single shot. We analyze the limitations on the temporal and spatial resolution of this technique considering the operating parameters of a standard 1.6 cell RF gun (which is the RF photoinjector used for the first experimental tests of relativistic UED at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; University of California, Los Angeles; Brookhaven National Laboratory), and study the possibility of employing novel RF structures to circumvent some of these limits.

  17. Primary user localisation and uplink resource allocation in orthogonal frequency division multiple access cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2015-05-21

    In cognitive radio networks, secondary users (SUs) can share spectrum with primary users (PUs) under the condition that no interference is caused to the PUs. To evaluate the interference imposed to the PUs, the cognitive systems discussed in the literature usually assume that the channel state information (CSI) of the link from a secondary transmitter to a primary receiver (interference link) is known at the secondary transmitter. However, this assumption may often be impractical in cognitive radio systems, since the PUs need to be oblivious to the presence of the SUs. The authors first discuss PU localisation and then introduce an uplink resource allocation algorithm for orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based cognitive radio systems, where relative location information between primary and SUs is used instead of CSI of the interference link to estimate the interference. Numerical and simulation results show that it is indeed effective to use location information as a part of resource allocation and thus a near-optimal capacity is achieved. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2015.

  18. Compact printed two dipole array antenna with a high front-back ratio for ultra-high-frequency radio-frequency identification handheld reader applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qi; Zhang, Shuai; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    A printed two-dipole array antenna with a high front-back ratio is proposed for ultra-high-frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification handheld readers. The proposed antenna is a parasitic dual-element array with the ends of both elements folded back towards each other for additional coupling....

  19. Comparison of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Bi{sup 3+} phosphor thin films fabricated by the spin coating and radio frequency magnetron techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafer, R.M.; Yousif, A. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 321, Postal Code 11115 Omdurman (Sudan); Kumar, Vinod [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Pathak, Trilok Kumar [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Semiconductor Physics Lab, Department of Physics, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar (India); Purohit, L.P. [Semiconductor Physics Lab, Department of Physics, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar (India); Swart, H.C., E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Coetsee, E., E-mail: CoetseeE@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa)

    2016-09-15

    The reactive radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and spin coating fabrication techniques were used to fabricate Y{sub 2−x}O{sub 3}:Bi{sub x=0.5%} phosphor thin films. The two techniques were analysed and compared as part of investigations being done on the application of down-conversion materials for a Si solar cell. The morphology, structural and optical properties of these thin films were investigated. The X-ray diffraction results of the thin films fabricated by both techniques showed cubic structures with different space groups. The optical properties showed different results because the Bi{sup 3+} ion is very sensitive towards its environment. The luminescence results for the thin film fabricated by the spin coating technique is very similar to the luminescence observed in the powder form. It showed three obvious emission bands in the blue and green regions centered at about 360, 410 and 495 nm. These emissions were related to the {sup 3}P{sub 1}–{sup 1}S{sub 0} transition of the Bi{sup 3+} ion situated in the two different sites of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix with I a-3(206) space group. Whereas the thin film fabricated by the radio frequency magnetron technique showed a broad single emission band in the blue region centered at about 416 nm. This was assigned to the {sup 3}P{sub 1}–{sup 1}S{sub 0} transition of the Bi{sup 3+} ion situated in one of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix's sites with a Fm-3 (225) space group. The spin coating fabrication technique is suggested to be the best technique to fabricate the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Bi{sup 3+} phosphor thin films. - Highlights: • RF sputtering and spin coating were used to fabricate Y{sub 2−x}O{sub 3}:Bi{sub x=0.5%} phosphor thin films. • XRD results of the two films showed cubic structures with different space groups. • PL showed different emission for the Bi{sup 3+} ions in the two films. • Three emission bands in the blue and green regions centered at about 360, 410 and 495 nm. • RF

  20. Note: A versatile radio-frequency source for cold atom experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Na; Wu, Yu-Ping; Min, Hao; Yang, Tao; Jiang, Xiao, E-mail: jiangx@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); CAS Center for Excellence and Synergetic Innovation Center in Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-08-15

    A radio-frequency (RF) source designed for cold atom experiments is presented. The source uses AD9858, a direct digital synthesizer, to generate the sine wave directly, up to 400 MHz, with sub-Hz resolution. An amplitude control circuit consisting of wideband variable gain amplifier and high speed digital to analog converter is integrated into the source, capable of 70 dB off isolation and 4 ns on-off keying. A field programmable gate array is used to implement a versatile frequency and amplitude co-sweep logic. Owing to modular design, the RF sources have been used on many cold atom experiments to generate various complicated RF sequences, enriching the operation schemes of cold atoms, which cannot be done by standard RF source instruments.