Sample records for radio astronomical observations

  1. Powerful Radio Burst Indicates New Astronomical Phenomenon (United States)


    Astronomers studying archival data from an Australian radio telescope have discovered a powerful, short-lived burst of radio waves that they say indicates an entirely new type of astronomical phenomenon. Region of Strong Radio Burst Visible-light (negative greyscale) and radio (contours) image of Small Magellanic Cloud and area where burst originated. CREDIT: Lorimer et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for high-resolution file ( 114 KB) "This burst appears to have originated from the distant Universe and may have been produced by an exotic event such as the collision of two neutron stars or the death throes of an evaporating black hole," said Duncan Lorimer, Assistant Professor of Physics at West Virginia University (WVU) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The research team led by Lorimer consists of Matthew Bailes of Swinburne University in Australia, Maura McLaughlin of WVU and NRAO, David Narkevic of WVU, and Fronefield Crawford of Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The astronomers announced their findings in the September 27 issue of the online journal Science Express. The startling discovery came as WVU undergraduate student David Narkevic re-analyzed data from observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud made by the 210-foot Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The data came from a survey of the Magellanic Clouds that included 480 hours of observations. "This survey had sought to discover new pulsars, and the data already had been searched for the type of pulsating signals they produce," Lorimer said. "We re-examined the data, looking for bursts that, unlike the usual ones from pulsars, are not periodic," he added. The survey had covered the Magellanic Clouds, a pair of small galaxies in orbit around our own Milky Way Galaxy. Some 200,000 light-years from Earth, the Magellanic Clouds are prominent features in the Southern sky. Ironically, the new discovery is not part of these galaxies, but rather is much more distant

  2. High energy astrophysics in radio-astronomical form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, H. van der


    The application of high energy astrophysics in observational astronomy, and in particular in radioastronomy, is considered. The current situation of extragalactic HEA, as brought to light by radio-astronomical techniques, is sketched. (C.F.)

  3. "Movie Star" Acting Strangely, Radio Astronomers Find (United States)


    Astronomers have used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to make the first-ever time-lapse "movie" showing details of gas motions around a star other than our Sun. The study, the largest observational project yet undertaken using Very Long Baseline Interferometry, has produced surprising results that indicate scientists do not fully understand stellar atmospheres. The "movie" shows that the atmosphere of a pulsating star more than 1,000 light-years away continues to expand during a part of the star's pulsation period in which astronomers expected it to start contracting. Philip Diamond and Athol Kemball, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Austin, TX, today. "The continued expansion we're seeing contradicts current theoretical models for how these stars work," Diamond said. "The models have assumed spherical symmetry in the star's atmosphere, and our movie shows that this is not the case. Such models suggest that a shock wave passes outward from the star. Once it's passed, then the atmosphere should begin to contract because of the star's gravity. We've long passed that point and the contraction has not begun." The time-lapse images show that the gas motions are not uniform around the star. Most of the motion is that of gas moving directly outward from the star's surface. However, in about one-fourth of the ring, there are peculiar motions that do not fit this pattern. The scientists speculate that the rate of mass loss may not be the same from all parts of the star's surface. "A similar star behaved as predicted when studied a few years ago, so we're left to wonder what's different about this one," Diamond said. "Right now, we think that different rates of mass loss in the two stars may be the cause of the difference. This star is losing mass at 100 times the rate of the star in the earlier study." "This

  4. Radio Astronomers Get Their First Glimpse of Powerful Solar Storm (United States)


    Astronomers have made the first radio-telescope images of a powerful coronal mass ejection on the Sun, giving them a long-sought glimpse of hitherto unseen aspects of these potentially dangerous events. "These observations are going to provide us with a new and unique tool for deciphering the mechanisms of coronal mass ejections and how they are related to other solar events," said Tim Bastian, an astronomer at the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Virginia. Radio image of coronal mass ejection; circle indicates the size and location of the Sun. White dots are where radio spectral measurements were made. Bastian, along with Monique Pick, Alain Kerdraon and Dalmiro Maia of the Paris Observatory, and Angelos Vourlidas of the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C., used a solar radio telescope in Nancay, France, to study a coronal mass ejection that occurred on April 20, 1998. Their results will be published in the September 1 edition of the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Coronal mass ejections are powerful magnetic explosions in the Sun's corona, or outer atmosphere, that can blast billions of tons of charged particles into interplanetary space at tremendous speeds. If the ejection is aimed in the direction of Earth, the speeding particles interact with our planet's magnetic field to cause auroral displays, radio-communication blackouts, and potentially damage satellites and electric-power systems. "Coronal mass ejections have been observed for many years, but only with visible-light telescopes, usually in space. While previous radio observations have provided us with powerful diagnostics of mass ejections and associated phenomena in the corona, this is the first time that one has been directly imaged in wavelengths other than visible light," Bastian said. "These new data from the radio observations give us important clues about how these very energetic events work," he added. The radio images show an

  5. Astronomers Win Protection for Key Part of Radio Spectrum (United States)


    Astronomers using the millimeter-wave region of the radio spectrum have won crucial protection for their science. Dedicated allocations for radio astronomy have been given final approval by the 2,500 delegates to the World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-00), which recently concluded a month of deliberations in Istanbul, Turkey. Radio services can transmit in these parts of the spectrum as long as they don't hinder astronomers' attempts to catch faint signals from the cosmos. The new allocations represent the culmination of more than three years of cooperative planning by radio astronomers in many countries. Millimeter waves -- high-frequency radio waves -- have come of age as an astronomical tool in the last ten years. They are one of the last technological frontiers for astronomers. WRC-00 has protected for science all the frequencies between 71 and 275 Gigahertz (GHz) that radio astronomers currently use, adding more than 90 GHz of spectrum to the 44 GHz already set aside in this frequency range. As a result, radio astronomy is now allocated most of the frequencies between 71 and 275 GHz that can get through the Earth's atmosphere. "We have formal access to all three atmospheric 'windows', apart from their very edges," said Dr. Tom Gergely of the National Science Foundation, one of the U.S. delegates to WRC-00. The WRC also changed most of the frequencies allocated to satellite downlinks within the 71-275 GHz range to frequencies not used for science. Since no satellites yet operate at these high frequencies, no equipment needs to be altered. "Commercial technologies are just starting to develop above 50 GHz," said Dr. Klaus Ruf, Chairman of the Inter-Union Commission for the Allocation of Frequencies. "The WRC's actions mean that, when they are, radio astronomers should be able to share this part of the spectrum with most terrestrial services." The World Radiocommunication Conference is held every two or three years. Here member countries of the

  6. astroplan: Observation Planning for Astronomers (United States)

    Morris, Brett


    Astroplan is an observation planning package for astronomers. It is an astropy-affiliated package which began as a Google Summer of Code project. Astroplan facilitates convenient calculation of common observational quantities, like target altitudes and azimuths, airmasses, and rise/set times. Astroplan also computes when targets are observable given various extensible observing constraints, for example: within a range of airmasses or altitudes, or at a given separation from the Moon. Astroplan is taught in the undergraduate programming for astronomy class, and enables observational Pre- MAP projects at the University of Washington. In the near future, we plan to implement scheduling capabilities in astroplan on top of the constraints framework.

  7. Super resolution for astronomical observations (United States)

    Li, Zhan; Peng, Qingyu; Bhanu, Bir; Zhang, Qingfeng; He, Haifeng


    In order to obtain detailed information from multiple telescope observations a general blind super-resolution (SR) reconstruction approach for astronomical images is proposed in this paper. A pixel-reliability-based SR reconstruction algorithm is described and implemented, where the developed process incorporates flat field correction, automatic star searching and centering, iterative star matching, and sub-pixel image registration. Images captured by the 1-m telescope at Yunnan Observatory are used to test the proposed technique. The results of these experiments indicate that, following SR reconstruction, faint stars are more distinct, bright stars have sharper profiles, and the backgrounds have higher details; thus these results benefit from the high-precision star centering and image registration provided by the developed method. Application of the proposed approach not only provides more opportunities for new discoveries from astronomical image sequences, but will also contribute to enhancing the capabilities of most spatial or ground-based telescopes.

  8. Astronomers Make First Images With Space Radio Telescope (United States)


    Marking an important new milestone in radio astronomy history, scientists at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, have made the first images using a radio telescope antenna in space. The images, more than a million times more detailed than those produced by the human eye, used the new Japanese HALCA satellite, working in conjunction with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and Very Large Array (VLA) ground-based radio telescopes. The landmark images are the result of a long-term NRAO effort supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). "This success means that our ability to make detailed radio images of objects in the universe is no longer limited by the size of the Earth," said NRAO Director Paul Vanden Bout. "Astronomy's vision has just become much sharper." HALCA, launched on Feb. 11 by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), is the first satellite designed for radio astronomy imaging. It is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by NRAO; Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. On May 22, HALCA observed a distant active galaxy called PKS 1519-273, while the VLBA and VLA also observed it. Data from the satellite was received by a tracking station at the NRAO facility in Green Bank, West Virginia. Tape-recorded data from the satellite and from the radio telescopes on the ground were sent to NRAO's Array Operations Center (AOC) in Socorro, NM. In Socorro, astronomers and computer scientists used a special-purpose computer to digitally combine the signals from the satellite and the ground telescopes to make them all work together as a single, giant radio telescope. This dedicated machine, the VLBA Correlator, built as

  9. Astronomers Detect Powerful Bursting Radio Source Discovery Points to New Class of Astronomical Objects (United States)


    Astronomers at Sweet Briar College and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have detected a powerful new bursting radio source whose unique properties suggest the discovery of a new class of astronomical objects. The researchers have monitored the center of the Milky Way Galaxy for several years and reveal their findings in the March 3, 2005 edition of the journal, “Nature”. This radio image of the central region of the Milky Way Galaxy holds a new radio source, GCRT J1745-3009. The arrow points to an expanding ring of debris expelled by a supernova. CREDIT: N.E. Kassim et al., Naval Research Laboratory, NRAO/AUI/NSF Principal investigator, Dr. Scott Hyman, professor of physics at Sweet Briar College, said the discovery came after analyzing some additional observations from 2002 provided by researchers at Northwestern University. “"We hit the jackpot!” Hyman said referring to the observations. “An image of the Galactic center, made by collecting radio waves of about 1-meter in wavelength, revealed multiple bursts from the source during a seven-hour period from Sept. 30 to Oct. 1, 2002 — five bursts in fact, and repeating at remarkably constant intervals.” Hyman, four Sweet Briar students, and his NRL collaborators, Drs. Namir Kassim and Joseph Lazio, happened upon transient emission from two radio sources while studying the Galactic center in 1998. This prompted the team to propose an ongoing monitoring program using the National Science Foundation’s Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which operates the VLA, approved the program. The data collected, laid the groundwork for the detection of the new radio source. “Amazingly, even though the sky is known to be full of transient objects emitting at X- and gamma-ray wavelengths,” NRL astronomer Dr. Joseph Lazio pointed out, “very little has been done to look for radio bursts, which are often easier for astronomical objects to produce

  10. Radio Astronomers Develop New Technique for Studying Dark Energy (United States)


    Pioneering observations with the National Science Foundation's giant Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have given astronomers a new tool for mapping large cosmic structures. The new tool promises to provide valuable clues about the nature of the mysterious "dark energy" believed to constitute nearly three-fourths of the mass and energy of the Universe. Dark energy is the label scientists have given to what is causing the Universe to expand at an accelerating rate. While the acceleration was discovered in 1998, its cause remains unknown. Physicists have advanced competing theories to explain the acceleration, and believe the best way to test those theories is to precisely measure large-scale cosmic structures. Sound waves in the matter-energy soup of the extremely early Universe are thought to have left detectable imprints on the large-scale distribution of galaxies in the Universe. The researchers developed a way to measure such imprints by observing the radio emission of hydrogen gas. Their technique, called intensity mapping, when applied to greater areas of the Universe, could reveal how such large-scale structure has changed over the last few billion years, giving insight into which theory of dark energy is the most accurate. "Our project mapped hydrogen gas to greater cosmic distances than ever before, and shows that the techniques we developed can be used to map huge volumes of the Universe in three dimensions and to test the competing theories of dark energy," said Tzu-Ching Chang, of the Academia Sinica in Taiwan and the University of Toronto. To get their results, the researchers used the GBT to study a region of sky that previously had been surveyed in detail in visible light by the Keck II telescope in Hawaii. This optical survey used spectroscopy to map the locations of thousands of galaxies in three dimensions. With the GBT, instead of looking for hydrogen gas in these individual, distant galaxies -- a daunting challenge beyond the technical

  11. Radio astronomical interferometry and x-ray's computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L F [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia


    Radio astronomical interferometry and computerized tomography are techniques of great importance for astronomy and medicine, respectively. In this paper we emphasize that both techniques are based on the same mathematical principles, and present them as an example of interaction between basic and applied science.

  12. Radio Astronomers Set New Standard for Accurate Cosmic Distance Measurement (United States)


    A team of radio astronomers has used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to make the most accurate measurement ever made of the distance to a faraway galaxy. Their direct measurement calls into question the precision of distance determinations made by other techniques, including those announced last week by a team using the Hubble Space Telescope. The radio astronomers measured a distance of 23.5 million light-years to a galaxy called NGC 4258 in Ursa Major. "Ours is a direct measurement, using geometry, and is independent of all other methods of determining cosmic distances," said Jim Herrnstein, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. The team says their measurement is accurate to within less than a million light-years, or four percent. The galaxy is also known as Messier 106 and is visible with amateur telescopes. Herrnstein, along with James Moran and Lincoln Greenhill of the Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Phillip Diamond, of the Merlin radio telescope facility at Jodrell Bank and the University of Manchester in England; Makato Inoue and Naomasa Nakai of Japan's Nobeyama Radio Observatory; Mikato Miyoshi of Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; Christian Henkel of Germany's Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy; and Adam Riess of the University of California at Berkeley, announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Chicago. "This is an incredible achievement to measure the distance to another galaxy with this precision," said Miller Goss, NRAO's Director of VLA/VLBA Operations. "This is the first time such a great distance has been measured this accurately. It took painstaking work on the part of the observing team, and it took a radio telescope the size of the Earth -- the VLBA -- to make it possible," Goss said. "Astronomers have sought to determine the Hubble Constant, the rate of expansion of the universe, for decades. This will in turn lead to an

  13. Radio and Optical Telescopes for School Students and Professional Astronomers (United States)

    Hosmer, Laura; Langston, G.; Heatherly, S.; Towner, A. P.; Ford, J.; Simon, R. S.; White, S.; O'Neil, K. L.; Haipslip, J.; Reichart, D.


    The NRAO 20m telescope is now on-line as a part of UNC's Skynet worldwide telescope network. The NRAO is completing integration of radio astronomy tools with the Skynet web interface. We present the web interface and astronomy projects that allow students and astronomers from all over the country to become Radio Astronomers. The 20 meter radio telescope at NRAO in Green Bank, WV is dedicated to public education and also is part of an experiment in public funding for astronomy. The telescope has a fantastic new web-based interface, with priority queuing, accommodating priority for paying customers and enabling free use of otherwise unused time. This revival included many software and hardware improvements including automatic calibration and improved time integration resulting in improved data processing, and a new ultra high resolution spectrometer. This new spectrometer is optimized for very narrow spectral lines, which will allow astronomers to study complex molecules and very cold regions of space in remarkable detail. In accordance with focusing on broader impacts, many public outreach and high school education activities have been completed with many confirmed future activities. The 20 meter is now a fully automated, powerful tool capable of professional grade results available to anyone in the world. Drop by our poster and try out real-time telescope control!

  14. International astronomical remote present observation on IRC. (United States)

    Ji, Kaifan; Cao, Wenda; Song, Qian

    On March 6 - 7, 1997, an international astronomical remote present observation (RPO) was made on Internet Relay Chat (IRC) for the first time. Seven groups in four countries, China, United States, Canada and Great Britain, used the 1 meter telescope of Yunnan observatory together by the way of remote present observation. Within minutes, images were "On-line" by FTP, and every one was able to get them by anonymous ftp and discuss them on IRC from different widely separated sites.

  15. Amateur astronomers in support of observing campaigns (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P.


    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project evolved from the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON. The success of the paradigm shift in scientific research is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. While PACA identifies a consistent collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access, and storage are needed. Several interesting results emerged from the synergistic inclusion of both social media and amateur astronomers: - the establishment of a network of astronomers and related professionals that can be galvanized into action on short notice to support observing campaigns; - assist in various science investigations pertinent to the campaign; - provide an alert-sounding mechanism should the need arise; - immediate outreach and dissemination of results via our media/blogger members; - provide a forum for discussions between the imagers and modelers to help strategize the observing campaign for maximum benefit. In 2014, two new comet observing campaigns involving pro-am collaborations have been identified: (1) C/2013 A1 (C/Siding Spring) and (2) 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG). The evolving need for individual customized observing campaigns has been incorporated into the evolution of PACA (Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy) portal that currently is focused on comets: from supporting observing campaigns for current comets, legacy data, historical comets; interconnected with social media and a set of shareable documents addressing observational strategies; consistent standards for data; data access, use, and storage, to align with the needs of professional observers. The integration of science, observations by professional and amateur astronomers, and various social media provides a dynamic and evolving collaborative partnership between professional and amateur astronomers. The recent observation of comet 67P, at a magnitude of 21.2, from Siding


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan P. Kriachko


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show the way of overcoming one of the major problems of astronomy teaching methods in upper secondary school – organization of educational astronomical observations. Nowadays it became possible to perform such observations on remote access telescopes. By using up-to-date informational and communicational technologies, having an opportunity to work with robotic telescopes allows us to organize a unique cognitive and research oriented activities for students while conducting their specialized astronomical studies. Below here is given a brief description of the most significant robotic telescopes and the way of the usage of open remote access telescopic network which was created by professors and scientists of Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA.

  17. Far-infrared spectrophotometer for astronomical observations (United States)

    Moseley, H.; Silverberg, R. F.


    A liquid-helium-cooled far infrared spectrophotometer was built and used to make low resolution observations of the continua of several kinds of astronomical objects using the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. This instrument fills a gap in both sensitivity to continuum sources and spectral resolution between the broadband photometers with lambda/Delta lambda approximately 1 and spectrometers with lambda/Delta lambda greater than 50. While designed primarily to study planetary nebulae, the instrument permits study of the shape of the continua of many weak sources which cannot easily be observed with high resolution systems.

  18. Radio Observations of Gamma-ray Novae (United States)

    Linford, Justin D.; Chomiuk, L.; Ribeiro, V.; project, E.-Nova


    Recent detection of gamma-ray emission from classical novae by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope surprised many in the astronomical community. We present results from radio observations, obtained using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), of three gamma-ray novae: Mon2012, Sco2012, and Del2013. Radio observations allow for the calculation of ejecta masses, place limits on the distances, and provide information about the gamma-ray emission mechanism for these sources.

  19. Young Astronomers' Observe with ESO Telescopes (United States)


    Today, forty 16-18 year old students and their teachers are concluding a one-week, educational `working visit' to the ESO Headquarters in Garching (See ESO Press Release 14/95 of 8 November 1995). They are the winners of the Europe-wide contest `Europe Towards the Stars', organised by ESO with the support of the European Union, under the auspices of the Third European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture. From November 14-20, they have worked with professional ESO astronomers in order to get insight into the methods and principles of modern astronomy and astrophysics, as carried out at one of the world's foremost international centres. This included very successful remote observations with the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) and the 1.4-m Coude Auxiliary Telescope (CAT) via a satellite link between the ESO Headquarters and the La Silla observatory in Chile, 12,000 kilometres away. After a general introduction to modern astronomy on the first day of the visit, the participants divided into six teams, according to their interests. Some chose to observe distant galaxies, others prefered to have a closer look on binary stars, and one team decided to investigate a star which is thought to be surrounded by a proto-planetary system. Each team was supported by an experienced ESO astronomer. Then followed the observations at the remote consoles during three nights, the first at the NTT and the following at the CAT. Each team had access to the telescope during half a night. Although the work schedule - exactly as in `real' science - was quite hard, especially during the following data reduction and interpretative phase, all teams managed extremely well and in high spirits. The young astronomers' observations were favoured by excellent atmospheric conditions. At the NTT, the seeing was better than 0.5 arcsecond during several hours, an exceptional value that allows very good images to be obtained. All observations represent solid and interesting science, and

  20. Solar radio observations and interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, H.


    The recent solar radio observations related to flares are reviewed for the frequency range of a few kilohertz to several gigahertz. The analysis of the radio data leads to boundary conditions on the acceleration processes which are responsible for the fast particles which cause radio emission. The role and cause of plasma turbulence at the plasma-frequency and at much lower frequencies is discussed in relation to the acceleration processes and the radio emission mechanisms for the various radio bursts. (author)

  1. Leslie Peltier, Amateur Astronomer and Observer Extraordinaire (United States)

    Corbin, B. G.


    Leslie Copus Peltier, (Jan. 2, 1900-May 10, 1980) was called "the world's greatest non-professional astronomer" by none other than Harlow Shapley, and also referred to as the "the world's greatest living amateur astronomer". He began observing variable stars on March 1, 1918 with an observation of R. Leonis and at the time of his death had made a total of 132,123 observations of variable stars. These were reported to the AAVSO on a consecutive monthly basis stretching from 1918 to his death in 1980. As of October 2003, he was still on AAVSO's list of the top 25 observers in its history. Born on a farm near Delphos, Ohio, his parents were well read and their home was filled with books on different subjects, including nature guides. As a young man he studied the flora and fauna of the area and in 1915 began his study of the heavens with Vega being the first star he identified. After the purchase of a 2-inch spyglass, his observations of variable stars began to be noticed by professional astronomers and the AAVSO loaned him a 4-inch Mogey refractor; shortly thereafter Henry Norris Russell of Princeton loaned him via the AAVSO a 6-inch refractor, a comet seeker of short focus. He discovered 12 comets, 10 of which carry his name, and 6 novae or recurring novae. His design of the "Merry-Go-Round Observatory" was a novel approach with the whole observatory revolving around the observer while seated in his observing chair. Miami University (Ohio) later donated to him their 12-inch Clark refractor with its dome. His first book, Starlight Nights: The Adventures of a Star-Gazer, appeared in 1965. This autobiography, an ode to the joys of observing both the night sky and nature, was written in beautifully descriptive language that helped lead countless readers into astronomy. Departing from astronomy, in 1977 he published The Place on Jennings Creek. Written in the style of the 19th century naturalist, the book was devoted to his family's home, Brookhaven, and its natural

  2. Radio astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagnibeda, V.G.


    The history of radio astronomical observations at the Astronomical Observatory of Leningrad State University is reviewed. Various facilities are described, and methods and instruments used are discussed. Some results are summarized for radio observations of the sun, including observations of local sources of solar radio emission, the absolute solar radio flux, and radio emission from filaments and prominences.

  3. Radio Astronomers Lift "Fog" on Milky Way's Dark Heart: Black Hole Fits Inside Earth's Orbit (United States)


    Thirty years after astronomers discovered the mysterious object at the exact center of our Milky Way Galaxy, an international team of scientists has finally succeeded in directly measuring the size of that object, which surrounds a black hole nearly four million times more massive than the Sun. This is the closest telescopic approach to a black hole so far and puts a major frontier of astrophysics within reach of future observations. The scientists used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to make the breakthrough. Milky Way Nucleus The Milky Way's nucleus, as seen with the VLA. Sagittarius A* is the bright white dot at center. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF, Jun-Hui Zhao, W.M. Goss (Click on Image for Larger Version) "This is a big step forward," said Geoffrey Bower, of the University of California-Berkeley. "This is something that people have wanted to do for 30 years," since the Galactic center object, called Sagittarius A* (pronounced "A-star"), was discovered in 1974. The astronomers reported their research in the April 1 edition of Science Express. "Now we have a size for the object, but the mystery about its exact nature still remains," Bower added. The next step, he explained, is to learn its shape, "so we can tell if it is jets, a thin disk, or a spherical cloud." The Milky Way's center, 26,000 light-years from Earth, is obscured by dust, so visible-light telescopes cannot study the object. While radio waves from the Galaxy's central region can penetrate the dust, they are scattered by turbulent charged plasma in the space along the line of sight to Earth. This scattering had frustrated earlier attempts to measure the size of the central object, just as fog blurs the glare of distant lighthouses. "After 30 years, radio telescopes finally have lifted the fog and we can see what is going on," said Heino Falcke, of the Westerbork Radio Observatory in the Netherlands, another member of the research team. The bright, radio

  4. Cosmological field theory for observational astronomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'Dovich, Y.B.


    Theories of the very early Universe that use scalar fields (i.e., the so-called inflationary models of the Universe) have now come into wide use. The inflationary universe approach may perhaps solve some of the most difficult enigmas about the Universe as a whole. The inflationary universe forms a good bridge between the quantum theory of the birth of the Universe (which is still in the initial stages of development) and the standard hot Big Bang theory (which is well established, at least qualitatively). Therefore, an understanding of the basic ideas of inflation is a must for astronomers interested in the broad picture of the science. Astronomers are mathematically oriented enough (via celestial mechanics, electromagnetic theory, magnetohydrodynamics, nuclear reactions,etc.) that there is no negative attitude towards formulae in general. What the astronomer lacks is a knowledge of recent developments in particle physics and field theory. The astronomer should not be blamed for this, because these branches of physics are developing in a very peculiar fashion: some subfields of it are progressing comparatively slowly, with experimental verifications at each and every step, while other subfields progress rapidly

  5. Radio Recombination Lines Their Physics and Astronomical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, MA


    Includes the history of RRL detections, the astrophysics underlying their intensities and line shapes including topics like departures from LTE and Stark broadening, the maximum possible size of an atom, and descriptions of the astronomical topics for which RRLs have proved to be effective tools.

  6. Characterizing Interference in Radio Astronomy Observations through Active and Unsupervised Learning (United States)

    Doran, G.


    In the process of observing signals from astronomical sources, radio astronomers must mitigate the effects of manmade radio sources such as cell phones, satellites, aircraft, and observatory equipment. Radio frequency interference (RFI) often occurs as short bursts (active learning approach in which an astronomer labels events that are most confusing to a classifier, minimizing the human effort required for classification. We also explore the use of unsupervised clustering techniques, which automatically group events into classes without user input. We apply these techniques to data from the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey to characterize several million detected RFI events from over a thousand hours of observation.

  7. Antenna data storage concept for phased array radio astronomical instruments (United States)

    Gunst, André W.; Kruithof, Gert H.


    Low frequency Radio Astronomy instruments like LOFAR and SKA-LOW use arrays of dipole antennas for the collection of radio signals from the sky. Due to the large number of antennas involved, the total data rate produced by all the antennas is enormous. Storage of the antenna data is both economically and technologically infeasible using the current state of the art storage technology. Therefore, real-time processing of the antenna voltage data using beam forming and correlation is applied to achieve a data reduction throughout the signal chain. However, most science could equally well be performed using an archive of raw antenna voltage data coming straight from the A/D converters instead of capturing and processing the antenna data in real time over and over again. Trends on storage and computing technology make such an approach feasible on a time scale of approximately 10 years. The benefits of such a system approach are more science output and a higher flexibility with respect to the science operations. In this paper we present a radically new system concept for a radio telescope based on storage of raw antenna data. LOFAR is used as an example for such a future instrument.

  8. astroplan: Observation planning package for astronomers (United States)

    Morris, Brett M.; Tollerud, Erik; Sipocz, Brigitta; Deil, Christoph; Douglas, Stephanie T.; Berlanga Medina, Jazmin; Vyhmeister, Karl; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Jeschke, Eric


    astroplan is a flexible toolbox for observation planning and scheduling. It is powered by Astropy (ascl:1304.002); it works for Python beginners and new observers, and is powerful enough for observatories preparing nightly and long-term schedules as well. It calculates rise/set/meridian transit times, alt/az positions for targets at observatories anywhere on Earth, and offers built-in plotting convenience functions for standard observation planning plots (airmass, parallactic angle, sky maps). It can also determine the observability of sets of targets given an arbitrary set of constraints (i.e., altitude, airmass, moon separation/illumination, etc.).

  9. Deep sky observing an astronomical tour

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Steven R


    This updated second edition has all of the information needed for your successful forays into deep sky observing. Coe uses his years of experience to give detailed practical advice about how to find the best observing site, how to make the most of the time spent there, and what equipment and instruments to take along. There are comprehensive lists of deep sky objects of all kinds, along with Steve's own observations describing how they look through telescopes with apertures ranging from 4 inches to 36 inches (0.1 - 0.9 meters). Binocular observing also gets its due, while the lists of objects have been amended to highlight only the best targets. A new index makes finding targets easier than ever before, while the selection of viewing targets has been revised from the first edition. Most of all, this book is all about how to enjoy astronomy. The author's enthusiasm and sense of wonder shine through every page as he invites you along on a tour of some of the most beautiful and fascinating sites in the deep ...

  10. PySE: Python Source Extractor for radio astronomical images (United States)

    Spreeuw, Hanno; Swinbank, John; Molenaar, Gijs; Staley, Tim; Rol, Evert; Sanders, John; Scheers, Bart; Kuiack, Mark


    PySE finds and measures sources in radio telescope images. It is run with several options, such as the detection threshold (a multiple of the local noise), grid size, and the forced clean beam fit, followed by a list of input image files in standard FITS or CASA format. From these, PySe provides a list of found sources; information such as the calculated background image, source list in different formats (e.g. text, region files importable in DS9), and other data may be saved. PySe can be integrated into a pipeline; it was originally written as part of the LOFAR Transient Detection Pipeline (TraP, ascl:1412.011).

  11. From causal dynamical triangulations to astronomical observations (United States)

    Mielczarek, Jakub


    This letter discusses phenomenological aspects of dimensional reduction predicted by the Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) approach to quantum gravity. The deformed form of the dispersion relation for the fields defined on the CDT space-time is reconstructed. Using the Fermi satellite observations of the GRB 090510 source we find that the energy scale of the dimensional reduction is E* > 0.7 \\sqrt{4-d\\text{UV}} \\cdot 1010 \\text{GeV} at (95% CL), where d\\text{UV} is the value of the spectral dimension in the UV limit. By applying the deformed dispersion relation to the cosmological perturbations it is shown that, for a scenario when the primordial perturbations are formed in the UV region, the scalar power spectrum PS \\propto kn_S-1 , where n_S-1≈ \\frac{3 r (d\\text{UV}-2)}{(d\\text{UV}-1)r-48} . Here, r is the tensor-to-scalar ratio. We find that within the considered model, the predicted from CDT deviation from the scale invariance (n_S=1) is in contradiction with the up to date Planck and BICEP2.

  12. Radio observations of symbiotic stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A E [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Epping (Australia). Div. of Radiophysics; Allen, D A


    A search for 2-cm continuum emission from 91 symbiotic stars has been undertaken using the Parkes radio telescope. Nine sources have been detected, four of which are reported for the first time. The radio spectral indices are mostly about + 0.6; these are interpreted in terms of mass loss. In two stars a portion of the radio spectrum has an index of zero, and for one of these stars (RX Puppis) this is plausibly a manifestation of the cessation of symbiotic activity that occurred about two decades ago. There is an extraordinarily good correlation between the detectability at 2cm and the presence of circumstellar dust, but not between the radio and optical domains. The importance of continued radio monitoring of HM Sagittae over the next few years is stressed.

  13. Astronomical Observations Astronomy and the Study of Deep Space

    CERN Document Server


    Our Search for knowledge about the universe has been remarkable, heartbreaking, fantastical, and inspiring, and this search is just beginning. Astronomical Observations is part of a 7 book series that takes readers through a virtual time warp of our discovery. From the nascent space programs of the 1960's to today's space tourism and the promise of distant planet colonization, readers will be transfixed. Throughout this journey of the mind, Earth-bound explorers gain keen insight into the celestial phenomena that have fascinated humans for centuries. Thrilling narratives about indefatigable sc

  14. Making waves the story of Ruby Payne-Scott : Australian pioneer radio astronomer

    CERN Document Server

    Goss, M


    This book is an abbreviated, partly re-written version of "Under the Radar - The First Woman in Radio Astronomy: Ruby Payne-Scott." It addresses a general readership interested in historical and sociological aspects of astronomy and presents the biography of Ruby Payne-Scott (1912 – 1981). As the first female radio astronomer (and one of the first people in the world to consider radio astronomy), she made classic contributions to solar radio physics. She also played a major role in the design of the Australian government's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research radars, which were in turn of vital importance in the Southwest Pacific Theatre in World War II. These radars were used by military personnel from Australia, the United States and New Zealand. From a sociological perspective, her career offers many examples of the perils of being a female academic in the first half of the 20th century. Written in an engaging style and complemented by many historical photographs, this book offers fascinating...

  15. The Selection and Protection of Optical Astronomical Observing Sites in China (United States)

    Wenjing, Jin; Bai, Jinming; Yao, Yongqiang


    Before 1950 there are two observatories, Shanghai and Purple Mountain Astronomical Observatories (SHAO and PMO), and two observing stations, Qingdao and Kunming stations in China. With the requirements of astronomical research, two observatories, Beijing and Shaanxi Astronomical Observatories (BAO and SXAO) and two artificial satellite stations, Urumqi and Changchun, were established about 1960. Based on the current management, now there are 4 observatories, SHAO, PMO, NAOC(National Astronomical Observatories), which was grouped from BAO, YNAO and 2 others, as well as XAO (Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory). The optical 1-2 m class telescopes are being operated at former four observatories. SXAO is changed as National Time Service Center. Because of city expansion as well as the traveling and economic developments, these observatories are suffered severe light pollution. For example, Zo Ce is located at the suburb of Shanghai city. A 40 cm double astrograph was installed in 1900 and a 1.56 m optical reflector have been operated since November 1987. In 1994 the seeing is better than 1 and the night sky brightness in V is about 19 mag/arcsec 2, stars fainter than 20 mag with CCD are visibles. In 2007 a large playground was built in Zô Cè area. The light pollution is severe gradually. The night sky brightness has been increased to 15.8 mag/arcsec 2. The other observatories have similar situation. New site surveys and found new stations to solve the problem. Except the solar and radio stations of each Astronomical Observatory, now there are 3 optical observing sites at PMO (Hong-He, Xu-Yi and Yaoan), 2 at SHAO (Zô Cè and Tian Huang Ping) and 2 at YNAO (Kunming and Gao-Mei-Gu) as well as 1 optical observing site at BAO (Xing-Long). The best observing site is Gao-Mei-Gu, which is selected as the optical observing site of YNAO and where atmospheric turbulence distribution is 0.11 near ground with heights from 6.5m to 2.7m during night. Sky brightness in B and V band

  16. Preparing astronomical observations and observing with OHP facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patris J.


    Full Text Available In addition to the general introduction to observational astronomy given in a past paper (J. Phys. IV France, ERCA 07 (2006 pp 373-390 some tools are given to the observer. These include the general knowledge of what is going to be observed and of the instruments used. A guideline is given to prepare an observing program and to follow it as efficiently as possible. Finally, some examples are given of observations to be made by ERCA participants at OHP observatory.

  17. Radio Astronomy Explorer /RAE/. I - Observations of terrestrial radio noise. (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.; Stone, R. G.


    Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) I data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial radio noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 dB and more above cosmic noise background, on frequencies above the F-layer critical frequency.

  18. Properties of galactic dark matter: Constraints from astronomical observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, B.; Cowsik, R.


    The distributions of normal matter and of dark matter in the Galaxy are coupled to each other as they both move in the common gravitational potential. In order to fully exploit this interplay and to derive the various properties of dark matter relevant to their direct and indirect detection, we have comprehensively reviewed the astronomical observations of the spatial and velocity distributions of the components of normal matter. We then postulate that the phase-space distribution of dark matter follows a lowered-isothermal form and self-consistently solve Poisson's equation to construct several models for the spatial and velocity distributions of dark matter. In this paper, we compute the total gravitational potential of the normal and dark matter components and investigate their consistency with current observations of the rotation curve of the Galaxy and of the spatial and velocity distributions of blue horizontal-branch and blue straggler stars. Even with this demand of consistency, a large number of models with a range of parameters characterizing the dark matter distribution remain. We find that the best choice of parameters, within the range of allowed values for the surface density of the disk 55 M ☉ pc –2 , are the following: the dark matter density at the Galactic center ρ DM, c ≈ 100-250 GeV cm –3 , the local dark matter density ρ DM (R 0 ) ≈ 0.56-0.72 GeV cm –3 , and the rms speed of dark matter particles 〈v DM 2 (R 0 )〉 1/2 ≈490−−550 km s –1 . We also discuss possible astronomical observations that may further limit the range of the allowed models. The predictions of the allowed models for direct and indirect detection will be discussed separately in a companion paper.

  19. First light and beyond making a success of astronomical observing

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, D A


    Amateur astronomers who have been disappointed by the results of an observing session can still gain useful experience in a seemingly “failed” night at the telescope. In a world with imperfect seeing conditions, incredible observing sessions are often mixed with less inspiring ones, discouraging the amateur observer. This book is designed to help novice observers take something worthwhile away each and every time they go out under the night sky, regardless of what was originally planned. Almost every observer remembers his first sight of Ringed Saturn, hanging majestically in the blackness of space. Practitioners agree that visual observing is special. Real-time observations at the eyepiece can provide fleeting yet intense feelings that connect us with the universe. But when expectations aren’t met at the eyepiece, there are other ways to profit from the practice of astronomy. These rewards, though less showy, are well worth cultivating. This book will help you see what constitutes a “successful” vi...

  20. Meteor trajectory estimation from radio meteor observations (United States)

    Kákona, J.


    Radio meteor observation techniques are generally accepted as meteor counting methods useful mainly for meteor flux detection. Due to the technical progress in radio engineering and electronics a construction of a radio meteor detection network with software defined receivers has become possible. These receivers could be precisely time synchronized and could obtain data which provide us with more information than just the meteor count. We present a technique which is able to compute a meteor trajectory from the data recorded by multiple radio stations.

  1. Care of astronomical telescopes and accessories a manual for the astronomical observer and amateur telescope maker

    CERN Document Server

    Pepin, M Barlow


    Commercially-made astronomical telescopes are better and less expensive than ever before, and their optical and mechanical performance can be superb. When a good-quality telescope fails to perform as well as it might, the reason is quite probably that it needs a little care and attention! Here is a complete guide for anyone who wants to understand more than just the basics of astronomical telescopes and accessories, and how to maintain them in the peak of condition. The latest on safely adjusting, cleaning, and maintaining your equipment is combined with thoroughly updated methods from the old masters. Here, too, are details of choosing new and used optics and accessories, along with enhancements you can make to extend their versatility and useful lifetime. This book is for you. Really. Looking after an astronomical telescope isn't only for the experts - although there are some things that only an expert should attempt - and every serious amateur astronomer will find invaluable information here, gleaned from ...

  2. Intelligent Cognitive Radio Models for Enhancing Future Radio Astronomy Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Abiola Periola


    Full Text Available Radio astronomy organisations desire to optimise the terrestrial radio astronomy observations by mitigating against interference and enhancing angular resolution. Ground telescopes (GTs experience interference from intersatellite links (ISLs. Astronomy source radio signals received by GTs are analysed at the high performance computing (HPC infrastructure. Furthermore, observation limitation conditions prevent GTs from conducting radio astronomy observations all the time, thereby causing low HPC utilisation. This paper proposes mechanisms that protect GTs from ISL interference without permanent prevention of ISL data transmission and enhance angular resolution. The ISL transmits data by taking advantage of similarities in the sequence of observed astronomy sources to increase ISL connection duration. In addition, the paper proposes a mechanism that enhances angular resolution by using reconfigurable earth stations. Furthermore, the paper presents the opportunistic computing scheme (OCS to enhance HPC utilisation. OCS enables the underutilised HPC to be used to train learning algorithms of a cognitive base station. The performances of the three mechanisms are evaluated. Simulations show that the proposed mechanisms protect GTs from ISL interference, enhance angular resolution, and improve HPC utilisation.

  3. VLBI observations with the Kunming 40-meter radio telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Longfei; Wang Min; Yang Jun


    The Kunming 40-meter radio telescope is situated in the yard of the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory (Longitude: 102.8 0 East, Latitude: 25.0 0 North) and saw its first light in 2006 May. The Kunming station successfully joined the VLBI tracking of China's first lunar probe 'Chang'E-1 together with the other Chinese telescopes: the Beijing Miyun 50-meter radio telescope, Urumqi Nanshan 25-meter radio telescope, and Shanghai Sheshan 25-meter radio telescope, and received the downlinked scientific data together with the Miyun station from October of 2007 to March of 2009. We give an introduction to the new Chinese VLBI facility and investigate its potential applications. Due to its location, the Kunming station can significantly improve the u - v coverage of the European VLBI Network (EVN), in particular, in long baseline observations. We also report the results of the first EVN fringe-test experiment of N09SX1 with the Kunming station. The first fringes in the European telescopes were successfully detected at 2.3 GHz with the ftp-transferred data on 2009 June 17. From scheduling the observations to performing the post correlations, the Kunming station shows its good compatibility to work with the EVN. The imaging result of the extended source 1156+295 further demonstrates that the Kunming station greatly enhances the EVN performance. (research papers)

  4. Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) 1 observations of terrestrial radio noise (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.


    Radio Astonomy Explorer (RAE) 1 data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 or more db higher than cosmic noise background. Maximum terrestrial noise is observed when RAE is over the dark side of the Earth in the neighborhood of equatorial continental land masses where thunderstorms occur most frequently. The observed noise level is 30-40 db lower with RAE over oceans.

  5. Low Dimensional Embedding of Climate Data for Radio Astronomical Site Testing in the Colombian Andes (United States)

    Chaparro Molano, Germán; Ramírez Suárez, Oscar Leonardo; Restrepo Gaitán, Oscar Alberto; Marcial Martínez Mercado, Alexander


    We set out to evaluate the potential of the Colombian Andes for millimeter-wave astronomical observations. Previous studies for astronomical site testing in this region have suggested that nighttime humidity and cloud cover conditions make most sites unsuitable for professional visible-light observations. Millimeter observations can be done during the day, but require that the precipitable water vapor column above a site stays below ˜10 mm. Due to a lack of direct radiometric or radiosonde measurements, we present a method for correlating climate data from weather stations to sites with a low precipitable water vapor column. We use unsupervised learning techniques to low dimensionally embed climate data (precipitation, rain days, relative humidity, and sunshine duration) in order to group together stations with similar long-term climate behavior. The data were taken over a period of 30 years by 2046 weather stations across the Colombian territory. We find six regions with unusually dry, clear-sky conditions, ranging in elevations from 2200 to 3800 masl. We evaluate the suitability of each region using a quality index derived from a Bayesian probabilistic analysis of the station type and elevation distributions. Two of these regions show a high probability of having an exceptionally low precipitable water vapor column. We compared our results with global precipitable water vapor maps and find a plausible geographical correlation with regions with low water vapor columns (˜10 mm) at an accuracy of ˜20 km. Our methods can be applied to similar data sets taken in other countries as a first step toward astronomical site evaluation.

  6. Radio continuum observations of NML Cygni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, P.C.; Seaquist, E.R.


    An attempt to detect thermal radio emission from a compact circumstellar cloud about the infrared star NML Cyg has been carried out at three frequencies, 2.7, 8.1, and 10.5 GHz. Although positive results were obtained with single-dish observations at 10.5 GHz, the radio emission is not from a circumstellar cloud about NML Cyg. Instead it is postulated that the emission is from an H ii region with an angular extent of approx.2'. The red print of the Sky Survey shows a faint nebulosity of comparable angular size overlapping the star's position, lending support to this interpretation. The interferometer observations at 2.7 and 8.1 GHz provide an upper limit on the radio emission from any compact circumstellar cloud about NML Cyg of 2.8 mJy, which is well below the flux density expected for the absorbing cloud postulated by Davies et al. (1972)

  7. Aperture synthesis observations of solar and stellar radio emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastian, T.S.


    The work presented in this thesis relied upon the radio astronomical instrument, The Very Large Array. The thesis is divided into three major sections. In the first the author applied maximum entropy-type image reconstruction techniques, using both single dish and iterferometer data, to generate full disk images of the Sun at a wavelength λ ∼ 21 cm. Using a set of six such images obtained during the Sun's decline from sunspot maximum to minimum, he has noted a number of previously unreported phenomena. Among these: (1) a systematic decrease in quiet Sun's brightness temperature as it declined to minimum; (2) a systematic decrease in the Sun's radius at 21 cm; (3) evidence for the evolution of polar coronal holes during the course of the solar cycle. The observed variation, though not noted previously at radio wavelengths, is entirely consistent with white light K coronagraph data. The results reported here explain the conflicting nature of a number of past observations. In the second section of the thesis, he presents the results of a long term survey of magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs). Cataclysmic variables are close binary systems which contain a white dwarf accreting mass from a late-type secondary, typically a dwarf of spectral type, G, K, or M. The survey resulted in the detection of two out of the eighteen systems observed. In the third section of the thesis, he presents new results on flare stars in the solar neighborhood and in the Pleiades. He has successfully employed the technique of dynamic spectroscopy to constrain the mechanisms(s) for radio flaring on other stars. The second part of section three is devoted to a search for radio emission from flare stars in the Pleiades which was motivated by the evolutionary questions raised by flare stars and the Pleiades lower main sequence

  8. Accuracy of lunar eclipse observations made by Jesuit astronomers in China. (United States)

    Fatoohi, L. J.; Stephenson, F. R.


    The Jesuit astronomers observed numerous lunar eclipses at Beijing and summaries of their observations - made between 1644 and 1785 - are preserved. The various lunar eclipse measurements that the Jesuits made are compared with the results of present-day computation.

  9. Astronomical observations with the optical multichannel analyser of the Sao Paulo University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codina-Landaberry, S J; de Freitas Pacheco, J A [Universidade Mackenzie, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Radio-Astronomia e Astrofisica


    The first astronomical observations made with the optical multichannel analyser (OMA) of the Sao Paulo University is reported. A detailed description of the instrumentation is given as well as the results derived from the observation of some emission nebulae.

  10. Astronomical observations with the optical multichannel analyser of the Sao Paulo University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codina-Landaberry, S.J.; Freitas Pacheco, J.A. de


    The first astronomical observations made with the optical multichannel analyser (OMA) of the Sao Paulo University is reported. A detailed description of the instrumentation is given as well as the results derived from the observation of some emission nebulae [pt

  11. Illustrated Guide to Astronomical Wonders From Novice to Master Observer

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert


    With the advent of inexpensive, high-power telescopes priced at under 250, amateur astronomy is now within the reach of anyone, and this is the ideal book to get you started. The Illustrated Guide to Astronomical Wonders offers you a guide to the equipment you need, and shows you how and where to find hundreds of spectacular objects in the deep sky -- double and multiple stars as well as spectacular star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies. You get a solid grounding in the fundamental concepts and terminology of astronomy, and specific advice about choosing, buying, using, and maintaining the eq

  12. Far infrared extinction coefficients of minerals of interest for astronomical observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.


    Far infrared extinction coefficients of mineral grains of interest for astronomical observations have been measured. The measured mineral species are: amorphous carbon, high temperature magnesium silicates, hydrous silicates, iron oxides, and amorphous silicates. (author)

  13. American West Tephras – Geomagnetic polarity events redefined through calibration of radio-isotopic and astronomical time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Tiffany; Storey, Michael

    calibration. Although this geomagnetic event is not part of the most recent geologic timescale, refined ages on short-lived excursions could hold importance to understanding time scales for the wavering nature of Earth’s magnetic field. We propose a new 40Ar/39Ar age for the Quaternary mineral dating standard......The foundation of the EARTHTIME/GTSnext initiative seeks to construct an internally consistent geologic timescale based on astronomical and radio-isotopic geochronology. American west tephras offer a prime opportunity to integrate these two independent timescales with the geomagnetic timescale....... Using an astronomically calibrated age for the monitor mineral Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs;28.201 ± 0.046 Ma, Kuiper, et al., 2008), ages of Pleistocene geomagnetic polarity events are reexamined. Of particular interest, the Quaternary mineral dating standard Alder Creek sandine (ACs) is the type locality...

  14. Subarray Processing for Projection-based RFI Mitigation in Radio Astronomical Interferometers (United States)

    Burnett, Mitchell C.; Jeffs, Brian D.; Black, Richard A.; Warnick, Karl F.


    Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is a major problem for observations in Radio Astronomy (RA). Adaptive spatial filtering techniques such as subspace projection are promising candidates for RFI mitigation; however, for radio interferometric imaging arrays, these have primarily been used in engineering demonstration experiments rather than mainstream scientific observations. This paper considers one reason that adoption of such algorithms is limited: RFI decorrelates across the interferometric array because of long baseline lengths. This occurs when the relative RFI time delay along a baseline is large compared to the frequency channel inverse bandwidth used in the processing chain. Maximum achievable excision of the RFI is limited by covariance matrix estimation error when identifying interference subspace parameters, and decorrelation of the RFI introduces errors that corrupt the subspace estimate, rendering subspace projection ineffective over the entire array. In this work, we present an algorithm that overcomes this challenge of decorrelation by applying subspace projection via subarray processing (SP-SAP). Each subarray is designed to have a set of elements with high mutual correlation in the interferer for better estimation of subspace parameters. In an RFI simulation scenario for the proposed ngVLA interferometric imaging array with 15 kHz channel bandwidth for correlator processing, we show that compared to the former approach of applying subspace projection on the full array, SP-SAP improves mitigation of the RFI on the order of 9 dB. An example of improved image synthesis and reduced RFI artifacts for a simulated image “phantom” using the SP-SAP algorithm is presented.

  15. A generalized measurement equation and van Cittert-Zernike theorem for wide-field radio astronomical interferometry (United States)

    Carozzi, T. D.; Woan, G.


    We derive a generalized van Cittert-Zernike (vC-Z) theorem for radio astronomy that is valid for partially polarized sources over an arbitrarily wide field of view (FoV). The classical vC-Z theorem is the theoretical foundation of radio astronomical interferometry, and its application is the basis of interferometric imaging. Existing generalized vC-Z theorems in radio astronomy assume, however, either paraxiality (narrow FoV) or scalar (unpolarized) sources. Our theorem uses neither of these assumptions, which are seldom fulfiled in practice in radio astronomy, and treats the full electromagnetic field. To handle wide, partially polarized fields, we extend the two-dimensional (2D) electric field (Jones vector) formalism of the standard `Measurement Equation' (ME) of radio astronomical interferometry to the full three-dimensional (3D) formalism developed in optical coherence theory. The resulting vC-Z theorem enables full-sky imaging in a single telescope pointing, and imaging based not only on standard dual-polarized interferometers (that measure 2D electric fields) but also electric tripoles and electromagnetic vector-sensor interferometers. We show that the standard 2D ME is easily obtained from our formalism in the case of dual-polarized antenna element interferometers. We also exploit an extended 2D ME to determine that dual-polarized interferometers can have polarimetric aberrations at the edges of a wide FoV. Our vC-Z theorem is particularly relevant to proposed, and recently developed, wide FoV interferometers such as Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) and Square Kilometer Array (SKA), for which direction-dependent effects will be important.

  16. Radio Observations of Elongated Pulsar Wind Nebulae (United States)

    Ng, Stephen C.-Y.


    The majority of pulsars' rotational energy is carried away by relativistic winds, which are energetic particles accelerated in the magnetosphere. The confinement of the winds by the ambient medium result in synchrotron bubbles with broad-band emission, which are commonly referred to as pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). Due to long synchrotron cooling time, a radio PWN reflects the integrated history of the system, complementing information obtained from the X-ray and higher energy bands. In addition, radio polarization measurements can offer a powerful probe of the PWN magnetic field structure. Altogether these can reveal the physical conditions and evolutionary history of a system.I report on preliminary results from high-resolution radio observations of PWNe associated with G327.1-1.1, PSRs J1015-5719, B1509-58, and J1549-4848 taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). Their magnetic field structure and multiwavelength comparison with other observations are discussed.This work is supported by a ECS grant of the Hong Kong Government under HKU 709713P. The Australia Telescope is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO.

  17. IRAS observations of radio-quiet and radio-loud quasars (United States)

    Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Miley, G.; Habing, H. J.; Young, E.; Low, F. J.; Beichman, C. A.; Clegg, P. E.; Harris, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.


    Observations from 12 to 100 microns are presented of two radio-quiet and three radio-loud quasars. Over this wavelength range, all five have grossly similar continuum energy distributions. The continua of the radio-loud quasars are consistent with synchrotron radiation. There is an indication, however, of excess 100 micron emission in the two radio-quiet quasars.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Michael W.; Murphy, David W.; Livingston, John H.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Jones, Dayton L.; Meier, David L.; Lawrence, Charles R.


    We have carried out a systematic search with Spitzer Warm Mission and archival data for infrared emission from the hotspots in radio lobes that have been described by Hardcastle et al. These hotspots have been detected with both radio and X-ray observations, but an observation at an intermediate frequency in the infrared can be critical to distinguish between competing models for particle acceleration and radiation processes in these objects. Between the archival and warm mission data, we report detections of 18 hotspots; the archival data generally include detections at all four IRAC bands, the Warm Mission data only at 3.6 μm. Using a theoretical formalism adopted from Godfrey et al., we fit both archival and warm mission spectral energy distributions (SEDs)—including radio, X-ray, and optical data from Hardcastle as well as the Spitzer data—with a synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, in which the X-rays are produced by Compton scattering of the radio frequency photons by the energetic electrons which radiate them. With one exception, an SSC model requires that the magnetic field be less or much less than the equipartition value which minimizes total energy and has comparable amounts of energy in the magnetic field and in the energetic particles. This conclusion agrees with those of comparable recent studies of hotspots, and with the analysis presented by Hardcastle et al. We also show that the infrared data rule out the simplest synchrotron-only models for the SEDs. We briefly discuss the implications of these results and of alternate interpretations of the data.

  19. Physics of the Solar Active Regions from Radio Observations (United States)

    Gelfreikh, G. B.


    Localized increase of the magnetic field observed by routine methods on the photosphere result in the growth of a number of active processes in the solar atmosphere and the heliosphere. These localized regions of increased magnetic field are called active regions (AR). The main processes of transfer, accumulation and release of energy in an AR is, however, out of scope of photospheric observations being essentially a 3D-process and happening either under photosphere or up in the corona. So, to investigate these plasma structures and processes we are bound to use either extrapolation of optical observational methods or observations in EUV, X-rays and radio. In this review, we stress and illustrate the input to the problem gained from radio astronomical methods and discuss possible future development of their applicatications. Historically speaking each new step in developing radio technique of observations resulted in detecting some new physics of ARs. The most significant progress in the last few years in radio diagnostics of the plasma structures of magnetospheres of the solar ARs is connected with the developing of the 2D full disk analysis on regular basis made at Nobeyama and detailed multichannel spectral-polarization (but one-dimensional and one per day) solar observations at the RATAN-600. In this report the bulk of attention is paid to the new approach to the study of solar activity gained with the Nobeyama radioheliograph and analyzing the ways for future progress. The most important new features of the multicomponent radio sources of the ARs studied using Nobeyama radioheliograph are as follow: 1. The analysis of magnetic field structures in solar corona above sunspot with 2000 G. Their temporal evolution and fluctuations with the periods around 3 and 5 minutes, due to MHD-waves in sunspot magnetic tubes and surrounding plasma. These investigations are certainly based on an analysis of thermal cyclotron emission of lower corona and CCTR above sunspot

  20. The Statistics of Radio Astronomical Polarimetry: Disjoint, Superposed, and Composite Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straten, W. van [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Tiburzi, C., E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)


    A statistical framework is presented for the study of the orthogonally polarized modes of radio pulsar emission via the covariances between the Stokes parameters. To accommodate the typically heavy-tailed distributions of single-pulse radio flux density, the fourth-order joint cumulants of the electric field are used to describe the superposition of modes with arbitrary probability distributions. The framework is used to consider the distinction between superposed and disjoint modes, with particular attention to the effects of integration over finite samples. If the interval over which the polarization state is estimated is longer than the timescale for switching between two or more disjoint modes of emission, then the modes are unresolved by the instrument. The resulting composite sample mean exhibits properties that have been attributed to mode superposition, such as depolarization. Because the distinction between disjoint modes and a composite sample of unresolved disjoint modes depends on the temporal resolution of the observing instrumentation, the arguments in favor of superposed modes of pulsar emission are revisited, and observational evidence for disjoint modes is described. In principle, the four-dimensional covariance matrix that describes the distribution of sample mean Stokes parameters can be used to distinguish between disjoint modes, superposed modes, and a composite sample of unresolved disjoint modes. More comprehensive and conclusive interpretation of the covariance matrix requires more detailed consideration of various relevant phenomena, including temporally correlated subpulse modulation (e.g., jitter), statistical dependence between modes (e.g., covariant intensities and partial coherence), and multipath propagation effects (e.g., scintillation and scattering).


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Straten, W.


    A four-dimensional statistical description of electromagnetic radiation is developed and applied to the analysis of radio pulsar polarization. The new formalism provides an elementary statistical explanation of the modal-broadening phenomenon in single-pulse observations. It is also used to argue that the degree of polarization of giant pulses has been poorly defined in past studies. Single- and giant-pulse polarimetry typically involves sources with large flux-densities and observations with high time-resolution, factors that necessitate consideration of source-intrinsic noise and small-number statistics. Self-noise is shown to fully explain the excess polarization dispersion previously noted in single-pulse observations of bright pulsars, obviating the need for additional randomly polarized radiation. Rather, these observations are more simply interpreted as an incoherent sum of covariant, orthogonal, partially polarized modes. Based on this premise, the four-dimensional covariance matrix of the Stokes parameters may be used to derive mode-separated pulse profiles without any assumptions about the intrinsic degrees of mode polarization. Finally, utilizing the small-number statistics of the Stokes parameters, it is established that the degree of polarization of an unresolved pulse is fundamentally undefined; therefore, previous claims of highly polarized giant pulses are unsubstantiated.

  2. New radio observations of the Circinus Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnett, J.I.; Reynolds, J.E.


    We present new radio continuum and OH observations of the Circinus Galaxy which confirm the active nature of the nucleus. The continuum structure is dominated by two spurs of emission, which probably originate in the core and extend roughly along the minor axis of the galaxy. In addition, the OH absorption profiles clearly indicate a rapidly rotating cloud surrounding the nucleus or several independent clouds in the vicinity with inflowing and outflowing motions. The Circinus Galaxy is most probably a Seyfert with underlying nuclear starburst activity. (author)

  3. New Platforms for Suborbital Astronomical Observations and In Situ Atmospheric Measurements: Spacecraft, Instruments, and Facilities (United States)

    Rodway, K.; DeForest, C. E.; Diller, J.; Vilas, F.; Sollitt, L. S.; Reyes, M. F.; Filo, A. S.; Anderson, E.


    Suborbital astronomical observations have over 50 years' history using NASA's sounding rockets and experimental space planes. The new commercial space industry is developing suborbital reusable launch vehicles (sRLV's) to provide low-cost, flexible, and frequent access to space at ~100 km altitude. In the case of XCOR Aerospace's Lynx spacecraft, the vehicle design and capabilities work well for hosting specially designed experiments that can be flown with a human-tended researcher or alone with the pilot on a customized mission. Some of the first-generation instruments and facilities that will conduct solar observations on dedicated Lynx science missions include the SwRI Solar Instrument Pointing Platform (SSIPP) and Atsa Suborbital Observatory, as well as KickSat sprites, which are picosatellites for in situ atmospheric and solar phenomena measurements. The SSIPP is a demonstration two-stage pointed solar observatory that operates inside the Lynx cockpit. The coarse pointing stage includes the pilot in the feedback loop, and the fine stage stabilizes the solar image to achieve arcsecond class pointing. SSIPP is a stepping-stone to future external instruments that can operate with larger apertures and shorter wavelengths in the solar atmosphere. The Planetary Science Institute's Atsa Suborbital Observatory combines the strengths of ground-based observatories and space-based observing to create a facility where a telescope is maintained and used interchangeably with either in-house facility instruments or user-provided instruments. The Atsa prototype is a proof of concept, hand-guided camera that mounts on the interior of the Lynx cockpit to test target acquisition and tracking for human-operated suborbital astronomy. KickSat sprites are mass-producible, one inch printed circuit boards (PCBs) populated by programmable off the shelf microprocessors and radios for real time data transmission. The sprite PCBs can integrate chip-based radiometers, magnetometers

  4. Metal-Containing Molecules Beyond the Solar System: a Laboratory and Radio Astronomical Perspective (United States)

    Ziurys, L. M.


    Although the history of interstellar molecules began around 1970, with the millimeter-wave detection of CO in the Orion Nebula, metal-containing species have been somewhat elusive for astronomical searches. Only in the past two decades have metal-bearing molecules been identified in space, starting with metal halides (NaCl, KCl, AlCl, and AlF), and then metal cyanide and isocyanide species (MgNC, MgCN, NaCN, and AlNC). Moreover, the metal-containing molecules seemed to be present in a single astronomical object: the envelope of a dying, carbon-rich star, IRC+10216. However, with improvements both in laboratory spectroscopy and telescope sensitivity, it is becoming clear that the relevance of metal-containing species in astrophysics is increasing. Metal oxide and hydroxide species, such as AlO and AlOH, have recently been identified in interstellar space. Metal-containing molecules are now being found in other astronomical sources, such as the oxygen-rich shell surrounding VY Canis Majoris, a supergiant star. These new astronomical discoveries will be presented, as well as the laboratory measurements that made them possible. New directions in rotational spectroscopy of metal-bearing molecules will also be discussed.

  5. Observations of radio sources or 'What happened to radio stars?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, R.G.


    A review is given of the early history of the interpretation of the radiation mechanisms following the discovery of the discrete radio sources, both galactic and extragalactic. The conflicting views which prevailed in the early fifties are discussed in some detail: some advocated thermal radiation from stars relatively close by, and others proposed the alternative that synchrotron radiation was responsible for the majority of the radio sources. Attention is drawn to the importance of high-resolution interferometry, whereby the structure of many of the sources could be obtained. Red-shift measurements and spectral distributions also played a part in determining distances and flux strengths at the sources. (U.K.)

  6. Mutualized service for the management of the astronomical observations at the TBL and the OHP (United States)

    Cottalorda, E.


    This article proposes the creation of a mutualized service for the management of the astronomical observations at the TBL and the OHP, which objective would be to optimize the scientific management of the observations, by mutualizing manpower and financial means for the two national telescopes in France.

  7. Energy Storage and Release through the Solar Activity Cycle Models Meet Radio Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Nindos, Alexander


    For nearly sixty years, radio observations have provided a unique insight into the physics of the active and quiescent solar atmosphere. Thanks to the variety of emission mechanisms and to the large altitude range available to observations, fundamental plasma parameters have been measured from the low chromosphere to the upper corona and interplanetary medium. This book presents current research in solar radio astronomy and shows how well it fits in the exceptional scientific context brought by the current space solar observatories. It essentially contains contributed research and review papers presented during the 2010 Community of European Solar Radio Astronomers (CESRA) meeting, which took place in Belgium in June 2010. This book is aimed at graduate students and researchers working in solar physics and space science. Previously published in Solar Physics journal, Vol. 273/2, 2011.

  8. Astronomical and Atmospheric Observations in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and in Bede (United States)

    Härke, H.


    Textual sources of the early Middle Ages (fifth to tenth centuries AD) contain more astronomical observations than is popularly assumed. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle lists some 40 observations of astronomical and atmospheric events for the just over 600 years it covers. But the contexts in which these are set show that eclipses, comets, meteor showers and aurorae were seen as portents of evil events, not as objects of early scientific curiosity. The case of Bede in the early eighth century shows that this was true, to an extent, even for the educated ecclesiastical elite. BedeÕs eclipse records also appear to show that astronomical events could be used to explain unusual phenomena such as the postulated volcanic Ôdust-veilÕ event of AD 536.

  9. Databases of Publications and Observations as a Part of the Crimean Astronomical Virtual Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlyapnikov A.


    Full Text Available We describe the main principles of formation of databases (DBs with information about astronomical objects and their physical characteristics derived from observations obtained at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO and published in the “Izvestiya of the CrAO” and elsewhere. Emphasis is placed on the DBs missing from the most complete global library of catalogs and data tables, VizieR (supported by the Center of Astronomical Data, Strasbourg. We specially consider the problem of forming a digital archive of observational data obtained at the CrAO as an interactive DB related to database objects and publications. We present examples of all our DBs as elements integrated into the Crimean Astronomical Virtual Observatory. We illustrate the work with the CrAO DBs using tools of the International Virtual Observatory: Aladin, VOPlot, VOSpec, in conjunction with the VizieR and Simbad DBs.

  10. Development of superconducting tunnel junction arrays for astronomical observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, D.


    The original S-CAM1 and 2 systems were a first successful demonstration of a camera for optical astronomy based on superconducting sensors. However, a number of shortcomings were identified during the observing campaigns at the William Herschel Telescope at La Palma that triggered this work. As the

  11. First use of a HyViSI H4RG for Astronomical Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, Lance M.; /SLAC; Figer, Donald F.; Hanold, Brandon J.; Kerr, Daniel J.; /Rochester Imaging Lab.; Gilmore, D.Kirk; Kahn, Steven M.; /SLAC; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC,


    We present the first astronomical results from a 4K2 Hybrid Visible Silicon PIN array detector (HyViSI) read out with the Teledyne Scientific and Imaging SIDECAR ASIC. These results include observations of astronomical standards and photometric measurements using the 2.1m KPNO telescope. We also report results from a test program in the Rochester Imaging Detector Laboratory (RIDL), including: read noise, dark current, linearity, gain, well depth, quantum efficiency, and substrate voltage effects. Lastly, we highlight results from operation of the detector in window read out mode and discuss its potential role for focusing, image correction, and use as a telescope guide camera.

  12. IPS observation system for the Miyun 50 m radio telescope and its commissioning observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xinying; Zhang Xizhen; Zhang Hongbo; Kong Deqing; Qu Huipeng


    Ground-based observation of Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) is an important approach for monitoring solar wind. A ground-based IPS observation system has been newly implemented on a 50 m radio telescope at Miyun station, managed by the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This observation system has been constructed for the purpose of observing solar wind speed and the associated scintillation index by using the normalized cross-spectrum of a simultaneous dual-frequency IPS measurement. The system consists of a universal dual-frequency front-end and a dual-channel multi-function back-end specially designed for IPS. After careful calibration and testing, IPS observations on source 3C 273B and 3C 279 have been successfully carried out. The preliminary observation results show that this newly-developed observation system is capable of performing IPS observation. The system's sensitivity for IPS observation can reach over 0.3 Jy in terms of an IPS polarization correlator with 4 MHz bandwidth and 2 s integration time. (research papers)

  13. Ionospheric Caustics in Solar Radio Observations (United States)

    Koval, A.; Chen, Y.; Stanislavsky, A.


    The Earth ionosphere possesses by natural focusing and defocusing effects on radio waves due to presence of variable ionospheric irregularities which could act like convergent and divergent lenses on incident radiation. In particular, the focusing of emission from the Sun was firstly detected on the Nançay Decameter Array dynamic spectra in the 1980s. On time-frequency spectrograms the intensity variations form specific structures different from well-known solar radio bursts and clearly distinguishing on a background of solar radiation. Such structures have been identified as ionospheric caustics (ICs) and considered to be the result of radio waves refraction on medium scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs). Although nowadays the ICs are registered by different radio observatories due to augmentation of low-frequency radio telescopes, the most recent papers devoted to ICs in solar radio records date back to the 1980s. In this study, we revisit the ICs issue with some new results by conducting a statistical analysis of occurrence rate of ICs in solar dynamic spectra in meter-decameter wavelength range for long continuous period (15 years). The seasonal variations in ICs appearance have been found for the first time. Besides, we report the possible solar cycle dependence of ICs emergence. The radio waves propagation in the ionosphere comprising MSTIDs will be considered. The present research renews the subject of ICs in the low-frequency solar radio astronomy after about 35-year letup.

  14. Olfar: orbiting low frequency antenna for radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, Albert Jan


    New interesting astronomical science drivers for very low frequency radio astronomy have emerged, ranging from studies of the astronomical dark ages, the epoch of reionization, exoplanets, to ultra-high energy cosmic rays. However, astronomical observations with Earth-bound radio telescopes at very

  15. New radio observations of NGC1275

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedlar, A.; Perley, R.; Crane, P.; Harrison, B.; Davies, R.D.


    VLA maps are presented for NGC1275 at 20 cm, with resolutions ranging from 1 to 40 arcsec. Over the central 30 arcsec there is evidence for collimated ejection at position angle -160 deg. Outside this region the radio structure bends rapidly by approximately 90 deg before merging into the 10-arcmin radio halo. It is suggested that models of pressure-driven accretion flows should take into account the presence of the relativistic gas which is responsible for the radio halo. 14 references

  16. A technique to detect periodic and non-periodic ultra-rapid flux time variations with standard radio-astronomical data (United States)

    Borra, Ermanno F.; Romney, Jonathan D.; Trottier, Eric


    We demonstrate that extremely rapid and weak periodic and non-periodic signals can easily be detected by using the autocorrelation of intensity as a function of time. We use standard radio-astronomical observations that have artificial periodic and non-periodic signals generated by the electronics of terrestrial origin. The autocorrelation detects weak signals that have small amplitudes because it averages over long integration times. Another advantage is that it allows a direct visualization of the shape of the signals, while it is difficult to see the shape with a Fourier transform. Although Fourier transforms can also detect periodic signals, a novelty of this work is that we demonstrate another major advantage of the autocorrelation, that it can detect non-periodic signals while the Fourier transform cannot. Another major novelty of our work is that we use electric fields taken in a standard format with standard instrumentation at a radio observatory and therefore no specialized instrumentation is needed. Because the electric fields are sampled every 15.625 ns, they therefore allow detection of very rapid time variations. Notwithstanding the long integration times, the autocorrelation detects very rapid intensity variations as a function of time. The autocorrelation could also detect messages from Extraterrestrial Intelligence as non-periodic signals.

  17. VLA radio observations of AR Scorpii (United States)

    Stanway, E. R.; Marsh, T. R.; Chote, P.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Steeghs, D.; Wheatley, P. J.


    Aims: AR Scorpii is unique amongst known white dwarf binaries in showing powerful pulsations extending to radio frequencies. Here we aim to investigate the multi-frequency radio emission of AR Sco in detail, in order to constrain its origin and emission mechanisms. Methods: We present interferometric radio frequency imaging of AR Sco at 1.5, 5 and 9 GHz, analysing the total flux and polarization behaviour of this source at high time resolution (10, 3 and 3 s), across a full 3.6 h orbital period in each band. Results: We find strong modulation of the radio flux on the orbital period and the orbital sideband of the white dwarf's spin period (also known as the "beat" period). This indicates that, like the optical flux, the radio flux arises predominantly from on or near the inner surface of the M-dwarf companion star. The beat-phase pulsations of AR Sco decrease in strength with decreasing frequency. They are strongest at 9 GHz and at an orbital phase 0.5. Unlike the optical emission from this source, radio emission from AR Sco shows weak linear polarization but very strong circular polarization, reaching 30% at an orbital phase 0.8. We infer the probable existence of a non-relativistic cyclotron emission component, which dominates at low radio frequencies. Given the required magnetic fields, this also likely arises from on or near the M-dwarf. A table of the flux time series is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  18. Millimeter observations of radio-loud active galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bemmel, IM; Bertoldi, F

    In order to study the nature of the far-infrared emission observed in radio-loud active galaxies, we have obtained 1.2 mill observations with the IRAM 30 m telescope for a sample of eight radio-loud active galaxies. In all objects we find that the 1.2 mm emission is dominated by non-thermal

  19. Instrumentations in x-ray plasma polarization spectroscopy. Crystal spectrometer, polarimeter and detectors for astronomical observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baronova, Elena O.; Stepanenko, Mikhail M. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Jakubowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Tsunemi, Hiroshi [Osaka Univ., Graduate School of Science, Osaka (Japan)


    This report discusses the various problems which are encountered when a crystal spectrometer is used for the purpose of observing polarized x-ray lines. A polarimeter is proposed based on the novel idea of using two series of equivalent atomic planes in a single crystal. The present status of the astronomical x-ray detection techniques are described with emphasis on two dimensional detectors which are polarization sensitive. (author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, Michael; Jeffs, Brian D.; Warnick, Karl F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)


    There are many challenges associated with the implementation of a phased array feed for radio astronomy applications. Among these is the need to have an adequate set of calibration measurements so that reliable beamformers can be computed. Changes in the operating environment and temporal gain drift in the electronics contribute to calibration drift, which affects the beamformer performance. We will show that calibration measurements are relatively stable over a 5 day period and may remain so for up to 70 days or longer. We have incorporated the use of a calibration update system that has the potential to refresh a set of old calibrators, specifically correcting for electronic gain drift. However, the long-term variations that are present with fresh, current calibrators are greater than the degradation due to using an old calibration set, suggesting that, at this time, there is not a need for sophisticated calibration update systems or algorithms.

  1. Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest (United States)


    and to provide a showcase for a broad range of astronomical research and celestial objects," Adams added. In addition, NRAO is developing enhanced data visualization techniques and data-processing recipes to assist radio astronomers in making quality images and in combining radio data with data collected at other wavelengths, such as visible-light or infrared, to make composite images. "We encourage all our telescope users to take advantage of these techniques to showcase their research," said Juan Uson, a member of the NRAO scientific staff and the observatory's EPO scientist. "All these efforts should demonstrate the vital and exciting roles that radio telescopes, radio observers, and the NRAO play in modern astronomy," Lo said. "While we want to encourage images that capture the imagination, we also want to emphasize that extra effort invested in enhanced imagery also will certainly pay off scientifically, by revealing subtleties and details that may have great significance for our understanding of astronomical objects," he added. Details of the NRAO Image Contest, which will become an annual event, are on the observatory's Web site. The observatory will announce winners on October 15. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  2. Twenty-five astronomical observations that changed the world and how to make them yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Marett-Crosby, Michael


    Human history is also the record of our fascination with the sky, and to look upwards is to follow in the steps of such greats as Galileo and Newton. What they and others once saw in the heavens for the first time, amateur astronomers can discover anew using this guide to twenty-five of the greatest journeys through space.   Starting with our most visible companion the Moon, each chapter offers a step-by-step walk-through of famous astronomical observations from the history of science. Beginning with the easiest targets, sometimes even accessible with the naked eye, the challenges become progressively more difficult. Beginner astronomers and more experienced hobbyists alike can reacquaint themselves with the wonders of our fellow planets and even reach far beyond our own solar system to touch on such incredible phenomena as the birth of new stars in nebula systems and the deceptive nothingness of black holes. The would-be astronaut can spy the International Space Station in orbit with binoculars or the dooms...

  3. Astronomical Cybersketching

    CERN Document Server

    Grego, Peter


    Outlines the techniques involved in making observational sketches and more detailed 'scientific' drawings of a wide variety of astronomical subjects using modern digital equipment; primarily PDAs and tablet PCs. This book also discusses about choosing hardware and software

  4. Optimizing hydroxyl airglow retrievals from long-slit astronomical spectroscopic observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Franzen


    Full Text Available Astronomical spectroscopic observations from ground-based telescopes contain background emission lines from the terrestrial atmosphere's airglow. In the near infrared, this background is composed mainly of emission from Meinel bands of hydroxyl (OH, which is produced in highly excited vibrational states by reduction of ozone near 90 km. This emission contains a wealth of information on the chemical and dynamical state of the Earth's atmosphere. However, observation strategies and data reduction processes are usually optimized to minimize the influence of these features on the astronomical spectrum. Here we discuss a measurement technique to optimize the extraction of the OH airglow signal itself from routine J-, H-, and K-band long-slit astronomical spectroscopic observations. As an example, we use data recorded from a point-source observation by the Nordic Optical Telescope's intermediate-resolution spectrograph, which has a spatial resolution of approximately 100 m at the airglow layer. Emission spectra from the OH vibrational manifold from v′  =  9 down to v′  =  3, with signal-to-noise ratios up to 280, have been extracted from 10.8 s integrations. Rotational temperatures representative of the background atmospheric temperature near 90 km, the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region, can be fitted to the OH rotational lines with an accuracy of around 0.7 K. Using this measurement and analysis technique, we derive a rotational temperature distribution with v′ that agrees with atmospheric model conditions and the preponderance of previous work. We discuss the derived rotational temperatures from the different vibrational bands and highlight the potential for both the archived and future observations, which are at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions, to contribute toward the resolution of long-standing problems in atmospheric physics.

  5. Solar observations with a low frequency radio telescope (United States)

    Myserlis, I.; Seiradakis, J.; Dogramatzidis, M.


    We have set up a low frequency radio monitoring station for solar bursts at the Observatory of the Aristotle University in Thessaloniki. The station consists of a dual dipole phased array, a radio receiver and a dedicated computer with the necessary software installed. The constructed radio receiver is based on NASA's Radio Jove project. It operates continuously, since July 2010, at 20.1 MHz (close to the long-wavelength ionospheric cut-off of the radio window) with a narrow bandwidth (~5 kHz). The system is properly calibrated, so that the recorded data are expressed in antenna temperature. Despite the high interference level of an urban region like Thessaloniki (strong broadcasting shortwave radio stations, periodic experimental signals, CBs, etc), we have detected several low frequency solar radio bursts and correlated them with solar flares, X-ray events and other low frequency solar observations. The received signal is monitored in ordinary ASCII format and as audio signal, in order to investigate and exclude man-made radio interference. In order to exclude narrow band interference and calculate the spectral indices of the observed events, a second monitoring station, working at 36 MHz, is under construction at the village of Nikiforos near the town of Drama, about 130 km away of Thessaloniki. Finally, we plan to construct a third monitoring station at 58 MHz, in Thessaloniki. This frequency was revealed to be relatively free of interference, after a thorough investigation of the region.

  6. Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope Observations of Head–Tail Radio Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, Biny; Lal, Dharam V.; Rao, A. Pramesh, E-mail: [National Center for Radio Astrophysics—Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Post Box 3, Ganeshkhind P.O., Pune 41007 (India)


    We present results from a study of seven large known head–tail radio galaxies based on observations using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 240 and 610 MHz. These observations are used to study the radio morphologies and distribution of the spectral indices across the sources. The overall morphology of the radio tails of these sources is suggestive of random motions of the optical host around the cluster potential. The presence of multiple bends and wiggles in several head–tail sources is possibly due to the precessing radio jets. We find steepening of the spectral index along the radio tails. The prevailing equipartition magnetic field also decreases along the radio tails of these sources. These steepening trends are attributed to the synchrotron aging of plasma toward the ends of the tails. The dynamical ages of these sample sources have been estimated to be ∼10{sup 8} yr, which is a factor of six more than the age estimates from the radiative losses due to synchrotron cooling.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Straten, W., E-mail: [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)


    A new method of polarimetric calibration is presented in which the instrumental response is derived from regular observations of PSR J0437-4715 based on the assumption that the mean polarized emission from this millisecond pulsar remains constant over time. The technique is applicable to any experiment in which high-fidelity polarimetry is required over long timescales; it is demonstrated by calibrating 7.2 years of high-precision timing observations of PSR J1022+1001 made at the Parkes Observatory. Application of the new technique followed by arrival time estimation using matrix template matching yields post-fit residuals with an uncertainty-weighted standard deviation of 880 ns, two times smaller than that of arrival time residuals obtained via conventional methods of calibration and arrival time estimation. The precision achieved by this experiment yields the first significant measurements of the secular variation of the projected semimajor axis, the precession of periastron, and the Shapiro delay; it also places PSR J1022+1001 among the 10 best pulsars regularly observed as part of the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. It is shown that the timing accuracy of a large fraction of the pulsars in the PPTA is currently limited by the systematic timing error due to instrumental polarization artifacts. More importantly, long-term variations of systematic error are correlated between different pulsars, which adversely affects the primary objectives of any pulsar timing array experiment. These limitations may be overcome by adopting the techniques presented in this work, which relax the demand for instrumental polarization purity and thereby have the potential to reduce the development cost of next-generation telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array.

  8. Laboratory Molecular Astrophysics as an Invaluable Tool in understanding Astronomical Observations. (United States)

    Fraser, Helen Jane


    We are entering the decade of molecular astrochemistry: spectroscopic data pertaining to the interactions between baryonic matter and electromagnetic radiation are now at the forefront of astronomical observations. Elucidating such data is reliant on inputs from laboratory experiments, modeling, and theoretical chemistry / physics, a field that is intended to be a key focus for the proposed new commission in Laboratory Astrophysics.Here, we propose a “tour de force” review of some recent successes since the last GA in molecular astrophysics, particularly those that have been directly facilitated by laboratory data in Astrochemistry. It is vital to highlight to the astronomers that the absence of laboratory data from the literature would otherwise have precluded advances in our astronomical understanding, e.g:the detection of gas-phase water deep in pre-stellar cores,the detection of water and other molecular species in gravitationally lensed galaxies at z~6“Jumps” in the appearance or disappearance of molecules, including the very recent detection of the first branched organic molecule in the ISM, iso-propyl-cyanide,disentangling dense spectroscopic features in the sub-mm as measured by ALMA, Herschel and SOFIA, the so-called “weeds” and “flowers”,the first ''image'' of a CO snow-line in a protoplanetary disk.Looking forward, the advent of high spatial and spectral resolution telescopes, particularly ALMA, SKA E-ELT and JWST, will continue to drive forward the needs and interests of laboratory astrochemistry in the coming decade. We will look forward to five key areas where advances are expected, and both observational and laboratory techniques are evolving:-(a) understanding star forming regions at very high spatial and spectral senstivity and resolution(b) extragalactic astrochemistry(c) (exo-)planetary atmospheres, surfaces and Solar System sample return - linkinginterstellar and planetary chemistry(d) astrobiology - linking simple molecular

  9. Astronomical Orientation Method Based on Lunar Observations Utilizing Super Wide Field of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PU Junyu


    Full Text Available In this paper,astronomical orientation is achieved by observing the moon utilizing camera with super wide field of view,and formulae are deduced in detail.An experiment based on real observations verified the stability of the method.In this experiment,after 15 minutes' tracking shoots,the internal precision could be superior to ±7.5" and the external precision could approximately reach ±20".This camera-based method for astronomical orientation can change the traditional mode (aiming by human eye based on theodolite,thus lowering the requirements for operator's skill to some extent.Furthermore,camera with super wide field of view can realize the function of continuous tracking shoots on the moon without complicated servo control devices.Considering the similar existence of gravity on the moon and the earth's phase change when observed from the moon,once the technology of self-leveling is developed,this method can be extended to orientation for lunar rover by shooting the earth.

  10. Urban light pollution - The effect of atmospheric aerosols on astronomical observations at night (United States)

    Joseph, Joachim H.; Mekler, Yuri; Kaufman, Yoram J.


    The transfer of diffuse city light from a localized source through a dust-laden atmosphere with optical depth less than 0.5 has been analyzed in the source-observer plane on the basis of an approximate treatment. The effect on several types of astronomical observation at night has been studied, considering different size distributions and amounts as well as particle shapes of the aerosols. The analysis is made in terms of the signal-to-noise ratios for a given amount of aerosol. The model is applied to conditions at the Wise Astronomical Observatory in the Negev desert, and limiting backgrounds for spectroscopy, photometry, and photography of stars and extended objects have been calculated for a variety of signal-to-noise ratios. Applications to observations with different equipment at various distances from an urban area of any size are possible. Due to the use of signal-to-noise ratios, the conclusions are different for the different experimental techniques used in astronomy.

  11. The importance of source positions during radio fine structure observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, Guennadi P.; Yan Yi-Hua; Fu Qi-Jun


    The measurement of positions and sizes of radio sources in the observations of the fine structure of solar radio bursts is a determining factor for the selection of the radio emission mechanism. The identical parameters describing the radio sources for zebra structures (ZSs) and fiber bursts confirm there is a common mechanism for both structures. It is very important to measure the size of the source in the corona to determine if it is distributed along the height or if it is point-like. In both models of ZSs (the double plasma resonance (DPR) and the whistler model) the source must be distributed along the height, but by contrast to the stationary source in the DPR model, in the whistler model the source should be moving. Moreover, the direction of the space drift of the radio source must correlate with the frequency drift of stripes in the dynamic spectrum. Some models of ZSs require a local source, for example, the models based on the Bernstein modes, or on explosive instability. The selection of the radio emission mechanism for fast broadband pulsations with millisecond duration also depends on the parameters of their radio sources. (mini-volume: solar radiophysics — recent results on observations and theories)

  12. Biographical encyclopedia of astronomers

    CERN Document Server

    Trimble, Virginia; Williams, Thomas; Bracher, Katherine; Jarrell, Richard; Marché, Jordan; Palmeri, JoAnn; Green, Daniel


    The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers is a unique and valuable resource for historians and astronomers alike. It includes approx. 1850 biographical sketches on astronomers from antiquity to modern times. It is the collective work of 430 authors edited by an editorial board of 8 historians and astronomers. This reference provides biographical information on astronomers and cosmologists by utilizing contemporary historical scholarship. The fully corrected and updated second edition adds approximately 300 biographical sketches. Based on ongoing research and feedback from the community, the new entries will fill gaps and provide expansions. In addition, greater emphasis on Russo phone astronomers and radio astronomers is given. Individual entries vary from 100 to 1500 words, including the likes of the super luminaries such as Newton and Einstein, as well as lesser-known astronomers like Galileo's acolyte, Mario Guiducci.

  13. Observational constraints on the cosmological evolution of extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perryman, M.A.C.


    The thesis discusses statistical studies of the remote radio sources, taking into account the various parameters for such sources, based on data from the various Cambridge Catalogues. Some of the sources have optical counterparts which yield distances from their redshifts. Combining optical and radio observations, an attempt is made to investigate whether large-scale evolution of galaxies occurs as one looks backwards in time to early epochs. Special attention is paid to ensuring that the optical identifications of the selected radio sources are sound and that the selection procedures do not distort the inferences obtained. (U.K.)

  14. Low frequency radio observations of five rich clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanisch, R.J.; Erickson, W.C.


    Observations have been made at 43.0 and 73.8 MHz of five rich x-ray emitting clusters of galaxies: Abell 399/401, Abell 426 (the Perseus cluster), Abell 1367, Abell 1656 (the Coma cluster), and the Virgo cluster. A fan beam synthesis system has been used to search for extended radio emission, i.e., radio halos, in these clusters. Radio halos were detected in the Coma and Virgo clusters. No evidence was found for the existence of 3C84B, the halo source previously thought to exist in the Perseus cluster. If halo sources exist in Abell 399/401 or Abell 1367, they must be quite weak at frequencies less than 100 MHz. The observed sizes of the extended sources in Coma and Virgo imply that the rate of particle propagation away from strong radio galaxies greatly exceeds the Alfven velocity and is probably independent of particle energy

  15. Dipolar flow theory of the universe in relation to astronomical observations and universe axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullick, U.P.


    An attempt has been made to establish Dipolar continuous flow theory of the universe through corroborations from astronomical observations of the positions of nebulae made earlier by astronomers. It is shown that the line through groups of nebulae in Nubecula Major in Southern Sky Region 5, passing through Earth points towards the near side pole A of the universe. Also the angles the plane parallel to universe polar plane x-x and passing through Earth, makes with the Milky Way disc is about 70 0 towards universe pole B, and about 110 0 towards nearside universe pole A. It is also shown that the two nebulae M 31 and M 33 and the groups of nebulae in Megallenic clouds, in Nebecula Major are between planes passing through universe equatorial axis y-y and plant Ysub(E)-Ysub(E) passing through Earth and parallel to universe equatorial plane Y-Y. Besides, the huge red star Betelgeux and the great Nebula in Orion in sky Region 9 are also between these two planes. These observations the author claims accord with his Dipolar Theory. (author)

  16. Astronomical discoveries you can make, too! replicating the work of the great observers

    CERN Document Server

    Buchheim, Robert K


    You too can follow in the steps of the great astronomers such as Hipparchus, Galileo, Kepler and Hubble, who all contributed so much to our modern understanding of the cosmos. This book gives the student or amateur astronomer the following tools to replicate some of these seminal observations from their own homes:   With your own eyes: Use your own observations and measurements to discover and confirm the phenomena of the seasons, the analemma and the equation of time, the logic behind celestial coordinates, and even the precession of the equinoxes.   With a consumer-grade digital camera: Record the changing brightness of an eclipsing binary star and show that a pulsating star changes color as it brightens and dims. Add an inexpensive diffraction grating to your camera and see the variety of spectral features in the stars, and demonstrate that the Sun’s spectrum is similar to one particular type of stellar spectrum.   With a backyard telescope: Add a CCD imager and you can measure the scale of the Solar ...

  17. Literary Fiction or Ancient Astronomical and Meteorological Observations in the Work of Maria Valtorta?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Matricciani


    Full Text Available In The Gospel as revealed to me, Maria Valtorta reports a lot of information on the Holy Land at the time of Jesus: historical, archaeological, astronomical, geographical, meteorological. She states she has written what seen “in vision”. By a detailed astronomical analysis of explicit and implicit calendar information reported while she narrates detailed episodes concerning the three years of Jesus’ public life—possible because of many references to lunar phases, constellations, planets visible in the night sky in her writings—it is ascertained that every event described implies a precise date—day, month, year—without being explicitly reported by her. For example, Jesus’ crucifixion should have occurred on Friday April 23 of the year 34, a date proposed by Isaac Newton. She has also recorded the occurrence of rain so that the number of rainy days reported can be compared to the current meteorological data, supposing random observations and no important changes in rainfall daily frequency in the last 2000 years, the latter issue discussed in the paper. Unexpectedly, both the annual and monthly averages of rainy days deduced from the data available from the Israel Meteorological Service and similar averages deduced from her writings agree very well.

  18. Terahertz Mixing Characteristics of NbN Superconducting Tunnel Junctions and Related Astronomical Observations (United States)

    Li, J.


    High-sensitivity superconducting SIS (superconductor-insulator-superconductor) mixers are playing an increasingly important role in the terahertz (THz) astronomical observation, which is an emerging research frontier in modern astrophysics. Superconducting SIS mixers with niobium (Nb) tunnel junctions have reached a sensitivity close to the quantum limit, but have a frequency limit about 0.7 THz (i.e., gap frequency of Nb tunnel junctions). Beyond this frequency Nb superconducting films will absorb energetic photons (i.e., energy loss) to break Cooper pairs, thereby resulting in significant degradation of the mixer performance. Therefore, it is of particular interest to develop THz superconducting SIS mixers incorporating tunnel junctions with a larger energy gap. Niobium-nitride (NbN) superconducting tunnel junctions have been long known for their large energy gap, almost double that of Nb ones. With the introduction of epitaxially grown NbN films, the fabrication technology of NbN superconducting tunnel junctions has been considerably improved in the recent years. Nevertheless, their performances are still not as good as Nb ones, and furthermore they are not yet demonstrated in real astronomical applications. Given the facts mentioned above, in this paper we systematically study the quantum mixing behaviors of NbN superconducting tunnel junctions in the THz regime and demonstrate an astronomical testing observation with a 0.5 THz superconducting SIS mixer developed with NbN tunnel junctions. The main results of this study include: (1) successful design and fabrication of a 0.4˜0.6 THz waveguide mixing circuit with the high-dielectric-constant MgO substrate; (2) successful fabrication of NbN superconducting tunnel junctions with the gap voltage reaching 5.6 mV and the quality factor as high as 15; (3) demonstration of a 0.5 THz waveguide NbN superconducting SIS mixer with a measured receiver noise temperature (no correction) as low as five times the quantum limit

  19. Radio and white-light observations of coronal transients (United States)

    Dulk, G. A.


    Optical, radio and X-ray evidence of violent mass motions in the corona has existed for some years but only recently have the form, nature, frequency and implication of the transients become obvious. In this paper the observed properties of coronal transients are reviewed, with concentration on the white-light and radio manifestations. The classification according to speeds seems to be meaningful, with the slow transients having thermal emissions at radio wavelengths and the fast ones nonthermal. The possible mechanisms involved in the radio bursts are then discussed and estimates of various forms of energy are reviewed. It appears that the magnetic energy transported from the sun by the transient exceeds that of any other form, and that magnetic forces dominate in the dynamics of the motions. The conversion of magnetic energy into mechanical energy, by expansion of the field, provides a possible driving force for the coronal and interplanetary shock waves.

  20. Radio and white-light observations of coronal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulk, G.A.


    Optical, radio and X-ray evidence of violent mass motions in the corona has existed for some years but only recently have the form, nature, frequency and implication of the transients become obvious. The author reviews the observed properties of coronal transients, concentrating on the white-light and radio manifestations. The classification according to speeds seems to be meaningful, with the slow transients having thermal emissions at radio wavelengths and the fast ones non-thermal. The possible mechanisms involved in the radio bursts are discussed and the estimates of various forms of energy are reviewed. It appears that the magnetic energy transported from the Sun by the transient exceeds that of any other form, and that magnetic forces dominate in the dynamics of the motions. The conversion of magnetic energy into mechanical energy, by expansion of the fields, provides a possible driving force for the coronal and interplanetary shock waves. (Auth.)

  1. galario: Gpu Accelerated Library for Analyzing Radio Interferometer Observations (United States)

    Tazzari, Marco; Beaujean, Frederik; Testi, Leonardo


    The galario library exploits the computing power of modern graphic cards (GPUs) to accelerate the comparison of model predictions to radio interferometer observations. It speeds up the computation of the synthetic visibilities given a model image (or an axisymmetric brightness profile) and their comparison to the observations.

  2. Circumstellar envelopes seen in radio (OH masers) and in the infrared observations (IRAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Pedro-Correia-de-Matos


    Intermediate mass stars, namely from one to nine solar masses, eject mass into the surrounding interstellar medium at high rates (up to 1/10000 solar masses per year) in their late stages of evolution on the so called asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Indeed, the presence of a circumstellar envelope (CSE) composed of dust and gas is one of the principal features of the objects on the AGB. Because of the high opacity at visible wavelength of the CSE, most of these objects can only be observed at infrared and radio frequencies. This study was undertaken using infrared and radio data from a large sample of CSE sources. The infrared data was obtained from the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) data base. For a selection of IRAS objects, radio observations were made of the OH maser at 1612 and 1667 MHz at the Nancay radio telescope, France. This work consists in two parts, one is theoretical in nature, the other observational. The theoretical part is concerned with the modeling of IRAS low resolution spectra (LRS catalog) and IRAS photometry through the use of a radiative transfer code. Confrontation between models and data has yielded such results as a better definition of the grain optical properties and the behavior of the CSE as it evolves. A model of a shock wave (a possible lifting engine of the CSE) propagating in the atmosphere of Mira stars (AGB) is described. On the observational side, a large number of objects has been surveyed for the presence of OH masers at 1612 and 1667 MHz. A statistical analysis has established more clearly the evolutionary status of CSE and the OH maser characteristics. A compiling of detection rates for the occurrence of masers, average location of these masing CSEs in the Galaxy, and OH maser characteristics is reported for use in future work. (author) [fr

  3. Virtual observatory tools and amateur radio observations supporting scientific analysis of Jupiter radio emissions (United States)

    Cecconi, Baptiste; Hess, Sebastien; Le Sidaner, Pierre; Savalle, Renaud; Stéphane, Erard; Coffre, Andrée; Thétas, Emmanuel; André, Nicolas; Génot, Vincent; Thieman, Jim; Typinski, Dave; Sky, Jim; Higgins, Chuck; Imai, Masafumi


    In the frame of the preparation of the NASA/JUNO and ESA/JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer) missions, and the development of a planetary sciences virtual observatory (VO), we are proposing a new set of tools directed to data providers as well as users, in order to ease data sharing and discovery. We will focus on ground based planetary radio observations (thus mainly Jupiter radio emissions), trying for instance to enhance the temporal coverage of jovian decametric emission. The data service we will be using is EPN-TAP, a planetary science data access protocol developed by Europlanet-VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access). This protocol is derived from IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance) standards. The Jupiter Routine Observations from the Nancay Decameter Array are already shared on the planetary science VO using this protocol, as well as data from the Iitate Low Frquency Radio Antenna, in Japan. Amateur radio data from the RadioJOVE project is also available. The attached figure shows data from those three providers. We will first introduce the VO tools and concepts of interest for the planetary radioastronomy community. We will then present the various data formats now used for such data services, as well as their associated metadata. We will finally show various prototypical tools that make use of this shared datasets.

  4. An observation planning algorithm applied to multi-objective astronomical observations and its simulation in COSMOS field (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Gu, Yonggang; Zhai, Chao


    Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic sky surveys are now booming, such as LAMOST already built by China, BIGBOSS project put forward by the U.S. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and GTC (Gran Telescopio Canarias) telescope developed by the United States, Mexico and Spain. They all use or will use this approach and each fiber can be moved within a certain area for one astrology target, so observation planning is particularly important for this Sky Surveys. One observation planning algorithm used in multi-objective astronomical observations is developed. It can avoid the collision and interference between the fiber positioning units in the focal plane during the observation in one field of view, and the interested objects can be ovserved in a limited round with the maximize efficiency. Also, the observation simulation can be made for wide field of view through multi-FOV observation. After the observation planning is built ,the simulation is made in COSMOS field using GTC telescope. Interested galaxies, stars and high-redshift LBG galaxies are selected after the removal of the mask area, which may be bright stars. Then 9 FOV simulation is completed and observation efficiency and fiber utilization ratio for every round are given. Otherwise,allocating a certain number of fibers for background sky, giving different weights for different objects and how to move the FOV to improve the overall observation efficiency are discussed.

  5. Ulysses radio and plasma wave observations in the jupiter environment. (United States)

    Stone, R G; Pedersen, B M; Harvey, C C; Canu, P; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N; Desch, M D; de Villedary, C; Fainberg, J; Farrell, W M; Goetz, K; Hess, R A; Hoang, S; Kaiser, M L; Kellogg, P J; Lecacheux, A; Lin, N; Macdowall, R J; Manning, R; Meetre, C A; Meyer-Vernet, N; Moncuquet, M; Osherovich, V; Reiner, M J; Tekle, A; Thiessen, J; Zarka, P


    The Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment has produced new observations of the Jupiter environment, owing to the unique capabilities of the instrument and the traversal of high Jovian latitudes. Broad-band continuum radio emission from Jupiter and in situ plasma waves have proved valuable in delineating the magnetospheric boundaries. Simultaneous measurements of electric and magnetic wave fields have yielded new evidence of whistler-mode radiation within the magnetosphere. Observations of aurorallike hiss provided evidence of a Jovian cusp. The source direction and polarization capabilities of URAP have demonstrated that the outer region of the lo plasma torus supported at least five separate radio sources that reoccurred during successive rotations with a measurable corotation lag. Thermal noise measurements of the lo torus densities yielded values in the densest portion that are similar to models suggested on the basis of Voyager observations of 13 years ago. The URAP measurements also suggest complex beaming and polarization characteristics of Jovian radio components. In addition, a new class of kilometer-wavelength striated Jovian bursts has been observed.

  6. Testing the Copernican principle with future radio-astronomy observations


    Bester, Hertzog L.; Larena, Julien; Bishop, Nigel T.


    We use a direct observational approach to investigate the possibility of testing the Copernican principle with data from upcoming radio surveys. In particular we illustrate the importance of measuring derivatives transverse to the past light-cone when prior knowledge of the value of the cosmological constant is not available.

  7. Wavelet Denoising of Radio Observations of Rotating Radio Transients (RRATs): Improved Timing Parameters for Eight RRATs (United States)

    Jiang, M.; Cui, B.-Y.; Schmid, N. A.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Cao, Z.-C.


    Rotating radio transients (RRATs) are sporadically emitting pulsars detectable only through searches for single pulses. While over 100 RRATs have been detected, only a small fraction (roughly 20%) have phase-connected timing solutions, which are critical for determining how they relate to other neutron star populations. Detecting more pulses in order to achieve solutions is key to understanding their physical nature. Astronomical signals collected by radio telescopes contain noise from many sources, making the detection of weak pulses difficult. Applying a denoising method to raw time series prior to performing a single-pulse search typically leads to a more accurate estimation of their times of arrival (TOAs). Taking into account some features of RRAT pulses and noise, we present a denoising method based on wavelet data analysis, an image-processing technique. Assuming that the spin period of an RRAT is known, we estimate the frequency spectrum components contributing to the composition of RRAT pulses. This allows us to suppress the noise, which contributes to other frequencies. We apply the wavelet denoising method including selective wavelet reconstruction and wavelet shrinkage to the de-dispersed time series of eight RRATs with existing timing solutions. The signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of most pulses are improved after wavelet denoising. Compared to the conventional approach, we measure 12%–69% more TOAs for the eight RRATs. The new timing solutions for the eight RRATs show 16%–90% smaller estimation error of most parameters. Thus, we conclude that wavelet analysis is an effective tool for denoising RRATs signal.

  8. Wavelet Denoising of Radio Observations of Rotating Radio Transients (RRATs): Improved Timing Parameters for Eight RRATs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, M.; Schmid, N. A.; Cao, Z.-C. [Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering West Virginia University Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Cui, B.-Y.; McLaughlin, M. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy West Virginia University Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)


    Rotating radio transients (RRATs) are sporadically emitting pulsars detectable only through searches for single pulses. While over 100 RRATs have been detected, only a small fraction (roughly 20%) have phase-connected timing solutions, which are critical for determining how they relate to other neutron star populations. Detecting more pulses in order to achieve solutions is key to understanding their physical nature. Astronomical signals collected by radio telescopes contain noise from many sources, making the detection of weak pulses difficult. Applying a denoising method to raw time series prior to performing a single-pulse search typically leads to a more accurate estimation of their times of arrival (TOAs). Taking into account some features of RRAT pulses and noise, we present a denoising method based on wavelet data analysis, an image-processing technique. Assuming that the spin period of an RRAT is known, we estimate the frequency spectrum components contributing to the composition of RRAT pulses. This allows us to suppress the noise, which contributes to other frequencies. We apply the wavelet denoising method including selective wavelet reconstruction and wavelet shrinkage to the de-dispersed time series of eight RRATs with existing timing solutions. The signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of most pulses are improved after wavelet denoising. Compared to the conventional approach, we measure 12%–69% more TOAs for the eight RRATs. The new timing solutions for the eight RRATs show 16%–90% smaller estimation error of most parameters. Thus, we conclude that wavelet analysis is an effective tool for denoising RRATs signal.

  9. Solar radio observations in support of Skylab A (United States)

    Gotwols, B. L.


    The solar radio spectra were recorded in real time, both on film and magnetic tape, during the period from November 1972 to February 1974. A catalogue of the observations is given for the frequency range 565-1000 MHz and includes descriptions of the bursts, intensity scales, and pertinent remarks. Some theoretical considerations resulting from the research are given. Equipment modified for the experiment is described and the text of the final report which summarizes the research on type IV solar radio bursts is included.

  10. Combined synthetic x-ray and radio observations of simulated radio jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tregillis, I. L. (Ian L.); Jones, T. W. (Thomas Walter),; Ryu, Dongsu


    We present results from an extensive synthetic observation analysis of numerically-simulated radio galaxy jets. This is the first such analysis to be based on simulations with sufficient physical detail to allow the application of standard observational analysis techniques to simulated radio galaxies. Here we focus on extracting magnetic field properties from nonthermal intensity information. We study field values obtained via the combination of synchrotron radio and inverse-Compton X-ray data as well as those from the minimum-energy approach. The combined radio/X-ray technique provides meaningful information about the field. The minimum-energy approach retrieves reasonable field estimates in regions physically close to the minimum-energy partitioning, though the technique is highly susceptible to deviations from the underlying assumptions. We also look at how the two field measurement techniques might be combined to provide a rough measure of the actual energy in particles and fields. A full report on this work can be found in the Astrophysical Journal, v601, p778.

  11. VLBI observations of Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (United States)

    Middelberg, Enno; Phillips, Chris; Norris, Ray; Tingay, Steven


    We propose to observe a small sample of radio sources from the ATLAS project (ATLAS = Australia Telescope Large Area Survey) with the LBA, to determine their compactness and map their structures. The sample consists of three radio sources with no counterpart in the co-located SWIRE survey (3.6 um to 160 um), carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. This rare class of sources, dubbed Infrared-Faint Radio Sources, or IFRS, is inconsistent with current galaxy evolution models. VLBI observations are an essential way to obtain further clues on what these objects are and why they are hidden from infrared observations: we will map their structure to test whether they resemble core-jet or double-lobed morphologies, and we will measure the flux densities on long baselines, to determine their compactness. Previous snapshot-style LBA observations of two other IFRS yielded no detections, hence we propose to use disk-based recording with 512 Mbps where possible, for highest sensitivity. With the observations proposed here, we will increase the number of VLBI-observed IFRS from two to five, soon allowing us to draw general conclusions about this intriguing new class of objects.

  12. An accuracy measurement method for star trackers based on direct astronomic observation. (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; Wang, Xiaochu; You, Zheng; Chu, Daping


    Star tracker is one of the most promising optical attitude measurement devices and it is widely used in spacecraft for its high accuracy. However, how to realize and verify such an accuracy remains a crucial but unsolved issue until now. The authenticity of the accuracy measurement method of a star tracker will eventually determine the satellite performance. A new and robust accuracy measurement method for a star tracker based on the direct astronomical observation is proposed here. In comparison with the conventional method with simulated stars, this method utilizes real navigation stars as observation targets which makes the measurement results more authoritative and authentic. Transformations between different coordinate systems are conducted on the account of the precision movements of the Earth, and the error curves of directional vectors are obtained along the three axes. Based on error analysis and accuracy definitions, a three-axis accuracy evaluation criterion has been proposed in this paper, which could determine pointing and rolling accuracy of a star tracker directly. Experimental measurements confirm that this method is effective and convenient to implement. Such a measurement environment is close to the in-orbit conditions and it can satisfy the stringent requirement for high-accuracy star trackers.

  13. The nature of extragalactic radio-jets from high-resolution radio-interferometric observations


    Perucho, Manel


    Extragalactic jets are a common feature of radio-loud active galaxies. The nature of the observed jets in relation to the bulk flow is still unclear. In particular it is not clear whether the observations of parsec-scale jets using the very long baseline interferometric technique (VLBI) reveal wave-like structures that develop and propagate along the jet, or trace the jet flow itself. In this contribution I review the evidence collected during the last years showing that the ridge-lines of he...

  14. Using Internet-Based Robotic Telescopes to Engage Non-Science Majors in Astronomical Observation (United States)

    Berryhill, K. J.; Coble, K.; Slater, T. F.; McLin, K. M.; Cominsky, L. R.


    Responding to national science education reform documents calling for students to have more opportunities for authentic research experiences, several national projects have developed online telescope networks to provide students with Internet-access to research grade telescopes. The nature of astronomical observation (e.g., remote sites, expensive equipment, and odd hours) has been a barrier in the past. Internet-based robotic telescopes allow scientists to conduct observing sessions on research-grade telescopes half a world away. The same technology can now be harnessed by STEM educators to engage students and reinforce what is being taught in the classroom, as seen in some early research in elementary schools (McKinnon and Mainwaring 2000 and McKinnon and Geissinger 2002), middle/high schools (Sadler et al. 2001, 2007 and Gehret et al. 2005) and undergraduate programs (e.g., McLin et al. 2009). This project looks at the educational value of using Internet-based robotic telescopes in a general education introductory astronomy course at the undergraduate level. Students at a minority-serving institution in the midwestern United States conducted observational programs using the Global Telescope Network (GTN). The project consisted of the use of planetarium software to determine object visibility, observing proposals (with abstract, background, goals, and dissemination sections), peer review (including written reviews and panel discussion according to NSF intellectual merit and broader impacts criteria), and classroom presentations showing the results of the observation. The GTN is a network of small telescopes funded by the Fermi mission to support the science of high energy astrophysics. It is managed by the NASA E/PO Group at Sonoma State University and is controlled using SkyNet. Data includes course artifacts (proposals, reviews, panel summaries, presentations, and student reflections) for six semesters plus student interviews. Using a grounded theory approach

  15. Ground and space observations of medium frequency auroral radio emissions (United States)

    Broughton, Matthew C.

    The auroral zone is a rich source of natural radio emissions that can be observed in space and at ground-level. By studying these waves, scientists can gain insight into the plasma processes that generate them and use the near-Earth space environment as a large-scale plasma physics laboratory. This thesis uses both ground-level and in situ observations to study two kinds of natural radio emissions. First, we report observations of a new kind of auroral radio emission. The waves have frequencies ranging from 1.3-2.2 MHz, bandwidths ranging from 90-272 kHz, and durations ranging from 16-355 s. Spectral analysis of the waveform data has revealed that the emission has a complex combination of at least three kinds of fine structures. For model auroral electron distributions, calculations indicate that Langmuir waves could be excited at frequencies consistent with observations. The remainder of the thesis discusses auroral medium frequency (MF) burst, an impulsive, broadband natural radio emission observed at ground-level within a few minutes of local substorm onset. LaBelle [2011] proposed that MF burst originates as Langmuir/Z-mode waves on the topside of the ionosphere that subsequently mode convert to L-mode waves and propagate to ground-level. Using continuous waveform measurements and combined observations with the Sondrestrom Incoherent Scatter Radar, we have performed two tests of this mechanism. The results of these tests are consistent with the mechanism described in LaBelle [2011]. A survey of 8,624 half-orbits of the DEMETER spacecraft has revealed 68 observations of bursty MF waves. We have compared the wave properties of these waves to those of MF burst and have found that although it is uncertain, the balance of the evidence suggests that the bursty MF waves observed with DEMETER are the same phenomenon as the ground-level MF burst. Finally, we have used numerical simulations to model both the fine structure of MF burst and to estimate the attenuation the

  16. Observation of solar wind with radio-star scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Takashi


    Large solar flares occurred in groups in early August 1972, and many interesting phenomena were observed. The solar wind condition during this period, obtained by scintillation observation, is reviewed. The velocity of solar wind has been determined from the observation of interplanetary space scintillation at Toyokawa, Fujigamine and Sugadaira. Four to ten radio wave sources were observed for ten minutes at each southing every day. Strong earth magnetic storm and the Forbush decrease of cosmic ray were observed during the period from August 3rd to 7th. Pioneer 9 observed a solar wind having the maximum velocity as high as 1,100 km/sec, and HEOS-II observed a solar wind having the velocity close to 2,000 km/sec. On the other hand, according to the scintillation of 3C-48 and 3C-144, the velocity of solar wind passing in the interplanetary space on the westside of the earth was only 300 to 400 km/sec. Therefore it is considered that the condition of solar wind on the east side of the earth differs from that on the west side of the earth. Pioneer 9 observed the pass of a shock wave on August 9th. With all radio wave sources, high velocity solar wind was observed and Pioneer 6 positioned on the west side of the earth also observed it. The thickness of this shock wave is at least 0.3 AU. Discussion is made on the cause for the difference between the asymmetric shock wave in the direction of south-west and symmetrical shock wave. The former may be blast wave, and the latter may be piston driven shock wave and the like. (Iwakiri, K.)

  17. Solar Radio Observation using Callisto Spectrometer at Sumedang West Java Indonesia: Current Status and Future Development Plan in Indonesia (United States)

    Manik, T.; Sitompul, P.; Batubara, M.; Harjana, T.; Yatini, C. Y.; Monstein, C.


    Sumedang Observatory (6.91°S, 107,84°E) was established in 1975 and is one of the solar observation facilities of the Space Science Center of Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN), located around 40 km, east part of Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. Several instrumentations for solar and space observation such as optical telescopes, radio solar spectrograph, flux gate magnetometer, etc. are operated there, together with an ionosphere sounding system (ionosonde) that was set up later. In July 2014, a standard Callisto (Compound Astronomical Low-cost Low-frequency Instrument for Spectroscopy and Transportable Observatory) spectrometer was installed at Sumedang Observatory for solar radio activity monitoring. Callisto has been developed in the framework of IHY2007 and ISWI, supported by UN and NASA. Callisto spectrometer has observation capability in the frequency range of 45-870 MHz. The Callisto spectrometer receives signal by using a set of 21 elements log-periodic antenna, model CLP5130-1N, pointed to the Sun and equipped with a low noise pre-amplifier. With respect to the Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI) measurements, the Callisto spectrometer is operated individually in frequency ranges of 45-80 MHz and 180-450 MHz. Observation status and data flow are monitored in on-line from center office located in Bandung. The data was transferred to central database at FHNW (Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz) server every 15 minutes to appear on e-Callisto network subsequently. A real time data transfer and data processing based on Python software also has been developed successfully to be used as an input for Space Weather Information and Forecasting Services (SWIFtS) provided by LAPAN. On 5th November 2014, Callisto spectrometer at Sumedang observed the first clear solar radio event, a solar radio burst type II corresponding to a coronal mass ejection (CME), indicated by a strong X-ray event of M7.9 that was informed on by Space Weather

  18. Disturbance phenomena in VLF standard radio wave observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Yoshikazu


    Storm aftereffect, i.e. the phase disturbance after initiation of a magnetic storm has been revealed in the observation of VLF standard radio waves. In VLF long distance propagation at middle latitudes (L - 3), the phase disturbance for several days after the initiation of a magnetic storm is due to electron fall from the radiation belt. This has been confirmed by the comparison with electron flux detected by an artificial satellite. The correlations between VLF phase disturbance and magnetism activity or ionosphere absorption are described. The relation between winter anomaly and phase disturbance is also discussed. (Mori, K.)

  19. GALARIO: a GPU accelerated library for analysing radio interferometer observations (United States)

    Tazzari, Marco; Beaujean, Frederik; Testi, Leonardo


    We present GALARIO, a computational library that exploits the power of modern graphical processing units (GPUs) to accelerate the analysis of observations from radio interferometers like Atacama Large Millimeter and sub-millimeter Array or the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. GALARIO speeds up the computation of synthetic visibilities from a generic 2D model image or a radial brightness profile (for axisymmetric sources). On a GPU, GALARIO is 150 faster than standard PYTHON and 10 times faster than serial C++ code on a CPU. Highly modular, easy to use, and to adopt in existing code, GALARIO comes as two compiled libraries, one for Nvidia GPUs and one for multicore CPUs, where both have the same functions with identical interfaces. GALARIO comes with PYTHON bindings but can also be directly used in C or C++. The versatility and the speed of GALARIO open new analysis pathways that otherwise would be prohibitively time consuming, e.g. fitting high-resolution observations of large number of objects, or entire spectral cubes of molecular gas emission. It is a general tool that can be applied to any field that uses radio interferometer observations. The source code is available online at under the open source GNU Lesser General Public License v3.

  20. A Fast Radio Burst Search Method for VLBI Observation (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Tong, Fengxian; Zheng, Weimin; Zhang, Juan; Tong, Li


    We introduce the cross-spectrum-based fast radio burst (FRB) search method for Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI) observation. This method optimizes the fringe fitting scheme in geodetic VLBI data post-processing, which fully utilizes the cross-spectrum fringe phase information and therefore maximizes the power of single-pulse signals. Working with cross-spectrum greatly reduces the effect of radio frequency interference compared with using auto-power spectrum. Single-pulse detection confidence increases by cross-identifying detections from multiple baselines. By combining the power of multiple baselines, we may improve the detection sensitivity. Our method is similar to that of coherent beam forming, but without the computational expense to form a great number of beams to cover the whole field of view of our telescopes. The data processing pipeline designed for this method is easy to implement and parallelize, which can be deployed in various kinds of VLBI observations. In particular, we point out that VGOS observations are very suitable for FRB search.

  1. Astronomy Education Research Observations from the iSTAR international Study of Astronomical Reasoning Database (United States)

    Tatge, C. B.; Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.; Schleigh, S.; McKinnon, D.


    Historically, an important part of the scientific research cycle is to situate any research project within the landscape of the existing scientific literature. In the field of discipline-based astronomy education research, grappling with the existing literature base has proven difficult because of the difficulty in obtaining research reports from around the world, particularly early ones. In order to better survey and efficiently utilize the wide and fractured range and domain of astronomy education research methods and results, the iSTAR international Study of Astronomical Reasoning database project was initiated. The project aims to host a living, online repository of dissertations, theses, journal articles, and grey literature resources to serve the world's discipline-based astronomy education research community. The first domain of research artifacts ingested into the iSTAR database were doctoral dissertations. To the authors' great surprise, nearly 300 astronomy education research dissertations were found from the last 100-years. Few, if any, of the literature reviews from recent astronomy education dissertations surveyed even come close to summarizing this many dissertations, most of which have not been published in traditional journals, as re-publishing one's dissertation research as a journal article was not a widespread custom in the education research community until recently. A survey of the iSTAR database dissertations reveals that the vast majority of work has been largely quantitative in nature until the last decade. We also observe that modern-era astronomy education research writings reaches as far back as 1923 and that the majority of dissertations come from the same eight institutions. Moreover, most of the astronomy education research work has been done covering learners' grasp of broad knowledge of astronomy rather than delving into specific learning targets, which has been more in vogue during the last two decades. The surprisingly wide breadth

  2. Timing Sunsets with Smartphones: Proof of Concept for a Citizen Science Project that Quantifies the Atmosphere and Supports Astronomical Observations (United States)

    Wilson, Teresa; Kantamneni, A.; Bartlett, J. L.; Nemiroff, R. J.


    Current models that predict the times of sunrise and sunset are only accurate, typically, to a few minutes. Variations in atmospheric refraction contribute to the differences between computed and observed times. At high latitudes, slight changes in refraction can cause the Sun to remain continuously above the horizon instead of appearing to set. A substantial collection of observations would help constrain atmospheric models, which should, in turn, complement astronomical observations through improved understanding of air stability, refraction, and transparency. We report on a small project recording data from a few smartphones as a proof of concept for a possible larger scale citizen science effort.

  3. Optical, infrared and radio astronomy from techniques to observation

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiani, Rosa


    This textbook presents the established sciences of optical, infrared, and radio astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the science targets and the constraints that they place on instrumentation in the different domains. It aims to bridge the gap between specialized books and practical texts, presenting the state of the art in different techniques. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities that drive the building of instrumentation and the development of advanced techniques. The specific telescopes and detectors are then presented, together with the techniques used to measure fluxes and spectra. Finally, the instruments and their limits are discussed to assist readers in choice of setup, planning and execution of observations, and data reduction. The volume also includes worked examples and problem sets to improve student understanding; tables and figures in chapters summarize the state of the art of instrumentation and techniques.

  4. Radio observations of H II regions and some related theoretical work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezger, P.G.; Wink, J.E.


    In this paper the whole complex of radio and IR sources associated with an O-star is referred to as H II region. Radio continuum observations are widely used for the interpretation of IR-observations. Thus, this review is limited to recent high frequency single dish observations and aperture synthesis observations. Recent developments in the field of radio recombination line observations and their application to the interpretation of IR-observations are discussed. (G.T.H.)

  5. Analysis and Modeling of Jovian Radio Emissions Observed by Galileo (United States)

    Menietti, J. D.


    Our studies of Jovian radio emission have resulted in the publication of five papers in refereed journals, with three additional papers in progress. The topics of these papers include the study of narrow-band kilometric radio emission; the apparent control of radio emission by Callisto; quasi-periodic radio emission; hectometric attenuation lanes and their relationship to Io volcanic activity; and modeling of HOM attenuation lanes using ray tracing. A further study of the control of radio emission by Jovian satellites is currently in progress. Abstracts of each of these papers are contained in the Appendix. A list of the publication titles are also included.

  6. Radio and infrared observations of the faint nebula GM24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L F; Roth, M; Tapia, M; Canto, J; Persi, P; Ferrari-Toniolo, M


    The faint nebulosity GM24=PP85 listed by Parsamian and Petrosian (1979) was observed at infrared (1-10 and radio (6 cm and CO line) wavelengths in the vicinity of the CO hot spot reported by Torrelles et al. (1983). The radio continuum (6 cm) emission from a spherically symmetrical HII region was detected with the Very Large Array. Its position coincides with the brightest part of the visible nebulosity and a 1-4 emission peak. Their infrared maps made at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de San Pedro Martir, show two additional (1-10 peaks located at distances approx. 30 arc sec from the compact HII region, all surrounded by extended near infrared (1-4 emission. A detailed CO (J=1 ..-->.. 0) map of the whole molecular cloud was also obtained with the University of Texas Millimeter - Wave Telescope. Their results are interpreted in terms of the recent formation of three massive stars, one of which, having developed an HII region, is at a slightly later phase of its evolution. The extended near infrared emission may arise in a reflection nebula similar to NGC 7538-Irs 9. 4 references.

  7. Robust sparse image reconstruction of radio interferometric observations with PURIFY (United States)

    Pratley, Luke; McEwen, Jason D.; d'Avezac, Mayeul; Carrillo, Rafael E.; Onose, Alexandru; Wiaux, Yves


    Next-generation radio interferometers, such as the Square Kilometre Array, will revolutionize our understanding of the Universe through their unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. However, to realize these goals significant challenges in image and data processing need to be overcome. The standard methods in radio interferometry for reconstructing images, such as CLEAN, have served the community well over the last few decades and have survived largely because they are pragmatic. However, they produce reconstructed interferometric images that are limited in quality and scalability for big data. In this work, we apply and evaluate alternative interferometric reconstruction methods that make use of state-of-the-art sparse image reconstruction algorithms motivated by compressive sensing, which have been implemented in the PURIFY software package. In particular, we implement and apply the proximal alternating direction method of multipliers algorithm presented in a recent article. First, we assess the impact of the interpolation kernel used to perform gridding and degridding on sparse image reconstruction. We find that the Kaiser-Bessel interpolation kernel performs as well as prolate spheroidal wave functions while providing a computational saving and an analytic form. Secondly, we apply PURIFY to real interferometric observations from the Very Large Array and the Australia Telescope Compact Array and find that images recovered by PURIFY are of higher quality than those recovered by CLEAN. Thirdly, we discuss how PURIFY reconstructions exhibit additional advantages over those recovered by CLEAN. The latest version of PURIFY, with developments presented in this work, is made publicly available.

  8. Assimilation of GNSS radio occultation observations in GRAPES (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Xue, J.


    This paper reviews the development of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations assimilation in the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES) of China Meteorological Administration, including the choice of data to assimilate, the data quality control, the observation operator, the tuning of observation error, and the results of the observation impact experiments. The results indicate that RO data have a significantly positive effect on analysis and forecast at all ranges in GRAPES not only in the Southern Hemisphere where conventional observations are lacking but also in the Northern Hemisphere where data are rich. It is noted that a relatively simple assimilation and forecast system in which only the conventional and RO observation are assimilated still has analysis and forecast skill even after nine months integration, and the analysis difference between both hemispheres is gradually reduced with height when compared with NCEP (National Centers for Enviromental Prediction) analysis. Finally, as a result of the new onboard payload of the Chinese FengYun-3 (FY-3) satellites, the research status of the RO of FY-3 satellites is also presented.

  9. A New Effort for Atmospherical Forecast: Meteorological Image Processing Software (MIPS) for Astronomical Observations (United States)

    Shameoni Niaei, M.; Kilic, Y.; Yildiran, B. E.; Yüzlükoglu, F.; Yesilyaprak, C.


    We have described a new software (MIPS) about the analysis and image processing of the meteorological satellite (Meteosat) data for an astronomical observatory. This software will be able to help to make some atmospherical forecast (cloud, humidity, rain) using meteosat data for robotic telescopes. MIPS uses a python library for Eumetsat data that aims to be completely open-source and licenced under GNU/General Public Licence (GPL). MIPS is a platform independent and uses h5py, numpy, and PIL with the general-purpose and high-level programming language Python and the QT framework.

  10. Radio observations of the CMa OB1 H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylard, M.J.; Kemball, A.J.


    A sensitive 10 0 x 15 0 13-cm map made of the CMa OB1 H II regions' radio emission shows a strong similarity to Hα emission photographs. Sharpless 296 is shown to consist of a prominent central and western arc completed by a weaker southern loop, and with a faint northern bar. The emission is thermal, superimposed over a predominantly non-thermal background. The H142α recombination line has been detected at eight positions in S296, and in S292 and S297. The average electron temperature in S296 is 6900 +- 1300 K. The UV fluxes from the CMa OB1 stars account for the observed emission measures of the H II regions. The H142α 1sr velocities indicate that the ionized material is in contact with the molecular clouds. (author)

  11. Observation of radio frequency emissions from electrochemical loading experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidwell, D.A.; Grabowski, K.S.; Dominguez, D.D.; DeChiaro Jr, L.F.


    Palladium foil cathodes were electrochemically loaded with deuterium from alkaline solutions of heavy water in specially designed closed calorimeter cells. Here, one cell is described that showed low levels of constant heat (1-7 mW) and radio frequency (RF) emanations, but the RF was not correlated with the heat production. This cell is compared with Pd 90 Rh 10 alloy cathodes that showed excess energy bursts of 2.4-44.3 kJ. In these cells, RF coincident with the bursts was observed peaking at different frequencies from about 450 kHz and extending into the MHz range. Some of the excess energy production in LENR may be in the MHz RF range, which has no conventional explanation in electrochemistry. (author)

  12. The Spectrum Landscape: Prospects for Terrestrial Radio Astronomy (United States)

    Liszt, Harvey Steven


    Radio astronomers work within broad constraints imposed by commercial and other non-astronomical uses of the radio spectrum, somewhat modified to accommodate astronomy’s particular needs through the provision of radio quiet zones, radio frequency allocations, coordination agreements and other devices of spectrum management. As radio astronomers increase the instantaneous bandwidth, frequency coverage and sensitivity of their instruments, these external constraints, and not the limitations of their own instruments, will increasingly be the greatest obstacles to radio astronomy’s ability to observe the cosmos from the surface of the Earth. Therefore, prospects for future radio astronomy operations are contingent on situational awareness and planning for the impact of non-astronomical uses of the radio frequency spectrum. New radio astronomy instruments will have to incorporate adaptive reactions to external developments, and radio astronomers should be encouraged to think in untraditional ways. Increased attention to spectrum management is one of these. In this talk I’ll recap some recent developments such as the proliferation of 76 – 81 GHz car radar and orbiting earth-mapping radars, either of which can burn out a radio astronomy receiver. I’ll summarize present trends for non-astronomical radio spectrum use that will be coming to fruition in the next decade or so, categorized into terrestrial fixed and mobile, airborne and space-borne uses, sub-divided by waveband from the cm to the sub-mm. I’ll discuss how they will impact terrestrial radio astronomy and the various ways in which radio astronomy should be prepared to react. Protective developments must occur both within radio astronomy’s own domain – designing, siting and constructing its instruments and mitigating unavoidable RFI – and facing outward toward the community of other spectrum users. Engagement with spectrum management is no panacea but it is an important means, and perhaps the only

  13. The first astronomical hypothesis based on cinematographical observations: Costa Lobo's 1912 evidence for polar flattening of the moon (United States)

    Bonifácio, Vitor; Malaquias, Isabel; Fernandes, João


    Acceptance by the scientific community of results obtained with new technology can be a complex process. A particularly good example is provided by the unexpected hypothesis raised by Francisco Miranda da Costa Lobo upon examination of the cinematographic film obtained during the solar eclipse of 17 April 1912. Contrary to contemporary practice this eclipse was eagerly awaited in view of its astrometrical rather than astrophysical scientific interest. The observation of this hybrid eclipse provided, in theory, a good opportunity to improve several astrometric parameters, and in particular the Moon's apparent diameter. Observations were performed from Portugal to Russia and, for the first time, movie cameras were widely deployed to register astronomical phenomena. Upon analysing the film obtained at Ovar (Portugal), Costa Lobo realised that during totality Baily's Beads were not symmetrically distributed around the Moon. As an explanation and opposing current belief he proposed a lunar flattening in the range 1/1156 to 1/380. Initially other eclipse observers supported Costa Lobo's claim. In particular, Father Willaert obtained a flattening value of 1/2050 from his cinematographic film taken at Namur (Belgium). However, these results were quickly disregarded by the international astronomical community which favoured an explanation based upon the irregularities of the lunar profile. In this paper we recall the characteristics of the 17 April 1912 eclipse and the cinematographic observations, and review the results obtained. We conclude that the lack of attention paid by the astronomical community to the new cinematographical results and Camille Flammarion's superficial analysis of the data were instrumental in the rejection of Costa Lobo's hypothesis.

  14. The Einstein database of IPC x-ray observations of optically selected and radio-selected quasars, 1. (United States)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Worrall, D. M.; Avni, Yoram; Oey, M. S.; Flanagan, Joan


    We present the first volume of the Einstein quasar database. The database includes estimates of the X-ray count rates, fluxes, and luminosities for 514 quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies observed with the Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) aboard the Einstein Observatory. All were previously known optically selected or radio-selected objects, and most were the targets of the X-ray observations. The X-ray properties of the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) have been derived by reanalyzing the IPC data in a systematic manner to provide a uniform database for general use by the astronomical community. We use the database to extend earlier quasar luminosity studies which were made using only a subset of the currently available data. The database can be accessed on internet via the SAO Einstein on-line system ('Einline') and is available in ASCII format on magnetic tape and DOS diskette.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Mao, Minnie; Afonso, Jose; Cava, Antonio; Farrah, Duncan; Oliver, Seb; Huynh, Minh T.; Mauduit, Jean-Christophe; Surace, Jason; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, Matt; Lacy, Mark; Maraston, Claudia; Middelberg, Enno; Seymour, Nick


    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRSs) are a rare class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelengths but very faint at infrared and optical wavelengths. Here we present sensitive near-infrared observations of a sample of these sources taken as part of the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey. Nearly all the IFRSs are undetected at a level of ∼1 μJy in these new deep observations, and even the detections are consistent with confusion with unrelated galaxies. A stacked image implies that the median flux density is S 3.6μm ∼ 0.2 μJy or less, giving extreme values of the radio-infrared flux density ratio. Comparison of these objects with known classes of object suggests that the majority are probably high-redshift radio-loud galaxies, possibly suffering from significant dust extinction.

  16. Exploring atmospheric blocking with GPS radio occultation observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Brunner


    Full Text Available Atmospheric blocking has been closely investigated in recent years due to its impact on weather and climate, such as heat waves, droughts, and flooding. We use, for the first time, satellite-based observations from Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultation (RO and explore their ability to resolve blocking in order to potentially open up new avenues complementing models and reanalyses. RO delivers globally available and vertically highly resolved profiles of atmospheric variables such as temperature and geopotential height (GPH. Applying a standard blocking detection algorithm, we find that RO data robustly capture blocking as demonstrated for two well-known blocking events over Russia in summer 2010 and over Greenland in late winter 2013. During blocking episodes, vertically resolved GPH gradients show a distinct anomalous behavior compared to climatological conditions up to 300 hPa and sometimes even further up into the tropopause. The accompanying increase in GPH of up to 300 m in the upper troposphere yields a pronounced tropopause height increase. Corresponding temperatures rise up to 10 K in the middle and lower troposphere. These results demonstrate the feasibility and potential of RO to detect and resolve blocking and in particular to explore the vertical structure of the atmosphere during blocking episodes. This new observation-based view is available globally at the same quality so that blocking in the Southern Hemisphere can also be studied with the same reliability as in the Northern Hemisphere.

  17. Technologies for Low Frequency Radio Observations of the Cosmic Dawn (United States)

    Jones, Dayton L.


    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is developing concepts and technologies for low frequency radio astronomy space missions aimed at observing highly redshifted neutral Hydrogen from the Dark Ages. This is the period of cosmic history between the recombination epoch when the microwave background radiation was produced and the re-ionization of the intergalactic medium by the first generation of stars (Cosmic Dawn). This period, at redshifts greater than about 20, is a critical epoch for the formation and evolution of large-scale structure in the universe. The 21-cm spectral line of Hydrogen provides the most promising method for directly studying the Dark Ages, but the corresponding frequencies at such large redshifts are only tens of MHz and thus require space-based observations to avoid terrestrial RFI and ionospheric absorption and refraction. This paper reports on the status of several low frequency technology development activities at JPL, including deployable bi-conical dipoles for a planned lunar-orbiting mission, and both rover-deployed and inflation-deployed long dipole antennas for use on the lunar surface.

  18. Atmospheric diurnal variations observed with GPS radio occultation soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xie


    Full Text Available The diurnal variation, driven by solar forcing, is a fundamental mode in the Earth's weather and climate system. Radio occultation (RO measurements from the six COSMIC satellites (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate provide nearly uniform global coverage with high vertical resolution, all-weather and diurnal sampling capability. This paper analyzes the diurnal variations of temperature and refractivity from three-year (2007–2009 COSMIC RO measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere between 30° S and 30° N. The RO observations reveal both propagating and trapped vertical structures of diurnal variations, including transition regions near the tropopause where data with high vertical resolution are critical. In the tropics the diurnal amplitude in refractivity shows the minimum around 14 km and increases to a local maximum around 32 km in the stratosphere. The upward propagating component of the migrating diurnal tides in the tropics is clearly captured by the GPS RO measurements, which show a downward progression in phase from stratopause to the upper troposphere with a vertical wavelength of about 25 km. At ~32 km the seasonal variation of the tidal amplitude maximizes at the opposite side of the equator relative to the solar forcing. The vertical structure of tidal amplitude shows strong seasonal variations and becomes asymmetric along the equator and tilted toward the summer hemisphere in the solstice months. Such asymmetry becomes less prominent in equinox months.

  19. Astronomical chemistry. (United States)

    Klemperer, William


    The discovery of polar polyatomic molecules in higher-density regions of the interstellar medium by means of their rotational emission detected by radioastronomy has changed our conception of the universe from essentially atomic to highly molecular. We discuss models for molecule formation, emphasizing the general lack of thermodynamic equilibrium. Detailed chemical kinetics is needed to understand molecule formation as well as destruction. Ion molecule reactions appear to be an important class for the generally low temperatures of the interstellar medium. The need for the intrinsically high-quality factor of rotational transitions to definitively pin down molecular emitters has been well established by radioastronomy. The observation of abundant molecular ions both positive and, as recently observed, negative provides benchmarks for chemical kinetic schemes. Of considerable importance in guiding our understanding of astronomical chemistry is the fact that the larger molecules (with more than five atoms) are all organic.

  20. Multifrequency VLA observations of PKS 0745-191: the archetypal 'cooling flow' radio source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, S.A.; O'Dea, C.P.


    We present 90-, 20-, 6- and 2-cm VLA observations of the high radio luminosity, cooling flow radio source PKS 0745-191. We find that the radio source has a core with a very steep spectrum and diffuse emission with an even steeper spectrum without clear indications of the jets, hotspots or double lobes found in other radio sources of comparable luminosity. The appearance of the source is highly dependent on frequency and resolution. This dependence reflects both the diffuse nature of the extended emission and the steep, but position-dependent, spectrum of the radio emission. (author)

  1. Collaboration Between Astronomers at UT Austin and K-12 Teachers: Connecting the Experience of Observing and Research with the Classroom (United States)

    Finkelstein, Keely D.; Sneden, Christopher; Hemenway, Mary Kay; Preston, Sandra; EXES Teachers Associate Program


    McDonald Observatory has a long history of providing teacher professional development (PD), and recently we have developed a new workshop model for more advanced participants. By choosing a select group of middle and high school teachers from those previously involved in our past PD programs, we have created a joint workshop / observing run program for them. After traveling to the observatory, the teachers participate in an actual observing run with a research astronomer. The teachers are trained first-hand how to take observations, operate the telescope, set up the instrument, and monitor observing conditions. The teachers are fully put in the role of observer. They are also given background information before and during the workshop related to the science and data they are helping to collect. The teachers work in teams to both perform the nightly observations with an astronomer, but to also perform new interactive classroom activities with education staff, and use other telescopes on the mountain. This is a unique experience for teachers since it allows them to take the resources and experiences directly back to their classrooms and students. They can directly relate to their students what skills for specific careers in STEM fields are needed. Evaluation from these workshops shows that there is: increased content knowledge among participants, greater impact that will be passed on to their students, and an authentic research experience that can't be replicated in other PD settings. In addition, not only is this program beneficial to the teachers, but this group is benefit to the education program of McDonald Observatory. Building on an existing PD program (with a 16 year history) we have the opportunity to test out new products and new education endeavors with this devoted group of well-trained teachers before bringing them to wider teacher and student audiences. This program is currently supported by the NSF grant AST-1211585 (PI Sneden).

  2. Fast radio burst event rate counts - I. Interpreting the observations (United States)

    Macquart, J.-P.; Ekers, R. D.


    The fluence distribution of the fast radio burst (FRB) population (the `source count' distribution, N (>F) ∝Fα), is a crucial diagnostic of its distance distribution, and hence the progenitor evolutionary history. We critically reanalyse current estimates of the FRB source count distribution. We demonstrate that the Lorimer burst (FRB 010724) is subject to discovery bias, and should be excluded from all statistical studies of the population. We re-examine the evidence for flat, α > -1, source count estimates based on the ratio of single-beam to multiple-beam detections with the Parkes multibeam receiver, and show that current data imply only a very weak constraint of α ≲ -1.3. A maximum-likelihood analysis applied to the portion of the Parkes FRB population detected above the observational completeness fluence of 2 Jy ms yields α = -2.6_{-1.3}^{+0.7 }. Uncertainties in the location of each FRB within the Parkes beam render estimates of the Parkes event rate uncertain in both normalizing survey area and the estimated post-beam-corrected completeness fluence; this uncertainty needs to be accounted for when comparing the event rate against event rates measured at other telescopes.

  3. Observations and models of the decimetric radio emission from Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pater, I. de.


    The high energy electron distribution as a function of energy, pitch angle and spatial coordinates in Jupiter's inner magnetosphere was derived from a comparison of radio data and model calculations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation. (Auth.)

  4. Revealing the Faraday depth structure of radio galaxy NGC 612 with broad-band radio polarimetric observations (United States)

    Kaczmarek, J. F.; Purcell, C. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Sun, X.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.


    We present full-polarization, broad-band observations of the radio galaxy NGC 612 (PKS B0131-637) from 1.3 to 3.1 GHz using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The relatively large angular scale of the radio galaxy makes it a good candidate with which to investigate the polarization mechanisms responsible for the observed Faraday depth structure. By fitting complex polarization models to the polarized spectrum of each pixel, we find that a single polarization component can adequately describe the observed signal for the majority of the radio galaxy. While we cannot definitively rule out internal Faraday rotation, we argue that the bulk of the Faraday rotation is taking place in a thin skin that girts the polarized emission. Using minimum energy estimates, we find an implied total magnetic field strength of 4.2 μG.

  5. Radio stars observed in the LAMOST spectral survey (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Yun; Yue, Qiang; Lu, Hong-Peng; Han, Xian-Ming L.; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Jian-Rong; Wang, Yue-Fei; Hou, Yong-Hui; Zi-Huang, Cao


    Radio stars have attracted astronomers’ attention for several decades. To better understand the physics behind stellar radio emissions, it is important to study their optical behaviors. The LAMOST survey provides a large database for researching stellar spectroscopic properties of radio stars. In this work, we concentrate on their spectroscopic properties and infer physical properties from their spectra, such as stellar activity and variability. We mined big data from the LAMOST spectral survey Data Release 2 (DR2), published on 2016 June 30, by cross-matching them with radio stars from FIRST and other surveys. We obtained 783 good stellar spectra with high signal to noise ratio for 659 stars. The criteria for selection were positional coincidence within 1.5‧‧ and LAMOST objects classified as stars. We calculated the equivalent widths (EWs) of the Ca ii H&K, Hδ, Hγ, Hβ, Hα and Ca ii IRT lines by integrating the line profiles. Using the EWs of the Hα line, we detected 147 active stellar spectra of 89 objects having emissions above the Hα continuum. There were also 36 objects with repeated spectra, 28 of which showed chromospheric activity variability. Furthermore, we found 14 radio stars emitting noticeably in the Ca ii IRT lines. The low value of the EW8542/EW8498 ratio for these 14 radio stars possibly alludes to chromospheric plage regions.

  6. New discoveries with radio telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.


    The author describes in a simple fashion the results obtained by astronomers from ETH Zurich using the broadband 7-m radio telescope in Switzerland to observe the sun over a period of six years. He explains the results in terms of our present understanding of the sun's workings. The astronomers found that a solar eruption is not a single event but consists of tens of thousands of small eruptions or spikes each only 200 km high and producing a burst of radio waves 10-100 times as intense as the background. (T.J.R.A.)

  7. Simulating satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds


    M. Füllekrug; C. Hanuise; M. Parrot


    Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds emit 100 kHz radio waves which illuminate the Earth's atmosphere and near-Earth space. This contribution aims to clarify the physical processes which are relevant for the spatial spreading of the radio wave energy below and above the ionosphere and thereby enables simulating satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds. The simulation uses the DEMETER satellite which observes 100 kHz ...

  8. Technologies for low radio frequency observations of the Cosmic Dawn (United States)

    Jones, D. L.


    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is developing concepts and technologies for low frequency radio astronomy space missions aimed at observing highly redshifted neutral Hydrogen from the Dark Ages. This is the period of cosmic history between the recombination epoch when the microwave background radiation was produced and the re-ionization of the intergalactic medium by the first generation of stars (Cosmic Dawn). This period, at redshifts z > ~20, is a critical epoch for the formation and evolution of large-scale structure in the universe. The 21-cm spectral line of Hydrogen provides the most promising method for directly studying the Dark Ages, but the corresponding frequencies at such large redshifts are only tens of MHz and thus require space-based observations to avoid terrestrial RFI and ionospheric absorption and refraction. This paper reports on the status of several low frequency technology development activities at JPL, including deployable bi-conical dipoles for a planned lunar-orbiting mission, and both rover-deployed and inflation-deployed long dipole antennas for use on the lunar surface. In addition, recent results from laboratory testing of low frequency receiver designs are presented. Finally, several concepts for space-based imaging interferometers utilizing deployable low frequency antennas are described. Some of these concepts involve large numbers of antennas and consequently a large digital cross-correlator will be needed. JPL has studied correlator architectures that greatly reduce the DC power required for this step, which can dominate the power consumption of real-time signal processing. Strengths and weaknesses of each mission concept are discussed in the context of the additional technology development required.

  9. The Nature of the Stingray Nebula from Radio Observations (United States)

    Harvey-Smith, Lisa; Hardwick, Jennifer A.; De Marco, Orsola; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; Gonidakis, Ioannis; Akhter, Shaila; Cunningham, Maria; Green, James A.


    We have analysed the full suite of Australia Telescope Compact Array data for the Stingray planetary nebula. Data were taken in the 4- to 23-GHz range of radio frequencies between 1991 and 2016. The radio flux density of the nebula generally declined during that period, but between 2013 and 2016 it shows signs of halting that decline. We produced the first spatially resolved radio images of the Stingray nebula from data taken in 2005. A ring structure, which appears to be associated with the ring seen in HST images, was visible. In addition, we found a narrow extension to the radio emission towards the eastern and western edges of the nebula. We derived the emission measure of the nebula - this decreased between 1992 and 2011, suggesting that the nebula is undergoing recombination. The radio spectral index is broadly consistent with a free-free emission mechanism, however a single data point hints that a steeper spectral index has possibly emerged since 2013, which could indicate the presence of synchrotron emission. If a non-thermal component component has emerged, such as one associated with a region that is launching a jet or outflow, we predict that it would intensify in the years to come.

  10. ATCA observations of the MACS-Planck Radio Halo Cluster Project. II. Radio observations of an intermediate redshift cluster sample (United States)

    Martinez Aviles, G.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Ferrari, C.; Venturi, T.; Democles, J.; Dallacasa, D.; Cassano, R.; Brunetti, G.; Giacintucci, S.; Pratt, G. W.; Arnaud, M.; Aghanim, N.; Brown, S.; Douspis, M.; Hurier, J.; Intema, H. T.; Langer, M.; Macario, G.; Pointecouteau, E.


    Aim. A fraction of galaxy clusters host diffuse radio sources whose origins are investigated through multi-wavelength studies of cluster samples. We investigate the presence of diffuse radio emission in a sample of seven galaxy clusters in the largely unexplored intermediate redshift range (0.3 ( or via

  11. VLBA Observations of Low Luminosity Flat Spectrum Radio Galaxies and BL Lac Objects: Polarisation Properties (United States)

    Bondi, M.; Dallacasa, D.; Stanghellini, C.; Marchã, M. J. M.

    We obtained two-epoch VLBA observations at 5 GHz of a list of radio galaxies drawn from the 200 mJy sample (Marcha et al. 1996). The objects selected for milli-arcsecond scale observations are classified, on the basis of their optical spectroscopic and polarimetric properties, as BL Lac objects, normal weak line radio galaxies, broad line radio galaxies, and transition objects (those with intermediate properties). We present preliminary results on the radio polarization properties, on the milli-arcsecond scale, of objects with different optical properties and discuss structural variations detected from the two epochs.

  12. Sensing Water Vapon via Spacecraft Radio Occultation Observations (United States)

    Kursinski, E. Robert; Hajj, George A.


    The radio occultation technique has been used to characterize planetary atmospheres since the 1960's spanning atmospheric pressures from 16 microbars to several bars. In 1988, the use of GPS signals to make occultation observations of Earth's atmosphere was realized by Tom Yunck and Gunnar Lindal at JPL. In the GPS to low-Earth-orbiter limb- viewing occultation geometry, Fresnel diffraction yield a unique combination of high vertical resolution of 100 m to 1 km at long wavelengths (approx. 20 cm) insensitive to particulate scattering which allows routine limb sounding from the lower mesosphere through the troposphere. A single orbiting GPS/GLONASS receiver can observe - 1000 to 1400 daily occultations providing as many daily, high vertical resolution soundings as the present global radiosonde network, but with far more evenly distributed, global coverage. The occultations yield profiles of refractivity as a function of height. In the cold, dry conditions of the upper troposphere and above (T less than 240 K), profiles of density, pressure (geopotential), and temperature can be derived. Given additional temperature information, water vapor can be derived in the midddle and lower troposphere with a unique combination of vertical resolution, global distribution and insensitivity to clouds and precipitation to an accuracy of approx. 0.2 g/kg. At low latitudes, moisture profiles will be accurate to 1-5% within the convective boundary layer and better than 20% below 6 to 7 km. Accuracies of climatological averages should be approx. 0. 1 g/kg limited by the biases in the temperature estimates. To use refractivity to constrain water vapor, knowledge of temperature is required. The simplest approach is to use the temperature field from an analysis such as the 6 hour ECMWF global analysis interpolated to the locations of each occultation. A better approach is to combine the temperature and moisture fields from such an analysis with the occultation refractivity in a weighting

  13. Observations of cometary parent molecules with the IRAM radio telescope (United States)

    Colom, P.; Despois, D.; Paubert, G.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Crovisier, Jacques


    Several rotational transitions of HCN, H2S, H2CO, and CH3OH were detected in comets P/Brorsen-Metcalf 1989 X, Austin (1989c1) and Levy (1990c) with the Institute for Millimeter Radioastronomy (IRAM) 30-m radio telescope. This allows us to determine the production rates of these molecules and to probe the physical conditions of the coma.

  14. An astronomical murder? (United States)

    Belenkiy, Ari


    Ari Belenkiy examines the murder of Hypatia of Alexandria, wondering whether problems with astronomical observations and the date of Easter led to her becoming a casualty of fifth-century political intrigue.

  15. The amateur astronomer

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Patrick


    Introduces astronomy and amateur observing together. This edition includes photographs and illustrations. The comprehensive appendices provide hints and tips, as well as data for every aspect of amateur astronomy. This work is useful for amateur astronomers

  16. Small-Scale Dynamical Structures Using OH Airglow From Astronomical Observations (United States)

    Franzen, C.; Espy, P. J.; Hibbins, R. E.; Djupvik, A. A.


    Remote sensing of perturbations in the hydroxyl (OH) Meinel airglow has often been used to observe gravity, tidal and planetary waves travelling through the 80-90 km region. While large scale (>1 km) gravity waves and the winds caused by their breaking are widely documented, information on the highest frequency waves and instabilities occurring during the breaking process is often limited by the temporal and spatial resolution of the available observations. In an effort to better quantify the full range of wave scales present near the mesopause, we present a series of observations of the OH Meinel (9,7) transition that were executed with the Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma (18°W, 29°N). These measurements have a 24 s repetition rate and horizontal spatial resolutions at 87 km as small as 10 cm, allowing us to quantify the transition in the mesospheric wave domains as the gravity waves break. Temporal scales from hours to minutes, as well as sub-100 m coherent structures in the OH airglow have been observed and will be presented.

  17. High resolution radio observations of nuclear and circumnuclear regions of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, A; Perez-Torres, M A [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA, CSIC), PO Box 3004, 18080-Granada (Spain); Colina, L [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia - IEM, CSIC, C, Serrano 115, 28005 Madrid (Spain); Torrelles, J M [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (ICE, CSIC) and IEEC, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:


    High-resolution radio observations of the nuclear region of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) have shown that its radio structure consists of a compact high surface-brightness central radio source immersed in a diffuse low brightness circumnuclear halo. While the central component could be associated with an AGN or compact star-forming regions where radio supernovae are exploding, it is well known that the circumnuclear regions host bursts of star-formation. The studies of radio supernovae can provide essential information about stellar evolution and CSM/ISM properties in regions hidden by dust at optical and IR wavelengths. In this contribution, we show results from radio interferometric observations from NGC 7469, IRAS 18293-3413 and IRAS 17138-1017 where three extremely bright radio supernovae have been found. High-resolution radio observations of these and other LIRGs would allow us to determine the core-collapse supernova rate in them as well as their star-formation rate.

  18. Radio observations of the fine structure inside a post-CME current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Guan-Nan; Wang Min; Lin Jun; Kliem Berhard; Wu Ning; Tan Cheng-Ming; Su Yang


    A solar radio burst was observed in a coronal mass ejection/flare event by the Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at the Huairou Solar Observing Station on 2004 December 1. The data exhibited various patterns of plasma motions, suggestive of the interaction between sunward moving plasmoids and the flare loop system during the impulsive phase of the event. In addition to the radio data, the associated white-light, Hα, extreme ultraviolet light, and soft and hard X-rays were also studied. (mini-volume: solar radiophysics — recent results on observations and theories)

  19. Archives of Astronomical Spectral Observations and Atomic/Molecular Databases for their Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabchikova T.


    Full Text Available We present a review of open-source data for stellar spectroscopy investigations. It includes lists of the main archives of medium-to-high resolution spectroscopic observations, with brief characteristics of the archive data (spectral range, resolving power, flux units. We also review atomic and molecular databases that contain parameters of spectral lines, cross-sections and reaction rates needed for a detailed analysis of high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio stellar spectra.

  20. Fast radio bursts: the observational case for a Galactic origin


    Maoz, Dan; Loeb, Abraham; Shvartzvald, Yossi; Sitek, Monika; Engel, Michael; Kiefer, Flavien; Kiraga, Marcin; Levi, Amir; Mazeh, Tsevi; Pawlak, Michal; Rich, R. Michael; Tal-Or, Lev; Wyrzykowski, Lukasz


    There are by now ten published detections of fast radio bursts (FRBs), single bright GHz-band millisecond pulses of unknown origin. Proposed explanations cover a broad range from exotic processes at cosmological distances to atmospheric and terrestrial sources. Loeb et al. have previously suggested that FRB sources could be nearby flare stars, and pointed out the presence of a W-UMa-type contact binary within the beam of one out of three FRB fields that they examined. Using time-domain optica...

  1. Fast radio bursts: the observational case for a Galactic origin (United States)

    Maoz, Dan; Loeb, Abraham; Shvartzvald, Yossi; Sitek, Monika; Engel, Michael; Kiefer, Flavien; Kiraga, Marcin; Levi, Amir; Mazeh, Tsevi; Pawlak, Michał; Rich, R. Michael; Tal-Or, Lev; Wyrzykowski, Lukasz


    There are by now ten published detections of fast radio bursts (FRBs) - single bright GHz-band millisecond pulses of unknown origin. Proposed explanations cover a broad range from exotic processes at cosmological distances to atmospheric and terrestrial sources. Loeb, Maoz, and Shvartzvald have previously suggested that FRB sources could be nearby flare stars, and pointed out the presence of a W-UMa-type contact binary within the beam of one out of three FRB fields that they examined. To further test the flare-star hypothesis, we use time-domain optical photometry and spectroscopy, and now find possible flare stars in additional FRB fields, with one to three such cases among all eight FRB fields studied. We evaluate the chance probabilities of these possible associations to be in the range ˜0.1 per cent to 9 per cent, depending on the input assumptions. Further, we re-analyse the probability that two FRBs recently discovered three years apart within the same radio beam are unrelated. Contrary to other claims, we conclude with 99 per cent confidence that the two events are from the same repeating source. The different dispersion measures between the two bursts then rule out a cosmological intergalactic-medium origin for the dispersion measure, but are consistent with the flare-star scenario with a varying plasma blanket between bursts. Finally, we review some theoretical objections that have been raised against a local flare-star FRB origin, and show that they are incorrect.

  2. Astronomical observations with a network of detectors of gravitational waves: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhurandhar, S.V.; Tinto, Massimo


    Two different representations for the antenna pattern of Earth-based gravitational wave detectors (laser interferometers and bars) observing arbitrarily polarized waves are investigated in the long wavelength limit. We show that the response of a gravitational wave detector can be written either as a contraction between two symmetric trace-free (STF) tensors, one associated with the wave and the other with the detector, or as a linear combination of generalized spherical functions. We then apply this formalism to solve the simplest form of the 'inverse problem' for bursts: determining the direction of an incoming wave, the orientation of its polarization ellipse and the wave's two independent amplitudes, using only the response amplitudes of five wide-band detectors located in the same place. We give a simple linear expression for the components of the STF tensor that characterize the wave as a function of the detector responses. We then show how to solve for the wave's direction, polarization and amplitude from its STF tensor. (author)

  3. Observation of quasi-periodic solar radio bursts associated with propagating fast-mode waves (United States)

    Goddard, C. R.; Nisticò, G.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Zimovets, I. V.; White, S. M.


    Aims: Radio emission observations from the Learmonth and Bruny Island radio spectrographs are analysed to determine the nature of a train of discrete, periodic radio "sparks" (finite-bandwidth, short-duration isolated radio features) which precede a type II burst. We analyse extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging from SDO/AIA at multiple wavelengths and identify a series of quasi-periodic rapidly-propagating enhancements, which we interpret as a fast wave train, and link these to the detected radio features. Methods: The speeds and positions of the periodic rapidly propagating fast waves and the coronal mass ejection (CME) were recorded using running-difference images and time-distance analysis. From the frequency of the radio sparks the local electron density at the emission location was estimated for each. Using an empirical model for the scaling of density in the corona, the calculated electron density was used to obtain the height above the surface at which the emission occurs, and the propagation velocity of the emission location. Results: The period of the radio sparks, δtr = 1.78 ± 0.04 min, matches the period of the fast wave train observed at 171 Å, δtEUV = 1.7 ± 0.2 min. The inferred speed of the emission location of the radio sparks, 630 km s-1, is comparable to the measured speed of the CME leading edge, 500 km s-1, and the speeds derived from the drifting of the type II lanes. The calculated height of the radio emission (obtained from the density) matches the observed location of the CME leading edge. From the above evidence we propose that the radio sparks are caused by the quasi-periodic fast waves, and the emission is generated as they catch up and interact with the leading edge of the CME. The movie associated to Fig. 2 is available at

  4. Infrared, radio, and x-ray observations of Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becklin, E.E.; Hawkins, F.J.; Mason, K.O.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Packman, D.; Sanford, P.W.; Schupler, B.; Stark, A.; Wynn-Williams, C.G.


    The x-ray source Cygnus X-3 has been interpreted as being a binary system on the basis of extensive x-ray observations of periodic variability. At radio wavelengths, the source displays erratic outbursts. Cyg x-3 has not been detected visually but at infrared wavelengths periodic variations in phase with the x-ray variations have been reported. Infrared, x-ray and radio observations of Cyg X-3 made during 1973 through 1973 October are presented. (U.S.)

  5. UKRVO Astronomical WEB Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhaev, O.E.


    Full Text Available Ukraine Virtual Observatory (UkrVO has been a member of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA since 2011. The virtual observatory (VO is not a magic solution to all problems of data storing and processing, but it provides certain standards for building infrastructure of astronomical data center. The astronomical databases help data mining and offer to users an easy access to observation metadata, images within celestial sphere and results of image processing. The astronomical web services (AWS of UkrVO give to users handy tools for data selection from large astronomical catalogues for a relatively small region of interest in the sky. Examples of the AWS usage are showed.

  6. Observations of a nearby filament of galaxy clusters with the Sardinia Radio Telescope (United States)

    Vacca, Valentina; Murgia, M.; Loi, F. Govoni F.; Vazza, F.; Finoguenov, A.; Carretti, E.; Feretti, L.; Giovannini, G.; Concu, R.; Melis, A.; Gheller, C.; Paladino, R.; Poppi, S.; Valente, G.; Bernardi, G.; Boschin, W.; Brienza, M.; Clarke, T. E.; Colafrancesco, S.; Enßlin, T.; Ferrari, C.; de Gasperin, F.; Gastaldello, F.; Girardi, M.; Gregorini, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Junklewitz, H.; Orrù, E.; Parma, P.; Perley, R.; Taylor, G. B.


    We report the detection of diffuse radio emission which might be connected to a large-scale filament of the cosmic web covering a 8° × 8° area in the sky, likely associated with a z≈0.1 over-density traced by nine massive galaxy clusters. In this work, we present radio observations of this region taken with the Sardinia Radio Telescope. Two of the clusters in the field host a powerful radio halo sustained by violent ongoing mergers and provide direct proof of intra-cluster magnetic fields. In order to investigate the presence of large-scale diffuse radio synchrotron emission in and beyond the galaxy clusters in this complex system, we combined the data taken at 1.4 GHz with the Sardinia Radio Telescope with higher resolution data taken with the NRAO VLA Sky Survey. We found 28 candidate new sources with a size larger and X-ray emission fainter than known diffuse large-scale synchrotron cluster sources for a given radio power. This new population is potentially the tip of the iceberg of a class of diffuse large-scale synchrotron sources associated with the filaments of the cosmic web. In addition, we found in the field a candidate new giant radio galaxy.

  7. Direct observations of low-energy solar electrons associated with a type 3 solar radio burst (United States)

    Frank, L. A.; Gurnett, D. A.


    On 6 April 1971 a solar X-ray flare and a type 3 solar radio noise burst were observed with instrumentation on the eccentric-orbiting satellite IMP 6. The type 3 solar radio noise burst was detected down to a frequency of 31 kHz. A highly anisotropic packet of low-energy solar electron intensities arrived at the satellite approximately 6000 seconds after the onset of the solar flare. This packet of solar electron intensities was observed for 4200 seconds. Maximum differential intensities of the solar electrons were in the energy range of one to several keV. The frequency drift rate of the type 3 radio noise at frequencies below 178 kHz also indicated an average particle speed corresponding to that of a 3-keV electron. The simultaneous observations of these solar electron intensities and of the type 3 solar radio burst are presented, and their interrelationships are explored.

  8. Observation of solar radio bursts using swept-frequency radiospectrograph in 20 - 40 MHz band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Takashi; Oya, Hiroshi.


    A new station for the observation of solar decametric radio bursts has been developed at Miyagi Vocational Training College in Tsukidate, Miyagi, Japan. Using the swept frequency radiospectrograph covering a frequency range from 20 MHz to 40 MHz within 200 msec, with bandwidth of 30 kHz, the radio outbursts from the sun have been currently monitored with colored dynamic spectrum display. After July 1982, successful observations provide the data which include all types of solar radio bursts such as type I, II, III, IV and V in the decametric wavelength range. In addition to these typical radio bursts, rising tone bursts with fast drift rate followed by strong type III bursts and a series of bursts repeating rising and falling tone bursts with slow drift rate have been observed. (author)

  9. Radio Astronomy in Malaysia: Current Status and Outreach Activities (United States)

    Hashim, N.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Ibrahim, U. F. S. U.; Umar, R.; Hassan, M. S. R.; Rosli, Z.; Hamidi, Z. S.; Ibrahim, Z. A.


    In this paper, we will present the current status of radio astronomical research and outreach in Malaysia. We will also present a short history of our research group, which is currently the only radio astronomical facility in Malaysia. Our group is called the Radio Cosmology Research Lab and was established in 2005 by Dr Zamri Zainal Abidin and Prof Dr Zainol Abidin Ibrahim. We will discuss the future plans for this group including our keen interest in being part of a more global network of radio astronomers. We are already an active member of the South-East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) and aims to have a radio astronomical facility in order to join the Global Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI) as well becoming a research hub for the future Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project. We will also present some of the scientific goals of our group including providing a platform for radio astronomers to be able to do observations of weak and high red-shifted radio objects such as galaxy clusters and supernovae.

  10. Radio observations of some clusters of galaxies at lambda=3.5 and 4 mm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efanov, V.A.; Zinchenko, I.I.; Kislyakov, A.G.; Krasil'nikov, A.A.; Kukina, E.P.; Moiseev, I.G.


    Millimeter radio observations with the 22-m Crimean antenna are reported for the central regions of the clusters of galaxies in Virgo, Hercules, and Coma Berenices, and from the cluster Abell 2199. In two of these, Coma and A2199, sources with a flux density of several jansky have been detected. The position of the source in A2199 matches that of the radio source 3C 338, but the object in the Coma cluster does not correspond to any known radio source. The nature of the emission from the new sources is discussed

  11. A new interpretation of the historical records of observing Venus in daytime with naked eye: Focusing on the meteorological factors in the astronomical observation records (United States)

    Jeon, Junhyeok; Kwon, Young-Joo; Lee, Yong-Sam


    Observing Venus during the daytime is challenging. However, observational data of Venus during the daytime can be found in history books from East Asian countries such as Korea, China and Japan. In this study, we are focused on data from Korean history book, and using records left in the Joseon wangjo sillok, one of the Korean history books from the Joseon dynasty (CE 1392-1910), tries to prove whether the reported observations were actual observation data. We collected these 4663 records from the Joseon wangjo sillok to determine whether they were actual observations, and to confirm the scientific validity of the records. When we looked at the distribution of observations on a yearly basis, we noticed that there were more observations in the fall and winter, while there were only limited numbers of observations in the spring. This difference in distribution suggests that observations were strongly affected by atmospheric conditions due to the weather. From the 4663 data collected, we found a cycle of about 1.6 years. The cycle of about 1.6 years is assumed to be related to the conjunction cycle of Venus. And, we found a cycle of about 1.0 years. The cycle of about 1.0 years is assumed to reflect the indirect effects of the Asian dust phenomenon. Our research result verified the record as actual observational data. In addition, this result verified that meteorological factors were involved in the recorded astronomical observation data. We think that our data can be helpful to climate studies on the natural sources of key climate-affecting aerosols.

  12. Nighttime Near Infrared Observations of Augustine Volcano Jan-Apr, 2006 Recorded With a Small Astronomical CCD Camera (United States)

    Sentman, D.; McNutt, S.; Reyes, C.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H.; Deroin, N.


    Nighttime observations of Augustine Volcano were made during Jan-Apr, 2006 using a small, unfiltered, astronomical CCD camera operating from Homer, Alaska. Time-lapse images of the volcano were made looking across the open water of the Cook Inlet over a slant range of ~105 km. A variety of volcano activities were observed that originated in near-infrared (NIR) 0.9-1.1 micron emissions, which were detectable at the upper limit of the camera passband but were otherwise invisible to the naked eye. These activities included various types of steam releases, pyroclastic flows, rockfalls and debris flows that were correlated very closely with seismic measurements made from instruments located within 4 km on the volcanic island. Specifically, flow events to the east (towards the camera) produced high amplitudes on the eastern seismic stations and events presumably to the west were stronger on western stations. The ability to detect nighttime volcanic emissions in the NIR over large horizontal distances using standard silicon CCD technology, even in the presence of weak intervening fog, came as a surprise, and is due to a confluence of several mutually reinforcing factors: (1) Hot enough (~1000K) thermal emissions from the volcano that the short wavelength portion of the Planck radiation curve overlaps the upper portions (0.9-1.1 micron) of the sensitivity of the silicon CCD detectors, and could thus be detected, (2) The existence of several atmospheric transmission windows within the NIR passband of the camera for the emissions to propagate with relatively small attenuation through more than 10 atmospheres, and (3) in the case of fog, forward Mie scattering.

  13. Observations of lightning processes using VHF radio interferometry (United States)

    Rhodes, C. T.; Shao, X. M.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Thomas, R.


    A single station, multiple baseline radio interferometer was used to locate the direction of VHF radiation from lightning discharges with microsec time resolution. Radiation source directions and electric field waveforms were analyzed for various types of breakdown events. These include initial breakdown and K type events of in-cloud activity, and the leaders of initial and subsequent strokes to ground and activity during and following return strokes. Radiation during the initial breakdown of a flash and in the early stages of initial leaders to ground is found to be similar. In both instances, the activity consists of localized bursts of radiation that are intense and slow moving. Motion within a given burst is unresolved by the interferometer. Radiation from in-cloud K type events is essentially the same as that from dart leaders; in both cases it is produced at the leading edge of a fast moving streamer that propagates along a well defined, often extensive path. K type events are sometimes terminated by fast field changes that are similar to the return stroke initiated by dart leaders; such K type events are the in-cloud analog of the dart leader return stroke process.

  14. Information content in reflected signals during GPS Radio Occultation observations (United States)

    Aparicio, Josep M.; Cardellach, Estel; Rodríguez, Hilda


    The possibility of extracting useful information about the state of the lower troposphere from the surface reflections that are often detected during GPS radio occultations (GPSRO) is explored. The clarity of the reflection is quantified, and can be related to properties of the surface and the low troposphere. The reflected signal is often clear enough to show good phase coherence, and can be tracked and processed as an extension of direct non-reflected GPSRO atmospheric profiles. A profile of bending angle vs. impact parameter can be obtained for these reflected signals, characterized by impact parameters that are below the apparent horizon, and that is a continuation at low altitude of the standard non-reflected bending angle profile. If there were no reflection, these would correspond to tangent altitudes below the local surface, and in particular below the local mean sea level. A forward operator is presented, for the evaluation of the bending angle of reflected GPSRO signals, given atmospheric properties as described by a numerical weather prediction system. The operator is an extension, at lower impact parameters, of standard bending angle operators, and reproduces both the direct and reflected sections of the measured profile. It can be applied to the assimilation of the reflected section of the profile as supplementary data to the direct section. Although the principle is also applicable over land, this paper is focused on ocean cases, where the topographic height of the reflecting surface, the sea level, is better known a priori.

  15. Astronomical Ecosystems (United States)

    Neuenschwander, D. E.; Finkenbinder, L. R.


    Just as quetzals and jaguars require specific ecological habitats to survive, so too must planets occupy a tightly constrained astronomical habitat to support life as we know it. With this theme in mind we relate the transferable features of our elementary astronomy course, "The Astronomical Basis of Life on Earth." Over the last five years, in a team-taught course that features a spring break field trip to Costa Rica, we have introduced astronomy through "astronomical ecosystems," emphasizing astronomical constraints on the prospects for life on Earth. Life requires energy, chemical elements, and long timescales, and we emphasize how cosmological, astrophysical, and geological realities, through stabilities and catastrophes, create and eliminate niches for biological life. The linkage between astronomy and biology gets immediate and personal: for example, studies in solar energy production are followed by hikes in the forest to examine the light-gathering strategies of photosynthetic organisms; a lesson on tides is conducted while standing up to our necks in one on a Pacific beach. Further linkages between astronomy and the human timescale concerns of biological diversity, cultural diversity, and environmental sustainability are natural and direct. Our experience of teaching "astronomy as habitat" strongly influences our "Astronomy 101" course in Oklahoma as well. This "inverted astrobiology" seems to transform our student's outlook, from the universe being something "out there" into something "we're in!" We thank the SNU Science Alumni support group "The Catalysts," and the SNU Quetzal Education and Research Center, San Gerardo de Dota, Costa Rica, for their support.

  16. Voyager radio science observations of Neptune and triton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, G.L.; Eshleman, V.R.; Gresh, D.L.; Gurrola, E.M.; Hinson, D.P.; Marouf, E.A.; Rosen, P.A.; Simpson, R.A. (Stanford Univ. (USA)); Sweetnam, D.N.; Anderson, J.D.; Borutzki, S.E.; Campbell, J.K.; Kursinski, E.R.; Levy, G.S.; Lindal, G.F.; Lyons, J.R.; Wood, G.E. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA)); Kawashima, N. (Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara (Japan))


    The Voyager 2 encounter with the Neptune system included radio science investigations of the masses and densities of Neptune and Triton, the low-order gravitational harmonics of Neptune, the vertical structures of the atmospheres and ionospheres of Neptune and Triton, the composition of the atmosphere of Neptune, and characteristics of ring material. Demanding experimental requirements were met successfully, and study of the large store of collected data has begun. Neptune's atmosphere was probed to a pressure level of about 5 x 10{sup 5} pascals, and effects of a methane cloud region and probable ammonia absorption below the cloud are evident in the data. Results for the mixing ratios of helium and ammonia are still being investigated; the methane abundance below the clouds is at least 1 percent by volume. Derived temperature-pressure profiles to 1.2 x 10{sup 5} pascals and 78 kelvins (K) show a lapse rate corresponding to frozen equilibrium of the para- and ortho-hydrogen states. Neptune's ionosphere exhibits an extended topside at a temperature of 950 {plus minus} 160 K if H{sup +} is the dominant ion, and narrow ionization layers of the type previously seen at the other three giant planets. Triton has a dense ionosphere with a peak electron concentration of 46 x 10{sup 9} per cubic meter at an altitude of 340 kilometers measured during occultation egress. Its topside plasma temperature is about 80 {plus minus} 16 K in N{sub 2}{sup +} is the principal ion. The tenuous neutral atmosphere of Triton produced distinct signatures in the occultation data; however, the accuracy of the measurements is limited by uncertainties in the frequency of the spacecraft reference oscillator. Preliminary values for the surface pressure of 1.6 {plus minus} 0.3 pascals and an equivalent isothermal temperature of 48 {plus minus} 5 K are suggested, on the assumption that molecular nitrogen dominates the atmosphere.

  17. Development of the radio astronomical method of cosmic particle detection for extremely high-energy cosmic ray physics and neutrino astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheleznykh Igor


    Full Text Available The proposal to use ground based radio telescopes for detection of Askaryan radio pulses from particle cascades arising when extremely high-energy (EHE > 1020 eV cosmic rays (including neutrinos interact with the lunar regolith of multi gigaton mass was made at the end of 1980s in the framework of the Russian (Soviet DUMAND Program. During more than a quarter of century a number of lunar experiments were carried out mainly in the 1–3 GHz frequency range using the large radio telescopes of Australia, USA, Russia and other countries but these experiments only put upper limits to the EHE cosmic rays fluxes. For this reason, it would be of great interest to search for nanosecond radio pulses from the Moon in a wider interval of frequencies (including lower ones of 100–350 MHz with larger radio detectors – for example the giant radio telescope SKA (Square Kilometer Array which is constructed in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. In this paper possibilities are discussed to use one of the most sensitive meter-wavelength (∼ 110 MHz Large Phased Array (LPA of 187 × 384 m2 and the wide field of view meter-wavelength array of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory as prototypes of low frequency radio detectors for lunar experiments. The new scheme for fast simulation of ultrahigh and extremely high-energy cascades in dense media is also suggested. This scheme will be used later for calculations of radio emission of cascades in the lunar regolith with energies up to 1020 eV and higher in the wide frequency band of 0.1− a few GHz.

  18. JVLA observations of IC 348 SW: Compact radio sources and their nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Zapata, Luis A.; Palau, Aina, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)


    We present sensitive 2.1 and 3.3 cm Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the region IC 348 SW. We detect a total of 10 compact radio sources in the region, 7 of which are first reported here. One of the sources is associated with the remarkable periodic time-variable infrared source LRLL 54361, opening the possibility of monitoring this object at radio wavelengths. Four of the sources appear to be powering outflows in the region, including HH 211 and HH 797. In the case of the rotating outflow HH 797, we detect a double radio source at its center, separated by ∼3''. Two of the sources are associated with infrared stars that possibly have gyrosynchrotron emission produced in active magnetospheres. Finally, three of the sources are interpreted as background objects.

  19. 8-12 GHz Radio Observations of Flare Activity On M dwarf CN Leo (United States)

    Wofford, Alia; Villadsen, Jackie; Quintana, Elisa; Barclay, Thomas; Thackeray, Beverly


    Red dwarfs are cool stars that make up 70% of all stars. Red dwarfs can be utilized to detect potentially habitable planets but they have particularly strong magnetic activity that can be detrimental to orbiting planets’ atmospheres and habitability. A coronal mass ejection (CME) is an eruption of magnetized plasma from the star that is ejected into the interplanetary medium which can erode a planet’s atmosphere daily. Based on the sun CMEs are expected to produce very bright radio bursts along with optical flares. We are using M dwarf CN Leo, a well studied flare star that was in the K2 campaign field in summer 2017, as a template to understand the relationship between radio and optical flares and the space weather conditions impacting M dwarf planets. Using radio frequencies ranging from 0.22 GHz-12 GHz we search for simultaneous radio bursts and optical flares to infer if CMEs, flares or aurorae are occurring on the star. I will present the 8-12 GHz radio data from eight 1.5-hour observations with simultaneous optical data. CN Leo produced a bright non-thermal radio flare that lasted approximately for a day during two consecutive observations, with a gyrosynchrotron emission mechanism.

  20. Radio and optical observations of 0218+357 - The smallest Einstein ring? (United States)

    O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Stanghellini, Carlo; Dey, Arjun; Van Breugel, Wil; Deustua, Susana; Smith, Eric P.


    VLA radio observations and optical imaging and spectroscopy of the Einstein radio ring 0218+357 are presented. The ring is detected at 22.4 GHz and shows a basically similar structure at 5, 15, and 22.4 GHz. The B component has varied and was about 15 percent brighter in the 8.4 GHz data than in the data of Patnaik et al. (1992). The ring is highly polarized. A weak jetlike feature extending out roughly 2 arcsec to the southeast of component A is detected at 6 cm. The source has amorphous radio structure extending out to about 11 arcsec from the core. For an adopted redshift of 0.68, the extended radio emission is very powerful. The optical spectrum is rather red and shows no strong features. A redshift of about 0.68 is obtained. The identification is a faint compact m(r) about 20 galaxy which extends to about 4.5 arcsec (about 27 kpc). As much as 50 percent of the total light may be due to a central AGN. The observed double core and ring may be produced by an off-center radio core with extended radio structure.

  1. The solar eruption of 13 May 2005: EISCAT and MERLIN observations of a coronal radio burst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Jones


    Full Text Available We report results from EISCAT and MERLIN observations of radio scintillation during a solar eruptive event in May 2005. Anomalous increases in signal strength detected at sites more than 2000 km apart are shown to arise from the detection of a strong coronal radio burst in the distant off-axis response of the MERLIN and EISCAT antennas. These observations show that EISCAT is capable of detecting the signatures of explosive events in the solar atmosphere with a high degree of time resolution. We further suggest that the highly time-structured variation in signal strength caused by distant off-axis detection of a powerful coronal radio signal could provide an explanation for previously unexplained anomalies in EISCAT IPS observations, as well as being a potential source of errors in active observations using radar codes with a completion time longer than the time-variation of the coronal signal.

  2. Quark nugget dark matter: Comparison with radio observations of nearby galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, K., E-mail:; Zhitnitsky, A.R.


    It has been recently claimed that radio observations of nearby spiral galaxies essentially rule out a dark matter source for the galactic haze [1]. Here we consider the low energy thermal emission from a quark nugget dark matter model in the context of microwave emission from the galactic centre and radio observations of nearby Milky Way like galaxies. We demonstrate that observed emission levels do not strongly constrain this specific dark matter candidate across a broad range of the allowed parameter space in drastic contrast with conventional dark matter models based on the WIMP paradigm.

  3. Astronomical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeder, Daniel J


    Written by a recognized expert in the field, this clearly presented, well-illustrated book provides both advanced level students and professionals with an authoritative, thorough presentation of the characteristics, including advantages and limitations, of telescopes and spectrographic instruments used by astronomers of today.Key Features* Written by a recognized expert in the field* Provides both advanced level students and professionals with an authoritative, thorough presentation of the characteristics, including advantages and limitations, of telescopes and spectrographic i

  4. The radio recombination line spectrum of Orion A: Observations and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockman, F.J.; Brown, R.L.


    The entire body of radio observations of Orion A has been considered, and the means by which the temperature and density can be derived from the ratio T/subL//T/subC/ and the line width Δv of the hydrogen radio recombination lines is examined. Since it is critical to determine the extent to which low-frequency line measurements are contaminated by ''baseline-subtraction'' problems, new observations are presented which, together with general considerations of the line shape and data reduction processes, support the following conclusions: T/subL//T/subC/ and Δv can be accurately determined in the low-frequency observations even when erroneous baselines are removed; in accord with other studies, a density gradient must exist in the nebula; isothermal models cannot reproduce the observed line strenghts; the most dense parts of the nebula must be somewhat cooler than the surrounding gas. A model of Orion A has been constructed that is derived directly from the radio continuum observations. These observations demand that the simplest possible model of the nebula be comprised of three regions whose gross properties: the electrons density and the size: are defined by the continuum measurements. This model has been used for an analysis of the radio recombination line data, and virtually all known radio data on the Orion Nebula including Δv and T/subL//T/subC/ of the H nα lines from 610 MHz to 85 GHz Δv and T/subL//T/subC/ of all the observed H nβ lines; the shape and magnitude of the radio continuum spectrum can be reproduced. The application of this model to the problem of the abundance and distribution of ionized helium with the nebula is also considered

  5. Radio Band Observations of Blazar Variability Margo F. Aller , Hugh ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gle dish monitoring and spatial resolution from VLBA imaging. Such measurements now available in all four ... linear-to-circular mode conversion in a region that is at least partially self- absorbed. Detailed analysis of ... Single dish monitoring observations from Metsähovi, Michigan (hereafter. UMRAO), and recently from the ...

  6. VLBA Observations of Strong Anisotripic Radio Scattering Toward the Orion Nebula (United States)

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee; Loinard, Laurent; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Johnson, Michael D.; Torres, Rosa M.; Briceño, Cesar


    We present observations of VLBA 20, a radio source found toward the edge of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). Nonthermal emission dominates the spectral energy distribution of this object from the radio to mid-infrared regime, suggesting that VLBA 20 is extragalactic. This source is heavily scattered in the radio regime. Very Long Baseline Array observations resolve it to ∼34 × 19 mas at 5 GHz, and the wavelength dependence of the scattering disk is consistent with ν ‑2 at other frequencies. The origin of the scattering is most likely the ionized X-ray emitting gas from the winds of the most massive stars of the ONC. The scattering is highly anisotropic, with the axis ratio of 2:1, higher than what is typically observed toward other sources.

  7. The mystery of the "Kite" radio source in Abell 2626: Insights from new Chandra observations (United States)

    Ignesti, A.; Gitti, M.; Brunetti, G.; O'Sullivan, E.; Sarazin, C.; Wong, K.


    Context. We present the results of a new Chandra study of the galaxy cluster Abell 2626. The radio emission of the cluster shows a complex system of four symmetric arcs without known correlations with the thermal X-ray emission. The mirror symmetry of the radio arcs toward the center and the presence of two optical cores in the central galaxy suggested that they may be created by pairs of precessing radio jets powered by dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs) inside the core dominant galaxy. However, previous observations failed to observe the second jetted AGN and the spectral trend due to radiative age along the radio arcs, thus challenging this interpretation. Aim. The new Chandra observation had several scientific objectives, including the search for the second AGN that would support the jet precession model. We focus here on the detailed study of the local properties of the thermal and non-thermal emission in the proximity of the radio arcs, in order to obtain further insights into their origin. Methods: We performed a standard data reduction of the Chandra dataset deriving the radial profiles of temperature, density, pressure and cooling time of the intra-cluster medium. We further analyzed the two-dimensional (2D) distribution of the gas temperature, discovering that the south-western junction of the radio arcs surrounds the cool core of the cluster. Results: We studied the X-ray surface brightness and spectral profiles across the junction, finding a cold front spatially coincident with the radio arcs. This may suggest a connection between the sloshing of the thermal gas and the nature of the radio filaments, raising new scenarios for their origin. A tantalizing possibility is that the radio arcs trace the projection of a complex surface connecting the sites where electrons are most efficiently reaccelerated by the turbulence that is generated by the gas sloshing. In this case, diffuse emission embedded by the arcs and with extremely steep spectrum should be


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Anderson, Scott F.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Shemmer, Ohad


    We present radio and X-ray observations, as well as optical light curves, for a subset of 26 BL Lac candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) lacking strong radio emission and with z < 2.2. Half of these 26 objects are shown to be stars, galaxies, or absorbed quasars. We conclude that the other 13 objects are active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with abnormally weak emission features; 10 of those 13 are definitively radio quiet, and, for those with available optical light curves, their level of optical flux variability is consistent with radio-quiet quasars. We cannot exclude the possibility that some of these 13 AGNs lie on the extremely radio-faint tail of the BL Lac distribution, but our study generally supports the notion that all BL Lac objects are radio-loud. These radio-quiet AGNs appear to have intrinsically weak or absent broad emission line regions (BELRs), and, based on their X-ray properties, we argue that some are low-redshift analogs to weak line quasars (WLQs). SDSS BL Lac searches are so far the only systematic surveys of the SDSS database capable of recovering such exotic low-redshift WLQs. There are 71 more z < 2.2 radio-quiet BL Lac candidates already identified in the SDSS, but not considered here, and many of those might be best unified with WLQs as well. Future studies combining low- and high-redshift WLQ samples will yield new insight on our understanding of the structure and formation of AGN BELRs.

  9. Radio and x-ray observations of compact sources in or near supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaquist, E.R.; Gilmore, W.S.


    We present VLA multifrequency radio observations of six compact radio sources from the list of nine objects proposed by Ryle et al. [Nature 276, 571 (1978)] as a new class of radio star, possibly the stellar remnants of supernovae. We also present the results of a search for x-ray emission from four of these objects with the Einstein observatory. The radio observations provide information on spectra, polarization, time variability, angular structure, and positions for these sources. The bearing of these new data on the nature of the sources is discussed. One particularly interesting result is that the polarization and angular-size measurements are combined in an astrophysical argument to conclude that one of the sources (2013+370) is extragalactic. No x-ray emission was detected from any of the four objects observed, but an extended x-ray source was found coincident with the supernova remnant G 33.6+0.1 near 1849+005. Our measurements provide no compelling arguments to consider any of the six objects studied as radio stars

  10. Diffuse radio emission in the Coma cluster and Abell 1367: observations at 430 and 1400 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanisch, R.J.


    Two rich clusters of galaxies, Abell 1656 (the Coma cluster) and Abell 1367, have been mapped at both 430 and 1400 MHz with the 305-m telescope at Arecibo. The contribution to the observed radio emission due to known discrete sources has been calculated by convolving interferometrically determined source lists with observed Arecibo beam patterns, and maps of the diffuse radio emission alone have been constructed. Both clusters contain regions of diffuse radio emission, although the source in Coma is larger and much more luminous than the source in Abell 1367. The linear extent of the diffuse emission and its dependence on frequency have been used to study particle propagation rates and modes of diffusion in the intracluster medium. The possible correlations between the diffuse radio emission and x-ray emission in these clusters have been investigated, and it has been found that the observed x-ray luminosities can be accounted for if the intracluster gas is heated through Coulomb interactions with the relativistic electrons responsible for the diffuse radio emission

  11. Radio Observations of the Ionosphere From an Imaging Array and a CubeSat (United States)

    Isham, B.; Gustavsson, B.; Bullett, T. W.; Bergman, J. E. S.; Rincón-Charris, A.; Bruhn, F.; Funk, P.


    The ionosphere is a source of many radio emissions in the various low-frequency, medium-frequency, and high-frequency bands (0 to 30 MHz). In addition to natural radio emissions, artificial emissions can be stimulated using high-power radiowave ionospheric modification facilities. Two complementary projects are underway for the purpose of improving our knowledge of the processes of radio emissions from the ionosphere. One project is the Aguadilla radio array, located in northwestern Puerto Rico. The Aguadilla array is intended to produce 2 to 25 MHz radio images of the ionosphere, as well as to perform bistatic radar imaging of the ionosphere over Puerto Rico. The array will consist of multiple antenna elements, each of which is a single active (electromagnetically short) crossed electric dipole. The elements are arranged within a roughly 200 by 300-meter core array, in a semi-random pattern providing an optimal distribution of baseline vectors, with 6-meter minimum spacing to eliminate spacial aliasing. In addition, several elements are arranged in a partial ring around the central core, providing a roughly four times expanded region in u-v space for improved image resolution and quality. Phase is maintained via cabled connections to a central location. A remote array is also being developed, in which phase is maintained between elements by through the use of GPS-disciplined rubidium clocks. The other project involves the GimmeRF radio instrument, designed for 0.3 to 30 MHz vector observation of the radio electric field, and planned for launch in 2020 on a CubeSat. The data rate that can be sustained by GimmeRF far exceeds any available communication strategy. By exploiting fast on-board computing and efficient artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms for analysis and data selection, the usage of the telemetry link can be optimized and value added to the mission. Radio images recorded by the radio array from below the ionosphere can be directly compared with the

  12. A Fast Radio Burst Occurs Every Second throughout the Observable Universe


    Fialkov, Anastasia; Loeb, Abraham


    Recent multi-telescope observations of the repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102 reveal a Gaussian-like spectral profile and associate the event with a dwarf metal-poor galaxy at a cosmological redshift of 0.19. Assuming that this event represents the entire FRB population, we make predictions for the expected number counts of FRBs observable by future radio telescopes between 50 MHz and 3.5 GHz. We vary our model assumptions to bracket the expected rate of FRBs, and find that it exceeds one ...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Peeters, Els; Allamandola, Louis J.


    The mid-infrared (IR) spectra of six large, irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with formulae (C 84 H 24 -C 120 H 36 ) have been computed using density functional theory (DFT). Trends in the dominant band positions and intensities are compared to those of large, compact PAHs as a function of geometry, size, and charge. Irregular edge moieties that are common in terrestrial PAHs, such as bay regions and rings with quartet hydrogens, are shown to be uncommon in astronomical PAHs. As for all PAHs comprised solely of C and H reported to date, mid-IR emission from irregular PAHs fails to produce a strong CC str band at 6.2 μm, the position characteristic of the important, class A astronomical PAH spectra. Earlier studies showed that inclusion of nitrogen within a PAH shifts this to 6.2 μm for PAH cations. Here we show that this band shifts to 6.3 μm in nitrogenated PAH anions, close to the position of the CC stretch in class B astronomical PAH spectra. Thus, nitrogenated PAHs may be important in all sources and the peak position of the CC stretch near 6.2 μm appears to directly reflect the PAH cation to anion ratio. Large irregular PAHs exhibit features at 7.8 μm but lack them near 8.6 μm. Hence, the 7.7 μm astronomical feature is produced by a mixture of small and large PAHs while the 8.6 μm band can only be produced by large compact PAHs. As with the CC str , the position and profile of these bands reflect the PAH cation to anion ratio.

  14. Propagation of interplanetary shock waves by observations of type II solar radio bursts on IMP-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertok, I.M.; Fomichev, V.V.


    A new interpretation of the low frequency type II solar radio bursts of 30 June 1971, and 7-8 August 1972 observed with IMP-6 satellite (Malitson, H.H., Fainberg, J. and Stone, R.G., 1973, Astrophys. Lett., vol. 14, 111; Astrophys. J., vol. 183, L35) is suggested. The analysis is carried out for two models of the electron density distribution in the interplanetary medium taking into account that N approximately 3.5 cm -3 at a distance of 1 a.u. It is assumed that the frequency of the radio emission corresponds to the average electron density behind the shock front which exceeds the undisturbed electron density by the factor of 3. The radio data indicate essential deceleration of the shock waves during propagation from the Sun up to 1 a.u. The characteristics of the shock waves obtained from the type II bursts agree with the results of the in situ observations. (author)

  15. Latest Observations of Interstellar Plasma Waves, Radio Emissions, and Dust Impacts from the Voyager 1 Plasma Wave Instrument (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.


    Voyager 1, which is now 140 AU (Astronomical Units) from the Sun, crossed the heliopause into interstellar space in 2012 at a heliospheric radial distance of 121 AU. Since crossing the heliopause the plasma wave instrument has on several occasions detected plasma oscillations and radio emissions at or near the electron plasma frequency. The most notable of these events occurred in Oct.-Nov. 2012, April-May 2013, Feb.-Nov. 2014, and Sept.-Nov. 2015. Most recently, a very weak emission has been observed at or near the electron plasma frequency through most of 2016. These emissions are all believed to be produced by shock waves propagating into the interstellar medium from energetic solar events. The oscillation frequency of the plasma indicates that the electron density in the interstellar plasma has gradually increased from about 0.06 cm-3 near the heliopause to about 0.12 cm-3 in the most recent data. The plasma wave instrument also continues to detect impacts of what are believed to be interstellar dust grains at an impact rate of a few per year. Comparisons with Ulysses observations of similar interstellar dust near 5 AU suggest that the dust grains have sizes in the range from about 0.1 to 1 micrometer. Although the statistics are poor due to the low count rate, the dust flux observed in the outer heliosphere appears to be as much as a factor of two greater than that observed in the interstellar medium. Since the dust particles are likely to be charged, this increase in the heliosphere suggests that there may be a significant electrodynamic interaction of the dust particles with the heliospheric magnetic field.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, Walid A.; Pearlman, Aaron B.; Dobreva, Tatyana; Kocz, Jonathon; Prince, Thomas A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Horiuchi, Shinji [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Canberra Deep Space Communications Complex, P.O. Box 1035, Tuggeranong, ACT 2901 (Australia); Lippuner, Jonas [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, MC 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    We have carried out high-frequency radio observations of the high magnetic field pulsar PSR J1119-6127 following its recent X-ray outburst. While initial observations showed no evidence of significant radio emission, subsequent observations detected pulsed emission across a large frequency band. In this Letter, we report on the initial disappearance of the pulsed emission and its prompt reactivation and dramatic evolution over several months of observation. The periodic pulse profile at S -band (2.3 GHz) after reactivation exhibits a multi-component emission structure, while the simultaneous X -band (8.4 GHz) profile shows a single emission peak. Single pulses were also detected at S -band near the main emission peaks. We present measurements of the spectral index across a wide frequency bandwidth, which captures the underlying changes in the radio emission profile of the neutron star. The high-frequency radio detection, unusual emission profile, and observed variability suggest similarities with magnetars, which may independently link the high-energy outbursts to magnetar-like behavior.

  17. Some characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed by radio-interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Mercier

    Full Text Available Observations of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs are considered through their effect on the horizontal gradient G of the slant total electron content (slant TEC, which can be directly obtained from two-dimensional radio-interferometric observations of cosmic radio-sources with the Nançay radioheligraph (2.2°E, 47.3°N. Azimuths of propagation can be deduced (modulo 180°. The total database amounts to about 800 h of observations at various elevations, local time and seasons. The main results are:

    a AGWs are partially directive, confirming our previous results.

    b The propagation azimuths considered globally are widely scattered with a preference towards the south.

    c They show a bimodal time distribution with preferential directions towards the SE during daytime and towards the SW during night-time (rather than a clockwise rotation as reported by previous authors.

    d The periods are scattered but are larger during night-time than during daytime by about 60%.

    e The effects observed with the solar radio-sources are significantly stronger than with other radio-sources (particularly at higher elevations, showing the role of the geometry in line of sight-integrated observations.

  18. Amateur Planetary Radio Data Archived for Science and Education: Radio Jove (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Cecconi, B.; Sky, J.; Garcia, L. N.; King, T. A.; Higgins, C. A.; Fung, S. F.


    The Radio Jove Project is a hands-on educational activity in which students, teachers, and the general public build simple radio telescopes, usually from a kit, to observe single frequency decameter wavelength radio emissions from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and the Earth usually with simple dipole antennas. Some of the amateur observers have upgraded their receivers to spectrographs and their antennas have become more sophisticated as well. The data records compare favorably to more sophisticated professional radio telescopes such as the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) and the Nancay Decametric Array. Since these data are often carefully calibrated and recorded around the clock in widely scattered locations they represent a valuable database useful not only to amateur radio astronomers but to the professional science community as well. Some interesting phenomena have been noted in the data that are of interest to the professionals familiar with such records. The continuous monitoring of radio emissions from Jupiter could serve as useful "ground truth" data during the coming Juno mission's radio observations of Jupiter. Radio Jove has long maintained an archive for thousands of Radio Jove observations, but the database was intended for use by the Radio Jove participants only. Now, increased scientific interest in the use of these data has resulted in several proposals to translate the data into a science community data format standard and store the data in professional archives. Progress is being made in translating Radio Jove data to the Common Data Format (CDF) and also in generating new observations in that format as well. Metadata describing the Radio Jove data would follow the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) standard. The proposed archive to be used for long term preservation would be the Planetary Data System (PDS). Data sharing would be achieved through the PDS and the Paris Astronomical Data Centre (PADC) and the Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO

  19. Visibility-based angular power spectrum estimation in low-frequency radio interferometric observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choudhuri, Samir; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Ghosh, Abhik; Ali, Sk. Saiyad


    We present two estimators to quantify the angular power spectrum of the sky signal directly from the visibilities measured in radio interferometric observations. This is relevant for both the foregrounds and the cosmological 21-cm signal buried therein. The discussion here is restricted to the

  20. Observations of a low-frequency cutoff in magnetospheric radio noise received on Imp 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesecky, J.F.; Frankel, M.S.


    Observations of magnetospheric radio noise by the Goddard Space Flight Center radio experiment on the Imp 6 spacecraft have revealed a quasi-continuous component at frequencies between 30 and 110 kHz. When the spacecraft is in the interplanetary medium or the magnetosheath, a low-frequency cutoff often characterizes the otherwise power law (f - /sup alpha/) spectrum of this noise. A positive correlation is observed between this cutoff frequency f) and the solar wind plasma frequency f), deduced from the Los Alamos plasma experiment on the same spacecraft; on the average, f)approx. =1.3f). If one pictures the magnetosheath as a homogeneous layer of plasma lying between the radio noise source (at Lapprox.4--7) and the spacecraft in the interplanetary medium and having an electron density 2--3 times that of the solar wind, then one will expect f)approximately-greater-than2 1 / 2 f)--3 1 / 2 f). Within the limits of experimental error this simple model correctly accounts for the observations. A rough calculation shows that radio wave scattering by electron density fluctuations in the magnetosheath plasma is likely to be important for frequencies below 200 kHz. However, the effects of such scattering cannot be detected in the Imp 6 observations considered here because neither concurrent measurements nor sufficiently accurate models of the necessar []magnetosheath plasma parameters are presently available

  1. Radio Frequency Interference: The Study of Rain Effect on Radio Signal Attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslan Umar; Roslan Umar; Shahirah Syafa Sulan; Atiq Wahidah Azlan; Zainol Abidin Ibrahim


    The intensity of radio waves received by radio telescopes is always not subject to human control. In the millimetre band, the propagation of the electromagnetic waves is severely affected by rain rate, dust particle size and drop size in the terms of attenuation, noise and depolarization. At the frequency above 10 GHz, the absorption and scattering by rain cause a reduction in the transmitted signal amplitude which will lead to the reducing of the availability, reliability and performance on the communications link. In this study, the rain effect on radio signal has been investigated. Spectrum analyzer and weather stations were used to obtain the RFI level and rain rate data respectively. The radio frequency interference (RFI) pattern due to rain factor was determined. This will benefit radio astronomer in managing sites for radio observation for radio astronomy purposes. (author)

  2. Observing Tropospheric Water Vapor by Radio Occultation using the Global Positioning System (United States)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Hajj, G. A.; Hardy, K. R.; Romans, L. J.; Schofield, J. T.


    Given the importance of water vapor to weather, climate and hydrology, global humidity observations from satellites are critical. At low latitudes, radio occultation observations of Earth's atmosphere using the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites allow water vapor profiles to be retrieved with accuracies of 10 to 20% below 6 to 7 km altitude and approx. 5% or better within the boundary layer. GPS observations provide a unique combination of accuracy, vertical resolution (less than or equal to 1 km) and insensitivity to cloud and aerosol particles that is well suited to observations of the lower troposphere. These characteristics combined with the inherent stability of radio occultation observations make it an excellent candidate for the measurement of long term trends.

  3. Radio observations of the peripheral region of the Coma cluster near Coma A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, G.


    VLA and WSRT observations are reported for the extended radio source 1253+275 on the periphery of the Coma cluster and for two active Coma radio galaxies within 20 arcmin of 1253+275. The data are presented in contour maps and characterized in detail. Source 1253+275 is shown to be a relic radio galaxy with physical conditions similar to those seen in the external regions (30-50 kpc from the cores) of the two active sources (NGC 4789 and NGC 4827). It is suggested that these regions survived for long periods (400 Myr) after the last acceleration of the radiating electrons because transverse expansion was inhibited by the local intergalactic medium, which has a density comparable to that in other rich clusters of galaxies. 7 references

  4. Internal gravity waves in Titan's atmosphere observed by Voyager radio occultation (United States)

    Hinson, D. P.; Tyler, G. L.


    The radio scintillations caused by scattering from small-scale irregularities in Titan's neutral atmosphere during a radio occultation of Voyager 1 by Titan are investigated. Intensity and frequency fluctuations occurred on time scales from about 0.1 to 1.0 sec at 3.6 and 13 cm wavelengths whenever the radio path passed within 90 km of the surface, indicating the presence of variations in refractivity on length scales from a few hundred meters to a few kilometers. Above 25 km, the altitude profile of intensity scintillations closely agrees with the predictions of a simple theory based on the characteristics of internal gravity waves propagating with little or no attenuation through the vertical stratification in Titan's atmosphere. These observations support a hypothesis of stratospheric gravity waves, possibly driven by a cloud-free convective region in the lowest few kilometers of the stratosphere.

  5. The Bologna complete sample of nearby radio sources. II. Phase referenced observations of faint nuclear sources (United States)

    Liuzzo, E.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Taylor, G. B.


    Aims: To study statistical properties of different classes of sources, it is necessary to observe a sample that is free of selection effects. To do this, we initiated a project to observe a complete sample of radio galaxies selected from the B2 Catalogue of Radio Sources and the Third Cambridge Revised Catalogue (3CR), with no selection constraint on the nuclear properties. We named this sample “the Bologna Complete Sample” (BCS). Methods: We present new VLBI observations at 5 and 1.6 GHz for 33 sources drawn from a sample not biased toward orientation. By combining these data with those in the literature, information on the parsec-scale morphology is available for a total of 76 of 94 radio sources with a range in radio power and kiloparsec-scale morphologies. Results: The fraction of two-sided sources at milliarcsecond resolution is high (30%), compared to the fraction found in VLBI surveys selected at centimeter wavelengths, as expected from the predictions of unified models. The parsec-scale jets are generally found to be straight and to line up with the kiloparsec-scale jets. A few peculiar sources are discussed in detail. Tables 1-4 are only available in electronic form at


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, W. W.; Kaspi, V. M.; Ng, C.-Y.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Pavlov, G. G.; Manchester, R. N.; Gaensler, B. M.; Woods, P. M.


    High-magnetic-field pulsars represent an important class of objects for studying the relationship between magnetars and radio pulsars. Here we report on four Chandra observations of the high-magnetic-field pulsar J1718-3718 (B = 7.4 x 10 13 G) taken in 2009 as well as a reanalysis of 2002 Chandra observations of the region. We also report an improved radio position for this pulsar based on ATCA observations. We detect X-ray pulsations at the pulsar's period in the 2009 data, with a pulsed fraction of 52% ± 13% in the 0.8-2.0 keV band. We find that the X-ray pulse is aligned with the radio pulse. The data from 2002 and 2009 show consistent spectra and fluxes: a merged overall spectrum is well fit by a blackbody of temperature 186 +19 -18 eV, slightly higher than predicted by standard cooling models; however, the best-fit neutron star atmosphere model is consistent with standard cooling. We find the bolometric luminosity L ∞ bb = 4 +5 -2 x 10 32 erg s -1 ∼0.3 E-dot for a distance of 4.5 kpc. We compile measurements of the temperatures of all X-ray-detected high-B pulsars as well as those of low-B radio pulsars and find evidence for the former being hotter on average than the latter.

  7. Observation of solar radio bursts of type II and III at kilometer wavelengths from Prognoz-8 during STIP Interval XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinter, S.; Kecskemety, K.; Kudela, K.


    Type II and type III radio events were observed at low frequencies (2.16 MHz to 114 kHz) by the Prognoz-8 satellite during the period of STIP Interval XII in April and May, 1981, respectively. This review covers briefly a chronology of the sub-megahertz radio events, and where possible their association with both groundbased radio observations and solar flare. (author)

  8. Radio Frequency Interference Site Survey for Thai Radio Telescopes (United States)

    Jaroenjittichai, P.; Punyawarin, S.; Singwong, D.; Somboonpon, P.; Prasert, N.; Bandudej, K.; Kempet, P.; Leckngam, A.; Poshyachinda, S.; Soonthornthum, B.; Kramer, B.


    Radio astronomical observations have increasingly been threaten by the march of today telecommunication and wireless technology. Performance of radio telescopes lies within the fact that astronomical sources are extremely weak. National Astronomy Research Institute of Thailand (NARIT) has initiated a 5-year project, known as the Radio Astronomy Network and Geodesy for Development (RANGD), which includes the establishment of 40-meter and 13-meter radio telescopes. Possible locations have been narrowed down to three candidates, situated in the Northern part of Thailand, where the atmosphere is sufficiently dry and suitable for 22 and 43 GHz observations. The Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) measurements were carried out with a DC spectrum analyzer and directional antennas at 1.5 meter above ground, from 20 MHz to 6 GHz with full azimuth coverage. The data from a 3-minute pointing were recorded for both horizontal and vertical polarizations, in maxhold and average modes. The results, for which we used to make preliminary site selection, show signals from typical broadcast and telecommunication services and aeronautics applications. The signal intensity varies accordingly to the presence of nearby population and topography of the region.

  9. Wave disturbances in the solar corona: radio observations at 24.5-25.5 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobrin, M.M.; Snegriev, S.D.


    We present an analysis of observations of fluctuations in the integrated flux of radio emission from the ''quiet'' sun. The observations were made on the UTR-2 radiotelescope, simultaneously at 11 frequencies in the range 24.5-25.5 MHz. Control observations of Taurus were made in order to allow for the effects of the earth's ionosphere. We measured the phase dependences between oscillations in the radio emission intensity which looked like wave trains. From these measurements we found that for periods of about 10 min we always observed disturbances propagating from the lower levels of the corona to the upper levels. The frequency drift in the trains is observed to be about 10 -3 MHz/sec, corresponding to a disturbance velocity of about 100 km/sec. This may be associated with the propagation of magnetosonic waves. Our estimates show that the observed effects cannot be explained by a bremsstrahlung mechanism: We need to rely on plasma mechanisms in order to explain how the radio emission is generated

  10. Radio follow-up observations of stellar tidal disruption flares: Constraints on off-axis jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Körding E.


    Full Text Available Observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN and X-ray binaries have shown that relativistic jets are ubiquitous when compact objects accrete. One could therefore anticipate the launch of a jet after a star is disrupted and accreted by a massive black hole. This birth of a relativistic jet may have been observed recently in two stellar tidal disruption flares (TDFs, which were discovered in gamma-rays by Swift. Yet no transient radio emission has been detected from the tens of TDF candidates that were discovered at optical to soft X-ray frequencies. Because the sample that was followed-up at radio frequencies is small, the non-detections can be explained by Doppler boosting, which reduces the jet flux for off-axis observers. Plus, the existing followup observation are mostly within ∼ 10 months of the discovery, so the non-detections can also be due to a delay of the radio emission with respect to the time of disruption. To test the conjecture that all TDFs launch jets, we obtained 5 GHz follow-up observations with the Jansky VLA of six known TDFs. To avoid missing delayed jet emission, our observations probe 1–8 years since the estimated time of disruption. None of the sources are detected, with very deep upper limits at the 10 micro Jansky level. These observations rule out the hypothesis that these TDFs launched jets similar to radio-loud quasars. We also constrain the possibility that the flares hosted a jet identical to Sw 1644+57.

  11. Radio observations reveal a smooth circumstellar environment around the extraordinary type Ib supernova 2012au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamble, Atish; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Margutti, Raffaella; Milisavljevic, Dan; Chakraborti, Sayan; Dittmann, Jason; Drout, Maria; Sanders, Nathan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chomiuk, Laura [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Medvedev, Mikhail [The Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Chevalier, Roger [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Chugai, Nikolai [Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyatnitskaya 48, 109017 Moscow (Russian Federation); Fransson, Claes [Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Nakar, Ehud, E-mail: [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)


    We present extensive radio and X-ray observations of SN 2012au, an energetic, radio-luminous supernova of Type Ib that exhibits multi-wavelength properties bridging subsets of hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae, hypernovae, and normal core-collapse supernovae. The observations closely follow models of synchrotron emission from a shock-heated circumburst medium that has a wind density profile (ρ∝r {sup –2}). We infer a sub-relativistic velocity for the shock wave v ≈ 0.2 c and a radius of r ≈ 1.4 × 10{sup 16}cm at 25 days after the estimated date of explosion. For a wind velocity of 1000 km s{sup –1}, we determine the mass-loss rate of the progenitor to be M-dot =3.6×10{sup −6} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, consistent with the estimates from X-ray observations. We estimate the total internal energy of the radio-emitting material to be E ≈ 10{sup 47} erg, which is intermediate to SN 1998bw and SN 2002ap. The evolution of the radio light curve of SN 2012au is in agreement with its interaction with a smoothly distributed circumburst medium and the absence of stellar shells ejected from previous outbursts out to r ≈ 10{sup 17} cm from the supernova site. We conclude that the bright radio emission from SN 2012au was not dissimilar from other core-collapse supernovae despite its extraordinary optical properties, and that the evolution of the SN 2012au progenitor star was relatively quiet, marked with a steady mass loss, during the final years preceding explosion.

  12. Ulysses radio and plasma wave observations at high southern heliographic latitudes. (United States)

    Stone, R G; Macdowall, R J; Fainberg, J; Kaiser, M L; Desch, M D; Goldstein, M L; Hoang, S; Bougeret, J L; Harvey, C C; Manning, R; Steinberg, J L; Kellogg, P J; Lin, N; Goetz, K; Osherovich, V A; Reiner, M J; Canu, P; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N; Lengyel-Frey, D; Thejappa, G


    Ulysses spacecraft radio and plasma wave observations indicate that some variations in the intensity and occurrence rate of electric and magnetic wave events are functions of heliographic latitude, distance from the sun, and phase of the solar cycle. At high heliographic latitudes, solartype Ill radio emissions did not descend to the local plasma frequency, in contrast to the emission frequencies of some bursts observed in the ecliptic. Short-duration bursts of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves were often found in association with depressions in magnetic field amplitude, known as magnetic holes. Extensive wave activity observed in magnetic clouds may exist because of unusually large electron-ion temperature ratios. The lower number of intense in situ wave events at high latitudes was likely due to the decreased variability of the high- latitude solar wind.

  13. Radio observations and the mass flow rate of αCyg (A2Ia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, B.; Stahl, O.; Altenhoff, W.J.


    From the free-free excess at 10μ Barlow and Cohen (1977) derived a mass loss rate of 6.9 x 10 -7 solar masses yr -1 for αCyg. They predicted a 10 GHz radio flux of 2.2 mJy. On the other hand Praderie et al. (1980) derived a considerable lower mass loss rate of 1.1 x 10 -8 -8 solar masses yr -1 from a curve of growth analysis of the envelope ultraviolet FeII-lines of αCyg. Radio observations are desirable to make a decision about these discrepant results. Therefore the authors observed αCyg at 15 GHz with the 100 m telescope of the MPIfR at Effelsberg. The observations are discussed together with recent VLA data of Abbott et al. (1980). (Auth.)

  14. Why is observable radio recombination line emission from galactic HII regions always close to LTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, P.A.


    There is no evidence for significant deviations from LTE in single-dish observations of radio recombination line emission from galactic HII regions. This is in agreement with the known properties of HII regions, particularly their density variations and limited range of excitation parameters; the optimum configuration for strong observable non-LTE effects, low electron density and high emission measure, simply does not exist in galactic HII regions, and the observed lines are emitted under near-LTE conditions. Models of the Orion Nebulae and NGC 6604 are presented which fit all available data and show only weak stimulated emission. It is concluded that reliable electron temperatures can indeed be obtained from straightforward analysis of appropriate radio recombination lines. (orig.)

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radio observations of SN 2009bb (Soderberg+, 2010) (United States)

    Soderberg, A. M.; Chakraborti, S.; Pignata, G.; Chevalier, R. A.; Chandra, P.; Ray, A.; Wieringa, M. H.; Copete, A.; Chaplin, V.; Connaughton, V.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Chugai, N.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Hamuy, M.; Fransson, C.; Fox, O.; Levesque, E. M.; Grindlay, J. E.; Challis, P.; Foley, R. J.; Kirshner, R. P.; Milne, P. A.; Torres, M. A. P.


    Long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) mark the explosive death of some massive stars and are a rare sub-class of type Ibc supernovae. They are distinguished by the production of an energetic and collimated relativistic outflow powered by a central engine (an accreting black hole or neutron star). Observationally, this outflow is manifested in the pulse of gamma-rays and a long-lived radio afterglow. Until now, central-engine-driven supernovae have been discovered exclusively through their gamma-ray emission, yet it is expected that a larger population goes undetected because of limited satellite sensitivity or beaming of the collimated emission away from our line of sight. In this framework, the recovery of undetected GRBs may be possible through radio searches for type Ibc supernovae with relativistic outflows. Here we report the discovery of luminous radio emission from the seemingly ordinary type Ibc SN 2009bb, which requires a substantial relativistic outflow powered by a central engine. A comparison with our radio survey of type Ibc supernovae reveals that the fraction harbouring central engines is low, about one per cent, measured independently from, but consistent with, the inferred rate of nearby GRBs. Independently, a second mildly relativistic supernova has been reported. (1 data file).

  16. Jets in Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernovae: Constraints from a Comprehensive Analysis of Radio Observations (United States)

    Coppejans, D. L.; Margutti, R.; Guidorzi, C.; Chomiuk, L.; Alexander, K. D.; Berger, E.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Blanchard, P. K.; Challis, P.; Chornock, R.; Drout, M.; Fong, W.; MacFadyen, A.; Migliori, G.; Milisavljevic, D.; Nicholl, M.; Parrent, J. T.; Terreran, G.; Zauderer, B. A.


    The energy source powering the extreme optical luminosity of hydrogen-stripped superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) is not known, but recent studies have highlighted the case for a central engine. Radio and/or X-ray observations are best placed to track the fastest ejecta and probe the presence of outflows from a central engine. We compile all the published radio observations of SLSNe-I to date and present three new observations of two new SLSNe-I. None were detected. Through modeling the radio emission, we constrain the subparsec environments and possible outflows in SLSNe-I. In this sample, we rule out on-axis collimated relativistic jets of the kind detected in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We constrain off-axis jets with opening angles of 5° (30°) to energies of {E}{{k}}values {ε }e=0.1 and {ε }B=0.01. The deepest limits rule out emission of the kind seen in faint uncollimated GRBs (with the exception of GRB 060218) and from relativistic SNe. Finally, for the closest SLSN-I, SN 2017egm, we constrain the energy of an uncollimated nonrelativistic outflow like those observed in normal SNe to {E}{{k}}≲ {10}48 erg.

  17. Experimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds


    Fullekrug, Martin; Hanuise, C; Parrot, M


    Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds emit 100 kHz radio waves which illuminate the Earth's atmosphere and near-Earth space. This contribution aims to clarify the physical processes which are relevant for the spatial spreading of the radio wave energy below and above the ionosphere and thereby enables an experimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds. The simulation uses the DEMETER satellite which...

  18. Energetics of small electron acceleration episodes in the solar corona from radio noise storm observations (United States)

    James, Tomin; Subramanian, Prasad


    Observations of radio noise storms can act as sensitive probes of nonthermal electrons produced in small acceleration events in the solar corona. We use data from noise storm episodes observed jointly by the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) and the Nancay Radioheliograph (NRH) to study characteristics of the nonthermal electrons involved in the emission. We find that the electrons carry 1021 to 1024 erg/s, and that the energy contained in the electrons producing a representative noise storm burst ranges from 1020 to 1023 ergs. These results are a direct probe of the energetics involved in ubiquitous, small-scale electron acceleration episodes in the corona, and could be relevant to a nanoflare-like scenario for coronal heating.

  19. The NOD3 software package: A graphical user interface-supported reduction package for single-dish radio continuum and polarisation observations (United States)

    Müller, Peter; Krause, Marita; Beck, Rainer; Schmidt, Philip


    Context. The venerable NOD2 data reduction software package for single-dish radio continuum observations, which was developed for use at the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope, has been successfully applied over many decades. Modern computing facilities, however, call for a new design. Aims: We aim to develop an interactive software tool with a graphical user interface for the reduction of single-dish radio continuum maps. We make a special effort to reduce the distortions along the scanning direction (scanning effects) by combining maps scanned in orthogonal directions or dual- or multiple-horn observations that need to be processed in a restoration procedure. The package should also process polarisation data and offer the possibility to include special tasks written by the individual user. Methods: Based on the ideas of the NOD2 package we developed NOD3, which includes all necessary tasks from the raw maps to the final maps in total intensity and linear polarisation. Furthermore, plot routines and several methods for map analysis are available. The NOD3 package is written in Python, which allows the extension of the package via additional tasks. The required data format for the input maps is FITS. Results: The NOD3 package is a sophisticated tool to process and analyse maps from single-dish observations that are affected by scanning effects from clouds, receiver instabilities, or radio-frequency interference. The "basket-weaving" tool combines orthogonally scanned maps into a final map that is almost free of scanning effects. The new restoration tool for dual-beam observations reduces the noise by a factor of about two compared to the NOD2 version. Combining single-dish with interferometer data in the map plane ensures the full recovery of the total flux density. Conclusions: This software package is available under the open source license GPL for free use at other single-dish radio telescopes of the astronomical community. The NOD3 package is designed to be


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberoi, Divya; Matthews, Lynn D.; Lonsdale, Colin J.; Benkevitch, Leonid; Cairns, Iver H.; Lobzin, Vasili; Emrich, David; Wayth, Randall B.; Arcus, Wayne; Morgan, Edward H.; Williams, Christopher; Prabu, T.; Vedantham, Harish; Williams, Andrew; White, Stephen M.; Allen, G.; Barnes, David; Bernardi, Gianni; Bowman, Judd D.; Briggs, Frank H.


    We present the first spectroscopic images of solar radio transients from the prototype for the Murchison Widefield Array, observed on 2010 March 27. Our observations span the instantaneous frequency band 170.9- 201.6 MHz. Though our observing period is characterized as a period of 'low' to 'medium' activity, one broadband emission feature and numerous short-lived, narrowband, non-thermal emission features are evident. Our data represent a significant advance in low radio frequency solar imaging, enabling us to follow the spatial, spectral, and temporal evolution of events simultaneously and in unprecedented detail. The rich variety of features seen here reaffirms the coronal diagnostic capability of low radio frequency emission and provides an early glimpse of the nature of radio observations that will become available as the next generation of low-frequency radio interferometers come online over the next few years.

  1. The extreme blazar AO 0235+164 as seen by extensive ground and space radio observations (United States)

    Kutkin, A. M.; Pashchenko, I. N.; Lisakov, M. M.; Voytsik, P. A.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Lobanov, A. P.; Ipatov, A. V.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Gurvits, L. I.


    Clues to the physical conditions in radio cores of blazars come from measurements of brightness temperatures as well as effects produced by intrinsic opacity. We study the properties of the ultra-compact blazar AO 0235+164 with RadioAstron ground-space radio interferometer, multifrequency VLBA, EVN, and single-dish radio observations. We employ visibility modelling and image stacking for deriving structure and kinematics of the source, and use Gaussian process regression to find the relative multiband time delays of the flares. The multifrequency core size and time lags support prevailing synchrotron self-absorption. The intrinsic brightness temperature of the core derived from ground-based very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is close to the equipartition regime value. In the same time, there is evidence for ultra-compact features of the size of less than 10 μas in the source, which might be responsible for the extreme apparent brightness temperatures of up to 1014 K as measured by RadioAstron. In 2007-2016 the VLBI components in the source at 43 GHz are found predominantly in two directions, suggesting a bend of the outflow from southern to northern direction. The apparent opening angle of the jet seen in the stacked image at 43 GHz is two times wider than that at 15 GHz, indicating a collimation of the flow within the central 1.5 mas. We estimate the Lorentz factor Γ = 14, the Doppler factor δ = 21, and the viewing angle θ = 1.7° of the apparent jet base, derive the gradients of magnetic field strength and electron density in the outflow, and the distance between jet apex and the core at each frequency.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore, P.; Ramesh, R.; Hariharan, K.; Kathiravan, C. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 2nd Block, Koramangala, Bangalore—560034 (India); Gopalswamy, N., E-mail: [Code 671, Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    We report on low-frequency radio (85–35 MHz) spectral observations of four different type II radio bursts, which exhibited fundamental-harmonic emission and split-band structure. Each of the bursts was found to be closely associated with a whitelight coronal mass ejection (CME) close to the Sun. We estimated the coronal magnetic field strength from the split-band characteristics of the bursts, by assuming a model for the coronal electron density distribution. The choice of the model was constrained, based on the following criteria: (1) when the radio burst is observed simultaneously in the upper and lower bands of the fundamental component, the location of the plasma level corresponding to the frequency of the burst in the lower band should be consistent with the deprojected location of the leading edge (LE) of the associated CME; (2) the drift speed of the type II bursts derived from such a model should agree closely with the deprojected speed of the LE of the corresponding CMEs. With the above conditions, we find that: (1) the estimated field strengths are unique to each type II burst, and (2) the radial variation of the field strength in the different events indicate a pattern. It is steepest for the case where the heliocentric distance range over which the associated burst is observed is closest to the Sun, and vice versa.

  3. Optical Polarimetry and Radio Observations of PKS1510-089 between 2009 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. B. Beaklini


    Full Text Available The blazar PKS 1510-089 has shown intense activity at γ -rays in the recent years. In this work, we discussed the results of our 7 mm radio continuum and optical polarimetric monitoring between 2009 and 2013. In 2009, we detected a large rotation of the optical polarization angle that we attributed to the ejection of new polarized components. In 2011, after the occurrence of several γ -rays flares, the radio emission started to increase, reaching values never observed before. We interpreted this increase as the consequence of the superposition of several new components ejected during the γ -rays flares. A delay was measured between the maximum in the radio emission and the γ -ray flares, which favors models involving expanding components like the shock-in-jet models. Finally, we tried to understand the polarization angle variability behavior filling the gaps in our observations with published results of other polarimetric campaigns, and using the criterion of minimum variation in the polarization angle between successive observations to solve the 180° multiplicity.

  4. Analyzing the capability of a radio telescope in a bistatic space debris observation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhe; Zhao You; Gao Peng-Qi


    A bistatic space debris observation system using a radio telescope as the receiving part is introduced. The detection capability of the system at different working frequencies is analyzed based on real instruments. The detection range of targets with a fixed radar cross section and the detection ability of small space debris at a fixed range are discussed. The simulations of this particular observation system at different transmitting powers are also implemented and the detection capability is discussed. The simulated results approximately match the actual experiments. The analysis in this paper provides a theoretical basis for developing a space debris observation system that can be built in China

  5. Tracking Galaxy Evolution Through Low-Frequency Radio Continuum Observations using SKA and Citizen-Science Research using Multi-Wavelength Data (United States)

    Hota, Ananda; Konar, C.; Stalin, C. S.; Vaddi, Sravani; Mohanty, Pradeepta K.; Dabhade, Pratik; Dharmik Bhoga, Sai Arun; Rajoria, Megha; Sethi, Sagar


    We present a brief review of progress in the understanding of general spiral and elliptical galaxies, through merger, star formation and AGN activities. With reference to case studies performed with the GMRT, we highlight the unique aspects of studying galaxies in the radio wavelengths where powerful quasars and bright radio galaxies are traditionally the dominating subjects. Though AGN or quasar activity is extremely energetic, it is extremely short-lived. This justify focussing on transitional galaxies to find relic-evidences of the immediate past AGN-feedback which decide the future course of evolution of a galaxy. Relic radio lobes can be best detected in low frequency observations with the GMRT, LOFAR and in future SKA. The age of these relic radio plasma can be as old as a few hundred Myr. There is a huge gap between this and what is found in optical bands. The very first relic-evidences of a past quasar activity (Hanny's Voorwerp) was discovered in 2007 by a Galaxy Zoo citizen-scientist, a school teacher, in the optical bands. This relic is around a few tens of thousand years old. More discoveries needed to match these time-scales with star formation time-scales in AGN host galaxies to better understand black hole galaxy co-evolution process via feedback-driven quenching of star formation. It is now well-accepted that discovery and characterization of such faint fuzzy relic features can be more efficiently done by human eye than a machine. Radio interferometry images are more complicated than optical and need the citizen-scientists to be trained. RAD@home, the only Indian citizen-science research project in astronomy, analysing TIFR GMRT Sky Survey (TGSS) 150 MHz data and observing from the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT), was launched in April 2013. Unique, zero-infrastructure zero-funded design of RAD@home as a collaboratory of 69 trained e-astronomers is briefly described. Some of the new-found objects like episodic radio galaxies, radio-jet and


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    We present 2 and 20 cm observations with the VLA of 25 candidate peaked spectrum radio sources. These data combined with those from earlier surveys have allowed us to construct radio spectra spanning a range of frequency from 0.3 to 15 GHz. Ten of the 25 sources are found to be variable with no

  7. VEGAS: VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (United States)

    Bussa, Srikanth; VEGAS Development Team


    The National Science Foundation Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (NSF-ATI) program is funding a new spectrometer backend for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This spectrometer is being built by the CICADA collaboration - collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California Berkeley.The backend is named as VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) and will replace the capabilities of the existing spectrometers. This backend supports data processing from focal plane array systems. The spectrometer will be capable of processing up to 1.25 GHz bandwidth from 8 dual polarized beams or a bandwidth up to 10 GHz from a dual polarized beam.The spectrometer will be using 8-bit analog to digital converters (ADC), which gives a better dynamic range than existing GBT spectrometers. There will be 8 tunable digital sub-bands within the 1.25 GHz bandwidth, which will enhance the capability of simultaneous observation of multiple spectral transitions. The maximum spectral dump rate to disk will be about 0.5 msec. The vastly enhanced backend capabilities will support several science projects with the GBT. The projects include mapping temperature and density structure of molecular clouds; searches for organic molecules in the interstellar medium; determination of the fundamental constants of our evolving Universe; red-shifted spectral features from galaxies across cosmic time and survey for pulsars in the extreme gravitational environment of the Galactic Center.

  8. The Hartebeeshoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolson, G.D.


    This article briefly discusses the questions, problems and study fields of the modern astronomer. Radioastronomy has made important contributions to the study of the evolution of stars and has given much information on the birth of stars while at the other extreme, studies of neutron stars and the radio emission from the remnants of supernova explosions have given further insight into the death of individual stars. Radio astronomical studies have learned astronomers much about the structure of the Milky way and some twenty years ago, in a search for new radio galaxies, quasars were discovered. Radioastronomy research in South Africa is carried out at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

  9. Methods for the determination of lunisolar precession from observations of extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsmore, B.


    Although it is not practicable at present to determine the position or motion of the equinox using radio techniques, lunisolar precession may be determined from measurements at two epochs of differences of (i) Right Ascension -RA, and (ii) Declinations - Dec., of extragalactic radio sources. The determinations are largely free from systematic errors, and the magnitudes of random errors, arising principally from tropospheric irregularities, are given for observations with the Cambridge 5-km telescope. Some first epoch measure-ments have been made with this instrument and it is estimated that by carrying out second epoch measurements after an interval of 5 yr, the centennial value of lunisolar precession will be determined with a standard error of +- 0''.25. (author)


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobzin, Vasili V.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.; Steward, Graham; Patterson, Garth


    Major space weather events such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections are usually accompanied by solar radio bursts, which can potentially be used for real-time space weather forecasts. Type II radio bursts are produced near the local plasma frequency and its harmonic by fast electrons accelerated by a shock wave moving through the corona and solar wind with a typical speed of ∼1000 km s -1 . The coronal bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency gradually falling with time and durations of several minutes. This Letter presents a new method developed to detect type II coronal radio bursts automatically and describes its implementation in an extended Automated Radio Burst Identification System (ARBIS 2). Preliminary tests of the method with spectra obtained in 2002 show that the performance of the current implementation is quite high, ∼80%, while the probability of false positives is reasonably low, with one false positive per 100-200 hr for high solar activity and less than one false event per 10000 hr for low solar activity periods. The first automatically detected coronal type II radio burst is also presented.

  11. Astronomical Spectroscopy for Amateurs

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Ken M


    Astronomical Spectroscopy for Amateurs is a complete guide for amateur astronomers who are looking for a new challenge beyond astrophotography. The book provides a brief overview of the history and development of the spectroscope, then a short introduction to the theory of stellar spectra, including details on the necessary reference spectra required for instrument testing and spectral comparison. The various types of spectroscopes available to the amateur are then described. Later sections cover all aspects of setting up and using various types of commercially available and home-built spectroscopes, starting with basic transmission gratings and going through more complex models, all the way to the sophisticated Littrow design. The final part of the text is about practical spectroscope design and construction. This book uniquely brings together a collection of observing, analyzing, and processing hints and tips that will allow the amateur to build skills in preparing scientifically acceptable spectra data. It...

  12. MERLIN observations of steep-spectrum radio sources at 6 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akujor, C.E.; Zhang, F.J.; Fanti, C.


    We present high-resolution observations of steep-spectrum radio sources made with MERLIN at 5 GHz. Thirty-one objects, comprising 11 quasars and 20 galaxies, most of them being 'Compact Steep-Spectrum' sources (CSSs), have been mapped with resolutions from 80 to 150 mas. This completes the current series of observations of CSS sources made with MERLIN at 5 GHz. We find that the majority of the quasars have complex structures, while galaxies tend to have double or triple structures, consistent with other recent studies of CSSs. (author)

  13. Broadband spectral observation of a dMe star radio flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedel, M.; Benz, A.O.; Fuerst, E.; Simett, G.M.; Davis, R.J.


    A flare on the dMe star AD Leonis was simultaneously observed with the radio telescopes in Effelsberg, Jodrell Bank, and Arecibo using spectrometers at 1665, 166 and 1415 MHz with bandwidths of 25, 100 and 40 MHz respectively. The time coincidence confirms the stellar origin of the radiation. The flare emission was resolved into a multitude of broadband pulsations. The e-folding rise and decay times were of the order of the time resolution of the Effelsberg data (125 ms), or less. The circular polarization was ∼ 100%. Similar bursts, but 4 orders of magnitude less powerful, have been observed from the sun at lower frequencies

  14. The KUT meteor radar: An educational low cost meteor observation system by radio forward scattering (United States)

    Madkour, W.; Yamamoto, M.


    The Kochi University of Technology (KUT) meteor radar is an educational low cost observation system built at Kochi, Japan by successive graduate students since 2004. The system takes advantage of the continuous VHF- band beacon signal emitted from Fukui National College of Technology (FNCT) for scientific usage all over Japan by receiving the forward scattered signals. The system uses the classical forward scattering setup similar to the setup described by the international meteor organization (IMO), gradually developed from the most basic single antenna setup to the multi-site meteor path determination setup. The primary objective is to automate the observation of the meteor parameters continuously to provide amounts of data sufficient for statistical analysis. The developed software system automates the observation of the astronomical meteor parameters such as meteor direction, velocity and trajectory. Also, automated counting of meteor echoes and their durations are used to observe mesospheric ozone concentration by analyzing the duration distribution of different meteor showers. The meteor parameters observed and the methodology used for each are briefly summarized.

  15. Forecasting the Contribution of Polarized Extragalactic Radio Sources in CMB Observations (United States)

    Puglisi, G.; Galluzzi, V.; Bonavera, L.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Lapi, A.; Massardi, M.; Perrotta, F.; Baccigalupi, C.; Celotti, A.; Danese, L.


    We combine the latest data sets obtained with different surveys to study the frequency dependence of polarized emission coming from extragalactic radio sources (ERS). We consider data over a very wide frequency range starting from 1.4 GHz up to 217 GHz. This range is particularly interesting since it overlaps the frequencies of the current and forthcoming cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. Current data suggest that at high radio frequencies (ν ≥ 20 GHz) the fractional polarization of ERS does not depend on the total flux density. Conversely, recent data sets indicate a moderate increase of polarization fraction as a function of frequency, physically motivated by the fact that Faraday depolarization is expected to be less relevant at high radio frequencies. We compute ERS number counts using updated models based on recent data, and we forecast the contribution of unresolved ERS in CMB polarization spectra. Given the expected sensitivities and the observational patch sizes of forthcoming CMB experiments, about ∼200 (up to ∼2000) polarized ERS are expected to be detected. Finally, we assess that polarized ERS can contaminate the cosmological B-mode polarization if the tensor-to-scalar ratio is <0.05 and they have to be robustly controlled to de-lens CMB B-modes at the arcminute angular scales.

  16. Mass Determination of Pluto and Charon from New Horizon REX Radio Science Observations (United States)

    Paetzold, Martin; Andert, T. P.; Tyler, G.; Bird, M. K.; Hinson, D. P.; Linscott, I. R.


    The anticipated 14 July 2015 New Horizons fly-through of the Pluto system provides the first opportunity to determine both the total system mass and the individual masses of Pluto and Charon by direct observation. This will be accomplished by use of: i) two-way Doppler radio frequency tracking data during intervals along the fly-in and -out trajectory, and ii) one-way uplink Doppler frequency recorded by the on-board radio science instrument, REX, during the day of closest approaches to Pluto and Charon. Continuous tracking is not feasible as a result of pointing sharing with the instruments during the encounter phase. Needed radio tracking will be obtained during time slots shared with i) two-way Doppler tracking for navigation, ii) 'plasma rolls' with the spacecraft antenna pointing to Earth, and iii) during the ingress and egress phases of the occultations. Simulations of the NH encounter indicate the potential accuracies of the combined and individual mass determinations of Pluto and Charon in the order of 0.1%.

  17. Multifrequency radio observations of SNR J0536-6735 (N 59B with associated pulsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozzetto L.M.


    Full Text Available We present a study of new Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA observations of supernova remnant, SNR J0536-6735. This remnant appears to follow a shell morphology with a diameter of D=36x29 pc (with 1 pc uncertainty in each direction. There is an embedded HII region on the northern limb of the remnant which made various analysis and measurements (such as flux density, spectral index and polarisation difficult. The radio-continuum emission followed the same structure as the optical emission, allowing for extent and flux density estimates at 20 cm. We estimate the surface brightness at 1 GHz of 2.55x10−21 Wm−2 Hz−1 sr−1 for the SNR. Also, we detect a distinctive radio-continuum point source which confirms the previous suggestion of this remnant being associated with pulsar wind nebula (PWN. The tail of this remnant is not seen in the radio-continuum images and is only seen in the optical and X-ray images.

  18. Citizen Science Opportunity With the NASA Heliophysics Education Consortium (HEC)-Radio JOVE Project (United States)

    Fung, S. F.; Higgins, C.; Thieman, J.; Garcia, L. N.; Young, C. A.


    The Radio JOVE project has long been a hands-on inquiry-based educational project that allows students, teachers and the general public to learn and practice radio astronomy by building their own radio antenna and receiver system from an inexpensive kit that operates at 20.1 MHz and/or using remote radio telescopes through the Internet. Radio JOVE participants observe and analyze natural radio emissions from Jupiter and the Sun. Within the last few years, several Radio JOVE amateurs have upgraded their equipment to make semi-professional spectrographic observations in the frequency band of 15-30 MHz. Due to the widely distributed Radio JOVE observing stations across the US, the Radio JOVE observations can uniquely augment observations by professional telescopes, such as the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) . The Radio JOVE project has recently partnered with the NASA Heliophysics Education Consortium (HEC) to work with students and interested amateur radio astronomers to establish additional spectrograph and single-frequency Radio JOVE stations. These additional Radio JOVE stations will help build a larger amateur radio science network and increase the spatial coverage of long-wavelength radio observations across the US. Our presentation will describe the Radio JOVE project within the context of the HEC. We will discuss the potential for citizen scientists to make and use Radio JOVE observations to study solar radio bursts (particularly during the upcoming solar eclipse in August 2017) and Jovian radio emissions. Radio JOVE observations will also be used to study ionospheric radio scintillation, promoting appreciation and understanding of this important space weather effect.

  19. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne


    The recent years have seen breathtaking progress in technology, especially in the receiver and digital technologies relevant for radio astronomy, which has at the same time advanced to shorter wavelengths. This is the updated and completely revised 5th edition of the most used introductory text in radio astronomy. It presents a unified treatment of the entire field from centimeter to sub-millimeter wavelengths. Topics covered include instruments, sensitivity considerations, observational methods and interpretations of the data recorded with both single dishes and interferometers. This text is useful to both students and experienced practicing astronomers. Besides making major updates and additions throughout the book, the authors have re-organized a number of chapters to more clearly separate basic theory from rapidly evolving practical aspects. Further, problem sets have been added at the end of each chapter.

  20. Broadband radio spectro-polarimetric observations of high-Faraday-rotation-measure AGN (United States)

    Pasetto, Alice; Carrasco-González, Carlos; O'Sullivan, Shane; Basu, Aritra; Bruni, Gabriele; Kraus, Alex; Curiel, Salvador; Mack, Karl-Heinz


    We present broadband polarimetric observations of a sample of high-Faraday-rotation-measure (high-RM) active galactic nuclei (AGN) using the Karl. G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) telescope from 1 to 2 GHz, and 4 to 12 GHz. The sample (14 sources) consists of very compact sources (linear resolution smaller than ≈5 kpc) that are unpolarized at 1.4 GHz in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS). Total intensity data have been modeled using a combination of synchrotron components, revealing complex structure in their radio spectra. Depolarization modeling, through the so-called qu-fitting (the modeling of the fractional quantities of the Stokes Q and U parameters), has been performed on the polarized data using an equation that attempts to simplify the process of fitting many different depolarization models. These models can be divided into two major categories: external depolarization (ED) and internal depolarization (ID) models. Understanding which of the two mechanisms is the most representative would help the qualitative understanding of the AGN jet environment and whether it is embedded in a dense external magneto-ionic medium or if it is the jet-wind that causes the high RM and strong depolarization. This could help to probe the jet magnetic field geometry (e.g., helical or otherwise). This new high-sensitivity data shows a complicated behavior in the total intensity and polarization radio spectrum of individual sources. We observed the presence of several synchrotron components and Faraday components in their total intensity and polarized spectra. For the majority of our targets (12 sources), the depolarization seems to be caused by a turbulent magnetic field. Thus, our main selection criteria (lack of polarization at 1.4 GHz in the NVSS) result in a sample of sources with very large RMs and depolarization due to turbulent magnetic fields local to the source. These broadband JVLA data reveal the complexity of the polarization properties of this class of radio sources

  1. Astronomers Get New Tools for Gravitational-Wave Detection (United States)


    exclaimed. "Fermi showed us where to look." "This is a huge help in our effort to use millisecond pulsars to detect gravitational waves," Ransom said. The more such pulsars scientists can find and observe over time, the more likely they are to detect gravitational waves, he explained. He said that astronomers now have barely enough millisecond pulsars to make a convincing gravitational-wave detection. "With Fermi guiding the way, though, we can change that picture quickly," Ray said. "We've just started to follow up on the objects located by Fermi, and have many more to go, with a great success rate so far," he added. Ransom, along with his colleague Mallory Roberts of Eureka Scientific, used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to find eight of the 17 new pulsars. The scientists announced their discoveries at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. Pulsars are neutron stars -- the dense cores left after a massive star has exploded as a supernova. About as large as a medium-sized city, these neutron stars have strong magnetic fields that channel lighthouse-like beams of radio waves that sweep through space as the star rotates. When such a beam strikes the Earth, radio telescopes can detect the strong radio waves. As they age, pulsars slow their rotation rates. However, if the pulsar is part of a binary-star system and can draw in material from its companion, its rotation can be sped up. When the neutron star has been sped up to rotate hundreds of times a second, it is called a millisecond pulsar. In addition to helping scientists detect gravitational waves, study of millisecond pulars also can yield important new information about other effects of General Relativity and about fundamental particle physics. "This new ability to find many more millisecond pulsars really is a treasure chest that can yield many valuable gems of scientific discovery," Ransom said.

  2. From Radio with Love: An Overview of the Role of Radio Observations in Understanding High-Energy Emission from Active Galaxies (United States)

    Ojha, Roopesh


    The gamma-ray satellite Fermi and the ground based TeV facilities MAGIC, VERITAS and HESS have ushered in a new era in the observation of high-energy emission from active galaxies. The energy budgets of these objects have a major contribution from gamma-rays and it is simply not possible to understand their physics without high-energy observations. Though the exact mechanisms for high-energy production in galaxies remains an open question, gamma-rays typically result from interactions between high-energy particles. Via different interactions these same particles can produce radio emission. Thus the non-thermal nature of gamma-ray emission practically guarantees that high-energy emitters are also radio loud. Aside from their obvious role as a component of multiwavelength analysis, radio observations provide two crucial elements essential to understanding the source structure and physical processes of high-energy emitters: very high timing resolution and very high spatial resolution. A brief overview of the unique role played by radio observations in unraveling the mysteries of the high energy Universe as presented here.

  3. Constraints on the progenitor system and the environs of SN 2014J from deep radio observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Alberdi, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Glorieta de las Astronomía, s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Lundqvist, P.; Björnsson, C. I.; Fransson, C. [Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Beswick, R. J.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Argo, M. K. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Paragi, Z. [Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Ryder, S. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Marcaide, J. M.; Ros, E.; Guirado, J. C. [Departamento de Astronomía i Astrofísica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Martí-Vidal, I. [Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden)


    We report deep EVN and eMERLIN observations of the Type Ia SN 2014J in the nearby galaxy M82. Our observations represent, together with JVLA observations of SNe 2011fe and 2014J, the most sensitive radio studies of Type Ia SNe ever. By combining data and a proper modeling of the radio emission, we constrain the mass-loss rate from the progenitor system of SN 2014J to M-dot ≲7.0×10{sup −10} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} (for a wind speed of 100 km s{sup –1}). If the medium around the supernova is uniform, then n {sub ISM} ≲ 1.3 cm{sup –3}, which is the most stringent limit for the (uniform) density around a Type Ia SN. Our deep upper limits favor a double-degenerate (DD) scenario—involving two WD stars—for the progenitor system of SN 2014J, as such systems have less circumstellar gas than our upper limits. By contrast, most single-degenerate (SD) scenarios, i.e., the wide family of progenitor systems where a red giant, main-sequence, or sub-giant star donates mass to an exploding WD, are ruled out by our observations. (While completing our work, we noticed that a paper by Margutti et al. was submitted to The Astrophysical Journal. From a non-detection of X-ray emission from SN 2014J, the authors obtain limits of M-dot ≲1.2×10{sup −9} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (for a wind speed of 100 km s{sup –1}) and n {sub ISM} ≲ 3.5 cm{sup –3}, for the ρ∝r {sup –2} wind and constant density cases, respectively. As these limits are less constraining than ours, the findings by Margutti et al. do not alter our conclusions. The X-ray results are, however, important to rule out free-free and synchrotron self-absorption as a reason for the radio non-detections.) Our estimates on the limits on the gas density surrounding SN2011fe, using the flux density limits from Chomiuk et al., agree well with their results. Although we discuss the possibilities of an SD scenario passing observational tests, as well as uncertainties in the modeling of the radio emission, the

  4. Observations of inner plasmasphere irregularities with a satellite-beacon radio-interferometer array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.R.; Hoogeveen, G.; Carlos, R.C.; Wu, G.; Fejer, B.G.; Kelley, M.C.


    A radio-interferometer array illuminated by 136-MHz beacons of several geosynchronous satellites has been used to study small (≥10 13 m -2 ) transient disturbances in the total electron content along the lines of sight to the satellites. High-frequency (f>3 mHz) electron content oscillations are persistently observed, particularly during night and particularly during geomagnetically disturbed periods. The oscillations move across the array plane at speeds in the range 200 endash 2000 m/s, with propagation azimuths that are strongly peaked in lobes toward the western half-plane. Detailed analysis of this azimuth behavior, involving comparison between observations on various satellite positions, indicates compellingly that the phase oscillations originate in radio refraction due to geomagnetically aligned plasma density perturbations in the inner plasmasphere. The motion of the phase perturbations across the array plane is caused by EXB drift of the plasma medium in which the irregularities are embedded. We review the statistics of 2.5 years of around-the-clock data on the local time, magnetic disturbance, seasonal, and line-of-sight variations of these observed irregularities. We compare the irregularities close-quote inferred electrodynamic drifts to what is known about midlatitude plasma drift from incoherent scatter. Finally, we show in detail how the observation of these irregularities provides a unique and complementary monitor of inner plasmasphere irregularity incidence and zonal drift.copyright 1996 American Geophysical Union


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horesh, Assaf [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Hotokezaka, Kenta; Piran, Tsvi [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Nakar, Ehud [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Hancock, Paul [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth WA 6845 (Australia)


    Compact binary mergers may have already been observed as they are the leading model for short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs). Radioactive decay within the ejecta from these mergers is expected to produce an infrared flare, dubbed macronova (or kilonova), on a timescale of a week. Recently, two such macronova candidates were identified in followup observations of sGRBs, strengthening the possibility that those indeed arise from mergers. The same ejecta will also produce long-term (months to years) radio emission due to its interaction with the surrounding interstellar medium. In the search for this emission, we observed the two macronova candidates, GRB 130603B and GRB 060614, with the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). Our observations resulted in null-detections, putting strong upper limits on the kinetic energy and mass of the ejecta. A possible outcome of a merger is a highly magnetized neutron star (a magnetar), which has been suggested as the central engine for GRBs. Such a magnetar will deposit a significant fraction of its energy into the ejecta leading to a brighter radio flare. Our results, therefore, rule out magnetars in these two events.

  6. Two-Component Structure of the Radio Source 0014+813 from VLBI Observations within the CONT14 Program (United States)

    Titov, O. A.; Lopez, Yu. R.


    We consider a method of reconstructing the structure delay of extended radio sources without constructing their radio images. The residuals derived after the adjustment of geodetic VLBI observations are used for this purpose. We show that the simplest model of a radio source consisting of two point components can be represented by four parameters (the angular separation of the components, the mutual orientation relative to the poleward direction, the flux-density ratio, and the spectral index difference) that are determined for each baseline of a multi-baseline VLBI network. The efficiency of this approach is demonstrated by estimating the coordinates of the radio source 0014+813 observed during the two-week CONT14 program organized by the International VLBI Service (IVS) in May 2014. Large systematic deviations have been detected in the residuals of the observations for the radio source 0014+813. The averaged characteristics of the radio structure of 0014+813 at a frequency of 8.4 GHz can be calculated from these deviations. Our modeling using four parameters has confirmed that the source consists of two components at an angular separation of 0.5 mas in the north-south direction. Using the structure delay when adjusting the CONT14 observations leads to a correction of the average declination estimate for the radio source 0014+813 by 0.070 mas.

  7. Bayesian estimation for ionospheric calibration in radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Tol, S.


    Radio astronomical observations at low frequencies (< 250 MHz), can be severely distorted by fluctuations in electron density in the ionosphere. The free electrons cause a phase change of electromagnetic waves traveling through the ionosphere. This effect increases for lower frequencies. For this


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Tremblay, G. R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Harris, D. E.; O' Dea, C. P. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kharb, P.; Axon, D. [Department of Physics, Rochester Institute of Technology, Carlson Center for Imaging Science 76-3144, 84 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Balmaverde, B.; Capetti, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Baum, S. A. [Carlson Center for Imaging Science 76-3144, 84 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Chiaberge, M.; Macchetto, F. D.; Sparks, W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martine Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gilli, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Giovannini, G. [INAF-Istituto di Radioastronomia di Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Grandi, P.; Torresi, E. [INAF-IASF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e fisica Cosmica di Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Risaliti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)


    We report on the second round of Chandra observations of the 3C snapshot survey developed to observe the complete sample of 3C radio sources with z < 0.3 for 8 ks each. In the first paper, we illustrated the basic data reduction and analysis procedures performed for the 30 sources of the 3C sample observed during Chandra Cycle 9, while here we present the data for the remaining 27 sources observed during Cycle 12. We measured the X-ray intensity of the nuclei and of any radio hot spots and jet features with associated X-ray emission. X-ray fluxes in three energy bands, i.e., soft, medium, and hard, for all the sources analyzed are also reported. For the stronger nuclei, we also applied the standard spectral analysis, which provides the best-fit values of the X-ray spectral index and absorbing column density. In addition, a detailed analysis of bright X-ray nuclei that could be affected by pile-up has been performed. X-ray emission was detected for all the nuclei of the radio sources in our sample except for 3C 319. Among the current sample, there are two compact steep spectrum radio sources, two broad-line radio galaxies, and one wide angle tail radio galaxy, 3C 89, hosted in a cluster of galaxies clearly visible in our Chandra snapshot observation. In addition, we also detected soft X-ray emission arising from the galaxy cluster surrounding 3C 196.1. Finally, X-ray emission from hot spots has been found in three FR II radio sources and, in the case of 3C 459, we also report the detection of X-ray emission associated with the eastern radio lobe as well as X-ray emission cospatial with radio jets in 3C 29 and 3C 402.

  9. Adverse Influence of Radio Frequency Background on Trembling Aspen Seedlings: Preliminary Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Haggerty


    Full Text Available Numerous incidents of aspen decline have been recorded in North America over the past half century, and incidents of very rapid mortality of aspen clones have been observed in Colorado since 2004. The radio frequency (RF environment of the earth has undergone major changes in the past two centuries due to the development and use of electricity in power and communications applications, and the anthropogenic RF background continues to increase in intensity and complexity. This study suggests that the RF background may have strong adverse effects on growth rate and fall anthocyanin production in aspen, and may be an underlying factor in aspen decline.

  10. Spatial irregularities in Jupiter's upper ionosphere observed by Voyager radio occultations (United States)

    Hinson, D. P.; Tyler, G. L.


    Radio scintillations (at 3.6 and 13 cm) produced by scattering from ionospheric irregularities during the Voyager occultations are interpreted using a weak-scattering theory. Least squares solutions for ionospheric parameters derived from the observed fluctuation spectra yield estimates of (1) the axial ratio, (2) angular orientation of the anisotropic irregularities, (3) the power law exponent of the spatial spectrum of irregularities, and (4) the magnitude of the spatial variations in electron density. It is shown that the measured angular orientation of the anisotropic irregularities indicates magnetic field direction and may provide a basis for refining Jovian magnetic field models.

  11. Spatial irregularities in Jupiter's upper ionosphere observed by voyager radio occultations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson, D.P.; Tyler, G.L.


    Dual frequency radio occultation experiments carried out with Voyagers 1 and 2 provided data on the spatial irregularities in Jupiter's ionosphere at four different locations. Sample spectra of weak fluctuations in amplitude and phase of the 3.6-cm and 13-cm wavelength radio signals can be interpreted by using the theory for scattering from an anisotropic power law phase screen. Least squares solutions for ionospheric parameters derived from the observed fluctuation spectra yielded estimates of (1) the axial ratio, (2) angular orientation of the anisotropic irregularities, (3) the power law exponent of the spatial spectrum of irregularities, and (4) the magnitude of the spatial variations in electron density. Equipment limitations and the method of analysis constrain the observations to irregularities of approximate size 1--200 km. No evidence of the inner or outer scale of the irregularities was found. For length scales in the range given, the three-dimensional spatial spectrum obeys a power law with exponent varying from -3.0 to -3.7, and the root mean square fractional variations in electron density are 1--15%. All observed irregularities appear to be anisotropic with axial ratios between 2:1 and 10:1. Ionospheric parameters vary with altitude and latitude. We conclude that the measured angular orientation of the anisotropic irregularities indicates magnetic field direction and may provide a basis for refining Jovian magnetic field models.

  12. Observing the Future: Simulating Next-Generation Radio Telescopes with MeqTrees (United States)

    Willis, A. G.


    Future radio telescopes such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) present us with a number of unprecedented challenges. To select a design that will be able to achieve the SKA requirements, we need good models of the instrument and the observed sky. This makes detailed SKA simulations a vital part of any design effort. The Measurement Equation (ME) that grew out of aips++ development provides a succinct mathematical framework in which a radio telescope and the observed sky may be described. The MeqTrees software package, originally developed at ASTRON for the purpose of calibrating the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR), provides a flexible software system for implementing MEs of arbitrary structure and complexity, and for solving for arbitrary subsets of their parameters. This poster will examine how the ME and MeqTrees can be applied to SKA simulations. In particular we simulate an SKA pathfinder consisting of small dishes with phased-array focal-plane arrays mounted at the primary focus, and show some of the instrumental effects expected and their impact on observations.

  13. Fast solar electrons, interplanetary plasma and km-wave type-III radio bursts observed from the IMP-6 spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, H.; Lin, R.P.


    IMP-6 spacecraft observations of low frequency radio emission, fast electrons, and solar wind plasma are used to examine the dynamics of the fast electron streams which generate solar type-III radio bursts. Of twenty solar electron events observed between April 1971 and August 1972, four were found to be amenable to detailed analysis. Observations of the direction of arrival of the radio emission at different frequencies were combined with the solar wind density and velocity measurements at 1 AU to define an Archimedean spiral trajectory for the radio burst exciter. The propagation characteristics of the exciter and of the fast electrons observed at 1 AU were then compared. It is found that: (1) the fast electrons excite the radio emission at the second harmonic; (2) the total distance travelled by the electrons was between 30 and 70% longer than the length of the smooth spiral defined by the radio observations; (3) this additional distance travelled is the result of scattering of the electrons in the interplanetary medium; (4) the observations are consistent with negligible true energy loss by the fast electrons.(Auth.)

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radio observations of Galactic WISE HII regions (Anderson+, 2015) (United States)

    Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Johnstone, B. M.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, D. S.; Wenger, T. V.; Cunningham, V.


    We draw our targets from the MIR objects in the WISE catalog of Anderson+, 2014, J/ApJS/212/1. We also include in our sample Sharpless H II regions (Sharpless 1959, VII/20). See section 2 for further details. Our observations were made with the GBT 100m telescope from 2012 July through 2014 August. There are seven radio recombination lines (RRLs) that can be cleanly observed simultaneously with the GBT in the X-band: H87α to H93α. We average these seven RRLs (each at two orthogonal polarizations) to create a single average RRL spectrum. We followed the same GBT observational procedure as in the original HRDS (Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS; Bania et al. 2010ApJ...718L.106B). (3 data files).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G. B.; Stovall, K.; McCrackan, M.; Dowell, J.; Schinzel, F. K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM, 87131 (United States); McLaughlin, M. A.; Miller, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6315 (United States); Karako-Argaman, C. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)


    Rotating radio transients (RRATs) are a subclass of pulsars first identified in 2006 that are detected only in searches for single pulses and not through their time averaged emission. Here, we present the results of observations of 19 RRATs using the first station of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1) at frequencies between 30 and 88 MHz. The RRATs observed here were first detected in higher frequency pulsar surveys. Of the 19 RRATs observed, two sources were detected and their dispersion measures, periods, pulse profiles, and flux densities are reported and compared to previous higher frequency measurements. We find a low detection rate (11%), which could be a combination of the lower sensitivity of LWA1 compared to higher frequency telescopes, and the result of scattering by the interstellar medium or a spectral turnover.

  16. Development of a radio-detection array for the observation of UHE neutrino-induced showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardouin, Daniel [SUBATECH, IN2P3-CNRS, University of Nantes, E. Mines Nantes, Nantes (France)], E-mail:; Charrier, Didier; Lautridou, Pascal [SUBATECH, IN2P3-CNRS, University of Nantes, E. Mines Nantes, Nantes (France); Martineau-Huynh, Olivier [LPNHE, IN2P3-CNRS, University of Paris VI, Paris (France); Ravel, Olivier [SUBATECH, IN2P3-CNRS, University of Nantes, E. Mines Nantes, Nantes (France); Wu Xiangping; Zhao Meng [NAOC, Beijing (China)


    The recent demonstration by the CODALEMA collaboration of the ability of the radio-detection technique for the characterization of ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays (UHECR) calls for the use of this powerful method for the observation of UHE neutrinos. For this purpose, an adaptation of the already existing 21CM-Array (CMA) in China, is presently under achievement. In an exceptionally low electromagnetic noise level, 10160 log-periodic 50-200 MHz antennas sit along two high-altitude valleys, surrounded by mountain chains. This layout results in 30-60 km effective rock thicknesses for {nu} interactions with low incidence trajectories along the direction of two 4-6 km baselines. We will present first in-situ radio measurements demonstrating that this environment shows particularly favourable physical conditions for the observation of electromagnetic decay signals of {tau}'s leptons originating from the interaction of 10{sup 17-20} eV {nu}{sub {tau}} neutrinos.

  17. Development of a radio-detection array for the observation of UHE neutrino induced showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardouin, D.; Charrier, D.; Lautridou, P.; Ravel, O. [Nantes Univ., E.Mines, SUBATECH, IN2P3-CNRS, 44 (France); Martineau-Huynh, O. [Paris-6 Univ., LPNHE, IN2P3-CNRS, 75 (France). Lab. de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Energies; Xiang-Ping, Wu; Meng, Zhao [NAOC, Beijing (China)


    The recent demonstration by the CODALEMA Collaboration of the ability of the radio-detection technique for the characterization of ultra-high energy cosmic-rays (UHECR) calls for the use of this powerful method for the observation of UHE neutrinos. For this purpose, an adaptation of the already existing 21CM-Array in China, is presently under achievement. In an exceptionally low electromagnetic noise level, 10160 log-periodic 50-200 MHz antennas sit along two high altitude valleys, surrounded by mountain chains. This lay-out results in 30-60 km effective rock thicknesses for {nu} interactions with low incidence trajectories along the direction of two 4-6 km baselines. We will present first in-situ radio measurements demonstrating that this environment shows particularly favourable physical conditions for the observation of electromagnetic decay signals of {tau}'s leptons originating from the interaction of 10{sup 17-20} eV {nu}{sub {tau}} neutrinos. (authors)


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäkelä, P.; Reiner, M. J.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Krupar, V.


    We report on our study of radio source regions during the type II radio burst on 2013 May 22 based on direction-finding analysis of the Wind /WAVES and STEREO /WAVES (SWAVES) radio observations at decameter–hectometric wavelengths. The type II emission showed an enhancement that coincided with the interaction of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) launched in sequence along closely spaced trajectories. The triangulation of the SWAVES source directions posited the ecliptic projections of the radio sources near the line connecting the Sun and the STEREO-A spacecraft. The WAVES and SWAVES source directions revealed shifts in the latitude of the radio source, indicating that the spatial location of the dominant source of the type II emission varies during the CME–CME interaction. The WAVES source directions close to 1 MHz frequencies matched the location of the leading edge of the primary CME seen in the images of the LASCO/C3 coronagraph. This correspondence of spatial locations at both wavelengths confirms that the CME–CME interaction region is the source of the type II enhancement. Comparison of radio and white-light observations also showed that at lower frequencies scattering significantly affects radio wave propagation.

  19. Local Group dSph radio survey with ATCA (I): observations and background sources (United States)

    Regis, Marco; Richter, Laura; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Massardi, Marcella; de Blok, W. J. G.; Profumo, Stefano; Orford, Nicola


    Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are key objects in near-field cosmology, especially in connection to the study of galaxy formation and evolution at small scales. In addition, dSphs are optimal targets to investigate the nature of dark matter. However, while we begin to have deep optical photometric observations of the stellar population in these objects, little is known so far about their diffuse emission at any observing frequency, and hence on thermal and non-thermal plasma possibly residing within dSphs. In this paper, we present deep radio observations of six local dSphs performed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 16 cm wavelength. We mosaicked a region of radius of about 1 deg around three `classical' dSphs, Carina, Fornax, and Sculptor, and of about half of degree around three `ultrafaint' dSphs, BootesII, Segue2, and Hercules. The rms noise level is below 0.05 mJy for all the maps. The restoring beams full width at half-maximum ranged from 4.2 arcsec × 2.5 arcsec to 30.0 arcsec × 2.1 arcsec in the most elongated case. A catalogue including the 1392 sources detected in the six dSph fields is reported. The main properties of the background sources are discussed, with positions and fluxes of brightest objects compared with the FIRST, NVSS, and SUMSS observations of the same fields. The observed population of radio emitters in these fields is dominated by synchrotron sources. We compute the associated source number counts at 2 GHz down to fluxes of 0.25 mJy, which prove to be in agreement with AGN count models.

  20. Astronomical Instruments in India (United States)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  1. Multiwavelength observations of Active Galactic Nuclei from the radio to the hard X-rays (United States)

    Beuchert, Tobias


    Active Galaxies form a peculiar type of galaxies. Their cores, the so-called "Active Galactic Nuclei" (AGN), are the most persistent luminous objects in the universe. Accretion of several solar masses per year onto black holes of Millions to Billions of solar masses drive the immense energy output of these systems, which can exceed that of the entire galaxy. The compact energy source, however, only measures about one over a Billion times that of the entire galaxy. Subject of my thesis are observations of the two main channels of energy release of selected AGN systems, both of which are encompassed by profound and yet unanswered questions. These channels are on the one hand the pronounced X-ray emission of the hot and compact accreting environment in close vicinity of the black hole, and on the other hand the radio synchrotron emission of magnetically collimated jets that are fed by portions of the accreted matter. These jets also function as effective accelerators and drive the injected matter deep into the intergalactic medium. As the circumnuclear environment of AGN is too compact to be spatially resolved in the X-rays, I show how X-ray spectroscopy can be used to: (1) understand the effects of strong gravity to trace the geometry and physics of the X-ray source and (2) more consistently quantify matter that surrounds and dynamically absorbs our direct line of sight towards the X-ray source. Second, I unveil the valuable information contained in the polarized radio light being emitted from magnetized jet outflows. In contrast to the X-ray emitting region, I am able to spatially resolve the inner parts of the jet of a prominent galaxy with help of the Very Long Baseline Array, a large network of radio telescopes. The resulting polarization maps turn out to be exceptionally promising in answering fundamental questions related to jet physics.

  2. Simultaneous EUV and radio observations of bidirectional plasmoids ejection during magnetic reconnection (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Cho, Kyung-Suk


    We present a multiwavelength study of the X-class flare, which occurred in active region (AR) NOAA 11339 on 3 November 2011. The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images recorded by SDO/AIA show the activation of a remote filament (located north of the AR) with footpoint brightenings about 50 min prior to the flare's occurrence. The kinked filament rises up slowly, and after reaching a projected height of ~49 Mm, it bends and falls freely near the AR, where the X-class flare was triggered. Dynamic radio spectrum from the Green Bank Solar Radio Burst Spectrometer (GBSRBS) shows simultaneous detection of both positive and negative drifting pulsating structures (DPSs) in the decimetric radio frequencies (500-1200 MHz) during the impulsive phase of the flare. The global negative DPSs in solar flares are generally interpreted as a signature of electron acceleration related to the upward-moving plasmoids in the solar corona. The EUV images from AIA 94 Å reveal the ejection of multiple plasmoids, which move simultaneously upward and downward in the corona during the magnetic reconnection. The estimated speeds of the upward- and downward-moving plasmoids are ~152-362 and ~83-254 km s-1, respectively. These observations strongly support the recent numerical simulations of the formation and interaction of multiple plasmoids due to tearing of the current-sheet structure. On the basis of our analysis, we suggest that the simultaneous detection of both the negative and positive DPSs is most likely generated by the interaction or coalescence of the multiple plasmoids moving upward and downward along the current-sheet structure during the magnetic reconnection process. Moreover, the differential emission measure (DEM) analysis of the active region reveals a hot flux-rope structure (visible in AIA 131 and 94 Å) prior to the flare initiation and ejection of the multitemperature plasmoids during the flare impulsive phase. Movie is available in electronic form at

  3. Radio-emission of pre-main sequence stars of the Rho Ophiuchi cloud: observations and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, P.


    Observations of the radio continuum emission of a young star population have been made at VLA on the whole molecular cloud Rho Ophiuchi, one of the closest site of star formation. A dozen of stellar sources have been detected. Radio emission of some identified objects seems to have a magnetic nature and be produced by gyrosynchrotron mechanism. In particular, one of the sources shows a radio radiation circularly polarized; two other stars have a radiation strongly variable probably due to magnetic eruptions more important than those detected in X radiation. More generally, radio observations select probably a specific population of young stars characterized by magnetic field presence extended on several stellar radii and by absence of dense circumstellar environment. Spatial distribution of these objects suggest, they are younger than most of the pre-main sequence stars [fr

  4. Astronomers Discover Six-Image Gravitational Lens (United States)


    -Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). "When we understand this system, we will have a much clearer picture of how galaxies are changed by being part of a bigger cluster of galaxies," he added. B1359+154 was discovered in 1999 by the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey, an international collaboration of astronomers who use radio telescopes to search the sky for gravitational lenses. Images made by the NSF's Very Large Array in New Mexico and by Britain's MERLIN radio telescope showed six objects suspected of being gravitational-lens images, but the results were inconclusive. Rusin and his team used the VLBA and HST in 1999 and 2000 to make more-detailed studies of B1359+154. The combination of data from the VLBA and HST convinced the astronomers that B1359+154 actually consists of six lensed images of a single background galaxy. The VLBA images were made from data collected during observations at a radio frequency of 1.7 GHz. "This is a great example of modern, multi-wavelength astronomy," said Rusin. "We need the radio telescopes to detect the gravitational lenses in the first place, then we need the visible-light information from Hubble to show us additional detail about the structure of the system." Armed with the combined VLBA and HST data about the positions and brightnesses of the six images of the background galaxy as well as the positions of the three intermediate galaxies, the astronomers did computer simulations to show how the gravitation of the three galaxies could produce the lens effect. They were able to design a computer model of the system that, in fact, produces the six images seen in B1359+154. "Our computer model certainly is not perfect, and we need to do more observations of this system to refine it, but we have clearly demonstrated that the three galaxies we see can produce a six-image lens system," said Martin Norbury, a graduate student at Jodrell Bank Observatory in Britain. "We think this work will give us an excellent tool for studying much-denser clusters of

  5. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies (United States)


    Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became

  6. Polarimetry of 600 pulsars from observations at 1.4 GHz with the Parkes radio telescope (United States)

    Johnston, Simon; Kerr, Matthew


    Over the past 13 yr, the Parkes radio telescope has observed a large number of pulsars using digital filter bank backends with high time and frequency resolution and the capability for Stokes recording. Here, we use archival data to present polarimetry data at an observing frequency of 1.4 GHz for 600 pulsars with spin-periods ranging from 0.036 to 8.5 s. We comment briefly on some of the statistical implications from the data and highlight the differences between pulsars with high and low spin-down energy. The data set, images and table of properties for all 600 pulsars are made available in a public data archive maintained by the CSIRO.

  7. 3 mm GMVA Observations of Total and Polarized Emission from Blazar and Radio Galaxy Core Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Casadio


    Full Text Available We present total and linearly polarized 3 mm Global mm-VLBI Array (GMVA; mm-VLBI: Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations at millimetre wavelengths images of a sample of blazars and radio galaxies from the VLBA-BU-BLAZAR 7 mm monitoring program designed to probe the innermost regions of active galactic nuclei (AGN jets and locate the sites of gamma-ray emission observed by the Fermi-LAT. The lower opacity at 3 mm and improved angular resolution—on the order of 50 microarcseconds—allow us to distinguish features in the jet not visible in the 7 mm VLBA data. We also compare two different methods used for the calibration of instrumental polarisation and we analyze the resulting images for some of the sources in the sample.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasikumar Raja, K.; Ramesh, R., E-mail: [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India)


    We report low-frequency observations of quasi-periodic, circularly polarized, harmonic type III radio bursts whose associated sunspot active regions were located close to the solar limb. The measured periodicity of the bursts at 80 MHz was ≈5.2 s, and their average degree of circular polarization (dcp) was ≈0.12. We calculated the associated magnetic field B (1) using the empirical relationship between the dcp and B for the harmonic type III emission, and (2) from the observed quasi-periodicity of the bursts. Both the methods result in B ≈ 4.2 G at the location of the 80 MHz plasma level (radial distance r ≈ 1.3 R{sub ☉}) in the active region corona.

  9. Statistical Analysis of Langmuir Waves Associated with Type III Radio Bursts: I. Wind Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojević S.


    Full Text Available Interplanetary electron beams are unstable in the solar wind and they generate Langmuir waves at the local plasma frequency or its harmonic. Radio observations of the waves in the range 4-256 kHz, observed in 1994-2010 with the WAVES experiment onboard the WIND spacecraft, are statistically analyzed. A subset of 36 events with Langmuir waves and type III bursts occurring at the same time was selected. After removal of the background, the remaining power spectral density is modeled by the Pearson system of probability distributions (types I, IV and VI. The Stochastic Growth Theory (SGT predicts log-normal distribution for the power spectrum density of the Langmuir waves. Our results indicate that SGT possibly requires further verification.

  10. First Joint Observations of Radio Aurora by the VHF and HF Radars of the ISTP SB RAS (United States)

    Berngardt, O. I.; Lebedev, V. P.; Kutelev, K. A.; Kushnarev, D. S.; Grkovich, K. V.


    Two modern radars for diagnosis of the ionosphere by the radio-wave backscattering method, namely, the Irkutsk incoherent scatter radar at VHF (IISR, 154-162 MHz) and the Ekaterinburg coherent radar at HF (EKB, 8-20 MHz) are operated at the Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISTP SB RAS). The paper analyzes the results of joint observations of strong scattering (radio aurora) on June 8, 2015. To determine the geographical position of the radio aurora, we developed original methods that take into account both the features of the radio-wave propagation and the features of the radar antenna systems. It is shown that there are areas where the spatial position of the HF and VHF radio aurora can coincide. This permits using the radars as a single complex for diagnosis of the characteristics of small-scale high-latitude irregularities in the ionospheric E and F layers. A comparative analysis of the characteristics and temporal dynamics of the radio-aurora region in the HF and VHF ranges is performed. Using the DMSP satellite data, it has been shown that the radio aurora dynamics during this experiment with the EKB radar can be related with the spatial dynamics of the localized area with high electric field, which moves from high to equatorial latitudes. It is found that due to the broader field of view, radio aurora at the HF radar was stably observed 6-12 min earlier than at the VHF radar. This permits using the EKB radar data for prediction of the radio-aurora detection by the IISR radar.

  11. Old Star's "Rebirth" Gives Astronomers Surprises (United States)


    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope are taking advantage of a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to watch an old star suddenly stir back into new activity after coming to the end of its normal life. Their surprising results have forced them to change their ideas of how such an old, white dwarf star can re-ignite its nuclear furnace for one final blast of energy. Sakurai's Object Radio/Optical Images of Sakurai's Object: Color image shows nebula ejected thousands of years ago. Contours indicate radio emission. Inset is Hubble Space Telescope image, with contours indicating radio emission; this inset shows just the central part of the region. CREDIT: Hajduk et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF, ESO, StSci, NASA Computer simulations had predicted a series of events that would follow such a re-ignition of fusion reactions, but the star didn't follow the script -- events moved 100 times more quickly than the simulations predicted. "We've now produced a new theoretical model of how this process works, and the VLA observations have provided the first evidence supporting our new model," said Albert Zijlstra, of the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. Zijlstra and his colleagues presented their findings in the April 8 issue of the journal Science. The astronomers studied a star known as V4334 Sgr, in the constellation Sagittarius. It is better known as "Sakurai's Object," after Japanese amateur astronomer Yukio Sakurai, who discovered it on February 20, 1996, when it suddenly burst into new brightness. At first, astronomers thought the outburst was a common nova explosion, but further study showed that Sakurai's Object was anything but common. The star is an old white dwarf that had run out of hydrogen fuel for nuclear fusion reactions in its core. Astronomers believe that some such stars can undergo a final burst of fusion in a shell of helium that surrounds a core of heavier nuclei such as carbon and oxygen. However, the

  12. Choosing and using astronomical eyepieces

    CERN Document Server

    Paolini, William


    This valuable reference fills a number of needs in the field of astronomical eyepieces, including that of a buyer's guide, observer's field guide and technical desk reference. It documents the past market for eyepieces and its evolution right up to the present day. In addition to appealing to practical astronomers - and potentially saving them money - it is useful both as a historical reference and as a detailed review of the current market place for this bustling astronomical consumer product. What distinguishes this book from other publications on astronomy is the involvement of observers from all aspects of the astronomical community, and also the major manufacturers of equipment. It not only catalogs the technical aspects of the many modern eyepieces but also documents amateur observer reactions and impressions of their utility over the years, using many different eyepieces. Eyepieces are the most talked-about accessories and collectible items available to the amateur astronomer. No other item of equi...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Zhen; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Ya-Jun; Zhao, Rong-Bing; Fan, Qing-Yuan; Hong, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Dong-Rong; Li, Bin; Liang, Shi-Guang; Ling, Quan-Bao; Liu, Qing-Hui; Qian, Zhi-Han; Zhang, Xiu-Zhong; Zhong, Wei-Ye; Ye, Shu-Hua [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Wu, Xin-Ji [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Manchester, R. N. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Weltevrede, P. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Yuan, Jian-Ping [Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Lee, Ke-Jia, E-mail: [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)


    In this paper, we report radio observations of the Galactic Center magnetar PSR J1745–2900 at six epochs between 2014 June and October. These observations were carried out using the new Shanghai Tian Ma Radio Telescope at a frequency of 8.6 GHz. Both the flux density and integrated profile of PSR J1745–2900 show dramatic changes from epoch to epoch, showing that the pulsar was in its “erratic” phase. On MJD 56836, the flux density of this magnetar was about 8.7 mJy, which was 10 times larger than that reported at the time of discovery, enabling a single-pulse analysis. The emission is dominated by narrow “spiky” pulses that follow a log-normal distribution in peak flux density. From 1913 pulses, we detected 53 pulses whose peak flux densities are 10 times greater than that of the integrated profile. They are concentrated in pulse phase at the peaks of the integrated profile. The pulse widths at the 50% level of these bright pulses were between 0.°2 and 0.°9, much narrower than that of the integrated profile (∼12°). The observed pulse widths may be limited by interstellar scattering. No clear correlation was found between the widths and peak flux density of these pulses and no evidence was found for subpulse drifting. Relatively strong spiky pulses are also detected in the other five epochs of observation, showing the same properties as those detected in MJD 56836. These strong spiky pulses cannot be classified as “giant” pulses but are more closely related to normal pulse emission.

  14. Observations of active galactic nuclei from radio to gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, Moritz


    In this work, Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) - the brightest persistent objects in the universe - are discussed. According to current knowledge they consist out of several components. The central object of such systems is a supermassive black hole located in the center of a galaxy. Estimated masses of such black holes range from millions to billions of solar masses. The enormous gravitational field of the black hole affects material in its surrounding. Matter, such as gas, dust particles or stellar wind virtually provides the fuel for the AGN. The accretion process is highly efficient and partly explains the extreme luminosities of Active Galactic Nuclei. The thermal emission of the accretion disk is, however, insufficient for explaining the total emission of AGN. Observations show that some of these objects are visible throughout the complete electromagnetic spectrum. The emission in the radio regime as well as, most likely, high-energy emission seem to originate from jets. Unlike material accreted by the black hole, jets are collimated outflows with velocities near the speed of light. AGN are not completely understood. There are numerous open questions remaining, such as the exact accretion geometry, the formation and composition of the relativistic jets, the interaction between different components of these systems, as well as the place of origin and the underlying physical processes of the emission in different energy ranges. In order to address these questions a multiwavelength analysis of AGN has been performed in this work. The different energy regimes and observational techniques allow for insights into different processes and properties of such objects. A study of the connection between the accretion disk and properties of the jet has been done based on the object NGC 1052 using radio and X-ray observations. This object is a galaxy with an active nucleus. In the radio regime a double-sided jet with a projected length of several kpc is visible. In addition


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Subhashis


    We have observed the Galactic center (GC) region at 0.154 and 0.255 GHz with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. A total of 62 compact likely extragalactic (EG) sources are detected. Their scattering sizes decrease linearly with increasing angular distance from the GC up to about 1°. The apparent scattering sizes of the sources are more than an order of magnitude less than predicted earlier by the NE2001 model of Galactic electron distribution within 359.°5 e is ∼10 cm –3 , which matches the NE2001 model. This model predicts the EG sources to be resolved out from 1.4 GHz interferometric surveys. However, out of 10 EG sources expected in the region, 8 likely EG are present in the 1.4 GHz catalog. Ionized interfaces of dense molecular clouds to the ambient medium are most likely responsible for strong scattering and low radio frequency absorption. However, dense GC clouds traced by CS J = 1-0 emission are found to have a narrow distribution of ∼0.°2 across the Galactic plane. Angular distribution of most EG sources seen through the so-called Hyperstrong Scattering Region are random in b, and typically ∼7 out of 10 sources will not be seen through the dense molecular clouds, which explains why most of them are not scatter broadened at 1.4 GHz

  16. Choosing and using astronomical filters

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin


    As a casual read through any of the major amateur astronomical magazines will demonstrate, there are filters available for all aspects of optical astronomy. This book provides a ready resource on the use of the following filters, among others, for observational astronomy or for imaging: Light pollution filters Planetary filters Solar filters Neutral density filters for Moon observation Deep-sky filters, for such objects as galaxies, nebulae and more Deep-sky objects can be imaged in much greater detail than was possible many years ago. Amateur astronomers can take

  17. Photographic Observations of Solar System Bodies at the Main Astronomical Observatory of NAS of Ukraine: Final Results (United States)

    Golovnia, V.; Yizhakevych, O.; Shatokhina, S.; Andruk, V.

    Astrometric photographic observations of Solar system bodies in the frame of different programs were made at MAO NAN of Ukraine during 1950-2005. 9245 plates with the images of planets and their natural satellite, Moon, minor planets, comets and artificial satellites were obtained and processed in the late 20th century. At the beginning of the 21st century, the UkrVO Joint Digital Archive (JDA) was created, which is accessible at the MAO NAS resources ( To digitize the plate archive for the JDA database, flat bed scanners were used and the software was specially de-veloped on the basis of the LINUX/MIDAS/ROMAFOT software for the processing of wide-field images, as well as searching for the images of minor planets and comets on the Northern sky survey program plates. Up to the present time, the photographic plates with images of outer planets and their satellites have been re-processed. The final result of the long-lasting program of the photographic positional observations of Solar system bodies are summarized and presented in this publication.

  18. On astronomical drawing [1846 (United States)

    Smyth, Charles Piazzi

    Reprinted from the Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society 15, 1846, pp. 71-82. With annotations and illustrations added by Klaus Hentschel. The activities of the Astronomer Royal for Scotland, Charles Piazzi Smyth (1819-1900), include the triangulation of South African districts, landscape painting, day-to-day or tourist sketching, the engraving and lithographing of prominent architectural sites, the documentary photography of the Egyptian pyramids or the Tenerife Dragon tree, and `instant photographs' of the clouds above his retirement home in Clova, Ripon. His colorful records of the aurora polaris, and solar and terrestrial spectra all profited from his trained eye and his subtle mastery of the pen and the brush. As his paper on astronomical drawing, which we chose to reproduce in this volume, amply demonstrates, he was conversant in most of the print technology repertoire that the 19th century had to offer, and carefully selected the one most appropriate to each sujet. For instance, he chose mezzotint for the plates illustrating Maclear's observations of Halley's comet in 1835/36, so as to achieve a ``rich profundity of shadows, the deep obscurity of which is admirably adapted to reproduce those fine effects of chiaroscuro frequently found in works where the quantity of dark greatly predominates.'' The same expertise with which he tried to emulate Rembrandt's chiaroscuro effects he applied to assessing William and John Herschel's illustrations of nebulae, which appeared in print between 1811 and 1834. William Herschel's positive engraving, made partly by stippling and partly by a coarse mezzotint, receives sharp admonishment because of the visible ruled crossed lines in the background and the fact that ``the objects, which are also generally too light, [have] a much better definition than they really possess.'' On the other hand, John Herschel's illustration of nebulae and star clusters, given in negative, ``in which the lights are the darkest part of the

  19. Radio continuum observations of the quasar-galaxy pair 3C 232-NGC 3067

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxthausen, E.; Carilli, C.; Vangorkom, J.H.


    The quasar-galaxy pair 3C 232-NGC 3067 is well known to show absorption by gas associated with the foreground galaxy against the background quasar (see Stocke et al. this volume). Observations by Carilli, van Gorkom, and Stocke (Nature 338, 134, 1989) found that the absorbing gas is located in a long tail of gas which extends from the galaxy toward the quasar and beyond (in projection). Though the HI observations of NGC 3067 indicate that the galaxy has been severely disturbed, there is no obvious candidate in the field which could cause such a disturbance, leading to the conclusion that the system has undergone a recent merger. The radio continuum observations of this system were designed to study the nature of this highly disturbed galaxy. New continuum observations confirm the notion that NGC 3067 is a highly disturbed system, and, in particular, the notion that the western half of the galaxy extends only 1/2 as far in radius as the eastern half. This disturbance must have occurred recently, since the galactic rotation would smooth out the observed asymmetry in about 10(exp 8) years. Researchers are left with the problem that there are no obvious candidates which could have caused such a disturbance

  20. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.


    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  1. Ulysses Radio Occultation Observations of the lo Plasma Torus During the Jupiter Encounter. (United States)

    Bird, M K; Asmar, S W; Brenkle, J P; Edenhofer, P; Funke, O; Pätzold, M; Volland, H


    Radio signals from Ulysses were used to probe the lo plasma torus (IPT) shortly after the spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter. The frequencies of the two downlinks at S-band (2.3 gigahertz) and X-band (8.4 gigahertz) were recorded, differenced, and integrated in order to derive the columnar electron density of the IPT. The measurements agree qualitatively with contemporary models of the IPT based on Voyager data, but significant differences are apparent as well. The overall level of the IPT electron density is approximately the same as the prediction, implying that the amount of gas (or plasma) injected from lo is similar to that observed during the Voyager era. On the other hand, the IPT seems to be less extended out of the centrifugal equator, implying a smaller plasma temperature than predicted.

  2. Radio observations of a galactic high energy gamma-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacani, E.; Rovero, A.C. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    PSR B1706-44 is one of the very few galactic pulsars that has been discovered at TeV energies. PSR B1706-44 has been also detected in the X-ray domain. It has been suggested that the high energy radiation could be due to inverse Compton radiation from a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). It was reported on VLA high-resolution observations of a region around the pulsar PSR B1706-44 at 1.4, 4.8 and 8.4 GHz. The pulsar appears embedded in a synchrotron nebula. It was proposed that this synchrotron nebula is the radio counterpart of the high energy emission powered by the spin-down energy of the pulsar.

  3. Radio stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjellming, R.M.


    Any discussion of the radio emission from stars should begin by emphasizing certain unique problems. First of all, one must clarify a semantic confusion introduced into radio astronomy in the late 1950's when most new radio sources were described as radio stars. All of these early 'radio stars' were eventually identified with other galactic and extra-galactic objects. The study of true radio stars, where the radio emission is produced in the atmosphere of a star, began only in the 1960's. Most of the work on the subject has, in fact, been carried out in only the last few years. Because the real information about radio stars is quite new, it is not surprising that major aspects of the subject are not at all understood. For this reason this paper is organized mainly around three questions: what is the available observational information; what physical processes seem to be involved; and what working hypotheses look potentially fruitful. (Auth.)

  4. Fermi-LAT and Suzaku Observations of the Radio Galaxy Centaurus B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuta, Junichiro


    CentaurusB is a nearby radio galaxy positioned in the Southern hemisphere close to the Galactic plane. Here we present a detailed analysis of about 43 months accumulation of Fermi-LAT data and of newly acquired Suzaku X-ray data for Centaurus B. The source is detected at GeV photon energies, although we cannot completely exclude the possibility that it is an artifact due to incorrect modeling of the bright Galactic diffuse emission in the region. The LAT image provides a weak hint of a spatial extension of the γ rays along the radio lobes, which is consistent with the lack of source variability in the GeV range. We note that the extension cannot be established statistically due to the low number of the photons. Surprisingly, we do not detect any diffuse emission of the lobes at X-ray frequencies, with the provided upper limit only marginally consistent with the previously claimed ASCA flux. The broad-band modeling shows that the observed γ-ray flux of the source may be produced within the lobes, if the diffuse non-thermal X-ray emission component is not significantly below the derived Suzaku upper limit. This association would imply that efficient in-situ acceleration of the ultrarelativistic particles is occurring and that the lobes are dominated by the pressure from the relativistic particles. However, if the diffuse X-ray emission is much below the Suzaku upper limits, the observed γ-ray flux is not likely to be produced within the lobes, but instead within the unresolved core of Centaurus B. In this case, the extended lobes could be dominated by the pressure of the magnetic field.

  5. Ground-based solar radio observations of the August 1972 events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhonsle, R.V.; Degaonkar, S.S.; Alurkar, S.K.


    Ground-based observations of the variable solar radio emission ranging from few millimetres to decametres have been used here as a diagnostic tool to gain coherent phenomenological understanding of the great 2, 4 and 7 August, 1972 solar events in terms of dominant physical processes like generation and propagation of shock waves in the solar atmosphere, particle acceleration and trapping. Four major flares are selected for detailed analysis on the basis of their ability to produce energetic protons, shock waves, polar cap absorptions (PCA) and sudden commencement (SC) geomagnetic storms. A comparative study of their radio characteristics is made. Evidence is seen for the pulsations during microwave bursts by the mechanism similar to that proposed by McLean et al. (1971), to explain the pulsations in the metre wavelength continuum radiation. It is suggested that the multiple peaks observed in some microwave bursts may be attributable to individual flares occurring sequentially due to a single initiating flare. Attempts have been made to establish identification of Type II bursts with the interplanetary shock waves and SC geomagnetic storms. Furthermore, it is suggested that it is the mass behind the shock front which is the deciding factor for the detection of shock waves in the interplantary space. It appears that more work is necessary in order to identify which of the three moving Type IV bursts (Wild and Smerd, 1972), namely, advancing shock front, expanding magnetic arch and ejected plasma blob serves as the piston-driver behind the interplanetary shocks. The existing criteria for proton flare prediction have been summarized and two new criteria have been proposed. (Auth.)

  6. Fermi-LAT and Suzaku Observations of the Radio Galaxy Centaurus B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuta, Junichiro; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Tanaka, Y.T.; /Hiroshima U.; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; O' Sullivan, S.P.; /Australia, CSIRO, Epping; Cheung, C.C.; /NAS, Washington, D.C.; Kataoka, J.; /Waseda U., RISE; Funk, S.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Yuasa, T.; Odaka, H.; Takahashi, T.; /JAXA, Sagamihara; Svoboda, J.; /European Space Agency


    CentaurusB is a nearby radio galaxy positioned in the Southern hemisphere close to the Galactic plane. Here we present a detailed analysis of about 43 months accumulation of Fermi-LAT data and of newly acquired Suzaku X-ray data for Centaurus B. The source is detected at GeV photon energies, although we cannot completely exclude the possibility that it is an artifact due to incorrect modeling of the bright Galactic diffuse emission in the region. The LAT image provides a weak hint of a spatial extension of the {gamma} rays along the radio lobes, which is consistent with the lack of source variability in the GeV range. We note that the extension cannot be established statistically due to the low number of the photons. Surprisingly, we do not detect any diffuse emission of the lobes at X-ray frequencies, with the provided upper limit only marginally consistent with the previously claimed ASCA flux. The broad-band modeling shows that the observed {gamma}-ray flux of the source may be produced within the lobes, if the diffuse non-thermal X-ray emission component is not significantly below the derived Suzaku upper limit. This association would imply that efficient in-situ acceleration of the ultrarelativistic particles is occurring and that the lobes are dominated by the pressure from the relativistic particles. However, if the diffuse X-ray emission is much below the Suzaku upper limits, the observed {gamma}-ray flux is not likely to be produced within the lobes, but instead within the unresolved core of Centaurus B. In this case, the extended lobes could be dominated by the pressure of the magnetic field.

  7. Astronomers Unveiling Life's Cosmic Origins (United States)


    Processes that laid the foundation for life on Earth -- star and planet formation and the production of complex organic molecules in interstellar space -- are yielding their secrets to astronomers armed with powerful new research tools, and even better tools soon will be available. Astronomers described three important developments at a symposium on the "Cosmic Cradle of Life" at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Chicago, IL. Chemistry Cycle The Cosmic Chemistry Cycle CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Full Size Image Files Chemical Cycle Graphic (above image, JPEG, 129K) Graphic With Text Blocks (JPEG, 165K) High-Res TIFF (44.2M) High-Res TIFF With Text Blocks (44.2M) In one development, a team of astrochemists released a major new resource for seeking complex interstellar molecules that are the precursors to life. The chemical data released by Anthony Remijan of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and his university colleagues is part of the Prebiotic Interstellar Molecule Survey, or PRIMOS, a project studying a star-forming region near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. PRIMOS is an effort of the National Science Foundation's Center for Chemistry of the Universe, started at the University of Virginia (UVa) in October 2008, and led by UVa Professor Brooks H. Pate. The data, produced by the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, came from more than 45 individual observations totalling more than nine GigaBytes of data and over 1.4 million individual frequency channels. Scientists can search the GBT data for specific radio frequencies, called spectral lines -- telltale "fingerprints" -- naturally emitted by molecules in interstellar space. "We've identified more than 720 spectral lines in this collection, and about 240 of those are from unknown molecules," Remijan said. He added, "We're making available to all scientists the best collection of data below 50 GHz ever produced for


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, C.; Mutel, R. L.; Gayley, K. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52240 (United States); Guedel, M. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Ray, T. [Astronomy and Astrophysics Section, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Skinner, S. L. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Schneider, P. C. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)


    The active young protostar DG Tau has an extended jet that has been well studied at radio, optical, and X-ray wavelengths. We report sensitive new Very Large Array (VLA) full-polarization observations of the core and jet between 5 GHz and 8 GHz. Our high angular resolution observation at 8 GHz clearly shows an unpolarized inner jet with a size of 42 AU (0.''35) extending along a position angle similar to the optical-X ray outer jet. Using our nearly coeval 2012 VLA observations, we find a spectral index {alpha} = +0.46 {+-} 0.05, which combined with the lack of polarization is consistent with bremsstrahlung (free-free) emission, with no evidence for a non-thermal coronal component. By identifying the end of the radio jet as the optical depth unity surface, and calculating the resulting emission measure, we find that our radio results are in agreement with previous optical line studies of electron density and consequent mass-loss rate. We also detect a weak radio knot at 5 GHz located 7'' from the base of the jet, coincident with the inner radio knot detected by Rodriguez et al. in 2009 but at lower surface brightness. We interpret this as due to expansion of post-shock ionized gas in the three years between observations.

  9. Early X-ray and radio observations of Nova Sco 2015 implicate strong shocks against a red giant wind (United States)

    Nelson, T.; Linford, J.; Chomiuk, L.; Sokoloski, J.; Mukai, K.; Finzell, T.; Weston, J.; Rupen, M.; Mioduszewski, A.


    We report the first observations of Nova Sco 2015 (PNV J17032620-3504140) at X-ray, UV and radio wavelengths. The X-ray observations were carried out with the Swift satellite between 2015 February 15.5 and 16.3 UT (roughly 4 days after discovery) and resulted in a total exposure time with the XRT instrument of 4065 s.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, Michele; Brinks, Elias; Struck, Curtis; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra M.


    VLA H i observations and λ6 cm radio continuum observations are presented of the barred-spiral galaxy NGC 3145. In optical images NGC 3145 has stellar arms that appear to cross, forming “X”-features. Our radio continuum observations rule out shock fronts at three of the four “X”-features, and our H i data provide evidence of gas motions perpendicular to the disk of NGC 3145. In large portions of NGC 3145, particularly in the middle-to-outer disk, the H i line profiles are skewed. Relative to the disk, the gas in the skewed wing of the line profiles has z-motions away from us on the approaching side of the galaxy and z-motions of about the same magnitude (∼40 km s −1 ) toward us on the receding side. These warping motions imply that there has been a perturbation with a sizeable component perpendicular to the disk over large spatial scales. Two features in NGC 3145 have velocities indicating that they are out-of-plane tidal arms. One is an apparent branch of a main spiral arm on the northeastern side of NGC 3145; the velocity of the branch is ∼150 km s −1 greater than the spiral arm where they appear to intersect in projection. The other is the arm on the southwestern side that forms three of the “X”-features. It differs in velocity by ∼56 km s −1 from that of the disk at the same projected location. H i observations are presented also of the two small companions NGC 3143 and PGC 029578. Based on its properties (enhanced SFR, H i emission 50% more extended on its northeastern side, etc.), NGC 3143 is the more likely of the two companions to have interacted with NGC 3145 recently. A simple analytic model demonstrates that an encounter between NGC 3143 and NGC 3145 is a plausible explanation for the observed warping motions in NGC 3145


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, Michele [110 Westchester Rd, Newton, MA 02458 (United States); Brinks, Elias [University of Hertfordshire, Centre for Astrophysics Research, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Struck, Curtis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Rd., Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, Debra M., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, 124 Raymond Av., Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States)


    VLA H i observations and λ6 cm radio continuum observations are presented of the barred-spiral galaxy NGC 3145. In optical images NGC 3145 has stellar arms that appear to cross, forming “X”-features. Our radio continuum observations rule out shock fronts at three of the four “X”-features, and our H i data provide evidence of gas motions perpendicular to the disk of NGC 3145. In large portions of NGC 3145, particularly in the middle-to-outer disk, the H i line profiles are skewed. Relative to the disk, the gas in the skewed wing of the line profiles has z-motions away from us on the approaching side of the galaxy and z-motions of about the same magnitude (∼40 km s{sup −1}) toward us on the receding side. These warping motions imply that there has been a perturbation with a sizeable component perpendicular to the disk over large spatial scales. Two features in NGC 3145 have velocities indicating that they are out-of-plane tidal arms. One is an apparent branch of a main spiral arm on the northeastern side of NGC 3145; the velocity of the branch is ∼150 km s{sup −1} greater than the spiral arm where they appear to intersect in projection. The other is the arm on the southwestern side that forms three of the “X”-features. It differs in velocity by ∼56 km s{sup −1} from that of the disk at the same projected location. H i observations are presented also of the two small companions NGC 3143 and PGC 029578. Based on its properties (enhanced SFR, H i emission 50% more extended on its northeastern side, etc.), NGC 3143 is the more likely of the two companions to have interacted with NGC 3145 recently. A simple analytic model demonstrates that an encounter between NGC 3143 and NGC 3145 is a plausible explanation for the observed warping motions in NGC 3145.

  12. The South African Astronomical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The research work discussed in this report covers a wide range, from work on the nearest stars to studies of the distant quasars, and the astronomers who have carried out this work come from universities and observatories spread around the world as well as from South African universities and from the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) staff itself. A characteristic of much of this work has been its collaborative character. SAAO studies in 1989 included: supernovae 1987A; galaxies; ground-based observations of celestial x-ray sources; the Magellanic Clouds; pulsating variables; galactic structure; binary star phenomena; the provision of photometric standards; nebulous matter; stellar astrophysics, and astrometry

  13. Astronomical Image and Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Starck, J.-L


    With information and scale as central themes, this comprehensive survey explains how to handle real problems in astronomical data analysis using a modern arsenal of powerful techniques. It treats those innovative methods of image, signal, and data processing that are proving to be both effective and widely relevant. The authors are leaders in this rapidly developing field and draw upon decades of experience. They have been playing leading roles in international projects such as the Virtual Observatory and the Grid. The book addresses not only students and professional astronomers and astrophysicists, but also serious amateur astronomers and specialists in earth observation, medical imaging, and data mining. The coverage includes chapters or appendices on: detection and filtering; image compression; multichannel, multiscale, and catalog data analytical methods; wavelets transforms, Picard iteration, and software tools. This second edition of Starck and Murtagh's highly appreciated reference again deals with to...

  14. Testing the dark matter origin of the WMAP-Planck haze with radio observations of spiral galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Eric; Linden, Tim; Profumo, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (United States); Hooper, Dan, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)


    If the Galactic WMAP radio haze, as recently confirmed by Planck, is produced by dark matter annihilation or decay, similar diffuse radio halos should exist around other galaxies with physical properties comparable to the Milky Way. If instead the haze is due to an astrophysical mechanism peculiar to the Milky Way or to a transient event, a similar halo need not exist around all Milky Way ''twins''. We use radio observations of 66 spiral galaxies to test the dark matter origin of the haze. We select galaxies based on morphological type and maximal rotational velocity, and obtain their luminosities from a 1.49 GHz catalog and additional radio observations at other frequencies. We find many instances of galaxies with radio emission that is less than 5% as bright as naively expected from dark matter models that could produce the Milky Way haze, and at least 3 galaxies that are less than 1% as bright as expected, assuming dark matter distributions, magnetic fields, and cosmic ray propagation parameters equal to those of the Milky Way. For reasonable ranges for the variation of these parameters, we estimate the fraction of galaxies that should be expected to be significantly less bright in radio, and argue that this is marginally compatible with the observed distribution. While our findings therefore cannot rule out a dark matter origin for the radio haze at this time, we find numerous examples (including the Andromeda Galaxy) where, if dark matter is indeed the origin of the Milky Way haze, some mechanism must be in place to suppress the corresponding haze of the external galaxy. We point out that Planck data will offer opportunities to improve this type of constraint in a highly relevant frequency range and for a potentially larger set of candidate galaxies.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, M. I.; Chomiuk, L.; Brunthaler, A.; Rupen, M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Soderberg, A. M.; Zauderer, B. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bietenholz, M. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, M3J 1P3, Ontario (Canada); Chevalier, R. A. [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Fransson, C. [Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)


    We report on Expanded Very Large Array observations of the Type IIb supernova 2011dh, performed over the first 100 days of its evolution and spanning 1-40 GHz in frequency. The radio emission is well described by the self-similar propagation of a spherical shockwave, generated as the supernova ejecta interact with the local circumstellar environment. Modeling this emission with a standard synchrotron self-absorption (SSA) model gives an average expansion velocity of v Almost-Equal-To 0.1c, supporting the classification of the progenitor as a compact star (R{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 11} cm). We find that the circumstellar density is consistent with a {rho}{proportional_to}r{sup -2} profile. We determine that the progenitor shed mass at a constant rate of Almost-Equal-To 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, assuming a wind velocity of 1000 km s{sup -1} (values appropriate for a Wolf-Rayet star), or Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} assuming 20 km s{sup -1} (appropriate for a yellow supergiant [YSG] star). Both values of the mass-loss rate assume a converted fraction of kinetic to magnetic energy density of {epsilon}{sub B} = 0.1. Although optical imaging shows the presence of a YSG, the rapid optical evolution and fast expansion argue that the progenitor is a more compact star-perhaps a companion to the YSG. Furthermore, the excellent agreement of the radio properties of SN 2011dh with the SSA model implies that any YSG companion is likely in a wide, non-interacting orbit.

  16. Experimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Füllekrug


    Full Text Available Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds emit 100 kHz radio waves which illuminate the Earth's atmosphere and near-Earth space. This contribution aims to clarify the physical processes which are relevant for the spatial spreading of the radio wave energy below and above the ionosphere and thereby enables an experimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds. The simulation uses the DEMETER satellite which observes 100 kHz radio waves from fifty terrestrial Long Range Aid to Navigation (LORAN transmitters. Their mean luminosity patch in the plasmasphere is a circular area with a radius of 300 km and a power density of 22 μW/Hz as observed at 660 km height above the ground. The luminosity patches exhibit a southward displacement of 450 km with respect to the locations of the LORAN transmitters. The displacement is reduced to 150 km when an upward propagation of the radio waves along the geomagnetic field line is assumed. This residual displacement indicates that the radio waves undergo 150 km sub-ionospheric propagation prior to entering a magnetospheric duct and escaping into near-Earth space. The residual displacement at low (L < 2.14 and high (L > 2.14 geomagnetic latitudes ranges from 100 km to 200 km which suggests that the smaller inclination of the geomagnetic field lines at low latitudes helps to trap the radio waves and to keep them in the magnetospheric duct. Diffuse luminosity areas are observed northward of the magnetic conjugate locations of LORAN transmitters at extremely low geomagnetic latitudes (L < 1.36 in Southeast Asia. This result suggests that the propagation along the geomagnetic field lines results in a spatial spreading of the radio wave energy over distances of 1 Mm. The summative assessment of the electric field intensities measured in space show that nadir observations of terrestrial 100 kHz radio waves, e.g., from

  17. Astronomers gossip about the (cosmic) neighborhood. (United States)

    Jayawardhana, R


    The Hague, Netherlands, last month welcomed 2000 astronomers from around the world for the 22nd General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). From 15 to 27 August, they participated in symposia and discussions on topics ranging from the down-to-Earth issue of light and radio-frequency pollution to the creation of elements at the farthest reaches of time and space, in the big bang. Some of the most striking news, however, came in new findings from our galaxy and its immediate surroundings.

  18. Reconciling Optical and Radio Observations of the Binary Millisecond Pulsar PSR J1640+2224 (United States)

    Vigeland, Sarah J.; Deller, Adam T.; Kaplan, David L.; Istrate, Alina G.; Stappers, Benjamin W.; Tauris, Thomas M.


    Previous optical and radio observations of the binary millisecond pulsar PSR J1640+2224 have come to inconsistent conclusions about the identity of its companion, with some observations suggesting that the companion is a low-mass helium-core (He-core) white dwarf (WD), while others indicate that it is most likely a high-mass carbon–oxygen (CO) WD. Binary evolution models predict PSR J1640+2224 most likely formed in a low-mass X-ray binary based on the pulsar’s short spin period and long-period, low-eccentricity orbit, in which case its companion should be a He-core WD with mass about 0.35–0.39 M ⊙, depending on metallicity. If instead it is a CO WD, it would suggest that the system has an unusual formation history. In this paper we present the first astrometric parallax measurement for this system from observations made with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), from which we determine the distance to be {1520}-150+170 {pc}. We use this distance and a reanalysis of archival optical observations originally taken in 1995 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to measure the WD’s mass. We also incorporate improvements in calibration, extinction model, and WD cooling models. We find that the existing observations are not sufficient to tightly constrain the companion mass, but we conclude the WD mass is >0.4 M ⊙ with >90% confidence. The limiting factor in our analysis is the low signal-to-noise ratio of the original HST observations.

  19. Astronomical Observations by Speckle Interferometry. (United States)


    commonly -been noted [Heintz (101)] that it was Karl *, Schwarzchild who iui 1895 [ Schwarzschild (190)] made the first measure- ments of binary stars...J. Lett 163. Michelson, A A, Pease. F. G. 1921. Ap. 280: L23 J. 53: 249 190. Schwarzschild . K. 1896. Astron. Nadir. 164. Morgan. B. L., lieddoes. 1

  20. Utrecht and Galactic Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woerden, H.

    Important roles in early Dutch Galactic radio astronomy were played by several Utrecht astronomers: Van de Hulst, Minnaert and Houtgast. The poster announcing the conference contained a number of pictures referring to scientific achievements of the Astronomical Institute Utrecht. One of these

  1. Astronomers Gain Clues About Fundamental Physics (United States)


    superstring theory and extra dimensions in spacetime calling for the "constants" to change over time, he said. The astronomers used the GBT to detect and study radio emissions at four specific frequencies between 1612 MHz and 1720 MHz coming from hydroxyl (OH) molecules in a galaxy more than 6 billion light-years from Earth, seen as it was at roughly half the Universe's current age. Each of the four frequencies represents a specific change in the energy level of the molecule. The exact frequency emitted or absorbed when the molecule undergoes a transition from one energy level to another depends on the values of the fundamental physical constants. However, each of the four frequencies studied in the OH molecule will react differently to a change in the constants. That difference is what the astronomers sought to detect using the GBT, which, Kanekar explained, is the ideal telescope for this work because of its technical capabilities and its location in the National Radio Quiet Zone, where radio interference is at a minimum. "We can place very tight limits on changes in the physical constants by studying the behavior of these OH molecules at a time when the Universe was only about half its current age, and comparing this result to how the molecules behave today in the laboratory," said Karl Menten of the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Germany. Wetterich, a theorist, welcomes the new capability, saying the observational method "seems very promising to obtain perhaps the most accurate values for such possible time changes of the constants." He pointed out that, while some theoretical models call for the constants to change only in the early moments after the Big Bang, models of the recently-discovered, mysterious "dark energy" that seems to be accelerating the Universe's expansion call for changes "even in the last couple of billion years." "Only observations can tell," he said. This research ties together the theoretical and observational work of Wetterich and

  2. A Climate Benchmark of Upper Air Temperature Observations from GNSS Radio Occultation (United States)

    Ao, C. O.; Mannucci, A. J.; Leroy, S. S.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.


    GPS (Global Positioning System), or more generally Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), radio occultation (RO) is a remote sensing technique that produces highly accurate temperature in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere across the globe with fine vertical resolution. Its fundamental measurement is the time delay of the microwave signal as it travels from a GNSS satellite to the receiver in low Earth orbit. With a relatively simple physical retrieval, the uncertainty in the derived temperature can be traced rigorously through the retrieval chain back to the raw measurements. The high absolute accuracy of RO allows these observations to be assimilated without bias correction in numerical weather prediction models and provides an anchor for assimilating other types of observations. The high accuracy, coupled with long-term stability, makes RO valuable in detecting decadal temperature trends. In this presentation, we will summarize the current state of RO observations and show temperature trends derived from 15 years of RO data in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. We will discuss our recent efforts in developing retrieval algorithms that are more tailored towards climate applications. Despite the relatively robust "self-calibrating" nature of RO observations, disparity in receiver hardware and software may introduce subtle differences that need to be carefully addressed. While the historic RO data record came from relatively homogeneous hardware based largely on NASA/JPL design (e.g., CHAMP and COSMIC), the future data will likely be comprised of a diverse set of observations from Europe, China, and various commercial data providers. In addition, the use of non-GPS navigation systems will become more prevalent. We will discuss the challenges involved in establishing a long-term RO climate data record from a suite of research and operational weather satellites with changes in instrumentation and coverage.

  3. Future-oriented maintenance strategy based on automated processes is finding its way into large astronomical facilities at remote observing sites (United States)

    Silber, Armin; Gonzalez, Christian; Pino, Francisco; Escarate, Patricio; Gairing, Stefan


    With expanding sizes and increasing complexity of large astronomical observatories on remote observing sites, the call for an efficient and recourses saving maintenance concept becomes louder. The increasing number of subsystems on telescopes and instruments forces large observatories, like in industries, to rethink conventional maintenance strategies for reaching this demanding goal. The implementation of full-, or semi-automatic processes for standard service activities can help to keep the number of operating staff on an efficient level and to reduce significantly the consumption of valuable consumables or equipment. In this contribution we will demonstrate on the example of the 80 Cryogenic subsystems of the ALMA Front End instrument, how an implemented automatic service process increases the availability of spare parts and Line Replaceable Units. Furthermore how valuable staff recourses can be freed from continuous repetitive maintenance activities, to allow focusing more on system diagnostic tasks, troubleshooting and the interchanging of line replaceable units. The required service activities are decoupled from the day-to-day work, eliminating dependencies on workload peaks or logistic constrains. The automatic refurbishing processes running in parallel to the operational tasks with constant quality and without compromising the performance of the serviced system components. Consequentially that results in an efficiency increase, less down time and keeps the observing schedule on track. Automatic service processes in combination with proactive maintenance concepts are providing the necessary flexibility for the complex operational work structures of large observatories. The gained planning flexibility is allowing an optimization of operational procedures and sequences by considering the required cost efficiency.

  4. New observational constraints on f(T) cosmology from radio quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Jing-Zhao; Cao, Shuo; Zhu, Zong-Hong [Beijing Normal University, Department of Astronomy, Beijing (China); Biesiada, Marek; Zheng, Xiaogang [Beijing Normal University, Department of Astronomy, Beijing (China); University of Silesia, Department of Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute of Physics, Katowice (Poland)


    Using a new recently compiled milliarcsecond compact radio data set of 120 intermediate-luminosity quasars in the redshift range 0.46 < z < 2.76, whose statistical linear sizes show negligible dependence on redshifts and intrinsic luminosity and thus represent standard rulers in cosmology, we constrain three viable and most popular f(T) gravity models, where T is the torsion scalar in teleparallel gravity. Our analysis reveals that constraining power of the quasars data (N = 120) is comparable to the Union2.1 SN Ia data (N = 580) for all three f(T) models. Together with other standard ruler probes such as cosmic microwave background and baryon acoustic oscillation distance measurements, the present value of the matter density parameter Ω{sub m} obtained by quasars is much larger than that derived from other observations. For one of the models considered (f{sub 1}CDM) a small but noticeable deviation from ΛCDM cosmology is present, while in the framework of f{sub 3}CDM the effective equation of state may cross the phantom divide line at lower redshifts. These results indicate that intermediate-luminosity quasars could provide an effective observational probe comparable to SN Ia at much higher redshifts, and f(T) gravity is a reasonable candidate for the modified gravity theory. (orig.)

  5. Fermi-LAT and Suzaku observations of the radio galaxy Centaurus B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuta, J.; Tanaka, Y. T.; Stawarz, Ł.; O’Sullivan, S. P.; Cheung, C. C.


    Centaurus B is a nearby radio galaxy positioned in the southern hemisphere close to the Galactic plane. Here, in this work, we present a detailed analysis of about 43 months of accumulated Fermi-LAT data of the γ-ray counterpart of the source initially reported in the 2nd Fermi-LAT catalog, and of newly acquired Suzaku X-ray data. We confirm its detection at GeV photon energies and analyze the extension and variability of the γ-ray source in the LAT dataset, in which it appears as a steady γ-ray emitter. The X-ray core of Centaurus B is detected as a bright source of a continuum radiation. We do not detect, however, any diffuse X-ray emission from the known radio lobes, with the provided upper limit only marginally consistent with the previously claimed ASCA flux. Two scenarios that connect the X-ray and γ-ray properties are considered. In the first one, we assume that the diffuse non-thermal X-ray emission component is not significantly below the derived Suzaku upper limit. In this case, modeling the inverse-Compton emission shows that the observed γ-ray flux of the source may in principle be produced within the lobes. This association would imply that efficient in-situ acceleration of the radiating electrons is occurring and that the lobes are dominated by the pressure from the relativistic particles. In the second scenario, with the diffuse X-ray emission well below the Suzaku upper limits, the lobes in the system are instead dominated by the magnetic pressure. In this case, the observed γ-ray flux is not likely to be produced within the lobes, but instead within the nuclear parts of the jet. In conclusion, by means of synchrotron self-Compton modeling, we show that this possibility could be consistent with the broad-band data collected for the unresolved core of Centaurus B, including the newly derived Suzaku spectrum.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanardo, Giovanna; Staveley-Smith, L.; Potter, T. M.; Ng, C.-Y.; Gaensler, B. M.; Manchester, R. N.; Tzioumis, A. K.


    We present new imaging observations of the remnant of Supernova (SN) 1987A at 44 GHz, performed in 2011 with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The 0.''35 × 0.''23 resolution of the diffraction-limited image is the highest achieved to date in high-dynamic range. We also present a new ATCA image at 18 GHz derived from 2011 observations, which is super-resolved to 0.''25. The flux density is 40 ± 2 mJy at 44 GHz and 81 ± 6 mJy at 18 GHz. At both frequencies, the remnant exhibits a ring-like emission with two prominent lobes, and an east-west brightness asymmetry that peaks on the eastern lobe. A central feature of fainter emission appears at 44 GHz. A comparison with previous ATCA observations at 18 and 36 GHz highlights higher expansion velocities of the remnant's eastern side. The 18-44 GHz spectral index is α = –0.80 (S ν ∝ν α ). The spectral index map suggests slightly steeper values at the brightest sites on the eastern lobe, whereas flatter values are associated with the inner regions. The remnant morphology at 44 GHz generally matches the structure seen with contemporaneous X-ray and Hα observations. Unlike the Hα emission, both the radio and X-ray emission peaks on the eastern lobe. The regions of flatter spectral index align and partially overlap with the optically visible ejecta. Simple free-free absorption models suggest that emission from a pulsar wind nebula or a compact source inside the remnant may now be detectable at high frequencies or at low frequencies if there are holes in the ionized component of the ejecta.

  7. Mars gravity field error analysis from simulated radio tracking of Mars Observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.E.; Lerch, F.J.; Chan, J.C.; Chinn, D.S.; Iz, H.B.; Mallama, A.; Patel, G.B.


    The Mars Observer (MO) Mission, in a near-polar orbit at 360-410 km altitude for nearly a 2-year observing period, will greatly improve our understanding of the geophysics of Mars, including its gravity field. To assess the expected improvement of the gravity field, the authors have conducted an error analysis based upon the mission plan for the Mars Observer radio tracking data from the Deep Space Network. Their results indicate that it should be possible to obtain a high-resolution model (spherical harmonics complete to degree and order 50 corresponding to a 200-km horizontal resolution) for the gravitational field of the planet. This model, in combination with topography from MO altimetry, should provide for an improved determination of the broad scale density structure and stress state of the Martian crust and upper mantle. The mathematical model for the error analysis is based on the representation of doppler tracking data as a function of the Martian gravity field in spherical harmonics, solar radiation pressure, atmospheric drag, angular momentum desaturation residual acceleration (AMDRA) effects, tracking station biases, and the MO orbit parameters. Two approaches are employed. In the first case, the error covariance matrix of the gravity model is estimated including the effects from all the nongravitational parameters (noise-only case). In the second case, the gravity recovery error is computed as above but includes unmodelled systematic effects from atmospheric drag, AMDRA, and solar radiation pressure (biased case). The error spectrum of gravity shows an order of magnitude of improvement over current knowledge based on doppler data precision from a single station of 0.3 mm s -1 noise for 1-min integration intervals during three 60-day periods

  8. NuSTAR Observations of the Powerful Radio-Galaxy Cygnus A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.; Lohfink, Anne M.; Ogle, Patrick M.


    We present NuSTAR observations of the powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A,focusing on the central absorbed active galactic nucleus (AGN). Cygnus A is embedded in a cool-core galaxy cluster, and hence we also examine archival XMM-Newton data to facilitate the decomposition of the spectrum into the AGN...... and intracluster medium (ICM) components. NuSTAR gives a source-dominated spectrum of the AGN out to >70keV. In gross terms, the NuSTAR spectrum of the AGN has the form of a power law (Γ~1.6-1.7) absorbed by a neutral column density of NH~1.6x1023 cm-2. However, we also detect curvature in the hard (>10ke......V (90% confidence). Interestingly, the absorbed power-law plus reflection modelleaves residuals suggesting the absorption/emission from a fast(15,000-26,000km/s), high column-density (NW>3x1023 cm-2), highly ionized (ξ~2,500 erg cm/s-1) wind. A second, even faster ionized wind component is also...

  9. The Suzaku observation of the nucleus of the radio loud active galaxy Centaurus A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowitz, Alex


    A Suzaku observation of the nucleus of the radio-loud AGN Centaurus A in 2005 has yielded a broadband spectrum spanning 0.3 to 250 keV. The hard X-rays are fit by two power laws, absorbed by columns of 1.5 and 7x10 23 cm -2 respectively. The spectrum consistent with previous suggestions that the power-law components are X-ray emission from the sub-pc VLBI jet and from Bondi accretion at the core, or are consistent with a partial covering interpretation. The soft band is dominated by thermal emission from the diffuse plasma and is fit well by a two-temperature collisional ionization emission model, plus a third power-law component to account for scattered nuclear emission, kpc-scale jet emission, and emission from X-ray Binaries and other point sources. Narrow fluorescent emission lines from Fe, Si, S, Ar, Ca and Ni are detected. The width of the Fe Kα line yields a 200 light-day lower limit on the distance from the black hole to the line-emitting gas. K-shell absorption edges due to Fe, Ca, and S are detected. The high metallicity ([Fe/H]=+0.1) of the circumnuclear material suggests that the accreting material could not have originated in the metal-poor outer halo unless enrichment by local star formation has occurred. Relative element abundances are consistent with enrichment due to local star formation processes. (author)

  10. Fourier Analysis of Radio Bursts Observed with Very High Time Resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dabrowski, Bartosz Premyslaw; Karlický, Marian; Rudawy, P.


    Roč. 290, č. 1 (2015), s. 169-180 ISSN 0038-0938 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : solar corona * flares * radio bursts Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.862, year: 2015

  11. EGRET Unidentified Source Radio Observations and Performance of Receiver Gain Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinuma, Kotaro; Asuma, Kuniyuki; Kuniyoshi, Masaya; Matsumura, Nobuo; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Kida, Sumiko; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Ichikawa, Hajime; Sawano, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Naoya; Suzuki, Shigehiro; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Nakayama, Yu; Daishido, Tsuneaki


    Last year, we have developed the receiver gain calibration system by using Johnson-Nyquist noise, for accuracy flux measurement, because we have been starting radio identification program of transient radio sources, blazars and radio counterpart of The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) unidentified γ-ray sources in Waseda Nasu Pulsar Observatory. It is shown that there are a few low correlation data between receiver gain and ambient temperature around receiver for anything troubles of receiver, because we can detect gain and ambient temperature through a day by developed system. Estimated fluctuations of daily data of steady sources decrease by removing low correlation data before analysing. As the result of our analysis by using above system, radio counterpart of EGRET identified source showed fading light-curve for a week

  12. Astronomical Surveys and Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaelian Areg M.


    Full Text Available Recent all-sky and large-area astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum, from γ-rays to radio waves, are reviewed, including such as Fermi-GLAST and INTEGRAL in γ-ray, ROSAT, XMM and Chandra in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS I and POSS II-based catalogues (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC in the optical range, 2MASS in NIR, WISE and AKARI IRC in MIR, IRAS and AKARI FIS in FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio range, and many others, as well as the most important surveys giving optical images (DSS I and II, SDSS, etc., proper motions (Tycho, USNO, Gaia, variability (GCVS, NSVS, ASAS, Catalina, Pan-STARRS, and spectroscopic data (FBS, SBS, Case, HQS, HES, SDSS, CALIFA, GAMA. An overall understanding of the coverage along the whole wavelength range and comparisons between various surveys are given: galaxy redshift surveys, QSO/AGN, radio, Galactic structure, and Dark Energy surveys. Astronomy has entered the Big Data era, with Astrophysical Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics playing an important role in using and analyzing big data for new discoveries.

  13. Radio Observations of Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources and their Implication for Models (United States)

    Koerding, E. G.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Falcke, H.


    We present the results of a radio monitoring campaign to search for radio emission from nearby ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs). These intriguing sources are bright off-nuclear X-ray point sources with luminosities exceeding LX > 1039 erg/sec. Assuming isotropic emission the Eddington Limit suggests that they harbor intermediate mass black holes. Due to the problems of this explanation also other possibilities are currently discussed, among them are anisotropic emission, super-Eddington accretion flows or relativistically beamed emission from microquasars. Detections of compact radio cores at the positions of ULXs would be a direct hint to jet-emission. However, as the ULX phenomenom is connected to star formation we have to assume that they are strongly accreting objects. Thus, similar to their nearest Galactic cousins, the very high state X-ray binaries (see e.g., GRS 1915), ULXs may show radio flares. A well-defined sample of the 9 nearest ULXs has been monitored eight times during 5 months with the Very Large Array in A and B configuration. Our limiting sensitivity is 0.15 mJy (4 σ ) for flares and 68 μ Jy for continuous emission. In M82 some ULXs seem to be connected to radio supernova remnants. Besides that no flare or continuous emission has been detected. As the timescales of radio flares in ULXs are highly uncertain, it could well be that we have undersampled the lightcurve. However, upper bounds for the probability to detect a flare can be given. The upper limits for the continuous emission are compared with the emission found in NGC 5408 X-1 and with quasars and microquasars. We show that these limits are well in agreement with the microblazar model using the Radio/X-ray correlation of XRBs and AGN. Thus, it could well be that ULXs are microblazers which may be radio loud.

  14. The Practical Astronomer (United States)

    Koester, Jack

    "The Practical Astronomer" by Thomas Dick, LLD, E.C. & J. Biddle, Philadelphia, 1849, is reviewed. Information on telescope makers and astronomers can be found. Mentioned are: Fraunhofer; John Herschel; Lawson; Dollond; Tulley; W. & S. Jones; and S.W. Burnham.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharb, P.; O'Dea, C. P.; Tilak, A.; Baum, S. A.; Haynes, E.; Noel-Storr, J.; Fallon, C.; Christiansen, K.


    We present here the results from new Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at 1.6 and 5 GHz of 19 galaxies of a complete sample of 21 Uppasala General Catalog (UGC) Fanaroff-Riley type I (FRI) radio galaxies. New Chandra data of two sources, viz., UGC 00408 and UGC 08433, are combined with the Chandra archival data of 13 sources. The 5 GHz observations of 10 'core-jet' sources are polarization-sensitive, while the 1.6 GHz observations constitute second-epoch total intensity observations of nine 'core-only' sources. Polarized emission is detected in the jets of seven sources at 5 GHz, but the cores are essentially unpolarized, except in M87. Polarization is detected at the jet edges in several sources, and the inferred magnetic field is primarily aligned with the jet direction. This could be indicative of magnetic field 'shearing' due to jet-medium interaction, or the presence of helical magnetic fields. The jet peak intensity I ν falls with distance d from the core, following the relation, I ν ∝d a , where a is typically ∼ – 1.5. Assuming that adiabatic expansion losses are primarily responsible for the jet intensity 'dimming,' two limiting cases are considered: (1) the jet has a constant speed on parsec scales and is expanding gradually such that the jet radius r∝d 0 .4 ; this expansion is, however, unobservable in the laterally unresolved jets at 5 GHz, and (2) the jet is cylindrical and is accelerating on parsec scales. Accelerating parsec-scale jets are consistent with the phenomenon of 'magnetic driving' in Poynting-flux-dominated jets. While slow jet expansion as predicted by case (1) is indeed observed in a few sources from the literature that are resolved laterally, on scales of tens or hundreds of parsecs, case (2) cannot be ruled out in the present data, provided the jets become conical on scales larger than those probed by VLBA. Chandra observations of 15 UGC FRIs detect X-ray jets in 9 of them. The high frequency of occurrence of X

  16. Automatic recognition of coronal type II radio bursts: The ARBIS 2 method and first observations (United States)

    Lobzin, Vasili; Cairns, Iver; Robinson, Peter; Steward, Graham; Patterson, Garth

    Major space weather events such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections are usually accompa-nied by solar radio bursts, which can potentially be used for real-time space weather forecasts. Type II radio bursts are produced near the local plasma frequency and its harmonic by fast electrons accelerated by a shock wave moving through the corona and solar wind with a typi-cal speed of 1000 km s-1 . The coronal bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency gradually falling with time and durations of several minutes. We present a new method developed to de-tect type II coronal radio bursts automatically and describe its implementation in an extended Automated Radio Burst Identification System (ARBIS 2). Preliminary tests of the method with spectra obtained in 2002 show that the performance of the current implementation is quite high, ˜ 80%, while the probability of false positives is reasonably low, with one false positive per 100-200 hr for high solar activity and less than one false event per 10000 hr for low solar activity periods. The first automatically detected coronal type II radio bursts are also presented. ARBIS 2 is now operational with IPS Radio and Space Services, providing email alerts and event lists internationally.

  17. Radio and infrared observations of (almost) one hundred non-Seyfert Markarian galaxies (United States)

    Dressel, Linda L.


    The 13 cm flux densities of 96 non-Seyfert Markarian galaxies were measured at Arecibo Observatory. Far infrared flux densities have been published for 78 of these galaxies in the IRAS catalog. The radio, infrared, and optical fluxes of these galaxies and of a magnitude limited sample of normal galaxies were compared to clarify the nature of the radio emission in Markarian galaxies. It was found that Markarian galaxies of a given apparent magnitude and Hubble type generally have radio fluxes several times higher that the fluxes typical of normal galaxies of the same magnitude and type. Remarkably, the ratio of radio flux to far infrared flux is nearly the same for most of these starburst galaxies and for normal spiral disks. However, the compact and peculiar Markarian galaxies consistently have about 60% more radio flux per unit infrared flux than the other Markarian galaxies and the normal spirals. It is not clear whether this difference reflects a difference in the evolution of the starbursts in these galaxies or whether there is excess radio emission of nonstellar origin.

  18. The optical, infrared and radio properties of extragalactic sources observed by SDSS, 2mass and first surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Z. Ivezic et al.


    We positionally match sources observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) survey. Practically all 2MASS sources are matched to an SDSS source within 2 arcsec; ∼ 11% of them are optically resolved galaxies and the rest are dominated by stars. About 1/3 of FIRST sources are matched to an SDSS source within 2 arcsec; ∼ 80% of these are galaxies and the rest are dominated by quasars. Based on these results, we project that by the completion of these surveys the matched samples will include about 10 7 and 10 6 galaxies observed by both SDSS and 2MASS, and about 250,000 galaxies and 50,000 quasars observed by both SDSS and FIRST. Here we present a preliminary analysis of the optical, infrared and radio properties for the extragalactic sources from the matched samples. In particular, we find that the fraction of quasars with stellar colors missed by the SDSS spectroscopic survey is probably not larger than ∼ 10%, and that the optical colors of radio-loud quasars are ∼ 0.05 mag. redder (with 4σ significance) than the colors of radio-quiet quasars

  19. Observations of low-frequency radio emissions in the Earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filbert, P.C.; Kellogg, P.J.


    A study is made of electromagnetic radiation in the Earth's magnetosphere in the frequency range between 10 kHz and 80 kHz using data from the University of Minnesota Plasma Wave Experiment aboard the IMP 6 satellite. Two types of radio emissions are investigated. First is the nonthermal continuum radiation, it is found that discrete enhancements above ambient levels are correlated with enhancements of the magnetic substorm index AE and appear to follow the onset of the negative bay feature of the AU index by about 20 min or so. The directions of these discrete source regions of continuum radiation are measured as a function of time, and movement of the source region in a dusk-to-dawn direction is directly observed. This drift motion is used to measure the energy of the generating electrons by a time-of-flight method, and a range between 10 keV and 50 keV is found in agreement with previous studies. A second type of radiation is also observed which correlates with auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) on a time scale of ∼ 1 min. This radiation lies between 10 and 60 kHz with a spectral peak near 30 kHz and is found to have a source direction very near that of the coincident AKR. The lower frequency of the spectral peak, in conjunction with the analysis of the spin-modulated wave data, suggests a source location at a higher elevation than the higher-frequency AKR indicating a source altitude of roughly 3 Earth radii

  20. Investigation of radio objects with continuos optical spectra. The results of four-color electrophotometric observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskin, G.M.; Lyutyj, V.M.; Neizvestnyj, S.I.; Pustil'nik, S.I.; Shvartsman, V.F.


    The results of UBVR photometry of 30 radio objects with continuous optical spectra (ROCOSes) are reported. The observations were performed using five telescopes during the years 1979-1982; 54 values have been obtained of U, B, V magnitudes and 26 ones of R magnitude. Colours for 16 ROCOSes have been obtained for the first time. The analysis of the data results in the following conclusions. 1) Practically all colours of ROCOSes have proved to be in the region of localization of BL Lac objects' colours on UBV and BVR diagrams. This fact (altogether with the other data) indicates on the proximity of the objects of the two classes. 2) In half of all cases, instantaneous colours of ROCOSes corresponded to purely power-law optical continua F(ν) varies as νsup(α) with α approximately= -(1-2.5). 3) In the remaining cases, optical continua differed significantly from the power-law ones. 4) 6 ROCOSes appeared to be in the phases of deep minimum of brightness at the moment of observations (namely, about 3sup(m)-5sup(m) fainter than in the brightest phase known from the literature). The UBVR colours of none of them give indication on the presence of an elliptical galaxy which, according to conventional concepts, must encompass a variable nonthermal source. 5) Two blue objects, 0548+165 and 0713+199, which are situated at low galactic latitudes (b 2 =-5 deg and +14 deg respectively) have shown colours unusual for lacertids. Appendices contain the results of theoretical calculations of (U-B), (B-V) and (V-R) colours for purely power-law spectra F(ν)=constxνsup(α) with α in the range (-6.5-+2.5) and the results of UBV photometry of the BL Lac object OJ 287 during the years 1976-1982 (24 measurements)

  1. Radio and X-ray observations of a multiple impulsive solar burst with high time resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosugi, T.


    A well-developed multiple impulsive microwave burst occurred on February 17, 1979 simultaneously with a hard X-ray burst and a large group of type III bursts at metric wavelengths. The whole event is composed of serveral subgroups of elementary spike bursts. Detailed comparisons between these three classes of emissions with high time resolution of approx. equal to0.5 s reveal that individual type III bursts coincide in time with corresponding elementary X-ray and microwave spike bursts. It suggests that a non-thermal electron pulse generating a type III spike burst is produced simultaneously with those responsible for the corresponding hard X-ray and microwave spike bursts. The rise and decay characteristic time scales of the elementary spike burst are << 1 s, and approx. equal to1 s and approx. equal to3 s for type III, hard X-ray and microwave emissions respectively. Radio interferometric observations made at 17 GHz reveal that the spatial structure varies from one subgroup to others while it remains unchanged in a subgroup. Spectral evolution of the microwave burst seems to be closely related to the spatial evolution. The spatial evolution together with the spectral evolution suggests that the electron-accelerating region shifts to a different location after it stays at one location for several tens of seconds, duration of a subgroup of elementary spike bursts. We discuss several requirements for a model of the impulsive burst which come out from these observational results, and propose a migrating double-source model. (orig.)

  2. Quasi-simultaneous observations of BL Lac object Mrk 501 in X-ray, UV, visible, IR, and radio frequencies (United States)

    Kondo, Y.; Worrall, D. M.; Oke, J. B.; Yee, H. K. C.; Neugebauer, G.; Matthews, K.; Feldman, P. A.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Hackney, R. L.; Hackney, K. R. H.


    Observations in the X-ray, UV, visible, IR and radio regions of the BL Lac object Mrk 501 made over the course of two months are reported. The measurements were made with the A2 experiment on HEAO 1 (X-ray), the SWP and LWR cameras on IUE (UV), the 5-m Hale telescope (visible), the 2.5-m telescope at Mount Wilson (IR), the NRAO 92-m radio telescope at Green Bank (4750 MHz) and the 46-m radio telescope at the Algonquin Observatory (10275 and 10650 MHz). The quasi-simultaneously observed spectral slope is found to be positive and continuous from the X-ray to the UV, but to gradually flatten and possibly turn down from the mid-UV to the visible; the optical-radio emission cannot be accounted for by a single power law. The total spectrum is shown to be compatible with a synchrotron self-Compton emission mechanism, while the spectrum from the visible to the X-ray is consistent with synchrotron radiation or inverse-Compton scattering by a hot thermal electron cloud. The continuity of the spectrum from the UV to the X-ray is noted to imply a total luminosity greater than previous estimates by a factor of 3-4.

  3. SHARP - V. Modelling gravitationally-lensed radio arcs imaged with global VLBI observations (United States)

    Spingola, C.; McKean, J. P.; Auger, M. W.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Lagattuta, D. J.; Vegetti, S.


    We present milliarcsecond (mas) angular resolution observations of the gravitationally lensed radio source MG J0751+2716 (at z = 3.2) obtained with global Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) at 1.65 GHz. The background object is highly resolved in the tangential and radial directions, showing evidence of both compact and extended structure across several gravitational arcs that are 200 to 600 mas in size. By identifying compact sub-components in the multiple images, we constrain the mass distribution of the foreground z = 0.35 gravitational lens using analytic models for the main deflector [power-law elliptical mass model; ρ(r)∝r-γ, where γ = 2 corresponds to isothermal] and for the members of the galaxy group. Moreover, our mass models with and without the group find an inner mass-density slope steeper than isothermal for the main lensing galaxy, with γ1 = 2.08 ± 0.02 and γ2 = 2.16 ± 0.02 at the 4.2σ level and 6.8σ level, respectively, at the Einstein radius (b1 = 0.4025 ± 0.0008 and b2 = 0.307 ± 0.002 arcsec, respectively). We find randomly distributed image position residuals of about 3 mas, which are much larger that the measurement errors (40 μas on average). This suggests that at the mas level, the assumption of a smooth mass distribution fails, requiring additional structure in the model. However, given the environment of the lensing galaxy, it is not clear whether this extra mass is in the form of sub-haloes within the lens or along the line of sight, or from a more complex halo for the galaxy group.

  4. A global perspective on atmospheric blocking using GPS radio occultation – one decade of observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Brunner


    Full Text Available Atmospheric blocking represents a weather pattern where a stationary high-pressure system weakens or reverses the climatological westerly flow at mid-latitudes for up to several weeks. It is closely connected to strong anomalies in key atmospheric variables such as geopotential height, temperature, and humidity. Here we provide, for the first time, a comprehensive, global perspective on atmospheric blocking and related impacts by using an observation-based data set from Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultation (RO from 2006 to 2016. The main blocking regions in both hemispheres and seasonal variations are found to be represented well in RO data. The effect of blocking on vertically resolved temperature and humidity anomalies in the troposphere and lower stratosphere is investigated for blocking regions in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, respectively. We find a statistically significant correlation of blocking with positive temperature anomalies, exceeding 3 K in the troposphere, and a reversal above the tropopause with negative temperature anomalies below −3 K in the lower stratosphere. Specific humidity is positively correlated with temperature throughout the troposphere with larger anomalies revealed in the Southern Hemisphere. At the eastern and equatorward side of the investigated blocking regions, a band of tropospheric cold anomalies reveals advection of cold air by anticyclonic motion around blocking highs, which is less distinct in the Southern Hemisphere due to stronger zonal flow. We find GPS RO to be a promising new data set for blocking research that gives insight into the vertical atmospheric structure, especially in light of the expected increase in data coverage that future missions will provide.

  5. Deep neutral hydrogen observations of Leo T with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (United States)

    Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Oosterloo, Tom A.


    Leo T is the lowest mass gas-rich galaxy currently known and studies of its gas content help us understand how such marginal galaxies survive and form stars. We present deep neutral hydrogen (H I) observations from the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope in order to understand its H I distribution and potential for star formation. We find a larger H I line flux than the previously accepted value, resulting in a 50% larger H I mass of 4.1 × 105 M⊙. The additional H I flux is from low surface brightness emission that was previously missed; with careful masking this emission can be recovered even in shallower data. We perform a Gaussian spectral decomposition to find a cool neutral medium component (CNM) with a mass of 3.7 × 104 M⊙, or almost 10% of the total H I mass. Leo T has no H I emission extending from the main H I body, but there is evidence of interaction with the Milky Way circumgalactic medium in both a potential truncation of the H I body and the offset of the peak H I distribution from the optical center. The CNM component of Leo T is large when compared to other dwarf galaxies, even though Leo T is not currently forming stars and has a lower star formation efficiency than other gas-rich dwarf galaxies. However, the H I column density associated with the CNM component in Leo T is low. One possible explanation is the large CNM component is not related to star formation potential but rather a recent, transient phenomenon related to the interaction of Leo T with the Milky Way circumgalactic medium. The reduced datacube (FITS file) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  6. A repeating fast radio burst. (United States)

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W


    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  7. Radio stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjellming, R.M.; Gibson, D.M.


    Studies of stellar radio emission became an important field of research in the 1970's and have now expanded to become a major area of radio astronomy with the advent of new instruments such as the Very Large Array in New Mexico and transcontinental telescope arrays. This volume contains papers from the workshop on stellar continuum radio astronomy held in Boulder, Colorado, and is the first book on the rapidly expanding field of radio emission from stars and stellar systems. Subjects covered include the observational and theoretical aspects of stellar winds from both hot and cool stars, radio flares from active double star systems and red dwarf stars, bipolar flows from star-forming regions, and the radio emission from X-ray binaries. (orig.)

  8. X-Ray Observations of Optically Selected, Radio-quiet Quasars. I. The ASCA Results (United States)

    George, I. M.; Turner, T. J.; Yaqoob, T.; Netzer, H.; Laor, A.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Nandra, K.; Takahashi, T.


    We present the result of 27 ASCA observations of 26 radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) from the Palomar-Green (PG) survey. The sample is not statistically complete, but it is reasonably representative of RQQs in the PG survey. For many of the sources, the ASCA data are presented here for the first time. All the RQQs were detected except for two objects, both of which contain broad absorption lines in the optical band. We find the variability characteristics of the sources to be consistent with Seyfert 1 galaxies. A power law offers an acceptable description of the time-averaged spectra in the 2-10 keV (quasar frame) band for all but one data set. The best-fitting values of the photon index vary from object to object over the range 1.5~=2 and dispersion σ(Γ2-10)~=0.25. The distribution of Γ2-10 is therefore similar to that observed in other RQ active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and seems to be unrelated to X-ray luminosity. No single model adequately describes the full 0.6-10 keV (observed frame) continuum of all the RQQs. Approximately 50% of the sources can be adequately described by a single power law or by a power law with only very subtle deviations. All but one of the remaining data sets were found to have convex spectra (flattening as one moves to higher energies). The exception is PG 1411+442, in which a substantial column density (NH,z~2x1023 cm-2) obscures ~98% of the continuum. We find only five (maybe six) of 14 objects with z<~0.25 to have ``soft excesses'' at energies <~1 keV, but we find no universal shape for these spectral components. The spectrum of PG 1244+026 contains a rather narrow emission feature centered at an energy ~1 keV (quasar frame). The detection rate of absorption due to ionized material in these RQQs is lower than that seen in Seyfert 1 galaxies. In part, this may be due to selection effects. However, when detected, the absorbers in the RQQs exhibit a similar range of column density and ionization parameter as Seyfert 1 galaxies. We find


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Poonam [Department of Physics, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON K7K 7B4 (Canada); Chevalier, Roger A.; Irwin, Christopher M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Chugai, Nikolai [Institute of Astronomy of Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyatnitskaya Street 48, 109017 Moscow (Russian Federation); Fransson, Claes [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Soderberg, Alicia M. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS-20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chakraborti, Sayan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Immler, Stefan, E-mail: [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    We report four years of radio and X-ray monitoring of the Type IIn supernova SN 2006jd at radio wavelengths with the Very Large Array, Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, and Expanded Very Large Array; at X-ray wavelengths with Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift-XRT. We assume that the radio and X-ray emitting particles are produced by shock interaction with a dense circumstellar medium. The radio emission shows an initial rise that can be attributed to free-free absorption by cool gas mixed into the nonthermal emitting region; external free-free absorption is disfavored because of the shape of the rising light curves and the low gas column density inferred along the line of sight to the emission region. The X-ray luminosity implies a preshock circumstellar density {approx}10{sup 6} cm{sup -3} at a radius r {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm, but the column density inferred from the photoabsorption of X-rays along the line of sight suggests a significantly lower density. The implication may be an asymmetry in the interaction. The X-ray spectrum shows Fe line emission at 6.9 keV that is stronger than is expected for the conditions in the X-ray emitting gas. We suggest that cool gas mixed into the hot gas plays a role in the line emission. Our radio and X-ray data both suggest the density profile is flatter than r{sup -2} because of the slow evolution of the unabsorbed emission.

  10. Observations of a post-flare radio burst in X-rays (United States)

    Svestka, Z.; Hoyng, P.; Van Tend, W.; Boelee, A.; De Jager, C.; Stewart, R. T.; Acton, L. W.; Bruner, E. C.; Gabriel, A. H.; Rapley, C. G.


    More than six hours after the two-ribbon flare of May 21, 1980, the hard X-ray spectrometer aboard the SMM imaged an extensive arch above the flare region which was found to be the lowest part of a stationary post-flare noise storm recorded at the same time at Culgoora. The bent crystal spectrometer aboard the SMM confirms that the arch emission was basically thermal. Variations in brightness and energy spectrum at one of the supposed footpoints of the arch are seen as correlation in time with radio brightness, suggesting that suprathermal particles from the radio noise regions dumped in variable quantities onto the low corona and transition layer.

  11. Broad Line Radio Galaxies Observed with Fermi-LAT: The Origin of the GeV Gamma-Ray Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, J.; /Waseda U., RISE; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Takahashi, Y.; /Waseda U., RISE; Cheung, C.C.; /Natl. Acad. Sci. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Hayashida, M.; /SLAC /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Grandi, P.; /Bologna Observ.; Burnett, T.H.; /Washington U., Seattle; Celotti, A.; /SISSA, Trieste; Fegan, S.J.; Fortin, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Maeda, K.; Nakamori, T.; /Waseda U., RISE; Taylor, G.B.; /New Mexico U.; Tosti, G.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Digel, S.W.; /SLAC /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; McConville, W.; /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U.; Finke, J.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; D' Ammando, F.; /IASF, Palermo /INAF, Rome


    We report on a detailed investigation of the {gamma}-ray emission from 18 broad line radio galaxies (BLRGs) based on two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. We confirm the previously reported detections of 3C 120 and 3C 111 in the GeV photon energy range; a detailed look at the temporal characteristics of the observed {gamma}-ray emission reveals in addition possible flux variability in both sources. No statistically significant {gamma}-ray detection of the other BLRGs was however found in the considered dataset. Though the sample size studied is small, what appears to differentiate 3C 111 and 3C 120 from the BLRGs not yet detected in {gamma}-rays is the particularly strong nuclear radio flux. This finding, together with the indications of the {gamma}-ray flux variability and a number of other arguments presented, indicate that the GeV emission of BLRGs is most likely dominated by the beamed radiation of relativistic jets observed at intermediate viewing angles. In this paper we also analyzed a comparison sample of high accretion-rate Seyfert 1 galaxies, which can be considered radio-quiet counterparts of BLRGs, and found none were detected in {gamma}-rays. A simple phenomenological hybrid model applied for the broad-band emission of the discussed radio-loud and radio-quiet type 1 active galaxies suggests that the relative contribution of the nuclear jets to the accreting matter is {ge} 1% on average for BLRGs, while {le} 0.1% for Seyfert 1 galaxies.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombesi, F.; Sambruna, R. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Reeves, J. N.; Gofford, J.; Braito, V.; Ballo, L.; Cappi, M.


    We present the results of a uniform and systematic search for blueshifted Fe K absorption lines in the X-ray spectra of five bright broad-line radio galaxies observed with Suzaku. We detect, for the first time in radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at X-rays, several absorption lines at energies greater than 7 keV in three out of five sources, namely, 3C 111, 3C 120, and 3C 390.3. The lines are detected with high significance according to both the F-test and extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Their likely interpretation as blueshifted Fe XXV and Fe XXVI K-shell resonance lines implies an origin from highly ionized gas outflowing with mildly relativistic velocities, in the range v ≅ 0.04-0.15c. A fit with specific photoionization models gives ionization parameters in the range log ξ ≅ 4-5.6 erg s -1 cm and column densities of N H ≅ 10 22 -10 23 cm -2 . These characteristics are very similar to those of the ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) previously observed in radio-quiet AGNs. Their estimated location within ∼0.01-0.3 pc of the central super-massive black hole suggests a likely origin related with accretion disk winds/outflows. Depending on the absorber covering fraction, the mass outflow rate of these UFOs can be comparable to the accretion rate and their kinetic power can correspond to a significant fraction of the bolometric luminosity and is comparable to their typical jet power. Therefore, these UFOs can play a significant role in the expected feedback from the AGN to the surrounding environment and can give us further clues on the relation between the accretion disk and the formation of winds/jets in both radio-quiet and radio-loud AGNs.

  13. Radio Observations of Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources ---Microblazars or Intermediate-Mass Black Holes?--- (United States)

    Körding, E.; Colbert, E.; Falcke, H.

    In recent years Ultra-Luminous X-Ray sources (ULXs) received wide attention, however, their true nature is not yet understood. Many explanations have been suggested, including intermediate-mass black holes, super-Eddington accretion flows, anisotropic emission, and relativistic beaming of microquasars. We model the logN-logS distribution of ULXs assuming that each neutron star or black hole XRB can be described by an accretion disk plus jet model, where the jet is relativistically beamed. The distribution can be either fit by intermediate-mass black holes or by stellar mass black holes with mildly relativistic jets. Even though the jet is intrinsically weaker than the accretion disk, relativistic beaming can in the latter approach lead to the high fluxes observed. To further explore the possibility of microblazars contributing to the ULX phenomenon, we have embarked on a radio-monitoring study of ULXs in nearby galaxies with the VLA. However, up to now no radio flare has been detected. Using the radio/X-ray correlation the upper limits on the radio flux can be converted into upper limits for the black hole masses of MBH ≲ 10^3 M⊙.

  14. Radio-quiet Gamma-ray Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupin Chun-Che Lin


    Full Text Available A radio-quiet γ-ray pulsar is a neutron star that has significant γ-ray pulsation but without observed radio emission or only limited emission detected by high sensitivity radio surveys. The launch of the Fermi spacecraft in 2008 opened a new epoch to study the population of these pulsars. In the 2nd Fermi Large Area Telescope catalog of γ-ray pulsars, there are 35 (30 % of the 117 pulsars in the catalog known samples classified as radio-quiet γ-ray pulsars with radio flux density (S1400 of less than 30 μJy. Accompanying the observations obtained in various wavelengths, astronomers not only have the opportunity to study the emitting nature of radio-quiet γ-ray pulsars but also have proposed different models to explain their radiation mechanism. This article will review the history of the discovery, the emission properties, and the previous efforts to study pulsars in this population. Some particular cases known as Geminga-like pulsars (e.g., PSR J0633+1746, PSR J0007+7303, PSR J2021+4026, and so on are also to specified discuss their common and specific features.

  15. Receiver system for radio observation of high-energy cosmic ray air showers and its behaviour in self trigger mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroemer, Oliver


    The observation of high-energy cosmic rays is carried out by indirect measurements. Thereby the primary cosmic particle enters into the earth's atmosphere and generates a cosmic ray air shower by interactions with the air molecules. The secondary particles arriving at ground level are detected with particle detector arrays. The fluorescence light from the exited nitrogen molecules along the shower axis is observed with reflector telescopes in the near-ultraviolet range. In addition to these well-established detection methods, the radio observation of the geosynchrotron emission from cosmic ray air showers is investigated at present as a new observation method. Geosynchrotron emission is generated by the acceleration of the relativistic electron-positron-pairs contained in the air shower by Lorentz forces in the earth's magnetic field. At ground level this causes a single pulse of the electric field strength with a continuous frequency spectrum ranging from a few MHz to above 100 MHz. In this work, a suitable receiver concept is developed based on the signal properties of the geosynchrotron emission and the analysis of the superposed noise and radio frequency interferences. As the required receiver system was not commercially available, it was designed in the framework of this work and realised as system including the antenna, the receiver electronics and suitable data acquisition equipment. In this concept considerations for a large scale radio detector array have already been taken into account, like low power consumption to enable solar power supply and cost effectiveness. The result is a calibrated, multi-channel, digital wideband receiver for the complete range from 40 MHz to 80 MHz. Its inherent noise and RFI suppression essentially results from the antenna directional characteristic and frequency selectivity and allows effective radio observation of cosmic ray air showers also in populated environment. Several units of this receiver station have been deployed

  16. Optimizing commensality of radio continuum and spectral line observations in the era of the SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddox, Natasha; Jarvis, M. J.; Oosterloo, T. A.


    The substantial decrease in star formation density from z = 1 to the present day is curious given the relatively constant neutral gas density over the same epoch. Future radio astronomy facilities, including the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and pathfinder telescopes, will provide pioneering measures

  17. A synthetic aperture radio telescope for ICME observations as a potential payload of SPORT (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Sun, W.; Liu, H.; Xiong, M.; Liu, Y. D.; Wu, J.


    We introduce a potential payload for the Solar Polar ORbit Telescope (SPORT), a space weather mission proposed by the National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This is a synthetic aperture radio imager designed to detect radio emissions from interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), which is expected to be an important instrument to monitor the propagation and evolution of ICMEs. The radio telescope applies a synthetic aperture interferometric technique to measure the brightness temperature of ICMEs. Theoretical calculations of the brightness temperature utilizing statistical properties of ICMEs and the background solar wind indicate that ICMEs within 0.35 AU from the Sun are detectable by a radio telescope at a frequency <= 150 MHz with a sensitivity of <=1 K. The telescope employs a time shared double rotation scan (also called a clock scan), where two coplanar antennas revolve around a fixed axis at different radius and speed, to fulfill sampling of the brightness temperature. An array of 4+4 elements with opposite scanning directions are developed for the radio telescope to achieve the required sensitivity (<=1K) within the imaging refreshing time (~30 minutes). This scan scheme is appropriate for a three-axis stabilized spacecraft platform while keeping a good sampling pattern. We also discuss how we select the operating frequency, which involves a trade-off between the engineering feasibility and the scientific goal. Our preliminary results indicate that the central frequency of 150 MHz with a bandwidth of 20 MHz, which requires arm lengths of the two groups of 14m and 16m, respectively, gives an angular resolution of 2°, a field of view of ×25° around the Sun, and a time resolution of 30 minutes.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, S. R.; Carpenter, John; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Ofek, Eran O.; Fox, Derek B.; Quimby, Robert; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Cenko, S. Bradley; De Bruyn, A. G.; Kamble, Atish; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Van der Horst, Alexander J.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Sullivan, Mark; Maguire, Kate; Howell, D. Andrew; Nugent, Peter E.; Gehrels, Neil


    On 2011 August 24 (UT) the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) discovered PTF11kly (SN 2011fe), the youngest and most nearby Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in decades. We followed this event up in the radio (centimeter and millimeter bands) and X-ray bands, starting about a day after the estimated explosion time. We present our analysis of the radio and X-ray observations, yielding the tightest constraints yet placed on the pre-explosion mass-loss rate from the progenitor system of this supernova. We find a robust limit of M-dot ∼ -8 (w/100 km s -1 ) M sun yr -1 from sensitive X-ray non-detections, as well as a similar limit from radio data, which depends, however, on assumptions about microphysical parameters. We discuss our results in the context of single-degenerate models for SNe Ia and find that our observations modestly disfavor symbiotic progenitor models involving a red giant donor, but cannot constrain systems accreting from main-sequence or sub-giant stars, including the popular supersoft channel. In view of the proximity of PTF11kly and the sensitivity of our prompt observations, we would have to wait for a long time (a decade or longer) in order to more meaningfully probe the circumstellar matter of SNe Ia.

  19. Orbiting Water Molecules Dance to Tune Of Galaxy's "Central Engine," Astronomers Say (United States)


    A disk of water molecules orbiting a supermassive black hole at the core of a galaxy 60 million light-years away is "reverberating" in response to variations in the energy output from the galaxy's powerful "central engine" close to the black hole, astronomers say. The team of astronomers used the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico and the 100-meter-diameter radio telescope of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy at Effelsberg, Germany, to observe the galaxy NGC 1068 in the constellation Cetus. They announced their findings today at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Atlanta. The water molecules, in a disk some 5 light-years in diameter, are acting as a set of giant cosmic radio-wave amplifiers, called masers. Using energy radiated by the galaxy's "central engine," the molecules strengthen, or brighten, radio emission at a particular frequency as seen from Earth. "We have seen variations in the radio 'brightness' of these cosmic amplifiers that we believe were caused by variations in the energy output of the central engine," said Jack Gallimore, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, VA. "This could provide us with a valuable new tool for learning about the central engine itself," he added. Gallimore worked with Stefi Baum of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, MD; Christian Henkel of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany; Ian Glass of the South African Astronomical Observatory; Mark Claussen of the NRAO in Socorro, NM; and Almudena Prieto of the European Southern Observatory in Munich, Germany. "Our observations show that NGC 1068 is the second-known case of a giant disk of water molecules orbiting a supermassive black hole at a galaxy's core," Gallimore said. The first case was the galaxy NGC 4258 (Messier 106), whose disk of radio-amplifying water molecules was measured by the NSF's Very Long Baseline

  20. ISO Results Presented at International Astronomical Union (United States)


    this study of Cassiopeia A. "With ISO's camera we can pick out emissions from various elements, and we find that clumps of hot material flung out from the star evolve directly into corresponding clumps of dust." In contrast the Trifid Nebula is region of rebirth, where massive stars of a new generation are forming. Seen by visible light, hot young stars light up a large cloud of gas. It is criss-crossed by dark dust clouds which divide the bright nebula and give it its name. An infrared image from ISO shows a remarkable change in appearance. The dark clouds become luminous and the bright regions are dark. By its trick of penetrating the dust, ISO reveals dense regions inside the obscuring clouds, where new stars are forming. The cosmic egg from which a star will hatch One prize sought by ISO astronomers has been the detection of the earliest stages of star formation. Pre-stellar cores are egg-like objects hidden within a larger dust cloud. A cold, thick shell of dust obscures the interior, where gas collapses under gravity to make an embryonic star. By the time the dust has dispersed, and the object inside has hatched as a plainly visible star, the main event of star formation is complete. In the earliest stages, only radio waves and far-infrared rays can escape from the dust cloud, allowing us to observe the real origins of the stars. Derek Ward-Thompson of the Royal Observatory Edinburgh (UK) and his colleagues at Cambridge University and in France, first detected the pre-stellar core L1689B, using observations at sub-millimetre radio wavelengths, in the constellation Ophiuchus. It is a very young pre-stellar core, on the brink of collapsing to form a new star. Now the team has used ISO to make the first infrared images of L1689B using the photometer ISOPHOT at long infrared wavelengths, up to its limit of 200 microns. The shell of dust is so cold, at roughly minus 260 degrees Centigrade (or 13 K), it is undetectable even at short or medium infrared wavelengths

  1. A novel type of very long baseline astronomical intensity interferometer (United States)

    Borra, Ermanno F.


    This article presents a novel type of very long baseline astronomical interferometer that uses the fluctuations, as a function of time, of the intensity measured by a quadratic detector, which is a common type of astronomical detector. The theory on which the technique is based is validated by laboratory experiments. Its outstanding principal advantages comes from the fact that the angular structure of an astronomical object is simply determined from the visibility of the minima of the spectrum of the intensity fluctuations measured by the detector, as a function of the frequency of the fluctuations, while keeping the spacing between mirrors constant. This would allow a simple setup capable of high angular resolutions because it could use an extremely large baseline. Another major interest is that it allows for a more efficient use of telescope time because observations at a single baseline are sufficient, while amplitude and intensity interferometers need several observations at different baselines. The fact that one does not have to move the telescopes would also allow detecting faster time variations because having to move the telescopes sets a lower limit to the time variations that can be detected. The technique uses wave interaction effects and thus has some characteristics in common with intensity interferometry. A disadvantage of the technique, like in intensity interferometry, is that it needs strong sources if observing at high frequencies (e.g. the visible). This is a minor disadvantage in the radio region. At high frequencies, this disadvantage is mitigated by the fact that, like in intensity interferometry, the requirements of the optical quality of the mirrors used are far less severe than in amplitude interferometry so that poor quality large reflectors (e.g. Cherenkov telescopes) can be used in the optical region.

  2. Coronal mass ejection kinematics deduced from white light (Solar Mass Ejection Imager) and radio (Wind/WAVES) observations (United States)

    Reiner, M. J.; Jackson, B. V.; Webb, D. F.; Mizuno, D. R.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.


    White-light and radio observations are combined to deduce the coronal and interplanetary kinematics of a fast coronal mass ejection (CME) that was ejected from the Sun at about 1700 UT on 2 November 2003. The CME, which was associated with an X8.3 solar flare from W56°, was observed by the Mauna Loa and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large-Angle Spectrometric Coronograph (LASCO) coronagraphs to 14 R⊙. The measured plane-of-sky speed of the LASCO CME was 2600 km s-1. To deduce the kinematics of this CME, we use the plane-of-sky white light observations from both the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) all-sky camera on board the Coriolis spacecraft and the SOHO/LASCO coronagraph, as well as the frequency drift rate of the low-frequency radio data and the results of the radio direction-finding analysis from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft. In agreement with the in situ observations for this event, we find that both the white light and radio observations indicate that the CME must have decelerated significantly beginning near the Sun and continuing well into the interplanetary medium. More specifically, by requiring self-consistency of all the available remote and in situ data, together with a simple, but not unreasonable, assumption about the general characteristic of the CME deceleration, we were able to deduce the radial speed and distance time profiles for this CME as it propagated from the Sun to 1 AU. The technique presented here, which is applicable to mutual SMEI/WAVES CME events, is expected to provide a more complete description and better quantitative understanding of how CMEs propagate through interplanetary space, as well as how the radio emissions, generated by propagating CME/shocks, relate to the shock and CME. This understanding can potentially lead to more accurate predictions for the onset times of space weather events, such as those that were observed during this unique period of intense solar activity.

  3. Closing remarks: astronomical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecker, J.-C.


    During the discussions we have covered many facets of the basic interactions between solar activity and the Earth's climate. Solar activity is not the only astronomical or astrophysical phenomenon to influence physical conditions in the biosphere. Over timescales an order of magnitude less, the location of the Solar System in the Galaxy may have influenced life on Earth. The Sun is a complex generator of radiation, particles and magnetic fields sent far into space. Even if the total radiation emitted is constant, the amount of radiation received by the Earth changes with time: this change is complex and involved with a redistribution of energy emitted at different solar latitudes than to a real change in solar luminosity. These changes in the Earth's illumination may be a function of the wavelength, and have various effects in different layers of the Earth's atmosphere. The Sun also emits particles of all energies. Some of them find their way through the magnetopause, giving rise to auroras, to magnetic storms, to ionospheric disturbances and the like. The possible climatological effects are yet obscure. To understand the solar terrestrial relations better, regular, routine observations from ground-based stations and from space of solar phenomena must be continued. The sensitivity of human life to small changes in climatic conditions is very large. A good knowledge of solar-physics is therefore important and relevant. (author)

  4. Astronomers Discover Fastest-Spinning Pulsar (United States)


    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope have discovered the fastest-spinning neutron star ever found, a 20-mile-diameter superdense pulsar whirling faster than the blades of a kitchen blender. Their work yields important new information about the nature of one of the most exotic forms of matter known in the Universe. Pulsar Graphic Pulsars Are Spinning Neutron Stars CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version) "We believe that the matter in neutron stars is denser than an atomic nucleus, but it is unclear by how much. Our observations of such a rapidly rotating star set a hard upper limit on its size, and hence on how dense the star can be.," said Jason Hessels, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal. Hessels and his colleagues presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its "normal" life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name "neutron star." "Neutron stars are incredible laboratories for learning about the physics of the fundamental particles of nature, and this pulsar has given us an important new limit," explained Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and one of Hessels' collaborators on this work. The scientists discovered the pulsar, named PSR J1748-2446ad, in a globular cluster of stars called Terzan 5, located some 28,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. The newly-discovered pulsar is spinning 716 times per second, or at 716 Hertz (Hz), readily beating the previous record of 642 Hz from a pulsar


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicken, D.; Tadhunter, C.; Axon, D.; Morganti, R.; Inskip, K. J.; Holt, J.; Delgado, R. Gonzalez; Groves, B.


    We present an analysis of deep mid- to far-infrared (MFIR) Spitzer photometric observations of the southern 2Jy sample of powerful radio sources (0.05 radio jet, active galactic nucleus (AGN), starburst activity and MFIR

  6. Infrared-faint radio sources remain undetected at far-infrared wavelengths. Deep photometric observations using the Herschel Space Observatory (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Spitler, L. R.; Leipski, C.; Parker, Q. A.


    Context. Showing 1.4 GHz flux densities in the range of a few to a few tens of mJy, infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a type of galaxy characterised by faint or absent near-infrared counterparts and consequently extreme radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousand. Recent studies showed that IFRS are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at redshifts ≳2, potentially linked to high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs). Aims: This work explores the far-infrared emission of IFRS, providing crucial information on the star forming and AGN activity of IFRS. Furthermore, the data enable examining the putative relationship between IFRS and HzRGs and testing whether IFRS are more distant or fainter siblings of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of six IFRS was observed with the Herschel Space Observatory between 100 μm and 500 μm. Using these results, we constrained the nature of IFRS by modelling their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Furthermore, we set an upper limit on their infrared SED and decomposed their emission into contributions from an AGN and from star forming activity. Results: All six observed IFRS were undetected in all five Herschel far-infrared channels (stacking limits: σ = 0.74 mJy at 100 μm, σ = 3.45 mJy at 500 μm). Based on our SED modelling, we ruled out the following objects to explain the photometric characteristics of IFRS: (a) known radio-loud quasars and compact steep-spectrum sources at any redshift; (b) starburst galaxies with and without an AGN and Seyfert galaxies at any redshift, even if the templates were modified; and (c) known HzRGs at z ≲ 10.5. We find that the IFRS analysed in this work can only be explained by objects that fulfil the selection criteria of HzRGs. More precisely, IFRS could be (a) known HzRGs at very high redshifts (z ≳ 10.5); (b) low-luminosity siblings of HzRGs with additional dust obscuration at lower redshifts; (c) scaled or unscaled versions of Cygnus A at any

  7. Goniopolarimetric inversion using SVD: An application to type III radio bursts observed by STEREO

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupař, Vratislav; Santolík, Ondřej; Cecconi, B.; Maksimovic, M.; Bonnin, X.; Panchenko, M.; Zaslavsky, A.


    Roč. 117, A6 (2012), A06101/1-A06101/11 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2394; GA MŠk ME09107 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : radio radiation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.174, year: 2012


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Ryan S.; Archibald, Robert F.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Scholz, Paul, E-mail: [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada)


    We present results from eight months of Green Bank Telescope 8.7 GHz observations and nearly 18 months of Swift X-ray telescope observations of the radio magnetar SGR J1745–2900. We tracked the radio and X-ray flux density, polarization properties, profile evolution, rotation, and single-pulse behavior. We identified two main periods of activity. The first is characterized by approximately 5.5 months of relatively stable evolution in radio flux density, rotation, and profile shape, while in the second these properties varied substantially. Specifically, a third profile component emerged and the radio flux also became more variable. The single pulse properties also changed, most notably with a larger fraction of pulses with pulse widths ∼5–20 ms in the erratic state. Bright single pulses are well described by a log-normal energy distribution at low energies, but with an excess at high energies. The 2–10 keV flux decayed steadily since the initial X-ray outburst, while the radio flux remained stable to within ∼20% during the stable state. A joint pulsar timing analysis of the radio and X-ray data shows a level of timing noise unprecedented in a radio magnetar, though during the time covered by the radio data alone the timing noise was at a level similar to that observed in other radio magnetars. While SGR J1745–2900 is similar to other radio magnetars in many regards, it differs by having experienced a period of relative stability in the radio that now appears to have ended, while the X-ray properties evolved independently.

  9. Interplanetary scintillation observations of an unbiased sample of 90 Ooty occultation radio sources at 326.5 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banhatti, D.G.; Ananthakrishnan, S.


    We present 327-MHz interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations of an unbiased sample of 90 extragalactic radio sources selected from the ninth Ooty lunar occultation list. The sources are brighter than 0.75 Jy at 327 MHz and lie outside the galactic plane. We derive values, the fraction of scintillating flux density, and the equivalent Gaussian diameter for the scintillating structure. Various correlations are found between the observed parameters. In particular, the scintillating component weakens and broadens with increasing largest angular size, and stronger scintillators have more compact scintillating components. (author)

  10. Astronomical publications of Melbourne Observatory (United States)

    Andropoulos, Jenny Ioanna


    During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, four well-equipped government observatories were maintained in Australia - in Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide and Perth. These institutions conducted astronomical observations, often in the course of providing a local time service, and they also collected and collated meteorological data. As well, some of these observatories were involved at times in geodetic surveying, geomagnetic recording, gravity measurements, seismology, tide recording and physical standards, so the term "observatory" was being used in a rather broad sense! Despite the international renown that once applied to Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories, relatively little has been written by modern-day scholars about astronomical activities at these observatories. This research is intended to rectify this situation to some extent by gathering, cataloguing and analysing the published astronomical output of the two Observatories to see what contributions they made to science and society. It also compares their contributions with those of Sydney, Adelaide and Perth Observatories. Overall, Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories produced a prodigious amount of material on astronomy in scientific and technical journals, in reports and in newspapers. The other observatories more or less did likewise, so no observatory of those studied markedly outperformed the others in the long term, especially when account is taken of their relative resourcing in staff and equipment.

  11. Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Govert


    Four hundred years ago in Middelburg, in the Netherlands, the telescope was invented. The invention unleashed a revolution in the exploration of the universe. Galileo Galilei discovered mountains on the Moon, spots on the Sun, and moons around Jupiter. Christiaan Huygens saw details on Mars and rings around Saturn. William Herschel discovered a new planet and mapped binary stars and nebulae. Other astronomers determined the distances to stars, unraveled the structure of the Milky Way, and discovered the expansion of the universe. And, as telescopes became bigger and more powerful, astronomers delved deeper into the mysteries of the cosmos. In his Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries, astronomy journalist Govert Schilling tells the story of 400 years of telescopic astronomy. He looks at the 100 most important discoveries since the invention of the telescope. In his direct and accessible style, the author takes his readers on an exciting journey encompassing the highlights of four centuries of astronomy. Spectacul...

  12. Constraining Magnetic Field Amplification in SN Shocks Using Radio Observations of SNe 2011fe and 2014J (United States)

    Kundu, E.; Lundqvist, P.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Herrero-Illana, R.; Alberdi, A.


    We modeled the radio non-detection of two Type Ia supernovae (SNe), SN 2011fe and SN 2014J, considering synchrotron emission from the interaction between SN ejecta and the circumstellar medium. For ejecta whose outer parts have a power-law density structure, we compare synchrotron emission with radio observations. Assuming that 20% of the bulk shock energy is being shared equally between electrons and magnetic fields, we found a very low-density medium around both the SNe. A less tenuous medium with particle density ˜1 cm-3, which could be expected around both SNe, can be estimated when the magnetic field amplification is less than that presumed for energy equipartition. This conclusion also holds if the progenitor of SN 2014J was a rigidly rotating white dwarf (WD) with a main-sequence (MS) or red giant companion. For a He star companion, or a MS for SN 2014J, with 10% and 1% of bulk kinetic energy in magnetic fields, we obtain mass-loss rates of 99% onto the WD, but is less restricted for the latter case. However, if the tenuous medium is due to a recurrent nova, it is difficult from our model to predict synchrotron luminosities. Although the formation channels of SNe 2011fe and 2014J are not clear, the null detection in radio wavelengths could point toward a low amplification efficiency for magnetic fields in SN shocks.

  13. Summary of daily observational results of solar phenomena, cosmic ray, geomagnetic variation, ionosphere, radio wave propagation and airglow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The diagrams in this section of the publication illustrate the summary of daily observational results of solar phenomena, cosmic ray, geomagnetic variation, ionosphere, radio wave propagation and airglow observed in Japan. For convenience, the observational results are arranged by the solar rotation number. The aim of this illustration is to disseminate an outline of daily events observed in Japan for the benefit of active research workers who plan to make detailed study of the specific solar and terrestrial events. Therefore, the illustrations do not show all observational results in Japan but only representative ones at some key stations in Japan. They will suffice for the present purpose. The method of illustration shown in the instruction on the next page is still a preliminary one, and it is subject to change resulting from the kind advice of the users of this part of the publication. We welcome any advice for making the data arrangement and expression better and more convenient. (auth.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosero, V.; Hofner, P. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Pl., Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Claussen, M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Rd., Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S.; Carrasco-González, C.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Loinard, L. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58090, México (Mexico); Cesaroni, R. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F. [Max-Planck-Institute für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ellingsen, S. P. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)


    We present a high-sensitivity radio continuum survey at 6 and 1.3 cm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array toward a sample of 58 high-mass star-forming regions. Our sample was chosen from dust clumps within infrared dark clouds with and without IR sources (CMC–IRs and CMCs, respectively), and hot molecular cores (HMCs), with no previous, or relatively weak radio continuum detection at the 1 mJy level. Due to the improvement in the continuum sensitivity of the Very Large Array, this survey achieved map rms levels of ∼3–10  μ Jy beam{sup −1} at sub-arcsecond angular resolution. We extracted 70 continuum sources associated with 1.2 mm dust clumps. Most sources are weak, compact, and prime candidates for high-mass protostars. Detection rates of radio sources associated with the millimeter dust clumps for CMCs, CMC–IRs, and HMCs are 6%, 53%, and 100%, respectively. This result is consistent with increasing high-mass star formation activity from CMCs to HMCs. The radio sources located within HMCs and CMC–IRs occur close to the dust clump centers, with a median offset from it of 12,000 au and 4000 au, respectively. We calculated 5–25 GHz spectral indices using power-law fits and obtained a median value of 0.5 (i.e., flux increasing with frequency), suggestive of thermal emission from ionized jets. In this paper we describe the sample, observations, and detections. The analysis and discussion will be presented in Paper II.

  15. OLFAR - Orbiting low frequency antennas for radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan


    One of the last unexplored frequency ranges in radio astronomy is the frequency band below 30 MHz. New interesting astronomical science drivers for low frequency radio astronomy have emerged, ranging from studies of the astronomical dark ages, the epoch of reionization, exoplanets, to ultra-high

  16. Spectrum monitoring: Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI) profile for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was crucial to monitor the Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) in order to conduct the radio astronomical research with very minimum RFI. These RFI will be distorted the astronomical data. In this work, we have investigated the RFI strength (dBm) and presenting on how the nearby RFI affect to the OH lines window (1600 ...

  17. Radio and X-Ray Observations of the 1998 Outburst of the Recurrent X-Ray Transient 4U 1630-47 (United States)

    Hjellming, R. M.; Rupen, M. P.; Mioduszewski, A. J.; Kuulkers, E.; McCollough, M.; Harmon, B. A.; Buxton, M.; Sood, R.; Tzioumis, A.; Rayner, D.; Dieters, S.; Durouchoux, P.


    We report radio (NRAO VLA and Australia Telescope Compact Array), soft X-ray (Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer ASM), and hard X-ray (Compton Gamma Ray Observatory BATSE) observations of a 1998 outburst in the recurring X-ray transient 4U 1630-47, where radio emission was detected for the first time. The radio observations identify the position of 4U 1630-47 to within 1". Because the radio emission is optically thin with a spectral index of ~-0.8 during the rise, peak, and decay of the initial radio event, the emission is probably coming from an optically thin radio jet ejected over a period of time. The 20-100 keV emission first appeared 1998 January 28 (MJD 50841), the 2-12 keV emission first appeared 1998 February 3 (MJD 50847), and the first radio emission was detected 1998 February 12.6 (MJD 50856.6). The rise of the radio emission probably began about 1998 February 7 (MJD 50851) when the X-rays were in a very hard fluctuating-hardness state, just before changing to a softer, more stable hardness state.

  18. Astronomers Get Closest Look Yet At Milky Way's Mysterious Core (United States)


    Astronomers have gotten their deepest glimpse into the heart of our Milky Way Galaxy, peering closer to the supermassive black hole at the Galaxy's core then ever before. Using the National Science Foundation's continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), they found that a radio-wave-emitting object at the Galaxy's center would nearly fit between the Earth and the Sun. This is half the size measured in any previous observation. "We're getting tantalizingly close to being able to see an unmistakable signature that would provide the first concrete proof of a supermassive black hole at a galaxy's center," said Zhi-Qiang Shen, of the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. A black hole is a concentration of mass so dense that not even light can escape its powerful gravitational pull. Milky Way Nucleus The Milky Way's nucleus, as seen with the VLA. Sagittarius A* is the bright white dot at center. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF, Jun-Hui Zhao, W.M. Goss (Click on Image for Larger Version) The astronomers used the VLBA to measure the size of an object called Sagittarius A* (pronounced "A-star") that marks the exact center of our Galaxy. Last year, a different team announced that their measurements showed the object would fit inside the complete circle of Earth's orbit around the Sun. Shen and his team, by observing at a higher radio frequency, measured Sagittarius A* as half that size. A mass equal to four million Suns is known to lie within Sagittarius A*, and the new measurement makes the case for a black hole even more compelling than it was previously. Scientists simply don't know of any long-lasting object other than a black hole that could contain this much mass in such a small area. However, they would like to see even stronger proof of a black hole. "The extremely strong gravitational pull of a black hole has several effects that would produce a distinctive 'shadow' that we think we could see if we can image details about half as small as

  19. Observations of neutral hydrogen in radio-loud and interacting galaxies (United States)

    Heckman, T. M.; Balick, B.; Van Breugel, W. J. W.; Miley, G. K.


    The results of a survey of H I in radio-loud and interacting galaxies is presented. Four cases of H I absorption and five of emission are reported. The interesting features found for individual galaxies are described, and the systematic properties are discussed. Column densities of absorbing gas generally exceed those expected for a 'Milky Way' H I disk by more than an order of magnitude. The absorbing gas must have a flattened, disklike morphology oriented roughly parallel to the optical disk of the galaxy. Turbulent noncircular gas motions are evidently present, which are shown to be almost certainly induced by galaxy-galaxy interactions. The set of galaxies in which H I absorption has been detected is dominated by morphologically peculiar objects. It is concluded that the detection of H I seen in absorption against a nuclear radio source permits direct determination of the sense of radial flow of extranuclear material, and is direct evidence that potential 'food' for a compact object in the nucleus exists in the galaxy.

  20. Sixteenth Century Astronomical Telescopy (United States)

    Usher, P. D.


    Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet is named for the ``moist star" which in mythology is the partner of Hamlet's royal Sun. Together the couple seem destined to rule on earth just as their celestial counterparts rule the heavens, but the tragedy is that they are afflicted, just as the Sun and Moon are blemished. In 1.3 Laertes lectures Ophelia on love and chastity, describing first Cytherean phases (crescent to gibbous) and then Lunar craters. Spots mar the Sun (1.1, 3.1). Also reported are Jupiter's Red Spot (3.4) and the resolution of the Milky Way into stars (2.2). These interpretations are well-founded and support the cosmic allegory. Observations must have been made with optical aid, probably the perspective glass of Leonard Digges, father of Thomas Digges. Notably absent from Hamlet is mention of the Galilean moons, owing perhaps to the narrow field-of-view of the telescope. That discovery is later celebrated in Cymbeline, published soon after Galileo's Siderius Nuncius in 1610. In 5.4 of Cymbeline the four ghosts dance ``in imitation of planetary motions" and at Jupiter's behest place a book on the chest of Posthumus Leonatus. His name identifies the Digges father and son as the source of data in Hamlet since Jupiter's moons were discovered after the deaths of Leonard (``leon+hart") and Thomas (the ``lion's whelp"). Lines in 5.4 urge us not to read more into the book than is contained between its covers; this is understandable because Hamlet had already reported the other data in support of heliocentricism and the cosmic model discussed and depicted by Thomas Digges in 1576. I conclude therefore that astronomical telescopy began in England before the last quarter of the sixteenth century.

  1. A refined Astronomically Calibrated 40AR/39Ar age for Fish Canyon Sanidine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera, T.A.; Storey, M.; Zeeden, C.; Hilgen, F.J.; Kuiper, K.F.


    Intercalibration between the astronomical and radio-isotopic dating methods provides a means to improving accuracy and reducing uncertainty of an integrated, multi-chronometer geologic timescale. Here we report a high-precision

  2. Methods in Astronomical Image Processing (United States)

    Jörsäter, S.

    A Brief Introductory Note History of Astronomical Imaging Astronomical Image Data Images in Various Formats Digitized Image Data Digital Image Data Philosophy of Astronomical Image Processing Properties of Digital Astronomical Images Human Image Processing Astronomical vs. Computer Science Image Processing Basic Tools of Astronomical Image Processing Display Applications Calibration of Intensity Scales Calibration of Length Scales Image Re-shaping Feature Enhancement Noise Suppression Noise and Error Analysis Image Processing Packages: Design of AIPS and MIDAS AIPS MIDAS Reduction of CCD Data Bias Subtraction Clipping Preflash Subtraction Dark Subtraction Flat Fielding Sky Subtraction Extinction Correction Deconvolution Methods Rebinning/Combining Summary and Prospects for the Future

  3. BOOK REVIEW: The Wandering Astronomer (United States)

    Swinbank, Elizabeth


    Fans of Patrick Moore will like this book. I enjoyed it more than I expected, having anticipated a collection of personal anecdotes of the type favoured by certain tedious after-dinner speakers. Some of the 41 short items it contains do tend towards that category, but there are also some nuggets which might enliven your physics teaching. For example, did you know that, in a murder trial in 1787, the defendant's belief that the Sun was inhabited was cited as evidence of his insanity? This was despite his views being shared by many astronomers of the day including William Herschel. Or that Clyde Tombaugh had a cat called Pluto after the planet he discovered, which was itself named by an eleven-year-old girl? Another gem concerns a brief flurry, in the early 1990s, over a suspected planet orbiting a pulsar; variations in the arrival time of its radio pulses indicated the presence of an orbiting body. These shifts were later found to arise from an error in a computer program that corrected for the Earth's motion. The programmer had assumed a circular orbit for the Earth whereas it is actually elliptical. The book is clearly intended for amateur astronomers and followers of Patrick Moore's TV programmes. There is plenty of astronomy, with an emphasis on the solar system, but very little astrophysics. The author's metricophobia means that quantities are given in imperial units throughout, with metric equivalents added in brackets (by an editor, I suspect) which can get irritating, particularly as powers-of-ten notation is avoided. It is quite a novelty to see the temperature for hydrogen fusion quoted as 18 000 000 °F (10 000 000 °C). By way of contrast, astronomical terms are used freely - ecliptic, first-magnitude star, and so on. Such terms are defined in a glossary at the end, but attention is not drawn to this and I only stumbled across it by chance. Patrick Moore obviously knows his public, and this book will serve them well. For physics teachers and students

  4. Cyclotron Line in Solar Microwave Radiation by Radio Telescope RATAN-600 Observations of the Solar Active Region NOAA 12182 (United States)

    Peterova, N. G.; Topchilo, N. A.


    This paper presents the results of observation of a rare phenomenon—a narrowband increase in the brightness of cyclotron radiation of one of the structural details of a radio source located in the solar corona above the solar active region NOAA 12182 in October 2014 at a frequency of 4.2 ± 0.1 GHz. The brightness of radiation in the maximum of the phenomenon has reached 10 MK; its duration was equal to 3 s. The exact location of the source of the narrowband cyclotron radiation is indicated: it is a corona above a fragmented (4-nuclear) sunspot, on which a small UV flare loop was closed.

  5. Observation and simulation of space-charge effects in a radio-frequency photoinjector using a transverse multibeamlet distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rihaoui


    Full Text Available We report on an experimental study of space-charge effects in a radio-frequency (rf photoinjector. A 5 MeV electron bunch, consisting of a number of beamlets separated transversely, was generated in an rf photocathode gun and propagated in the succeeding drift space. The collective interaction of these beamlets was studied for different experimental conditions. The experiment allowed the exploration of space-charge effects and its comparison with 3D particle-in-cell simulations. Our observations also suggest the possible use of a multibeam configuration to tailor the transverse distribution of an electron beam.

  6. ASURV: Astronomical SURVival Statistics (United States)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.; Isobe, T.; LaValley, M.


    ASURV (Astronomical SURVival Statistics) provides astronomy survival analysis for right- and left-censored data including the maximum-likelihood Kaplan-Meier estimator and several univariate two-sample tests, bivariate correlation measures, and linear regressions. ASURV is written in FORTRAN 77, and is stand-alone and does not call any specialized libraries.

  7. Korean Astronomical Calendar, Chiljeongsan (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hee

    In fifteenth century Korea, there was a grand project for the astronomical calendar and instrument making by the order of King Sejong 世宗 (1418-1450). During this period, many astronomical and calendrical books including Islamic sources in Chinese versions were imported from Ming 明 China, and corrected and researched by the court astronomers of Joseon 朝鮮 (1392-1910). Moreover, the astronomers and technicians of Korea frequently visited China to study astronomy and instrument making, and they brought back useful information in the form of new published books or specifications of instruments. As a result, a royal observatory equipped with 15 types of instrument was completed in 1438. Two types of calendar, Chiljeongsan Naepyeon 七政算內篇 and Chiljeongsan Oepyeon 七政算外篇, based on the Chinese and Islamic calendar systems, respectively, were published in 1444 with a number of calendrical editions such as corrections and example supplements (假令) including calculation methods and results for solar and lunar eclipses.

  8. Quasi-simultaneous observations of BL Lac object Mrk 501 in X-ray, UV, visible, IR, and radio frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; Worrall, D.M.; Mushotzky, R.F.; Hackney, R.L.; Hackney, K.R.H.; Oke, J.B.; Yee, H.K.C.; Neugebauer, G.; Matthews, K.; Feldman, P.A.; Brown, R.L.


    Quasi-simultaneous observations of the BL Lac object Mrk 501 were performed for the first time at X-ray, ultraviolet, visible infrared, and radio frequencies. As the BL Lac objects are known to vary in their flux, such a ''quasi-instantaneous'' spectral energy profile is necessary in order to describe properly the energy generation mechanism. The observed spectral slope from the X-ray to UV regions is positive and continuous, but that from the mid-UV to visible light region becomes gradually flat and possibly turns down toward lower frequencies; the optical-radio emission cannot be accounted for by a single power law. Several theoretical models have been considered for the emission mechanism. In some cases quantitative comparison with the data is not practical. However, most of the models are, at least, not inconsistent with the observations. A quantitative comparison has been peformed with the synchroton self-Compton model; the total spectrum is found consistent with this model. The spectrum from visible light to X-ray is consistent with synchrotron radiation or with inverse-Compton scattering by a hot thermal cloud of electrons. The continuity of the spectral slope from X-ray to UV implied by the current data suggests that the previous estimates of the total luminosity of this BL Lac object has been underestimated by a factor of about 3 or 4

  9. Astronomers Use Moon in Effort to Corral Elusive Cosmic Particles (United States)


    Seeking to detect mysterious, ultra-high-energy neutrinos from distant regions of space, a team of astronomers used the Moon as part of an innovative telescope system for the search. Their work gave new insight on the possible origin of the elusive subatomic particles and points the way to opening a new view of the Universe in the future. The team used special-purpose electronic equipment brought to the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope, and took advantage of new, more-sensitive radio receivers installed as part of the Expanded VLA (EVLA) project. Prior to their observations, they tested their system by flying a small, specialized transmitter over the VLA in a helium balloon. In 200 hours of observations, Ted Jaeger of the University of Iowa and the Naval Research Laboratory, and Robert Mutel and Kenneth Gayley of the University of Iowa did not detect any of the ultra-high-energy neutrinos they sought. This lack of detection placed a new limit on the amount of such particles arriving from space, and cast doubt on some theoretical models for how those neutrinos are produced. Neutrinos are fast-moving subatomic particles with no electrical charge that readily pass unimpeded through ordinary matter. Though plentiful in the Universe, they are notoriously difficult to detect. Experiments to detect neutrinos from the Sun and supernova explosions have used large volumes of material such as water or chlorine to capture the rare interactions of the particles with ordinary matter. The ultra-high-energy neutrinos the astronomers sought are postulated to be produced by the energetic, black-hole-powered cores of distant galaxies; massive stellar explosions; annihilation of dark matter; cosmic-ray particles interacting with photons of the Cosmic Microwave Background; tears in the fabric of space-time; and collisions of the ultra-high-energy neutrinos with lower-energy neutrinos left over from the Big Bang. Radio telescopes can't detect

  10. The contribution of the Georges Heights Experimental Radar Antenna to Australian radio astronomy (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Wendt, Harry


    During the late 1940s and throughout the1950s Australia was one of the world’s foremost astronomical nations owing primarily to the dynamic Radio Astronomy Group within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Organisation’s Division of Radiophysics based in Sydney. The earliest celestial observations were made with former WWII radar antennas and simple Yagi aerials attached to recycled radar receivers, before more sophisticated purpose-built radio telescopes of various types were designed and developed. One of the recycled WWII antennas that was used extensively for pioneering radio astronomical research was an experimental radar antenna that initially was located at the Division’s short-lived Georges Heights Field Station but in 1948 was relocated to the new Potts Hill Field Station in suburban Sydney. In this paper we describe this unique antenna, and discuss the wide-ranging solar, galactic and extragalactic research programs that it was used for.

  11. Radio observations of the double-relic galaxy cluster Abell 1240 (United States)

    Hoang, D. N.; Shimwell, T. W.; van Weeren, R. J.; Intema, H. T.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Andrade-Santos, F.; Akamatsu, H.; Bonafede, A.; Brunetti, G.; Dawson, W. A.; Golovich, N.; Best, P. N.; Botteon, A.; Brüggen, M.; Cassano, R.; de Gasperin, F.; Hoeft, M.; Stroe, A.; White, G. J.


    We present LOFAR 120 - 168 MHz images of the merging galaxy cluster Abell 1240 that hosts double radio relics. In combination with the GMRT 595 - 629 MHz and VLA 2 - 4 GHz data, we characterised the spectral and polarimetric properties of the radio emission. The spectral indices for the relics steepen from their outer edges towards the cluster centre and the electric field vectors are approximately perpendicular to the major axes of the relics. The results are consistent with the picture that these relics trace large-scale shocks propagating outwards during the merger. Assuming diffusive shock acceleration (DSA), we obtain shock Mach numbers of M=2.4 and 2.3 for the northern and southern shocks, respectively. For M≲ 3 shocks, a pre-existing population of mildly relativistic electrons is required to explain the brightness of the relics due to the high (>10 per cent) particle acceleration efficiency required. However, for M≳ 4 shocks the required efficiency is ≳ 1% and ≳ 0.5%, respectively, which is low enough for shock acceleration directly from the thermal pool. We used the fractional polarization to constrain the viewing angle to ≥53 ± 3° and ≥39 ± 5° for the northern and southern shocks, respectively. We found no evidence for diffuse emission in the cluster central region. If the halo spans the entire region between the relics (˜1.8 Mpc) our upper limit on the power is P1.4GHz = (1.4 ± 0.6) × 1023 W Hz-1 which is approximately equal to the anticipated flux from a cluster of this mass. However, if the halo is smaller than this, our constraints on the power imply that the halo is underluminous.

  12. Time Delay Mechanical-noise Cancellation (TDMC) to Provide Order of Magnitude Improvements in Radio Science Observations (United States)

    Atkinson, D. H.; Babuscia, A.; Lazio, J.; Asmar, S.


    Many Radio Science investigations, including the determinations of planetary masses, measurements of planetary atmospheres, studies of the solar wind, and solar system tests of relativistic gravity, rely heavily on precision Doppler tracking. Recent and currently proposed missions such as VERITAS, Bepi Colombo, Juno have shown that the largest error source in the precision Doppler tracking data is noise in the Doppler system. This noise is attributed to un-modeled motions of the ground antenna's phase center and is commonly referred to as "antenna mechanical noise." Attempting to reduce this mechanical noise has proven difficult since the deep space communications antennas utilize large steel structures that are already optimized for mechanical stability. Armstrong et al. (2008) have demonstrated the Time Delay Mechanical-noise Cancellation (TDMC) concept using Goldstone DSN antennas (70 m & 34 m) and the Cassinispacecraft to show that the mechanical noise of the 70 m antenna could be suppressed when two-way Doppler tracking from the 70 m antenna and the receive-only Doppler data from the smaller, stiffer 34 m antenna were combined with suitable delays. The proof-of-concept confirmed that the mechanical noise in the final Doppler observable was reduced to that of the stiffer, more stable antenna. Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) near Bishop, CA now has six 10.4 m diameter antennas, a consequence of the closure of Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA). In principle, a 10 m antenna can lead to an order-of-magnitude improvement for the mechanical noise correction, as the smaller dish offers better mechanical stability compared to a DSN 34-m antenna. These antennas also have existing Ka-band receiving systems, and preliminary discussions with the OVRO staff suggest that much of the existing signal path could be used for Radio Science observations.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranmer, Steven R.; Wilner, David J.; MacGregor, Meredith A.


    Many low-mass pre-main-sequence stars exhibit strong magnetic activity and coronal X-ray emission. Even after the primordial accretion disk has been cleared out, the star's high-energy radiation continues to affect the formation and evolution of dust, planetesimals, and large planets. Young stars with debris disks are thus ideal environments for studying the earliest stages of non-accretion-driven coronae. In this paper we simulate the corona of AU Mic, a nearby active M dwarf with an edge-on debris disk. We apply a self-consistent model of coronal loop heating that was derived from numerical simulations of solar field-line tangling and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We also synthesize the modeled star's X-ray luminosity and thermal radio/millimeter continuum emission. A realistic set of parameter choices for AU Mic produces simulated observations that agree with all existing measurements and upper limits. This coronal model thus represents an alternative explanation for a recently discovered ALMA central emission peak that was suggested to be the result of an inner 'asteroid belt' within 3 AU of the star. However, it is also possible that the central 1.3 mm peak is caused by a combination of active coronal emission and a bright inner source of dusty debris. Additional observations of this source's spatial extent and spectral energy distribution at millimeter and radio wavelengths will better constrain the relative contributions of the proposed mechanisms

  14. Fiber fine structure during solar type IV radio bursts: Observations and theory of radiation in presence of localized whistler turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernold, T.E.X.; Treumann, R.A.


    Observations with a digital spectrometer within the frequency band between 250 and 273 MHz of fiber fine structures during the type IV solar radio burst of 1978 October 1 are presented and analyzed. The results are summarized in histograms. Typical values for drift rates are in the range between -2.3 and -9.9 MHz s -1 . Frequency intervals between absorption and emission within the spectrum were measured to be within 0.9 and 2.7 MHz. Several types of spectra are discussed. A theoretical interpretation is based upon the model of a population of electrons trapped within a magnetic-mirror loop-configuration. It is shown that the fiber emission can be explained assuming an interaction between spatially localized strong whistler turbulence (solitons) and a broad-band Langmuir wave spectrum. Estimates using the observed flux values indicate that a fiber is composed of some 10 11 --10 14 solitons occupying a volume of about 10 5 --10 8 km 3 . Ducting of whistler solitons in low-density magnetic loops provides a plausible explanation for coherent behavior during the lifetime of an individual fiber. The magnetic field strength is found to be 6.2< or =B< or =35 gauss at the radio source and 15.3< or =B< or =76 gauss at the lower hybrid wave level respectively. The quasi-periodicity of the fiber occurrence is interpreted as periodically switched-on soliton production

  15. The Beginnings of Australian Radio Astronomy (United States)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T.

    The early stages of Australian radio astronomy, especially the first decade after World War II, are described in detail. These include the transition of the CSIRO Radiophysics Laboratory, under the leadership of Joseph Pawsey and Taffy Bowen, from a wartime laboratory in 1945 to, by 1950, the largest and one of the two most important radio astronomy groups in the world (with the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University). The initial solar investigations are described, including discovery of the hot corona and development of the sea-cliff interferometer. During this same period painstaking `radio star' observations by John Bolton and colleagues led to the first suggested optical identifications of Taurus-A (the Crab Nebula), Centaurus-A (NGC 5128), and Virgo-A (M87). The factors that led to the extraordinary early success of the Radiophysics Laboratory are analyzed in detail, followed by discussion of how the situation changed significantly in the second decade of 1955-1965. Finally, the development of major Australian instruments, from the Parkes Radio Telescope (1961) to the Australia Telescope (1988), is briefly presented. This chapter is a direct reprint of the following research paper: Sullivan, W., 2005. The beginnings of Australian radio astronomy. Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 8, 11-32.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon-Han; Bong, Su-Chan; Park, Y.-D.; Cho, K.-S.; Moon, Y.-J.


    We report the first simultaneous observation of X-ray plasma ejection (XPE), coronal mass ejection (CME), and type II solar radio burst on 1999 October 26. First, an XPE was observed from 21:12 UT to 21:24 UT in the Yohkoh SXT field of view (1.1 to 1.4 R sun ). The XPE was accelerated with a speed range from 190 to 410 km s -1 and its average speed is about 290 km s -1 . Second, the associated CME was observed by the Mauna Loa Mk4 coronameter (1.1-2.8 R sun ) from 21:16 UT. The CME front was clearly identified at 21:26 UT and propagated with a deceleration of about -110 m s -2 . Its average speed is about 360 km s -1 . At the type II burst start time (21:25 UT), the height of the CME front is around 1.7 R sun and its speed is about 470 km s -1 . Third, a type II solar radio burst was observed from 21:25 UT to 21:43 UT by the Culgoora solar radio spectrograph. The burst shows three emission patches during this observing period and the emission heights of the burst are estimated to be about 1.3 R sun (21:25 UT), 1.4 R sun (21:30 UT), and 1.8 R sun (21:40 UT). By comparing these three phenomena, we find that: (1) kinematically, while the XPE shows acceleration, the associated CME front shows deceleration; (2) there is an obvious height difference (0.3 R sun ) between the CME front and the XPE front around 21:24 UT and the formation height of the type II burst is close to the trajectory extrapolated from the XPE front; (3) both speeds of the XPE and the CME are comparable with each other around the starting time of the type II burst. Considering the formation height and the speed of the type II burst, we suggest that its first emission is due to the coronal shock generated by the XPE and the other two emissions are driven by the CME flank interacting with the high-density streamer.

  17. Testing for lightning as a source of radio bursts observed on the nightside of Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonwalkar, V.S.; Carpenter, D.L.; Strangeway, R.J.


    In certain previous studies of radio burst events recorded by the Pioneer Venus Orbiting Electric Field Detector (OEFD), data were sorted for statistical purposes according to occurrence at filter band frequencies smaller than or greater than typical values of the ambient electron gyrofrequency. The expectation in making this distinction was that the lowest frequency signals, at 100 Hz, were candidates for propagation through the ionosphere to the spacecraft in the whistler mode, and that the higher frequency signals, if of subionospheric origin, would require some different ionospheric penetration mechanism. On the basis of certain assumptions about the homogeneity and horizontal stratification of the Venusian nightside ionosphere, methods were developed for case-by-case testing of the hypothesis that any particular burst event originated in subionospheric lightning. The tests, which are capable of refinement, allow prediction of the resonance cone angle, refractive index, wave dispersion, and wave polarization. The tests have been applied to data from 11 periods along 7 orbits, and are believed to represent an improved way of categorizing OEFD burst data for purposes of investigating source/propagation mechanisms. Four of the five burst events that were not found consistent with the lightning hypothesis involved receptions at multiple OEFD filter band frequencies

  18. Thermal Design and Thermal Behaviour of Radio Telescopes and their Enclosures

    CERN Document Server

    Greve, Albert


    Radio telescopes as well as communication antennas operate under the influence of gravity, temperature and wind. Among those, temperature influences may degrade the performance of a radio telescope through transient changes of the focus, pointing, path length and sensitivity, often in an unpredictable way. Thermal Design and Thermal Behaviour of Radio Telescopes and their Enclosures reviews the design and construction principles of radio telescopes in view of thermal aspects and heat transfer with the variable thermal environment; it explains supporting thermal model calculations and the application and efficiency of thermal protection and temperature control; it presents many measurements illustrating the thermal behaviour of telescopes in the environment of their observatory sites. The book benefits scientists and radio/communication engineers, telescope designers and construction firms as well as telescope operators, observatory staff, but also the observing astronomer who is directly confronted with the t...

  19. Radio ultrasound observations of the fetotoxic effects in sheep from ingestion of Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock). (United States)

    Panter, K E; Bunch, T D; Keeler, R F; Sisson, D V


    Fetal movement in pregnant ewes gavaged with Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) was reduced significantly, but temporarily. Fetal movement was observed by radio ultrasound at 45, 54 and 60 days of gestation in control ewes and on days 45, 54, and 60 of gestation immediately before and 1 hour following poison-hemlock feeding in treated ewes. Fetal movement was significantly reduced (P less than 0.01) 1 hour after poison-hemlock administration, but returned to normal within 18 hours post treatment. At parturition seven of eleven lambs born to seven treated ewes had varying degrees of front limb abnormalities. Modest to moderate flexure of the carpal joints, some lateral deviation in the front limbs at the pastern joint and kinked tails were observed. These malformations were transient and resolved spontaneously by 8 weeks after lambing.

  20. An evaluation of the effectiveness of observation camera placement within the MeerKAT radio telescope project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyns, Andries


    Full Text Available A recent development within the MeerKAT sub-project of the Square Kilometre Array radio telescope network was the placement of a network of three observation cameras in pursuit of two specific visibility objectives. In this paper, we evaluate the effectiveness of the locations of the MeerKAT observation camera network according to a novel multi-objective geographic information systems-based facility location framework. We find that the configuration chosen and implemented by the MeerKAT decision-makers is of very high quality, although we are able to uncover slightly superior alternative placement configurations. A significant amount of time and effort could, however, have been saved in the process of choosing the appropriate camera sites, had our solutions been available to the decision-makers.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paizis, A.; Nowak, M. A.; Wilms, J.; Chaty, S.; Corbel, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P.; Chini, R.


    We report on the first broadband (1-200 keV) simultaneous Chandra-INTEGRAL observations of the recently discovered hard X-ray transient IGR J17177-3656 that took place on 2011 March 22, about two weeks after the source discovery. The source had an average absorbed 1-200 keV flux of about 8 x 10 -10 erg cm -2 s -1 . We extracted a precise X-ray position of IGR J17177-3656, α J2000 = 17 h 17 m 42. s 62, δ J2000 = -36 0 56'04.''5 (90% uncertainty of 0.''6). We also report Swift, near-infrared, and quasi-simultaneous radio follow-up observations. With the multi-wavelength information at hand, we propose IGR J17177-3656 is a low-mass X-ray binary, seen at high inclination, probably hosting a black hole.

  2. South African Astronomical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Work at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in recent years, by both staff and visitors, has made major contributions to the fields of astrophysics and astronomy. During 1986 the SAAO has been involved in studies of the following: galaxies; celestial x-ray sources; magellanic clouds; pulsating variables; galactic structure; binary star phenomena; nebulae and interstellar matter; stellar astrophysics; open clusters; globular clusters, and solar systems

  3. Astronomical Research Using Virtual Observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tanaka


    Full Text Available The Virtual Observatory (VO for Astronomy is a framework that empowers astronomical research by providing standard methods to find, access, and utilize astronomical data archives distributed around the world. VO projects in the world have been strenuously developing VO software tools and/or portal systems. Interoperability among VO projects has been achieved with the VO standard protocols defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA. As a result, VO technologies are now used in obtaining astronomical research results from a huge amount of data. We describe typical examples of astronomical research enabled by the astronomical VO, and describe how the VO technologies are used in the research.

  4. Astronomical Signatures of Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Gorenstein


    Full Text Available Several independent astronomical observations in different wavelength bands reveal the existence of much larger quantities of matter than what we would deduce from assuming a solar mass to light ratio. They are very high velocities of individual galaxies within clusters of galaxies, higher than expected rotation rates of stars in the outer regions of galaxies, 21 cm line studies indicative of increasing mass to light ratios with radius in the halos of spiral galaxies, hot gaseous X-ray emitting halos around many elliptical galaxies, and clusters of galaxies requiring a much larger component of unseen mass for the hot gas to be bound. The level of gravitational attraction needed for the spatial distribution of galaxies to evolve from the small perturbations implied by the very slightly anisotropic cosmic microwave background radiation to its current web-like configuration requires much more mass than is observed across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Distorted shapes of galaxies and other features created by gravitational lensing in the images of many astronomical objects require an amount of dark matter consistent with other estimates. The unambiguous detection of dark matter and more recently evidence for dark energy has positioned astronomy at the frontier of fundamental physics as it was in the 17th century.

  5. Launch Will Create a Radio Telescope Larger than Earth (United States)

    Baseline Interferometry project at JPL. "Observations of cosmic masers -- naturally-occurring microwave radio amplifiers -- will tell us new things about the process of star formation and activity in the heart of other galaxies." "By the 1980s, radio astronomers were observing the universe with assemblages of radio telescopes whose resolving power was limited only by the size of the Earth. Now, through a magnificent international effort, we will be able to break this barrier and see fine details of celestial objects that are beyond the reach of a purely ground-based telescope array. We anticipate a rich harvest of new scientific knowledge from VSOP," said Dr. Paul Vanden Bout, Director of NRAO. In the first weeks after launch, scientists and engineers will "test the deployment of the reflecting mesh telescope in orbit, the wide-band data link from the satellite to the ground, the performance of the low noise amplifiers in orbit, and the high-precision orbit determination and attitude control necessary for VLBI observations with an orbiting telescope," according to Dr. Joel Smith, manager of the U.S. Space VLBI project at JPL. Scientific observations are expected to begin in May. The 26-foot diameter orbiting radio telescope will observe celestial radio sources in concert with a number of the world's ground-based radio telescopes. The 1,830-pound satellite will be launched from ISAS' Kagoshima Space Center, at the southern tip of Kyushu, one of Japan's main islands, and will be the first launch with ISAS' new M-5 series rocket. The satellite will go into an elliptical orbit, varying between 620 to 12,400 miles above the Earth's surface. This orbit provides a wide range of distances between the satellite and ground-based telescopes, which is important for producing a high-quality image of the radio source being observed. One orbit of the Earth will take about six hours. The satellite's observations will concentrate on some of the most distant and intriguing objects in the


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, V. A.; Hofner, P.; Anderson, C.; Rosero, V. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)


    We present results from Chandra ACIS-I and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 6 cm continuum observations of the IRAS 20126+4104 massive star-forming region. We detect 150 X-ray sources within the 17′ × 17′ ACIS-I field, and a total of 13 radio sources within the 9.′2 primary beam at 4.9 GHz. Among these observtions are the first 6 cm detections of the central sources reported by Hofner et al., namely, I20N1, I20S, and I20var. A new variable radio source is also reported. Searching the 2MASS archive, we identified 88 near-infrared (NIR) counterparts to the X-ray sources. Only four of the X-ray sources had 6 cm counterparts. Based on an NIR color–color analysis and on the Besançon simulation of Galactic stellar populations, we estimate that approximately 80 X-ray sources are associated with this massive star-forming region. We detect an increasing surface density of X-ray sources toward the massive protostar and infer the presence of a cluster of at least 43 young stellar objects within a distance of 1.2 pc from the massive protostar.

  7. Astronomers' Do-It-Yourself Project Opening A New Window on the Universe (United States)


    Rolling up their sleeves to build and install new equipment for the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope, a team of astronomers has opened a new window on the universe, revealing tantalizing new information about the explosions of massive stars, the workings of galaxies with supermassive black holes at their centers, and clusters of galaxies. "We're going back to the region of wavelengths where Karl Jansky started radio astronomy in 1932," said Namir Kassim, of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), in Washington, D.C. "This is one of the most poorly explored regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, yet it offers tremendous potential to learn exciting new information about everything from the Sun and planets to galaxy clusters and the universe itself," Kassim said. Kassim, along with Rick Perley of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM; William Erickson, a professor emeritus at the University of Maryland; and Joseph Lazio, also of NRL, presented results of their observations with the new VLA system at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Chicago. The new system uses the 27 dish antennas of the VLA, each 25 meters (82 feet) in diameter, to receive cosmic radio emissions at a frequency of 74 MHz, or a wavelength of about four meters. This frequency, lower than that of the FM broadcast band, is far below the usual frequencies, 1- 50 GHz, used for radio astronomy. "Though the region of 15-150 MHz is where Jansky and Grote Reber did the first radio-astronomy work in the 1930s and 1940s, it has long been neglected because of technical difficulties of working in that region," said Perley. Still, the astronomers said, there is much to be learned by studying the universe at these wavelengths. "There are phenomena associated with the Sun and planets, with other objects in our own Milky Way Galaxy, and with other galaxies and clusters of galaxies, and potentially ancient emission from the Universe itself

  8. Young Star May Be Belching Spheres of Gas, Astronomers Say (United States)


    A young star more than 2,000 light-years away in the constellation Cepheus may be belching out spheres of gas, say astronomers who observed it with the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope. Not only is the star ejecting spheres of gas, the researchers say, but it also may be ejecting them repeatedly, phenomena not predicted by current theories of how young stars shed matter. Cepheus A star-forming region with blowups of detail In order to remain stable while accumulating matter, young stars have to throw off some of the infalling material to avoid "spinning up" so fast they would break apart, according to current theories. Infalling matter forms a thin spinning disk around the core of the new star, and material is ejected in twin "jets" perpendicular to the plane of the disk. "Twin jets have been seen emerging from many young stars, so we are quite surprised to see evidence that this object may be ejecting not jets, but spheres of gas," said Paul T.P. Ho, an astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The research is reported in the May 17 edition of the scientific journal Nature. The astronomers observed a complex star-forming region in Cepheus and found an arc of water molecules that act like giant celestial amplifiers to boost the strength of radio signals at a frequency of 22 GHz. Such radio-wave amplifiers, called masers, show up as bright spots readily observed with radio telescopes. "With the great ability of the VLBA to show fine detail, we could track the motions of these maser spots over a period of weeks, and saw that this arc of water molecules is expanding at nearly 20,000 miles per hour," said Ho. "This was possible because we could detect detail equivalent to seeing Lincoln's nose on a penny in Los Angeles from the distance of New York," Ho added. "These observations pushed the tremendous capabilities of the VLBA and of modern computing power to their limits. This is an extremely complex

  9. Ir A.H. de Voogt: life and career of a radio pioneer (United States)

    Strom, R. G.


    There are probably few radio astronomers who would be able to recall A.H. de Voogt, which is unfortunate, but at the same time unsurprising: for he published no original astronomical research, never carried out pioneering observations, nor is his name linked to either theoretical or instrumental breakthroughs. Yet he was described by the man who first observed the 21 cm hydrogen line from the Netherlands as a radio astronomy pioneer, at the very birth of the Dutch effort. He was, moreover, a trail blazer at the cutting edge of radio, not once but twice in his career. Without him it is unlikely that the 21 cm line would have been observed in the Netherlands in 1951, and arguably the H I mapping of the Milky Way under Jan Oort's leadership would have taken place much later, if at all. Radio astronomy observing itself might well have been compromised by interference had it not been for De Voogt's foresight. \\ Anthonet Hugo de Voogt (1892-1969) built, while still a teenager, one of the very first amateur radio stations (call letters VO: *** -/- - -) in Holland, earned the radio-telegrapher's diploma during his student days, and was intimately involved in the foundation of the Dutch Society for Radio-Telegraphy in 1916. Until the 1920s, he was very active in amateur radio and astronomy circles. Trained in electrical engineering at Delft, he joined the PTT (Post Office) as a telegraph engineer in 1919, worked his way through the ranks to become head of the telephone district of Breda in 1939, and was promoted to head the PTT Radio Service just days after the end of the war. As his department was responsible for overseas radio communication, he initiated a research effort to study radio propagation in the ionosphere and the effects of solar activity. To this end, he rescued a number of Würzburg-Riese 7.5-m radar antennas abandoned at the end of the war, made one available for Jan Oort's H I work, and launched a series of radio astronomical initiatives. His group also

  10. New Life for Astronomical Instruments of the Past at the Astronomical Observatory of Taras Shevchenko (United States)

    Kazantseva, Liliya


    Astronomical instruments of the past are certainly valuable artifacts of the history of science and education. Like other collections of scientific equipment, they also demonstrate i) development of scientific and technical ideas, ii) technological features of the historical period, iii) professional features of artists or companies -- manufacturers, and iv) national and local specificity of production. However, astronomical instruments are also devices made for observations of rare phenomena -- solar eclipses, transits of planets of the solar disk, etc. Instruments used to study these rare events were very different for each event, since the science changed quickly between events. The Astronomical Observatory of Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University has a collection of tools made by leading European and local shops from the early nineteenth century. These include tools for optically observing the first artificial Earth satellites, photography, chronometry, and meteorology. In addition, it has assembled a library of descriptions of astronomical instruments and makers'price-lists. Of particular interest are the large stationary tools that are still active in their pavilions. Almost every instrument has a long interesting history. Museification of astronomical instruments gives them a second life, expanding educational programs and tracing the development of astronomy in general and scientific institution and region in particular. It would be advisable to first create a regional database of these rare astronomical instruments (which is already being done in Ukraine), then a common global database. By combining all the historical information about astronomical instruments with the advantages of the Internet, you can show the full evolution of an astronomical instrument with all its features. Time is relentless, and much is destroyed, badly kept and thrown in the garbage. We need time to protect, capture, and tell about it.

  11. Experimental observations of the spatial structure of wave-like disturbances generated in midlatitude ionosphere by high power radio waves (United States)

    Kunitsyn, V.; Andreeva, E.; Padokhin, A. M.; Nazarenko, M.; Frolov, V.; Komrakov, G.; Bolotin, I.


    We present the results of the experiments carried out in 2009-2012 on the Sura heating facility (Radio Physical Research Institute, N. Novgorod, Russia) on modification of the midlatitude ionosphere by powerful HF radiowaves. The experiments were conducted using O-mode radiowaves at frequencies lower than critical frequency of the ionospheric F2 layer both in daytime and nighttime ionosphere. Various schemes of the radiation of the heating wave were used including square wave modulation of the effective radiated power (ERP) at various frequencies and power stepping. Radio transmissions of the low- (Parus/Tsikada) and high-orbital (GPS/GLONASS) navigational satellites received at the mobile network of receiving sites were used for the remote sensing of the heated area of the ionosphere. The variations in the slant total electron content (TEC), which are proportional to the reduced phase of navigational signals, were studied for the satellite passes for which ionospheric penetration points crossed the disturbed area during HF heating. The variations in TEC caused by HF heating are identified in a number of examples. It is shown that the GNSS TEC spectra contain frequency components corresponding to the modulation periods of the ERP of the heating wave. The manifestations of the heating-induced variations in TEC are most prominent in the area of magnetic zenith of the pumping wave. Different behavior of TEC variations was observed during nighttime and daytime heating experiments. In daytime conditions the pump wave switched ON causes the increase of TEC while in the nighttime it causes a decrease in TEC. This can be explained by the different contribution of the processes responsible for the increase and decrease of TEC in daytime in nighttime conditions. In this work we also present the first time radiotomographic reconstructions of the spatial structure of the wave-like disturbances, generated in the ionosphere by high-power radio waves radiated by the Sura heater

  12. Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group (United States)


    This special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten contains the proceedings of a session of the Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group of the International Astronomical Union that took place during the 26th General Assembly of the IAU in Prague on 17th August 2006. In addition to the talks presented in Prague some contributions were solicited to give a more complete overview of `The Early History of European Radio Astronomy'.

  13. Radio synthesis observations of planetary nebulae. II. A search for sub-arcsecond structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balick, B.; Terzian, Y.


    Observations of 11 planetary nebulae with spatial resolutions from 0''.2 to 2'' at 2695 and 8085 MHz failed to show any very bright structure smaller than about 2''. The observations are shown to be consistent with the present understanding of the temperatures and density distributions thought to typify most planetary nebulae

  14. Large Astronomical Surveys, Catalogs and Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaelian A. M.


    Full Text Available We review the status of all-sky and large astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma-ray to radio, such as ROSAT in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS1/2 based catalogs (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC in optical, 2MASS and WISE in NIR, IRAS and AKARI in MIR/FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio range and others. Present astronomical archives contain billions of objects, Galactic as well as extragalactic, and the vast amount of data in them permit new studies and discoveries. Cross-correlations result in revealing new objects and new samples. Very often, dozens of thousands of sources hide a few very interesting ones that are needed to be discovered by comparison of various physical characteristics. Most of the modern databases currently provide VO access to the stored information. This permits not only open access but also fast analysis and managing of these data.

  15. Extracting meaning from astronomical telegrams (United States)

    Graham, Matthew; Conwill, L.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, A.; Donalek, C.; Drake, A.


    The rapidly emerging field of time domain astronomy is one of the most exciting and vibrant new research frontiers, ranging in scientific scope from studies of the Solar System to extreme relativistic astrophysics and cosmology. It is being enabled by a new generation of large synoptic digital sky surveys - LSST, PanStarrs, CRTS - that cover large areas of sky repeatedly, looking for transient objects and phenomena. One of the biggest challenges facing these is the automated classification of transient events, a process that needs machine-processible astronomical knowledge. Semantic technologies enable the formal representation of concepts and relations within a particular domain. ATELs ( are a commonly-used means for reporting and commenting upon new astronomical observations of transient sources (supernovae, stellar outbursts, blazar flares, etc). However, they are loose and unstructured and employ scientific natural language for description: this makes automated processing of them - a necessity within the next decade with petascale data rates - a challenge. Nevertheless they represent a potentially rich corpus of information that could lead to new and valuable insights into transient phenomena. This project lies in the cutting-edge field of astrosemantics, a branch of astroinformatics, which applies semantic technologies to astronomy. The ATELs have been used to develop an appropriate concept scheme - a representation of the information they contain - for transient astronomy using aspects of natural language processing. We demonstrate that it is possible to infer the subject of an ATEL from the vocabulary used and to identify previously unassociated reports.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Gemma E.; Gaensler, B. M.; Slane, Patrick O.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Rea, Nanda; Kaplan, David L.; Posselt, Bettina; Levin, Lina; Bailes, Matthew; Ramesh Bhat, N. D.; Johnston, Simon; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Murray, Stephen S.; Brogan, Crystal L.; Bates, Samuel; Benjamin, Robert A.; Burgay, Marta; D'Amico, Nichi; Esposito, Paolo; Chakrabarty, Deepto


    We present multi-wavelength observations of the radio magnetar PSR J1622-4950 and its environment. Observations of PSR J1622-4950 with Chandra (in 2007 and 2009) and XMM (in 2011) show that the X-ray flux of PSR J1622-4950 has decreased by a factor of ∼50 over 3.7 years, decaying exponentially with a characteristic time of τ = 360 ± 11 days. This behavior identifies PSR J1622-4950 as a possible addition to the small class of transient magnetars. The X-ray decay likely indicates that PSR J1622-4950 is recovering from an X-ray outburst that occurred earlier in 2007, before the 2007 Chandra observations. Observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array show strong radio variability, including a possible radio flaring event at least one and a half years after the 2007 X-ray outburst that may be a direct result of this X-ray event. Radio observations with the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope reveal that PSR J1622-4950 is 8' southeast of a diffuse radio arc, G333.9+0.0, which appears non-thermal in nature and which could possibly be a previously undiscovered supernova remnant (SNR). If G333.9+0.0 is an SNR then the estimates of its size and age, combined with the close proximity and reasonable implied velocity of PSR J1622-4950, suggest that these two objects could be physically associated.

  17. Observations of radio emission in the 18 cm hydroxyl lines in the direction of Herbig-Haro objects and reflection nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, M.I.; Rudnitskij, G.M.


    In 1978 observations of Herbig-Haro objects and R associations in the 1665 and 1667 MHz main lines of the ground state of the OH molecule have been carried out at the Large radio telescope of the Nancay Radio Astronomy Station (France). Out of the 63 objects searched, the OH emission has been observed in 36 directions. In most cases, the observed line profiles have a simple singlepeak structure, with the line widths of 1-3 km/s. This emission most probably originates in interstellar dust clouds surrounding the Herbig-Haro objects and R associations. Some consequences of the results obtained are briefly discussed. Results of observations show that the quantity of strong maser radio sources near Herbig-Haro objects is not large

  18. Perspectives of intellectual processing of large volumes of astronomical data using neural networks (United States)

    Gorbunov, A. A.; Isaev, E. A.; Samodurov, V. A.


    In the process of astronomical observations vast amounts of data are collected. BSA (Big Scanning Antenna) LPI used in the study of impulse phenomena, daily logs 87.5 GB of data (32 TB per year). This data has important implications for both short-and long-term monitoring of various classes of radio sources (including radio transients of different nature), monitoring the Earth’s ionosphere, the interplanetary and the interstellar plasma, the search and monitoring of different classes of radio sources. In the framework of the studies discovered 83096 individual pulse events (in the interval of the study highlighted July 2012 - October 2013), which may correspond to pulsars, twinkling springs, and a rapid radio transients. Detected impulse events are supposed to be used to filter subsequent observations. The study suggests approach, using the creation of the multilayered artificial neural network, which processes the input raw data and after processing, by the hidden layer, the output layer produces a class of impulsive phenomena.

  19. Coronagraph for astronomical imaging and spectrophotometry (United States)

    Vilas, Faith; Smith, Bradford A.


    A coronagraph designed to minimize scattered light in astronomical observations caused by the structure of the primary mirror, secondary mirror, and secondary support structure of a Cassegrainian telescope is described. Direct (1:1) and reducing (2.7:1) imaging of astronomical fields are possible. High-quality images are produced. The coronagraph can be used with either a two-dimensional charge-coupled device or photographic film camera. The addition of transmission dispersing optics converts the coronagraph into a low-resolution spectrograph. The instrument is modular and portable for transport to different observatories.

  20. Multifrequency radio observations of a SNR in the LMC: The case of SNR J0527-6549 (DEM l204

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozzetto L.M.


    Full Text Available We present a detailed study and results of new Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA observations of supernova remnant SNR J0527-6549. This Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC object follows a typical supernova remnant (SNR horseshoe morphology with a diameter of D=(66×58±1 pc which is among the largest SNRs in the LMC. Its relatively large size indicates older age while a steeper than expected radio spectral index of α=-0.92±0.11 is more typical of younger and energetic SNRs. Also, we report detections of regions with a high order of polarization at a peak value of ~54%±17% at 6 cm.

  1. Some results of observations of solar radio bursts of the ''drift pairs'' type near 25 and 12.5 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abranin, Eh.P.; Bazelyan, L.L.; Goncharov, N.Yu.; Zajtsev, V.V.; Zinichev, V.A.; Levin, B.N.; Rapoport, V.O.; Tsybko, Ya.G.; Gor'kovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.


    The drift pairs in the frequency range of 12-13 MHz and 24-26 MHz are considered. It is shown that double bursts may be observed both at the second and at the first harmonics. The time interval between the elements of the double burst remains practically unchanged. This fact creates difficulties when interpreting double bursts due to the radio echo in the solar corona. It is suggested that the double (and generally multiple) structure of burst may be associated with the successive transmission of a fast electron beam in regions of double plasma resonance. It is considered that the radiation occurs due to cyclotron instability at the forward front of the electron beam travelling along the decreasing magnetic field of the coronal ray. It is shown that the properties of these burst can be explained by the proposed mechanism of drift pairs formation

  2. Radio continuum observations of local star-forming galaxies using the Caltech Continuum Backend on the green bank telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabidoux, Katie; Pisano, D. J.; Kepley, Amanda A.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Balser, Dana S.


    We observed radio continuum emission in 27 local (D < 70 Mpc) star-forming galaxies with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope between 26 GHz and 40 GHz using the Caltech Continuum Backend. We obtained detections for 22 of these galaxies at all four sub-bands and four more marginal detections by taking the average flux across the entire bandwidth. This is the first detection (full or marginal) at these frequencies for 22 of these galaxies. We fit spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for all of the four sub-band detections. For 14 of the galaxies, SEDs were best fit by a combination of thermal free-free and nonthermal synchrotron components. Eight galaxies with four sub-band detections had steep spectra that were only fit by a single nonthermal component. Using these fits, we calculated supernova rates, total number of equivalent O stars, and star formation rates within each ∼23'' beam. For unresolved galaxies, these physical properties characterize the galaxies' recent star formation on a global scale. We confirm that the radio-far-infrared correlation holds for the unresolved galaxies' total 33 GHz flux regardless of their thermal fractions, though the scatter on this correlation is larger than that at 1.4 GHz. In addition, we found that for the unresolved galaxies, there is an inverse relationship between the ratio of 33 GHz flux to total far-infrared flux and the steepness of the galaxy's spectral index between 1.4 GHz and 33 GHz. This relationship could be an indicator of the timescale of the observed episode of star formation.

  3. Asteroids astronomical and geological bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Burbine, Thomas H


    Asteroid science is a fundamental topic in planetary science and is key to furthering our understanding of planetary formation and the evolution of the Solar System. Ground-based observations and missions have provided a wealth of new data in recent years, and forthcoming missions promise further exciting results. This accessible book presents a comprehensive introduction to asteroid science, summarising the astronomical and geological characteristics of asteroids. The interdisciplinary nature of asteroid science is reflected in the broad range of topics covered, including asteroid and meteorite classification, chemical and physical properties of asteroids, observational techniques, cratering, and the discovery of asteroids and how they are named. Other chapters discuss past, present and future space missions and the threat that these bodies pose for Earth. Based on an upper-level course on asteroids and meteorites taught by the author, this book is ideal for students, researchers and professional scientists ...

  4. Fastest Pulsar Speeding Out of Galaxy, Astronomers Discover (United States)


    any firm conclusions," said Wouter Vlemmings of the Jodrell Bank Observatory in the UK and Cornell University in the U.S. The observations of B1508+55 were part of a larger project to use the VLBA to measure the distances and motions of numerous pulsars. "This is the first result of this long-term project, and it's pretty exciting to have something so spectacular come this early," Brisken said. The VLBA observations were made at radio frequencies between 1.4 and 1.7 GigaHertz. Chatterjee, Vlemmings and Brisken worked with Joseph Lazio of the Naval Research Laboratory, James Cordes of Cornell University, Miller Goss of NRAO, Stephen Thorsett of the University of California, Santa Cruz, Edward Fomalont of NRAO, Andrew Lyne and Michael Kramer, both of Jodrell Bank Observatory. The scientists presented their findings in the September 1 issue of the Astrophysical Journal Letters. The VLBA is a system of ten radio-telescope antennas, each with a dish 25 meters (82 feet) in diameter and weighing 240 tons. From Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii to St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands, the VLBA spans more than 5,000 miles, providing astronomers with the sharpest vision of any telescope on Earth or in space. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  5. Early results from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugebauer, G.; Beichman, C.A.; Soifer, B.T.


    For 10 months the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) provided astronomers with what might be termed their first view of the infrared sky on a clear, dark night. Without IRAS, atmospheric absorption and the thermal emission from both the atmosphere and Earthbound telescopes make the task of the infrared astronomer comparable to what an optical astronomer would face if required to work only on cloudy afternoons. IRAS observations are serving astronomers in the same manner as the photographic plates of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey; just as the optical survey has been used by all astronomers for over three decades, as a source of quantitative information about the sky and as a roadmap for future observations, the results of IRAS will be studied for years to come. IRAS has demonstrated the power of infrared astronomy from space. Already, from a brief look at a miniscule fraction of the data available, we have learned much about the solar system, about nearby stars, about the Galaxy as a whole and about distant extragalactic systems. Comets are much dustier than previously thought. Solid particles, presumably the remnants of the star-formation process, orbit around Vega and other stars and may provide the raw material for planetary systems. Emission from cool interstellar material has been traced throughout the Galaxy all the way to the galactic poles. Both the clumpiness and breadth of the distribution of this material were previously unsuspected. The far-infrared sky away from the galactic plane has been found to be dominate by spiral galaxies, some of which emit more than 50% and as much as 98% of their energy in the infrared - an exciting and surprising revelation. The IRAS mission is clearly the pathfinder for future mission that, to a large extent, will be devoted to the discoveries revealed by IRAS. 8 figures

  6. Kinematic Characteristics of Meteor Showers by Results of the Combined Radio-Television Observations (United States)

    Narziev, Mirhusen


    One of the most important tasks of meteor astronomy is the study of the distribution of meteoroid matter in the solar system. The most important component to address this issue presents the results of measurements of the velocities, radiants, and orbits of both showers and sporadic meteors. Radiant's and orbits of meteors for different sets of data obtained as a result of photographic, television, electro-optical, video, Fireball Network and radar observations have been measured repeatedly. However, radiants, velocities and orbits of shower meteors based on the results of combined radar-optical observations have not been sufficiently studied. In this paper, we present a methods for computing the radiants, velocities, and orbits of the combined radar-TV meteor observations carried out at HisAO in 1978-1980. As a result of the two-year cycle of simultaneous TV-radar observations 57 simultaneous meteors have been identified. Analysis of the TV images has shown that some meteor trails appeared as dashed lines. Among the simultaneous meteors of d-Aquariids 10 produced such dashed images, and among the Perseids there were only 7. Using a known method, for such fragmented images of simultaneous meteors - together with the measured radar distance, trace length, and time interval between the segments - allowed to determine meteor velocity using combined method. In addition, velocity of the same meteors was measured using diffraction and radar range-time methods based on the results of radar observation. It has been determined that the mean values of meteoroid velocity based on the combined radar-TV observations are greater in 1 ÷ 3 km / c than the averaged velocity values measured using only radar methods. Orbits of the simultaneously observed meteors with segmented photographic images were calculated on the basis of the average velocity observed using the combined radar-TV method. The measured results of radiants velocities and orbital elements of individual meteors

  7. Study of Seismic Activity Using Geophysical and Radio Physical Equipment for Observation (United States)

    Kvavadze, N.; Tsereteli, N. S.


    One of the most dangerous and destructive natural hazards are earthquakes, which is confirmed by recent earthquakes such as Nepal 2015, Japan and Turkey 2011. Because of this, study of seismic activity is important. Studying any process, it is necessary to use different methods of observation, which allows us to increase accuracy of obtained data. Seismic activity is a complex problem and its study needs different types of observation methods. Two main problems of seismic activity study are: reliable instrumental observations and earthquake short-term predictions. In case of seismic risks it is necessary to have reliable accelerometer data. One of the most promising field in earthquake short-term prediction is very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic wave propagation in ionosphere observation. To study Seismic activity of Caucasus region, was created observation complex using Accelerometer, Velocimeter and VLF electromagnetic waves received from communication stations (located in different area of the world) reflected from low ionosphere. System is created and operates at Tbilisi State University Ionosphere Observatory, near Tbilisi in Tabakhmela 42.41'70 N, 44.80'92 E, Georgia. Data obtained is sent to a local server located at M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics, TSU, for storage and processing. Diagram for complex is presented. Also data analysis methods were created and preliminary processing was done. In this paper we present some of the results: Earthquake data from ionosphere observations as well as local earthquakes recorded with accelerometer and velocimeter. Complex is first in 6 that will be placed around Georgia this year. We plan on widening network every year.

  8. Radio observations of the γ-ray quasar 0528+134. Superluminal motion and an extreme scattering event. (United States)

    Pohl, M.; Reich, W.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Standke, K.; Britzen, S.; Reuter, H. P.; Reich, P.; Schlickeiser, R.; Fiedler, R. L.; Waltman, E. B.; Ghigo, F. D.; Johnston, K. J.


    We report on multifrequency radio observations made with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope, the IRAM 30-m telescope and the Green Bank Interferometer between 1992 and 1994 of the γ-ray quasar 0528+134. We present a new VLBI based map of 0528+134 at 22GHz with sub-mas angular resolution observed in November 1992. At that time the source was in a phase of brightening at all of our observing frequencies above 3GHz. The increase of brightness may be related to activity in the unresolved core component of the quasar. The VLBI map at 22GHz (epoch 1992.85) shows a one-sided core jet structure of ~5mas length. A new component close to the core indicates an apparent transverse velocity of β_app_object of the AGN and that a remnant of this outburst moved further outward in the jet until it became optically thin at radio frequencies after a few months. During the flare in July 1993 we observed with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope an unusually strong decrease of the flux density by about 50% at 4.75GHz and 10.55GHz and slightly less at 2.695GHz. This behaviour is also seen in the monitoring data at 2.25GHz and 8.3GHz taken with the Green Bank Interferometer (NRL-GBI). The event lasted less than three days at the higher frequencies and more than two weeks at 2.25GHz. For the case that this event is related to the intense radio flare some geometrical effects like a small variation of the viewing angle of the quasars jet orientated very close to the line of sight are considered, but found to be an unlikely explanation for the observed behaviour. Alternatively, an extreme scattering event by a small dense plasma cloud in the line of sight is able to match the observed time lag in the lightcurves if we take into account the mas-structure of the source and different spectra of the components on the basis of their brightness in the VLBI maps. The importance of interstellar scattering is stressed as 0528+134 is seen in the direction of the dark cloud Barnard 30 located at 400pc distance

  9. The Impact of Radio Interference on Future Radio Telescopes (United States)

    Mitchell, Daniel A.; Robertson, Gordon J.; Sault, Robert J.

    While future radio telescopes will require technological advances from the communications industry interference from sources such as satellites and mobile phones is a serious concern. In addition to the fact that the level of interference is growing constantly the increased capabilities of next generation instruments make them more prone to harmful interference. These facilities must have mechanisms to allow operation in a crowded spectrum. In this report some of the factors which may limit the effectiveness of these mechanisms are investigated. Radio astronomy is unique among other observing wavelengths in that the radiation can be fully sampled at a rate which completely specifies the electromagnetic environment. Knowledge of phases and antennae gain factors affords one the opportunity to attempt to mitigate interference from the astronomical data. At present several interference mitigation techniques have been demonstrated to be extremely effective. However the observational scales of the new facilities will push the techniques to their limits. Processes such as signal decorrelation varying antenna gain and instabilities in the primary beam will have a serious effect on some of the algorithms. In addition the sheer volume of data produced will render some techniques computationally and financially impossible.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furniss, A.; Noda, K.; Boggs, S.; Chiang, J.; Madejski, G.; Nalewajko, K.; Christensen, F.; Craig, W.; Giommi, P.; Hailey, C.; Harisson, F.; Perri, M.; Verrecchia, F.; Stern, D.; Urry, M.; Zhang, W.; Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.


    We report on simultaneous broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar Markarian 501 between 2013 April 1 and August 10, including the first detailed characterization of the synchrotron peak with Swift and NuSTAR. During the campaign, the nearby BL Lac object was observed in both a quiescent and an elevated state. The broadband campaign includes observations with NuSTAR, MAGIC, VERITAS, the Fermi Large Area Telescope, Swift X-ray Telescope and UV Optical Telescope, various ground-based optical instruments, including the GASP-WEBT program, as well as radio observations by OVRO, Metsähovi, and the F-Gamma consortium. Some of the MAGIC observations were affected by a sand layer from the Saharan desert, and had to be corrected using event-by-event corrections derived with a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) facility. This is the first time that LIDAR information is used to produce a physics result with Cherenkov Telescope data taken during adverse atmospheric conditions, and hence sets a precedent for the current and future ground-based gamma-ray instruments. The NuSTAR instrument provides unprecedented sensitivity in hard X-rays, showing the source to display a spectral energy distribution (SED) between 3 and 79 keV consistent with a log-parabolic spectrum and hard X-ray variability on hour timescales. None (of the four extended NuSTAR observations) show evidence of the onset of inverse-Compton emission at hard X-ray energies. We apply a single-zone equilibrium synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model to five simultaneous broadband SEDs. We find that the SSC model can reproduce the observed broadband states through a decrease in the magnetic field strength coinciding with an increase in the luminosity and hardness of the relativistic leptons responsible for the high-energy emission

  11. Observational astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Robert C


    Combining a critical account of observational methods (telescopes and instrumentation) with a lucid description of the Universe, including stars, galaxies and cosmology, Smith provides a comprehensive introduction to the whole of modern astrophysics beyond the solar system. The first half describes the techniques used by astronomers to observe the Universe: optical telescopes and instruments are discussed in detail, but observations at all wavelengths are covered, from radio to gamma-rays. After a short interlude describing the appearance of the sky at all wavelengths, the role of positional astronomy is highlighted. In the second half, a clear description is given of the contents of the Universe, including accounts of stellar evolution and cosmological models. Fully illustrated throughout, with exercises given in each chapter, this textbook provides a thorough introduction to astrophysics for all physics undergraduates, and a valuable background for physics graduates turning to research in astronomy.

  12. Astronomical Data in Undergraduate courses (United States)

    Clarkson, William I.; Swift, Carrie; Hughes, Kelli; Burke, Christopher J. F.; Burgess, Colin C.; Elrod, Aunna V.; Howard, Brittany; Stahl, Lucas; Matzke, David; Bord, Donald J.


    We present status and plans for our ongoing efforts to develop data analysis and problem-solving skills through Undergraduate Astronomy instruction. While our initiatives were developed with UM-Dearborn’s student body primarily in mind, they should be applicable for a wide range of institution and of student demographics. We focus here on two strands of our effort.Firstly, students in our Introductory Astronomy (ASTR 130) general-education course now perform several “Data Investigations”, in which they interrogate the Hubble Legacy Archive to illustrate important course concepts. This was motivated in part by the realization that typical public data archives now include tools to interrogate the observations that are sufficiently accessible that introductory astronomy students can use them to perform real science, albeit mostly at a descriptive level. We are continuing to refine these investigations, and, most importantly, to critically assess their effectiveness in terms of the student learning outcomes we wish to achieve. This work is supported by grant HST-EO-13758, provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.Secondly, at the advanced-undergraduate level, students taking courses in our Astronomy minor are encouraged to gain early experience in techniques of astronomical observation and analysis that are used by professionals. We present two example projects from the Fall 2015 iteration of our upper-division course ASTR330 (The Cosmic Distance Ladder), one involving Solar System measurements, the second producing calibrated aperture photometry. For both projects students conducted, analysed, and interpreted observations using our 0.4m campus telescope, and used many of the same analysis tools as professional astronomers. This work is supported partly from a Research Initiation and Seed grant from the

  13. Grigor Narekatsi's astronomical insights (United States)

    Poghosyan, Samvel


    What stand out in the solid system of Gr. Narekatsi's naturalistic views are his astronomical insights on the material nature of light, its high speed and the Sun being composed of "material air". Especially surprising and fascinating are his views on stars and their clusters. What astronomers, including great Armenian academician V. Ambartsumian (scattering of stellar associations), would understand and prove with much difficulty thousand years later, Narekatsi predicted in the 10th century: "Stars appear and disappear untimely", "You who gather and scatter the speechless constellations, like a flock of sheep". Gr. Narekatsti's reformative views were manifested in all the spheres of the 10th century social life; he is a reformer of church life, great language constructor, innovator in literature and music, freethinker in philosophy and science. His ideology is the reflection of the 10th century Armenian Renaissance. During the 9th-10th centuries, great masses of Armenians, forced to migrate to the Balkans, took with them and spread reformative ideas. The forefather of the western science, which originated in the period of Reformation, is considered to be the great philosopher Nicholas of Cusa. The study of Gr. Narekatsti's logic and naturalistic views enables us to claim that Gr. Narekatsti is the great grandfather of European science.

  14. Spatial observations by the CUTLASS coherent scatter radar of ionospheric modification by high power radio waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Bond


    Full Text Available Results are presented from an experimental campaign in April 1996, in which the new CUTLASS (Co-operative UK twin-located Auroral Sounding System coherent scatter radar was employed to observe artificial field aligned irregularities (FAI generated by the EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATter heating facility at Tromsø, Norway. The distribution of backscatter intensity from within the heated region has been investigated both in azimuth and range with the Finland component of CUTLASS, and the first observations of artificial irregularities by the Iceland radar are also presented. The heated region has been measured to extend over a horizontal distance of 170±50km, which by comparison with a model of the heater beam pattern corresponds to a threshold electric field for FAI of between 0.1 and 0.01V/m. Differences between field-aligned and vertical propagation heating are also presented.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritzinger, Maximilian; Phillips, Mark M.; Boldt, Luis


    A detailed study spanning approximately a year has been conducted on the Type Ib supernova (SN) 2007Y. Imaging was obtained from X-ray to radio wavelengths, and a comprehensive set of multi-band (w2m2w1u'g'r'i'UBVYJHK s ) light curves and optical spectroscopy is presented. A virtually complete bolometric light curve is derived, from which we infer a 56 Ni mass of 0.06 M sun . The early spectrum strongly resembles SN 2005bf and exhibits high-velocity features of Ca II and Hα; during late epochs the spectrum shows evidence of an ejecta-wind interaction. Nebular emission lines have similar widths and exhibit profiles that indicate a lack of major asymmetry in the ejecta. Late phase spectra are modeled with a non-LTE code, from which we find 56 Ni, O, and total-ejecta masses (excluding He) to be 0.06, 0.2, and 0.42 M sun , respectively, below 4500 km s -1 . The 56 Ni mass confirms results obtained from the bolometric light curve. The oxygen abundance suggests that the progenitor was most likely a ∼3.3 M sun He core star that evolved from a zero-age-main-sequence mass of 10-13 M sun . The explosion energy is determined to be ∼10 50 erg, and the mass-loss rate of the progenitor is constrained from X-ray and radio observations to be ∼ -6 M sun yr -1 . SN 2007Y is among the least energetic normal Type Ib SNe ever studied.

  16. Getting Astronomers Involved in the IYA: Astronomer in the Classroom (United States)

    Koenig, Kris


    The Astronomer in the Classroom program provides professional astronomers the opportunity to engage with 3rd-12th grade students across the nation in grade appropriate discussions of their recent research, and provides students with rich STEM content in a personalized forum, bringing greater access to scientific knowledge for underserved populations. 21st Century Learning and Interstellar Studios, the producer of the 400 Years of the Telescope documentary along with their educational partners, will provide the resources necessary to facilitate the Astronomer in the Classroom program, allowing students to interact with astronomers throughout the IYA2009. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION One of hundreds of astronomers will be available to interact with students via live webcast daily during Spring/Fall 2009. The astronomer for the day will conduct three 20-minute discussions (Grades 3-5 /6-8/9-12), beginning with a five-minute PowerPoint on their research or area of interest. The discussion will be followed by a question and answer period. The students will participate in real-time from their school computer(s) with the technology provided by 21st Century Learning. They will see and hear the astronomer on their screen, and pose questions from their keyboard. Teachers will choose from three daily sessions; 11:30 a.m., 12:00 p.m., 12:30 p.m. Eastern Time. This schedule overlaps all US time zones, and marginalizes bandwidth usage, preventing technological barriers to web access. The educational partners and astronomers will post materials online, providing easy access to information that will prepare teachers and students for the chosen discussion. The astronomers, invited to participate from the AAS and IAU, will receive a web cam shipment with instructions, a brief training and conductivity test, and prepaid postage for shipment of the web cam to the next astronomer on the list. The anticipated astronomer time required is 3-hours, not including the time to develop the PowerPoint.

  17. Radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Alder, Berni


    Methods in Computational Physics, Volume 14: Radio Astronomy is devoted to the role of the digital computer both as a control device and as a calculator in addressing problems related to galactic radio noise. This volume contains four chapters and begins with a technical description of the hardware and the special data-handling problems of using radioheliography, with an emphasis on a selection of observational results obtained with the Culgoora radioheliograph and their significance to solar physics and to astrophysics in general. The subsequent chapter examines interstellar dispersion, i

  18. A direct localization of a fast radio burst and its host. (United States)

    Chatterjee, S; Law, C J; Wharton, R S; Burke-Spolaor, S; Hessels, J W T; Bower, G C; Cordes, J M; Tendulkar, S P; Bassa, C G; Demorest, P; Butler, B J; Seymour, A; Scholz, P; Abruzzo, M W; Bogdanov, S; Kaspi, V M; Keimpema, A; Lazio, T J W; Marcote, B; McLaughlin, M A; Paragi, Z; Ransom, S M; Rupen, M; Spitler, L G; van Langevelde, H J


    Fast radio bursts are astronomical radio flashes of unknown physical nature with durations of milliseconds. Their dispersive arrival times suggest an extragalactic origin and imply radio luminosities that are orders of magnitude larger than those of all known short-duration radio transients. So far all fast radio bursts have been detected with large single-dish telescopes with arcminute localizations, and attempts to identify their counterparts (source or host galaxy) have relied on the contemporaneous variability of field sources or the presence of peculiar field stars or galaxies. These attempts have not resulted in an unambiguous association with a host or multi-wavelength counterpart. Here we report the subarcsecond localization of the fast radio burst FRB 121102, the only known repeating burst source, using high-time-resolution radio interferometric observations that directly image the bursts. Our precise localization reveals that FRB 121102 originates within 100 milliarcseconds of a faint 180-microJansky persistent radio source with a continuum spectrum that is consistent with non-thermal emission, and a faint (twenty-fifth magnitude) optical counterpart. The flux density of the persistent radio source varies by around ten per cent on day timescales, and very long baseline radio interferometry yields an angular size of less than 1.7 milliarcseconds. Our observations are inconsistent with the fast radio burst having a Galactic origin or its source being located within a prominent star-forming galaxy. Instead, the source appears to be co-located with a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus or a previously unknown type of extragalactic source. Localization and identification of a host or counterpart has been essential to understanding the origins and physics of other kinds of transient events, including gamma-ray bursts and tidal disruption events. However, if other fast radio bursts have similarly faint radio and optical counterparts, our findings imply that

  19. XMM-Newton and Chandra Observations of the Remarkable Dynamics of the Intracluster Medium and Radio Sources in the Clusters Abell 2061 and 3667 (United States)

    Sarazin, C.; Hogge, T.; Chatzikos, M.; Wik, D.; Giacintucci, S.; Clarke, T.; Wong, K.; Gitti, M.; Finoguenov, A.


    XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of remarkable dynamic structures in the X-ray gas and connected radio sources in three clusters are presented. Abell 2061 is a highly irregular, merging cluster in the Corona Borealis supercluster. X-ray observations show that there is a plume of very cool gas (˜1 keV) to the NE of the cluster, and a hot (7.6 keV) shock region just NE of the center. There is a very bright radio relic to the far SW of the cluster, and a central radio halo/relic with an extension to the NE. Comparison to SLAM simulations show that this is an offset merger of a ˜5 × 10^{13} M⊙ subcluster with a ˜2.5 × 10^{14} M⊙ cluster seen after first core passage. The plume is the cool-core gas from the subcluster, which has been ``slingshot'' to the NE of the cluster. The plume gas is now falling back into the cluster center, and shocks when it hits the central gas. The model predicts a strong shock to the SW at the location of the bright radio relic, and another shock at the NE radio extension. Time permitting, the observations of Abell 2626 and Abell 3667 will also be presented.

  20. The importance of Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ) for radio astronomy (United States)

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin


    Most of radio observatories are located in isolated areas. Since radio sources from the universe is very weak, astronomer need to avoid radio frequency interference (RFI) from active spectrum users and radio noise produced by human made (telecommunication, mobile phone, microwave user and many more. There are many observatories around the world are surrounded by a Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ), which is it was set up using public or state laws. A Radio Quiet Zone normally consists of two areas: an exclusive area in which totally radio emissions are forbidden, with restrictions for residents and business developments, and a larger (radius up to 100 km above) coordination area where the power of radio transmission limits to threshold levels. Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used as a powerful tool in mapping large areas with varying RQZ profiles. In this paper, we report the initial testing of the usage of this system in order to identify the areas were suitable for Radio Quiet Zone. Among the important parameters used to develop the database for our GIS are population density, information on TV and telecommunication (mobile phones) transmitters, road networks (highway), and contour shielding. We will also use other information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'best' areas generated by the GIS. The intention is to find the best site for the purpose of establishing first radio quiet zones for radio telescope in Malaysia.

  1. Construction of a Radio-Telescope Prototype in the 12 GHz Band (United States)

    Ordóñez, J.; Quijano, A.; Luna, A.


    Radio astronomy is important in the branch of the Astronomy that studies the celestial bodies through their emissions in the domain of the radio waves, to obtain information of these bodies, astronomers must design new types of telescopes that can capture radiation at different wavelengths, including radio telescopes. This paper presents the construction of a prototype of an educational radio telescope, which is made using materials that are easily accessible and inexpensive. The construction of a radio telescope, will allow to carry out research in the field of radio astronomy, since at present it has not been possible to penetrate this branch due to the lack of an adequate equipment in the University of Nariño. The issues that are addressed in the construction of this instrument, its use and the analysis of the data, are very varied and with a high content of multidiciplinariety, gathering basic topics in areas such as astrophysics, physics, electronics, computing, mechanics, which are necessary for Concrete the efficient use of this instrument. For the development of the project, it counts with the advice of the director and researcher of the astronomical observatory of the University of Nariño MSc. Alberto Quijano Vodniza and Dr. Abraham Luna Castellanos of the National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics INAOE. In addition to the construction of radiotelescope the final phase consists of the storage and analysis of data obtained with the observation of some celestial bodies that comply with The range in the 12 GHz band for study.

  2. The TF1 Radio Astronomy Working Group in the Andean ROAD: goals and challenges for 2025 (United States)

    Chaparro Molano, G.


    Since the creation of the Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) of the International Astronomical Union, one of the main goals has been to foster a scientific culture of radio astronomy in countries of the central and northern Andes (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, and Venezuela). For this reason, Andean ROAD Task Force 1 (Research and Education in Universities) created the Radio Astronomy Working Group to set a path along which collaborative endeavors can grow and yield scientific results. The first official meeting of the Working Group took place in Bogotá, Colombia during the 2nd Astronomá en los Andes Workshop (2015) where scientists actively developing projects in radio astronomy set goals for the near future, such as improving mobility for researchers and students, developing collaborations in related areas such as engineering and data science, and building transnational collaborations aiming at developing VLBI across the countries of the Andean ROAD and beyond. In this poster, I present current projects and associated research groups (ROAS - Perú, SiAMo - Colombia, Alfa-Orion UTP - Colombia, RAIG - Chile) and discuss goalposts and current challenges in the development of transnational radioastronomical projects. As a case study, I present the development and early astronomical results of the privately funded UECCI 4m Radio Telescope for 21 cm line observations in Bogotá, Colombia.

  3. Spacecraft radio scattering observations of the power spectrum of electron density fluctuations in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, R.; Armstrong, J.W.


    Solar wind electron density power spectra in the solar equatorial region are inferred from observations of phase scintillations and spectral broadening made with the Viking, Helios, and Pioneer spacecraft. The heliocentric distance range covered is 2--215 R/sub S/, and for some observations close to the sun the spectra extend to fluctuation frequencies as high as 100 Hz. For heliocentric distances > or approx. =20 R/sub S/ the equivalent spacecraft-measured one-dimensional density spectrym V/sub n/e is well modeled by a single power law (f/sup -alpha/) in the frequency range 10 -4 -5 x 10 -2 Hz. The mean spectral index α is 1.65, very close to the Kolmogorov value of 5/3. Under the assumption of constant solar wind speed, V/sub n/e varies as R/sup -3.45/, where R is heliocentric distance. Within 20 R/sub S/, V/sub n/e can still be modeled by a single power law over the frequency range 10 -3 -10 1 Hz, but the spectral index becomes smaller, αapprox.1.1. The flattening of the density spectrum with 20 R/sub S/ is presumably associated with energy deposition in the near-sun region and acceleration of the solar wind

  4. Results based on a correlative study of geomagnetic and radio auroral observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldoupis, C.

    The results presented here are from a correlative study of ground based magnetometer data from an auroral station, and STARE radar auroral data from a small ionospheric region located exactly above the magnetometer site. The magnetometer data includes both the horizontal X and Y magnetograms and micropulsation components. The STARE data represents time sequencies of both the echo intensity and irregularity drift velocity (or electric field) vector. The observations used in the analysis are from a reasonably disturbed 16-hour period covering the afternoon, midnight and morning sectors of auroral oval. A close relationship was found to exist between the geomagnetic variations and the backscatter amplitude. The results suggest that the conductivity, rather than the electric field, is the prime agent responsible for the long period modulation observed on both the magnetic signatures and the backscatter intensity. In one case, it was found that conductivity modifications cause direct modulation of direction but not the amplitude of the electric field. The rapid ac-fluctuations seen in the electric field most likely play a role in the generation of Pi-pulsations. (Auth.)

  5. Statistical survey of type III radio bursts at long wavelengths observed by the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO)/Waves instruments: radio flux density variations with frequency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupař, Vratislav; Maksimovic, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Kontar, E. P.; Cecconi, B.; Hoang, S.; Krupařová, Oksana; Souček, Jan; Reid, H.; Zaslavsky, A.


    Roč. 289, č. 8 (2014), s. 3121-3135 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2394; GA ČR GP13-37174P; GA ČR GAP205/10/2279 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : solar radio emissions * plasma radiation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.039, year: 2014

  6. Statistical survey of type III radio bursts at long wavelengths observed by the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO)/Waves instruments: goniopolarimetric properties and radio source locations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupař, Vratislav; Maksimovic, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Cecconi, B.; Krupařová, Oksana


    Roč. 289, č. 12 (2014), s. 4633-4652 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-37174P; GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2394 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : plasma radiation * solar radio emissions Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.039, year: 2014

  7. A study of solar preflare activity using two-dimensional radio and SMM-XRP observations (United States)

    Kundu, M. R.; Gopalswamy, N.; Saba, J. L. R.; Schmelz, J. T. S.; Strong, K. T.


    A study of type III activity at meter-decameter wavelengths in the preflare phase of the February 3, 1986 flare is presented, using data obtained with the Clark Lake Multifrequency Radioheliograph. This activity is compared with similar type III burst activity during the impulsive phase, and it is found that there is a displacement of burst sources between the onset and end times of the activity. A comparison of this displacement at three frequencies suggests that the type III emitting electrons gain access progressively to diverging and different field lines relative to the initial field lines. The energetics of the type III emitting electrons are inferred from observations and compared with those of the associated hard X-ray emitting electrons. The soft X-ray data from SMM-XRP show enhanced emission measure, density, and temperature in the region associated with the preflare type III activity.

  8. Observation of Ω mode electron heating in dusty argon radio frequency discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killer, Carsten; Bandelow, Gunnar; Schneider, Ralf; Melzer, André [Institut für Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Matyash, Konstantin [Universitätsrechenzentrum, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)


    The time-resolved emission of argon atoms in a dusty plasma has been measured with phase-resolved optical emission spectroscopy using an intensified charge-coupled device camera. For that purpose, three-dimensional dust clouds have been confined in a capacitively coupled rf argon discharge with the help of thermophoretic levitation. While electrons are exclusively heated by the expanding sheath (α mode) in the dust-free case, electron heating takes place in the entire plasma bulk when the discharge volume is filled with dust particles. Such a behavior is known as Ω mode, first observed in electronegative plasmas. Furthermore, particle-in-cell simulations have been carried out, which reproduce the trends of the experimental findings. These simulations support previous numerical models showing that the enhanced atomic emission in the plasma can be attributed to a bulk electric field, which is mainly caused by the reduced electrical conductivity due to electron depletion.

  9. Multicolor Photometric Observation of Lightning from Space: Comparison with Radio Measurements (United States)

    Adachi, Toru; Cohen, Morris; Said, Ryan; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Cummer, Steven A.; Li, Jingbo; Lu, Geopeng; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Su, Han-Tzong; Chen, Alfred Bing-Chih; hide


    This study evaluates the effectiveness of spectrophotometric measurements from space in revealing properties of lightning flash. The multicolor optical waveform data obtained by FORMOSAT-2/Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) were analyzed in relation to National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA). As of July 2011, we found six lightning events which were observed by ISUAL and North Alabama LMA. In two of these events, NLDN showed clear positive cloud-to-ground (CG) discharges with peak current of +139.9 kA and +41.6 kA and, around that time, LMA showed continuous intra-cloud (IC) leader activities at 4-6 km altitudes. ISUAL also observed consistent optical waveforms of the IC and CG components and, interestingly, it was found that the blue/red spectral ratio clearly decreased by a factor of 1.5-2.5 at the time of CG discharges. Other four lightning events in which NLDN did not detect any CG discharges were also investigated, but such a feature was not found in any of these cases. These results suggest that the optical color of CG component is more reddish than that of IC component and we explain this as a result of more effective Rayleigh scattering in blue light emissions coming from lower-altitude light source. This finding suggests that spectral measurements could be a new useful technique to characterize ICs and CGs from space. In this talk, we will also present a result from lightning statistical analysis of ISUAL spectrophotometric data and ULF magnetic data.

  10. Analysis of the GPS Observations of the Site Survey at Sheshan 25-m Radio Telescope in August 2008 (United States)

    Liu, L.; Cheng, Z. Y.; Li, J. L.


    The processing of the GPS observations of the site survey at Sheshan 25-m radio telescope in August 2008 is reported. Because each session in this survey is only about six hours, not allowing the subdaily high frequency variations in the station coordinates to be reasonably smoothed, and because there are serious cycle slips in the observations and a large volume of data would be rejected during the software automatic adjustment of slips, the ordinary solution settings of GAMIT needed to be adjusted by loosening the constraints in the a priori coordinates to 10 m, adopting the "quick" mode in the solution iteration, and combining Cview manual operation with GAMIT automatic fixing of cycle slips. The resulting coordinates of the local control polygon in ITRF2005 are then compared with conventional geodetic results. Due to large rotations and translations in the two sets of coordinates (geocentric versus quasi-topocentric), the seven transformation parameters cannot be solved for directly. With various trial solutions it is shown that with a partial pre-removal of the large parameters, high precision transformation parameters can be obtained with post-fit residuals at the millimeter level. This analysis is necessary to prepare the follow-on site and transformation survey of the VLBI and SLR telescopes at Sheshan

  11. Multifrequency radio VLBI observations of the superluminal low-frequency variable quasar NRAO 140

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marscher, A.P.; Broderick, J.J.


    VLBI maps of the quasar NRAO 140 at three wavelengths: 18, 6, and 2.8 cm are presented. The source consists of a jetlike structure delineated by a nearly colinear series of components which are progressively more compact toward the northwestern end of the source. The multifrequency observations make it possible to dissect accurately the spectrum of the source, which leads to an affirmation of the previously reported Compton problem and superluminal motion. The Compton problem requires relativistic motion with Doppler factor delta greater than 3.7. One of the components is separating from the core at a rate of 0.15 milliarcsec/yr, which translates to an apparent velocity between 4c and 13c, depending on the values of H(0) and q(0). The energy in relativistic electrons in one of the components far exceeds the energy in magnetic field, but the total energy requirement need not exceed approximately 10 to the 54th ergs. 27 references

  12. Astronomical dating in the 19th century (United States)

    Hilgen, Frederik J.


    Today astronomical tuning is widely accepted as numerical dating method after having revolutionised the age calibration of the geological archive and time scale over the last decades. However, its origin is not well known and tracing its roots is important especially from a science historic perspective. Astronomical tuning developed in consequence of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and was repeatedly used in the second half of the 19th century before the invention of radio-isotopic dating. Building upon earlier ideas of Joseph Adhémar, James Croll started to formulate his astronomical theory of the ice ages in 1864 according to which precession controlled ice ages occur alternatingly on both hemispheres at times of maximum eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The publication of these ideas compelled Charles Lyell to revise his Principles of Geology and add Croll's theory, thus providing an alternative to his own geographical cause of the ice ages. Both Croll and Lyell initially tuned the last glacial epoch to the prominent eccentricity maximum 850,000 yr ago. This age was used as starting point by Lyell to calculate an age of 240 million years for the beginning of the Cambrium. But Croll soon revised the tuning to a much younger less prominent eccentricity maximum between 240,000 and 80,000 yr ago. In addition he tuned older glacial deposits of late Miocene and Eocene ages to eccentricity maxima around 800,000 and 2,800,000 yr ago. Archibald and James Geikie were the first to recognize interglacials during the last glacial epoch, as predicted by Croll's theory, and attempted to tune them to precession. Soon after Frank Taylor linked a series of 15 end-moraines left behind by the retreating ice sheet to precession to arrive at a possible age of 300,000 yr for the maximum glaciation. In a classic paper, Axel Blytt (1876) explained the scattered distribution of plant groups in Norway to precession induced alternating rainy and dry periods as recorded by the


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicken, D.; Tadhunter, C.; Axon, D.; Morganti, R.; Inskip, K. J.; Holt, J.; Groves, B.; Delgado, R. Gonzalez


    We present an analysis of deep mid- to far-infrared (MFIR) Spitzer photometric observations of the southern 2Jy sample of powerful radio sources (0.05 < z < 0.7), conducting a statistical investigation of the links between radio jet, active galactic nucleus (AGN), starburst activity and MFIR properties. This is part of an ongoing extensive study of powerful radio galaxies that benefits from both complete optical emission line information and a uniquely high detection rate in the far-infrared (far-IR). We find tight correlations between the MFIR and [O III]λ5007 emission luminosities, which are significantly better than those between MFIR and extended radio luminosities, or between radio and [O III] luminosities. Since [O III] is a known indicator of intrinsic AGN power, these correlations confirm AGN illumination of the circumnuclear dust as the primary heating mechanism for the dust producing thermal MFIR emission at both 24 and 70 μm. We demonstrate that AGN heating is energetically feasible, and identify the narrow-line region clouds as the most likely location of the cool, far-IR emitting dust. Starbursts make a major contribution to the heating of the cool dust in only 15%-28% of our targets. We also investigate the orientation dependence of the continuum properties, finding that the broad- and narrow-line objects in our sample with strong emission lines have similar distributions of MFIR luminosities and colors. Therefore our results are entirely consistent with the orientation-based unified schemes for powerful radio galaxies. However, the weak line radio galaxies form a separate class of objects with intrinsically low-luminosity AGNs in which both the optical emission lines and the MFIR continuum are weak.

  14. Recommended rest frequencies for observed interstellar molecular transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, F.J.; Snyder, I.E.; Johnson, D.R.


    The most accurate values presently available for the rest frequencies of all known interstellar molecular transitions are presented and recommended for reference in future astronomical observations in the radio and microwave regions. The recommended values have been carefully selected after critical evaluation of the spectroscopic literature. Probable error limits along with the proper molecular and quantum mechanical labels are presented for each observed transition. Representative line antenna temperatures are also presented for a typical source as a convenience to users. References are cited to both the astronomical and the laboratory literature


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Sambruna, Rita M.; Davis, David S.


    We present the analysis of 2.1 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data on 491 Seyfert galaxies detected by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey. Only the two nearest objects, NGC 1068 and NGC 4945, which were identified in the Fermi first year catalog, are detected. Using Swift/BAT and radio 20 cm fluxes, we define a new radio-loudness parameter R X,BAT where radio-loud objects have log R X,BAT > –4.7. Based on this parameter, only radio-loud sources are detected by Fermi/LAT. An upper limit to the flux of the undetected sources is derived to be ∼2 × 10 –11 photons cm –2 s –1 , approximately seven times lower than the observed flux of NGC 1068. Assuming a median redshift of 0.031, this implies an upper limit to the γ-ray (1-100 GeV) luminosity of ∼ 41 erg s –1 . In addition, we identified 120 new Fermi/LAT sources near the Swift/BAT Seyfert galaxies with significant Fermi/LAT detections. A majority of these objects do not have Swift/BAT counterparts, but their possible optical counterparts include blazars, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and quasars.

  16. Fermi/LAT Observations of Swift/BAT Seyfert Galaxies: On the Contribution of Radio-Quiet Active Galactic Nuclei to the Extragalactic gamma-Ray Background (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Sambruna, Rita M.; Davis, David S.; Reynolds, Christopher S.


    We present the analysis of 2.1 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data on 491 Seyfert galaxies detected by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey. Only the two nearest objects, NGC 1068 and NGC 4945, which were identified in the Fermi first year catalog, are detected. Using Swift/BAT and radio 20 cm fluxes, we define a new radio-loudness parameter R(sub X,BAT) where radio-loud objects have logR(sub X,BAT) > -4.7. Based on this parameter, only radio-loud sources are detected by Fermi/LAT. An upper limit to the flux of the undetected sources is derived to be approx.2x10(exp -11) photons/sq cm/s, approximately seven times lower than the observed flux of NGC 1068. Assuming a median redshift of 0.031, this implies an upper limit to the gamma-ray (1-100 GeV) luminosity of BAT Seyfert galaxies with significant Fermi/LAT detections. A majority of these objects do not have Swift/BAT counterparts, but their possible optical counterparts include blazars, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and quasars.

  17. Nikolay N. Donitch - the astronomer (United States)

    Gaina, Alex B.; Volyanskaya, M. Yu.


    The article is devoted to milestones of life and scientific activity of the eminent astronomer Nikolay Nikolaevich Donitch (Nicolae N. Donici) (1874-1956), a graduate from the Odessa (Novorossiski) university. He was a wellknown expert in the field of reseacrh of objects of Solar system. A person highly cultured, which built the first in Bessarabia (actually a part of the Republic of Moldova) observatory. He was borne in Kishinev (Chisinau) in a nobles family of notable Moldavian landersmen. N.D. graduated from the Richelieu lyceym in Odessa and afterwards, in 1897, graduated from the Odessa (Novorossiysky) University. A.K. Kononovich (1850-1910)headed the chair of astronomy and the Observatory at that time - a foremost authority in the field of astrophysics and stellar astronomy. Many of his disciples became eminent scientists of their time. N. Donitch was among them. N.D. worked till 1918 at Pulkovo Observatory and became a master in the field of studying of such phenomena as solar and lunar eclipses. To observe the Sun N.D., could afford to design and manufacture a spectroheliograph, the first in Russia, with the assistance of a famous Odessa mechanic J.A. Timchenko. This instrument enabled him to obtain topquality photos of the Sun's surface and prominences. It was mounted together with coelostat in the private observatory of N.D. , built in the village Staryie Doubossary in 1908. Besides the heliograoph, the observatory was equiped with a five inch refractor-equatorial with numerous instruments for various observations. Of the other instruments should be mentioned : "a comet triplet" - an instrument consisting of guiding refractor, a photographic camera and a spectrograph with an objective prism. N.D. was lucky enough to observe rare astronomical phenomena. He observed the transit of Mercury through the disk of the Sun on November 14, 1907 and showed the athmosphere absence around this planet, observed the Halley's comet in 1910, the bright Pons-Winneke comet

  18. Astronomers Trace Microquasar's Path Back in Time (United States)


    Astronomers have traced the orbit through our Milky Way Galaxy of a voracious neutron star and a companion star it is cannibalizing, and conclude that the pair joined more than 30 million years ago and probably were catapulted out of a cluster of stars far from the Galaxy's center. Path of Microquasar and Sun Path of Microquasar (red) and Sun (yellow) through the Milky Way Galaxy for the past 230 million years. Animations: GIF Version MPEG Version CREDIT: Mirabel & Rodrigues, NRAO/AUI/NSF The pair of stars, called Scorpius X-1, form a "microquasar," in which material sucked from the "normal" star forms a rapidly-rotating disk around the superdense neutron star. The disk becomes so hot it emits X-rays, and also spits out "jets" of subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light. Using precise positional data from the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and from optical telescopes, Felix Mirabel, an astrophysicist at the Institute for Astronomy and Space Physics of Argentina and French Atomic Energy Commission, and Irapuan Rodrigues, also of the French Atomic Energy Commission, calculated that Scorpius X-1 is not orbiting the Milky Way's center in step with most other stars, but instead follows an eccentric path far above and below the Galaxy's plane. Scorpius X-1, discovered with a rocket-borne X-ray telescope in 1962, is about 9,000 light-years from Earth. It is the brightest continuous source of X-rays beyond the Solar System. The 1962 discovery and associated work earned a share of the 2002 Nobel Prize in physics for Riccardo Giacconi. Mirabel and Rodrigues used a number of published observations to calculate the path of Scorpius X-1 over the past few million years. "This is the most accurate determination we have made of the path of an X-ray binary," said Mirabel. By tracing the object's path backward in time, the scientists were able to conclude that the neutron star and its companion have been traveling together for more than 30

  19. Radio-wavelength observations of magnetic fields on active dwarf-M, RS CVN and magnetic stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, K.R.


    The dwarf M stars YZ Canis Minoris and AD Leonis exhibit narrow band, slowly varying (hours) microwave emission that cannot be explained by conventional thermal radiation mechanisms. The dwarf M stars AD Leonis and Wolf 424 emit rapid spikes whose high brightness temperatures similarly require a nonthermal radiation process which could result from coherent mechanisms such as an electron-cyclotron maser or coherent-plasma radiation. If the electron-cyclotron maser emits at the second or third harmonic of the gyrofrequency, the coronal magnetic field strength H = 250 or 167 G and constraints on the plasma frequency imply an electron density of 6 x 10/sup 9//cm/sup 3/. Coherent-plasma radiation requires similar values of electron density but much weaker magnetic fields. Radio spikes from AD Leonis and Wolf 424 have rise times tau/sub R/ < 5 ms, indicating a linear size of L < 1.5 x 10/sup 8/ cm, or less than 0.005 of the stellar radius. Although Ap magnetic stars have strong dipole magnetic fields, they exhibit no detectable gyroresonant radiation, suggesting that these stars do not have hot, dense coronae. The binary RS CVn star UX Arietis exhibits variable emission at 6 cm wavelength on time scales ranging from 30 s to more than one hour. The shortest variation implies a linear size much less than that of the halo observed by VLBI techniques, and most probably sizes smaller than those of the component stars. The observed variations might be due to absorption by a thermal plasma located between the stars.

  20. Harvey Butcher: a passion for astronomical instrumentation (United States)

    Bhathal, Ragbir


    This paper covers some aspects of the scientific life of Harvey Butcher who was the Director of the Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Australian National University in Canberra from September 2007 to January 2013. He has made significant contributions to research on the evolution of galaxies, nucleosynthesis, and on the design and implementation of advanced astronomical instrumentation including LOFAR (Low Frequency Array Radio telescope). He is well known for his discovery of the Butcher-Oemler effect. Before coming to Australia he was the Director of the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy from September 1991 to January 2007. In 2005 he was awarded a Knighthood in the Order of the Netherlands Lion for contributions to interdisciplinary science, innovation and public outreach.This paper is based on an interview conducted by the author with Harvey Butcher for the National Project on Significant Australian Astronomers sponsored by the National Library of Australia. Except otherwise stated, all quotations used in this paper are from the Butcher interview which has been deposited in the Oral History Archives of the National Library.

  1. Preserving and Archiving Astronomical Photographic Plates (United States)

    Castelaz, M. W.; Cline, J. D.


    Astronomical objects change with time. New observations complement past observations recorded on photographic plates. Analyses of changes provide essential routes to information about an object's formation, constitution and evolution. Preserving a century of photographic plate observations is thus of paramount importance. Plate collections are presently widely dispersed; plates may be stored in poor conditions, and are effectively inaccessible to both researchers and historians. We describe a planned project at Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute to preserve the collections of astronomical plates in the United States by gathering them into a single storage location. Collections will be sorted, cleaned, and cataloged on-line so as to provide access to researchers. Full scientific and historic use of the material then requires the observations themselves to be accessible digitally. The project's goal will be the availability of these data as a unique, fully-maintained scientific and educational resource. The new archive will support trans-disciplinary research such as the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere, library information science, trends in local weather patterns, and impacts of urbanization on telescope use, while the hand-written observatory logs will be a valuable resource for science historians and biographers.

  2. Characteristics of coronal shock waves and solar type 2 radio bursts (United States)

    Mann, G.; Classen, H.-T.


    In the solar corona shock waves generated by flares and/or coronal mass ejections can be observed by radio astronomical methods in terms of solar type 2 radio bursts. In dynamic radio spectra they appear as emission stripes slowly drifting from high to low frequencies. A sample of 25 solar type 2 radio bursts observed in the range of 40 - 170 MHz with a time resolution of 0.1 s by the new radiospectrograph of the Astrophvsikalisches Institut Potsdam in Tremsdorf is statistically investigated concerning their spectral features, i.e, drift rate, instantaneous bandwidth, and fundamental harmonic ratio. In-situ plasma wave measurements at interplanetary shocks provide the assumption that type 2 radio radiation is emitted in the vicinity of the transition region of shock waves. Thus, the instantaneous bandwidth of a solar type 2 radio burst would reflect the density jump across the associated shock wave. Comparing the inspection of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations of shock waves under coronal circumstances with those obtained from the observational study, solar type 2 radio bursts should be regarded to be generated by weak supercritical, quasi-parallel, fast magnetosonic shock waves in the corona.

  3. The Composition and Chemistry of the Deep Tropospheres of Saturn and Uranus from Ground-Based Radio Observations (United States)

    Hofstadter, M. D.; Adumitroaie, V.; Atreya, S. K.; Butler, B.


    Ground-based radio observations of the giant planets at wavelengths from 1 millimeter to 1 meter have long been the primary means to study the deep tropospheres of both gas- and ice-giant planets (e.g. de Pater and Massie 1985, Icarus 62; Hofstadter and Butler 2003, Icarus 165). Most recently, radiometers aboard the Cassini and Juno spacecraft at Saturn and Jupiter, respectively, have demonstrated the ability of spaceborne systems to study composition and weather beneath the visible cloud tops with high spatial resolution (Janssen et al. 2013, Icarus 226; Bolton et al. 2016, this meeting). Ground-based observations remain, however, an excellent way to study the tropospheres of the ice giants, particularly the temporal and spatial distribution of condensible species, and to study the deep troposphere of Saturn in the region of the water cloud. This presentation focuses on two ground-based data sets, one for Uranus and one for Saturn. The Uranus data were all collected near the 2007 equinox, and span wavelengths from 0.1 to 20 cm. These data provide a snapshot of atmospheric composition at a single season. The Saturn observations were recently made with the EVLA observatory at wavelengths from 3 to 90 cm, augmented by published observations at shorter and longer wavelengths. It is expected that these data will allow us to constrain conditions in the water cloud region on Saturn. At the time of this writing, both data sets are being analyzed using an optimal estimation retrieval algorithm fed with the latest published information on the chemical and electrical properties of relevant atmospheric species (primarily H2O, NH3, H2S, PH3, and free electrons). At Uranus, we find that—consistent with previously published work—ammonia in the 1 to 50-bar range is strongly depleted from solar values. The relative volume mixing ratios of the above species satisfy PH3 < NH3 < H2S < H2O, which is interesting because based on cosmic abundances one would expect H2S < NH3. At the

  4. Probing the innermost regions of AGN jets and their magnetic fields with RadioAstron. II. Observations of 3C 273 at minimum activity (United States)

    Bruni, G.; Gómez, J. L.; Casadio, C.; Lobanov, A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Lisakov, M. M.; Bach, U.; Marscher, A.; Jorstad, S.; Anderson, J. M.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Savolainen, T.; Vega-García, L.; Fuentes, A.; Zensus, J. A.; Alberdi, A.; Lee, S.-S.; Lu, R.-S.; Pérez-Torres, M.; Ros, E.


    Context. RadioAstron is a 10 m orbiting radio telescope mounted on the Spektr-R satellite, launched in 2011, performing Space Very Long Baseline Interferometry (SVLBI) observations supported by a global ground array of radio telescopes. With an apogee of 350 000 km, it is offering for the first time the possibility to perform μas-resolution imaging in the cm-band. Aims: The RadioAstron active galactic nuclei (AGN) polarization Key Science Project (KSP) aims at exploiting the unprecedented angular resolution provided by RadioAstron to study jet launching/collimation and magnetic-field configuration in AGN jets. The targets of our KSP are some of the most powerful blazars in the sky. Methods: We present observations at 22 GHz of 3C 273, performed in 2014, designed to reach a maximum baseline of approximately nine Earth diameters. Reaching an angular resolution of 0.3 mas, we study a particularly low-activity state of the source, and estimate the nuclear region brightness temperature, comparing with the extreme one detected one year before during the RadioAstron early science period. We also make use of the VLBA-BU-BLAZAR survey data, at 43 GHz, to study the kinematics of the jet in a 1.5-yr time window. Results: We find that the nuclear brightness temperature is two orders of magnitude lower than the exceptionally high value detected in 2013 with RadioAstron at the same frequency (1.4 × 1013 K, source-frame), and even one order of magnitude lower than the equipartition value. The kinematics analysis at 43 GHz shows that a new component was ejected 2 months after the 2013 epoch, visible also in our 22 GHz map presented here. Consequently this was located upstream of the core during the brightness temperature peak. Fermi-LAT observations for the period 2010-2014 do not show any γ-ray flare in conjunction with the passage of the new component by the core at 43 GHz. Conclusions: These observations confirm that the previously detected extreme brightness temperature in

  5. First limits on the very-high energy gamma-ray afterglow emission of a fast radio burst. H.E.S.S. observations of FRB 150418 (United States)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arakawa, M.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Büchele, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Coffaro, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Decock, J.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; Dewilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O.'c.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Iwasaki, H.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katsuragawa, M.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Nakashima, S.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de Los Reyes, R.; Richter, S.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, S.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seglar-Arroyo, M.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Takahashi, T.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tsuji, N.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; van der Walt, D. J.; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.; Superb Collaboration; Jankowski, F.; Keane, E. F.; Petroff, E.


    Aims: Following the detection of the fast radio burst FRB150418 by the SUPERB project at the Parkes radio telescope, we aim to search for very-high energy gamma-ray afterglow emission. Methods: Follow-up observations in the very-high energy gamma-ray domain were obtained with the H.E.S.S. imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope system within 14.5 h of the radio burst. Results: The obtained 1.4 h of gamma-ray observations are presented and discussed. At the 99% C.L. we obtained an integral upper limit on the gamma-ray flux of Φγ(E > 350 GeV) FRB 150418. Conclusions: No hints for high-energy afterglow emission of FRB 150418 were found. Taking absorption on the extragalactic background light into account and assuming a distance of z = 0.492 based on radio and optical counterpart studies and consistent with the FRB dispersion, we constrain the gamma-ray luminosity at 1 TeV to L < 5.1 × 1047 erg/s at 99% C.L.

  6. Using commercial amateur astronomical spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Jeffrey L


    Amateur astronomers interested in learning more about astronomical spectroscopy now have the guide they need. It provides detailed information about how to get started inexpensively with low-resolution spectroscopy, and then how to move on to more advanced  high-resolution spectroscopy. Uniquely, the instructions concentrate very much on the practical aspects of using commercially-available spectroscopes, rather than simply explaining how spectroscopes work. The book includes a clear explanation of the laboratory theory behind astronomical spectrographs, and goes on to extensively cover the practical application of astronomical spectroscopy in detail. Four popular and reasonably-priced commercially available diffraction grating spectrographs are used as examples. The first is a low-resolution transmission diffraction grating, the Star Analyser spectrograph. The second is an inexpensive fiber optic coupled bench spectrograph that can be used to learn more about spectroscopy. The third is a newcomer, the ALPY ...

  7. Astronomical databases of Nikolaev Observatory (United States)

    Protsyuk, Y.; Mazhaev, A.


    Several astronomical databases were created at Nikolaev Observatory during the last years. The databases are built by using MySQL search engine and PHP scripts. They are available on NAO web-site

  8. Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language (United States)

    Goldbaum, Jesse M.


    The Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language (AISML) is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) based file format for maintaining and exchanging information about astronomical instrumentation. The factors behind the need for an AISML are first discussed followed by the reasons why XML was chosen as the format. Next it's shown how XML also provides the framework for a more precise definition of an astronomical instrument and how these instruments can be combined to form an Astronomical Instrumentation System (AIS). AISML files for several instruments as well as one for a sample AIS are provided. The files demonstrate how AISML can be utilized for various tasks from web page generation and programming interface to instrument maintenance and quality management. The advantages of widespread adoption of AISML are discussed.

  9. The South African astronomical observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.


    A few examples of the activities of the South African Astronomical Observatory are discussed. This includes the studying of stellar evolution, dust around stars, the determination of distances to galaxies and collaboration with space experiments

  10. AESoP: Astronomical Extinction Spectrophotometer (United States)

    Linford, Justin; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.; Ackermann, M.; Fitch, J.


    The Earth's atmosphere is a major obstruction to the precision and accuracy of ground-based photometry. The atmosphere removes light from astronomical objects both by absorption and scattering by constituent molecules, aerosols and clouds. These effects can change significantly over short time periods and over modest angles on the sky. To further understand these effects, the UNM Measurement Astrophysics Group has designed, built and recently deployed the Astronomical Extinction Spectrophotometer (AESoP), a 100mm objective grating spectrometer. By monitoring bright stars in sensibly the same direction as a larger photometric telescope is observing, AESoP will measure the wavelength-dependent extinction due to the Earth's atmosphere from 450nm to 900nm on time scales of approximately one minute. The collocated Astronomical LIDAR for Extinction (ALE) provides a high-precision monochromatic extinction measurement at 527nm. Knowing the extinction at a single wavelength allows us to pin the relative spectra generated by AESoP. These extinction spectra can then be integrated over the bandpass of the photometric telescope system to create real time corrections of observations. We present the design and construction of AESoP along with the preliminary results of our first combined observing campaign. This effort is our first step toward breaking the 1% photometry barrier. This project is funded by AFRL Grant FA9451-04-2-0355

  11. Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling (United States)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn


    Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

  12. Astronomical observations from outside the terrestrial atsmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, R.M.


    Achievements by this Commission over the period 1976 to 1978 are reported, under the topics radioastronomy from space, infrared space astronomy, ultraviolet astronomy, high energy astronomy, and space solar astronomy. Details of the NASA high energy astronomy observatory (HEAO) program and the international ultraviolet explorer are presented. (C.F.)

  13. Radio images of the planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pater, I.


    Observations at radio wavelengths make possible detailed studies of planetary atmospheres, magnetospheres, and surface layers. The paper addresses the question of what can be learned from interferometric radio images of planets. Results from single-element radio observations are also discussed. Observations of both the terrestrial and the giant planets are considered. 106 refs

  14. Astronomer's new guide to the galaxy: largest map of cold dust revealed (United States)


    Astronomers have unveiled an unprecedented new atlas of the inner regions of the Milky Way, our home galaxy, peppered with thousands of previously undiscovered dense knots of cold cosmic dust -- the potential birthplaces of new stars. Made using observations from the APEX telescope in Chile, this survey is the largest map of cold dust so far, and will prove an invaluable map for observations made with the forthcoming ALMA telescope, as well as the recently launched ESA Herschel space telescope. ESO PR Photo 24a/09 View of the Galactic Plane from the ATLASGAL survey (annotated and in five sections) ESO PR Photo 24b/09 View of the Galactic Plane from the ATLASGAL survey (annotated) ESO PR Photo 24c/09 View of the Galactic Plane from the ATLASGAL survey (in five sections) ESO PR Photo 24d/09 View of the Galactic Plane from the ATLASGAL survey ESO PR Photo 24e/09 The Galactic Centre and Sagittarius B2 ESO PR Photo 24f/09 The NGC 6357 and NGC 6334 nebulae ESO PR Photo 24g/09 The RCW120 nebula ESO PR Video 24a/09 Annotated pan as seen by the ATLASGAL survey This new guide for astronomers, known as the APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL) shows the Milky Way in submillimetre-wavelength light (between infrared light and radio waves [1]). Images of the cosmos at these wavelengths are vital for studying the birthplaces of new stars and the structure of the crowded galactic core. "ATLASGAL gives us a new look at the Milky Way. Not only will it help us investigate how massive stars form, but it will also give us an overview of the larger-scale structure of our galaxy", said Frederic Schuller from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, leader of the ATLASGAL team. The area of the new submillimetre map is approximately 95 square degrees, covering a very long and narrow strip along the galactic plane two degrees wide (four times the width of the full Moon) and over 40 degrees long. The 16 000 pixel-long map was made with the LABOCA submillimetre

  15. Local area networking in a radio quiet environment (United States)

    Childers, Edwin L.; Hunt, Gareth; Brandt, Joseph J.


    The Green Bank facility of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is spread out over 2,700 acres in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. Good communication has always been needed between the radio telescopes and the control buildings. The National Radio Quiet Zone helps protect the Green Bank site from radio transmissions that interfere with the astronomical signals. Due to stringent Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) requirements, a fiber optic communication system was used for Ethernet transmissions on the site and coaxial cable within the buildings. With the need for higher speed communications, the entire network has been upgraded to use optical fiber with modern Ethernet switches. As with most modern equipment, the implementation of the control of the newly deployed Green Bank Telescope (GBT) depends heavily on TCP/IP. In order to protect the GBT from the commodity Internet, the GBT uses a non-routable network. Communication between the control building Local Area Network (LAN) and the GBT is implemented using a Virtual LAN (VLAN). This configuration will be extended to achieve isolation between trusted local user systems, the GBT, and other Internet users. Legitimate access to the site, for example by remote observers, is likely to be implemented using a virtual private network (VPN).

  16. Enthusiastic Little Astronomers (United States)

    Novak, Ines


    Younger primary school students often show great interest in the vast Universe hiding behind the starry night's sky, but don't have a way of learning about it and exploring it in regular classes. Some of them would search children's books, Internet or encyclopedias for information or facts they are interested in, but there are those whose hunger for knowledge would go unfulfilled. Such students were the real initiators of our extracurricular activity called Little Astronomers. With great enthusiasm they would name everything that interests them about the Universe that we live in and I would provide the information in a fun and interactive yet acceptable way for their level of understanding. In our class we learn about Earth and its place in the Solar System, we learn about the planets and other objects of our Solar System and about the Sun itself. We also explore the night sky using programs such as Stellarium, learning to recognize constellations and name them. Most of our activities are done using a PowerPoint presentation, YouTube videos, and Internet simulations followed by some practical work the students do themselves. Because of the lack of available materials and funds, most of materials are hand made by the teacher leading the class. We also use the school's galileoscope as often as possible. Every year the students are given the opportunity to go to an observatory in a town 90 km away so that they could gaze at the sky through the real telescope for the first time. Our goal is to start stepping into the world of astronomy by exploring the secrets of the Universe and understanding the process of rotation and revolution of our planet and its effects on our everyday lives and also to become more aware of our own role in our part of the Universe. The hunger for knowledge and enthusiasm these students have is contagious. They are becoming more aware of their surroundings and also understanding their place in the Universe that helps them remain humble and helps

  17. The New Amateur Astronomer (United States)

    Mobberley, Martin

    Amateur astronomy has changed beyond recognition in less than two decades. The reason is, of course, technology. Affordable high-quality telescopes, computer-controlled 'go to' mountings, autoguiders, CCD cameras, video, and (as always) computers and the Internet, are just a few of the advances that have revolutionized astronomy for the twenty-first century. Martin Mobberley first looks at the basics before going into an in-depth study of what’s available commercially. He then moves on to the revolutionary possibilities that are open to amateurs, from imaging, through spectroscopy and photometry, to patrolling for near-earth objects - the search for comets and asteroids that may come close to, or even hit, the earth. The New Amateur Astronomer is a road map of the new astronomy, equally suitable for newcomers who want an introduction, or old hands who need to keep abreast of innovations. From the reviews: "This is one of several dozen books in Patrick Moore's "Practical Astronomy" series. Amid this large family, Mobberley finds his niche: the beginning high-tech amateur. The book's first half discusses equipment: computer-driven telescopes, CCD cameras, imaging processing software, etc. This market is changing every bit as rapidly as the computer world, so these details will be current for only a year or two. The rest of the book offers an overview of scientific projects that serious amateurs are carrying out these days. Throughout, basic formulas and technical terms are provided as needed, without formal derivations. An appendix with useful references and Web sites is also included. Readers will need more than this book if they are considering a plunge into high-tech amateur astronomy, but it certainly will whet their appetites. Mobberley's most valuable advice will save the book's owner many times its cover price: buy a quality telescope from a reputable dealer and install it in a simple shelter so it can be used with as little set-up time as possible. A poor

  18. News and Views: Research council resource allocations: managing demand; e-MERLIN radio telescope network is up and running (United States)


    The research councils discovered in December the allocation of money from the UK government's Comprehensive Spending Review, and have set out their delivery plans outlining how they will spend it. Details and decisions will follow consultation in the coming months. The first image from eMerlin, the UK's national radio astronomy facility, shows the power of the enhanced network of radio telescopes spread over 220 km and now linked by fibre optics. These links and advanced receivers will allow astronomers to see in a single day what would have previously taken them more than a year of observations.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.-Y.; Kaspi, V. M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Ho, W. C. G. [School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Weltevrede, P. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bogdanov, S. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Shannon, R. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Sciences, Australia Telescope National Facility, Marsfield, NSW 2210 (Australia); Gonzalez, M. E., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)


    High-magnetic-field radio pulsars are important transition objects for understanding the connection between magnetars and conventional radio pulsars. We present a detailed study of the young radio pulsar J1119-6127, which has a characteristic age of 1900 yr and a spin-down-inferred magnetic field of 4.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} G, and its associated supernova remnant G292.2-0.5, using deep XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray Observatory exposures of over 120 ks from each telescope. The pulsar emission shows strong modulation below 2.5 keV with a single-peaked profile and a large pulsed fraction of 0.48 {+-} 0.12. Employing a magnetic, partially ionized hydrogen atmosphere model, we find that the observed pulse profile can be produced by a single hot spot of temperature 0.13 keV covering about one-third of the stellar surface, and we place an upper limit of 0.08 keV for an antipodal hot spot with the same area. The non-uniform surface temperature distribution could be the result of anisotropic heat conduction under a strong magnetic field, and a single-peaked profile seems common among high-B radio pulsars. For the associated remnant G292.2-0.5, its large diameter could be attributed to fast expansion in a low-density wind cavity, likely formed by a Wolf-Rayet progenitor, similar to two other high-B radio pulsars.

  20. Preservation and maintenance of the astronomical sites in Armenia (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.


    Astronomy in Armenia was popular since ancient times. There are signs of astronomical observations coming from a few thousands years ago. Two ancient observatories, Karahunge and Metzamor are especially well known. Karahunge is the Armenian twin of the Stonehenge and is even older. However, there is no proper attention from the state authorities and efforts are needed for preservation of such historical-astronomical monuments. The Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) is the modern famous Armenian observatory founded in 1946 by the outstanding scientist Victor Ambartsumian. It was one of the world astronomical centres in 1950-s to 1970-s, and at present is the largest observatory in the Middle East area. As the ancient astronomical sites, Byurakan also needs a proper attitude from the state authorities and corresponding international organizations to preserve its values and importance for the present and future astronomical activities in the region, including its rich observational archive, telescopes, and human resources. Despite all the difficulties, the Armenian astronomers keep high international level of research and display various activities organizing international meetings and schools, preparing new young generation for the future research. The Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) is an affiliated member of EAS. Armenia has its Virtual Observatory project (ArVO) as well. The next Joint European and National Astronomy Meeting (JENAM-2007) will be held in Yerevan, Armenia, in August 2007. There are plans to organize astronomical tours to Armenia for making observations from various sites, including the ancient observatories. The future of astronomy in Armenia strongly depends on all of this activities and the proper attention both from state authorities and society.

  1. Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle With Fast Radio Bursts. (United States)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Gao, He; Wu, Xue-Feng; Mészáros, Peter


    The accuracy of Einstein's equivalence principle (EEP) can be tested with the observed time delays between correlated particles or photons that are emitted from astronomical sources. Assuming as a lower limit that the time delays are caused mainly by the gravitational potential of the Milky Way, we prove that fast radio bursts (FRBs) of cosmological origin can be used to constrain the EEP with high accuracy. Taking FRB 110220 and two possible FRB/gamma-ray burst (GRB) association systems (FRB/GRB 101011A and FRB/GRB 100704A) as examples, we obtain a strict upper limit on the differences of the parametrized post-Newtonian parameter γ values as low as [γ(1.23  GHz)-γ(1.45  GHz)]radio energies, improving by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude the previous results at other energies based on supernova 1987A and GRBs.

  2. Radio Telescopes Reveal Unseen Galactic Cannibalism (United States)


    quasars and blazars are hundreds of times more powerful. The astronomers picked a number of relatively nearby Seyfert galaxies that had previously been observed with visible-light telescopes. They then carefully studied the Seyferts with the VLA, specifically looking for radio waves emitted by hydrogen atoms. The VLA images showed the vast majority of the Seyferts were disturbed by encounters with neighbor galaxies. By comparison, similar VLA images of inactive galaxies showed that very few were disturbed. "This comparison clearly shows a connection between close galactic encounters and the black-hole-powered activity in the cores," said Ya-Wen Tang, who began this work at the Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), in Taiwan and now is a graduate student at the National Taiwan University. "This is the best evidence yet for the fueling of Seyfert galaxies. Other mechanisms have been proposed, but they have shown little if any difference between Seyferts and inactive galaxies," Tang added. "Our results show that images of the hydrogen gas are a powerful tool for revealing otherwise-invisible gravitational interactions among galaxies," said Jeremy Lim, also of ASIAA. "This is a welcome advance in our understanding of these objects, made possible by the best and most extensive survey ever made of hydrogen in Seyferts," Lim said. Kuo, Tang and Lim worked with Paul Ho, of ASIAA and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The scientists reported their findings in the Astrophysical Journal. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  3. Astronomical Virtual Observatories Through International Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Ohishi


    Full Text Available Astronomical Virtual Observatories (VOs are emerging research environment for astronomy, and 16 countries and a region have funded to develop their VOs based on international standard protocols for interoperability. The 16 funded VO projects have established the International Virtual Observatory Alliance ( to develop the standard interoperable interfaces such as registry (meta data, data access, query languages, output format (VOTable, data model, application interface, and so on. The IVOA members have constructed each VO environment through the IVOA interfaces. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ started its VO project (Japanese Virtual Observatory - JVO in 2002, and developed its VO system. We have succeeded to interoperate the latest JVO system with other VOs in the USA and Europe since December 2004. Observed data by the Subaru telescope, satellite data taken by the JAXA/ISAS, etc. are connected to the JVO system. Successful interoperation of the JVO system with other VOs means that astronomers in the world will be able to utilize top-level data obtained by these telescopes from anywhere in the world at anytime. System design of the JVO system, experiences during our development including problems of current standard protocols defined in the IVOA, and proposals to resolve these problems in the near future are described.

  4. Development of the Phase-up Technology of the Radio Telescopes: 6.7 GHz Methanol Maser Observations with Phased Hitachi 32 m and Takahagi 32 m Radio Telescopes (United States)

    Takefuji, K.; Sugiyama, K.; Yonekura, Y.; Saito, T.; Fujisawa, K.; Kondo, T.


    For the sake of high-sensitivity 6.7 GHz methanol maser observations, we developed a new technology for coherently combining the two signals from the Hitachi 32 m radio telescope and the Takahagi 32 m radio telescope of the Japanese Very long baseline interferometer Network (JVN), where the two telescopes were separated by about 260 m. After the two telescopes were phased as a twofold larger single telescope, the mean signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers observed by the phased telescopes was improved to 1.254-fold higher than that of the single dish, through a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiment on the 50 km baseline of the Kashima 34 m telescope and the 1000 km baseline of the Yamaguchi 32 m telescope. Furthermore, we compared the S/Ns of the 6.7 GHz maser spectra for two methods. One is a VLBI method and the other is the newly developed digital position switching that is a similar technology to that used in noise-canceling headphones. Finally, we confirmed that the mean S/N of method of the digital position switching (ON-OFF) was 1.597-fold higher than that of the VLBI method.

  5. The Top Ten Astronomical 'breakthroughs' of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes, D. W.


    Full Text Available Astronomy was revolutionized in the 20th century. The electron was discovered in 1897 and this transformed spectroscopy and introduced plasma and magnetohydrodynamic physics and astro-chemistry. Einstein’s E = mc2, solved the problem of stellar energy generation and spawned the study of elemental nuclear synthesis. Large telescopes led to a boom in astronomical spectroscopic and photometric data collection, leading to such cornerstones as the Hertzprung-Russell diagram and the mass-luminosity relationship, and to the realization that the Universe contained a multitude of galaxies and was expanding. Radio astronomy was introduced and the advent of the space age saw the astronomical wavelength range expand into the ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma-ray regions, as well as the infrared and millimetre. We also startedwandering around roaming the Solar System instead of merely glimpsing its members from the bottom of our warm, turbulent atmosphere. Astronomical “breakthroughs” abounded. We have asked astronomers to select their “top ten” and these are listed and discussed in this paper.

  6. The Radio Jove Project (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.


    The Radio love Project is a hands-on education and outreach project in which students, or any other interested individuals or groups build a radio telescope from a kit, operate the radio telescope, transmit the resulting signals through the internet if desired, analyze the results, and share the results with others through archives or general discussions among the observers. Radio love is intended to provide an introduction to radio astronomy for the observer. The equipment allows the user to observe radio signals from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and Earth-based radiation both natural and man-made. The project was started through a NASA Director's Discretionary Fund grant more than ten years ago. it has continued to be carried out through the dedicated efforts of a group of mainly volunteers. Dearly 1500 kits have been distributed throughout the world. Participation can also be done without building a kit. Pre-built kits are available. Users can also monitor remote radio telescopes through the internet using free downloadable software available through the website. There have been many stories of prize-winning projects, inspirational results, collaborative efforts, etc. We continue to build the community of observers and are always open to new thoughts about how to inspire the observers to still greater involvement in the science and technology associated with Radio Jove.

  7. Active galactic nuclei cores in infrared-faint radio sources. Very long baseline interferometry observations using the Very Long Baseline Array (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Deller, A. T.; Collier, J. D.; Parker, Q. A.


    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) form a new class of galaxies characterised by radio flux densities between tenths and tens of mJy and faint or absent infrared counterparts. It has been suggested that these objects are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at significant redshifts (z ≳ 2). Aims: Whereas the high redshifts of IFRS have been recently confirmed based on spectroscopic data, the evidence for the presence of AGNs in IFRS is mainly indirect. So far, only two AGNs have been unquestionably confirmed in IFRS based on very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. In this work, we test the hypothesis that IFRS contain AGNs in a large sample of sources using VLBI. Methods: We observed 57 IFRS with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) down to a detection sensitivity in the sub-mJy regime and detected compact cores in 35 sources. Results: Our VLBA detections increase the number of VLBI-detected IFRS from 2 to 37 and provide strong evidence that most - if not all - IFRS contain AGNs. We find that IFRS have a marginally higher VLBI detection fraction than randomly selected sources with mJy flux densities at arcsec-scales. Moreover, our data provide a positive correlation between compactness - defined as the ratio of milliarcsec- to arcsec-scale flux density - and redshift for IFRS, but suggest a decreasing mean compactness with increasing arcsec-scale radio flux density. Based on these findings, we suggest that IFRS tend to contain young AGNs whose jets have not formed yet or have not expanded, equivalent to very compact objects. We found two IFRS that are resolved into two components. The two components are spatially separated by a few hundred milliarcseconds in both cases. They might be components of one AGN, a binary black hole, or the result of gravitational lensing.

  8. Simultaneous Chandra and VLA Observations of the Transitional Millisecond Pulsar PSR J1023+0038: Anti-correlated X-Ray and Radio Variability (United States)

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Deller, Adam T.; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Archibald, Anne M.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Jaodand, Amruta; Patruno, Alessandro; Bassa, Cees; D’Angelo, Caroline


    We present coordinated Chandra X-ray Observatory and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations of the transitional millisecond pulsar PSR J1023+0038 in its low-luminosity accreting state. The unprecedented five hours of strictly simultaneous X-ray and radio continuum coverage for the first time unambiguously show a highly reproducible, anti-correlated variability pattern. The characteristic switches from the X-ray high mode into a low mode are always accompanied by a radio brightening with a duration that closely matches the X-ray low mode interval. This behavior cannot be explained by a canonical inflow/outflow accretion model where the radiated emission and the jet luminosity are powered by, and positively correlated with, the available accretion energy. We interpret this phenomenology as alternating episodes of low-level accretion onto the neutron star during the X-ray high mode that are interrupted by rapid ejections of plasma by the active rotation-powered pulsar, possibly initiated by a reconfiguration of the pulsar magnetosphere, that cause a transition to a less X-ray luminous mode. The observed anti-correlation between radio and X-ray luminosity has an additional consequence: transitional MSPs can make excursions into a region of the radio/X-ray luminosity plane previously thought to be occupied solely by black hole X-ray binary sources. This complicates the use of this luminosity relation for identifying candidate black holes, suggesting the need for additional discriminants when attempting to establish the true nature of the accretor.

  9. Continent-Spanning Radio Telescope Blazes Trails At the Frontiers of Astrophysics (United States)


    for astronomy, is being used by the next generation of astronomers," said Miller Goss, NRAO's Director for VLA/VLBA Operations. "In addition, we are telling astronomers who have not yet used the VLBA how we can help them use it for their own research." As a national facility provided by the NSF, the VLBA is available free of charge to scientists, based on peer review of their proposed observing projects. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  10. The Sardinia Radio Telescope . From a technological project to a radio observatory (United States)

    Prandoni, I.; Murgia, M.; Tarchi, A.; Burgay, M.; Castangia, P.; Egron, E.; Govoni, F.; Pellizzoni, A.; Ricci, R.; Righini, S.; Bartolini, M.; Casu, S.; Corongiu, A.; Iacolina, M. N.; Melis, A.; Nasir, F. T.; Orlati, A.; Perrodin, D.; Poppi, S.; Trois, A.; Vacca, V.; Zanichelli, A.; Bachetti, M.; Buttu, M.; Comoretto, G.; Concu, R.; Fara, A.; Gaudiomonte, F.; Loi, F.; Migoni, C.; Orfei, A.; Pilia, M.; Bolli, P.; Carretti, E.; D'Amico, N.; Guidetti, D.; Loru, S.; Massi, F.; Pisanu, T.; Porceddu, I.; Ridolfi, A.; Serra, G.; Stanghellini, C.; Tiburzi, C.; Tingay, S.; Valente, G.


    Context. The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is the new 64 m dish operated by the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF). Its active surface, comprised of 1008 separate aluminium panels supported by electromechanical actuators, will allow us to observe at frequencies of up to 116 GHz. At the moment, three receivers, one per focal position, have been installed and tested: a 7-beam K-band receiver, a mono-feed C-band receiver, and a coaxial dual-feed L/P band receiver. The SRT was officially opened in September 2013, upon completion of its technical commissioning phase. In this paper, we provide an overview of the main science drivers for the SRT, describe the main outcomes from the scientific commissioning of the telescope, and discuss a set of observations demonstrating the scientific capabilities of the SRT. Aims: The scientific commissioning phase, carried out in the 2012-2015 period, proceeded in stages following the implementation and/or fine-tuning of advanced subsystems such as the active surface, the derotator, new releases of the acquisition software, etc. One of the main objectives of scientific commissioning was the identification of deficiencies in the instrumentation and/or in the telescope subsystems for further optimization. As a result, the overall telescope performance has been significantly improved. Methods: As part of the scientific commissioning activities, different observing modes were tested and validated, and the first astronomical observations were carried out to demonstrate the science capabilities of the SRT. In addition, we developed astronomer-oriented software tools to support future observers on site. In the following, we refer to the overall scientific commissioning and software development activities as astronomical validation. Results: The astronomical validation activities were prioritized based on technical readiness and scientific impact. The highest priority was to make the SRT available for joint observations as

  11. Unveiling galaxies the role of images in astronomical discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Jean-René


    Galaxies are known as the building blocks of the universe, but arriving at this understanding has been a thousand-year odyssey. This journey is told through the lens of the evolving use of images as investigative tools. Initial chapters explore how early insights developed in line with new methods of scientific imaging, particularly photography. The volume then explores the impact of optical, radio and x-ray imaging techniques. The final part of the story discusses the importance of atlases of galaxies; how astronomers organised images in ways that educated, promoted ideas and pushed for new knowledge. Images that created confusion as well as advanced knowledge are included to demonstrate the challenges faced by astronomers and the long road to understanding galaxies. By examining developments in imaging, this text places the study of galaxies in its broader historical context, contributing to both astronomy and the history of science.

  12. X-Ray and Radio Observations of the Magnetar SGR J1935+2154 during Its 2014, 2015, and 2016 Outbursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, George; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Van der Horst, Alexander J. [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Jaodand, Amruta; Hessels, Jason W. T. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Baring, Matthew G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Harding, Alice K.; Gehrels, Neil [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gill, Ramandeep; Granot, Jonathan [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Raánana 43537 (Israel); Huppenkothen, Daniela [Center for Data Science, New York University, 726 Broadway, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Göğüş, Ersin [Sabancı University, Orhanlı-Tuzla, İstanbul 34956 (Turkey); Lin, Lin, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)


    We analyzed broadband X-ray and radio data of the magnetar SGR J1935+2154 taken in the aftermath of its 2014, 2015, and 2016 outbursts. The source soft X-ray spectrum <10 keV is well described with a blackbody+power-law (BB+PL) or 2BB model during all three outbursts. Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observations revealed a hard X-ray tail, with a PL photon index Γ = 0.9, extending up to 50 keV, with flux comparable to the one detected <10 keV. Imaging analysis of Chandra data did not reveal small-scale extended emission around the source. Following the outbursts, the total 0.5–10 keV flux from SGR J1935+2154 increased in concordance to its bursting activity, with the flux at activation onset increasing by a factor of ∼7 following its strongest 2016 June outburst. A Swift /X-Ray Telescope observation taken 1.5 days prior to the onset of this outburst showed a flux level consistent with quiescence. We show that the flux increase is due to the PL or hot BB component, which increased by a factor of 25 compared to quiescence, while the cold BB component kT = 0.47 keV remained more or less constant. The 2014 and 2015 outbursts decayed quasi-exponentially with timescales of ∼40 days, while the stronger 2016 May and June outbursts showed a quick short-term decay with timescales of about four days. Our Arecibo radio observations set the deepest limits on the radio emission from a magnetar, with a maximum flux density limit of 14 μ Jy for the 4.6 GHz observations and 7 μ Jy for the 1.4 GHz observations. We discuss these results in the framework of the current magnetar theoretical models.

  13. A discrepancy observed in the dipole anisotropy in the radio sky at 1.4 GHz and that in the CMBR – A threat to the cosmological principle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singal, Ashok K


    According to the cosmological principle, the sky brightness at any frequency should appear uniform in all directions to an observer considered to be fixed in the co-moving coordinate system of the expanding universe. However a peculiar motion of the observer introduces a dipole anisotropy in the observed sky brightness, which should be independent of the observing frequency. We have examined the angular distribution in the radio-sky brightness, i.e., an integrated emission from discrete sources per unit solid angle, from the NVSS sample containing 1.8 million discrete radio sources at 1.4 GHz. Our results give a dipole anisotropy which is in the same direction as that of the CMBR from the COBE or WMAP, but the magnitude we find is about 4 times larger at a statistically significant (about 3σ) level. A genuine difference between the two dipoles cannot arise from the observer's motion alone, and it would imply intrinsically anisotropic universe, with anisotropy changing with the epoch. This would violate the cosmological principle where isotropy of the universe is assumed for all epochs, and on which the whole modern cosmology is based upon

  14. Very low frequency radio events with a reduced intensity observed by the low-altitude DEMETER spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Záhlava, J.; Němec, F.; Santolík, Ondřej; Kolmašová, Ivana; Parrot, M.; Rodger, C. J.


    Roč. 120, č. 11 (2015), s. 9781-9794 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100421206 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : magnetosphere * DEMETER * VLF radio events Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015

  15. Source regions of the type II radio burst observed during a CME–CME interaction on 2013 May 22

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mäkelä, P.; Gopalswamy, N.; Reiner, M. J.; Akiyama, S.; Krupař, Vratislav


    Roč. 827, č. 2 (2016), 141/1-141/7 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2394 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : coronal mass ejections (CMEs) * radio radiation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  16. Astronomical Spectroscopy A Short History

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 5. Astronomical Spectroscopy A Short History. J C Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 3 Issue 5 May 1998 pp 24-29. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  17. Summary of daily observational results of solar phenomena, cosmic ray, geomagnetic variation, ionosphere, radio wave propagation and airglow. During October 1973 through September 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The diagrams in this section of the publication illustrate the summary of daily observational results of solar phenomena, cosmic ray, geomagnetic variation, ionosphere, radio wave propagation and airglow observed in Japan. For convenience, the observational results are arranged by the solar rotation number. The aim of this illustration is to disseminate an outline of daily events observed in Japan for the benefit of active research workers who plan to make detailed study of the specific solar and terrestrial events. Therefore, the illustrations do not show all observational results in Japan but only representative ones at some key stations in Japan. They will suffice for the present purpose. The method of illustration shown in the instruction on the next page is still a preliminary one, and it is subject to change resulting from the kind advice of the users of this part of the publication.

  18. A refined astronomically calibrated 40Ar/39Ar age for Fish Canyon sanidine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera, T.A.; Storey, M.; Zeeden, C.; Hilgen, F.J.; Kuiper, K.


    Intercalibration between the astronomical and radio-isotopic dating methods provides a means to improving accuracy and reducing uncertainty of an integrated, multi-chronometer geologic timescale. Here we report a high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age for the FishCanyon sanidine (FCs) neutron fluence monitor,

  19. The Frontiers of the Astronomical Universe (United States)

    Pecker, Jean-Claude


    Reviews the current state of knowledge obtained by means of observations using the increasingly powerful or proficient instruments of astrophysics, radio astronomy, and space astronomy by satellite. In conclusion, he refers to certain mathematical entities introduced into the theory of the origins and evolution of the cosmos. (Author/MA)

  20. Latin American astronomers and the International Astronomical Union (United States)

    Torres-Peimbert, S.


    Selected aspects of the participation of the Latin American astronomers in the International Astronomical Union are presented: Membership, Governing bodies, IAU meetings, and other activities. The Union was founded in 1919 with 7 initial member states, soon to be followed by Brazil. In 1921 Mexico joined, and in 1928 Argentina also formed part of the Union, while Chile joined in 1947. In 1961 Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Venezuela were already member countries. At present (October 2016) 72 countries contribute financially to the Union. The Union lists 12,391 professional astronomers as individual members; of those, 692 astronomers work in Latin America and the Caribbean, from 13 member states (Argentina, Bolivia , Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Honduras, Mexico, Panamá, Perú, Uruguay and Venezuela) as well as from Ecuador and Puerto Rico. This group comprises 5.58% of the total membership, a figure somewhat lower than the fraction of the population in the region, which is 8.6% of the world population. Of the Latin American members, 23.4% are women and 76.6% are men; slightly higher than the whole membership of Union, which is of 16.9%. In the governing bodies it can be mentioned that there have been 2 Presidents of the Union (Jorge Sahade and Silvia Torres-Peimbert), 7 VicePresidents (Guillermo Haro, Jorge Sahade, Manuel Peimbert Claudio Anguita, Silvia Torres-Peimbert, Beatriz Barbuy, and Marta G. Rovira). The IAU meetings held in the region, include 2 General Assemblies (the 1991 XXI GA took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina and the 2009 XXVIII GA, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 15 Regional Meetings (in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela and Uruguay), 29 Symposia (in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru and Mexico), 5 Colloquia (in Argentina and Mexico), 8 International Schools for Young Astronomers (in Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Honduras and Mexico), and 11 projects sponsored by the Office of Astronomy

  1. Astronomical virtual observatory and the place and role of Bulgarian one (United States)

    Petrov, Georgi; Dechev, Momchil; Slavcheva-Mihova, Luba; Duchlev, Peter; Mihov, Bojko; Kochev, Valentin; Bachev, Rumen


    Virtual observatory could be defined as a collection of integrated astronomical data archives and software tools that utilize computer networks to create an environment in which research can be conducted. Several countries have initiated national virtual observatory programs that combine existing databases from ground-based and orbiting observatories, scientific facility especially equipped to detect and record naturally occurring scientific phenomena. As a result, data from all the world's major observatories will be available to all users and to the public. This is significant not only because of the immense volume of astronomical data but also because the data on stars and galaxies has been compiled from observations in a variety of wavelengths-optical, radio, infrared, gamma ray, X-ray and more. In a virtual observatory environment, all of this data is integrated so that it can be synthesized and used in a given study. During the autumn of the 2001 (26.09.2001) six organizations from Europe put the establishment of the Astronomical Virtual Observatory (AVO)-ESO, ESA, Astrogrid, CDS, CNRS, Jodrell Bank (Dolensky et al., 2003). Its aims have been outlined as follows: - To provide comparative analysis of large sets of multiwavelength data; - To reuse data collected by a single source; - To provide uniform access to data; - To make data available to less-advantaged communities; - To be an educational tool. The Virtual observatory includes: - Tools that make it easy to locate and retrieve data from catalogues, archives, and databases worldwide; - Tools for data analysis, simulation, and visualization; - Tools to compare observations with results obtained from models, simulations and theory; - Interoperability: services that can be used regardless of the clients computing platform, operating system and software capabilities; - Access to data in near real-time, archived data and historical data; - Additional information - documentation, user-guides, reports

  2. The astronomical tables of Giovanni Bianchini

    CERN Document Server

    Chabas, Jose


    This book describes and analyses, for the first time, the astronomical tables of Giovanni Bianchini of Ferrara (d. after 1469), explains their context, inserts them into an astronomical tradition that began in Toledo, and addresses their diffusion.

  3. Astronomical Heritage in the National Culture (United States)

    Harutyunian, H. A.; Mickaelian, A. M.; Parsamian, E. S.


    The book contains Proceedings of the Archaeoastronomical Meeting "Astronomical Heritage in the National Culture" Dedicated to Anania Shirakatsi's 1400th Anniversary and XI Annual Meeting of the Armenian Astronomical Society. It consists of 3 main sections: "Astronomical Heritage", "Anania Shirakatsi" and "Modern Astronomy", as well as Literature about Anania Shirakatsi is included. The book may be interesting for astronomers, historians, archaeologists, linguists, students and other readers.

  4. Sketching the moon an astronomical artist's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Handy, Richard; McCague, Thomas; Rix, Erika; Russell, Sally


    Soon after you begin studying the sky through your small telescope or binoculars, you will probably be encouraged by others to make sketches of what you see. Sketching is a time-honored tradition in amateur astronomy and dates back to the earliest times, when telescopes were invented. Even though we have lots of new imaging technologies nowadays, including astrophotography, most observers still use sketching to keep a record of what they see, make them better observers, and in hopes of perhaps contributing something to the body of scientific knowledge about the Moon. Some even sketch because it satisfies their artistic side. The Moon presents some unique challenges to the astronomer-artist, the Moon being so fond of tricks of the light. Sketching the Moon: An Astronomical Artist’s Guide, by five of the best lunar observer-artists working today, will guide you along your way and help you to achieve really high-quality sketches. All the major types of lunar features are covered, with a variety of sketching te...

  5. Radio wave scattering observations of the solar corona: First-order measurements of expansion velocity and turbulence spectrum using Viking and Mariner 10 spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, G.L.; Vesecky, J.F.; Plume, M.A.; Howard, H.T.; Barnes, A.


    Solar conjunction of Mars on 1976 November 25 occurred very near the beginning of solar cycle 21, about 4 months after the first Viking spacecraft arrived at the planet. Radio wave scattering data were collected at 3.6 and 13 cm wavelengths, using the radio link between the Viking orbiters and the Earth. These data allow measurements of solar wind properties over a range of heliocentric radial distance from approx.6 to 44 R/sub sun/ with solar latitudes ranging from -17 0 to +7 0 . Observations with Mariner 10 during a period of moderate solar activity in 1974 cover from 6 to 24 R/sub sun/ and from approx.20 0 to near 90 0 . We have found that the temporal frequency variance spectrum of amplitude fluctuations is useful for characterizing the bulk motion of the plasma. This spectrum has an approximately constant low frequency plateau and a power-law high frequency asymptote; the plateau-asymptote intersection frequency provides a measure of the solar wind velocity V. We also obtain the spectral index p of electron density turbulence, Phi/sub N/approx.kappa/sup -p/, where kappa is spatial wavenumber. These results apply to a cylindrical region oriented with its axis along the radio ray path and its center at the point of closest approach to the Sun. The measurements of V and p cover some 78/sup d/ for Viking and 49 2 for Mariner 10 and show the combined effects of changing heliocentric distance rho, solar latitude theta, and solar longitude Psi, as well as solar activity. The Viking results can be regarded as a function primary of rho and Psi since the observations are concentrated in the equatorial regions when solar activity was near minimum. For Mariner 10, rho, theta, and Psi variations were important. The Viking results show an abrupt change in V(rho) and the turbulence spectral index at approx.15 R/sub sun/

  6. Remote Observational Techniques in Education (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Mayo, L.


    The ability to observe celestial objects remotely is making a major impact into classroom access to astronomical instrumentation previously impossible to encorporate into curriculum. Two programs, Radio Jove and Telescopes In Education have made important contributions in this field. Radio JOVE is an interactive, hands-on, educational activity for learning the scientific method through the medium of radio observations of Jupiter, the Sun, and the galactic radio background. Students build radio receivers from relatively inexpensive non-profit kits (about \\$125 plus shipping) and use them to record data, analyze the data, and share the results with others. Alternatively, for no cost, the students can record and analyze data from remote radio receivers connected to the web. The projects are useful adjuncts to activities in optical observing since students should recognize that we learn about the universe through more than just the optical spectrum. The projects are mini-electronics courses and also teach about charged particles and magnetic fields. The Radio JOVE web site ( should be consulted for further information. The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE) network ( has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. These telescopesare integrated seamlessly into one virtual observatory providing the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J

  7. 125th Colloquium of the International Astronomical Union

    CERN Document Server

    Sorochenko, R


    Text no 1 Radio Recombination Lines (RRLs), discovered in the USSR in 1964, have become a powerful research tool for astronomers. Available throughout the radio spectrum, these lines carry information regarding the density, temperature, turbulence and velocity of thermal plasmas. Their very existance shows the presence of thermal gas. They also can carry information regarding magnetic fields if Zeeman splitting were to be detected. Containing the proceedings of an IAU Colloquium celebrating the 25th anniversary of their detection, this volume tells us what has happened since. It contains the story of the detection of RRLs and reviews of many areas of physics of the interstellargas from which stars form, HII regions excited by newly formed stars, planetary nebulae involving dying stars, and the structure of our Milky Way and other galaxies reflecting the large-scale morphology of the star formation process. In addition there is an article describing modern laboratory studies of Rydberg atoms to probe the basic...

  8. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, Hans J; UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan


    This book represents Volume II of the Proceedings of the UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, 18 - 22 June, 2007. It covers two programme topics explored in this and past workshops of this nature: (i) non-extensive statistical mechanics as applicable to astrophysics, addressing q-distribution, fractional reaction and diffusion, and the reaction coefficient, as well as the Mittag-Leffler function and (ii) the TRIPOD concept, developed for astronomical telescope facilities. The companion publication, Volume I of the proceedings of this workshop, is a special issue in the journal Earth, Moon, and Planets, Volume 104, Numbers 1-4, April 2009.

  9. Astronomical Data and Information Visualization (United States)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.


    As the size and complexity of data sets increases, the need to "see" them more clearly increases as well. In the past, many scientists saw "fancy" data and information visualization as necessary for "outreach," but not for research. In this talk, I wlll demonstrate, using specific examples, why more and more scientists-