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Sample records for radical surgical approach

  1. Radical prostatectomy: evolution of surgical technique from the laparoscopic point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Cathelineau

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To review the literature and present a current picture of the evolution in radical prostatectomy from the laparoscopic point of view. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an extensive Medline literature search. Articles obtained regarding laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP and our experience at Institut Montsouris were used for reassessing anatomical and technical issues in radical prostatectomy. RESULTS: LRP nuances were reassessed by surgical teams in order to verify possible weaknesses in their performance. Our basic approach was to carefully study the anatomy and pioneer open surgery descriptions in order to standardized and master a technique. The learning curve is presented in terms of an objective evaluation of outcomes for cancer control and functional results. In terms of technique-outcomes, there are several key elements in radical prostatectomy, such as dorsal vein control-apex exposure and nerve sparing with particular implications in oncological and functional results. Major variations among the surgical teams' performance and follow-up prevented objective comparisons in radical prostatectomy. The remarkable evolution of LRP needs to be supported by comprehensive results. CONCLUSIONS: Radical prostatectomy is a complex surgical operation with difficult objectives. Surgical technique should be standardized in order to allow an adequate and reliable performance in all settings, keeping in mind that cancer control remains the primary objective. Reassessing anatomy and a return to basics in surgical technique is the means to improve outcomes and overcome the difficult task of the learning curve, especially in minimally access urological surgery.

  2. Systematic Review of Studies Reporting Positive Surgical Margins After Bladder Neck Sparing Radical Prostatectomy.

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    Bellangino, Mariangela; Verrill, Clare; Leslie, Tom; Bell, Richard W; Hamdy, Freddie C; Lamb, Alastair D

    2017-11-07

    Bladder neck preservation (BNP) during radical prostatectomy (RP) has been proposed as a method to improve early recovery of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy. However, there is concern over a possible increase in the risk of positive surgical margins and prostate cancer recurrence rate. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis reported improved early recovery and overall long-term urinary continence without compromising oncologic control. The aim of our study was to perform a critical review of the literature to assess the impact on bladder neck and base margins after bladder neck sparing radical prostatectomy. We carried out a systematic review of the literature using Pubmed, Scopus and Cochrane library databases in May 2017 using medical subject headings and free-text protocol according to PRISMA guidelines. We used the following search terms: bladder neck preservation, prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy and surgical margins. Studies focusing on positive surgical margins (PSM) in bladder neck sparing RP pertinent to the objective of this review were included. Overall, we found 15 relevant studies reporting overall and site-specific positive surgical margins rate after bladder neck sparing radical prostatectomy. This included two RCTs, seven prospective comparative studies, two retrospective comparative studies and four case series. All studies were published between 1993 and 2015 with sample sizes ranging between 50 and 1067. Surgical approaches included open, laparoscopic and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. The overall and base-specific PSM rates ranged between 7-36% and 0-16.3%, respectively. Mean base PSM was 4.9% in those patients where bladder neck sparing was performed, but only 1.85% in those without sparing. Bladder neck preservation during radical prostatectomy may increase base-positive margins. Further studies are needed to better investigate the impact of this technique on oncological outcomes. A future paradigm could

  3. Radical vs. Conservative Surgical Treatment of Hepatic Hydatid Cyst: A 10- Year Experience

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    M Ghaemi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatic hydatid cyst is caused by echinococcosis granulosis. It is a major health problem in endemic areas. The modern treatment of hydatid cysts of the liver varies from surgical intervention to percutaneous drainage or medical therapy. A high rate of complications following percutaneous drainage, and ineffectiveness of medical therapy have shown not to be the definitive treatments for the disease. Thus, surgery is still the best choice for the treatment of hydatid cyst of the liver. Surgical treatment methods can be divided into radical and conservative approaches. There is controversy regarding efficacy of the two surgical methods. In this study, we aimed to present a retrospective evaluation of the two surgical methods in patients treated for the hepatic hydatid cyst. Methods: This retrospective study reviewed medical records of 135 patients who underwent surgery for hepatic hydatid cyst from 1997 to 2007. Surgery comprised conservative methods (evacuation of the cyst content and excision of the inner cyst layers and radical methods (total excision of the cyst and removal of its outer layer. Results: One hundred thirty five patients underwent liver surgery. Conservative surgery was performed for 71 (53%, whereas, the remaining 64 patients (47% underwent radical surgery. Postoperative complications were 28% and 19%, respectively. Recurrence of the cyst in the conservative and radical surgery groups was noted to be 12.5 and 1.5%, respectively. The mean length of hospital stay was shorter in the radical surgery group (5 vs. 15 days. Conclusion: Radical surgery may be the preferred treatment for the hepatic hydatid cyst because of its low rate of postoperative complications and recurrence, as well as short hospital stay. Selection of the most appropriate treatment depends on the size, number, and location of the cyst(s, and presence of cystobiliary communications, and the availability of an experienced surgeon.

  4. Surgical treatment of metachronous metastases in different organs following radical nephrectomy

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    Carlos M. N. de Jesus

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Renal clear cell carcinoma (RCCC is a neoplasia resistant to radio and chemotherapy, with surgical treatment being the procedure that is recognized for its curative treatment. This case report demonstrates the success of an aggressive surgical treatment for consecutive and late metachronous metastases following radical nephrectomy. CASE REPORT: Asymptomatic 50-year old man. During a routine examination, an incidental mass was found by renal ultrasonography. He underwent right radical nephrectomy due to RCCC in June 1992. During the follow-up metastases were evidenced in cerebellum on the seventh year, and in left lung and pancreas on the eighth year following the radical nephrectomy, with all of them successfully treated by surgical excision. COMMENTS: The surgical excision of consecutive and late metachronous metastases in different organs arising from RCCC is feasible, being a good therapeutic alternative in selected cases.

  5. Significance and management of positive surgical margins at the time of radical prostatectomy.

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    Silberstein, Jonathan L; Eastham, James A

    2014-10-01

    Positive surgical margins (PSM) at the time of radical prostatectomy (RP) result in an increased risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) and secondary treatment. We review current literature with a focus on stratifying the characteristics of the PSM that may define its significance, the impact of modern imaging and surgical approaches in avoidance of PSM, and management strategies when PSM do occur. We performed a review of the available literature to identify factors associated with PSM and their management. PSM have been repeatedly demonstrated to be associated with an increased risk of BCR following RP. The specific characteristics (size, number, location, Gleason score at the margin) of the PSM may influence the risk of recurrence. Novel imaging and surgical approaches are being investigated and may allow for reductions of PSM in the future. The use of adjuvant treatment for a PSM remains controversial and should be decided on an individual basis after a discussion about the risks and benefits. The goal of RP is complete resection of the tumor. PSM are associated with increased risk of BCR and secondary treatments. Of the risk factors associated with BCR after RP, a PSM is directly influenced by surgical technique.

  6. Significance and management of positive surgical margins at the time of radical prostatectomy

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    Jonathan L. Silberstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive surgical margins (PSM at the time of radical prostatectomy (RP result in an increased risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR and secondary treatment. We review current literature with a focus on stratifying the characteristics of the PSM that may define its significance, the impact of modern imaging and surgical approaches in avoidance of PSM, and management strategies when PSM do occur. We performed a review of the available literature to identify factors associated with PSM and their management. PSM have been repeatedly demonstrated to be associated with an increased risk of BCR following RP. The specific characteristics (size, number, location, Gleason score at the margin of the PSM may influence the risk of recurrence. Novel imaging and surgical approaches are being investigated and may allow for reductions of PSM in the future. The use of adjuvant treatment for a PSM remains controversial and should be decided on an individual basis after a discussion about the risks and benefits. The goal of RP is complete resection of the tumor. PSM are associated with increased risk of BCR and secondary treatments. Of the risk factors associated with BCR after RP, a PSM is directly influenced by surgical technique.

  7. Indications to radical surgical interventions in chondrosarcomas of the limbs

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    Korolev, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of analysis carried out in treatment of 229 patients suffering from chondrosarcomas of the limbs it is established that radical surgical intervention in bulk of amputation or exarticulation is the choice of the treatment method at the 3d clinical stage of disease. Sex does not influence the chondrosarcomas prognosis. 20-years age patients have the shortest life-time after operation. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy does not improve the results of surgical treatment

  8. Prospective study comparing laparoscopic and open radical cystectomy: Surgical and oncological results.

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    Esquinas, C; Alonso, J M; Mateo, E; Dotor, A; Martín, A M; Dorado, J F; Arance, I; Angulo, J C

    2018-03-01

    Laparoscopic radical cystectomy with lymphadenectomy and urinary diversion is an increasingly widespread operation. Studies are needed to support the oncological effectiveness and safety of this minimally invasive approach. A nonrandomised, comparative prospective study between open radical cystectomy (ORC) and laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC) was conducted in a university hospital. The main objective was to compare cancer-specific survival. The secondary objective was to compare the surgical results and complications according to the Clavien-Dindo scale. We treated 156 patients with high-grade invasive bladder cancer with either ORC (n=70) or LRC (n=86). The mean follow-up was 33.5±23.8 (range 12-96) months. The mean age was 66.9+9.4 years, and the male to female ratio was 19:1. Both groups were equivalent in age, stage, positive lymph nodes, in situ carcinoma, preoperative obstructive uropathy, adjuvant chemotherapy and type of urinary diversion. There were no differences between the groups in terms of cancer-specific survival (log-rank; P=.71). The histopathology stage was the only independent variable that predicted the prognosis. The hospital stay (P=.01) and operative transfusion rates (P=.002) were less for LRC. The duration of the surgery was greater for LRC (P<.001). There were no differences in the total complications rate (p=.62) or major complications (P=.69). The risk of evisceration (P=.02), surgical wound infection (P=.005) and pneumonia (P=.017) was greater for ORC. The risk of rectal lesion (P=.017) and urethrorectal fistulae (P=.065) was greater for LRC. LRC is an equivalent treatment to ORC in terms of oncological efficacy and is advantageous in terms of transfusion rates and hospital stays but not in terms of operating room time and overall safety. Studies are needed to better define the specific safety profile for each approach. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of robotic technique and surgical volume on the cost of radical prostatectomy.

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    Hyams, Elias S; Mullins, Jeffrey K; Pierorazio, Phillip M; Partin, Alan W; Allaf, Mohamad E; Matlaga, Brian R

    2013-03-01

    Our present understanding of the effect of robotic surgery and surgical volume on the cost of radical prostatectomy (RP) is limited. Given the increasing pressures placed on healthcare resource utilization, such determinations of healthcare value are becoming increasingly important. Therefore, we performed a study to define the effect of robotic technology and surgical volume on the cost of RP. The state of Maryland mandates that all acute-care hospitals report encounter-level and hospital discharge data to the Health Service Cost Review Commission (HSCRC). The HSCRC was queried for men undergoing RP between 2008 and 2011 (the period during which robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy [RALRP] was coded separately). High-volume hospitals were defined as >60 cases per year, and high-volume surgeons were defined as >40 cases per year. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether robotic technique and high surgical volume impacted the cost of RP. There were 1499 patients who underwent RALRP and 2565 who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) during the study period. The total cost for RALRP was higher than for RRP ($14,000 vs 10,100; Probotic surgery has come to dominate the healthcare marketplace, strategies to increase the role of high-volume providers may be needed to improve the cost-effectiveness of prostate cancer surgical therapy.

  10. Postoperative digestive function after radical versus conservative surgical philosophy for deep endometriosis infiltrating the rectum.

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    Roman, Horace; Vassilieff, Maud; Tuech, Jean Jacques; Huet, Emmanuel; Savoye, Guillaume; Marpeau, Loïc; Puscasiu, Lucian

    2013-05-01

    To compare delayed digestive outcomes in women managed by two different surgical philosophies: a radical approach mainly related to colorectal resection, and a conservative approach involving rectal shaving and rectal nodule excision. "Before and after" comparative retrospective study. University tertiary referral center. Seventy-five patients managed by surgery for deep endometriosis infiltrating the rectum. Twenty-four women were managed during a period when surgeons pursued a radical philosophy toward treatment, and 51 women were managed during a period when a conservative philosophy was adopted. Standardized gastrointestinal questionnaires: the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index, the Knowles-Eccersley-Scott Symptom Questionnaire, the Bristol Stool Score, and the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Score. Preoperative patient characteristics, rectal nodule features, and associated localizations of the disease were comparable between the two groups. During the radical period, colorectal resection was carried out in 67% of patients, whereas during the second period only 20% of women underwent colorectal resection. Women managed according to the conservative philosophy had significantly improved results on the Knowles-Eccersley-Scott Symptom Questionnaire, Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index, and depression/self-perception Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Score, and significantly improved values for various items related to postoperative constipation: unsuccessful evacuatory attempts, feeling incomplete evacuation, abdominal pain, time taken to evacuate, difficulty evacuating causing a painful effort, and stool consistency. It seems that reducing the rate of colorectal resection leads to better functional outcomes in women presenting with rectal endometriosis, lending support to the conservative surgical philosophy over mandatory colorectal resection. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. Radical prostatectomy: positive surgical margins matter.

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    Meeks, Joshua J; Eastham, James A

    2013-10-01

    A positive surgical margin (PSM) in the radical prostatectomy (RP) specimen is associated with biochemical recurrence (BCR) and the need for adjuvant radiation therapy, and is a surrogate for surgical quality. We review the available data describing the identification, anatomy, and management of PSM after RP. A PubMed search (using English language as a filter) was performed to identify factors affecting PSMs and their management. PSMs are associated with an increased likelihood of BCR after RP. The most common location for a PSM is the apex, followed by the posterolateral edge of the prostate. The risk of recurrence in a patient with a PSM is associated with the location, length, and Gleason score of the PSM. The management of a patient with a PSM remains controversial, with some recommending adjuvant radiation therapy for all PSMs and others suggesting only salvage radiation therapy for men who experience BCR. PSMs are associated with an increased likelihood of BCR and often result in initiation of adjuvant treatment. Therefore, the goal of surgery should be to minimize the likelihood of a PSM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of modified surgical method on subcutaneous hydrops of patients with breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy

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    Yan Li; Hua-Feng Pan; Gui-Lan Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Through prospective randomized clinical study,to observe the preventive effect of improved surgical method to subcutaneous hydrops after modified radical mastec tomy. Method: A total of 80 cases of patients who have done modified radical mastectomy were selected, and randomly divided them into study group (40 cases) and control group (40 cases), then adopted different surgical methods as followed respectively, to observe the daily drainage volume at the first 3 d after ...

  13. Aggressive surgical management of craniopharyngiomas

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    Manmohan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of craniopharyngiomas is challenging and despite advancements it continues to pose a challenge. Proponents of subtotal resection in conjunction with radiotherapy argue that this less aggressive approach can yield appropriate results with the lower morbidity. On the contrary, other argument is that gross total resection is superior. Though surgical management of craniopharyngioma is challenging due to its location and important surrounding neurovascular structures, optimal surgical results can be expected following radical surgical excision. Radical excision of craniopharyngiomas is associated with excellent long-term recurrence free survival. Radiation induced long-term complications can be altogether avoided by excising these tumors completely.

  14. Middle infratemporal fossa less invasive approach for radical resection of parapharyngeal tumors: surgical microanatomy and clinical application.

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    Nonaka, Yoichi; Fukushima, Takanori; Watanabe, Kentaro; Sakai, Jun; Friedman, Allan H; Zomorodi, Ali R

    2016-01-01

    Surgery of the infratemporal fossa (ITF) and parapharyngeal area presents a formidable challenge to the surgeon due to its anatomical complexity and limited access. Conventional surgical approaches to these regions were often too invasive and necessitate sacrifice of normal function and anatomy. To describe a less invasive transcranial extradural approach to ITF parapharyngeal lesions and to determine its advantages, 17 patients with ITF parapharyngeal neoplasms who underwent tumor resection via this approach were enrolled in the study. All lesions located in the ITF precarotid parapharyngeal space were resected through a small operative corridor between the trigeminal nerve third branch (V3) and the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Surgical outcomes and postoperative complications were evaluated. Pathological diagnosis included schwannoma in eight cases, paraganglioma in two cases, gangliocytoma in two cases, carcinosarcoma in one case, giant cell tumor in one case, pleomorphic adenoma in one case, chondroblastoma in one case, and juvenile angiofibroma in one case. Gross total resection was achieved in 12 cases, near-total and subtotal resection were in 3 and 2 cases, respectively. The most common postoperative complication was dysphagia. Surgical exposure can be customized from minimal (drilling of retrotrigeminal area) to maximal (full skeletonization of V3, removal of all structures lying lateral to the petrous segment of internal carotid artery) according to tumor size and location. Since the space between the V3 and TMJ is the main corridor of this approach, the key maneuver is the anterior translocation of V3 to obtain an acceptable surgical field.

  15. Outcome of Radical Surgical Resection for Craniopharyngioma with Hypothalamic Preservation: A Single-Center Retrospective Study of 1054 Patients.

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    Shi, Xiang'en; Zhou, Zhongqing; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Yongli; Qian, Hai; Sun, Yuming; Yang, Yang; Yu, Zaitao; Tang, Zhiwei; Lu, Shuaibin

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective review of the surgical outcome for patients with craniopharyngioma (CP) treated in a single neurosurgical center with surgical resection using visualization to ensure hypothalamic preservation. The study included 1054 patients. Before 2003, a pterional cranial approach was preferred for 78% of patients; after 2004, the unifrontal basal interhemispheric approach was performed in 79.1% of patients. Complete tumor resection was achieved in 89.6% of patients; vision improved in 47.1% of patients who had preoperative vision impairment. However, diabetes insipidus worsened in 70.4% of patients and new-onset diabetes insipidus occurred in 29.7% of the remaining patients. Pituitary stalk preservation occurred in 48.9% of cases. There were 89.6% of patients with total tumor removal; 13.3% of patients showed tumor recurrence within an average of 2.8 years. Of 69 follow-up patients with a subtotal or partial resection, 94.2% showed tumor recurrence within an average of 4.3 months. Of the total patients, 82.3% fully recovered. This study has shown that radical surgical resection of CP using microsurgical excision can be effective with a good patient outcome without more limitations on each individual tumor of distinct features despite the impact of recent endoscopic techniques on CP surgery. The surgical approach depends on a direct and wider visualization of CP located in the midline with preserving hypothalamic structures by identifying some hypothalamic landmark structures. After surgery, most patients can resume their normal activities even after aggressive tumor removal, although patients require postoperative hormonal replacement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Radical surgical resection and high-dose intraoperative radiation therapy (HDR-IORT) in patients with recurrent gynecologic cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemignani, Mary L.; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Leitao, Mario; Mychalczak, Boris; Chi, Dennis; Venkatraman, Ennapadam; Barakat, Richard R.; Curtin, John P.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the outcome for patients with recurrent gynecologic tumors treated with radical resection and combined high-dose intraoperative radiation therapy (HDR-IORT). Methods and Materials: Between November 1993 and June 1998, 17 patients with recurrent gynecologic malignancies underwent radical surgical resection and high-dose-rate brachytherapy. The mean age of the study group was 49 years (range 28-72 years). The site of the primary tumor was the cervix in 9 (53%) patients, the uterus in 7 (41%) patients, and the vagina in 1 (6%) patient. The treatment for the primary disease was surgery with or without adjuvant radiation in 14 (82%) patients and definitive radiation in 3 (18%) patients. The current surgery consisted of exenterative surgery in 10 (59%) patients and tumor resection in 7 (41%) patients. Complete gross resection was achieved in 13 (76%) patients. The mean HDR-IORT dose was 14 Gy (range 12-15). Additional radiation in the form of permanent Iodine-125 implant was given to 3 of 4 patients with gross residual disease. The median peripheral dose was 140 Gy. Results: With a median follow-up of 20 months (range 3-65 months), the 3-year actuarial local control (LC) rate was 67%. In patients with complete gross resection, the 3-year LC rate was 83%, compared to 25% in patients with gross residual disease, p<0.01. The 3-year distant metastasis disease-free and overall survival rates were 54% and 54%, respectively. The complications were as follows: gastrointestinal obstruction, 4 (24%); wound complications, 4 (24%); abscesses, 3 (18%); peripheral neuropathy, 3 (18%); rectovaginal fistula, 2 (12%); and ureteral obstruction, 2 (12%). Conclusion: Radical surgical resection and combined IORT for patients with recurrent gynecologic tumors seems to provide a reasonable local-control rate in patients who have failed prior surgery and/or definitive radiation. Patient selection is very important, however, as only those patients with complete gross

  17. Surgical complications of radical retropubic prostatectomy: A single institutional experience of seven years

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    Neeraj K Goyal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the surgical complications of open retropubic radical prostatectomy. Materials and Methods: Fifty-nine cases of localized prostate cancer underwent retropubic radical prostatectomy in our department in the last seven years. Standard technique of open retropubic radical prostatectomy as described by Walsh was used. During follow-up cancer control and quality of life indices (potency and urinary continence were noted. Result: Postoperative recovery of all patients except one was excellent. This patient required cardio-respiratory support and nine units of blood transfusion. Forty-nine out of 52 patients were continent, two had stress incontinence and one was totally incontinent at one year. Bladder neck contracture was present in eight out of 52 patients at one year. Forty-five patients were impotent at one year with or without oral tablet sildenafil. Cancer control was present in 45 out of 52 cases. Seven cases had biochemical failure at one year. Conclusion: Though retropubic radical prostatectomy is the standard treatment for early prostate cancer it is not without complications. It has a steep learning curve. More number of cases and refinement in technique is required to achieve world-class results.

  18. Critical appraisal of outcomes following open radical prostatectomy.

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    Galvin, David J; Eastham, James A

    2009-05-01

    Radical prostatectomy has evolved enormously over the last 25 years. Improvements include the use of smaller incisions, reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stays, and surgical refinement to improve the recovery of continence and potency. In addition, new technologies and minimally invasive techniques with the potential to further improve patient outcomes have been introduced. This article focuses on outcomes with open radical prostatectomy and is not meant to compare open radical prostatectomy and minimally invasive approaches. Despite a lack of randomized controlled trials, strong observational cohort studies demonstrate lower rates of positive surgical margins, high 10-year and 15-year biochemical recurrence-free rates, excellent prostate cancer-specific mortality rates, and improved recovery of urinary incontinence and erectile function after open radical prostatectomy. We review publications from the past 24 months regarding oncologic outcome, continence, and erectile function, as well as some earlier manuscripts that emphasize key aspects of open radical prostatectomy. Today open radical prostatectomy is a less-invasive procedure with low morbidity providing excellent control of clinically localized prostate cancer. Although open radical prostatectomy now accounts for a minority of radical prostatectomies in the United States, the concepts that have improved oncologic and quality-of-life outcomes are equally applicable to minimally invasive procedures.

  19. The standardized surgical approach improves outcome of gallbladder cancer

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    Igna Dorian

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the extent of surgical procedures, pathological findings, complications and outcome of patients treated in the last 12 years for gallbladder cancer. Methods The impact of a standardized more aggressive approach compared with historical controls of our center with an individual approach was examined. Of 53 patients, 21 underwent resection for cure and 32 for palliation. Results Overall hospital mortality was 9% and procedure related mortality was 4%. The standardized approach in UICC stage IIa, IIb and III led to a significantly improved outcome compared to patients with an individual approach (Median survival: 14 vs. 7 months, mean+/-SEM: 26+/-7 vs. 17+/-5 months, p = 0.014. The main differences between the standardized and the individual approach were anatomical vs. atypical liver resection, performance of systematic lymph dissection of the hepaticoduodenal ligament and the resection of the common bile duct. Conclusion Anatomical liver resection, proof for bile duct infiltration and, in case of tumor invasion, radical resection and lymph dissection of the hepaticoduodenal ligament are essential to improve outcome of locally advanced gallbladder cancer.

  20. Radical Prostatectomy for Locally Advanced Prostate Cancers-Review of Literature.

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    Srivatsa, N; Nagaraja, H; Shweta, S; Raghunath, S K

    2017-06-01

    Twenty-five to thirty percent of patients with prostate cancer present with locally advanced disease. While risk stratification remains the same with high incidence of upstaging of disease on imaging and histopathological evaluation; there have been progressive refinements in surgical therapy. With availability of reasonably robust data, radical prostatectomy in men with locally advanced prostate cancers seems to effect improvement in both cancer specific and overall survival rates in comparison to the current standard of care of radiation with androgen deprivation therapy. Studies using radical prostatectomy as a part of multimodality approach have also shown promising results. There is an imminent need for well-designed prospective studies of benefits of radical prostatectomy over radiation and androgen deprivation as well as benefits of multimodality therapy over monotherapy. Surgery for patients with locally advanced prostate cancer is technically challenging. Surgical outcomes are comparable to those of organ-confined disease when performed in high-volume centers. Neoadjuvant therapies prior to radical prostatectomy might improve surgical outcomes, but whether they will translate into a better cancer specific and overall survival are yet to be ascertained.

  1. Blunt apical dissection during anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy

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    Yacoub Saif

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meticulous apical dissection during a radical prostatectomy is imperative to achieve desirable pathologic and quality of life outcomes. Findings We describe a novel technique using careful blunt dissection to better delineate the apex of the prostate, providing a simple means to potentially lessen positive surgical margins at the apex and promote better continence and erectile function in men undergoing an anatomic radical prostatectomy. Median operative time and blood loss were 190 minutes and 675 mL, respectively. Only 10 percent of the patients with positive surgical margins were found to have apical positive surgical margins. Ninety-three percent of patients reported no urinary leakage. Conclusion We believe our technique of isolating the DVC with blunt dissection and then ligating and transecting the DVC to be feasible approach that requires larger studies to truly confirm its utility.

  2. A radical approach to radical innovation

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    D. Deichmann (Dirk); J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInnovation pays. Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google – nearly every one of today’s most successful companies has a talent for developing radical new ideas. But how best to encourage radical initiative taking from employees, and does their previous success or failure at it play a role?

  3. Robotic radical hysterectomy in the management of gynecologic malignancies.

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    Pareja, Rene; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2008-01-01

    Robotic surgery is being used with increasing frequency in gynecologic oncology. To date, 44 cases were reported in the literature of radical hysterectomy performed with robotic surgery. When comparing robotic surgery with laparoscopy or laparotomy in performing a radical hysterectomy, the literature shows that robotic surgery offers an advantage over the other 2 surgical approaches with regard to operative time, blood loss, and length of hospitalization. Future studies are needed to further elucidate the equivalence or superiority of robotic surgery to laparoscopy or laparotomy in performing a radical hysterectomy.

  4. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: Multiparametric MR imaging-directed intraoperative frozen-section analysis to reduce the rate of positive surgical margins.

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    Petralia, Giuseppe; Musi, Gennaro; Padhani, Anwar R; Summers, Paul; Renne, Giuseppe; Alessi, Sarah; Raimondi, Sara; Matei, Deliu V; Renne, Salvatore L; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Bellomi, Massimo

    2015-02-01

    To investigate whether use of multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-directed intraoperative frozen-section (IFS) analysis during nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy reduces the rate of positive surgical margins. This retrospective analysis of prospectively acquired data was approved by an institutional ethics committee, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Data were reviewed for 134 patients who underwent preoperative multiparametric MR imaging (T2 weighted, diffusion weighted, and dynamic contrast-material enhanced) and nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, during which IFS analysis was used, and secondary resections were performed when IFS results were positive for cancer. Control patients (n = 134) matched for age, prostate-specific antigen level, and stage were selected from a pool of 322 patients who underwent nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy without multiparametric MR imaging and IFS analysis. Rates of positive surgical margins were compared by means of the McNemar test, and a multivariate conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio of positive surgical margins for patients who underwent MR imaging and IFS analysis compared with control subjects. Eighteen patients who underwent MR imaging and IFS analysis underwent secondary resections, and 13 of these patients were found to have negative surgical margins at final pathologic examination. Positive surgical margins were found less frequently in the patients who underwent MR imaging and IFS analysis than in control patients (7.5% vs 18.7%, P = .01). When the differences in risk factors are taken into account, patients who underwent MR imaging and IFS had one-seventh the risk of having positive surgical margins relative to control patients (adjusted odds ratio: 0.15; 95% confidence interval: 0.04, 0.61). The significantly lower rate of positive surgical margins compared with that in control patients provides

  5. Risk of incisional hernia after minimally invasive and open radical prostatectomy.

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    Carlsson, Sigrid V; Ehdaie, Behfar; Atoria, Coral L; Elkin, Elena B; Eastham, James A

    2013-11-01

    The number of radical prostatectomies has increased. Many urologists have shifted from the open surgical approach to minimally invasive techniques. It is not clear whether the risk of post-prostatectomy incisional hernia varies by surgical approach. In the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data set we identified men 66 years old or older who were treated with minimally invasive or open radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer diagnosed from 2003 to 2007. The main study outcome was incisional hernia repair, as identified in Medicare claims after prostatectomy. We also examined the frequency of umbilical, inguinal and other hernia repairs. We identified 3,199 and 6,795 patients who underwent minimally invasive and open radical prostatectomy, respectively. The frequency of incisional hernia repair was 5.3% at a median 3.1-year followup in the minimally invasive group and 1.9% at a 4.4-year median followup in the open group, corresponding to an incidence rate of 16.1 and 4.5/1,000 person-years, respectively. Compared to the open technique, the minimally invasive procedure was associated with more than a threefold increased risk of incisional hernia repair when controlling for patient and disease characteristics (adjusted HR 3.39, 95% CI 2.63-4.38, p<0.0001). Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy was associated with an attenuated but increased risk of any hernia repair compared with open radical prostatectomy (adjusted HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.29-1.70, p<0.0001). Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy was associated with a significantly increased risk of incisional hernia compared with open radical prostatectomy. This is a potentially remediable complication of prostate cancer surgery that warrants increased vigilance with respect to surgical technique. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Advances in Robotic-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F. P. Jacobs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RALP, robotics has become increasingly more commonplace in the armamentarium of the urologic surgeon. Robotic utilization has exploded across surgical disciplines well beyond the fields of urology and prostate surgery. The literature detailing technical steps, comparison of large surgical series, and even robotically focused randomized control trials are available for review. RALP, the first robot-assisted surgical procedure to achieve widespread use, has recently become the primary approach for the surgical management of localized prostate cancer. As a result, surgeons are constantly trying to refine and improve upon current technical aspects of the operation. Recent areas of published modifications include bladder neck anastomosis and reconstruction, bladder drainage, nerve sparing approaches and techniques, and perioperative and postoperative management including penile rehabilitation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in perioperative management and surgical technique for RALP.

  7. Effect of modified surgical method on subcutaneous hydrops of patients with breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Through prospective randomized clinical study,to observe the preventive effect of improved surgical method to subcutaneous hydrops after modified radical mastec tomy. Method: A total of 80 cases of patients who have done modified radical mastectomy were selected, and randomly divided them into study group (40 cases and control group (40 cases, then adopted different surgical methods as followed respectively, to observe the daily drainage volume at the first 3 d after surgery; when the drainage volume ≤ 20 mL, 24 h after surgery, removed the drainage tubes, to record the drainage days, total cases who occured subcutaneous hydrops and all adverse events after surgery. Results: Study group: the first 3 d of daily drainage volume declined quickly, and were accordingly less than that in control group; and ≤ 50 mL/24 h on the third day. Drainage total days median (4 d were less than that in control group (7 d; subcutaneous hydrops occurrence rate was only 2%, which wasgreatly lower than that in control group (14%, statistics difference had significance. Through the comparison between study group and control group, this surgical method improvement will not bring any surgical safety problems, such as hematoma, wound infection, skin flap necrosis and upper limb LOM etc. Only extended the surgical time slightly. While in control group, drainage tubes fell into the dead space or were blocked frequently, then induced hydrops; but in study group, due to the suture of latissimus dorsi leading edge and chestwall, dead space disappeared at this spot, drainage tube were not blocked any more. Conclusion: In mastectomy and axillary lymph dissection, due to axillary dissection, ligation might lead to open lymphatic tissue, added that suture fixed latissimus dorsi leading edge and skin flap leading to disappeared dead space, compared with traditional surgical method, this improved surgical method could obviously reduce the occurrence rate of hydrops

  8. Image-defined Risk Factors Correlate with Surgical Radicality and Local Recurrence in Patients with Neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, A; Erichsen, M; Stehr, M; Hubertus, J; Bergmann, F; Kammer, B; von Schweinitz, D

    2016-04-01

    Neuroblastoma is the second most common solid pediatric tumor and the most common cancer to be detected in children younger than 12 months of age. To date, 2 different staging systems describe the extent of the disease: the International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) and the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group Staging System (INRGSS). The INRGSS-system is characterized by the presence or absence of so called image-defined risk factors (IDRFs), which are described as surgical risk factors. We hypothesized that IDRFs correlate with surgical complications, surgical radicality, local recurrence and overall survival (OS). Between 2003 and 2010, 102 patients had neuroblastoma surgery performed in our department. We analyzed medical records for IDRF-status and above named data. 16 patients were IDRF-negative, whereas 86 patients showed one or more IDRF. Intra- or postoperative complications have been reported in 21 patients (21%). 19 of them showed one or more IDRF and 2 patients were IDRF-negative (p=n.s.). Patients who suffered from intra- or postoperative complications demonstrated a decreased OS (p=0.011). Statistical analysis revealed an inverse correlation between the extent of macroscopical removal and IDRF-status (p=0.001). Furthermore, the number of IDRFs were associated with a decreased likelihood of radical tumor resection (p<0.001). 19 patients had local recurrence; all of them were IDRF-positive (p=0.037). Pediatric surgeons should consider IDRFs as a useful tool for risk assessment and therefore planning for neuroblastoma surgery. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Surgical Approaches to the Oral Cavity Primary and Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Jatin P.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: A variety of surgical approaches used to treat primary oral cavity tumors are described to delineate the technique and rationale behind each treatment choice. Methods and Materials: Size, location, proximity to bone, lymph node status, histology, and prior treatment considerations are employed to determine the most appropriate surgical approach for primary oral cavity tumors. Results: Oncologic outcomes and physical function show the best results from surgical treatment of many primary oral cavity, but necessitates careful selection of surgical approach. Conclusion: Each surgical approach must be selected based upon relevant tumor, patient and physician factors

  10. Risk of biochemical recurrence and positive surgical margins in patients with pT2 prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Martin Andreas; Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Berg, Kasper Drimer

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate risk factors associated with positive surgical margins (PSM) and biochemical recurrence (BR) in organ confined tumors (pT2) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for localized prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: Between 1995 and 2011, 1,649 patients underwent RP...

  11. [Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy for Patients with Prostatic Cancer and Factors Promoting Installation of the Robotic Surgical Equipment-Questionnaire Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Taiji; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey of hospitals with robot-assisted surgical equipment to study changes of the surgical case loads after its installation and the managerial strategies for its purchase. The study included 154 hospitals (as of April 2014) that were queried about their radical prostatectomy case loads from January 2009 to December 2013, strategies for installation of the equipment in their hospitals, and other topics related to the study purpose. The overall response rate of hospitals was 63%, though it marginally varied according to type and area. The annual case load was determined based on the results of the questionnaire and other modalities. It increased from 3,518 in 2009 to 6,425 in 2013. The case load seemed to be concentrated in hospitals with robot equipment since the increase of their number was very minimal over the 5 years. The hospitals with the robot treated a larger number of newly diagnosed patients with the disease than before. Most of the patients were those having localized cancer that was indicated for radical surgery, suggesting again the concentration of the surgical case loads in the hospitals with robots. While most hospitals believed that installation of a robot was necessary as an option for treatment procedures, the future strategy of the hospital, and other reasons, the action of the hospital to gain prestige may be involved in the process of purchasing the equipment. In conclusion, robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy has become popular as a surgical procedure for prostate cancer in our society. This may lead to a concentration of the surgical case load in a limited number of hospitals with robots. We also discuss the typical action of an acute-care hospital when it purchases expensive clinical medical equipment.

  12. A comparative analysis of primary and secondary Gleason pattern predictive ability for positive surgical margins after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfoungaristos, S; Kavouras, A; Kanatas, P; Polimeros, N; Perimenis, P

    2011-01-01

    To compare the predictive ability of primary and secondary Gleason pattern for positive surgical margins in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer and a preoperative Gleason score ≤ 6. A retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients undergone a radical prostatectomy between January 2005 and October 2010 was conducted. Patients' age, prostate volume, preoperative PSA, biopsy Gleason score, the 1st and 2nd Gleason pattern were entered a univariate and multivariate analysis. The 1st and 2nd pattern were tested for their ability to predict positive surgical margins using receiver operating characteristic curves. Positive surgical margins were noticed in 56 cases (38.1%) out of 147 studied patients. The 2nd pattern was significantly greater in those with positive surgical margins while the 1st pattern was not significantly different between the 2 groups of patients. ROC analysis revealed that area under the curve was 0.53 (p=0.538) for the 1st pattern and 0.60 (p=0.048) for the 2nd pattern. Concerning the cases with PSA <10 ng/ml, it was also found that only the 2nd pattern had a predictive ability (p=0.050). When multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted it was found that the 2nd pattern was the only independent predictor. The second Gleason pattern was found to be of higher value than the 1st one for the prediction of positive surgical margins in patients with preoperative Gleason score ≤ 6 and this should be considered especially when a neurovascular bundle sparing radical prostatectomy is planned, in order not to harm the oncological outcome.

  13. Laparoscopic approach for inflammatory bowel disease surgical managment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiori, Léon; Panis, Yves

    2012-01-01

    For IBD surgical management, laparoscopic approach offers several theoretical advantages over the open approach. However, the frequent presence of adhesions from previous surgery and the high rate of inflammatory lesions have initially questioned its feasibility and safety. In the present review article, we will discuss the role of laparoscopic approach for IBD surgical management, along with its potential benefits as compared to the open approach.

  14. Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy for Patients with Prostatic Cancer and Factors Promoting Installation of the Robotic Surgical Equipment-Questionnaire Survey

    OpenAIRE

    塚本, 泰司; 田中, 滋

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey of hospitals with robot-assisted surgical equipment to study changes of the surgical case loads after its installation and the managerial strategies for its purchase. The study included 154 hospitals (as of April 2014) that were queried about their radical prostatectomy case loads from January 2009 to December 2013, strategies for installation of the equipment in their hospitals, and other topics related to the study purpose. The overall response rate of ho...

  15. Fifteen years of experience radical cystectomy and intestinal urinary diversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Vasil’chenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Examination of the results of surgical treatment and analysis of the surgical technique and perioperative parameters in a series of radical cystectomy on the basis of its own 15 years of experience in the formation of orthotopic and heterotopic urinary reservoir of the ileum segment by developed and patented techniques in different versions: open radical cystectomy, laparoscopic radical cystectomy and robotassisted radical cystectomy.Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis of 310 radical cystectomy performed from 2000 to 2015, on the occasion of various pathologies of the bladder and prostate, as well as cancers of other organs (uterus, colon with involvement in the process of bladder tumor. Plastics of the bladder was performed from the segment of the terminal ileum. Formation of orthotopic bladder was performed by the method of M.I. Vasilchenko (RF patent for invention № 2337630 “Method of orthotopic bladder plastics” by M.I. Vasilchenko. The ureters are implanted by antireflux procedure. If unable to perform orthotopic bladder plastics recovery and self-urination, patients underwent the formation of heterotopic enteral reservoir with a holding valve.Results. It assesses the functionality and viability of organic shaped orthotopic and heterotopic urinary neocystis in the early and late postoperative periods in different versions. The proposed techniques have a beneficial effect on the improvement of the functional state and stabilization of the upper urinary tract. Analysis of morbidity and mortality was determined according to the classification of surgical complications on the Clavien–Dindo. This approach allowed to identify most of the complications and prevent an underestimation of the main negative results. Estimated oncologic efficacy of minimally invasive interventions laparoscopic radical cystectomy and robot-assisted radical cystectomy not inferior open radical cystectomy.Conclusions. Formation of

  16. Application of da Vinci(®) Robot in simple or radical hysterectomy: Tips and tricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavazzo, Christos; Gkegkes, Ioannis D

    2016-01-01

    The first robotic simple hysterectomy was performed more than 10 years ago. These days, robotic-assisted hysterectomy is accepted as an alternative surgical approach and is applied both in benign and malignant surgical entities. The two important points that should be taken into account to optimize postoperative outcomes in the early period of a surgeon's training are how to achieve optimal oncological and functional results. Overcoming any technical challenge, as with any innovative surgical method, leads to an improved surgical operation timewise as well as for patients' safety. The standardization of the technique and recognition of critical anatomical landmarks are essential for optimal oncological and clinical outcomes on both simple and radical robotic-assisted hysterectomy. Based on our experience, our intention is to present user-friendly tips and tricks to optimize the application of a da Vinci® robot in simple or radical hysterectomies.

  17. Effects of Pathologic Stage on the Learning Curve for Radical Prostatectomy: Evidence That Recurrence in Organ-Confined Cancer Is Largely Related to Inadequate Surgical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J.; Bianco, Fernando J.; Gonen, Mithat; Cronin, Angel M.; Eastham, James A.; Schrag, Deborah; Klein, Eric A.; Reuther, Alwyn M.; Kattan, Michael W.; Pontes, J. Edson; Scardino, Peter T.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We previously demonstrated that there is a learning curve for open radical prostatectomy. We sought to determine whether the effects of the learning curve are modified by pathologic stage. Methods The study included 7765 eligible prostate cancer patients treated with open radical prostatectomy by one of 72 surgeons. Surgeon experience was coded as the total number of radical prostatectomies conducted by the surgeon prior to a patient’s surgery. Multivariable regression models of survival time were used to evaluate the association between surgeon experience and biochemical recurrence, with adjustment for PSA, stage, and grade. Analyses were conducted separately for patients with organ-confined and locally advanced disease. Results Five-year recurrence-free probability for patients with organ-confined disease approached 100% for the most experienced surgeons. Conversely, the learning curve for patients with locally advanced disease reached a plateau at approximately 70%, suggesting that about a third of these patients cannot be cured by surgery alone. Conclusions Excellent rates of cancer control for patients with organ-confined disease treated by the most experienced surgeons suggest that the primary reason such patients recur is inadequate surgical technique. PMID:18207316

  18. The anesthetic, critical care and surgical challenges in the management of craniopharyngioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the childhood brain neoplasms, craniopharyngioma constitutes about 2-6% of all primary intracranial tumors. Craniopharyngioma poses a multitude of challenges to the neurosurgeon, endocrinologist, oncologist, intensivist and the anesthesiologist. The morbidity and mortality due to radical surgical treatment is quite high, to the extent of 40-50%. The conservative approach with limited surgical intervention and radiotherapy assistance is taken by some neurosurgeons, but its usefulness is very doubtful. We are reporting a case of craniopharyngioma in an 18-year-old female who had progressive loss of vision and was successfully managed with combined radical surgery and medical therapy.

  19. A zero-dimensional approach to compute real radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke J. Spang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The notion of real radicals is a fundamental tool in Real Algebraic Geometry. It takes the role of the radical ideal in Complex Algebraic Geometry. In this article I shall describe the zero-dimensional approach and efficiency improvement I have found during the work on my diploma thesis at the University of Kaiserslautern (cf. [6]. The main focus of this article is on maximal ideals and the properties they have to fulfil to be real. New theorems and properties about maximal ideals are introduced which yield an heuristic prepare_max which splits the maximal ideals into three classes, namely real, not real and the class where we can't be sure whether they are real or not. For the latter we have to apply a coordinate change into general position until we are sure about realness. Finally this constructs a randomized algorithm for real radicals. The underlying theorems and algorithms are described in detail.

  20. The efficacy and utilisation of preoperative multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: does it change the surgical dissection plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavukçu, Hasan Hüseyin; Aytaç, Ömer; Balcı, Numan Cem; Kulaksızoğlu, Haluk; Atuğ, Fatih

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the effect of the use of multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) on the dissection plan of the neurovascular bundle and the oncological results of our patients who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. We prospectively evaluated 60 consecutive patients, including 30 patients who had (Group 1), and 30 patients who had not (Group 2) mp-MRI before robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Based on the findings of mp-MRI, the dissection plan was changed as intrafascial, interfascial, and extrafascial in the mp-MRI group. Two groups were compared in terms of age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Gleason sum scores and surgical margin positivity. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, PSA, biopsy Gleason score, final pathological Gleason score and surgical margin positivity. mp-MRI changed the initial surgical plan in 18 of 30 patients (60%) in Group 1. In seventeen of these patients (56%) surgical plan was changed from non-nerve sparing to interfascial nerve sparing plan. In one patient dissection plan was changed to non-nerve sparing technique which had extraprostatic extension on final pathology. Surgical margin positivity was similar in Groups 1, and 2 (16% and 13%, respectively) although, Group 1 had higher number of high- risk patients. mp-MRI confirmed the primary tumour localisation in the final pathology in 27 of of 30 patients (90%). Preoperative mp-MRI effected the decision to perform a nerve-sparing technique in 56% of the patients in our study; moreover, changing the dissection plan from non-nerve-sparing technique to a nerve sparing technique did not increase the rate of surgical margin positivity.

  1. Surgical experience with skull base approaches for foramen magnum meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin Sanabria, Elio Arnaldo; Ehara, Kazumasa; Tamaki, Norihiko

    2002-11-01

    The surgical treatment of patients with foramen magnum meningioma remains challenging. This study evaluated the outcome of this tumor according to the evolution of surgical approaches during the last 29 years. A retrospective analysis of medical records, operative notes, and neuroimages of 492 meningioma cases from 1972 to 2001 identified seven cases of foramen magnum meningioma (1.4%). All patients showed various neurological symptoms corresponding with foramen magnum syndrome. The tumor locations were anterior in five cases and posterior in two. Surgical removal was performed through a transoral approach in one patient, the suboccipital approach in three, and the transcondylar approach in two. Total removal was achieved in all patients, except for one who refused any surgical treatment. The major complications were tetraparesis and lower cranial nerve paresis for tumors in anterior locations, and minor complications for posterior locations. One patient died of atelectasis and pneumonia after a long hospitalization. The transcondylar approach is recommended for anterior locations, and the standard suboccipital approach for posterior locations.

  2. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in Brazil: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Roberto Colombo Junior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the initial experience on robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in Brazil. Methods: From March 2008 to March 2009, a hundred patients were treated with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Patient’s demographic data, as well as perioperative results of the procedures, are described in this study. Rresults: Patients’ mean age and mean PSA were 58 years and 7.58 ng/ml, respectively. All procedures were performed through transperitoneal approach, with a mean bleeding of 480 mL and surgical time of 298 minutes. A surgical margin affected by cancer was present in 16% of the cases. There were four complications: bleeding requiring transfusion (two cases, rectal perforation corrected on the spot and inadequate functioning of the robot. There was no conversion to another access or obit occurrences in this caseload. Cconclusions: Robot-assisted prostatectomy is a reality in Brazil and the results herein presented demonstrate that this procedure can be safely performed. Long-term follow-up is still necessary to assess the oncological and functional outcomes.

  3. Pertinent issues related to laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney C. Abreu

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We describe the critical steps of the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP technique and discuss how they impact upon the pertinent issues regarding prostate cancer surgery: blood loss, potency and continence. RESULTS: A major advantage of LRP is the reduced operative blood loss. The precise placement of the dorsal vein complex stitch associated with the tamponading effect of the CO2 pneumoperitoneum significantly decrease venous bleeding, which is the main source of blood loss during radical prostatectomy. At the Cleveland Clinic, the average blood loss of our first 100 patients was 322.5 ml, resulting in low transfusion rates. The continuous venous bleeding narrowed pelvic surgical field and poor visibility can adversely impact on nerve preservation during open radical prostatectomy. Laparoscopy, with its enhanced and magnified vision in a relatively bloodless field allows for excellent identification and handling of the neurovascular bundles. During open retropubic radical prostatectomy, the pubic bone may impair visibility and access to the urethral stump, and the surgeon must tie the knots relying on tactile sensation alone. Consequently, open prostatectomy is associated with a prolonged catheterization period of 2 - 3 weeks. Comparatively, during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy all sutures are meticulously placed and each is tied under complete visual control, resulting in a precise mucosa-to-mucosa approximation. CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic approach may represent a reliable less invasive alternative to the conventional open approach. Despite the encouraging preliminary anatomical and functional outcomes, prospective randomized comparative trials are required to critically evaluate the role of laparoscopy for this sophisticated and delicate operation.

  4. Trends in Radical Surgical Treatment Methods for Breast Malignancies in China: A Multicenter 10-Year Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bai-Lin; Sivasubramaniam, Priya G; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Bin; Gao, Ji-Dong; Tang, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Guo-Ji; Xie, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Zhongzhao; Yang, Hong-Jian; He, Jian-Jun; Li, Hui; Li, Jia-Yuan; Fan, Jin-Hu; Wang, Xiang; Qiao, You-Lin

    2015-09-01

    Incidence rates of breast cancer continue to rise in the People's Republic of China. The purpose of this study was to describe Chinese trends in radical surgical modalities and influential imaging and demographic factors for breast malignancies. This study was a hospital-based, multicenter, 10-year (1999-2008), retrospective study. Descriptive statistical tests were used to illustrate information regarding radical surgical trends for the treatment of breast malignancies. Chi-square tests were used to assess effect of demographic factors in addition to imaging and pathological data on the specific surgical method. A total of 4,211 patients were enrolled in the survey. Among them, 3,335 patients with stage 0 to stage III disease undergoing mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were included in the final analysis. The rate of BCS increased from 1.53% in 1999 to 11.88% in 2008. The rate of mastectomy declined over this time period, from 98.47% in 1999 to 88.12% in 2008, with increasing use of diagnostic imaging methods and pathological biopsies. A significantly greater percentage of patients with office work, high education levels, unmarried status, younger age, and early pathological stages preferred BCS compared with mastectomy. Rates of mastectomy in China remain elevated due to diagnosis at higher stages; however, because of increased use of diagnostic imaging, improvement of biopsy methods, and patient education, rates of less invasive lumpectomy are increasing and rates of mastectomy have decreased in China. In this study, 4,211 cases were collected from 1999 to 2008 through a multicenter retrospective study of varying geographic and socioeconomic areas to illustrate trends of surgeries in the People's Republic of China. The correlations between demographic and tumor characteristics and among methods of surgical treatment were explored. This study shows that the rate of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) increased and the rate of mastectomy declined over

  5. Simulating Controlled Radical Polymerizations with mcPolymer—A Monte Carlo Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Drache

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing model calculations may lead to a better understanding of the complex kinetics of the controlled radical polymerization. We developed a universal simulation tool (mcPolymer, which is based on the widely used Monte Carlo simulation technique. This article focuses on the software architecture of the program, including its data management and optimization approaches. We were able to simulate polymer chains as individual objects, allowing us to gain more detailed microstructural information of the polymeric products. For all given examples of controlled radical polymerization (nitroxide mediated radical polymerization (NMRP homo- and copolymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT, we present detailed performance analyses demonstrating the influence of the system size, concentrations of reactants, and the peculiarities of data. Different possibilities were exemplarily illustrated for finding an adequate balance between precision, memory consumption, and computation time of the simulation. Due to its flexible software architecture, the application of mcPolymer is not limited to the controlled radical polymerization, but can be adjusted in a straightforward manner to further polymerization models.

  6. Radical prostatectomy and positive surgical margins: relationship with prostate cancer outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo L. R. Felts de La Roca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Positive surgical margins (PSMs are an adverse factor that may predict a worse outcome in patients submitted to radical prostatectomy (RP. However, not all of these cases will evolve to biochemical (BCR or clinical (CR recurrence, therefore relationship between PSMs and these recurrent events has to be correlated with other clinical and pathologic findings to indicate complementary treatment for selected patients. Materials and Methods Of 1250 patients submitted to open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP, between March 1991 and June 2008, the outcome of 161 patients with PSMs and of 67 without PSMs as a control group, comprising a total of 228 cases were retrospectively reviewed. A minimum follow-up time of 2 years after surgery was considered. BCR was determined when PSA ≥ 0.2ng/mL. CR was determined whenever there was clinical evidence of tumor. Chi-square test was used to correlate clinical and pathologic variables with PSMs. Time interval to biochemical recurrence was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier product limit analysis using the log-rank test for comparison between groups. Univariate and multivariate Cox stepwise logistic regression models were used to identify significant predictors of risk of shorter intervals to BCR. Results Prostate circumference margin was the most common site with 78 cases (48.44%. Regarding the outcome of 228 cases from both groups, BCR occurred in 68 patients (29.82%, and CR in 10 (4.38%. Univariate analysis showed statistically significant associations (p < 0.001 between presence of PSMs with BCR, but not with CR (p = 0.05. At follow-up of the 161 patients with PSMs, only 61(37.8% presented BCR, while 100 (62.8% did not. BCR correlated with pathologic stage; Gleason score; preoperative PSA; tumor volume in the specimen; capsular and perineural invasion; presence and number of PSMs. CR correlated only with angiolymphatic invasion and Gleason score. Considering univariate analysis of clinical and

  7. Radical prostatectomy. Results and indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacqmin, D.

    1997-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy is the surgical curative treatment of localized prostate cancer. The survival is good in young patients (<70) with T2 N0M0 tumors and more than 10 year's life expectancy. Side-effects are urinary incontinence, impotence and anastomosis stricture. Quality of life should be considered as an important factor for the choice of the patient between radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy and follow-up. (author)

  8. Spinal intramedullary ependymoma: surgical approaches and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Lawrence F

    2018-02-01

    Intramedullary ependymomas are uncommon tumors that can occur within the medullary substance of the spinal cord. Despite this difficult location, they are typically benign tumors that can most often be removed completely with an acceptable surgical risk. Therefore, the recommended management approach is usually surgical excision. This review will consider the historical context in which surgeons began treating these tumors and then review the more recent literature that guides their current management.

  9. Introducing nerve-sparing approach during minimally invasive radical hysterectomy for locally-advanced cervical cancer: A multi-institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspagliesi, Francesco; Bogani, Giorgio; Spinillo, Arsenio; Ditto, Antonino; Bogliolo, Stefano; Casarin, Jvan; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Gardella, Barbara; Chiappa, Valentina; Scaffa, Cono; Ferrero, Simone; Cromi, Antonella; Lorusso, Domenica; Ghezzi, Fabio

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of nerve-sparing (NS) approach on outcomes of patients undergoing minimally invasive radical hysterectomy (MRH) for locally advanced stage cervical cancer (LACC). Data of consecutive patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery for LACC were retrospectively retrieved in a multi-institutional setting from 2009 to 2016. All patients included had minimally invasive class III radical hysterectomy (MRH or NS-MRH). Propensity matching algorithm was used to decrease possible allocation bias when comparing outcomes between groups. Overall, 83 patients were included. The prevalence of patients undergoing NS approach increased aver the study period (from 7% in the year 2009-2010 to 97% in the year 2015-2016; p-for-trend < 0.001). NS-MRH and MRH were performed in 47 (57%) and 36 (43%) patients, respectively. After the application the propensity-matching algorithm, we compared 35 patients' pair (total 70 patients). Postoperative complications rate was similar between groups. Patients undergoing NS-LRH experienced shorter hospital stay than patients undergoing LRH (3.6 vs. 5.0 days). 60-day pelvic floor dysfunction rates, including voiding, fecal and sexual alterations, were lower in the NS group in comparison to control group (p = 0.02). Five-year disease-free (p = 0.77) and overall (p = 0.36) survivals were similar comparing NS-MRH with MRH. The implementation of NS approach in the setting of LACC improves patients' outcomes, minimizing pelvic dysfunction rates. NS approach has not detrimental effects on survival outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative study of the radical and standard lymphadenectomy in the surgical treatment of adenocarcinoma of the ampula of Vater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albagli, Rafael Oliveira; Carvalho, Gustavo Santos Stoduto de; Mali Junior, Jorge; Eulálio, José Marcos Raso; de Melo, Eduardo Linhares Rielo

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing surgical pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) in standard and radical lymphadenectomy for adenocarcinoma of papilla, analyzing the prognostic factors related to overall and disease-free survival. Were analyzed retrospectively from 1999 to 2007, in the Department of Abdominal and Pelvic Surgery (INCa-RJ), 50 cases of PD for adenocarcinoma of the duodenal papilla divided into two groups according to lymphadenectomy (group A: standard lymphadenectomy and group B: radical lymphadenectomy). The median age was similar in both groups, as well as the distribution between the sex. In the comparison between the lymphadenectomies, only the number of lymph nodes resected (group A: 12.3 and group B: 26.5) and operative time (group A: 421 and group B: 474) were significantly different. There were no statistically significant differences in the two groups with respect to morbidity and mortality rate and length of hospitalization. The disease-free survival (group A: 35 months and group B: 51 months) and overall survival (group A: 38 months and group B: 53 months) was higher in the group of radical lymphadenectomy, but were not statistically significant. In this study there were no cases of metastatic lymph nodes to other groups without nodal involvement of the pancreatic-duodenal lymph node chains (13, 17), suggesting a pattern of lymph node spread. Despite the radical lymphadenectomy present rates of disease-free survival and overall survival largest such data were not statistically significant. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the real role of radical lymphadenectomy in adenocarcinoma of the duodenal papilla.

  11. Peri-operative comparison between daVinci-assisted radical prostatectomy and open radical prostatectomy in obese patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Carter Q.; Ho, Khai-Linh V.; Slezak, Jeffrey M.; Blute, Michael L.; Gettman, Matthew T.

    2007-02-01

    Introduction: While the effects of increasing body mass index on prostate cancer epidemiology and surgical approach have recently been studied, its effects on surgical outcomes are less clear. We studied the perioperative outcomes of obese (BMI >= 30) men treated with daVinci-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (DLP) and compared them to those treated with open radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) in a contemporary time frame. Method: After Institutional Review Board approval, we used the Mayo Clinic Radical Prostatectomy database to identify patients who had undergone DLP by a single surgeon and those who had undergone open RRP by a single surgeon between December 2002 and March 2005. Baseline demographics, peri- and post-operative courses, and complications were collected by retrospective chart review, and variables from the two cohorts compared using chi-square method and least-squares method of linear regression where appropriate. Results: 59 patients who had DLP and 76 undergoing RRP were available for study. Baseline demographics were not statistically different between the two cohorts. Although DLP had a significantly lower clinical stage than RRP (p=0.02), pathological stage was not statistically different (p=0.10). Transfusion rates, hospital stay, overall complications, and pathological Gleason were also not significantly different, nor were PSA progression, positive margin rate, or continence at 1 year. After bilateral nerve-sparing, erections suitable for intercourse with or without therapy at 1 year was 88.5% (23/26) for DLP and 61.2% (30/49) for RRP (p=0.01). Follow-up time was similar. Conclusion: For obese patients, DLP appears to have similar perioperative, as well as short-term oncologic and functional outcomes when compared to open RRP.

  12. Trends in radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, James; Tokuda, Yuji; Scardino, Peter

    2009-02-01

    The surgical treatment of prostate cancer ideally removes the entire cancer, avoids excessive blood loss or serious perioperative complications, and results in complete recovery of continence and potency. To achieve this, the surgeon must excise sufficient periprostatic tissue to cure the cancer while preserving the cavernosal nerves required for erectile function and the neuromusculature required for normal urinary and bowel function. Here we will examine recent trends in radical prostatectomy, focusing on surgical technique.

  13. Minimally invasive surgical approach to treat posterior urethral diverticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossamah Alsowayan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urethral diverticulum is a localized saccular or fusiform out-pouching of the urethra. It may occur at any point along the urethra in both male and females. Male urethral diverticulum is rare, and could be either congenital or acquired, anterior or posterior. The mainstay treatment of posterior urethral diverticulum (PUD is the open surgical approach. Here we discuss our minimally invasive surgical approach (MIS in managing posterior urethral diverticulum.

  14. Comparison of two approaches to the surgical management of cochlear implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postelmans, Job T. F.; Grolman, Wilko; Tange, Rinze A.; Stokroos, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Our study was designed to compare two surgical approaches that are currently employed in cochlear implantation. METHODS: There were 315 patients who were divided into two groups according to the surgical technique used for implantation. The suprameatal approach (SMA) was

  15. Robotic Radical Cystectomy: Where are We Today, Where will We be Tomorrow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle A. Richards

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While open radical cystectomy remains the gold-standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer and high-risk non–muscle invasive disease, robotic assisted radical cystectomy (RARC has been gaining popularity over the past decade. The robotic approach has the potential advantages of less intraoperative blood loss, shorter hospital stay, less post-operative narcotic requirement, quicker return of bowel function, and earlier convalescence with an acceptable surgical learning curve for surgeons adept at robotic radical prostatectomy. While short to intermediate term oncologic results from several small RARC series are promising, bladder cancer remains a potentially lethal malignancy necessitating long-term follow-up. This article aims to review the currently published literature, important technical aspects of the operation, oncologic and functional outcomes, and the future direction of RARC.

  16. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

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    Duilio Divisi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  17. Surgical approach to pineal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, F; Broggi, G; Fornari, M; Franzini, A; Solero, C L; Allegranza, A

    1989-01-01

    During a period of 10 years (1977-1986) 40 cases of tumour of the pineal region have been treated at the Istituto Neurologico "C. Besta"-of Milan. Out of these 40 cases, 27 (67.5%) were in the paediatric (10-15 years) or juvenile (15-20 years) age at the time of operation. Since 1983 a specific diagnostic and therapeutic protocol has been adopted and thereafter direct surgical removal of the tumour was performed only when the neuroradiological investigations were highly suggestive of a benign extrinsic lesion. Sixteen cases in this series underwent direct surgical removal; in the remaining 24 cases stereotactic biopsy of the tumour was performed in the first instance. On the basis of the histological diagnosis obtained by this procedure surgical excision of the tumour (9 cases) or radiotherapy (15 cases) was then performed. 25 cases underwent surgical removal of the lesion. In all the cases the infratentorial supracerebellar approach as introduced by Krause and then modified by Stein was adopted. On analysis of the data of this series it was observed that in 25% of the cases completely benign resectable tumours were found; in 25% of the cases astrocytoma (grade I-II) which could be treated at least by partial removal were present; in 30% of the cases radiosensitive lesions were encountered. In the remaining 20% of the cases highly malignant tumours were found which should be treated only by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.

  18. A surgical approach in the management of mucormycosis in a trauma patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, B A; Piercey, J E; Wall, D R; Tetsworth, K D

    2016-11-01

    Mucormycosis as a consequence of trauma is a devastating complication; these infections are challenging to control, with a fatality rate approaching 96% in immunocompromised patients. We present a case where a proactive approach was successfully employed to treat mucormycosis following complex polytrauma. Aggressive repeated surgical debridement, in combination with appropriate antifungal therapy, proved successful in this instance. In our opinion, mucormycosis in trauma mandates an aggressive surgical approach. This prevents ascending dissemination of mucormycosis and certainly reduces the risk of patient mortality as a direct result. Anti-fungal therapy should be used secondarily as an adjunct together with surgical debridement, or as an alternative when surgical intervention is not feasible.

  19. Anatomy and Surgical Approaches to the Rabbit Nasal Septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Karam W; Chang, John C; Kuan, Edward C; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-09-01

    The rabbit is the primary animal model used to investigate aspects of nasal surgery. Although several studies have used this model, none has provided a comprehensive analysis of the surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal fossae and septum. To describe and optimize the surgical anatomy and approach to the rabbit nasal vault and septal cartilage. In an ex vivo animal study conducted at an academic medical center, preliminary cadaveric dissections were performed on rabbit head specimens to establish familiarity with relevant anatomy and rehearse various approaches. Live Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (3.5-4.0 kg) were used to further develop this surgical technique developed here. Access of the nasal vault was gained through a midline nasal dorsum incision and creation of an osteoplastic flap with a drill. Submucosal resection was performed with preservation of the mucoperichondrium. All rabbits were monitored daily for 4 weeks in the postoperative period for signs of infection, pain, and complications. The study was conducted from June 1, 2014, to December 1, 2014. Surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal vault and harvest septal cartilage. Four Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (Western Organ Rabbit Co), ranging in age from 9 to 12 months and weighing between 3.5 and 4.0 kg, were used in this study. Initial dissections demonstrated the feasibility of harvesting septal cartilage while preserving the mucoperichondrial envelope. Access to the nasal vault through this 3-osteotomy approach allowed for maximal exposure to the nasal cavity bilaterally while maintaining the integrity of the mucoperichondrium following septal cartilage harvest. The maximum amount of bulk, en bloc, cartilage harvested was 1.0 × 2.5 cm. Following surgical dissection, all animals maintained adequate airway patency and support to midface structures. Furthermore, all specimens preserved the integrity of the

  20. The "halo effect" in Korea: change in practice patterns since the introduction of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ee-Rah; Jeong, Wooju; Park, Sung Yul; Ham, Won Sik; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon; Rha, Koon Ho

    2009-03-01

    Acquisition of the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, USA) has enabled robot-assisted surgery to become an acceptable alternative to open radical prostatectomy (ORP). Implementation of robotics at a single institution in Korea induced a gradual increase in the number of performances of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) to surgically treat localized prostate cancer. We analyzed the impact of robotic instrumentation on practice patterns among urologists and explain the change in value in ORP and RALP-the standard treatment and the new approach or innovation of robotic technology. The overall number of prostatectomies has increased over time because the number of RALPs has grown drastically whereas the number of OPRs did not decrease during the period of evaluation. Our experience emphasizes the potential of RALP to become the gold standard in the treatment of localized prostate cancer in various parts of the world.

  1. Laparoscopic radical trachelectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón, Gabriel J; Ramirez, Pedro T; Frumovitz, Michael; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Pareja, Rene

    2012-01-01

    The standard treatment for patients with early-stage cervical cancer has been radical hysterectomy. However, for women interested in future fertility, radical trachelectomy is now considered a safe and feasible option. The use of minimally invasive surgical techniques to perform this procedure has recently been reported. We report the first case of a laparoscopic radical trachelectomy performed in a developing country. The patient is a nulligravid, 30-y-old female with stage IB1 adenocarcinoma of the cervix who desired future fertility. She underwent a laparoscopic radical trachelectomy and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection. The operative time was 340 min, and the estimated blood loss was 100mL. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The final pathology showed no evidence of residual disease, and all pelvic lymph nodes were negative. At 20 mo of follow-up, the patient is having regular menses but has not yet attempted to become pregnant. There is no evidence of recurrence. Laparoscopic radical trachelectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy in a young woman who desires future fertility may also be an alternative technique in the treatment of early cervical cancer in developing countries.

  2. Robotic radical perineal cystectomy and extended pelvic lymphadenectomy: initial investigation using a purpose-built single-port robotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Matthew J; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2017-12-01

    To assess the feasibility of radical perineal cystoprostatectomy using the latest generation purpose-built single-port robotic surgical system. In two male cadavers the da Vinci ® SP1098 Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) was used to perform radical perineal cystoprostatectomy and bilateral extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND). New features in this model include enhanced high-definition three-dimensional optics, improved instrument manoeuvrability, and a real-time instrument tracking and guidance system. The surgery was accomplished through a 3-cm perineal incision via a novel robotic single-port system, which accommodates three double-jointed articulating robotic instruments, an articulating camera, and an accessory laparoscopic instrument. The primary outcomes were technical feasibility, intraoperative complications, and total robotic operative time. The cases were completed successfully without conversion. There were no accidental punctures or lacerations. The robotic operative times were 197 and 202 min. In this preclinical model, robotic radical perineal cystoprostatectomy and ePLND was feasible using the SP1098 robotic platform. Further investigation is needed to assess the feasibility of urinary diversion using this novel approach and new technology. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A cost-effective approach to establishing a surgical skills laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, David A; Milner, Richard E; Fisher, Carol A; Goldberg, Amy J; Dempsey, Daniel T; Grewal, Harsh

    2007-11-01

    Recent studies comparing inexpensive low-fidelity box trainers to expensive computer-based virtual reality systems demonstrate similar acquisition of surgical skills and transferability to the clinical setting. With new mandates emerging that all surgical residency programs have access to a surgical skills laboratory, we describe our cost-effective approach to teaching basic and advanced open and laparoscopic skills utilizing inexpensive bench models, box trainers, and animate models. Open models (basic skills, bowel anastomosis, vascular anastomosis, trauma skills) and laparoscopic models (basic skills, cholecystectomy, Nissen fundoplication, suturing and knot tying, advanced in vivo skills) are constructed using a combination of materials found in our surgical research laboratories, retail stores, or donated by industry. Expired surgical materials are obtained from our hospital operating room and animal organs from food-processing plants. In vivo models are performed in an approved research facility. Operation, maintenance, and administration of the surgical skills laboratory are coordinated by a salaried manager, and instruction is the responsibility of all surgical faculty from our institution. Overall, the cost analyses of our initial startup costs and operational expenditures over a 3-year period revealed a progressive decrease in yearly cost per resident (2002-2003, $1,151; 2003-2004, $1,049; and 2004-2005, $982). Our approach to surgical skills education can serve as a template for any surgery program with limited financial resources.

  4. Surgical correction of the webbed neck: an alternative lateral approach

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    Mehri Turki, Imen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The webbed neck deformity or pterygium colli is the number one symptom of the Turner syndrome that leads the patient to consult a doctor. Various but rare surgical approaches have been described to correct this deformity. We reviewed our experience with the surgical correction of the pterygium colli.Methods: Through five clinical cases, we describe the surgical technique with a lateral approach which provides a better control of the operative site, allows for the excision of the underlying trapezial fascial web, thus preventing recurrence seen in the posterior approach, and restores a normal hairline. Results: No postoperative wound infection occurred. No recurrence was observed through 24 months. Three patients developed hypertrophic scars.Conclusion: The lateral approach associated with an advanced flap and a Z-plasty is an effective technique for correction of this neck deformity. The presence of a multidisciplinary team, formed with maxillofacial and plastic surgeons, endocrinologists and psychologists, is required to treat these patients allowing reintegration into society and family.

  5. Development and validation of surgical training tool: cystectomy assessment and surgical evaluation (CASE) for robot-assisted radical cystectomy for men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Ahmed A; Sexton, Kevin J; May, Paul R; Meng, Maxwell V; Hosseini, Abolfazl; Eun, Daniel D; Daneshmand, Siamak; Bochner, Bernard H; Peabody, James O; Abaza, Ronney; Skinner, Eila C; Hautmann, Richard E; Guru, Khurshid A

    2018-04-13

    We aimed to develop a structured scoring tool: cystectomy assessment and surgical evaluation (CASE) that objectively measures and quantifies performance during robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) for men. A multinational 10-surgeon expert panel collaborated towards development and validation of CASE. The critical steps of RARC in men were deconstructed into nine key domains, each assessed by five anchors. Content validation was done utilizing the Delphi methodology. Each anchor was assessed in terms of context, score concordance, and clarity. The content validity index (CVI) was calculated for each aspect. A CVI ≥ 0.75 represented consensus, and this statement was removed from the next round. This process was repeated until consensus was achieved for all statements. CASE was used to assess de-identified videos of RARC to determine reliability and construct validity. Linearly weighted percent agreement was used to assess inter-rater reliability (IRR). A logit model for odds ratio (OR) was used to assess construct validation. The expert panel reached consensus on CASE after four rounds. The final eight domains of the CASE included: pelvic lymph node dissection, development of the peri-ureteral space, lateral pelvic space, anterior rectal space, control of the vascular pedicle, anterior vesical space, control of the dorsal venous complex, and apical dissection. IRR > 0.6 was achieved for all eight domains. Experts outperformed trainees across all domains. We developed and validated a reliable structured, procedure-specific tool for objective evaluation of surgical performance during RARC. CASE may help differentiate novice from expert performances.

  6. Surgical Approaches to First Branchial Cleft Anomaly Excision: A Case Series

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    Lourdes Quintanilla-Dieck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. First branchial cleft anomalies (BCAs constitute a rare entity with variable clinical presentations and anatomic findings. Given the high rate of recurrence with incomplete excision, identification of the entire tract during surgical treatment is of paramount importance. The objectives of this paper were to present five anatomic variations of first BCAs and describe the presentation, evaluation, and surgical approach to each one. Methods. A retrospective case review and literature review were performed. We describe patient characteristics, presentation, evaluation, and surgical approach of five patients with first BCAs. Results. Age at definitive surgical treatment ranged from 8 months to 7 years. Various clinical presentations were encountered, some of which were atypical for first BCAs. All had preoperative imaging demonstrating the tract. Four surgical approaches required a superficial parotidectomy with identification of the facial nerve, one of which revealed an aberrant facial nerve. In one case the tract was found to travel into the angle of the mandible, terminating as a mandibular cyst. This required en bloc excision that included the lateral cortex of the mandible. Conclusions. First BCAs have variable presentations. Complete surgical excision can be challenging. Therefore, careful preoperative planning and the recognition of atypical variants during surgery are essential.

  7. Surgical Approaches to First Branchial Cleft Anomaly Excision: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla-Dieck, Lourdes; Virgin, Frank; Wootten, Chistopher; Goudy, Steven; Penn, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. First branchial cleft anomalies (BCAs) constitute a rare entity with variable clinical presentations and anatomic findings. Given the high rate of recurrence with incomplete excision, identification of the entire tract during surgical treatment is of paramount importance. The objectives of this paper were to present five anatomic variations of first BCAs and describe the presentation, evaluation, and surgical approach to each one. Methods. A retrospective case review and literature review were performed. We describe patient characteristics, presentation, evaluation, and surgical approach of five patients with first BCAs. Results. Age at definitive surgical treatment ranged from 8 months to 7 years. Various clinical presentations were encountered, some of which were atypical for first BCAs. All had preoperative imaging demonstrating the tract. Four surgical approaches required a superficial parotidectomy with identification of the facial nerve, one of which revealed an aberrant facial nerve. In one case the tract was found to travel into the angle of the mandible, terminating as a mandibular cyst. This required en bloc excision that included the lateral cortex of the mandible. Conclusions. First BCAs have variable presentations. Complete surgical excision can be challenging. Therefore, careful preoperative planning and the recognition of atypical variants during surgery are essential.

  8. Surgical Treatment for Chronic Pancreatitis: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Plagemann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pancreas was one of the last explored organs in the human body. The first surgical experiences were made before fully understanding the function of the gland. Surgical procedures remained less successful until the discovery of insulin, blood groups, and finally the possibility of blood donation. Throughout the centuries, the surgical approach went from radical resections to minimal resections or only drainage of the gland in comparison to an adequate resection combined with drainage procedures. Today, the well-known and standardized procedures are considered as safe due to the high experience of operating surgeons, the centering of pancreatic surgery in specialized centers, and optimized perioperative treatment. Although surgical procedures have become safer and more efficient than ever, the overall perioperative morbidity after pancreatic surgery remains high and management of postoperative complications stagnates. Current research focuses on the prevention of complications, optimizing the patient’s general condition preoperatively and finding the appropriate timing for surgical treatment.

  9. Incontinence and Erectile Dysfunction Following Radical Prostatectomy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos Alivizatos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical prostatectomy remains the treatment of choice for localized prostate cancer in age-appropriate and health-appropriate men. Although cancer control is the most important aspect of a radical prostatectomy, minimization of postoperative morbidity, especially urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, is becoming a greater concern. We reviewed recent data available on Medline regarding the incidence, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of incontinence and sexual dysfunction after radical prostatectomy. Health-related quality of life issues have been specifically addressed. Although low incidences of incontinence and erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy have been reported in the hands of experienced surgeons, the literature review revealed a great variety, with incontinence rates ranging from 0.3–65.6% and potency rates ranging from 11–87%. Several factors contribute to this wide difference, the most important being the application of a meticulous surgical technique. General and cancer-specific health-related quality of life is not being affected after radical prostatectomy. The incidence of incontinence and erectile dysfunction is higher after radical prostatectomy when compared to the incidence observed when other therapies for localized prostate cancer are applied. However, the majority of the patients undergoing radical prostatectomy would vote for the operation again. Today, avoidance of major complications after radical prostatectomy depends mostly on a high-quality surgical technique. When incontinence or erectile dysfunction persists after radical prostatectomy, the majority of the treated patients can be managed effectively by various methods.

  10. Analysis of two different surgical approaches for fractures of the mandibular condyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, S; Thambiah, L J

    2012-01-01

    Fractures of the condyle account for one third of all the mandibular fractures. Different surgical approaches to the condyle described hitherto testify to the advantages and disadvantages of the different surgical techniques used for approaching the condyle in such cases of fractures. We have described and compared two of such surgical techniques in this study. The aim of this study is to compare the outcome of dealing with condylar fractures by two different surgical techniques: the mini retromandibular approach, and the preauricular approach. A prospective study of 31 patients who had suffered with mandibular condylar fractures was carried out. Of these, 26 patients had unilateral condylar fractures, and 5 patients had a bilateral fracture. Further, 19 of these patients were treated by the mini retromandibular approach and 12 by the preauricular approach. The treated patients were followed up and evaluated for a minimum period of 1 year and assessed for parameters such as the maximum mouth opening, lateral movement on the fractured side, mandibular movements such as protrusion, dental occlusion, scar formation, facial nerve weakness, salivary fistula formation and time taken for the completion of the surgical procedure. t- test was used for statistical analysis of the data obtained in the study. Dental occlusion was restored in all the cases, and good anatomical reduction was achieved. The mean operating time was higher 63.53 (mean) ± 18.12 minutes standard deviation (SD) in the preauricular approach compared to 45.22 (mean) ± 18.86 minutes SD in the mini retromandibular approach. Scar formation was satisfactory in almost all the cases.

  11. Role of surgical approaches: influencing tumour recurrence in nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, R.; Khan, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is an uncommon tumour constituting less than 1% of all head and neck tumours. This tumour has an aggressive local behaviour if left untreated. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with no common consensus on a single approach. Tumour stage and surgical approaches are the major determinants of outcome. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of surgical approaches on tumour recurrence in patients with nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in the Department of ENT and Head and Neck Surgery, PIMS, Islamabad and Ayub Medical Institution, Abbottabad from Jan 2010 to Jan 2014 consisting of 34 diagnosed cases of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. All patients were treated surgically while radiotherapy was given in a few. All patients were followed up for one year. Results: Among 34 patients, 25 were treated by lateral rhinotomy approach with medial maxillectomy, 5 by mid-facial degloving approach and 3 by transpalatine approach. One patient with cavernous sinus involvement was treated by radiotherapy. Patients were followed up for one year both by clinical examination and imaging if needed. Recurrence was found in 15% (5/33) patients and postop radiotherapy was given to them. Conclusion: Lateral rhinotomy approach with medial maxillectomy is highly effective even in advanced stage JNA for complete removal of the disease. Postoperative radiotherapy is an effective adjuvant. (author)

  12. ROLE OF SURGICAL APPROACHES INFLUENCING TUMOUR RECURRENCE IN NASOPHARYNGEAL ANGIOFIBROMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Raza; Hussain, Altaf; Rehman, Fazal; Iqbal, Johar; Khan, Munib; Ullah, Gohar; Khan, Zakir

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is an uncommon tumour constituting less than 1% of all head & neck tumours. This tumour has an aggressive local behaviour if left untreated. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with no common consensus on a single approach. Tumour stage and surgical approaches are the major determinants of outcome. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of surgical approaches on tumour recurrence in patients with nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. This descriptive study was conducted in the Department of ENT and Head and Neck Surgery, PIMS, Islamabad and Ayub Medical Institution, Abbottabad from Jan 2010 to Jan 2014 consisting of 34 diagnosed cases of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. All patients were treated surgically while radiotherapy was given in a few. All patients were followed up for one year. Among 34 patients, 25 were treated by lateral rhinotomy approach with medial maxillectomy, 5 by mid-facial degloving approach and 3 by transpalatine approach. One patient with cavernous sinus involvement was treated by radiotherapy. Patients were followed up for one year both by clinical examination and imaging if needed. Recurrence was found in 15% (5/33) patients and postop radiotherapy was given to them. Lateral rhinotomy approach with medial maxillectomy is highly effective even in advanced stage JNA for complete removal of the disease. Postoperative radiotherapy is an effective adjuvant.

  13. Gradual approach to refinement of the nasal tip: surgical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bittencourt Ottoni de Carvalho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The complexity of the nasal tip structures and the impact of surgical maneuvers make the prediction of the final outcome very difficult. Therefore, no single technique is enough to correct the several anatomical presentations, and adequate preoperative planning represents the basis of rhinoplasty. Objective: To present results of rhinoplasty, through the gradual surgical approach to nasal tip definition based on anatomical features, and to evaluate the degree of patient satisfaction after the surgical procedure. Methods: Longitudinal retrospective cohort study of the medical charts of 533 patients of both genders who underwent rhinoplasty from January of 2005 to January of 2012 was performed. Cases were allocated into seven groups: (1 no surgery on nasal tip; (2 interdomal breakup; (3 cephalic trim; (4 domal suture; (5 shield-shaped graft; (6 vertical dome division; (7 replacement of lower lateral cartilages. Results: Group 4 was the most prevalent. The satisfaction rate was 96% and revision surgery occurred in 4% of cases. Conclusion: The protocol used allowed the implementation of a gradual surgical approach to nasal tip definition with the nasal anatomical characteristics, high rate of patient satisfaction with the surgical outcome, and low rate of revision.

  14. Acute ankle sprain: conservative or surgical approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohrej, Omar A.; Al-Kenani, Nader S.

    2016-01-01

    Ankle sprains fall into two main categories: acute ankle sprains and chronic ankle instability, which are among the most common recurrent injuries during occupational activities, athletic events, training and army service. Acute ankle sprain is usually managed conservatively and functional rehabilitation failure by conservative treatment leads to development of chronic ankle instability, which most often requires surgical intervention. Enhancing the in-depth knowledge of the ankle anatomy, biomechanics and pathology helps greatly in deciding the management options. Cite this article: Al-Mohrej OA, Al-Kenani NS. Acute ankle sprain: conservative or surgical approach? EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:34-44. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000010. PMID:28461926

  15. Update on the management of menometrorrhagia: new surgical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Hervé

    2011-12-01

    Hysterectomy has traditionally been the definitive surgical approach for heavy menstrual bleeding. However, the more modern concept of 'save the uterus' has led to new surgical approaches for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding, based on second-generation endometrial destruction (ablation/resection) techniques, including microwave endometrial ablation, thermal balloon endometrial ablation, radiofrequency electrosurgery, hydrothermal ablation and cryoablation. As pregnancy following endometrial ablation is still possible, we proposed to combine endometrial ablation and sterilization with Essure(®) micro-inserts in women with confirmed menometrorrhagia and the desire, or medical need, for permanent tubal sterilization. Although large diameter resectoscopy provides excellent results in the surgical treatment of myomas, the technique requires dilation of the cervical canal (difficult in nulliparous or menopausal patients), and requires general or epidural anaesthesia and, therefore, must be performed in an operating theatre. A major advance in terms of hysteroscopic procedures is the 'see and treat' approach (i.e. when performing an initial diagnostic hysteroscopy, it is now possible to treat the pathology concurrently). Newer hysteroscopic techniques, often not requiring anaesthesia or analgesia, include OPPIuM (Office Preparation of Partially Intramural Myomas) and use of a mini-resectoscope, allowing office diagnostic-operative hysteroscopic procedures.

  16. Surgical management for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Shelley, Mike; Coles, Bernadette; Biyani, Chandra S; El-Mokadem, Ismail; Nabi, Ghulam

    2011-04-13

    Upper tract transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) are uncommon and aggressive tumours. There are a number of surgical approaches to manage this condition including open radical nephroureterectomy and laparoscopic procedures. To determine the best surgical management option for upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. A sensitive search strategy was developed to identify relevant studies for inclusion in this review. The following databases were searched for randomised trials evaluating surgical approaches to the management of upper tract TCC: Medline EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), CINAHL, British Nursing Index, AMED, LILACS, Web of Science®, Scopus, Biosis, TRIP, Biomed Central, Dissertation Abstracts, and ISI Proceedings. The following criteria that were considered for this review.Types of studies - All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the various surgical methods and approaches for the management of localised upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. Types of participants - All adult patients with localised transitional cell carcinoma. Localised disease was defined as limited to the kidney or ureter with no gross regional lymph nodal enlargement on imaging. Types of interventions - Any surgical method or approach for managing localised upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. Types of outcome measures - Overall and cancer-specific survival were primary outcomes. Surgery-related morbidity. Quality of life and health economics outcomes were secondary outcomes. Two review authors examined the search results independently to identify trials for inclusion. We identified one randomised controlled trial that met our inclusion criteria. The trial showed that the laparoscopic approach had superior peri-operative outcomes compared to open approach. Laparoscopic was superior and statistically significant for blood loss (104 mL (millilitres) versus 430 mL, P management of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma

  17. Oncological outcomes of high-risk prostate cancer patients between robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Chun Liao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare pathological and oncological outcomes between robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RaLRP and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP among high-risk prostate cancer patient in a tertiary center in Taiwan. Materials and methods: From November 2003 to October 2013, 129 high-risk prostate cancer patients receiving minimally-invasive radical prostatectomy were included. The Kaplan–Meier analysis was used for measuring biochemical recurrence-free survival (BFS. Multivariate logistic regression models and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine predictors of positive surgical margin and BFS. Results: Among the 129 high-risk prostate cancer patients included, 80 (62% patients received LRP and 49 (38% patients received RaLRP. There was no significant difference of positive surgical margin and biochemical recurrence rate between RaLRP and LRP group (P = 0.802 and 0.292. Higher pathological T stage predicted an increased likelihood of positive margins (OR = 3.44, 95% CI [1.45, 8.18], P = 0.005. Higher initial PSA level (HR = 2.88, 95% CI [1.04, 7.94], P = 0.041 and positive surgical margin (HR = 2.55, 95% CI [1.20, 5.44], P = 0.015 were poor prognostic factors for BFS. Conclusion: RaLRP can be considered among high-risk prostate cancer in Asian people with comparable oncological outcomes to LRP. Higher pathological T stage was associated with increased likelihood of positive margins, patients with higher iPSA level and positive surgical margin had worsen biochemical recurrence-free survival.

  18. Minimally Invasive Surgical Approach to Distal Fibula Fractures: A Technique Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler A. Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound complications following ankle fracture surgery are a major concern. Through the use of minimally invasive surgical techniques some of these complications can be mitigated. Recent investigations have reported on percutaneous fixation of distal fibula fractures demonstrating similar radiographic and functional outcomes to traditional open approaches. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe in detail the minimally invasive surgical approach for distal fibula fractures.

  19. [Surgical approaches to tibial plateau fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Matthias; Müller, Gunnar; Frosch, Karl-Heinz

    2018-06-06

    Intra-articular tibial plateau fractures can present a surgical challenge due to complex injury patterns and compromised soft tissue. The treatment goal is to spare the soft tissue and an anatomical reconstruction of the tibial articular surface. Depending on the course of the fracture, a fracture-specific access strategy is recommended to provide correct positioning of the plate osteosynthesis. While the anterolateral approach is used in the majority of lateral tibial plateau fractures, only one third of the joint surface is visible; however, posterolateral fragments require an individual approach, e. g. posterolateral or posteromedial. If necessary, osteotomy of the femoral epicondyles can improve joint access for reduction control. Injuries to the posterior columns should be anatomically reconstructed and biomechanically correctly addressed via posterior approaches. Bony posterior cruciate ligament tears can be refixed via a minimally invasive posteromedial approach.

  20. Drainage after Modified Radical Mastectomy – A Methodological Mini-Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsocheva, Dragostina; Marinova, Katerina; Dobrev, Emil; Nenkov, Rumen

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a socially relevant group of malignant conditions of the mammary gland, affecting both males and females. Most commonly the surgical approach of choice is a modified radical mastectomy (MRM), due to it allowing for both the removal of the main tumor mass and adjacent glandular tissue, which are suspected of infiltration and multifocality of the process, and a sentinel axillary lymph node removal. Most common post-surgical complications following MRM are the formation of a hematoma, the infection of the surgical wound and the formation of a seroma. These post-surgical complications can, at least in part, be attributed to the drainage of the surgical wound. However, the lack of modern and official guidelines provides an ample scope for innovation, but also leads to a need for a randomized comparison of the results. We compared different approaches to wound drainage after MRM, reviewed based on the armamentarium, number of drains, location, type of drainage system, timing of drain removal and no drainage alternatives. Currently, based on the general results, scientific and comparative discussions, seemingly the most affordable methodology with the best patient outcome, with regards to hospital stay and post-operative complications, is the placement of one medial to lateral (pectoro-axillary) drain with low negative pressure. Ideally, the drain should be removed on the second or third postoperative day or when the amount of drained fluid in the last 24 hours reaches below 50 milliliters. PMID:28929038

  1. Surgical approach to end-stage heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Stefan; Scheld, Hans H

    2011-02-01

    End-stage heart failure is a challenging disease with growing incidence. With decreasing heart transplant rates worldwide organ preserving therapies become, again, of interest. The purpose of the present review is to examine the potential challenges of surgical therapies in patients with end-stage heart failure. The gold-standard for end-stage heart failure is and will be cardiac transplantation. However, due to organ shortage this therapy is limited to a few patients. Therefore implantation of ventricular assist devices (VADs) or long-term minimal-invasive partial support devices will increase. Improvements in device design with smaller devices, easier implantation techniques, and modified anticoagulation outcome and long-term success will likely improve. In addition, good quality of life as destination therapy is almost available. Organ conservation surgery (coronary artery bypass grafting and surgical ventricular restoration or surgical repair of mitral valve regurgitation) in end-stage heart failure patients could not prove the expected results. Transcatheter or minimal-invasive approaches of these therapies might become routine in the near future. Due to the overwhelming outcome rates, cardiac transplantation is the most established surgical therapy for end-stage heart failure. VAD therapy is increasing and minimized VADs might further open the market for destination therapy/permanent support.

  2. Salvage robotic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel D Kaffenberger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure of non-surgical primary treatment for localized prostate cancer is a common occurrence, with rates of disease recurrence ranging from 20% to 60%. In a large proportion of patients, disease recurrence is clinically localized and therefore potentially curable. Unfortunately, due to the complex and potentially morbid nature of salvage treatment, radical salvage surgery is uncommonly performed. In an attempt to decrease the morbidity of salvage therapy without sacrificing oncologic efficacy, a number of experienced centers have utilized robotic assistance to perform minimally invasive salvage radical prostatectomy. Herein, we critically evaluate the existing literature on salvage robotic radical prostatectomy with a focus on patient selection, perioperative complications and functional and early oncologic outcomes. These results are compared with contemporary and historical open salvage radical prostatectomy series and supplemented with insights we have gained from our experience with salvage robotic radical prostatectomy. The body of evidence by which conclusions regarding the efficacy and safety of robotic salvage radical prostatectomy can be drawn comprises fewer than 200 patients with limited follow-up. Preliminary results are promising and some outcomes have been favorable when compared with contemporary open salvage prostatectomy series. Advantages of the robotic platform in the performance of salvage radical prostatectomy include decreased blood loss, short length of stay and improved visualization. Greater experience is required to confirm the long-term oncologic efficacy and functional outcomes as well as the generalizability of results achieved at experienced centers.

  3. Vulvar field resection: novel approach to the surgical treatment of vulvar cancer based on ontogenetic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höckel, Michael; Schmidt, Katja; Bornmann, Karoline; Horn, Lars-Christian; Dornhöfer, Nadja

    2010-10-01

    Current local treatment of vulvar cancer is wide tumor excision and radical vulvectomy based on functional anatomy established from the adult and on the view of radial progressive tumor permeation. Standard surgery is associated with a considerable local failure rate and severe disturbance of the patients' body image. Vulvar field resection (VFR) is based on ontogenetic anatomy and on the concept of local tumor spread within permissive compartments. VFR combined with anatomical reconstruction (AR) is proposed as a new surgical approach to the treatment of vulvar cancer. A prospective trial was launched to test the compartment theory for vulvar cancer and to assess safety and effectiveness of the new therapy. In 54 consecutive patients 46 tumors were locally confined to the tissue compartment differentiated from the vulvar anlage. The 8 tumors having transgressed into adjacent tissue compartments of different embryonic origins exhibited signs of advanced malignant progression. 38 patients with vulvar cancer, stages T1-3 were treated with VFR and AR. The perioperative complication rate was low. At 19 (3-50) months follow-up no patient failed locally. 33 patients estimated their body image as undisturbed. Vulvar cancer permeates within ontogenetic tissue compartments and surgical treatment with VFR and AR appears to be safe and effective. Patients should benefit from the new approach as local tumor control is high and the preserved tissue can be successfully used for restoration of vulvar form and function. Confirmatory trials with more patients and longer follow-up are suggested. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy in developing countries: a comparison of surgical and oncologic outcomes between a comprehensive cancer center in the United States and a cancer center in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Rene; Nick, Alpa M; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Frumovitz, Michael; Soliman, Pamela T; Buitrago, Carlos A; Borrero, Mauricio; Angel, Gonzalo; Reis, Ricardo Dos; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2012-05-01

    To help determine whether global collaborations for prospective gynecologic surgery trials should include hospitals in developing countries, we compared surgical and oncologic outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic radical hysterectomy at a large comprehensive cancer center in the United States and a cancer center in Colombia. Records of the first 50 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic radical hysterectomy at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston (between April 2004 and July 2007) and the first 50 consecutive patients who underwent the same procedure at the Instituto de Cancerología-Clínica las Américas in Medellín (between December 2008 and October 2010) were retrospectively reviewed. Surgical and oncologic outcomes were compared between the 2 groups. There was no significant difference in median patient age (US 41.9 years [range 23-73] vs. Colombia 44.5 years [range 24-75], P=0.09). Patients in Colombia had a lower median body mass index than patients in the US (24.4 kg/m(2) vs. 28.7 kg/m(2), P=0.002). Compared to patients treated in Colombia, patients who underwent surgery in the US had a greater median estimated blood loss (200 mL vs. 79 mL, P<0.001), longer median operative time (328.5 min vs. 235 min, P<0.001), and longer postoperative hospital stay (2 days vs. 1 day, P<0.001). Surgical and oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy were not worse at a cancer center in a developing country than at a large comprehensive cancer center in the United States. These results support consideration of developing countries for inclusion in collaborations for prospective surgical studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative Effectiveness of Surgical Treatments for Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Analysis of Postoperative Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, William T.; Elkin, Elena B.; Jacks, Lindsay M.; Yee, David S.; Jang, Thomas L.; Laudone, Vincent P.; Guillonneau, Bertrand D.; Scardino, Peter T.; Eastham, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Enthusiasm for laparoscopic surgical approaches to prostate cancer treatment has grown, despite limited evidence of improved outcomes compared with open radical prostatectomy. We compared laparoscopic (with or without robotic assistance) versus open radical prostatectomy in terms of postoperative outcomes and subsequent cancer-directed therapy. Materials and Methods Using a population-based cancer registry linked with Medicare claims, we identified men age 66 or older with localized prostate cancer who received a radical prostatectomy from 2003-2005. Outcome measures were general medical/surgical complications and mortality within 90 days following surgery; genitourinary/bowel complications within 365 days; receipt of radiation therapy, androgen deprivation therapy or both within 365 days; length of hospital stay. Results Of the 5,923 men,18% received a laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Adjusting for patient and tumor characteristics, there were no differences in rates of general medical/surgical complications (OR 0.93; 95% CI: 0.77-1.14) or genitourinary/bowel complications (OR 0.96; 95% CI: 0.76-1.22) or in the use of postoperative radiation, androgen deprivation or both (OR 0.80; 95% CI: 0.60-1.08). Laparoscopic prostatectomy was associated with a 35% shorter hospital stay (p<0.0001) and a lower rate of bladder neck/urethral obstruction (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.58-0.94). In laparoscopic patients, surgeon volume was inversely associated with length of hospital stay and the odds of any genitourinary/bowel complication. Conclusions Laparoscopic and open radical prostatectomy have similar rates of postoperative morbidity and use of additional treatment. Men considering prostate cancer surgery should understand the expected benefits and risks of each technique to facilitate decision-making and to set realistic expectations. PMID:20188381

  6. Radical Evil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manrique

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an aporia in Kant’s analysis of evil: he defines radical evilas an invisible disposition of the will, but he also demands an inferential connection between visible evil actions and this invisible disposition. This inference,however, undermines the radical invisibility of radical evil according to Kant’s own definition of the latter. Noting how this invisibility of moral worth is a distinctive feature of Kant’s approach to the moral problem, the paper then asks why, in the Groundwork, he nonetheless forecloses a question about evil that seems to be consistent with this approach. It is argued that to account for this aporia and this foreclosure, one has to interrogate the way in which the category of religion orients Kant’s incipient philosophy of history in Die Religion.

  7. Recent trends in surgical and reconstructive management of vulvar cancer: review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni; Valenti, Gaetano; Biondi, Antonio; Rossetti, Diego; Frigerio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Vulvar cancer (VC) is a rare disease. The most common histologic type is squamous-cell carcinoma. VC could be divided into two types: type one, commonly associated with HPV infection, occurs in young women and type two, associated with non-neoplastic lesions that usually occurs in older women. Previously VC was often treated with radical Vulvectomy. Today update in diagnostic and surgery technique, capable to identify early stages of disease and adaptation in surgery procedures, according to the stage of disease, age of patients and possible physical and psychological morbidity consequence, allow using less radical surgery approaches. That has led to decrease therapy-associated morbidity while preserving oncologic safety and improving psychosexual outcomes. Finally, several surgical treatments are available in case of VC and, despite radical surgery is often required, less radical surgery associated with reconstructive plastic surgery decreases some of short- and long-term associated complications.

  8. Comparative effectiveness of prostate cancer surgical treatments: a population based analysis of postoperative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, William T; Elkin, Elena B; Jacks, Lindsay M; Yee, David S; Jang, Thomas L; Laudone, Vincent P; Guillonneau, Bertrand D; Scardino, Peter T; Eastham, James A

    2010-04-01

    Enthusiasm for laparoscopic surgical approaches to prostate cancer treatment has grown despite limited evidence of improved outcomes compared with open radical prostatectomy. We compared laparoscopic prostatectomy with or without robotic assistance vs open radical prostatectomy in terms of postoperative outcomes and subsequent cancer directed therapy. Using a population based cancer registry linked with Medicare claims we identified men 66 years old or older with localized prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy from 2003 to 2005. Outcome measures were general medical/surgical complications and mortality within 90 days after surgery, genitourinary/bowel complications within 365 days, radiation therapy and/or androgen deprivation therapy within 365 days and length of hospital stay. Of the 5,923 men 18% underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Adjusting for patient and tumor characteristics, there were no differences in the rate of general medical/surgical complications (OR 0.93 95% CI 0.77-1.14) or genitourinary/bowel complications (OR 0.96 95% CI 0.76-1.22), or in postoperative radiation and/or androgen deprivation (OR 0.80 95% CI 0.60-1.08). Laparoscopic prostatectomy was associated with a 35% shorter hospital stay (p <0.0001) and a lower bladder neck/urethral obstruction rate (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.94). In laparoscopic cases surgeon volume was inversely associated with hospital stay and the odds of any genitourinary/bowel complication. Laparoscopic prostatectomy and open radical prostatectomy have similar rates of postoperative morbidity and additional treatment. Men considering prostate cancer surgery should understand the expected benefits and risks of each technique to facilitate decision making and set realistic expectations. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Temporal trends and predictors of pelvic lymph node dissection in open or minimally invasive radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifer, Andrew H; Elkin, Elena B; Lowrance, William T; Denton, Brian; Jacks, Lindsay; Yee, David S; Coleman, Jonathan A; Laudone, Vincent P; Scardino, Peter T; Eastham, James A

    2011-09-01

    Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) is an important component of prostate cancer staging and treatment, especially for surgical patients who have high-risk tumor features. It is not clear how the shift from open radical prostatectomy (ORP) to minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (MIRP) has affected the use of PLND. The objectives of this study were to identify predictors of PLND and to assess the impact of surgical technique in a contemporary, population-based cohort. In Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry data linked with Medicare claims, the authors identified men who underwent ORP or MIRP for prostate cancer during 2003 to 2007. The impact of surgical approach on PLND was evaluated, and interactions were examined between surgical procedure, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and Gleason score with the analysis controlled for patient and tumor characteristics. Of 6608 men who underwent ORP or MIRP, 70% (n = 4600) underwent PLND. The use of PLND declined over time both overall and within subgroups defined by procedure type. PLND was 5 times more likely in men who underwent ORP than in men who underwent MIRP when the analysis was controlled for patient and tumor characteristics. Elevated PSA and biopsy Gleason score, but not clinical stage, were associated with a greater odds of PLND in both the ORP group and the MIRP group. However, the magnitude of the association between these factors and PLND was significantly greater for patients in the ORP group. PLND was less common among men who underwent MIRP, independent of tumor risk factors. A decline in PLND rates was not fully explained by an increase in MIRP. The authors concluded that these trends may signal a surgical approach-dependent disparity in prostate cancer staging and therapy. Cancer 2011 © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  10. Initial consecutive 125 cases of robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy performed in Ireland's first robotic radical prostatectomy centre.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bouchier-Hayes, D M

    2012-03-01

    We examined the patient characteristics, operative proceedings and the outcomes of the initial series of 125 cases of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) in an independent hospital in Ireland, performed by two surgeons using the da Vinci(®) surgical system.

  11. Duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction after radical resection of Bismuth IIIa hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Guang; Gu, Jun; Dong, Ping; Lu, Jian-Hua; Li, Mao-Lan; Wu, Xiang-Song; Yang, Jia-Hua; Zhang, Lin; Ding, Qi-Chen; Weng, Hao; Ding, Qian; Liu, Ying-Bin

    2013-04-21

    At present, radical resection remains the only effective treatment for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The surgical approach for R0 resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma is complex and diverse, but for the biliary reconstruction after resection, almost all surgeons use Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. A viable alternative to Roux-en-Y reconstruction after radical resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma has not yet been proposed. We report a case of performing duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction after radical resection of Bismuth IIIa hilar cholangiocarcinoma. End-to-end anastomosis between the left hepatic duct and the distal common bile duct was used for the biliary reconstruction, and a single-layer continuous suture was performed along the bile duct using 5-0 prolene. The patient was discharged favorably without biliary fistula 2 wk later. Evidence for tumor recurrence was not found after an 18 mo follow-up. Performing bile duct end-to-end anastomosis in hilar cholangiocarcinoma can simplify the complex digestive tract reconstruction process.

  12. Erectile dysfunction in robotic radical prostatectomy: Outcomes and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Whelan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP has emerged as the most common treatment for localized prostate cancer. With improved surgical precision, RALP has produced hope of improved potency rates, especially with the advent of nerve-sparing and other modified techniques. However, erectile dysfunction (ED remains a significant problem for many men regardless of surgical technique. To identify the functional outcomes of robotic versus open and laparoscopic techniques, new robotic surgical techniques and current treatment options of ED following RALP. A Medline search was performed in March 2014 to identify studies comparing RALP with open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, modified RALP techniques and treatment options and management for ED following radical prostatectomy. RALP demonstrates adequate potency rates without compromising oncologic benefit, with observed benefit for potency rates compared with RRP. Additionally, specific surgical technical modifications appear to provide benefit over traditional RALP. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5I demonstrate benefit for ED treatment compared with placebo. However, long-term benefit is often lost after use. Other therapies have been less extensively studied. Additionally, correct patient identification is important for greatest clinical benefit. RALP appears to provide beneficial potency rates compared with RRP; however, these effects are most pronounced at high-volume centers with experienced surgeons. No optimal rehabilitation program with PDE5Is has been identified based on current data. Additionally, vacuum erection devices, intracavernosal injections and other techniques have not been well validated for post RALP ED treatment.

  13. Approaching time is important for assessment of endoscopic surgical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Masakazu; Egi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Minoru; Yoshimitsu, Masanori; Sumitani, Daisuke; Kawahara, Tomohiro; Okajima, Masazumi; Ohdan, Hideki

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to verify whether the approaching time (the time taken to reach the target point from another point, a short distance apart, during point-to-point movement in endoscopic surgery), assessed using the Hiroshima University Endoscopic Surgical Assessment Device (HUESAD), could distinguish the skill level of surgeons. Expert surgeons (who had performed more than 50 endoscopic surgeries) and novice surgeons (who had no experience in performing endoscopic surgery) were tested using the HUESAD. The approaching time, total time, and intermediate time (total time--approaching time) were measured and analyzed using the trajectory of the tip of the instrument. The approaching time and total time were significantly shorter in the expert group than in the novice group (p time did not significantly differ between the groups (p > 0.05). The approaching time, which is a component of the total time, is very mportant in the measurement of the total time to assess endoscopic surgical skills. Further, the approaching time was useful for skill assessment by the HUESAD for evaluating the skill of surgeons performing endoscopic surgery.

  14. A low morbidity surgical approach to the sheep femoral trochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orth Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ovine stifle joint is an important location for investigations on the repair of articular cartilage defects in preclinical large animals. The classical medial parapatellar approach to the femoral trochlea is hazardous because of the high risk of postoperative patellar luxation. Here, we describe a low morbidity surgical exposure of the ovine trochlea without the necessity for intraoperative patellar luxation. Methods Bilateral surgical exposure of the femoral trochlea of the sheep stifle joint was performed using the classical medial parapatellar approach with intraoperative lateral patellar luxation and transection of the medial patellar retinaculum in 28 ovine stifle joints. A low morbidity approach was performed bilaterally in 116 joints through a mini-arthrotomy without the need to transect the medial patellar retinaculum or the oblique medial vastus muscle nor surgical patellar luxation. Postoperatively, all 72 animals were monitored to exclude patellar luxations and deep wound infections. Results The novel approach could be performed easily in all joints and safely exposed the distal two-thirds of the medial and lateral trochlear facet. No postoperative patellar luxations were observed compared to a postoperative patellar luxation rate of 25% experienced with the classical medial parapatellar approach and a re-luxation rate of 80% following revision surgery. No signs of lameness, wound infections, or empyema were observed for both approaches. Conclusions The mini-arthrotomy presented here yields good exposure of the distal ovine femoral trochlea with a lower postoperative morbidity than the classical medial parapatellar approach. It is therefore suitable to create articular cartilage defects on the femoral trochlea without the risk of postoperative patellar luxation.

  15. Impact of complete bladder neck preservation on urinary continence, quality of life and surgical margins after radical prostatectomy: a randomized, controlled, single blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarangi-Dix, Joanne N; Radtke, Jan Philipp; Hadaschik, Boris; Pahernik, Sascha; Hohenfellner, Markus

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the influence of bladder neck preservation on urinary continence, quality of life and surgical margins after radical prostatectomy. A total of 208 men who presented for radical prostatectomy were randomized to complete bladder neck preservation with subsequent urethro-urethral anastomosis or to no preservation as controls. Patients with failed bladder neck preservation were not included in study. We documented objective continence by the 24-hour pad test, social continence by the number of pads per day and quality of life outcomes by the validated Incontinence Quality of Life questionnaire in a single blind setting. Cancer resection was assessed by surgical margin status. At 0, 3, 6 and 12 months mean urine loss in the control vs the bladder neck preservation group was 713.3 vs 237.0, 49.6 vs 15.6, 44.4 vs 5.5 and 25.4 vs 3.1 gm, respectively (each p <0.001). At 3, 6 and 12 months in the control vs the preservation group the social continence rate was 55.3% vs 84.2% (p <0.001), 74.8% vs 89.5% (p = 0.05) and 81.4% vs 94.7% (p = 0.027), and the quality of life score was 80.4 vs 90.3 (p <0.001), 85.4 vs 91.7 (p = 0.016) and 86.0 vs 93.8 (p = 0.001), respectively. We noted significantly less urine loss, higher objective and social continence rates, and higher quality of life scores after complete bladder neck preservation at all followup points. On multiple logistic regression analysis complete bladder neck preservation was an independent positive predictor of continence. No significant difference was found in surgical margin status between the control and bladder neck preservation groups (12.5% vs 14.7%, p = 0.65). In what is to our knowledge the first prospective, randomized, controlled, single blind trial complete bladder neck preservation during radical prostatectomy was associated with a significantly higher urinary continence rate and increased patient satisfaction without compromising resection margins. Copyright © 2013 American Urological

  16. Surgical approach to giant aneurysms of the anterior circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giombini, S; Solero, C L; Ferraresi, S; Melcarne, A; Broggi, G; Pluchino, F

    1988-01-01

    The surgical approach to cerebral giant aneurysms is still a source of great concern. We describe our experience with giant aneurysms of the anterior circulation and discuss the different surgical techniques adopted. During the period January 1972-December 1985, a total of 33 patients were operated upon at the Istituto Neurologico "C. Besta" of Milan for a giant aneurysm of the anterior circulation. Nineteen cases had suffered subarachnoid haemorrhage before admission; in 14 cases the hospitalization was due to evidence of mass effect on the surrounding neurovascular structures. All aneurysms were directly approached: in 24 cases the neck was occluded by a suitable clip, in 4 cases intramural thrombosis was attempted, in 3 cases the aneurysms were definitively trapped and in one case aneurysmorrhaphy was performed after resection of the sac. Operative mortality was 12%. Long-term follow-up shows good results whenever exclusion of the aneurysm from cerebral circulation had been achieved, either after removal of the sac or not; on the contrary, only fair or poor results were evident when other surgical techniques were adopted, either electively or out of necessity. The importance of intraoperative protection and monitoring of brain function is stressed.

  17. Robotic radical cystectomy and intracorporeal urinary diversion: The USC technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Andre Luis de Castro; Chopra, Sameer; Azhar, Raed A; Berger, Andre K; Miranda, Gus; Cai, Jie; Gill, Inderbir S; Aron, Monish; Desai, Mihir M

    2014-07-01

    Radical cystectomy is the gold-standard treatment for muscle-invasive and refractory nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer. We describe our technique for robotic radical cystectomy (RRC) and intracorporeal urinary diversion (ICUD), that replicates open surgical principles, and present our preliminary results. Specific descriptions for preoperative planning, surgical technique, and postoperative care are provided. Demographics, perioperative and 30-day complications data were collected prospectively and retrospectively analyzed. Learning curve trends were analyzed individually for ileal conduits (IC) and neobladders (NB). SAS(®) Software Version 9.3 was used for statistical analyses with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. Between July 2010 and September 2013, RRC and lymph node dissection with ICUD were performed in 103 consecutive patients (orthotopic NB=46, IC 57). All procedures were completed robotically replicating the open surgical principles. The learning curve trends showed a significant reduction in hospital stay for both IC (11 vs. 6-day, P < 0.01) and orthotopic NB (13 vs. 7.5-day, P < 0.01) when comparing the first third of the cohort with the rest of the group. Overall median (range) operative time and estimated blood loss was 7 h (4.8-13) and 200 mL (50-1200), respectively. Within 30-day postoperatively, complications occurred in 61 (59%) patients, with the majority being low grade (n = 43), and no patient died. Median (range) nodes yield was 36 (0-106) and 4 (3.9%) specimens had positive surgical margins. Robotic radical cystectomy with totally ICUD is safe and feasible. It can be performed using the established open surgical principles with encouraging perioperative outcomes.

  18. MR imaging of soft tissue alterations after total hip arthroplasty: comparison of classic surgical approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agten, Christoph A.; Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A. [Balgrist University Hospital, Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Dora, Claudio [Balgrist University Hospital, Orthopedic Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-03-15

    To compare soft-tissue changes after total hip arthroplasty with posterior, direct-lateral, anterolateral, or anterior surgical approaches. MRI of 120 patients after primary total hip arthroplasty (30 per approach) were included. Each MRI was assessed by two readers regarding identification of surgical access, fatty muscle atrophy (Goutallier classification), tendon quality (0 = normal, 1 = tendinopathy, 2 = partial tear, 3 = avulsion), and fluid collections. Readers were blinded to the surgical approach. Surgical access was correctly identified in all cases. The direct lateral approach showed highest Goutallier grades and tendon damage for gluteus minimus muscle (2.07-2.67 and 2.00-2.77; p = 0.017 and p = 0.001 for readers 1 and 2, respectively) and tendon (2.30/1.67; p < 0.0005 for reader 1/2), and the lateral portion of the gluteus medius tendon (2.77/2.20; p < 0.0005 for reader 1/2). The posterior approach showed highest Goutallier grades and tendon damage for external rotator muscles (1.97-2.67 and 1.57-2.40; p < 0.0005-0.006 for reader 1/2) and tendons (1.41-2.45 and 1.93-2.76; p < 0.0005 for reader 1/2). The anterolateral and anterior approach showed less soft tissue damage. Fluid collections showed no differences between the approaches. MRI is well suited to identify surgical approaches after THA. The anterior and anterolateral approach showed less soft tissue damage compared to the posterior and direct lateral approach. (orig.)

  19. MR imaging of soft tissue alterations after total hip arthroplasty: comparison of classic surgical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agten, Christoph A.; Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Dora, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    To compare soft-tissue changes after total hip arthroplasty with posterior, direct-lateral, anterolateral, or anterior surgical approaches. MRI of 120 patients after primary total hip arthroplasty (30 per approach) were included. Each MRI was assessed by two readers regarding identification of surgical access, fatty muscle atrophy (Goutallier classification), tendon quality (0 = normal, 1 = tendinopathy, 2 = partial tear, 3 = avulsion), and fluid collections. Readers were blinded to the surgical approach. Surgical access was correctly identified in all cases. The direct lateral approach showed highest Goutallier grades and tendon damage for gluteus minimus muscle (2.07-2.67 and 2.00-2.77; p = 0.017 and p = 0.001 for readers 1 and 2, respectively) and tendon (2.30/1.67; p < 0.0005 for reader 1/2), and the lateral portion of the gluteus medius tendon (2.77/2.20; p < 0.0005 for reader 1/2). The posterior approach showed highest Goutallier grades and tendon damage for external rotator muscles (1.97-2.67 and 1.57-2.40; p < 0.0005-0.006 for reader 1/2) and tendons (1.41-2.45 and 1.93-2.76; p < 0.0005 for reader 1/2). The anterolateral and anterior approach showed less soft tissue damage. Fluid collections showed no differences between the approaches. MRI is well suited to identify surgical approaches after THA. The anterior and anterolateral approach showed less soft tissue damage compared to the posterior and direct lateral approach. (orig.)

  20. The trans-frontal-sinus subcranial approach for removal of large olfactory groove meningiomas: surgical technique and comparison to other approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boari, Nicola; Gagliardi, Filippo; Roberti, Fabio; Barzaghi, Lina Raffaella; Caputy, Anthony J; Mortini, Pietro

    2013-05-01

    Several surgical approaches have been previously reported for the treatment of olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM).The trans-frontal-sinus subcranial approach (TFSSA) for the removal of large OGMs is described, comparing it with other reported approaches in terms of advantages and drawbacks. The TFSSA was performed on cadaveric specimens to illustrate the surgical technique. The surgical steps of the TFSSA and the related anatomical pictures are reported. The approach was adopted in a clinical setting; a case illustration is reported to demonstrate the feasibility of the described approach and to provide intraoperative pictures. The TFSSA represents a possible route to treat large OGMs. The subcranial approach provides early devascularization of the tumor, direct tumor access from the base without traction on the frontal lobes, good overview of dissection of the optic nerves and anterior cerebral arteries, and dural reconstruction with pedicled pericranial flap. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Radical approach to Odontogenic Keratocyst - report of two cases

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    Rajshekhar Halli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The odontogenic keratocyst has been the subject of great interest ever since Philipsen introduced the term in 1956. Investigations continue into the lesion′s pathologic classification, diagnosis and biologic behavior. Considerable controversy exists regarding the proper management of these lesions - conservative or aggressive?. Here we report two cases of large odontogenic keratocysts of the mandible which were treated by aggressive surgical approach.

  2. Guest Editorial: Processes of Radicalization and De-Radicalization

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    Donatella Della Porta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of radicalization and de-radicalization, understood as processes leading towards the increased or decreased use of political violence, is central to the question of how political violence emerges, how it can be prevented, and how it can be contained. The focus section of this issue of the International Journal of Conflict and Violence addresses radicalization and de-radicalization, seeking to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the processes, dynamics, and mechanisms involved and taking an interdisciplinary approach to overcome the fragmentation into separate disciplines and focus areas. Contributions by Pénélope Larzillière, Felix Heiduk, Bill Kissane, Hank Johnston, Christian Davenport and Cyanne Loyle, Veronique Dudouet, and Lasse Lindekilde address repressive settings, legitimacy, institutional aspects, organizational outcomes, and dynamics in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North and South America.

  3. Post-surgical rehabilitative approach to fragility fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimigliano, F; Iolascon, G; Riccio, I; Frizzi, L; Gimigliano, R

    2013-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength predisposing to an increased risk of fracture. The most frequent sites of fragility fractures are the hip, the distal radius, the spine, the proximal humerus, and the ankle. In most cases, a surgical approach with subsequent rehabilitative treatment is required. The general aims of rehabilitation are to increase functioning and improve patients' activities, participation level, and quality of life.

  4. Youth De-Radicalization: A Canadian Framework

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    Hafal (Haval Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Youth radicalization leading to violence has become a growing fear among Canadians, as terrorist attacks are carried out in Western states. Although Canada has suffered relatively fewer acts of violence, this fear has intensified and a de-radicalization strategy is needed in the Canadian context. In a qualitative case study methodology, interviews were conducted with school counsellors, religious leaders, and academics to explore solutions to youth radicalization. Youth de-radicalization approaches from the United Kingdom were analyzed and found that community-based initiatives were missing from programming. Social identity theory is used to explain that youth join radicalized groups to feel a sense of belonging and have to be provided an alternative and moderate group identity to de-radicalize. This study found youth de-radicalization in Canada is best served through a community collaboration approach.

  5. Isolated volar surgical approach for the treatment of perilunate and lunate dislocations

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    Hakan Basar

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The clinical and radiological results of the isolated volar surgical approach were satisfactory. The dorsal approach was not needed for reduction of dislocations during operations. Our results showed that an isolated volar approach was adequate.

  6. Review article: Surgical approaches for correction of post-tubercular kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchmatia, Jaykar R; Lenke, Lawrence G; Molloy, Sean; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Kebaish, Khaled M

    2015-12-01

    This study reviewed the literature regarding the pros and cons of various surgical approaches (anterior, anterolateral, combined, and posterior) for correction of post-tubercular kyphosis. The anterior and anterolateral approaches are effective in improving neurological deficit but not in correcting kyphosis. The combined anterior and posterior approach and the posterior approach combined with 3-column osteotomy achieve good neurological improvement and kyphosis correction. The latter is superior when expertise and facilities are available.

  7. Discordance between location of positive cores in biopsy and location of positive surgical margin following radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Won; Park, Hyoung Keun; Kim, Hyeong Gon; Ham, Dong Yeub; Paick, Sung Hyun; Lho, Yong Soo; Choi, Woo Suk

    2015-10-01

    We compared location of positive cores in biopsy and location of positive surgical margin (PSM) following radical prostatectomy. This retrospective analysis included patients who were diagnosed as prostate cancer by standard 12-core transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy, and who have PSM after radical prostatectomy. After exclusion of number of biopsy cores location data, 46 patients with PSM were identified. Locations of PSM in pathologic specimen were reported as 6 difference sites (apex, base and lateral in both sides). Discordance of biopsy result and PSM was defined when no positive cores in biopsy was identified at the location of PSM. Most common location of PSM were right apex (n=21) and left apex (n=15). Multiple PSM was reported in 21 specimens (45.7%). In 32 specimens (69.6%) with PSM, one or more concordant positive biopsy cores were identified, but 14 specimens (28%) had no concordant biopsy cores at PSM location. When discordant rate was separated by locations of PSM, right apex PSM had highest rate of discordant (38%). The discordant group had significantly lower prostate volume and lower number of positive cores in biopsy than concordant group. This study showed that one fourth of PSM occurred at location where tumor was not detected at biopsy and that apex PSM had highest rate of discordant. Careful dissection to avoid PSM should be performed in every location, including where tumor was not identified in biopsy.

  8. Indirect lateral surgical approach modified in hip arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Pedro Antonio; Arbelaez, William Rafael

    2006-01-01

    The authors show an another option to the surgical approach to the hip, a lateral indirect modified (ALIM) for the partial or total arthroplasty of primary hip replacement and for revision (RTC), in a retrospective study, series of cases, with average was 7,75 years of follow up (range 6 months-10 years); quick access, easy technically, provide a good orientation of the components of the placement of implants, and allow an excellent exhibition for the complex problems of the reconstruction of the acetabular and the femur. Leaves intact the greater trochanter, improving the rotational stability that is needed in its femoral implant, doesn't injured the gluteus medius and doesn't produces his deficit, reduce the time for the deambulation. This approach is designed for primary cases and complex cases of revision using the mini-incision, with better exposition and less morbid-mortality associated to the surgical technique due to the less bleeding, less incidence of dislocation, thromboembolism and infection because of the little damage and better control of the surrounding soft tissue; better stability, no paralysis or lesion of the sciatic or femoral nerve without incidence of heterotopic ossifications with a better range of external rotation in extension of the hip that with traditional approach of Hardinge, and greater versatility in its indications

  9. Surgical, oncological, and obstetrical outcomes after abdominal radical trachelectomy - a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, René; Rendón, Gabriel J; Sanz-Lomana, Carlos Millán; Monzón, Otto; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2013-10-01

    Radical trachelectomy is a standard treatment for selected patients with early-stage cervical cancer. Outcomes are well established for vaginal radical trachelectomy (VRT), but not for abdominal radical trachelectomy (ART). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL (October 1997 through October 2012) using the terms: uterine cervix neoplasms, cervical cancer, abdominal radical trachelectomy, vaginal radical trachelectomy, fertility sparing, and fertility preservation. We included original articles, case series, and case reports. Excluded were review articles, articles with duplicate patient information, and articles not in English. We identified 485 patients. Ages ranged from 6 to 44 years. The most common stage was IB1 (331/464; 71%), and the most common histologic subtype was squamous cell carcinoma (330/470; 70%). Operative times ranged from 110 to 586 min. Blood loss ranged from 50 to 5568 mL. Three intraoperative complications were reported. Forty-seven patients (10%) had conversion to radical hysterectomy. One hundred fifty-five patients (35%) had a postoperative complication. The most frequent postoperative complication was cervical stenosis (n=42; 9.5%). The median follow-up time was 31.6 months (range, 1-124). Sixteen patients (3.8%) had disease recurrence. Two patients (0.4%) died of disease. A total of 413 patients (85%) were able to maintain their fertility. A total of 113 patients (38%) attempted to get pregnant, and 67 of them (59.3%) were able to conceive. ART is a safe treatment option in patients with early-stage cervical cancer interested in preserving fertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors predicting early return of continence after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Jaspreet S; Eastham, James A

    2010-05-01

    Success of radical prostatectomy is measured by control of cancer and return of urinary and sexual function. Urinary incontinence is generally considered the greatest impairment in immediate postoperative urinary function. Multiple factors are associated with earlier return of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy. These factors can be divided into those known prior to surgery, and therefore possibly not modifiable, and factors that can be controlled during surgery or surgical planning. In addition, various postoperative maneuvers can help hasten urinary continence. This article examines the effect of known factors related to early return of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy.

  11. Radical treatment of extensive nevoid hyperkeratosis of the areola and breast with surgical excision after mild response to topical agents: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Tocco-Tussardi, MD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Indications for surgical treatment of NHNA can be: unsatisfying response to topical agents; young patients who want to restore the aesthetic appearance of the breast; and patients with concomitant indication for corrective surgery of the breast. Advantages are: predictable time of healing; predictable final result; radical excision of the affected tissue; and possibility of histologic analysis of the whole areola. In rare cases of lesions extending to the breast, preliminary treatment with topical agents can limit the extent of excision. Management and treatment should always be tailor-made for each individual case.

  12. Robotic radical cystectomy and intracorporeal urinary diversion: The USC technique

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    Andre Luis de Castro Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radical cystectomy is the gold-standard treatment for muscle-invasive and refractory nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer. We describe our technique for robotic radical cystectomy (RRC and intracorporeal urinary diversion (ICUD, that replicates open surgical principles, and present our preliminary results. Materials and Methods: Specific descriptions for preoperative planning, surgical technique, and postoperative care are provided. Demographics, perioperative and 30-day complications data were collected prospectively and retrospectively analyzed. Learning curve trends were analyzed individually for ileal conduits (IC and neobladders (NB. SAS ® Software Version 9.3 was used for statistical analyses with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. Results: Between July 2010 and September 2013, RRC and lymph node dissection with ICUD were performed in 103 consecutive patients (orthotopic NB=46, IC 57. All procedures were completed robotically replicating the open surgical principles. The learning curve trends showed a significant reduction in hospital stay for both IC (11 vs. 6-day, P < 0.01 and orthotopic NB (13 vs. 7.5-day, P < 0.01 when comparing the first third of the cohort with the rest of the group. Overall median (range operative time and estimated blood loss was 7 h (4.8-13 and 200 mL (50-1200, respectively. Within 30-day postoperatively, complications occurred in 61 (59% patients, with the majority being low grade (n = 43, and no patient died. Median (range nodes yield was 36 (0-106 and 4 (3.9% specimens had positive surgical margins. Conclusions: Robotic radical cystectomy with totally ICUD is safe and feasible. It can be performed using the established open surgical principles with encouraging perioperative outcomes.

  13. The Efficacy and Utilisation of Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Robot-assisted Radical Prostatectomy: Does it Change the Surgical Dissection Plan? A Preliminary Report

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    Hasan Hüseyin Tavukçu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated the effect of prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI on the dissection plan of the neurovascular bundle and the oncological results of our patients who underwent robotic radical prostatectomy operation. Materials and Methods: We prospectively evaluated 30 consecutive patients, 15 of whom had prostate MRI before the operation, and 15 of whom did not. With the findings of MRI, the dissection plan was changed as intrafascial, interfascial, and extrafascial technique in the MRI group. Two groups were compared in terms of age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA, and Gleason scores (GSs. Surgical margin status was also checked with the final pathology. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, PSA, biopsy GS, and final pathological GS. MRI changed the initial surgical plan to a nerve-sparing technique in 7 of the 15 patients. Only one patient in the MRI group had a positive surgical margin on bladder neck. MRI was confirmed as the primary tumour localisation in the final pathology in 93.3% of patients. Conclusion: Preoperative prostate MRI influenced the decision to carry out a nerve-sparing technique in 46% of the patients in our study; however, the change to a nerve-sparing technique did not seem to compromise the surgical margin positivity.

  14. Endoscopic or surgical step-up approach for infected necrotising pancreatitis: a multicentre randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brunschot, Sandra; van Grinsven, Janneke; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Bakker, Olaf J; Besselink, Marc G; Boermeester, Marja A; Bollen, Thomas L; Bosscha, Koop; Bouwense, Stefan A; Bruno, Marco J; Cappendijk, Vincent C; Consten, Esther C; Dejong, Cornelis H; van Eijck, Casper H; Erkelens, Willemien G; van Goor, Harry; van Grevenstein, Wilhelmina M U; Haveman, Jan-Willem; Hofker, Sijbrand H; Jansen, Jeroen M; Laméris, Johan S; van Lienden, Krijn P; Meijssen, Maarten A; Mulder, Chris J; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B; Poley, Jan-Werner; Quispel, Rutger; de Ridder, Rogier J; Römkens, Tessa E; Scheepers, Joris J; Schepers, Nicolien J; Schwartz, Matthijs P; Seerden, Tom; Spanier, B W Marcel; Straathof, Jan Willem A; Strijker, Marin; Timmer, Robin; Venneman, Niels G; Vleggaar, Frank P; Voermans, Rogier P; Witteman, Ben J; Gooszen, Hein G; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G; Fockens, Paul

    2018-01-06

    Infected necrotising pancreatitis is a potentially lethal disease and an indication for invasive intervention. The surgical step-up approach is the standard treatment. A promising alternative is the endoscopic step-up approach. We compared both approaches to see whether the endoscopic step-up approach was superior to the surgical step-up approach in terms of clinical and economic outcomes. In this multicentre, randomised, superiority trial, we recruited adult patients with infected necrotising pancreatitis and an indication for invasive intervention from 19 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients were randomly assigned to either the endoscopic or the surgical step-up approach. The endoscopic approach consisted of endoscopic ultrasound-guided transluminal drainage followed, if necessary, by endoscopic necrosectomy. The surgical approach consisted of percutaneous catheter drainage followed, if necessary, by video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement. The primary endpoint was a composite of major complications or death during 6-month follow-up. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN09186711. Between Sept 20, 2011, and Jan 29, 2015, we screened 418 patients with pancreatic or extrapancreatic necrosis, of which 98 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the endoscopic step-up approach (n=51) or the surgical step-up approach (n=47). The primary endpoint occurred in 22 (43%) of 51 patients in the endoscopy group and in 21 (45%) of 47 patients in the surgery group (risk ratio [RR] 0·97, 95% CI 0·62-1·51; p=0·88). Mortality did not differ between groups (nine [18%] patients in the endoscopy group vs six [13%] patients in the surgery group; RR 1·38, 95% CI 0·53-3·59, p=0·50), nor did any of the major complications included in the primary endpoint. In patients with infected necrotising pancreatitis, the endoscopic step-up approach was not superior to the surgical step-up approach in reducing major

  15. Abdominal and perineal approaches in the surgical treatment of rectal prolapse

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    Mesut Gül

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rectal prolapse is a disease, which is an important cause of social and functional problems and has a continuing debate about the ideal surgical treatment of itself. In this study, we aimed to investigate the abdominal and perineal approaches with early and late postoperative result in the patients undergoing surgery for rectal prolapse.Materials and methods: Between 2006-2011, the records of 21 patients undergoing surgery with the diagnosis of rectal prolapse were reviewed, retrospectively. The demographic and physical examination findings, surgical procedures, early and late postoperative complications, recurrence and mortality rates were recorded.Results: The median age was 43 years and female/male ratio was 1.63/1. The most common presenting complaint was gas control failure and often wetting with mucus. Stage 1 and stage 3 rectal prolapses was detected in 19% and 81% of the patients, respectively. The most common surgical procedure was Notaras (54%. Early postoperative complications were seen in 14.3% of the patients. There were no postoperative recurrence, mortality and complication requiring re-exploration. Advanced age and shorter duration of hospital stay were determined and often performed under regional anesthesia in the patients undergoing perineal approach. No statistical differences were observed in terms of early postoperative complications and recurrence.Conclusion: Results of abdominal and perineal approaches were similar, when they were applied with taking into account the risk factors for surgical treatment, findings of the patients and the surgeon’s experience.

  16. Laparoscopic, robotic and open method of radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer: A systematic review

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    Puliyath Geetha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Over the last two decades, numerous studies have indicated the feasibility of minimally invasive surgery for early cervical cancer without compromising the oncological outcome. Objective : Systematic literature review and meta analysis aimed at evaluating the outcome of laparoscopic and robotic radical hysterectomy (LRH and RRH and comparing the results with abdominal radical hysterectomy (ARH. Search Strategy : Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library and Reference lists were searched for articles published until January 31 st 2011, using the terms radical hysterectomy, laparoscopic radical hysterectomy, robotic radical hysterectomy, surgical treatment of cervical cancer and complications of radical hysterectomy. Selection Criteria : Studies that reported outcome measures of radical hysterectomy by open method, laparoscopic and robotic methods were selected. Data collection and analysis: Two independent reviewers selected studies, abstracted and tabulated the data and pooled estimates were obtained on the surgical and oncological outcomes. Results : Mean sample size, age and body mass index across the three types of RH studies were similar. Mean operation time across the three types of RH studies was comparable. Mean blood loss and transfusion rate are significantly higher in ARH compared to both LRH and RRH. Duration of stay in hospital for RRH was significantly less than the other two methods. The mean number of lymph nodes obtained, nodal metastasis and positive margins across the three types of RH studies were similar. Post operative infectious morbidity was significantly higher among patients who underwent ARH compared to the other two methods and a higher rate of cystotomy in LRH. Conclusions : Minimally invasive surgery especially robotic radical hysterectomy may be a better and safe option for surgical treatment of cervical cancer. The laparoscopic method is not free from complications. However, experience of surgeon may

  17. FUNCTIONAL RESULTS OF ENDOSCOPIC EXTRAPERITONEAL RADICAL INTRAFASCIAL PROSTATECTOMY

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    D. V. Perlin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Endoscopic radical prostatectomy is a highly effective treatment for localized prostate cancer. Intrafascial prostate dissection ensures early recovery of urine continence function and erectile function. This article sums up our own experience of performing intrafascial endoscopic prostatectomy.Materials and methods. 25 patients have undergone this procedure. 12 months after surgery 88.2 % of the patients were fully continent, 11.7 % had symptoms of minimal stress urinary incontinence. We encountered no cases of positive surgical margins and one case of bio-chemical recurrence of the disease.Conclusion. Oncologically, intrafascial endoscopic radical prostatectomy is as effective as other modifications of radical prostatectomy and has the benefits of early recovery of urine continence function and erectile function. 

  18. Role of wound instillation with bupivacaine through surgical drains for postoperative analgesia in modified radical mastectomy

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    Nirmala Jonnavithula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Modified Radical Mastectomy (MRM is the commonly used surgical procedure for operable breast cancer, which involves extensive tissue dissection. Therefore, wound instillation with local anaesthetic may provide better postoperative analgesia than infiltration along the line of incision. We hypothesised that instillation of bupivacaine through chest and axillary drains into the wound may provide postoperative analgesia. Methods: In this prospective randomised controlled study 60 patients aged 45-60 years were divided into three groups. All patients were administered general anaesthesia. At the end of the surgical procedure, axillary and chest wall drains were placed before closure. Group C was the control with no instillation; Group S received 40 ml normal saline, 20 ml through each drain; and Group B received 40 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine and the drains were clamped for 10 min. After extubation, pain score for both static and dynamic pain was evaluated using visual analog scale and then 4 th hourly till 24 h. Rescue analgesia was injection tramadol, if the pain score exceeds 4. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 13. Results : There was a significant difference in the cumulative analgesic requirement and the number of analgesic demands between the groups (P: 0.000. The mean duration of analgesia in the bupivacaine group was 14.6 h, 10.3 in the saline group and 4.3 h in the control group. Conclusion : Wound instillation with local anaesthetics is a simple and effective means of providing good analgesia without any major side-effects.

  19. The surgical treatment of acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchfelder, Michael; Schlaffer, Sven-Martin

    2017-02-01

    Surgical extraction of as much tumour mass as possible is considered the first step of treatment in acromegaly in many centers. In this article the potential benefits, disadvantages and limitations of operative acromegaly treatment are reviewed. Pertinent literature was selected to provide a review covering current indications, techniques and results of operations for acromegaly. The rapid reduction of tumour volume is an asset of surgery. To date, in almost all patients, minimally invasive, transsphenoidal microscopic or endoscopic approaches are employed. Whether a curative approach is feasible or a debulking procedure is planned, can be anticipated on the basis of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. The radicality of adenoma resection essentially depends on localization, size and invasive character of the tumour. The normalization rates of growth hormone and IGF-1 secretion, respectively, depend on tumour-related factors such as size, extension, the presence or absence of invasion and the magnitude of IGF-1 and growth hormone oversecretion. However, also surgeon-related factors such as experience and patient load of the centers have been shown to strongly affect surgical results and the rate of complications. As compared to most medical treatments, surgery is relatively cheap since the costs occur only once and not repeatedly. There are several new technical gadgets which aid in the surgical procedure: navigation and variants of intraoperative imaging. For the mentioned reasons, current algorithms of acromegaly management suggest an initial operation, unless the patients are unfit for surgery, refuse an operation or only an unsatisfactory resection is anticipated. A few suggestions are made when a re-operation could be considered.

  20. Light Reflectance Spectroscopy to Detect Positive Surgical Margins on Prostate Cancer Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Monica S C; Lay, Aaron H; Wang, Xinlong; Kapur, Payal; Ozayar, Asim; Sayah, Maryam; Zeng, Li; Liu, Hanli; Roehrborn, Claus G; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A

    2016-02-01

    Intraoperative frozen section analysis is not routinely performed to determine positive surgical margins at radical prostatectomy due to time requirements and unproven clinical usefulness. Light reflectance spectroscopy, which measures light intensity reflected or backscattered from tissues, can be applied to differentiate malignant from benign tissue. We used a novel light reflectance spectroscopy probe to evaluate positive surgical margins on ex vivo radical prostatectomy specimens and correlate its findings with pathological examination. Patients with intermediate to high risk disease undergoing radical prostatectomy were enrolled. Light reflectance spectroscopy was performed on suspected malignant and benign prostate capsule immediately following organ extraction. Each light reflectance spectroscopy at 530 to 830 nm was analyzed and correlated with pathological results. A regression model and forward sequential selection algorithm were developed for optimal feature selection. Eighty percent of light reflectance spectroscopy data were selected to train a logistic regression model, which was evaluated by the remaining 20% data. This was repeated 5 times to calculate averaged sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Light reflectance spectroscopy analysis was performed on 17 ex vivo prostate specimens, on which a total of 11 histologically positive and 22 negative surgical margins were measured. Two select features from 700 to 830 nm were identified as unique to malignant tissue. Cross-validation when performing the predictive model showed that the optical probe predicted positive surgical margins with 85% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 86% accuracy and an AUC of 0.95. Light reflectance spectroscopy can identify positive surgical margins accurately in fresh ex vivo radical prostatectomy specimens. Further study is required to determine whether such analysis may be used in real time to improve surgical decision making and decrease positive surgical margin rates

  1. Radicalization In Pakistan And The Spread Of Radical Islam In Pakistan

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    Bahir ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is pertinent to mention that radicalism is not intrinsic to Islam and radical interpretations of the religion or for that matter may occur within any way of life and religion Saikal 2003 and yet the question remains as to why Muslims in certain geographical regions have more radical approaches towards their religion and also that what are the causes of such radicalization. Becoming a radical Muslim is not even a matter of a day nor is it a sudden process. There are several reasons behind making a person radical peaceful angry smiling or tolerant. For knowing the reason behind radicalization or radicals persons one has to understand the causes. Tracing these causes is one of the ways to eliminate such behavior. The first step in the elimination of the radical sentiments in a person is to develop peace in his personality Fair Malhotra amp Shapiro 2010. The chapter which has been addressed here is going to shed light on the roots and symptoms of the radicalism. There will be a brief discussion on how the roots of radicalism can be traced and can be eliminated. The assessment and discussion will be conducted on the parameters of the economy media politics and theology from social cultural point of view. According to the analysis of Ahrari 2000 political factor is one of the major and direct factors which have resulted in causing of the radicalism. These factors however intertwine with one another. Radical actions cannot take place only because of the political factors.

  2. Surgical management of spinal intramedullary tumors: radical and safe strategy for benign tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Toshihiro; Naito, Kentaro; Yamagata, Toru; Ohata, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Surgery for spinal intramedullary tumors remains one of the major challenges for neurosurgeons, due to their relative infrequency, unknown natural history, and surgical difficulty. We are sure that safe and precise resection of spinal intramedullary tumors, particularly encapsulated benign tumors, can result in acceptable or satisfactory postoperative outcomes. General surgical concepts and strategies, technical consideration, and functional outcomes after surgery are discussed with illustrative cases of spinal intramedullary benign tumors such as ependymoma, cavernous malformation, and hemangioblastoma. Selection of a posterior median sulcus, posterolateral sulcus, or direct transpial approach was determined based on the preoperative imaging diagnosis and careful inspection of the spinal cord surface. Tumor-cord interface was meticulously delineated in cases of benign encapsulated tumors. Our retrospective functional analysis of 24 consecutive cases of spinal intramedullary ependymoma followed for at least 6 months postoperatively demonstrated a mean grade on the modified McCormick functional schema of 1.8 before surgery, deteriorating significantly to 2.6 early after surgery ( 6 months after surgery). The risk of functional deterioration after surgery should be taken into serious consideration. Functional deterioration after surgery, including neuropathic pain even long after surgery, significantly affects patient quality of life. Better balance between tumor control and functional preservation can be achieved not only by the surgical technique or expertise, but also by intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, vascular image guidance, and postoperative supportive care. Quality of life after surgery should inarguably be given top priority.

  3. Radical prostatectomy and positive surgical margins: tumor volume and Gleason score predicts cancer outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Roca, Ricardo L.R. Felts de; Fonseca, Francisco Paula da; Cunha, Isabela Werneck da; Bezerra, Stephania Martins

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: positive surgical margins (PSMs) are common adverse factors to predict the outcome of a patient submitted to radical prostatectomy (PR). However, not all of these men will follow with biochemical (BCR) or clinical (CR) recurrence. Relationship between PSMs with these recurrent events has to be correlated with other clinicopathological findings in order to recognize more aggressive tumors in order to recommend complementary treatment to these selected patients. Materials and methods: we retrospectively reviewed the outcome of 228 patients submitted to open retropubic RP between March 1991 and June 2008, where 161 had and 67 did not have PSMs. Minimum follow-up time was considered 2 years after surgery. BCR was considered when PSA ≥ 0.2 ng/ml. CR was determined when clinical evidence of tumor appeared. Chi-square test was used to correlate clinical and pathologic variables with PSMs. The estimated 5-year risk of BCR and CR in presence of PSMs was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared to log-rank tests. Results: from the total of 228 patients, 161 (71%) had PSMs, while 67 (29%) had negative surgical margins (NSMs). Prostatic circumferential margin was the most common (43.4%) site. Univariate analysis showed statistically significant (p < 0.001) associations between the presence of PSMs and BCR, but not with CR (p = 0.06). Among 161 patients with PSMs, 61 (37.8%) presented BCR, while 100 (62.8%) did not. Predicting progression-free survival for 5 years, BCR was correlated with pathological stage; Gleason score; pre-treatment PSA; tumor volume in specimen; capsular and perineural invasion; presence and number of PSMs. RC correlated only with angiolymphatic invasion and Gleason score. Considering univariate analyses the clinicopathological factors predicting BCR for 5 years, results statistically significant links with prostate weight; pre-treatment PSA; Gleason score; pathological stage; tumor volume; PSMs; capsular and perineural

  4. Radical prostatectomy and positive surgical margins: tumor volume and Gleason score predicts cancer outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Roca, Ricardo L.R. Felts de, E-mail: Ricardo@delarocaurologia.com.br [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Francisco Paula da, E-mail: fpf@uol.com.br [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Urologia. Dept. de Cirurgia Pelvica; Cunha, Isabela Werneck da; Bezerra, Stephania Martins, E-mail: iwerneck@gmail.com, E-mail: stephaniab@gmail.com [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Patologia

    2013-07-01

    Introduction: positive surgical margins (PSMs) are common adverse factors to predict the outcome of a patient submitted to radical prostatectomy (PR). However, not all of these men will follow with biochemical (BCR) or clinical (CR) recurrence. Relationship between PSMs with these recurrent events has to be correlated with other clinicopathological findings in order to recognize more aggressive tumors in order to recommend complementary treatment to these selected patients. Materials and methods: we retrospectively reviewed the outcome of 228 patients submitted to open retropubic RP between March 1991 and June 2008, where 161 had and 67 did not have PSMs. Minimum follow-up time was considered 2 years after surgery. BCR was considered when PSA {>=} 0.2 ng/ml. CR was determined when clinical evidence of tumor appeared. Chi-square test was used to correlate clinical and pathologic variables with PSMs. The estimated 5-year risk of BCR and CR in presence of PSMs was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared to log-rank tests. Results: from the total of 228 patients, 161 (71%) had PSMs, while 67 (29%) had negative surgical margins (NSMs). Prostatic circumferential margin was the most common (43.4%) site. Univariate analysis showed statistically significant (p < 0.001) associations between the presence of PSMs and BCR, but not with CR (p = 0.06). Among 161 patients with PSMs, 61 (37.8%) presented BCR, while 100 (62.8%) did not. Predicting progression-free survival for 5 years, BCR was correlated with pathological stage; Gleason score; pre-treatment PSA; tumor volume in specimen; capsular and perineural invasion; presence and number of PSMs. RC correlated only with angiolymphatic invasion and Gleason score. Considering univariate analyses the clinicopathological factors predicting BCR for 5 years, results statistically significant links with prostate weight; pre-treatment PSA; Gleason score; pathological stage; tumor volume; PSMs; capsular and perineural

  5. First Danish single-institution experience with radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrang, Marie-Louise; Røder, Martin Andreas; Vainer, Ben

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the impact of positive surgical margins (PSMs), stratified by location and extension, on biochemical outcome after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included data from 605 consecutive patients treated with RRP for lo...

  6. Pediatric surgical diseases. A radiological surgical case study approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, Ciro; Esposito, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Radiologic evaluation of an infant or child suspected of having a surgical disease can be a complex problem. With this volume, the editors have created a book focused on pediatric imaging written by pediatricians, pediatric surgeons and pediatric radiologists. This book is a collection of over 200 case reports. The concept is a case study approach: The reader is given radiologic images (plain radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, etc.) and the clinical history of the patient. On the basis of this information, the reader is asked to identify a diagnostic and therapeutic strategy. Each case is complemented by information on the disease affecting the patient and the management of the case shown, including therapy and follow-up. This educational text is targeted at all medical professionals faced with a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic problems affecting infants and children. (orig.)

  7. Pediatric surgical diseases. A radiological surgical case study approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Ciro [Federico II Univ. of Naples (Italy). Chair of Pediatric Surgery; Esposito, Giovanni (eds.) [Federico II Univ. of Naples (Italy). School of Medicine

    2009-07-01

    Radiologic evaluation of an infant or child suspected of having a surgical disease can be a complex problem. With this volume, the editors have created a book focused on pediatric imaging written by pediatricians, pediatric surgeons and pediatric radiologists. This book is a collection of over 200 case reports. The concept is a case study approach: The reader is given radiologic images (plain radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, etc.) and the clinical history of the patient. On the basis of this information, the reader is asked to identify a diagnostic and therapeutic strategy. Each case is complemented by information on the disease affecting the patient and the management of the case shown, including therapy and follow-up. This educational text is targeted at all medical professionals faced with a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic problems affecting infants and children. (orig.)

  8. [Extradural temporopolar approach for surgical management of paraclinoid lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Kumagai, Kohsuke; Ueno, Hideaki; Osada, Hideo; Nakao, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Takuji; Mori, Kentaro

    2014-10-01

    Surgical treatment of paraclinoid tumors adjacent to important anatomical structures, such as the optic nerve, optic chiasm, pituitary stalk, and internal carotid artery, should emphasize maximum resection and preservation of visual function. Thus, early localization and exposure of the optic nerve, and complete mobilization and decompression of the optic nerve and internal carotid artery, are necessary in order to prevent intraoperative neurovascular injuries. However, this technique requires wide exposure of the optic-carotid space through the interpeduncular cistern. We have developed an extradural temporopolar approach for resection of paraclinoid tumors, which can also allow early devascularization of arteries that feed the tumors. We evaluated the surgical outcomes of this approach, paying special attention to clinical and visual outcomes. Thirteen patients(4 men, 9 women;24-78 years, mean age 54 years), underwent tumor removal using an extradural temporopolar approach between March 2000 and April 2013. We retrospectively reviewed medical charts, radiological findings, intensive care unit flow sheets, and surgical records. Histological diagnoses included craniopharyngioma(4 cases), pituitary adenoma(3 cases), medial sphenoid ridge meningioma(2 cases), tuberculum sellae meningioma(2 cases), trigeminal neurinoma(1 case), and malignant epidermoid(1 case). Tumors were 1.5-6.0cm in length(mean 3.2cm). Tumors were cystic in all 4 craniopharyngiomas and solid in the other 9 cases. Preoperative neurological deficits included visual disturbance in 10 patients, double vision caused by oculomotor nerve palsy in 2 patients, and vertigo in 1 patient. Additional orbitozygomatic craniotomies were performed in 8 patients. Total tumor removal was performed in 7 patients and subtotal removal performed in 6. The pituitary stalk was microscopically preserved in all patients. Postoperative complications included transient diabetes insipidus in 2 patients, chronic subdural

  9. Pyrimidine nucleobase radical reactivity in DNA and RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marc M.

    2016-11-01

    Nucleobase radicals are major products of the reactions between nucleic acids and hydroxyl radical, which is produced via the indirect effect of ionizing radiation. The nucleobase radicals also result from hydration of cation radicals that are produced via the direct effect of ionizing radiation. The role that nucleobase radicals play in strand scission has been investigated indirectly using ionizing radiation to generate them. More recently, the reactivity of nucleobase radicals resulting from formal hydrogen atom or hydroxyl radical addition to pyrimidines has been studied by independently generating the reactive intermediates via UV-photolysis of synthetic precursors. This approach has provided control over where the reactive intermediates are produced within biopolymers and facilitated studying their reactivity. The contributions to our understanding of pyrimidine nucleobase radical reactivity by this approach are summarized.

  10. Nerve-Sparing Approach Improves Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Minimally Invasive Radical Hysterectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Rossetti, Diego Oreste; Ditto, Antonino; Signorelli, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Mosca, Lavinia; Scaffa, Cono; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Chiappa, Valentina; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    Few studies have investigated the efficacy and safety of the nerve-sparing approach via minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of cervical cancer. We aimed to review the current evidence comparing nerve-sparing minimally invasive radical hysterectomy (NS-MRH) with conventional minimally invasive radical hysterectomy (MRH). This systematic review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD#57655). Overall, 675 patients were included: 350 (51.9%) and 325 (48.1%) patients undergoing MRH and NS-MRH, respectively. MRH was associated with a shorter operative time in comparison with NS-MRH (mean difference = 32.57 minutes; 95% CI, 22.87-42.48). The estimated blood loss (mean difference = 97.14 mL, 20.01-214.29) and transfusion rate (odds ratio [OR] = 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15-3.01) did not differ statistically between the 2 groups. The risk of developing intraoperative (OR = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.08-2.23) and severe postoperative (OR = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.17-2.39) complications was similar between NS-MRH and MRH. Patients undergoing NS-MRH experienced lower voiding (OR = 0.39; 95% CI, 0.19-0.81) dysfunction rates than patients undergoing MRH. Moreover, a trend toward lower sexual (OR = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.06-1.07) and rectal (OR = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.01-1.02) issues was observed for patients having NS-MRH compared with patients undergoing MRH. Survival outcomes are not influenced by the type of surgical approach (recurrence [OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 0.49-3.28] and death [OR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.36-2.83]) rates. The pooled data suggested that NS-MRH is equivalent to MRH for the treatment of cervical cancer and may be superior in reducing pelvic floor dysfunction rates. However, because of the low level of evidence of the included studies, further randomized trials are warranted. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Research advances in surgical treatment of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimaiti Wasili

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE is a parasitic disease characterized by invasive growth. Major treatment methods include pharmacotherapy and surgical treatment, and surgical treatment mainly includes radical hepatectomy and palliative surgery. Radical hepatectomy is the first choice, and palliative surgery is mainly used to alleviate disease conditions and complications. Pharmacotherapy also plays an important role in the delay and control of HAE. In recent years, autologous liver transplantation has been used in the treatment of HAE and has become an effective therapy for end-stage HAE patients who cannot be cured by routine surgery. This article introduces the indications and advantages/disadvantages of radical hepatectomy and palliative surgery, as well as the experience in the application of multidisciplinary treatment, the concept of fast-track surgery, and autologous liver transplantation in the treatment of HAE patients, in order to provide a reference for the treatment of HAE.

  12. Erector spinae plane block for radical mastectomy: A new indication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, M; Costa, D; Brazão, I

    2018-02-01

    The erector spinae plane block is a technique recently described by Forero et al. in September 2016. It has applications in the control of chronic pain with neuropathic component of the chest wall, and for pain control in thoracoscopic surgery. In this article, we describe the use of this technique as part of a multimodal analgesic approach in a 40-year-old woman, who underwent radical mastectomy due to breast cancer. By performing this block before anesthetic induction, we have achieved an opioid sparing effect, avoiding a possible immunomodulatory effect, although not yet proven in humans. During hospitalization, the patient reported no pain (0/10 in numeric scale), without resorting to rescue analgesia. The easy, fast and safe execution of erector spinae plane block makes it a promising technique in the context of surgical pain during radical mastectomy. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Progress in surgical palliative treatment for malignant obstructive jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive jaundice, also known as surgical jaundice, is divided into benign and malignant types. Most of the patients newly diagnosed with malignant obstructive jaundice have lost the opportunity of receiving radical surgery due to its insidious onset, so surgical palliative treatment is very important for patients with advanced malignant obstructive jaundice. This paper elaborates on various current modalities of surgical palliative treatment for malignant obstructive jaundice. Appropriate modality of surgical palliative treatment is of great significance for patients with advanced malignant obstructive jaundice.

  14. Implementation of whole slide imaging in surgical pathology: A value added approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Isaacs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whole slide imaging (WSI makes it possible to capture images of an entire histological slide. WSI has established roles in surgical pathology, including support of off-site frozen section interpretation, primary diagnosis, educational activities, and laboratory quality assurance (QA activities. Analyses of the cost of WSI have traditionally been based solely on direct costs and diagnostic accuracy; however, these types of analyses largely ignore workflow and cost issues that arise as a result of redundancy, the need for additional staffing, and customized software development when WSI is integrated into routine diagnostic surgical pathology. The pre-scan, scan, and post-scan costs; quality control and QA costs; and IT process costs can be significant, and consequently, pathology groups can find it difficult to perform a realistic cost-benefit analysis of adding WSI to their practice. Materials and Methods: In this paper, we report a "value added" approach developed to guide our decisions regarding integration of WSI into surgical pathology practice. The approach focuses on specific operational measures (cost, time, and enhanced patient care and practice settings (clinical, education, and research to identify routine activities in which the addition of WSI can provide improvements. Results: When applied to our academic pathology group practice, the value added approach resulted in expanded and improved operations, as demonstrated by outcome based measures. Conclusion: A value added can be used to perform a realistic cost-benefit analysis of integrating WSI into routine surgical pathology practice.

  15. Selection of treatment and surgical approach for vestibular schwannomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Kuniki; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sakoda, Eiichiro

    2007-01-01

    Described are the present state of selection of stereotactic radiotherapy or surgical treatment and their combination for schwannomas in the title, and authors' policy of surgery as a first choice treatment. The policy stands on the concept that surgery is useful for the controllability thereafter of the tumor, of which size is at first larger than 25 mm diameter, and radiotherapy like a gamma-knife is applicable to the residual tissue grown after operation and to the tissue with less than the size before surgery because the smaller the size, the better is thought the control by the knife (reportedly 100% for the tissue of <14 mm diameter). The basis of authors' selection of two surgical approaches of through-lower lateral occiput and trans-labyrinthine, and their outcomes like hearing loss are described and discussed in details for 24 patients (two underwent radiotherapy before surgery) during the period Sep. 2003-Aug. 2006 of authors' hospital. Radiotherapy is thought essentially useful for the control of the tumor with a small or surgically reduced size. (R.T.)

  16. A Filtering Approach for Image-Guided Surgery With a Highly Articulated Surgical Snake Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Stephen; Choset, Howie

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce a probabilistic filtering approach to estimate the pose and internal shape of a highly flexible surgical snake robot during minimally invasive surgery. Our approach renders a depiction of the robot that is registered to preoperatively reconstructed organ models to produce a 3-D visualization that can be used for surgical feedback. Our filtering method estimates the robot shape using an extended Kalman filter that fuses magnetic tracker data with kinematic models that define the motion of the robot. Using Lie derivative analysis, we show that this estimation problem is observable, and thus, the shape and configuration of the robot can be successfully recovered with a sufficient number of magnetic tracker measurements. We validate this study with benchtop and in-vivo image-guidance experiments in which the surgical robot was driven along the epicardial surface of a porcine heart. This paper introduces a filtering approach for shape estimation that can be used for image guidance during minimally invasive surgery. The methods being introduced in this paper enable informative image guidance for highly articulated surgical robots, which benefits the advancement of robotic surgery.

  17. Robotic surgical education: a collaborative approach to training postgraduate urologists and endourology fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirheydar, Hossein; Jones, Marklyn; Koeneman, Kenneth S; Sweet, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    Currently, robotic training for inexperienced, practicing surgeons is primarily done vis-à-vis industry and/or society-sponsored day or weekend courses, with limited proctorship opportunities. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an extended-proctorship program at up to 32 months of follow-up. An extended-proctorship program for robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy was established at our institution. The curriculum consisted of 3 phases: (1) completing an Intuitive Surgical 2-day robotic training course with company representatives; (2) serving as assistant to a trained proctor on 5 to 6 cases; and (3) performing proctored cases up to 1 year until confidence was achieved. Participants were surveyed and asked to evaluate on a 5-point Likert scale their operative experience in robotics and satisfaction regarding their training. Nine of 9 participants are currently performing robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) independently. Graduates of our program have performed 477 RALP cases. The mean number of cases performed within phase 3 was 20.1 (range, 5 to 40) prior to independent practice. The program received a rating of 4.2/5 for effectiveness in teaching robotic surgery skills. Our robotic program, with extended proctoring, has led to an outstanding take-rate for disseminating robotic skills in a metropolitan community.

  18. GROSS ANATOMY AND SURGICAL APPROACH TO THE HUMERAL SHAFT IN GIANT ANTEATER (MYRMECOPHAGA TRIDACTYLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesoko, Natália Ferreira; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; Bortolini, Zara; Merlini, Natalie Bertelis; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Anteater forelimbs are distinguished morphologically from domestic animals, especially due to their unique movement and their natural habits. A knowledge of the pectoral limb anatomy and the proper surgical approach are fundamental to success in osteosynthesis and other surgeries. This study aimed to describe the muscles and neurovascular structures of the pectoral limb and the surgical approach to the humeral shaft of the giant anteater ( Myrmecophaga tridactyla ). Dissections of the forelimbs of seven cadavers were performed to identify the major muscles and neurovascular structures. Three of these animals' contralateral forearms were used to simulate the surgical approach to the humeral shaft. Some specific characteristics of the muscle morphology were biceps muscle had two heads, triceps muscle had three heads, and there was an olecranon-epicondylar muscle. To expose the shaft of the humerus, it was necessary to incise the superficial pectoral muscle and separate the heads of the biceps muscle. Due to the anatomical characteristics of the humerus, the craniomedial approach was the most appropriate because it accommodated the anatomical peculiarities of the giant anteater.

  19. Radicalization as a Vector: Exploring Non-Violent and Benevolent Processes of Radicalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Reidy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Successful radicalization posits three outcomes: extremism, terrorism or both. As these are undesirable, radicalization is understood as wholly malevolent and governments work to prevent and/or stop it. Nonetheless, a handful of scholars have recognized that the same radicalization process which results in either outcome may, theoretically at least, also have beneficial outcomes such as environmental awareness or human rights. This article explores one such outcome. Based on interviews with British Muslim aid workers (n=6 operating in Jihadist conflict zones post Arab spring and using constructivist grounded theory, it illustrates how the research participants radicalized to humanitarianism which resulted in them assisting the most plighted of Muslims by deploying to the most wanton of areas: ones commonly referred to as Jihadist conflict zones. Evidently, these destinations are shared with Jihadists and given the array of other observable similarities (socio-demographics and [pre-]mobilization behaviours, these morally opposed groups become conflated by the security services. This is further compounded by the fact that Jihadists manipulate and/or impersonate aid workers so as to funnel people and funds. To distinguish both, this article documents the benevolent pathway of the research participants and juxtaposes it to scholarly knowledge on Jihadist pathways. Socialization was revealed to be the key distinguishing feature rather than descriptive risk factors (such as ideology or moral outrage because the process of radicalization was not found to be the start of the radicalized pathway. It concludes that benevolently radicalized Islamic groups constitute an effective means of pathway divergence for particular typologies by offering an attractive and prosocial alternative to Jihadism. This strengths-based preventative approach (“what’s right” takes the form of a community-centric market competitor to Jihadism rather than a problem

  20. Retzus-sparing robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: a step–by-step technique description of this first brazilian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tobias-Machado

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Retzus-sparing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy(RARP is a newly approach that preserve the Retzus structures and provide better recovery of continence and erectile function. In Brazil, this approach has not yet been previously reported. Objective: Our goal is to describe Step-by-Step the Retzus-sparing RARP surgical technique and report our first Brazilian experience. Methods: We present a case of a 60-year-old white man with low risk prostate cancer. Surgical materials were four arms Da Vinci robotic platform system, six transperitoneal portals, two prolene wires and Polymer Clips. This surgical technique was step-by-step described according to Galfano et al. One additional step was added as a modification of Galfano et al. Primary technique description: The closure of the Denovellier fascia. Results: We have operated one patient with this technique. The operative time was 180minutes, console time was135 min, the blood loss was 150ml, none perioperative or postoperative complications was found, hospital stay of 01 day. The anatomopathological classification revealed a pT2aN0M0 specimen with free surgical margins. The patient achieved continence immediately after bladder stent retrieval. Full erection reported after 30 days of surgery. Conclusion: Retzus-sparing RARP approach is feasible and reproducible. However, further comparative studies are necessary to demonstrate potential benefits in continence and sexual outcomes over the standard approaches.

  1. [Sir Geoffrey Keynes 1887-1982. Surgical pioneer, medical historian, humanist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergljung, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Sir Geoffrey Keynes (1887 - 1982), was a pioneer in the surgery of breast cancer and thymic deseases, n.b. in patients suffering from myastenia gravis. He strongly disapproved of the longstanding dogma of so called radical mastectomy in breast cancer, and advocated a more limited surgical approach, followed by radiation therapy. This was done more than fifty years before breastconserving surgery has become the therapy of choice and against considerable opposition from the surgical establishment of his days. He also became a pioneer in the surgical treatment of myastenia gravis by thymectomy, at a time when there was no real understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and when considerable controversy existed as to the importance or non importance of concomitant tumour formation in the thymus. Besides being a busy surgeon Sir Geoffrey was a medical historian, writing the biography of among others William Harvey, a bibliographer with a special interest in the poet and artist William Blake and a bibliophil with a large book collection of great value to medical history.

  2. A minimally invasive surgical approach for large cyst-like periapical lesions: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naseem; Logani, Ajay; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Various conservative approaches have been utilized to manage large periapical lesions. This article presents a relatively new, very conservative technique known as surgical fenestration which is both diagnostic and curative. The technique involves partially excising the cystic lining, gently curetting the cystic cavity, performing copious irrigation, and closing the surgical site. This technique allows for decompression and allows the clinician the freedom to take a biopsy of the lesion, as well as perform other procedures such as root resection and retrograde sealing, if required. As the procedure does not perform a complete excision of the cystic lining, it is both minimally invasive and cost-effective. The technique and the concepts involved are reviewed in 4 cases treated with this novel surgical approach.

  3. [How to choose appropriate surgical approach in removal of the eyeball].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Juan; Ning, Qingyao

    2014-08-01

    We often consult patients with non-functional eye caused by trauma, intraocular malignancy, absolute stage of glaucoma and other diseases who need to remove the eyeball in our clinical work. Eye removal is an irreversibly destructive procedure, which mainly include enucleation and evisceration. There are various surgical techniques which are still controversial. Both of the two procedures have their own advantages, disadvantages, indications and contraindications. The ophthalmologists should comprehensively consider the disease situations, medical conditions and the requirements of the patients when choosing appropriate surgical approach to remove the eyeball.

  4. Juvenile aggressive cemento-ossifying fibroma of the sphenoid sinus with proptosis: a surgical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohit; Ramaswamy, Balakrishnan; Hazarika, Manali

    2013-11-27

    The term fibro-osseous lesion has currently grown in popularity as an overall designation for a number of rare, histologically benign head and neck lesions that are made up of bone, fibrous tissue and cementum. Cemento-ossifying fibroma is a variant of cementifying fibroma and is a fibro-osseous disease. They are usually small innocuous lesions which follow a slow benign course and are commonly seen in the skull bone rather than the sphenoid. It is rare for these tumours to attain large size, behave aggressively, destroy bone and require a radical surgery. One such rapidly growing juvenile cemento-ossifying lesion of sphenoid in our 10-year-old young patient causing proptosis and impaired vision is reported here because of its uncommon nature and its surgical dilemma. Selection of surgical approach to resect this tumour becomes difficult because it is deeply seated and needs a multidisciplinary approach.

  5. [ANALYSIS OF THE SURGICAL TREATMENT RESULTS IN THE THYROID GLAND DISEASES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarashchenko, Yu N; Bolgov, M Yu

    2015-08-01

    The results of surgical treatment of the thyroid gland diseases were analyzed, including the specific morbidity rate, cosmetic effect of the operation, stationary treatment of patients duration, the operation radicalism. Improvement of the operation methods and introduction of modern electric surgical instruments have permitted to reduce the operation duration, the surgical access length, the rate of postoperative hypocalcaemia occurrence, duration of the patients stationary treatment.

  6. A safe transoral surgical approach to parapharyngeal tumor arising from deep lobe of parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuele Casale

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of parapharyngeal tumor is surgical, but the approach remains a challenge. Attention should be paid to avoidance intra-operative bleeding or cranial nerves damage. We report a case of a 67-year-old male complaining of left-ear fullness. A submucosal mass arising from the lateral wall of oropharynx on the left side was observed. Magnetic resonance imaging detected a mass arising from the parotid gland, in particular from the deep lobe, and a fine needle biopsy was compatible with “Warthin tumor.” We performed a mini-invasive transoral approach under magnification, previous isolation of homolateral vessels. The decision on which surgical approach to be used is determined by site, size vascularity, and histology of the tumor. A literature review of the main surgical approaches was performed. We performed a combined transoral dissection under magnification with cervicotomic exposure of the neck vascular bundle allowing to dissect the tumor and manage any intra-operative complications.

  7. [Realities and limitations of the diagnosis of erectile impotence: radical urethro-prostato-cystectomy as a human experimentalmodel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austoni, E; Colombo, F; Mantovani, F; Zanetti, P; Fenice, O; Canclini, L; Mastromarino, G; Vecchio, D

    1994-02-01

    Veno-occlusive dysfunction (formerly called "venous leakage") is a clinical-radiographic manifestation of a multi-aetiology syndrome, the pathogenesis of which is to be sought in intrinsic damage to the erectile tissue. It has been attributed to psycho-neurogenic, neurovascular and local--physical factors. The unsatisfactory results of the various surgical techniques proposed (venous ligatures, crural plication, corporopexy) can be explained by the formation of vicarious venous circles, a phenomenon which occurs regardless of the type of procedure adopted and which is the direct consequence of the alteration of the occlusive mechanisms intrinsic to the erectile tissue. At the Urological Institute of the University of Milan, a study has been carried out with the aim of experimentally assessing these aetiopathogenetic hypotheses. 48 sexually potent patients were selected from those scheduled for extensive surgical procedures on account of malignant pathologies of the pelvic cavity (urethro-prostato-cystectomy, radical prostatectomy). The protocol included a series of examinations before and after the operation (at three months): computerised recording of nocturnal erections (NPT test, three consecutive nights), dynamic penile Doppler velocimetry, dynamic cavernosometry/graphy, examination of bulbocavernosus reflex. The goal of the study was to evaluate the haemodynamic consequences of the massive venous ligatures effected during these operations (periprostatic plexus, deep dorsal vein, spongio-cavernous connections). There were 28 cases of radical prostatectomy and 20 cases of radical urethro-prostato-cystectomy. Among the cases of radical prostatectomy, the extrafascial retropubic technique was used for 14 patients, the monolateral nerve-sparing procedure was applied for 10 patients (stage B1) and the transperineal approach was used for 4 patients (the most recent).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Radical prostatectomy. Results and indications; Indications et resultats de la prostatectomie radicale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacqmin, D. [Hopitaux universitaires de Strasbourg, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-12-31

    Radical prostatectomy is the surgical curative treatment of localized prostate cancer. The survival is good in young patients (<70) with T2 N0M0 tumors and more than 10 year`s life expectancy. Side-effects are urinary incontinence, impotence and anastomosis stricture. Quality of life should be considered as an important factor for the choice of the patient between radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy and follow-up. (author)

  9. Quality of life in advanced maxillary sinus cancer after radical versus conservative maxillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liting; Liu, Dan; Guo, Qiyun; Shen, Bin

    2013-07-01

    A study of patients with advanced maxillary sinus cancer who underwent radical or conservative maxillectomy was performed to show the differences between the 2 groups in patients' survival rate and quality of life (QOL). A total of 61 advanced maxillary sinus cancer patients from Weifang People's Hospital in China were traced: 27 radical maxillectomy and 34 conservative maxillectomy. Survival rate was compared between the 2 groups. Quality of life assessments were performed at the time of preoperation as well as 6, 12, and 18 months after the operation. Measures included the University of Washington-QOL scale (UW-QOL) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The UW-QOL scale scores of the composite score, appearance, activity, recreation, swallowing, speech, and chewing in the conservative surgical group were much higher than those in the radical surgical group. However, there is no big difference in total survival rate between these 2 groups. Also, no significant difference can be seen in the scores of pain, employment, and shoulder between the 2 groups. At the 6-month follow-up, the radical maxillectomy had more effects on anxiety than the conservative maxillectomy, while they are almost equally effective on depression. The 12-month and 18-month follow-ups showed that the radical maxillectomy made a greater impact on both anxiety and depression than the conservative maxillectomy. Conservative maxillectomy is more effective than radical maxillectomy to preserve the QOL of patients with advanced maxillary sinus cancer.

  10. Physician social networks and variation in rates of complications after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan Pollack, Craig; Wang, Hao; Bekelman, Justin E; Weissman, Gary; Epstein, Andrew J; Liao, Kaijun; Dugoff, Eva H; Armstrong, Katrina

    2014-07-01

    Variation in care within and across geographic areas remains poorly understood. The goal of this article was to examine whether physician social networks-as defined by shared patients-are associated with rates of complications after radical prostatectomy. In five cities, we constructed networks of physicians on the basis of their shared patients in 2004-2005 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare data. From these networks, we identified subgroups of urologists who most frequently shared patients with one another. Among men with localized prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy, we used multilevel analysis with generalized linear mixed-effect models to examine whether physician network structure-along with specific characteristics of the network subgroups-was associated with rates of 30-day and late urinary complications, and long-term incontinence after accounting for patient-level sociodemographic, clinical factors, and urologist patient volume. Networks included 2677 men in five cities who underwent radical prostatectomy. The unadjusted rate of 30-day surgical complications varied across network subgroups from an 18.8 percentage-point difference in the rate of complications across network subgroups in city 1 to a 26.9 percentage-point difference in city 5. Large differences in unadjusted rates of late urinary complications and long-term incontinence across subgroups were similarly found. Network subgroup characteristics-average urologist centrality and patient racial composition-were significantly associated with rates of surgical complications. Analysis of physician networks using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare data provides insight into observed variation in rates of complications for localized prostate cancer. If validated, such approaches may be used to target future quality improvement interventions. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier

  11. The Suprameatal Approach: A Safe Alternative Surgical Technique for Cochlear Implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postelmans, Job T. F.; Tange, Rinze A.; Stokroos, Robert J.; Grolman, Wilko

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To report on surgical complications arising post-operatively in 104 patients undergoing cochlear implantation surgery using the suprameatal approach (SMA). Second, to examine the advantages and disadvantages of the SMA technique compared with the classic mastoidectomy using the posterior

  12. Comparison of surgical and non-surgical orthodontic treatment approaches on occlusal and cephalometric outcomes in patients with Class II Division I malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Daniels

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine end-of-treatment outcomes of severe Class II Division I malocclusion patients treated with surgical or non-surgical approaches. This study tests the hypotheses that occlusal outcomes (ABO-OGS and cephalometric outcomes differ between these groups. Methods A total of 60 patients were included: 20 of which underwent surgical correction and 40 of which did not. Cast grading of initial and final study models was performed and information was gathered from pre- to post-treatment cephalometric radiographs. The end-of-treatment ABO-OGS and cephalometric outcomes were compared to Mann-Whitney U tests and multivariable linear regression models. Results Following adjustment for multiple confounders (age, gender, complexity of case, and skeletal patterns, the final deband score (ABO-OGS was similar for both groups (23.8 for surgical group versus 22.5 for non-surgical group. Those treated surgically had a significantly larger reduction in ANB angle, 3.4° reduction versus 1.5° reduction in the non-surgical group (p = 0.002. The surgical group also showed increased maxillary incisor proclination (p = 0.001 compared to the non-surgical group. This might be attributed to retroclination of maxillary incisors during treatment selection in the non-surgical group—namely, extraction of premolars to mask the discrepancy. Conclusions Those treated surgically had a significantly larger reduction in ANB angle and increased maxillary incisor proclination compared to those treated non-surgically with no significant changes in occlusal outcomes.

  13. Surgical Approaches to Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hartmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disease resulting in permanent structural damage of the pancreas. It is mainly characterized by recurring epigastric pain and pancreatic insufficiency. In addition, progression of the disease might lead to additional complications, such as pseudocyst formation or development of pancreatic cancer. The medical and surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis has changed significantly in the past decades. With regard to surgical management, pancreatic head resection has been shown to be a mainstay in the treatment of severe chronic pancreatitis because the pancreatic head mass is known to trigger the chronic inflammatory process. Over the years, organ-preserving procedures, such as the duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection and the pylorus-preserving Whipple, have become the surgical standard and have led to major improvements in pain relief, preservation of pancreatic function, and quality of life of patients.

  14. The new era of minimally invasive interventions for prostate cancer: robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and focal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schatloff O

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Schatloff1, Alyssa S Louis2, Uri Lindner21Global Robotics Institute, Florida Hospital Celebration Health, Celebration, FL, USA; 2Division of Urology, Department of Surgical Oncology, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Prostate cancer remains a common but highly treatable disease. Innovations in prostate cancer treatment have allowed a transition toward minimally invasive approaches in an attempt to avoid treatment-related morbidities. In the middle of the treatment spectrum between radical open surgeries and active surveillance lies robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP and focal therapy (FT. This review sets out the most current information on RALP and FT (including laser ablation, cryotherapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and irreversible electroporation.Keywords: PCa, RALP, FT, laser ablation, cryotherapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, irreversible electroporation

  15. [Surgical treatment of pediatric pulmonary metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Borrás, E; Ferrís i Tortajada, J; Jovaní Casano, C; Segarra Llido, V; Bermúdez Cortés, M; Cañete Nieto, A; Velázquez Terrón, J

    1998-07-01

    We comment and update the surgical treatment for pulmonary metastases (PM) within a multidisciplinary approach for paediatric cancer. We analyse patients with PM who have been operated between 1976-1996. Scientific literature published in the last 25 years (Cancerlit and Medline) was reviewed. PM from 13 patients were removed. Seven were males and 6 females with a mean age 5 4/12 years (range: 11 months- 12 3/12 years). Diagnoses were Wilms' tumour (7), osteosarcoma (3), Ewing sarcoma (1), rabdomiosarcoma (1), Yolk sac tumour (1). PM were unilateral in 7 cases and bilateral in six cases. PM appeared synchronically in four patients and metacronically in nine cases (3 of these after chemotherapy). All patients received chemotherapy and four of them local radiotherapy. Surgery consisted on radical segmentectomy and only one patient needed lobectomy due to a local relapse. Nowadays five patients (38%) are in complete remission with a mean follow-up from surgery of 11 11/12 years (range: 6 3/12-20 years). Metastasectomy is an important surgical technique in global treatment of children with PM and for a selected group of patients it can offer the only opportunity for curation.

  16. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and resection of rectum performed together: first experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodak, Milos; Orhalmi, Julius; Kosina, Josef; Balik, Michal; Pacovsky, Jaroslav

    2015-09-01

    Laparoscopy is an increasingly used approach in the surgical treatment of rectal cancer and prostate cancer. The anatomical proximity of the two organs is the main reason to consider performing both procedures simultaneously. To present our first experience of laparoscopic rectal resection and radical prostatectomy, performed simultaneously, in 3 patients. The first patient was diagnosed with locally advanced rectal cancer and tumor infiltration of the prostate and seminal vesicles. The other 2 patients were diagnosed with tumor duplicity. The surgery of the first patient started with laparoscopic prostatectomy except division of the prostate from the rectal wall. The next step was resection of the rectum, extralevator amputation of the rectum and vesicourethral anastomosis. In the other patients, resection of the rectum, followed by radical prostatectomy, was performed. The median follow-up was 12 months. The median operation time was 4 h 40 min, with blood loss of 300 ml. The operations and postoperative course were without incident in the case of 2 patients. However, 1 patient had stercoral peritonitis and a vesicorectal fistula in the early postoperative stage. Sigmoidostomy and postponed ureteroileal conduit were carried out. All patients were in oncologic remission. Combined laparoscopic rectal resection and radical prostatectomy is a viable option for selected patients with locally advanced rectal cancer or tumor duplication. The procedures were completed without complications in 2 out of 3 patients.

  17. Neuroendoscopic Trans-Third Ventricular Approach for Surgical Management of Ecchordosis Physaliphora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Sasan Darius; Bisdas, Sotirios; Bornemann, Antje; Schuhmann, Martin U

    2016-06-01

    We sought to report the successful surgical management of a case of ecchordosis physaliphora (EP) using a neuro-endoscopic trans-third ventricular approach (ETTVA) and to provide a current review of literature on EP. A 57-year-old man presenting with a 2-year history of diplopia due to right abducens nerve palsy and paresthesia of the left body underwent magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed a retroclival intracisternal lesion. The cystic lesion was considered to be most likely EP according to neuroradiologic features. The patient underwent an endoscopic trans-third ventricular resection. A pediatric endoscope was passed from a precoronal burr hole through the left lateral into the third ventricle. The floor of the third ventricle was opened by a 2-micron laser. This approach permitted us to expose the lesion in the retroclival cistern and follow up with a subtotal removal. Remnants of the capsule, which were firmly adherent to small pontine arteries and the left abducens nerve, were left. Histology confirmed EP. The patient recovered well from surgery, and symptoms regressed at clinical follow-up. The endoscopic approach for third ventriculostomy can also be used for the surgical management of retroclival lesions. However, a small pediatric endoscope with an angled view, which can be passed through the floor of the third ventricle without causing harm, is mandatory to explore all important structures in the narrow surgical space. Limitations in this delicate environment are firm adhesions to vessels and nerves because only 1-instrument manipulation is possible and bleeding must be avoided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Short-term efficacy of da Vinci robotic surgical system on rectal cancer in 101 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dong-Zhu; Shi, Yan; Lei, Xiao; Tang, Bo; Hao, Ying-Xue; Luo, Hua-Xing; Lan, Yuan-Zhi; Yu, Pei-Wu

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the feasibility and safety of da Vinci robotic surgical system in rectal cancer radical operation, and to summarize its short-term efficacy and clinical experience. Data of 101 cases undergoing da Vinci robotic surgical system for rectal cancer radical operation from March 2010 to September 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Evaluation was focused on operative procedure, complication, recovery and pathology. All the 101 cases underwent operation successfully and safely without conversion to open procedure. Rectal cancer radical operation with da Vinci robotic surgical system included 73 low anterior resections and 28 abdominoperineal resections. The average operative time was (210.3±47.2) min. The average blood lose was (60.5±28.7) ml without transfusion. Lymphadenectomy harvest was 17.3±5.4. Passage of first flatus was (2.7±0.7) d. Distal margin was (5.3±2.3) cm without residual cancer cells. The complication rate was 6.9%, including anastomotic leakage(n=2), perineum incision infection(n=2), pulmonary infection (n=2), urinary retention (n=1). There was no postoperative death. The mean follow-up time was(12.9±8.0) months. No local recurrence was found except 2 cases with distant metastasis. Application of da Vinci robotic surgical system in rectal cancer radical operation is safe and patients recover quickly The short-term efficacy is satisfactory.

  19. Laparoscopic-assisted nephroureterectomy after radical cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico R. Romero

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report our experience with laparoscopic-assisted nephroureterectomy for upper tract transitional cell carcinomas after radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients (53-72 years-old underwent laparoscopic-assisted nephroureterectomy 10 to 53 months after radical cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma at our institution. Surgical technique, operative results, tumor features, and outcomes of all patients were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Mean operative time was 305 minutes with a significant amount of time spent on the excision of the ureter from the urinary diversion. Estimate blood loss and length of hospital stay averaged 180 mL and 10.8 days, respectively. Intraoperative and postoperative complications occurred in two patients each. There was one conversion to open surgery. Pathology confirmed upper-tract transitional cell carcinoma in all cases. Metastatic disease occurred in two patients after a mean follow-up of 14.6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Nephrouretectomy following cystectomy is a complex procedure due to the altered anatomy and the presence of many adhesions. A laparoscopic-assisted approach can be performed safely in properly selected cases but does not yield the usual benefits seen with other laparoscopic renal procedures.

  20. Laparoscopic completion radical cholecystectomy for T2 gallbladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbs, Andrew A; Hoffman, John P

    2010-12-01

    The role of minimally invasive surgery in the surgical management of gallbladder cancer is a matter of controversy. Because of the authors' growing experience with laparoscopic liver and pancreatic surgery, they have begun offering patients laparoscopic completion partial hepatectomies of the gallbladder bed with laparoscopic hepatoduodenal lymphadenectomy. The video shows the steps needed to perform laparoscopic resection of the residual gallbladder bed, the hepatoduodenal lymph node nodes, and the residual cystic duct stump in a setting with a positive cystic stump margin. The skin and fascia around the previous extraction site are resected, and this site is used for specimen retrieval during the second operation. To date, three patients have undergone laparoscopic radical cholecystectomy with hepatoduodenal lymph node dissection for gallbladder cancer. The average number of lymph nodes retrieved was 3 (range, 1-6), and the average estimated blood loss was 117 ml (range, 50-200 ml). The average operative time was 227 min (range, 120-360 min), and the average hospital length of stay was 4 days (range, 3-5 days). No morbidity or mortality was observed during 90 days of follow-up for each patient. Although controversy exists as to the best surgical approach for gallbladder cancer diagnosed after routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the minimally invasive approach seems feasible and safe, even after previous hepatobiliary surgery. If the previous extraction site cannot be ascertained, all port sites can be excised locally. Larger studies are needed to determine whether the minimally invasive approach to postoperatively diagnosed early-stage gallbladder cancer has any drawbacks.

  1. Anastomotic complications after robot-assisted laparoscopic and open radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, André; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Iversen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective Anastomotic complications are well known after radical prostatectomy (RP). The vesicourethral anastomotic technique is handled differently between open and robotic RP. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the frequency of anastomotic leakages and strictures differed between...... patients undergoing retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) and to identify risk factors associated with these complications. Materials and methods The study included 735 consecutive patients who underwent RRP (n = 499) or RARP (236) at the Department...... of Urology, Rigshospitalet, Denmark, in a complete 3 year period from 2010 to 2012. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyse associations between surgical procedure (RRP vs RARP) and anastomotic complications. Analyses included age, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension...

  2. [Morphologic feature and cochlear implant surgical approach for cochlear modiolus deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daoxing

    2014-09-01

    To review the classification of cochlear modiolus deficiency and decision on surgical approach for above case,in order to provide mastery for cochlear implant (CI) indication. Basing on temporal bone HRCT pre-operation, CI subjects with modiolus deficiency were defined as following groups: (1) deficiency caused by cochlear dysplasia (Mondini malformation); (2) deficiency caused by dysplasia of cochlear and vestibule (Common cavity malformation); (3) deficiency caused by absence of internal acoustic meatus fundus (IP-III malformation). Three types of surgical approach were utilized: type I, electrode array was introduced through facial recess, enlarged the round window, type II, opened the surface of chchlea, electrode array was introduced through facial recess, fenestration on posterior promontory and then inserted around lateral wall of inner-cochlear cavity. type III, electrode array was introduce through fenestration of lateral semicircular canal and then placed close to the bony wall of common cavity. One hundred and sixty-six cochlear modiolus deficiency cases were identified into 3 groups as following: 135 Mondini malformation cases into group a, 18 common cavity malformation cases into group b, and 13 IP-III malformation cases into group c. Surgical approach: type I were used in 136 cases (123 Mondini cases and 13 IP-III cases), while approach type II in 12 cases (12 Mondini cases), and approach type III in 18 cases (18 common cavity cases). Income post-operation of CI: For group a (Mondini malformation), post-activation mean hearing threshold in sound field was 65 dB, speech recognition score is 95% (single finals test) and 25% (signal initials test), while it was 80 dB, 60% and 0 for group b (Conmon cavity malformation), and it was 55 dB, 100% and 45% for group c (IP-III malformation). The income of speech recognition score for cochlear modiolus deficiency was relatively poor, group b was worst and group c was best, while group a moderate.

  3. A Critical Analysis of the Current Knowledge of Surgical Anatomy of the Prostate Related to Optimisation of Cancer Control and Preservation of Continence and Erection in Candidates for Radical Prostatectomy: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Jochen; Epstein, Jonathan I; Ganzer, Roman; Graefen, Markus; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Kaouk, Jihad; Menon, Mani; Mottrie, Alexandre; Myers, Robert P; Patel, Vipul; Tewari, Ashutosh; Villers, Arnauld; Artibani, Walter

    2016-08-01

    In 2010, we published a review summarising the available literature on surgical anatomy of the prostate and adjacent structures involved in cancer control and the functional outcome of prostatectomy. To provide an update based on new literature to help the surgeon improve oncologic and surgical outcomes of radical prostatectomy (RP). We searched the PubMed database using the keywords radical prostatectomy, anatomy, neurovascular bundle, nerve, fascia, pelvis, sphincter, urethra, urinary continence, and erectile function. Relevant articles and textbook chapters published since the last review were critically reviewed, analysed, and summarised. Moreover, we integrated aspects that were not addressed in the last review into this update. We found new evidence for several topics. Up to 40% of the cross-sectional surface area of the urethral sphincter tissue is laterally overlapped by the dorsal vascular complex and might be injured during en bloc ligation. Denonvilliers fascia is fused with the base of the prostate in a horizontal fashion dorsally/caudally of the seminal vesicles, requiring sharp detachment when preserved. During extended pelvic lymph node dissection, the erectile nerves are at risk in the presacral and internal iliac area. Dissection planes for nerve sparing can be graded according to the amount of tissue left on the prostate as a safety margin against positive surgical margins. Vascular structures can serve as landmarks. The urethral sphincter and its length after RP are influenced by the shape of the apex. Taking this shape into account allows preservation of additional sphincter length with improved postoperative continence. This update provides additional, detailed information about the surgical anatomy of the prostate and adjacent tissues involved in RP. This anatomy remains complex and widely variable. These details facilitate surgical orientation and dissection during RP and ideally should translate into improved outcomes. Based on recent

  4. A Quantitative Exposure Planning Tool for Surgical Approaches to the Sacroiliac Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Kevin D; Ming, Bryan W; Fox, Wade E; Bellamy, Nelly; Sims, Stephen H; Karunakar, Madhav A; Hsu, Joseph R

    2016-06-01

    To aid in surgical planning by quantifying and comparing the osseous exposure between the anterior and posterior approaches to the sacroiliac joint. Anterior and posterior approaches were performed on 12 sacroiliac joints in 6 fresh-frozen torsos. Visual and palpable access to relevant surgical landmarks was recorded. Calibrated digital photographs were taken of each approach and analyzed using Image J. The average surface areas of exposed bone were 44 and 33 cm for the anterior and posterior approaches, respectively. The anterior iliolumbar ligament footprint could be visualized in all anterior approaches, whereas the posterior aspect could be visualized in all but one posterior approach. The anterior approach provided visual and palpable access to the anterior superior edge of the sacroiliac joint in all specimens, the posterior superior edge in 75% of specimens, and the inferior margin in 25% and 50% of specimens, respectively. The inferior sacroiliac joint was easily visualized and palpated in all posterior approaches, although access to the anterior and posterior superior edges was more limited. The anterior S1 neuroforamen was not visualized with either approach and was more consistently palpated when going posterior (33% vs. 92%). Both anterior and posterior approaches can be used for open reduction of pure sacroiliac dislocations, each with specific areas for assessing reduction. In light of current plate dimensions, fractures more than 2.5 cm lateral to the anterior iliolumbar ligament footprint are amenable to anterior plate fixation, whereas those more medial may be better addressed through a posterior approach.

  5. Incidence of positive surgical margins after robotic assisted radical prostatectomy: Does the surgeon's experience have an influence on all pathological stages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamil, A W; Costabel, J I; Billordo Peres, N; Martínez, P F; Giudice, C R; Damia, O H

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical and surgical features of patients who underwent robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) at our institution, and the impact of the surgeon's experience in the oncological results related to pathological stage. An analysis of 300 RARP consecutively performed by the same urologist was conducted. Patients were divided into 3 groups of 100 patients in chronological order, according to surgery date. All patients had organ-confined clinical stage. Variables which could impact in positive margins rates were analyzed. Finally, positive surgical margins (PSM) in regard to pathological stage and surgeon's experience were compared and analyzed. No significant differences were found in variables which could impact in PSM rates. The overall PSM rate was 21%, with 28% in the first group, 20% in the second, and 16% in the third (P = .108). Significant lineal decreasing tendency was observed (P = .024). In pT2 patients, the overall PSM rate was 16.6%, with 27%, 13.8%, and 7.3% in each group respectively (P = .009). A significant difference was found between group 1 and group 3 (P = .004). In pT3 patients, the surgeon's experience was not significantly associated with margin reductions with an overall PSM rate of 27.7% (28.2%, 28.6%, and 26.7% in each group respectively). Clinical and surgical features in our patients did not vary over time. We found a significant reduction of PSM related to surgeon's experience in pT2 patients. Contrariwise, the margin status remained stable despite increasing experience in pT3 patients. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Plastic surgical management of a cobra bite – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhbier, Jörn W.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cobra bites are quite rare in European countries as these snakes are not native there. Toxins are devastating for tissue resulting in massive necrosis, thus plastic surgery might play a role in reconstruction of the lost tissue. A case of a male patient bitten by a thai cobra in the left index finger is presented. Antitoxin administration was delayed due to secondary patient admission. Progressive tissue necrosis made radical debridement necessary, resulting in the need for plastic surgical defect coverage with a flap. While a radical debridement to prevent toxic necrosis due to lytic enzymes in cobra venom has been favoured beforehand, large case studies led to a more restrained initial surgical intervention. However, antitoxin administration should be first line therapy in management of these cases. If severe necrosis is present as it might occur in delayed admission, a plastic surgical management of the patient might be advantageous.

  7. Protonated o-semiquinone radical as a mimetic of the humic acids native radicals: A DFT approach to the molecular structure and EPR properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witwicki, Maciej; Jezierska, Julia

    2012-06-01

    Organic radicals are known to be an indispensable component of the humic acids (HA) structure. In HA two forms of radicals, stable (native) and short-lived (transient), are identified. Importantly, these radical forms can be easily differentiated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. This article provides a DFT-based insight into the electronic and molecular structure of the native radicals. The molecular models including an increase of the radical aromaticity and the hydrogen bonding between the radical and other functional groups of HA are taken under investigation. In consequence the interesting pieces of information on the structure of the native radical centers in HA are revealed and discussed, especially in terms of differences between the electronic structure of the native and transient forms.

  8. A clinical review of treatment outcomes in glioblastoma multiforme - the validation in a non-trial population of the results of a randomised Phase III clinical trial: has a more radical approach improved survival?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rock, K

    2012-01-03

    Objective: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) accounts for up to 60% of all malignant primary brain tumours in adults, occurring in 2-3 cases per 100 000 in Europe and North America. In 2005, a Phase III clinical trial demonstrated a significant improvement in survival over 2, and subsequently, 5 years with the addition of concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) to radical radiotherapy (RT) (Stupp R, Hegi M, van den Bent M, et al. Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial. Lancet Oncol 2009:10:459-66). The aim of this study was to investigate if the demonstrated improved survival in the literature translated to clinical practice.Methods: This was a retrospective study including all patients with histologically proven GBM diagnosed from 1999 to 2008 and treated with adjuvant RT at our institution. A total of 273 patients were identified. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS v18.Results: The median survival for the whole group (n = 273) over the 10-year period was 7.6 months (95% confidence interval 6.7-8.4 months). Overall, the cumulative probability of survival at 1 and 2 years was 31.5 and 9.4%, respectively. In total, 146 patients received radical RT. 103 patients were treated with radical RT and TMZ and 43 patients received radical RT alone. The median survival for patients receiving radical RT with TMZ was 13.4 months (95% CI 10.9-15.8 months) vs 8.8 months for radical RT alone (95% CI 6.9 - 10.7 months, p = 0.006). 2-year survival figures were 21.2 vs 4.7%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of survival included KPS, RT dose, TMZ and extent of surgery. The strongest predictors of poorer outcome based on the hazard ratio were palliative RT, followed by not receiving TMZ chemotherapy, then KPS <90 and a biopsy only surgical approach.Conclusion: This paper demonstrates

  9. A clinical review of treatment outcomes in glioblastoma multiforme - the validation in a non-trial population of the results of a randomised Phase III clinical trial: has a more radical approach improved survival?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Objective: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) accounts for up to 60% of all malignant primary brain tumours in adults, occurring in 2-3 cases per 100 000 in Europe and North America. In 2005, a Phase III clinical trial demonstrated a significant improvement in survival over 2, and subsequently, 5 years with the addition of concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) to radical radiotherapy (RT) (Stupp R, Hegi M, van den Bent M, et al. Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial. Lancet Oncol 2009:10:459-66). The aim of this study was to investigate if the demonstrated improved survival in the literature translated to clinical practice.Methods: This was a retrospective study including all patients with histologically proven GBM diagnosed from 1999 to 2008 and treated with adjuvant RT at our institution. A total of 273 patients were identified. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS v18.Results: The median survival for the whole group (n = 273) over the 10-year period was 7.6 months (95% confidence interval 6.7-8.4 months). Overall, the cumulative probability of survival at 1 and 2 years was 31.5 and 9.4%, respectively. In total, 146 patients received radical RT. 103 patients were treated with radical RT and TMZ and 43 patients received radical RT alone. The median survival for patients receiving radical RT with TMZ was 13.4 months (95% CI 10.9-15.8 months) vs 8.8 months for radical RT alone (95% CI 6.9 - 10.7 months, p = 0.006). 2-year survival figures were 21.2 vs 4.7%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of survival included KPS, RT dose, TMZ and extent of surgery. The strongest predictors of poorer outcome based on the hazard ratio were palliative RT, followed by not receiving TMZ chemotherapy, then KPS <90 and a biopsy only surgical approach.Conclusion: This paper demonstrates improved

  10. Impact of surgical case order on perioperative outcomes for robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil A Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Surgical case order may influence perioperative outcomes for RARP with decreased operative times and increased length of hospital stay associated with later cases. These findings indicate that select perioperative factors may improve with ascending case order as the surgical team "warms up" during the day. In addition, 3 rd round cases can increase hospital costs associated with increased lengths of hospital stay. Knowledge of these differences may assist in surgical planning to improve outcomes and limit costs.

  11. Tandem-robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy to improve the neurovascular bundle visualization: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Misop; Kim, Chunwoo; Mozer, Pierre; Schäfer, Felix; Badaan, Shadie; Vigaru, Bogdan; Tseng, Kenneth; Petrisor, Doru; Trock, Bruce; Stoianovici, Dan

    2011-02-01

    To examine the feasibility of image-guided navigation using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) to visualize the neurovascular bundle (NVB) during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). The preservation of the NVB during radical prostatectomy improves the postoperative recovery of sexual potency. The accompanying blood vessels in the NVB can serve as a macroscopic landmark to localize the microscopic cavernous nerves in the NVB. A novel, robotic transrectal ultrasound probe manipulator (TRUS Robot) and three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction software were developed and used concurrently with the daVinci surgical robot (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) in a tandem-robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (T-RALP). After appropriate approval and informed consent were obtained, 3 subjects underwent T-RALP without associated complications. The TRUS Robot allowed a steady handling and remote manipulation of the TRUS probe during T-RALP. It also tracked the TRUS probe position accurately and allowed 3-D image reconstruction of the prostate and surrounding structures. Image navigation was performed by observing the tips of the daVinci surgical instruments in the live TRUS image. Blood vessels in the NVB were visualized using Doppler ultrasound. Intraoperative 3-D image-guided navigation in T-RALP is feasible. The use of TRUS during radical prostatectomy can potentially improve the visualization and preservation of the NVB. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical benefit of T-RALP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Surgical outcomes of early congenital cholesteatoma: minimally invasive transcanal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang H; Jang, Jeong H; Lee, Dongjun; Lee, Hye-Ryung; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2014-03-01

    To introduce a simple and alternative surgical technique, minimally invasive transcanal myringotomy (MITM), for early stage congenital cholesteatoma in children and to evaluate the feasibility and results of MITM for management of early stage congenital cholesteatoma with respect to its effectiveness and safety. Retrospective review. Between August 2008 and September 2012, a total of 36 patients with congenital cholesteatoma met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Patient medical records, including demographic characteristics, intraoperative findings, and follow-up records, were reviewed. Subjects consisted of 23 males (64%) and 13 females (36%), and the age at operation ranged from 12 months to 6 years (mean age = 3 years and 6 months). The number of congenital cholesteatoma was as follows: 26 patients at stage I and 10 patients at stage II. The follow-up duration was between 12 and 56 months, with an average of 30 months. There were no postoperative complications such as tympanic membrane perforation, dizziness, or secondary middle ear infection. Among 36 patients who had undergone the MITM approach for the treatment of congenital cholesteatoma, five (13.8%) showed recurrence and underwent a second-look operation. On the basis of our data, the MITM approach is a useful surgical technique for early stage congenital cholesteatoma in children. It has many advantages, in that there is no external wound and it is a simple surgical technique that involves easy postoperative care, a short operation time and hospitalization period, avoidance of serious complications, and easy repeatability for recurrence. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. [Relationship between tumor volume and PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Momose, Akishi; Okamoto, Akiko; Yamamoto, Hayato; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Iwabuchi, Ikuya; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Koie, Takuya; Kamimura, Noritaka; Ohyama, Chikara

    2010-02-01

    We examined whether the tumor volume (TV) is a good predictor of PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Data were collected for 158 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy without neoadjuvant hormonal therapy in our hospital since April 2005 to September 2007. Along with the routine pathological assessment, TV was assessed in all prostatectomy specimens. PSA recurrence was defined as PSA levels of greater than 0.2 ng/ml. The TVs were 1.81+/-1.66 ml (mean +/-SD) ranging from 0.02 to 8.20 ml. The TV in cT1c was 1.77+/-1.64, and 1.89+/-1.72 ml in cT2 (not significant). Significant differences were observed between TV and pT. The TVs in pT2a, pT2b and pT3/4 were 0.54+/-0.54, 1.63+/-1.47 and 2.67+/-1.80 ml, respectively. The median follow-up period was 32.3 months (range from 15 to 45) after radical prostatectomy, and PSA recurrence was observed in 32 cases. Patients with smaller TV (TV TV (TV > or = 1.3 ml, 66.7%) with a significant difference atp TV, pT, Gleason Score (GS), and surgical margins. Significant differences were observed for GS, and surgical margins, but not for TV. Clinically organ-confined disease in Japanese patients with prostate cancer included various cancers from clinically insignificant to locally advanced ones. In our series, TV was not regarded as a predictor of PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

  14. Radical-Local Teaching and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mariane; Chaiklin, Seth

    radical-local teaching and learning approach. The first half of the book introduces the idea of radical-local teaching and learning and develops the theoretical background for this perspective, drawing on the cultural-historical research tradition, particularly from Vygotsky, El'konin, Davydov......, and Aidarova. The second half of the book addresses the central concern of radical-local teaching and learning - how to relate educational practices to children's specific historical and cultural conditions. The experiment was conducted for an academic year in an afterschool programme in the East Harlem......Radical-Local Teaching and Learning presents a theoretical perspective for analyzing and planning educational programmes for schoolchildren. To realize both general societal interests and worthwhile personal development, the content of educational programmes for children must be grounded...

  15. [SURGICAL HIP DISLOCATION APPROACH FOR TREATMENT OF FEMORAL HEAD FRACTURE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yanfeng; Liu, Youwen; Zhu, Yingjie; Li, Jianming; Li, Wuyin; Li, Qiyi; Jia, Yudong

    2015-11-01

    To discuss the value of surgical hip dislocation approach in the treatment of femoral head fracture. A retrospectively analysis was made on the clinical data of 15 patients with femoral head fractures treated through surgical hip dislocation approach between January 2010 and February 2013. There were 11 men and 4 women with an average age of 30.8 years (range, 15-63 years). The causes included traffic accident injury in 9 cases, falling injury from height in 5 cases, and sports injury in 1 case. According to Pipkin typing, 2 cases were rated as type I, 7 cases as type II, 1 case as type III, and 5 cases as type IV. The interval of injury and operation was 2-10 days (mean, 4.1 days). Reduction was performed in 10 patients within 6 hours after injury, and then bone traction was given for 4-6 weeks except 5 patients who received reduction in the other hospital. Primary healing of incision was obtained in all patients after surgery without complications of dislocation and lower limbs deep venous thrombosis. The mean follow-up time was 29.9 months (range, 25-36 months). During follow-up, there was no infection, breakage of internal fixation, or nonunion of femoral greater trochanter fracture. In 3 patients having necrosis of the femoral head, 2 had no obvious symptoms [staging as IIa and IIb respectively according to Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO) staging system], and 1 (stage IIIb) had nonunion of the femoral neck fracture, who underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA). In 4 patients having myositis ossificans (2 cases of grade I, 1 case of grade II, and 1 case of grade III based on Brooker grading), no treatment was given in 3 cases and the focus was removed during THA in 1 case. According to the Thompson-Epstein scale at last follow-up, the results were excellent in 9 cases, good in 3 cases, fair in 1 case, and poor in 2 cases, and the excellent and good rate was 80%. Surgical hip dislocation approach can not only protect the residual vessels of the

  16. Urinary Bladder Leiomyosarcoma: Primary Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim Slaoui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cases of bladder leiomyosarcoma represent 0.1% of all nonurothelial tumors. We present a case report of a 73-year-old man who underwent a radical cystoprostatectomy for a high-grade bladder leiomyosarcoma with an ileal diversion. The patient recovered uneventfully and no surgical margins were verified in final pathology. Early follow-up at 3 months shows no signs of computed tomography recurrence and adequate adaptation to ileal diversion. Although bladder sarcomas were once thought to have a grim prognosis, recent studies suggest that adequate surgical treatment is able to achieve optimal cancer control outcomes.

  17. Engineering a horseradish peroxidase C stable to radical attacks by mutating multiple radical coupling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Joo, Jeong Chan; Song, Bong Keun; Yoo, Young Je; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2015-04-01

    Peroxidases have great potential as industrial biocatalysts. In particular, the oxidative polymerization of phenolic compounds catalyzed by peroxidases has been extensively examined because of the advantage of this method over other conventional chemical methods. However, the industrial application of peroxidases is often limited because of their rapid inactivation by phenoxyl radicals during oxidative polymerization. In this work, we report a novel protein engineering approach to improve the radical stability of horseradish peroxidase isozyme C (HRPC). Phenylalanine residues that are vulnerable to modification by the phenoxyl radicals were identified using mass spectrometry analysis. UV-Vis and CD spectra showed that radical coupling did not change the secondary structure or the active site of HRPC. Four phenylalanine (Phe) residues (F68, F142, F143, and F179) were each mutated to alanine residues to generate single mutants to examine the role of these sites in radical coupling. Despite marginal improvement of radical stability, each single mutant still exhibited rapid radical inactivation. To further reduce inactivation by radical coupling, the four substitution mutations were combined in F68A/F142A/F143A/F179A. This mutant demonstrated dramatic enhancement of radical stability by retaining 41% of its initial activity compared to the wild-type, which was completely inactivated. Structure and sequence alignment revealed that radical-vulnerable Phe residues of HPRC are conserved in homologous peroxidases, which showed the same rapid inactivation tendency as HRPC. Based on our site-directed mutagenesis and biochemical characterization, we have shown that engineering radical-vulnerable residues to eliminate multiple radical coupling can be a good strategy to improve the stability of peroxidases against radical attack. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Surgical management of esophageal achalasia: Evolution of an institutional approach to minimally invasive repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, Mikael; Khalafallah, Adham M; Guzzetta, Phillip C; Sandler, Anthony D; Darbari, Anil; Kane, Timothy D

    2016-10-01

    Surgical management of esophageal achalasia (EA) in children has transitioned over the past 2 decades to predominantly involve laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) or minimally invasive surgery (MIS). More recently, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been utilized to treat achalasia in children. Since the overall experience with surgical management of EA is contingent upon disease incidence and surgeon experience, the aim of this study is to report a single institutional contemporary experience for outcomes of surgical treatment of EA by LHM and POEM, with regards to other comparable series in children. An IRB approved retrospective review of all patients with EA who underwent treatment by a surgical approach at a tertiary US children's hospital from 2006 to 2015. Data including demographics, operative approach, Eckardt scores pre- and postoperatively, complications, outcomes, and follow-up were analyzed. A total of 33 patients underwent 35 operative procedures to treat achalasia. Of these operations; 25 patients underwent laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) with Dor fundoplication; 4 patients underwent LHM alone; 2 patients underwent LHM with Thal fundoplication; 2 patients underwent primary POEM; 2 patients who had had LHM with Dor fundoplication underwent redo LHM with takedown of Dor fundoplication. Intraoperative complications included 2 mucosal perforations (6%), 1 aspiration, 1 pneumothorax (1 POEM patient). Follow ranged from 8months to 7years (8-84months). There were no deaths and no conversions to open operations. Five patients required intervention after surgical treatment of achalasia for recurrent dysphagia including 3 who underwent between 1 and 3 pneumatic dilations; and 2 who had redo LHM with takedown of Dor fundoplication with all patients achieving complete resolution of symptoms. Esophageal achalasia in children occurs at a much lower incidence than in adults as documented by published series describing the surgical treatment in children. We

  19. A Surgery-first approach in surgical-orthodontic treatment of mandibular prognathism--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chung-Chih; Chen, Po-Hsun; Liou, Eric J W; Huang, Chiung-Shing; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2010-01-01

    The conventional approach in orthodontic surgery treatment of dentofacial anomalies requires a varied period of pre-surgical orthodontic treatment. This presurgical period is considered to be important for adequate surgical treatment and stable results. This period is usually long bothersome for patients because dental decompensation is required and there is consequent deterioration of aesthetics and function, especially in cases of skeletal Class III occlusion. At Chang Gung Craniofacial Center, a surgery-first approach (SFA), i.e. minimal pre-surgical orthodontics, is one of the treatment choices for Class III patients. In this report, we present a 19-year-old man with mandibular prognathism, an anterior open bite and severe dental crowding treated with SFA. The patient received orthognathic surgery a week after bracing of the teeth. The operation and recovery were uneventful as well as the following orthodontic treatment. The total treatment time was only four months, much shorter than with the conventional approach. The patient benefitted from immediate improvement of the facial profile after surgery, and a much shorter total treatment, and the results were not compromised. We believe in selected cases, SFA is a good and effective treatment alternative.

  20. Analysis of Surgical Freedom Variation Across the Basilar Artery Bifurcation: Towards a Deeper Insight Into Approach Selection for Basilar Apex Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Benet, Arnau; Rodriguez Rubio, Roberto; Yousef, Sonia; Lawton, Michael T

    2018-03-03

    The orbitozygomatic approach is generally advocated over the pterional approach for basilar apex aneurysms. However, the impact of the extensions of the pterional approach on the obtained maneuverability over multiple vascular targets (relevant to basilar apex surgery) has not been studied before. To analyze the patterns of surgical freedom change across the basilar bifurcation between the pterional, orbitopterional, and orbitozygomatic approaches. Surgical freedom was assessed for 3 vascular targets important in basilar apex aneurysm surgery (ipsilateral and contralateral P1-P2 junctions, and basilar apex), and compared between the pterional, orbitopterional, and orbitozygomatic approaches in 10 cadaveric specimens. Transitioning from the pterional to orbitopterional approach, the surgical freedom increased significantly at all 3 targets (P < .05). However, the gain in surgical freedom declined progressively from the most superficial target (60% for ipsilateral P1-P2 junction) to the deepest target (35% for contralateral P1-P2 junction). Conversely, transitioning from the orbitopterional to the orbitozygomatic approach, the gain in surgical freedom was minimal for the ipsilateral P1-P2 and basilar apex (<4%), but increased dramatically to 19% at the contralateral P1-P2 junction. The orbitopterional approach provides a remarkable increase in surgical maneuverability compared to the pterional approach for the basilar apex target and the relevant adjacent arterial targets. However, compared to the orbitopterional, the orbitozygomatic approach adds little maneuverability except for the deepest target (ie, contralateral P1-P2 junction). Therefore, the orbitozygomatic approach may be most efficacious with larger basilar apex aneurysms limiting the control over of the contralateral P1 PCA.

  1. Surgical treatment of colorectal cancer complicated with acute intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Schaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The main reason for urgent complications of colon cancer is an acute intestinal obstruction (AIO. This is complex pathological condition in 90 % of cases caused by colorectal cancer (CRC.Objective – to evaluate radicality of the performed operations in complicated colorectal cancer in general surgical hospitals. Dependence of the severity of intestinal obstruction by tumor localization, its morphological characteristics, determine dependence of the type of the surgical operation performed on the severity of intestinal obstruction.Materials and methods. We have studied the data on 667 patients with colorectal cancer complicated by acute intestinal obstruction. These patients were treated in the period from 2001 to 2013 in general surgical hospital in the territory of Smolensk and Smolensk region. For the processing of the obtained results we have used software Statistica 6.1. Differences were considered statistically at p ≤ 0.05.Results. All the patients were divided into 3 groups by the expression of intestinal obstruction. Group 1 (n = 279 consisted of patients with the presence of decompensated intestinal obstruction (DIO, group 2 (n = 313 consisted of patients with subcompensated intestinal obstruction (SIO, group 3 (n = 75 included patients with compensated intestinal obstruction (CIO. In case of tumor localization in right halfof the colon we most commonly observed clinical picture of acute development of decompensated intestinal obstruction (p = 0.041. Subcompensated intestinal obstruction prevailed in case of tumor localization in left half of the colon and rectal localization. In general surgical hospitals it is not always possible to speak about radicality of surgical treatment, as in a large number of cases (62.5 % the number of examined lymph nodes was less than 4. When DIO patients are admitted in the clinic, the percentage of singlestage operations is equal to 7.5 % (n = 21. In case of DIO and SIO there was a high

  2. Detailed histological investigation of the female urethra: application to radical cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinata, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shin-ichi; Honda, Masashi; Isoyama, Tadahiro; Sejima, Takehiro; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2012-02-01

    We histologically examined the urethral anatomy to assess whether the surgical procedure for radical cystectomy should be modified in females. Anatomical and histological studies were performed on 20 adult female cadavers. Semiserial sections were processed for histological examination and immunohistochemistry. To assess the clinical value of the antegrade approach we examined blood loss and function in 12 consecutive patients who underwent radical cystectomy by this approach. Vaginal wall smooth muscle contributed to urethral wall formation, in addition to a thin layer of proper urethral smooth muscle, particularly when the bladder detrusor was poorly developed or degenerated. The middle urethra was attached tightly to the vaginal smooth muscles with abundant veins running at the interface. The urethral sphincter and its inferoposterior continuation (urethrovaginal sphincter) were embedded in the elastic fiber rich perineal membrane. The membrane was U shaped, wrapping around the anterior aspect of the middle urethra and extending posterior along the distal vagina to end at the lateral extension of the perineal body near the external anal sphincter. Mean estimated blood loss was 965 ml. Of patients who received a neobladder hypercontinence was observed in 14.3% and 57.1% achieved continence. There is topographical variation in the anatomy of tissues surrounding the female urethra. Care should be taken when dissecting the tissues dorsal or lateral to the urethra. The antegrade approach is useful since the urethra can be dissected under direct vision and traction can be applied to these structures. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of minimally invasive technique in surgical treatment of pancreatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yixi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the rapid development of minimally invasive concept, from laparoscopic operation to three-dimension laparoscopic technique and to robotic surgical system, treatment modalities have changed a lot. Pancreatic diseases, including multiple lesions, have different prognoses. An appropriate surgical procedure should be selected while ensuring the radical treatment of disease, so as to minimize the injury to patients and the impairment of organ function. Minimally invasive technique is of great significance in the surgical treatment of pancreatic diseases.

  4. Neuroendocrine tumours of the ampulla of Vater: clinico-pathological features, surgical approach and assessment of prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrascu, Traian; Dima, Simona; Herlea, Vlad; Tomulescu, Victor; Ionescu, Mihnea; Popescu, Irinel

    2012-08-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours occur very rarely in the ampulla of Vater and their clinical behaviour is unknown. The aim of this study is to assess the clinico-pathological features, surgical approach and prognosis of these patients. Six patients with neuroendocrine tumours of the ampulla of Vater treated with curative intent surgery at a single centre were retrospectively analysed. A univariate analysis of potential prognostic factors was also performed (data provided from the present study and literature review). Pancreaticoduodenectomy was curative in all the patients. Overall and disease-free survival rates were significantly better for G1/G2 tumours (p = 0.006 and p = 0.004, respectively). Although frequent, lymph node metastases did not influenced both overall (p = 0.760) and disease-free survival rates (p = 0.745). No significant differences of survival were observed in patients with ENETS stage I/II disease, as compared to ENETS stage III disease (p = 0.169 and p = 0.137, respectively). No differences were observed according to UICC staging system (p = 0.073 and p = 0.177, respectively). Tumours that are less than 2 cm or limited to the ampulla appear to have a better prognosis. The WHO 2010 classification appear to accurately predict patient prognosis, while the ENETS or UICC staging systems have a limited value (especially in regard to lymph node metastases). Radical surgery (i.e. pancreaticoduodenectomy with lymphadenectomy) should be the standard approach in most patients with NET of the ampulla of Vater because this procedure removes all the potential tumour-bearing tissue.

  5. Computed tomography after radical pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.L.; Hampson, F.; Duxbury, M.; Rae, D.M.; Sinclair, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Whipple's procedure (radical pancreaticoduodenectomy) is currently the only curative option for patients with periampullary malignancy. The surgery is highly complex and involves multiple anastomoses. Complications are common and can lead to significant postoperative morbidity. Early detection and treatment of complications is vital, and high-quality multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is currently the best method of investigation. This review outlines the surgical technique and illustrates the range of normal postoperative appearances together with the common complications

  6. Reverse Stage Shift at a Tertiary Care Center: Escalating Risk in Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Jonathan L.; Vickers, Andrew J.; Power, Nicholas E.; Fine, Samson W.; Scardino, Peter T.; Eastham, James A.; Laudone, Vincent P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate changes in clinical and pathological characteristics of prostate cancer in patients treated surgically at a large tertiary care center in the context of increased use of active surveillance (AS) and minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Materials We performed retrospective review of 6,624 patients with localized prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy from 2000–2010 at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Patients were stratified by surgical approach (open, laparoscopic or robotic) and risk categories (low, intermediate, or high). Patients with low-risk disease, without intervention and minimum followup of 6 months were considered to have elected AS. Results AS cases increased from <20 per year between 2000–2004 to ≥100 per year between 2007–2009. Over the same decade MIS cases (laparoscopic or robotic) increased from zero to 63% of all surgical cases. The percentage of patients in intermediate- and high-risk categories increased over time, while the percentage in the low-risk category decreased (OR per year 0.91, 95% CI 0.89, 0.92, p <0.0005). The proportion of surgery patients with Gleason 6 tumors decreased over time (OR per year 0.87, 95% CI 0.85, 0.88; p <0.0005) while pathologic stage and Gleason score increased (p <0.0005). The proportion of low-risk cases decreased across all types of surgery, with the largest decrease in robotic surgery (p <0.0005). Conclusions We observed a reverse stage shift in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy since 2000 despite the introduction and rapid proliferation of MIS. These findings may be due to increased use of AS and institutional focus on treatment of higher-risk disease. PMID:21484780

  7. A radical approach to decommissioning and nuclear liabilities management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pooley, D.

    1995-01-01

    UKAEA Government Division has been set up primarily to manage and eventually eliminate the nuclear liabilities left from the many national nuclear programmes in which UKAEA has been involved. It is no longer primarily a nuclear plant or decommissioning operator but has developed a radical approach to decommissioning. It targets best value for money, alongside meeting safety and environmental requirements, by major use of contractors for its work, including as managing agents for big projects. In its first year of operation it made considerable progress in setting out the mission, goals, performance measures and operational principles for such an organisation, as well as reducing costs on a wide front from those expected in increasing competition for future projects, and in keeping individual projects under good control. It also made major physical progress with specific decommissioning projects. For the future it has established a programme of continuous performance improvement which will bring further benefits and provide a benchmark for all organisations in the business of liabilities management. (author)

  8. [Organisation and early outcome after radical prostatectomy in Denmark 2004-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, M.; Iversen, P.; Bendixen, A.

    2008-01-01

    .2%. CONCLUSION: There is an increasing rate of radical prostatectomies in Denmark. It is proposed that a national database be established to monitor early and long-term outcomes, including the role of surgical technique (nerve sparing, laparoscopic/robotic surgery, etc.) in order to ensure optimal organisation...

  9. Radical-Local Teaching and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mariane; Chaiklin, Seth

    Radical-Local Teaching and Learning presents a theoretical perspective for analyzing and planning educational programmes for schoolchildren. To realize both general societal interests and worthwhile personal development, the content of educational programmes for children must be grounded in the l......Radical-Local Teaching and Learning presents a theoretical perspective for analyzing and planning educational programmes for schoolchildren. To realize both general societal interests and worthwhile personal development, the content of educational programmes for children must be grounded...... radical-local teaching and learning approach. The first half of the book introduces the idea of radical-local teaching and learning and develops the theoretical background for this perspective, drawing on the cultural-historical research tradition, particularly from Vygotsky, El'konin, Davydov......, and Aidarova. The second half of the book addresses the central concern of radical-local teaching and learning - how to relate educational practices to children's specific historical and cultural conditions. The experiment was conducted for an academic year in an afterschool programme in the East Harlem...

  10. Radical fashion and radical fashion innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, D.; Benedetto, Di A.C.

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of the related concepts of radical fashion and radical fashion innovation. Radical fashions are defined here as those that may never enter the market at all, and exist primarily on runway shows, in exhibitions and in publicity; by contrast, radical fashion innovations may be very

  11. Effect of age and surgical approach on perioperative wound complication following ovariohysterectomy in shelter-housed cats in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine L Roberts

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age and/or surgical approach on perioperative wound complication following ovariohysterectomy (OHE. Methods A retrospective search of perioperative monitoring records from a shelter desexing program was conducted to identify cats that underwent OHE between 1 June 2010 and 31 December 2012 inclusive. A wound complication was defined as gross observation of inflammation or wound dehiscence at the surgical site in the 5 day postoperative period. Cases were grouped according to age (≤12 weeks or >12 weeks and surgical approach (flank or midline. Stratified analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between surgical approach and wound complications, after adjusting for age. Mantel–Haenszel adjusted risk ratio, Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel test statistic and their 95% confidence intervals were presented. Results A total of 312 cases met the study criteria. The overall wound complication risk was low (6.09% and was not related to age. A midline approach was associated with a 4.59-times increased risk of wound complication, compared with a flank approach in cats up to 12 weeks of age ( P = 0.015 but not in older cats. Conclusions and relevance These findings support the practice of prepubertal desexing for cats.

  12. A qualitative study on perceptions of surgical careers in Rwanda: A gender-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sojung; Lin, Yihan; Kansayisa, Grace; Costas-Chavarri, Ainhoa

    2018-01-01

    Access to surgical care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains deficient without an adequate workforce. There is limited understanding of the gender gap in surgical trainees in LMICs. In Rwanda, females fill only one of 20 positions available. Understanding surgeons' experiences and perceptions of surgical careers may help facilitate support for females to contribute to the global surgical workforce. We performed qualitative analysis on perceptions of surgical careers through semi-structured interviews of all female surgeons (n = 6) and corresponding male surgeons (n = 6) who are training or have trained at University of Rwanda. Transcripts were analyzed with code structure formed through an integrated approach. Question categories formed the deductive framework, while theoretical saturation was reached through inductive grounded theory. Themes were organized within two key points of the career timeline. First, for developing interest in surgery, three main themes were identified: role models, patient case encounters, and exposure to surgery. Second, for selecting and sustaining surgical careers, four main themes emerged: social expectations about roles within the family, physical and mental challenges, professional and personal support, and finances. All female surgeons emphasized gender assumptions and surgical working culture as obstacles, with a corresponding strong sense of self-confidence and internal motivation that drew them to select and maintain careers in surgery. Family, time, and physical endurance were cited as persistent challenges for female participants. Our study reveals concepts for further exploration about gendered perceptions of surgical careers. Efforts to improve support for female surgical careers as a strategy for shaping surgical work culture and professional development in Rwanda should be considered. Such strategies may be beneficial for improving the global surgical workforce.

  13. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Mourrain; J.B. Lasserre; M. Laurent (Monique); P. Rostalski; P. Trebuchet (Philippe)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and

  14. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Mourrain; J.B. Lasserre; M. Laurent (Monique); P. Rostalski; P. Trebuchet (Philippe)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and

  15. Factors influencing the operating time for single-port laparoscopic radical nephrectomy: focus on the anatomy and distribution of the renal artery and vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Miyajima, Akira; Fukumoto, Keishiro; Komatsuda, Akari; Niwa, Naoya; Hattori, Seiya; Takeda, Toshikazu; Kikuchi, Eiji; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Oya, Mototsugu

    2017-10-01

    It is considered that laparoscopic single-site surgery should be performed by specially trained surgeons because of the technical difficulty in using special instruments through limited access. We investigated suitable patients for single-port laparoscopic radical nephrectomy, focusing on the anatomy and distribution of the renal artery and vein. This retrospective study was conducted in 52 consecutive patients who underwent single-port radical nephrectomy by the transperitoneal approach. In patients undergoing right nephrectomy, a 2-mm port was added for liver retraction. We retrospectively re-evaluated all of the recorded surgical videos and preoperative computed tomography images. The pneumoperitoneum time (PT) was used as an objective index of surgical difficulty. The PT was significantly shorter for right nephrectomy than left nephrectomy (94 vs. 123 min, P = 0.004). With left nephrectomy, dissection of the spleno-renal ligament to mobilize the spleen medially required additional time. Also, the left renal vein could only be divided after securing the adrenal, gonadal and lumbar veins. In patients whose renal artery was located cranial to the renal vein, PT tended to be longer than in the other patients (131 vs. 108 min, P = 0.070). In patients with a superior renal artery, the inferior renal vein invariably covered the artery and made it difficult to ligate the renal artery via the umbilical approach at the first procedure. These findings indicate that patients undergoing right nephrectomy in whom the renal artery is not located cranial to the renal vein are suitable for single-port laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction related to crossing vessels: vascular anatomic variations and implication for surgical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthier, Frédéric; Lareyre, Fabien; Audouin, Marie; Raffort, Juliette

    2018-03-01

    Pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction corresponds to an impairment of urinary transport that can lead to renal dysfunction if not treated. Several mechanisms can cause the obstruction of the ureter including intrinsic factors or extrinsic factors such as the presence of crossing vessels. The treatment of the disease relies on surgical approaches, pyeloplasty being the standard reference. The technique consists in removing the pathologic ureteric segment and renal pelvis and transposing associated crossing vessels if present. The vascular anatomy of the pelvi-ureteric junction is complex and varies among individuals, and this can impact on the disease development and its surgical treatment. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on vascular anatomic variations in the pelvi-ureteric junction. Based on anatomic characteristics, we discuss implications for surgical approaches during pyeloplasty and vessel transposition.

  17. Proposed salvage treatment strategy for biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate cancer: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Makito; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Asakawa, Isao; Morizawa, Yosuke; Anai, Satoshi; Torimoto, Kazumasa; Aoki, Katsuya; Yoneda, Tatsuo; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Konishi, Noboru; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2014-01-01

    Treatment options for patients with recurrent disease after radical prostatectomy include salvage radiotherapy of the prostatic bed and/or androgen deprivation therapy. To establish an effective treatment strategy for recurrent disease after radical prostatectomy, we retrospectively analyzed the outcome of salvage radiation monotherapy in such cases. Data from 61 men who had undergone salvage radiation monotherapy for biochemical recurrent disease after radical prostatectomy were retrospectively reviewed. In all patients, salvage radiotherapy consisted of iraradiation to the prostatic bed (70 Gy) using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy techniques. Treatment outcome was analyzed to identify predictive factors of salvage radiotherapy. The biochemical recurrence-free survival after salvage radiation monotherapy at 2 and 5 years was 55% and 38%, respectively. Cox proportional regression models revealed that the independent predictive factors for biochemical recurrence were Gleason Score ≥ 8, negative surgical margin, and PSA velocity ≥ 0.38 ng/mL/year. Negative surgical margin and PSA velocity ≥ 0.8 ng/mL/year were significantly associated with poor response in the serum PSA levels after salvage radiotherapy. Based on our findings, we propose a treatment strategy for biochemical recurrent disease after radical prostatectomy. Patients with Gleason score ≤ 7, positive surgical margin, and PSA velocity < 0.38 ng/mL/year are categorized the most favorable group, so that eradication by salvage radiation monotherapy could be expected. Other patients could be divided to two groups depending on surgical margin status and PSA velocity: 1) patients who might require combination of SRT and short-term androgen deprivation therapy and 2) patients who should be treated by androgen deprivation monotherapy

  18. Surgical approach to gallbladder disease in rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Jonathan B; Ochoa-Hernandez, Annie; Herrejon, Juan; Madni, Tarik D; Clark, Audra T; Huerta, Sergio

    2017-10-01

    In this article, we report the current surgical approach to gallbladder disease at a major referral hospital in rural Guatemala. Complications in a cohort of patients undergoing open versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy were catalogued. We reviewed cholecystectomies performed by surgeons at the Hospital Nacional de San Benito in El Peten, Guatemala, after the adoption of the laparoscopic approach. Laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LCs) between 2014 and 2015 (n = 42) were reviewed and matched by 58 randomly selected open cholecystectomies (OCs) during the same period. Patient demographics were similar in the LC and OC groups. Of the 63 patients who had elective surgery, 43 (68%) underwent OC. Conversion rate, hospital length of stay, and readmission rate were 4%, 4.8 days, and 5%, respectively. Complications were similar between groups. Despite the low number of LCs, their complications were not different from that of OCs. During the study period, a large number of cholecystectomies continued to be open, even in the elective setting. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasserre, J.B.; Laurent, M.; Mourrain, B.; Rostalski, P.; Trébuchet, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming its complex (resp. real) variety is finite. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-definite

  20. Surgeon Experience is Strongly Associated with Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy for all Preoperative Risk Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eric A; Bianco, Fernando J; Serio, Angel M; Eastham, James A; Kattan, Michael W; Pontes, J. Edson; Vickers, Andrew J; Scardino, Peter T

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously demonstrated that there is a learning curve for open radical prostatectomy. In this study we sought to determine whether the effects of the learning curve are modified by patient risk as defined by preoperative tumor characteristics. Methods The study included 7,683 eligible prostate cancer patients treated with open radical prostatectomy by one of 72 surgeons. Surgeon experience was coded as the total prior number of radical prostatectomies conducted by the surgeon prior to a patient’s surgery. Multivariable survival-time regression models were used to evaluate the association between surgeon experience and biochemical recurrence, separately for each preoperative risk group. Results We saw no evidence that patient risk affects the learning curve: there was a statistically significant association between biochemical recurrence and surgeon experience in all analyses. The absolute risk difference for a patient receiving treatment from a surgeon with 10 compared to 250 prior radical prostatectomies was 6.6% (95% C.I. 3.4%, 10.3%), 12.0% (6.9%, 18.2%) and 9.7% (1.2%, 18.2%) for patients at low, medium and high preoperative risk patients. Recurrence-free probability for patients with low risk disease approached 100% for the most experienced surgeons Conclusions Cancer control after radical prostatectomy improves with increasing surgeon experience irrespective of patient risk. Excellent rates of cancer control for patients with low risk disease treated by the most experienced surgeons suggests that the primary reason such patients recur is inadequate surgical technique. The results have significant implications for clinical care. PMID:18423716

  1. Factors associated with a primary surgical approach for sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracchiolo, Jennifer R; Patel, Krupa; Migliacci, Jocelyn C; Morris, Luc T; Ganly, Ian; Roman, Benjamin R; McBride, Sean M; Tabar, Viviane S; Cohen, Marc A

    2018-03-01

    Primary surgery is the preferred treatment of T1-T4a sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC). Patients with SNSCC in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) were analyzed. Factors that contributed to selecting primary surgical treatment were examined. Overall survival (OS) in surgical patients was analyzed. Four-thousand seven hundred and seventy patients with SNSCC were included. In T1-T4a tumors, lymph node metastases, maxillary sinus location, and treatment at high-volume centers were associated with selecting primary surgery. When primary surgery was utilized, tumor factors and positive margin guided worse OS. Adjuvant therapy improved OS in positive margin resection and advanced T stage cases. Tumor and non-tumor factors are associated with selecting surgery for the treatment of SNSCC. When surgery is selected, tumor factors drive OS. Negative margin resection should be the goal of a primary surgical approach. When a positive margin resection ensues, adjuvant therapy may improve OS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Fracture heuristics: surgical decision for approaches to distal radius fractures. A surgeon's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichlas, Florian; Tsitsilonis, Serafim; Kopf, Sebastian; Krapohl, Björn Dirk; Manegold, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study is to develop a heuristic that could replace the surgeon's analysis for the decision on the operative approach of distal radius fractures based on simple fracture characteristics. Patients and methods: Five hundred distal radius fractures operated between 2011 and 2014 were analyzed for the surgeon's decision on the approach used. The 500 distal radius fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation through palmar, dorsal, and dorsopalmar approaches with 2.4 mm locking plates or underwent percutaneous fixation. The parameters that should replace the surgeon's analysis were the fractured palmar cortex, and the frontal and the sagittal split of the articular surface of the distal radius. Results: The palmar approach was used for 422 (84.4%) fractures, the dorsal approach for 39 (7.8%), and the combined dorsopalmar approach for 30 (6.0%). Nine (1.8%) fractures were treated percutaneously. The correlation between the fractured palmar cortex and the used palmar approach was moderate (r=0.464; p<0.0001). The correlation between the frontal split and the dorsal approach, including the dorsopalmar approach, was strong (r=0.715; p<0.0001). The sagittal split had only a weak correlation for the dorsal and dorsopalmar approach (r=0.300; p<0.0001). Discussion: The study shows that the surgical decision on the preferred approach is dictated through two simple factors, even in the case of complex fractures. Conclusion: When the palmar cortex is displaced in distal radius fractures, a palmar approach should be used. When there is a displaced frontal split of the articular surface, a dorsal approach should be used. When both are present, a dorsopalmar approach should be used. These two simple parameters could replace the surgeon's analysis for the surgical approach.

  3. Optimal surgical approach to thymic malignancies: New trends challenging old dogmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Enrico; Filosso, Pier Luigi; Guerrera, Francesco; Lausi, Paolo; Lyberis, Paraskevas; Oliaro, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    Until recently, the surgical approach to thymic tumors has remained basically unchanged. The collaborative effort led by ITMIG with the collaboration of regional and society-based interest groups (ESTS, JART) produced an enthusiastic surge of interest in testing the new technological advances in thoracic surgery and many historical dogmas in thymic surgery have been questioned and challenged. The present review addresses the new trends in the optimal surgical management of thymic tumors based on the review of the current literature. 1. Minimally-invasive techniques (MIT) including video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and robotic-assisted thoracic Surgery (RATS) are now to be considered the standard of care in early-stage thymic tumors. MIT are no inferior to open approaches in terms of postoperative complications, loco-regional recurrence rates and survival. MIT are associated with a shorter length of stay, reduced intraoperative blood loss and better cosmetic results. 2. The adoption of the ITMIG/IASLC TNM staging system for thymic tumors requires a paradigm shift among thoracic surgeons to include regional lymphadenectomy according to the IASLC/ITMIG nodal map in the surgical management of thymic tumors. 3. A limited thymectomy instead of total thymectomy along with the removal of the thymic tumor in nonmyasthenic Stage I-II tumors has been proposed by some authors, although the results are not uniform. Until more mature data is available, adherence to the current guidelines recommending total thymectomy in addition to thymomectomy is always indicated. 4. In locally-advanced Stage IVa patients with pleural involvement, major pleural resections, including pleurectomy/decortication or extrapleural pneumonectomy are indicated, provided a complete resection of the pleural deposits is anticipated, usually in a multidisciplinary setting, with excellent long-term results. The incorporation of these new concepts and techniques in the surgical armamentarium of the

  4. Surgical treatment of non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas by the endoscopic endonasal approach in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Armando Marenco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, surgical series of elderly patients treated for pituitary adenomas have been published, all of which used the microscopic transsphenoidal or transcranial approach. The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze the surgical results of our first 25 elderly patients with non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFPM operated by the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA. Preoperative visual loss was found in 92.8% of the cases, and 70.8% experienced visual improvement following surgery. Preoperative pituitary dysfunction was found in 69.2% of the cases and postoperative pituitary recovery occurred in 22.2% of them. Mean hospital stay was 6.7 days. The results of this study suggest that surgery remains the first line of treatment for NFPM in the elderly. Because age alone is not a barrier for surgery, patients should be selected for surgical treatment based on their symptoms and clinical condition, as defined by comorbidities.

  5. Supra-aural gossypiboma: case report of a retained textile surgical sponge in an unusual location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, N; Gupta, N; Dhawan, N

    2016-11-01

    Gossypiboma or retained surgical sponge is an infrequently encountered surgical complication, more so in the head and neck region. A literature search did not reveal a previously reported case of retained or concealed surgical sponge after microscopic ear surgery. We present a unique and previously unreported case of a 25-year-old male who presented with a cystic swelling in the right supra-aural region 5 months post-modified radical mastoidectomy of the right ear. Surgical excision of the swelling revealed a retained surgical sponge. We emphasise the importance of counting surgical sponges after every surgical step to minimise the incidence of such retained surgical items.

  6. Robotic Assisted Radical Cystoprostatectomy and Intracorporeal Ileal Conduit Urinary Diversion for a Kidney Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Caputo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and Objectives: Robotic assisted radical cystectomy (RARC is an alternative to open radical cystectomy. As experience is gained with the RARC approach the technique is being applied to more complex surgical cases. We describe here our technique for RARC with intracorporeal ileal conduit urinary diversion for a renal transplant recipient. Materials and Methods: The patient is a 60-year old man with high-grade muscle invasive bladder cancer. He has a history of renal failure due to polycystic kidney disease and received a deceased donor renal transplant in 2008. His hospital course at time of transplant was complicated by low-level BK virus viremia. Interestingly his trans-urethral bladder tumor resection specimen at time of bladder cancer diagnosis stained positive for SV40. His native kidneys were anuric so bilateral laparoscopic nephrectomy was performed in a staged fashion 2 weeks prior to RARC. Our surgical technique utilizes 6 trocars, of note a 12-mm assistant trocar is placed 1 cm superior to the pubic symphysis, and this trocar is solely used to pass a laparoscopic stapler to facilitate the excision of the ileal segment and the stapled enteric anastomosis. Surgical steps include: identification of native ureters bilaterally (removed en bloc with the bladder specimen; identification of the transplanted ureter at the right bladder dome; posterior bladder and prostate dissection along Denonvilliers’ fascia; development of the space of Retzius; ligation and transection of the bladder and prostate vascular bundles; apical prostate dissection and transection of urethra; left pelvic lymphadenectomy; ilium resection for creation of the ileal conduit; stapled enteric anastomosis; ureteroileal anastomosis; maturation of the ileal conduit stoma. Results: The surgery had no intraoperative complications. Operative time was 443 minutes (7.4 hours. Estimated blood loss was 250 cc. Length of hospital stay was 5 days. The patient

  7. Near-Infrared Free-Radical and Free-Radical-Promoted Cationic Photopolymerizations by In-Source Lighting Using Upconverting Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaarslan, Azra; Tabanli, Sevcan; Eryurek, Gonul; Yagci, Yusuf

    2017-11-13

    A method is presented for the initiation of free-radical and free-radical-promoted cationic photopolymerizations by in-source lighting in the near-infrared (NIR) region using upconverting glass (UCG). This approach utilizes laser irradiation of UCG at 975 nm in the presence of fluorescein (FL) and pentamethyldiethylene triamine (PMDETA). FL excited by light emitted from the UCG undergoes electron-transfer reactions with PMDETA to form free radicals capable of initiating polymerization of methyl methacrylate. To execute the corresponding free-radical-promoted cationic polymerization of cyclohexene oxide, isobutyl vinyl ether, and N-vinyl carbazole, it was necessary to use FL, dimethyl aniline (DMA), and diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate as sensitizer, coinitiator, and oxidant, respectively. Iodonium ions promptly oxidize DMA radicals formed to the corresponding cations. Thus, cationic polymerization with efficiency comparable to the conventional irradiation source was achieved. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A revised 3-column classification approach for the surgical planning of extended lateral tibial plateau fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, H; Kempenaers, K; Nijs, S

    2017-10-01

    Variable angle locking compression plates allow for lateral buttress and support of the posterolateral joint surface of tibial plateau fractures. This gives room for improvement of the surgical 3-column classification approach. Our aim was to revise and validate the 3-column classification approach to better guide the surgical planning of tibial plateau fractures extending into the posterolateral corner. In contrast to the 3-column classification approach, in the revised approach the posterior border of the lateral column in the revised approach lies posterior instead of anterior of the fibula. According to the revised 3-column classification approach, extended lateral column fractures are defined as single lateral column fractures extending posteriorly into the posterolateral corner. CT-images of 36 patients were reviewed and classified twice online according to Schatzker and revised 3-column classification approach by five observers. The intraobserver reliability was calculated using the Cohen's kappa and the interobserver reliability was calculated using the Fleiss' kappa. The intraobserver reliability showed substantial agreement according to Landis and Koch for both Schatzker and the revised 3-column classification approach (0.746 vs. 0.782 p = 0.37, Schatzker vs. revised 3-column, respectively). However, the interobserver reliability of the revised 3-column classification approach was significantly higher as compared to the Schatzker classification (0.531 vs. 0.669 p column, respectively). With the introduction of variable angle locking compression plates, the revised 3-column classification approach is a very helpful tool in the preoperative surgical planning of tibial plateau fractures, in particular, lateral column fractures that extend into the posterolateral corner. The revised 3-column classification approach is rather a practical supplement to the Schatzker classification. It has a significantly higher interobserver reliability as compared to the

  9. Reoperation after radical correction tetralogy of Fallot: results and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Zinkovskyi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim – to present experience, results and prospects of repeated interventions in the remote period after radical correction of tetralogy of Fallot. Materials and methods. Results of the repeated 65 surgeries in 62 patients after radical correction of tetralogy of Fallot with long-term follow-up for the period from 1981 to 2014 are presented. The interval between the radical tetralogy of Fallot correction and re-operation ranged from 1 month to 30 years (average – 8.54 ± 6.3 years. Results. Depending on the predominance of one or other complications and its causes we observed: 1 residual defects – 25 (40.4 % cases; right ventricular dysfunction – 23 (37.0 % cases; valve pathology – 5 (8.0 % cases; other rare complications – 9 (14.6 % cases. In total, 100 complications were identified and eliminated in 62 patients. The most frequent complications that required second surgical correction were: recanalization of ventricular septal defect (36.0 %, right ventricular aneurysm (19.0 %, tricuspid valve insufficiency (13.0 %, the residual obstruction of the outflow tract of the right ventricle (9.0 %, right ventricular dysfunction caused by pulmonary valve insufficiency (6.0 % and pulmonary trunk aneurysm (5.0 %. Conclusion. Hospital mortality after surgical correction of long-term complications was 8.0 %. All discharged patients with echocardiographic evaluation revealed a positive dynamics of volume and functional parameters of the right and left ventricles

  10. A radical approach to decommissioning and nuclear liabilities management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pooley, D.

    1996-01-01

    UKAEA Government Division has been set up primarily to manage and eventually eliminate the nuclear liabilities left from the many national nuclear programmes in which UKAEA has been involved. It is no longer primarily a nuclear plant or decommissioning operator but has developed a radical approach to decommissioning. It targets best value for money, alongside meeting safety and environmental requirements, by major use of contractors for its work, including using them as managing agents for big projects. In its first year of operation it made considerable progress in setting out the mission, goals, performance measures and operational principles for such an organization, as well as in reducing costs on a wide front from those expected, in increasing competition for future projects, and in keeping individual projects under good control. It also made major physical progress with specific decommissioning projects. For the future it has established a programme of continuous performance improvement which will bring further benefits and provide a benchmark for all organizations in the business of liabilities management. (author)

  11. Anatomic Considerations for Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy in an Achondroplastic Dwarf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Gyomber

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of a radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP in an achondroplastic dwarf. We highlight the pelvic anatomy, precluding laparoscopic or robotic prostatectomy, and making open surgery extremely difficult. We review relevant literature regarding general, urological, and orthopedic abnormalities of achondroplasia (ACH and present a clinical case. No reports of RRP in achondroplastic dwarfs exist, with only one case of an abandoned RRP due to similar pelvic anatomy in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta. Significant lumbar lordosis found in ACH results in a short anteroposterior dimension, severely limiting access to the prostate. We present a case of a 62-year-old achondroplastic dwarf who had Gleason 3+4 disease on transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy in four from 12 cores. Surgery was difficult due to narrow anteroposterior pelvic dimension, but achievable. Histological analysis revealed multifocal prostate cancer, with negative surgical margins and no extraprostatic extension. RRP in ACH patients, although possible, should be approached with caution due to the abnormal pelvic dimensions, and discussions regarding potential abandonment of surgery should be included during informed consent. This case highlights the preoperative use of computed tomography to assist in the surgical planning for patients with difficult pelvic anatomy.

  12. The tropical diabetic hand syndrome: a surgical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nthumba, Peter; Cavadas, Pedro C; Landin, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Tropical diabetic hand syndrome (TDHS) is an aggressive type of hand sepsis that results in significant morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes in the tropics. This study set out to establish a protocol for the holistic management of TDHS to improve digit/hand salvage and function at AIC Kijabe Hospital. This prospective study examined the following demographics of patients presenting to the authors institution between October 2009 and September 2010 with TDHS: their sex, age, comorbidities, length of in-hospital stay, surgical and medical treatment, total cost of treatment, and immediate postdischarge outcomes. A total of 10 patients (3 men and 7 women) were presented with TDHS during the study period. Surgical procedures included a thorough debridement of the hand at initial presentation, followed by procedures aimed at preserving length and hand function, with digit or hand amputation when there was no possibility of salvage. Three hands were salvaged, without the need for an amputation; 2 of these, however, developed severe stiffness with resultant poor function. Fifty percent of the patients developed considerable disability; 3 of these patients had disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand, (DASH) scores of >90 at 6 months after treatment. TDHS appears to be more aggressive in some patients than in others; a multidisciplinary approach, with early involvement of the surgical team, and a radical surgical debridement are essential to improved outcomes. Although the goal of medical treatment (ie, glycemic control) is simple and easily achieved, surgical goals (salvage of limb or life, preservation of hand function) are more complex, costly, and difficult to achieve. Educating health care workers, diabetic patients, and their relatives on hand care is an important preventive measure. Diligence in taking antidiabetic medicine, early presentation, and appropriate care of TDHS are required for meaningful improvement in outcomes of patients with

  13. Harmonic Scalpel versus Electrocautery Dissection in Modified Radical Mastectomy for Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinbo; Yu, Yinghua; Wei, Changyuan; Qin, Qinghong; Mo, Qinguo; Yang, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Despite the common use of conventional electrocautery in modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer, the harmonic scalpel is recently emerging as a dominant surgical instrument for dissection and haemostasis, which is thought to reduce the morbidity, such as seroma and blood loss. But the results of published trials are inconsistent. So we made the meta-analysis to assess the intraoperative and postoperative endpoints among women undergoing modified radical mastectomy with harmonic scalpel or electrocautery. A comprehensive literature search of case-control studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases involving modified radical mastectomy with harmonic scalpel or electrocautery was performed. We carried out a meta-analysis of primary endpoints including postoperative drainage, seroma development, intraoperative blood loss and secondly endpoints including operative time and wound complications. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the effect size for categorical outcomes and standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous outcomes. A total of 11 studies with 702 patients were included for this meta-analysis. There was significant difference in total postoperative drainage (SMD: -0.74 [95%CI: -1.31, -0.16]; Pelectrocautery in modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer. No difference was found as for operative time between harmonic scalpel dissection and standard electrocautery (SMD: 0.04 [95%CI: -0.41, 0.50]; P = 0.85). Compared to standard electrocautery, harmonic scalpel dissection presents significant advantages in decreasing postoperative drainage, seroma development, intraoperative blood loss and wound complications in modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer, without increasing operative time. Harmonic scalpel can be recommended as a preferential surgical instrument in modified radical mastectomy.

  14. Modified Risdon approach using periangular incision in surgical treatment of subcondylar mandibular fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Živorad S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. No consensus has been reached yet on the surgical approach for treatment of condylar fractures. Objective. The aim of this study was to present modified Risdon approach (without facial nerve identification in the treatment of subcondylar mandibular fractures. Method. This is a retrospective study of a period 2005-2012. During this seven-year period, 25 condylar mandibular fractures in 22 men and three women (19-68 years old were treated by modified Risdon approach without identifying the facial nerve. The main inclusion criterion was subcondylar fracture according to Lindahl classification. Results. No additional morbidity related to postoperative complications, such as infection or salivary fistula, was observed in this series. Only two (8% patients developed temporary weakness of the marginal branch of the facial nerve, which resolved six weeks postoperatively. Each patient achieved good mouth opening postoperatively. Scar was camouflaged in the first cervical wrinkle. Two patients developed temporomandibular joint dysfunction. No patient had postoperative occlusal disturbance. In all of the patients good aesthetic result was achieved in a two-year follow-up. Conclusion. In comparison with techniques described in the literature, the main advantages of the modified Risdon approach are the following: no need for facial vessels identification; direct, fast, and safe approach to mandibular angle and subcondylar region; relatively simple surgical technique and good cosmetic result - due to aesthetically placed incision. This approach could be recommended for subcondylar fracture as a simplified and safe procedure. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175075

  15. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy by extraperitoneal access with duplication of the open technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tobias-Machado

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is a continually developing technique. Transperitoneal access has been preferred by the majority of centers that employ this technique. Endoscopic extraperitoneal access is used by a few groups, nevertheless it is currently receiving a higher acceptance. In general, the antegrade technique is used, with dissection from the bladder neck to the prostate apex. The objective of the present paper is to describe the extraperitoneal technique with reproduction of the open surgery's surgical steps. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: With this technique, the dissection of the prostate apex is performed and, following the section of the urethra while preserving the sphincteric apparatus, the Foley catheter is externally tied and internally recovered, which allows cranial traction, similarly to the way it is performed in conventional surgery. The retroprostatic space is posteriorly dissected and the seminal vesicles are identified by anterior and posterior approach, obtaining with this method an optimal exposure of the posterolateral pedicles and the prostate contour. The initial impression is that this technique does not present higher bleeding rate or difficulty level when compared with antegrade surgery. Potential advantages of this technique would be the greater familiarity with surgical steps, isolated extraperitoneal drainage of urine and secretions and a good definition of prostate limits and lateral pedicles, which are critical factors for preserving the neurovascular bundles and avoiding positive surgical margins. A higher number of cases and a long-term follow-up will demonstrate its actual value as a technical option for endoscopic access to the prostate.

  16. Surgical treatment of parastomal hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basti, Z.; Mayer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Stoma construction is among standard surgical skills and is performed for many indications. Every stoma means huge impact on quality of life for patients even with great improvement in surgical technique and ostomy devices. All patients are very sensitive to complication of stoma and the most frequent complication is parastomal hernia. Incidence reported in literature is very high and unacceptable, it is 30-70%. Surgical approach is very demanding on technical equipment and experiences of surgeon. Authors focus on each surgical approach for treating this complication weather it´s using mesh or laparoscopic or open approach. (author)

  17. A radical-local approach to bringing cultural practices into mathematics teaching in Ghanaian primary schools, exemplified in the case of measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Ernest Kofi; Chaiklin, Seth

    2015-01-01

    on a study that drew on aspects of the radical-local approach to teaching and learning (Hedegaard & Chaiklin, 2005), to teach the idea of measurement to primary four school children from an average rural school in Cape Coast Metropolis of Ghana. The first four teaching sessions with a primary four class......The main aim of this article is to put forward the idea of the general value of the radical-local approach to teaching and learning for the development of mathematics teaching in Ghana, both in relation to classroom teaching and for teacher training. To illustrate this idea, this article reports...... are described. Each of the teaching sessions drew on the social and cultural practices of the children to help them form an idea of what measurement is and which physical properties could be measured from given objects. Qualitative analysis of the teaching sessions revealed that the teaching approach enabled...

  18. Gynecomastia associated with herniated nipples: an optimal surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Rohit; Pu, Lee L Q

    2012-04-01

    Gynecomastia is a common disorder observed in male plastic surgery patients. Treatment options may include observation, surgical excision, or liposuction techniques. Congenital herniated nipple is a more rare condition, especially in male patients. We present the case of a 12-year-old boy with bilateral gynecomastia and herniated nipple-areolar complexes. A staged repair was undertaken in this patient with grade 2 gynecomastia. The first operation was ultrasonic liposuction bilaterally, yielding 200 mL of aspirate from the left and 400 mL on the right, to correct the gynecomastia. The second procedure, performed 6 months later, was a bilateral periareolar mastopexy to repair the herniated nipple-areolar complexes. The result of the first procedure was flattened and symmetrical breast tissue bilaterally, essentially a correction of the gynecomastia. The herniated nipples were still present, however. Bilateral periareolar mastopexies were then performed with resulting reduction of the herniations. There were no complications with either procedure, and a good cosmetic result was achieved. A staged surgical approach was successful in correcting both conditions with an excellent aesthetic result and the advantage of decreased risk for nipple complications.

  19. Surgical results of lung cancer with sarcoid reaction in regional lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimaru, Yoshito; Higashiyama, Masahiko; Okami, Jiro; Oda, Kazuyuki; Takami, Koji; Kodama, Ken; Tsukamoto, Yoshitane

    2007-01-01

    There have been few reports of sarcoid reaction in the regional lymph nodes associated with lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to analyze the surgical results of lung cancer with sarcoid reaction. Of 1733 lung cancer patients undergoing surgical treatment in our institute from 1990 to 2004, we reviewed 22 patients (1.3%) with sarcoid reaction in the regional lymph nodes of lung cancer. On pre-operative computed tomography (CT), mediastinal lymph node swelling was detected in 19 patients (86%) as clinical N3 disease (c-N3) in six or as c-N2 in 13, while three patients were classified as c-N0. To these 19 patients, lymph node status was histologically checked by mediastinoscopy in four patients, sternotomy approach in two and open mini-thoracotomy in 13. Because the sampling-biopsy nodes showed no tumor metastasis, radical surgery was promptly performed. However, four patients (18%) were finally judged to have pathological lymph node positive disease. Five patients were in pathological stage (p-stage) IA, nine in p-stage IB, five in p-stage IIB, two in p-stage IIIA, and one in stage IIIB. The overall 3-, and 5-year survival rates of these patients were 85.2 and 77.7%, respectively, with no significant difference compared to those of the remaining patients without sarcoid reaction. Because lung cancer patients with sarcoid reaction in the regional lymph nodes frequently show mediastinal lymph node swelling on CT, radical resection should be performed after confirming the node status by appropriate sampling biopsy. It seems that surgical results of lung cancers with sarcoid reaction in the regional nodes are not prognostically different from those without sarcoid reaction. (author)

  20. Evolving a common surgical curriculum for ASEAN nations with a public health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Siew Kheong

    2013-03-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) on medical practitioners' agreement will become a reality in the year 2015. Doctors registered in one ASEAN country will be given reciprocal recognition in another country under this agreement. Rapid and excessive movement of human resources between countries in a short span of time is undesirable and can be destabilizing. The surgical fraternity in the ASEAN countries should plan for a common surgical curriculum, a common examination and an ASEAN Board of Surgery so that standards of future trainees in different countries are comparable. The curriculum should take into consideration the diversity of the countries in socio-economic development. Ideally, it should be based on a public health approach to bring affordable quality surgical care to the masses in an efficient and effective manner. © 2013 The Author. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  1. The Satisfaction Rate among Patients and Surgeons after Periareolar Surgical Approach to Gynecomastia along with Liposuction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Ahmad Reza; Farahvash, Mohamad Reza; Fathi, Hamid Reza; Ghanbarzadeh, Koorosh; Faridniya, Bijan

    2016-09-01

    Surgery, as the main approach in higher stages of gynecomastia, has different techniques regarding the staging of the disease. The more the grade of gynecomastia, the more complicated the used surgical techniques, conventionally. This study assessed the success rate of the simplest surgical technique in higher grades of gynecology as well as the satisfaction rate in patients and surgeon to offer using the technique for higher grades of the disease. To evaluate the success and the satisfaction rates of periareolar incision and liposuction among patients with grade II and III gynecomastia, this cross-sectional study was conducted. The satisfaction rate was the main concern of the present study. The patients had a mean satisfaction score of 8.1±1.396 with the range of 5-10 from total 10 score. The majority of the patients expressed their satisfaction by 9 score. The total mean of physician satisfaction score was 8.36 at all levels. Like aesthetic reasons which lead individuals to seek solutions for their annoying gynecomastia, aesthetic satisfaction is a prominent concern for people who undergo surgical approach. So, the least surgical scar and complications are absolutely the most area of focus in this regard.

  2. Long term (five-year survival following radical surgical treatment plus adjuvant chemotherapy (FAM in advanced gastric cancer: a controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bresciani Cláudio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Several drugs and their associations are being used for adjuvant or complementary chemotherapy with the aim of improving results of gastric cancer treatment. The objective of this study was to verify the impact of these drugs on nutrition and on survival rate after radical treatment of 53 patients with gastric cancer in stage III of the TNM classification. A control group including 28 patients who had only undergone radical resection was compared to a group of 25 patients who underwent the same operative technique followed by adjuvant polychemotherapy with FAM (5-fluorouracil, Adriamycin, and mitomycin C. In this latter group, chemotherapy toxicity in relation to hepatic, renal, cardiologic, neurological, hematologic, gastrointestinal, and dermatological functions was also studied. There was no significant difference on admission between both groups in relation to gender, race, macroscopic tumoral type of tumor according to the Borrmann classification, location of the tumor in the stomach, length of the gastric resection, or response to cutaneous tests on delayed sensitivity. Chemotherapy was started on average, 2.3 months following surgical treatment. Clinical and laboratory follow-up of all patients continued for 5 years. The following conclusions were reached: 1 The nutritional status and incidence of gastrointestinal manifestation were similar in both groups; 2 There was no occurrence of cardiac, renal, neurological, or hepatic toxicity or death due to the chemotherapeutic method per se; 3 Dermatological alterations and hematological toxicity occurred exclusively in patients who underwent polychemotherapy; 4 There was no significant difference between the rate and site of tumoral recurrence, the disease-free interval, or the survival rate of both study groups; 5 Therefore, we concluded, after a 5-year follow-up, chemotherapy with the FAM regimen did not increase the survival rate.

  3. Learning curve of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for a single experienced surgeon: comparison with simultaneous laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Ja Yoon; Ha, Hong Koo

    2015-04-01

    Despite the large number of analytical reports regarding the learning curve in the transition from open to robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), few comparative results with laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) have been reported. Thus, we evaluated operative and postoperative outcomes in RARP versus 100 simultaneously performed LRPs. A single surgeon had performed more than 1,000 laparoscopic operations, including 415 cases of radical nephrectomy, 85 radical cystectomies, 369 radical prostatectomies, and treatment of 212 other urological tumors, since 2009. We evaluated operative (operation time, intraoperative transfusion, complications, hospital stay, margin status, pathological stage, Gleason score) and postoperative (continence and erectile function) parameters in initial cases of RARP without tutoring compared with 100 recently performed LRPs. Mean operation time and length of hospital stay for RARP and LRP were 145.5±43.6 minutes and 118.1±39.1 minutes, and 6.4±0.9 days and 6.6±1.1 days, respectively (p=0.003 and p=0.721). After 17 cases, the mean operation time for RARP was similar to LRP (less than 2 hours). Positive surgical margins in localized cancer were seen in 11.1% and 8.9% of cases in RARP and LRP, respectively (p=0.733). At postoperative 3 months, sexual intercourse was reported in 14.0% and 12.0%, and pad-free continence in 96.0% and 81.0% in patients with RARP and LRP, respectively (p=0.796 and p=0.012). Previous large-volume experience of LRPs may shorten the learning curve for RARP in terms of oncological outcome. Additionally, previous experience with laparoscopy may improve the functional outcomes of RARP.

  4. Feasibility study of a clinically-integrated randomized trial of modifications to radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers Andrew J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous technical modifications to radical prostatectomy have been proposed. Such modifications are likely to lead to only slight improvements in outcomes. Although small differences would be worthwhile, an appropriately powered randomized trial would need to be very large, and thus of doubtful feasibility given the expense, complexity and regulatory burden of contemporary clinical trials. We have proposed a novel methodology, the clinically-integrated randomized trial, which dramatically streamlines trial procedures in order to reduce the marginal cost of an additional patient towards zero. We aimed to determine the feasibility of implementing such a trial for radical prostatectomy. Methods Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy as initial treatment for prostate cancer were randomized in a factorial design to involvement of the fascia during placement of the anastomotic sutures, urethral irrigation, both or neither. Endpoint data were obtained from routine clinical documentation. Accrual and compliance rates were monitored to determine the feasibility of the trial. Results From a total of 260 eligible patients, 154 (59% consented; 56 patients declined to participate, 20 were not approached on recommendation of the treating surgeon, and 30 were not approached for logistical reasons. Although recording by surgeons of the procedure used was incomplete (~80%, compliance with randomization was excellent when it was recorded, with only 6% of procedures inconsistent with allocation. Outcomes data was received from 71% of patients at one year. This improved to 83% as the trial progressed. Conclusions A clinically-integrated randomized trial was conducted at low cost, with excellent accrual, and acceptable compliance with treatment allocation and outcomes reporting. This demonstrates the feasibility of the methodology. Improved methods to ensure documentation of surgical procedures would be required before wider implementation

  5. Customers as Partners in Radical Service Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh

    2009-01-01

      Purpose- The main purpose of this paper is to investigate customer involvement and related challenges in radical service innovations in engineering consulting services Design/methodology/approach - The paper uses a case study approach and so called rich descriptions to investigate customer...... involvement, roles and related challenges and conditions in radical service innovations.Findings- One main finding is that customers can engage in radical service innovations in engineering consultancy services and may play a decisive role. In doing this they most likely take on all the three user involvement...... roles defined in the literature of New Service and New Product Development. Also a number of conditions are found to be necessary in order for this collaboration to succeed. The conclusion is that another understanding and handling of the customer/supplier relation is needed along with a need...

  6. Classical surgical approach and treatment with clips of extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Vukas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We can define extracranial carotid artery aneurysm (ECAA as bulb dilatation greater than 200% of the diameter of the internal carotid artery (ICA or in a case of common carotid artery (CCA greater than 150% of the diameter. Surgical intervention is required for the treatment of this disease.Case report: This study presents an open vascular surgical procedure to resolve ECAA. We report a case of 61 years old woman with an extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm, presented with a headache and dizziness when turning the head aside. Classic open surgery was performed and the lumen of berry aneurysm was separated with three clips from the lumen of ICA.Conclusions: The open surgical approach is the method of choice for the treatment of extracranial internal carotid artery pathological conditions.

  7. Minimally invasive surgical approaches offer earlier time to adjuvant chemotherapy but not improved survival in resected pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkin, Katelin A; Greenleaf, Erin K; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Wong, Joyce

    2018-05-01

    Pancreatic surgery encompasses complex operations with significant potential morbidity. Greater experience in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has allowed resections to be performed laparoscopically and robotically. This study evaluates the impact of surgical approach in resected pancreatic cancer. The National Cancer Data Base (2010-2012) was reviewed for patients with stages 1-3 resected pancreatic carcinoma. Open approaches were compared to MIS. A sub-analysis was then performed comparing robotic and laparoscopic approaches. Of the 9047 patients evaluated, surgical approach was open in 7511 (83%), laparoscopic in 992 (11%), and robotic in 131 (1%). The laparoscopic and robotic conversion rate to open was 28% (n = 387) and 17% (n = 26), respectively. Compared to open, MIS was associated with more distal resections (13.5, 24.3%, respectively, p offered significantly shorter LOS in all types. Multivariate analysis demonstrated no survival benefit for any MIS approach relative to open (all, p > 0.05). When adjusted for patient, disease, and treatment characteristics, TTC was not an independent prognostic factor (HR 1.09, p = 0.084). MIS appears to offer comparable surgical oncologic benefit with improved LOS and shorter TTC. This effect, however, was not associated with improved survival.

  8. Does the surgical approach for treating mandibular condylar fractures affect the rate of seventh cranial nerve injuries? A systematic review and meta-analysis based on a new classification for surgical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Moraissi, Essam Ahmed; Louvrier, Aurélien; Colletti, Giacomo; Wolford, Larry M; Biglioli, Federico; Ragaey, Marwa; Meyer, Christophe; Ellis, Edward

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of facial nerve injury (FNI) when performing (ORIF) of mandibular condylar fractures by different surgical approaches. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed that included several databases with specific keywords, a reference search, and a manual search for suitable articles. The inclusion criteria were all clinical trials, with the aim of assessing the rate of facial nerve injuries when (ORIF) of mandibular condylar fractures was performed using different surgical approaches. The main outcome variable was transient facial nerve injury (TFNI) and permanent facial nerve injury (PFNI) according to the fracture levels, namely: condylar head fractures (CHFs), condylar neck fractures (CNFs), and condylar base fractures (CBFs). For studies where there was no delineation between CNFs and CBFs, the fractures were defined as CNFs/CBFs. The dependent variables were the surgical approaches. A total of 3873 patients enrolled in 96 studies were included in this analysis. TFNI rates reported in the literature were as follows: A) For the transoral approach: a) for strictly intraoral 0.72% (1.3 in CNFs and 0% for CBFs); b) for the transbuccal trocar instrumentation 2.7% (4.2% in CNFs and 0% for CBFs); and c) for endoscopically assisted ORIF 4.2% (5% in CNFs, and 4% in CBFs). B) For low submandibular approach 15.3% (26.1% for CNFs, 11.8% for CBFs, and 13.7% for CNFs/CBFs). C) For the high submandibular/angular subparotid approach with masseter transection 0% in CBFs. D) For the high submandibular/angular transmassetric anteroparotid approach 0% (CNFs and CBFs). E) For the transparotid retromandibular approach a) with nerve facial preparation 14.4% (23.9% in CNFs, 11.8% in CBFs and 13.7% for CNFs/CBFs); b) without facial nerve preparation 19% (24.3% for CNFs and 10.5% for CBFs). F) For retromandibular transmassetric anteroparotid approach 3.4% in CNFs/CBFs. G) For retromandibular transmassetric anteroparotid

  9. Surgical outcomes of the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for large and giant pituitary adenomas: institutional experience with special attention to approach-related complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Rocha Constantino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective In this study, we investigate our institutional experience of patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for treatment of large and giant pituitary adenomas emphasizing the surgical results and approach-related complications. Method The authors reviewed 28 consecutive patients who underwent surgery between March, 2010 and March, 2014. Results The mean preoperative tumor diameter was 4.6 cm. Gross-total resection was achieved in 14.3%, near-total in 10.7%, subtotal in 39.3%, and partial in 35.7%. Nine patients experienced improvement in visual acuity, while one patient worsened. The most common complications were transient diabetes insipidus (53%, new pituitary deficit (35.7%, endonasal adhesions (21.4%, and cerebrospinal fluid leak (17.8%. Surgical mortality was 7.1%. Conclusions Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery is a valuable treatment option for large or giant pituitary adenomas, which results in high rates of surgical decompression of cerebrovascular structures.

  10. Encapsulation of Gibbsite platelets with free radical and controlled radical emulsion polymerization approaches, a small review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loiko, O.P.; Spoelstra, A.B.; van Herk, A.M.; Meuldijk, J.; Heuts, J.P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Water-borne anisotropic polymer-Gibbsite latex particles were prepared by a conventional and an atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP) based starved-feed emulsion polymerisation without any chemical modification of the platelet surface. Anionic co-oligomers, synthesised via ATRP, were used in

  11. VATS Lobectomy: Surgical Evolution from Conventional VATS to Uniportal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gonzalez-Rivas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no standardized technique for the VATS lobectomy, though most centres use 2 ports and add a utility incision. However, the procedure can be performed by eliminating the two small ports and using only the utility incision with similar outcomes. Since 2010, when the uniportal approach was introduced for major pulmonary resection, the technique has been spreading worldwide. The single-port technique provides a direct view to the target tissue. The conventional triple port triangulation creates a new optical plane with genesis of dihedral or torsional angle that is not favorable with standard two-dimension monitors. The parallel instrumentation achieved during single-port approach mimics inside the maneuvers performed during open surgery. Furthermore, it represents the less invasive approach possible, and avoiding the use of trocar, we minimize the compression of the intercostal nerve. Further development of new technologies like sealing devices for all vessels and fissure, robotic arms that open inside the thorax, and wireless cameras will facilitate the uniportal approach to become the standard surgical procedure for pulmonary resection in most thoracic departments.

  12. Role of RENAL nephrometry scoring system in planning surgical intervention in patients with localized renal mas

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Samir Shaaban; Tamer Mohammed Abou Youssif; Ahmed Mostafa; Hossam Eldin Hegazy; Mohammed Adel Atta

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study was designed to validate the value of preoperative planning using RENAL nephrometry scoring system in patients having organ confined renal tumors and undergoing surgical intervention and to assess its correlation with the surgical technique. Patient and methods: Forty patients with organ-confined renal masses underwent RENAL nephrometry scoring which was correlated with the surgical technique either radical or nephron-sparing surgery. Result: RENAL nephrometry scoring...

  13. Traumatic diaphragmatic ruptures: clinical presentation, diagnosis and surgical approach in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Traumatic diaphragmatic injuries are rare, but potentially life-threatening due to herniation of abdominal organs into the pleural cavities. They can be easily overlooked on initial diagnostics and a high index of suspicion is required. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the clinical presentation, diagnostic methods and surgical management of patients with diaphragmatic rupture at our institution. Methods: A retrospective study was performed to analyze our experience with patients suffering from traumatic diaphragmatic rupture. Charts were reviewed for sex, age, side-location, concomitant injuries, time-to-diagnosis, diagnostic methods, surgical approach and outcome. Results: Fourteen patients (median age: 46 yrs, range 18–71, 9 male, 5 female with diaphragmatic injuries (left side: 10, right side: 4 were treated between July 2003 and September 2011. Mechanism of injury was a penetrating trauma (14%, blunt trauma (50% and others (36%. Associated abdominal injuries included spleen rupture (n=3, liver laceration (n=2, abdominal wall laceration (n=2 and gastric perforation (n=1. Computed tomography was the most sensitive diagnostic method. All patients underwent trans-abdominal repair of the diaphragmatic defect (direct suture: 10, prosthetic mesh insertion: 4. Associated abdominal procedures included splenectomy (n=3, liver packing (n=2, abdominal wall reconstruction (n=2 and partial gastric resection (n=1. Morbidity and hospital mortality rate were 36% and 0%, respectively. Median postoperative hospital stay was 17 days (range: 7–40 days. Conclusion: Morbidity and mortality of diaphragmatic ruptures are mainly determined by associated injuries or complications of diaphragmatic herniation like incarceration of viscera or lung failure. Early diagnosis helps to prevent severe complications. Spiral CT-scan is the most reliable tool for acute diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture and associated visceral lacerations

  14. Radiofrequency Ablation for 110 Malignant Liver Tumours: Preliminary Results on Percutaneous and Surgical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wong

    2009-01-01

    Conclusion: RFA is a safe and effective procedure for treating patients with malignant liver tumours. No difference in short term outcomes was observed between percutaneous and surgical approaches. A more prolonged follow-up study is required to assess longer-term outcomes.

  15. Echocardiographic Classification and Surgical Approaches to Double-Outlet Right Ventricle for Great Arteries Arising Almost Exclusively from the Right Ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Kun-Jing; Meng, Hong; Hu, Sheng-Shou; Wang, Hao; Hsi, David; Hua, Zhong-Dong; Pan, Xiang-Bin; Li, Shou-Jun

    2017-08-01

    Selecting an appropriate surgical approach for double-outlet right ventricle (DORV), a complex congenital cardiac malformation with many anatomic variations, is difficult. Therefore, we determined the feasibility of using an echocardiographic classification system, which describes the anatomic variations in more precise terms than the current system does, to determine whether it could help direct surgical plans. Our system includes 8 DORV subtypes, categorized according to 3 factors: the relative positions of the great arteries (normal or abnormal), the relationship between the great arteries and the ventricular septal defect (committed or noncommitted), and the presence or absence of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO). Surgical approaches in 407 patients were based on their DORV subtype, as determined by echocardiography. We found that the optimal surgical management of patients classified as normal/committed/no RVOTO, normal/committed/RVOTO, and abnormal/committed/no RVOTO was, respectively, like that for patients with large ventricular septal defects, tetralogy of Fallot, and transposition of the great arteries without RVOTO. Patients with abnormal/committed/RVOTO anatomy and those with abnormal/noncommitted/RVOTO anatomy underwent intraventricular repair and double-root translocation. For patients with other types of DORV, choosing the appropriate surgical approach and biventricular repair techniques was more complex. We think that our classification system accurately groups DORV patients and enables surgeons to select the best approach for each patient's cardiac anatomy.

  16. Influence of secondary diagnoses in the development of urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Padilla-Fernández

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study whether there are factors related to secondary diagnoses (SDg present in patients with prostate cancer that influence the development of urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy (RP. Materials and methods: A retrospective multicenter observational study was performed reviewing the medical records of 430 men who underwent RP due to organ-confined prostate cancer in 9 different hospitals. Two study groups were distinguished: Group A (GA: Patients without urinary incontinence after RP; Group B (GB: patients with any degree of post-surgical urinary incontinence. Results: Average age at surgery was 63.42 years (range 45-73. 258 patients were continent after surgery and 172 patients complaint of any degree of incontinence after RP. A higher percentage of healthy patients was found in group A (continent after surgery than in group B (p = 0.001. The most common SDg prior to surgery were hypertension, lower urinary tract symptoms, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus and erectile dysfunction, but none did show a greater trend towards post-surgical incontinence. Conclusions: A better health status prior to surgery is associated to a lower incidence of new-onset urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy. However, no correlation was found between the most common medical disorders and the development of post-surgical urinary incontinence.

  17. Surgical treatment of traumatic cervical facet dislocation: anterior, posterior or combined approaches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina C. Lins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Surgical treatment is well accepted for patients with traumatic cervical facet joint dislocations (CFD, but there is uncertainty over which approach is better: anterior, posterior or combined. We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the indications for anterior and posterior approaches in the management of CFD. Anterior approaches can restore cervical lordosis, and cause less postoperative pain and less wound problems. Posterior approaches are useful for direct reduction of locked facet joints and provide stronger fixation from a biomechanical point of view. Combined approaches can be used in more complex cases. Although both anterior and posterior approaches can be used interchangeably, there are some patients who may benefit from one of them over the other, as discussed in this review. Surgeons who treat cervical spine trauma should be able to perform both procedures as well as combined approaches to adequately manage CFD and improve patients’ final outcomes.

  18. Comparison of three different surgical approaches for treatment of thoracolumbar burst fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Han

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: The main treatment method used for thoracolumbar fractures is open reduction and in-ternal fixation. Commonly there are three surgical approaches: anterior, posterior and paraspinal. We attempt to compare the three approaches based on our clinical data analysis. Methods: A group of 94 patients with Denis type A or B thoracolumbar burst fracture between March 2008 and September 2010 were recruited in this study. These patients were treated by anterior-, posterior- or paraspinal-approach reduction with or without decompression. The fracture was fixed with titanium mesh and Z-plate via anterior approach (24 patients, screw and rod system via posterior approach (38 patients or paraspinal approach (32 patients. Clinical evaluations included operation duration, blood loss, inci-sion length, preoperative and postoperative Oswestry dis-ability index (ODI. Results: The average operation duration (94.1 min±13.7 min, blood loss (86.7 ml±20.0 ml, length of incision (9.3 mm± 0.7 mm and postoperative ODI (6±0.5 were signifi-cantly lower (P<0.05 in paraspinal approach group than in traditional posterior approach group (operation duration 94.1 min±13.7 min, blood loss 143.3 ml±28.3 ml, length of incision 15.4 cm±2.1 cm and ODI 12±0.7 and anterior approach group (operation duration 176.3 min±20.7 min, blood loss 255.1 ml±38.4 ml, length of incision 18.6 cm±2.4 cm and ODI 13±2.4. There was not statistical difference in terms of Cobb angle on radiographs among the three approaches. Conclusion: The anterior approach surgery is conve-nient for resection of the vertebrae and reconstruction of vertebral height, but it is more complicated and traumatic. Hence it is mostly used for severe Denis type B fracture. The posterior approach is commonly applied to most thora-columbar fractures and has fewer complications compared with the anterior approach, but it has some shortcomings as well. The paraspinal approach has great advantages

  19. Multimodal strategies to improve surgical outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Wilmore, Douglas W

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of modifying perioperative care in noncardiac surgical patients on morbidity, mortality, and other outcome measures. BACKGROUND: New approaches in pain control, introduction of techniques that reduce the perioperative stress response, and the more frequent use...... anesthesia in elective operations, and pilot studies of fast track surgical procedures using the multimodality approach. RESULTS: The introduction of newer approaches to perioperative care has reduced both morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. In the future, most elective operations will become day...... surgical procedures or require only 1 to 2 days of postoperative hospitalization. Reorganization of the perioperative team (anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, and physical therapists) will be essential to achieve successful fast track surgical programs. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding perioperative...

  20. Neo-liberal Governing of 'Radicals'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekilde, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    The Danish government’s counter-radicalization Action Plan of 2009 had intended and unintended effects. Primarily targeting Danish Muslims, it employs neoliberal governmentality approaches of governance through individual support and response, information and knowledge, empowerment, surveillance...

  1. Patterns-of-care and health economic analysis of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in the Australian public health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto, Marnique; Sathianathen, Niranjan; Te Marvelde, Luc; Ryan, Shane; Goad, Jeremy; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Costello, Anthony J; Moon, Daniel A; Heriot, Alexander G; Butler, Jim; Murphy, Declan G

    2016-06-01

    To compare patterns of care and peri-operative outcomes of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) with other surgical approaches, and to create an economic model to assess the viability of RARP in the public case-mix funding system. We retrospectively reviewed all radical prostatectomies (RPs) performed for localized prostate cancer in Victoria, Australia, from the Victorian Admitted Episode Dataset, a large administrative database that records all hospital inpatient episodes in Victoria. The first database, covering the period from July 2010 to April 2013 (n = 5 130), was used to compare length of hospital stay (LOS) and blood transfusion rates between surgical approaches. This was subsequently integrated into an economic model. A second database (n = 5 581) was extracted to cover the period between July 2010 and June 2013, three full financial years, to depict patterns of care and make future predictions for the 2014-2015 financial year, and to perform a hospital volume analysis. We then created an economic model to evaluate the incremental cost of RARP vs open RP (ORP) and laparoscopic RP (LRP), incorporating the cost-offset from differences in LOS and blood transfusion rate. The economic model constructs estimates of the diagnosis-related group (DRG) costs of ORP and LRP, adds the gross cost of the surgical robot (capital, consumables, maintenance and repairs), and manipulates these DRG costs to obtain a DRG cost per day, which can be used to estimate the cost-offset associated with RARP in comparison with ORP and LRP. Economic modelling was performed around a base-case scenario, assuming a 7-year robot lifespan and 124 RARPs performed per financial year. One- and two-way sensitivity analyses were performed for the four-arm da Vinci SHD, Si and Si dual surgical systems (Intuitive Surgical Ltd, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). We identified 5 581 patients who underwent RP in 20 hospitals in Victoria with an open, laparoscopic or robot-assisted surgical approach in the

  2. Usefulness of CT-scan in the diagnosis and therapeutic approach of gallstone ileus: report of two surgically treated cases

    OpenAIRE

    Michele, Danzi; Luciano, Grimaldi; Massimiliano, Fabozzi; Stefano, Reggio; Roberta, Danzi; Ernesto, Soscia; Bruno, Amato

    2013-01-01

    Background Gallstone ileus is a rare cause of gastrointestinal obstruction, more frequent in elderly patients, whose treatment is essentially surgical, although some para-surgical and mini-invasive possibilities exist, allowing the solution of such obstructive condition in a completely non-invasive way. Description In our study, after reporting two cases of biliary ileus managed by our surgical division, we will analyze the most suitable diagnostic procedures and the therapeutic approaches to...

  3. Technical Approach Determines Inflammatory Response after Surgical and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Erdoes

    Full Text Available To investigate the periprocedural inflammatory response in patients with isolated aortic valve stenosis undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI with different technical approaches.Patients were prospectively allocated to one of the following treatments: SAVR using conventional extracorporeal circulation (CECC, n = 47 or minimized extracorporeal circulation (MECC, n = 15, or TAVI using either transapical (TA, n = 15 or transfemoral (TF, n = 24 access. Exclusion criteria included infection, pre-procedural immunosuppressive or antibiotic drug therapy and emergency indications. We investigated interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR, white blood cell count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and soluble L-selectin (sCD62L levels before the procedure and at 4, 24, and 48 h after aortic valve replacement. Data are presented for group interaction (p-values for inter-group comparison as determined by the Greenhouse-Geisser correction.SAVR on CECC was associated with the highest levels of IL-8 and hs-CRP (p<0.017, and 0.007, respectively. SAVR on MECC showed the highest descent in levels of HLA-DR and sCD62L (both p<0.001 in the perioperative period. TA-TAVI showed increased intraprocedural concentration and the highest peak of IL-6 (p = 0.017. Significantly smaller changes in the inflammatory markers were observed in TF-TAVI.Surgical and interventional approaches to aortic valve replacement result in inflammatory modulation which differs according to the invasiveness of the procedure. As expected, extracorporeal circulation is associated with the most marked pro-inflammatory activation, whereas TF-TAVI emerges as the approach with the most attenuated inflammatory response. Factors such as the pre-treatment patient condition and the extent of myocardial injury also significantly affect inflammatory biomarker patterns. Accordingly, TA-TAVI is to be classified not

  4. Impact of timing and surgical approach on outcomes after mitral valve regurgitation operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Louis-Mathieu; Rodriguez, Evelio; Lehr, Eric J; Kindell, Linda C; Nifong, L Wiley; Ferguson, T Bruce; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated whether the timing of mitral valve (MV) repair or surgical approach affects outcomes in patients with MV regurgitation. Between 1992 and 2009, 2,255 patients underwent MV operations, including 1,305 with isolated MV regurgitation operations (1,054 repairs, 251 replacements). Surgical approaches were sternotomy in 377, video-assisted right minithoracotomy in 481, or robot-assisted in 447. Mean follow-up was 6.4±4.5 years (maximum, 19 years). Sternotomy MV repairs decreased during the study while minimally invasive MV repairs increased. Robotic MV repair patients were younger, with fewer women, had better left ventricular ejection fractions, and were more likely to have myxomatous degeneration (all p<0.001). The robotic approach led to a higher MV repair rate and increased use of leaflet/chordal procedures but had longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times (all p<0.001). The 30-day mortality for isolated MV repair was similar for all approaches (p=0.409). Fewer neurological events were observed in the videoscopic and robotic groups (p=0.013). Adjusted survival was similar for all approaches (p=0.357). Survival in patients in New York Heart Association class I to II with myxomatous degeneration or annular dilatation was similar to a matched population but was worse for patients in class III to IV or undergoing MV replacement. MV repair in patients with severe MV regurgitation should be performed before New York Heart Association class III to IV symptoms develop. Minimally invasive MV repair techniques render similar outcomes as the sternotomy approach. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with early retrograde release of the neurovascular bundle and endopelvic fascia sparing

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    George Augusto Monteiro Lins de Albuquerque

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RAP is the dominant minimally invasive surgical treatment for patients with localized prostate cancer. The introduction of robotic assistance has the potential to improve surgical outcomes and reduce the steep learning curve associated with conventional laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the early retrograde release of the neurovascular bundle without open the endopelvic fascia during RAP. Materials and Methods A 51-year old male, presenting histological diagnosis of prostate adenocarcinoma, Gleason 6 (3+3, in 4 cores of 12, with an initial PSA=3.41ng/dl and the digital rectal examination demonstrating a prostate with hardened nodule in the right lobe of the prostate base (clinical stage T2a. Surgical treatment with the robot-assisted technique was offered as initial therapeutic option and the critical technical point was the early retrograde release of the neurovascular bundle with endopelvic fascia preservation, during radical prostatectomy. Results The operative time was of 89 minutes, blood loss was 100ml. No drain was left in the peritoneal cavity. The patient was discharged within 24 hours. There were no intraoperative or immediate postoperative complications. The pathological evaluation revealed prostate adenocarcinoma, Gleason 6, with free surgical margins and seminal vesicles free of neoplastic involvement (pathologic stage T2a. At 3-month-follow-up, the patient lies with undetectable PSA, continent and potent. Conclusion This is a feasible technique combining the benefits of retrograde release of the neurovascular bundle, the preservation of the pubo-prostatic collar and the preservation of the antero-lateral cavernous nerves.

  6. Computed tomography after radical pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.L. [Department of Radiology, Ipswich Hospital, Ipswich IP4 5PD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: simon.smith@ipswichhospital.nhs.uk; Hampson, F. [Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Duxbury, M. [Department of Surgery, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Little France, Edinburgh EH16 4SU (United Kingdom); Rae, D.M.; Sinclair, M.T. [Department of Pancreaticobiliary surgery, Ipswich Hospital, Ipswich IP4 5PD (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    Whipple's procedure (radical pancreaticoduodenectomy) is currently the only curative option for patients with periampullary malignancy. The surgery is highly complex and involves multiple anastomoses. Complications are common and can lead to significant postoperative morbidity. Early detection and treatment of complications is vital, and high-quality multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is currently the best method of investigation. This review outlines the surgical technique and illustrates the range of normal postoperative appearances together with the common complications.

  7. Anatomical landmarks of radical prostatecomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Horn, Lars-Christian; Neuhaus, Jochen; Constantinides, Costantinos; Liatsikos, Evangelos N

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, we review current literature and based on our experience, we present the anatomical landmarks of open and laparoscopic/endoscopic radical prostatectomy. A thorough literature search was performed with the Medline database on the anatomy and the nomenclature of the structures surrounding the prostate gland. The correct handling of puboprostatic ligaments, external urethral sphincter, prostatic fascias and neurovascular bundle is necessary for avoiding malfunction of the urogenital system after radical prostatectomy. When evaluating new prostatectomy techniques, we should always take into account both clinical and final oncological outcomes. The present review adds further knowledge to the existing "postprostatectomy anatomical hazard" debate. It emphasizes upon the role of the puboprostatic ligaments and the course of the external urethral sphincter for urinary continence. When performing an intrafascial nerve sparing prostatectomy most urologists tend to approach as close to the prostatic capsula as possible, even though there is no concurrence regarding the nomenclature of the surrounding fascias and the course of the actual neurovascular bundles. After completion of an intrafascial technique the specimen does not contain any periprostatic tissue and thus the detection of pT3a disease is not feasible. This especially becomes problematic if the tumour reaches the resection margin. Nerve sparing open and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy should aim in maintaining sexual function, recuperating early continence after surgery, without hindering the final oncological outcome to the procedure. Despite the different approaches for radical prostatectomy the key for better results is the understanding of the anatomy of the bladder neck and the urethra.

  8. Approach to Pediatric Patients during Surgical Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Seher Ünver; Meltem Yıldırım

    2013-01-01

    A child’s surgical period usually contains unpleasant and difficult experiences, for the child and the parents. The child in this period experiences greater anxiety and distress. On the other hand, pediatric patients have complex states that directly effects their perioperative care during. Because their perioperative care includes not only the knowledge of general surgical procedure and care of a patient in the operating room. It also includes the specific understanding of a child’s airway, ...

  9. Interactions between simple radicals and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo-Otero, Rachel; Sanchez-Garcia, Elsa; Suardiaz, Reynier; Montero, Luis A.; Sander, Wolfram

    2008-01-01

    The interactions of the simple radicals CH 3 , NH 2 , OH, and F with water have been studied by DFT (UB3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p)) and ab initio (RHF-UCCSD(T)/6-311++G(2d,2p)) methods. In this order the number of lone pairs (from zero to three), the electronegativity, and the strength of the X-H bonds increase (X = C, N, and O). The various minima of the radical-water complexes were located using the multiple minima hypersurface (MMH) approach which had previously been proven to be useful for closed-shell molecules. The role of the unpaired electron in hydrogen bonding was investigated using the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. A considerable contribution of the unpaired electron to the complex stabilization was only found for the methyl radical and the fluorine atom, whereas in the aminyl and the hydroxyl radical the role of the unpaired electron is negligible

  10. Contemporary open and robotic radical prostatectomy practice patterns among urologists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, William T; Eastham, James A; Savage, Caroline; Maschino, A C; Laudone, Vincent P; Dechet, Christopher B; Stephenson, Robert A; Scardino, Peter T; Sandhu, Jaspreet S

    2012-06-01

    We describe current trends in robotic and open radical prostatectomy in the United States after examining case logs for American Board of Urology certification. American urologists submit case logs for initial board certification and recertification. We analyzed logs from 2004 to 2010 for trends and used logistic regression to assess the impact of urologist age on robotic radical prostatectomy use. A total of 4,709 urologists submitted case logs for certification between 2004 and 2010. Of these logs 3,374 included 1 or more radical prostatectomy cases. Of the urologists 2,413 (72%) reported performing open radical prostatectomy only while 961 (28%) reported 1 or more robotic radical prostatectomies and 308 (9%) reported robotic radical prostatectomy only. During this 7-year period we observed a large increase in the number of urologists who performed robotic radical prostatectomy and a smaller corresponding decrease in those who performed open radical prostatectomy. Only 8% of patients were treated with robotic radical prostatectomy by urologists who were certified in 2004 while 67% underwent that procedure in 2010. Median age of urologists who exclusively performed open radical prostatectomy was 43 years (IQR 38-51) vs 41 (IQR 35-46) for those who performed only robotic radical prostatectomy. While the rate was not as high as the greater than 85% industry estimate, 67% of radical prostatectomies were done robotically among urologists who underwent board certification or recertification in 2010. Total radical prostatectomy volume almost doubled during the study period. These data provide nonindustry based estimates of current radical prostatectomy practice patterns and further our understanding of the evolving surgical treatment of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Satisfaction Rate among Patients and Surgeons after Periareolar Surgical Approach to Gynecomastia along with Liposuction

    OpenAIRE

    Taheri, Ahmad Reza; Farahvash, Mohamad Reza; Fathi, Hamid Reza; Ghanbarzadeh, Koorosh; Faridniya, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Surgery, as the main approach in higher stages of gynecomastia, has different techniques regarding the staging of the disease. The more the grade of gynecomastia, the more complicated the used surgical techniques, conventionally. This study assessed the success rate of the simplest surgical technique in higher grades of gynecology as well as the satisfaction rate in patients and surgeon to offer using the technique for higher grades of the disease. METHODS To evaluate the success a...

  12. Online Radicalization: Bangladesh Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    radicalization through cyberspace, Bangladesh mostly implements hard powers such as removing contents and restricting access to the internet. However, freedom...cyberspace, Bangladesh mostly implements hard powers such as removing contents and restricting access to the internet. However, freedom of speech...67 An Organizational Approach to Implement the Measures........................................ 69 Formation of

  13. Return to work following robot-assisted laparoscopic and open retropubic radical prostatectomy: A single-center cohort study to compare duration of sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mechow, Stefanie; Graefen, Markus; Haese, Alexander; Tennstedt, Pierre; Pehrke, Dirk; Friedersdorff, Frank; Beyer, Burkhard

    2018-06-01

    To compare the duration of sick leave in patients with localized prostate cancer after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) and open retropubic RP (ORP) at a German high-volume prostate cancer center. The data of 1,415 patients treated with RP at Martini Klinik, Prostate Cancer Center between 2012 and 2016 were, retrospectively, analyzed. Information on employment status, monthly revenues and days of work missed due to sickness were assessed via online questionnaire. Additional data were retrieved from our institutional database. Medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) were reported for continuous data. Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to compare both surgical techniques for return to work time after RP. Median time elapsed between surgery and return to work comprised 42 days in patients undergoing RARP (IQR: 21-70) and ORP (IQR: 28-84, P = 0.05). In Cox regression analysis, surgical approach showed no impact on return to work time (RARP vs. ORP hazard ratio = 1, 95% CI: 0.91-1.16, P = 0.69). Return to work time was significantly associated with employment status, physical workload and monthly income (all PLimitation of this study is the nonrandomized design in a single-center. As the surgical approach did not show any influence on the number of days missed from work in patients undergoing RP, no superiority of either RARP or ORP could be identified for return to work time in a German cohort. Both surgical approaches are safe options usually allowing the patients to resume normal activities including work after an appropriate convalescence period. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Does nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy increase the risk of positive surgical margins and biochemical progression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhateeb Sultan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the introduction of nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (NSRP, there have been concerns about the increased risks of positive surgical margins (PSM and biochemical progression (BP. We examined the relationship of NSRP with PSM and BP using a large, mature dataset. Materials and Methods: Patients who underwent RP for clinically localized prostate cancer at our center between 1997 and 2008 were identified. Patients who received neoadjuvant therapy were excluded. We examined the relation of NSRP to the rate of PSM and BP in univariate and multivariate analyses adjusting for clinical and pathological variables including age, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels and doubling time, and pathological stage and grade. Results: In total, 856 patients were included, 70.9% underwent NSRP and 29.1% had non-NSRP. PSM rates were 13.5% in the NSRP group compared to 17.7% in non-NSRP (P=0.11. In a multivariate analysis, non-NSRP was preformed in patients with a higher pathological stage (HR 1.95, 95% CI 1.25-3.04, P=0.003 and a higher baseline PSA level (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.08, P=0.005. With a median follow-up of 41 months, BP-free survival was 88% for non-NSRP compared to 92% for the NSRP group (log rank P=0.018; this difference was not significant in a multivariate Cox regression analysis (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.28-1.06, P=0.09. Conclusion: When used in properly selected patients, NSRP does not seem to increase the risk of PSM and disease progression. The most effective way of resolving this issue is through a randomized clinical trial; however, such a trial is not feasible.

  15. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF SEVERE (2-3 DEGREE DEFORMING ARTHROSIS OF FIRST METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT OF FOOT: TASKS, APPROACHES, TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mazalov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the experience of treating 67 patients (98 feet with deforming arthrosis of first metatarsophalangeal joint is shown that the treatment of this disease the distal decompressing osteotomy in combination with maximally radical the separation of the unions and cheilectomy possesses the significant health-improvement potential, which makes it possible to be turned to arthrodesis or arthroplasty only in the limiting cases of that the heavy cases of hallux rigidus. L-osteotomy 1-st metatarsus gives more than possibilities for the correction with the heavy deformations and the degenerate changes, the basic criterion of sufficiency of which is the volume of the intra-operating straightening of 1-st fingers reached. Optimum is reaching the straightening 1-st toes to 65° even above. An indispensable stage of complex operation is maximally radical of cheilectomy. During the formation of arthrodesis 1-st metatarsophalangeal joint in the horizontal plane the axis of 1 finger should be oriented in parallel to axis second metatarsal bones. The sagittal angle of the formation of arthrodesis depends on the manifestation of valgus of rear division. Active postoperative conducting essentially improves the distant results of the surgical treatment of deforming arthrosis of first metatarsophalangeal joint.

  16. Stepwise surgical approach to diabetic partial foot amputations with autogenous split thickness skin grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal L. Ramanujam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the surgical treatment of severe diabetic foot infections, substantial soft tissue loss often accompanies partial foot amputations. These sizeable soft tissue defects require extensive care with the goal of expedited closure to inhibit further infection and to provide resilient surfaces capable of withstanding long-term ambulation. Definitive wound closure management in the diabetic population is dependent on multiple factors and can have a major impact on the risk of future diabetic foot complications. In this article, the authors provide an overview of autogenous skin grafting, including anatomical considerations, clinical conditions, surgical approach, and adjunctive treatments, for diabetic partial foot amputations.

  17. Buried penis: classification surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Ahmed T

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe morphological classification of congenital buried penis (BP) and present a versatile surgical approach for correction. Sixty-one patients referred with BP were classified into 3 grades according to morphological findings: Grade 1-29 patients with Longer Inner Prepuce (LIP) only, Grade II-20 patients who presented with LIP associated with indrawn penis that required division of the fundiform and suspensory ligaments, and Grade III-12 patients who had in addition to the above, excess supra-pubic fat. A ventral midline penile incision extending from the tip of prepuce down to the penoscrotal junction was used in all patients. The operation was tailored according to the BP Grade. All patients underwent circumcision. Mean follow up was 3 years (range 1 to 10). All 61 patients had an abnormally long inner prepuce (LIP). Forty-seven patients had a short penile shaft. Early improvement was noted in all cases. Satisfactory results were achieved in all 29 patients in grade I and in 27 patients in grades II and III. Five children (Grades II and III) required further surgery (9%). Congenital buried penis is a spectrum characterized by LIP and may include in addition; short penile shaft, abnormal attachment of fundiform, and suspensory ligaments and excess supra-pubic fat. Congenital Mega Prepuce (CMP) is a variant of Grade I BP, with LIP characterized by intermittent ballooning of the genital area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Erectile complications after radical surgery for penile plastic induration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austoni, E; Mantovani, F; Colombo, F; Canclini, L; Mastromarino, G; Vecchio, D; Fenice, O

    1994-02-01

    The radical surgical option we propose for Peyronie's disease consists in removing the sclero-hyalinotic focus of disease and replacing it by an autologous dermal graft taken from the upper outer thigh area. Between 1981 and 1991, we operated 335 patients with IPP, 152 of whom underwent plaque excision and dermal graft. All could be assessed at two-year follow-up. Two main complications were observed: mild penile flexure due to scar retraction of the graft (35% of cases), and partial erectile deficit with decreased corporal rigidity (17% of cases). The degree of the graft retraction is linked to the individual's histologic response. A mild deviation of the penis can occur some months after surgery and is not a relapse flexure due to disease progression (as it should have evolutive characteristics) but is mere scar retraction and will spontaneously regress. As the patient will date the onset of a postoperative erectile deficit from the time of the operation, it is advisable to assess preoperatively the erectile ability of all patients. Furthermore, an impaired erectile response could result from hypoaesthesia of the glans, post-surgical stress, and fibrosis of the erectile tissue. A retrospective assessment of radical surgery cases involving plaque excision and dermal graft lead us to propose this option where precise indications apply, providing the presence of other alterations of the erectile function are pre-operatively assessed.

  19. Ring-Expansion/Contraction Radical Crossover Reactions of Cyclic Alkoxyamines: A Mechanism for Ring Expansion-Controlled Radical Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Narumi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrocyclic polymers present an important class of macromolecules, displaying the reduced radius of gyration or impossibility to entangle. A rare approach for their synthesis is the ring expansion-controlled radical “vinyl” polymerization, starting from a cyclic alkoxyamine. We here describe ring-expansion radical crossover reactions of cyclic alkoxyamines which run in parallel to chain-propagation reactions in the polymerization system. The radical crossover reactions extensively occurred at 105–125 °C, eventually producing high molecular weight polymers with multiple inherent dynamic covalent bonds (NOC bonds. A subsequent ring-contraction radical crossover reaction and the second ring-expansion radical crossover reaction are also described. The major products for the respective three stages were shown to possess cyclic morphologies by the molecular weight profiles and the residual ratios for the NOC bonds (φ in %. In particular, the high φ values ranging from ca. 80% to 98% were achieved for this cyclic alkoxyamine system. This result verifies the high availability of this system as a tool demonstrating the ring-expansion “vinyl” polymerization that allows them to produce macrocyclic polymers via a one-step vinyl polymerization.

  20. Robots drive the German radical prostatectomy market: a total population analysis from 2006 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeben, C; Koch, R; Baunacke, M; Wirth, M P; Huber, J

    2016-12-01

    To assess trends in the distribution of patients for radical prostatectomy in Germany from 2006 to 2013 and the impact of robotic surgery on annual caseloads. We hypothesized that the advent of robotics and the establishment of certified prostate cancer centers caused centralization in the German radical prostatectomy market. Using remote data processing we analyzed the nationwide German billing data from 2006 to 2013. We supplemented this database with additional hospital characteristics like the prostate cancer center certification status. Inclusion criteria were a prostate cancer diagnosis combined with radical prostatectomy. Hospitals with certification or a surgical robot in 2009 were defined as 'early' group. Linear covariant-analytic models were applied to describe trends over time. Annual radical prostatectomy numbers declined from 28 374 (2006) to 21 850 (2013). High-volume hospitals (⩾100 cases) decreased from 87 (22.0%) in 2006 to 43 (10.4%) in 2013. Low-volume hospitals (200 cases per year contrary to the overall trend (Pdecentralization of radical prostatectomy in Germany. The driving force for this development might consist in the overall decline of radical prostatectomy numbers. The most important factor for achieving higher caseloads was the presence of a robotic system. In order to optimize outcomes of radical prostatectomy additional health policy measures might be necessary.

  1. Perichiasmatic granuloma occuring after radical mastoidectomy: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djouhri, H.; Marsot-Dupuch, K.; Tubiana, J.M. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France); Joutel, A. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Neurologie, Paris (France); Kujas, M. [Hopital la Pitie Salpetriere, Laboratoire d`Histologie-Embryologie, Paris (France); Brette, M.D. [Hopital Saint-Louis, Service d`ORL, Paris (France); Artuis, F. [Hopital la Pitie Salpetriere, Service de Neurochirurgie de la Pitie, 83 boulevard de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France)

    1998-03-01

    A case of chronic chemical meningitis occurring after a radical mastoidectomy is reported. Imaging and surgical findings were suggestive of a dissemination of cholesteatoma debris within the subarachnoid spaces. Chemical meningitis has been described in epidermoid and dermoid cyst rupture. This report illustrates that clinicians should be aware of this possible complication. Skull base imaging is mandatory before considering the diagnosis of idiopathic meningitis. Only treatment of the abnormal communication between cerebrospinal fluid and middle ear may eradicate the origin of this rare meningitis. (orig.) With 6 figs., 15 refs.

  2. Clinical outcome of radical prostatectomy for stage C prostate cancer. Comparison with other treatment modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Osamu; Meguro, Norio; Saiki, Shigeru; Kinouchi, Toshiaki; Kuroda, Masao; Usami, Michiyuki; Kotake, Toshihiko

    1997-01-01

    Of the 69 patients with clinical stage C prostate cancer under 75 years old and with good performance status between 1986 and 1995, 29 underwent radical prostatectomy combined with endocrine therapy, 21 underwent radiation therapy combined with endocrine therapy and remaining 19 patients were treated by endocrine therapy alone. The median follow-up was 44 months (range 4 to 122). Radical prostatectomy resulted in progression-free rates of 79% and 61% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Progression-free rates were lower in patients with lymph node metastasis or positive surgical margins. In patients with clinical stage T3a-c and well or moderately differentiated tumor, radical prostatectomy resulted in a progression-free rate of 100% at 5 years. However, in patients with clinical stage T4a or poorly differentiated tumor, radiation therapy resulted in a better progression-free rate than radical prostatectomy. These findings suggest that patients with clinical stage T3a-c and well or moderately differentiated tumor will benefit from radical prostatectomy combined with endocrine therapy and that radiation therapy will be effective for advanced diseases. (author)

  3. Automatic localization of the da Vinci surgical instrument tips in 3-D transrectal ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohareri, Omid; Ramezani, Mahdi; Adebar, Troy K; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2013-09-01

    Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) using the da Vinci surgical system is the current state-of-the-art treatment option for clinically confined prostate cancer. Given the limited field of view of the surgical site in RALRP, several groups have proposed the integration of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging in the surgical workflow to assist with accurate resection of the prostate and the sparing of the neurovascular bundles (NVBs). We previously introduced a robotic TRUS manipulator and a method for automatically tracking da Vinci surgical instruments with the TRUS imaging plane, in order to facilitate the integration of intraoperative TRUS in RALRP. Rapid and automatic registration of the kinematic frames of the da Vinci surgical system and the robotic TRUS probe manipulator is a critical component of the instrument tracking system. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic registration technique based on automatic 3-D TRUS localization of robot instrument tips pressed against the air-tissue boundary anterior to the prostate. The detection approach uses a multiscale filtering technique to identify and localize surgical instrument tips in the TRUS volume, and could also be used to detect other surface fiducials in 3-D ultrasound. Experiments have been performed using a tissue phantom and two ex vivo tissue samples to show the feasibility of the proposed methods. Also, an initial in vivo evaluation of the system has been carried out on a live anaesthetized dog with a da Vinci Si surgical system and a target registration error (defined as the root mean square distance of corresponding points after registration) of 2.68 mm has been achieved. Results show this method's accuracy and consistency for automatic registration of TRUS images to the da Vinci surgical system.

  4. A comparative estimation of the adrenal function in surgical and combined treatment of lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, I.A.; Berntstejn, M.I.; Evtyukhin, A.I.; Shul'ga, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    The functional state of the adrenal glands during surgical and combinated treatment was examined in 38 radically operated patients with pulmonary cancer. Irradiation of lung cancer patients was found to stimulate the adrenal glands activity followed by reduction of their potentialities, manifested in a less marked increase of the catecholamines level and decreased 11-OCS level in blood during surgical treatment

  5. Surgical approach to TIR3 cytology class A prospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Nicola; Fasano, Giovanni Michele; Gilio, Francesco; Iside, Giovanni; Izzo, Maria Lucia; Loffredo, Andrea; Pinto, Margherita; Tramontano, Salvatore; Tramutola, Giuseppe; Citro, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has proven to be a safe and reliable method of investigation of thyroid lesions. Referencing to European classification, the associated risk of malignancy for TIR3, category reserved for aspirates that contain architectural and/or nuclear atypia, is variable in such studies. Aims of study were evaluating safety of surgical approach, assessing perioperative parameters surgically related, and estimating neoplastic rate for TIR3 group. A prospective evaluation of all TIR3 submitted to thyroidectomy was conducted by assessing histopatohologic results between January 2005 and December 2012, considering two categories, positive (neoplastic) and negative (not neoplastic) group. Intraoperative and complication rate was analyzed on TIR3 population. A total of 1514 total thyroidectomy was performed from 2005 to 2012: a total of 148 cases was considered on TIR3 group. Positive cases amounted to 64 (43.2%), 29 of which were carcinoma (19.6% of total population) and 35 of which were adenoma, while negative cases amounted to 84 (56.8%). Sensitivity and specificity of TIR3 as neoplastic screening was 43.2% and 82.1%. A total of 32 linfectomies was performed (21.6% of group). Positive group presented a significant lower mean age than negative group (42.1 vs 56.2 years) TIR3 group represents a various category, with probably different malignancy risk. Our results and neoplasms rate confirmed that surgical option should be gold standard, in order to define atypical pattern and reduce delayed diagnoses. Choice of a second FNA or a imaging monitoring should be adopted for specific condition. Fine-needle aspiration, Thyroidectomy, TIR3, Thyroid cancer.

  6. Is there a place for a holistic approach in surgical training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atayoglu, Timucin; Buchholz, Noor; Atayoglu, Ayten Guner; Caliskan, Mujgan

    2014-03-01

    The holistic approach in medicine is a framework that considers and treats all aspects of a patient's needs, as it relates to their health. The goal of such an approach is to prevent illness, and to maximise the well-being of individuals and families. Holistic medicine is also referred to as integrative, which has been interpreted by some professionals as the combination of evidence-based medicine and complementary medicine. The speciality of Family Medicine (FM) is often referred to as General Practice (GP), a terminology which emphasises the holistic nature of that discipline. Furthermore, GP/FM professional bodies in some countries have incorporated the holistic and integrative approach into curricula and guidelines for doctors in training, which reflects its acceptance as a component of medical training. However, despite this validation, and despite research showing the effectiveness of such strategies in enhancing the outcomes of surgery, a holistic framework or integrative approach has not been equally integrated into speciality training for would-be surgeons. We argue that it would be advisable to include holistic approaches into surgical training and help surgeons to recognise their role in the continuum of care.

  7. Surgical management of inverted papilloma: approaching a new standard for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Filippo; Blancal, Jean-Philippe; Verillaud, Benjamin; Tran, Hugo; Sauvaget, Elisabeth; Kania, Romain; Herman, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Inverted papilloma surgery is currently performed primarily with an endoscopic approach, a technique that has a recurrence rate of 12%. However, a recent study reported a recurrence rate of 5% with a strategy based on subperiosteal dissection of the tumor, with limited indications for using an external approach. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether different teams using the same surgical concepts could reproduce the excellent results that were recently reported. This study is a retrospective chart review of 71 consecutive patients with inverted papilloma who were treated during the last 10 years. In all, 80% of the patients were treated using a purely endoscopic approach. The mean follow-up period was 31.6 months. The recurrence rate was 3.3% for cases with at least a 12-month follow-up. This work confirms the results described in recent literature and further supports transnasal endoscopic surgery to manage inverted papilloma. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Psychopathology according to behaviorism: a radical restatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alvarez, Marino

    2004-11-01

    This article is a radical restatement of the predominant psychopathology, which is characterized by nosological systems and by its approach towards a neurobiological conception of the so-called mental disorders. The "radical" sense of this restatement is that of radical behaviorism itself. As readers will recall, "radical" applied to behaviorism means total (not ignoring anything that interests psychology), pragmatic (referring to the practical sense of knowledge), and it also derives from the Latin word for "root" (and thus implies change beginning at a system's roots or getting to the root of things, in this case, of psychological disorders). Based on this, I introduce the Aristotelian distinction of material and form, which, besides being behaviorist avant la lettre, is used here as a critical instrument to unmask the hoax of psychopathology as it is presented. The implications of this restatement are discussed, some of them already prepared for clinical practice.

  9. Cystectomy with orthotopic reconstruction following radical retropubic prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Miotto Jr

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of infiltrative bladder carcinoma in patients previously treated with radical prostatectomy due to prostate adenocarcinoma represents a challenging perspective. Radical cystectomy remains the best option for invasive bladder cancer, however, there are few reports about the best approach to such individuals. Nevertheless, despite possible technical difficulties found during surgery, the orthotopic urinary shunt is a reasonable option in selected cases.

  10. Robot-assisted radical cystectomy with intracorporeal neobladder diversion: The Karolinska experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Justin W; Sooriakumaran, P; Sanchez-Salas, R; Ahonen, R; Nyberg, T; Wiklund, N P; Hosseini, A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this report is to describe our surgical technique of totally intracorporeal robotic assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) with neobladder formation. Between December 2003 and March 2013, a total of 147 patients (118 male, 29 female) underwent totally intracorporeal RARC for urinary bladder cancer. We also performed a systematic search of Medline, Embase and PubMed databases using the terms RARC, robotic cystectomy, robot-assisted, totally intracorporeal RARC, intracorporeal neobladder, intracorporeal urinary diversion, oncological outcomes, functional outcomes, and complication rates. The mean age of our patients was 64 years (range 37-87). On surgical pathology 47% had pT1 or less disease, 27% had pT2, 16% had pT3 and 10% had pT4. The mean number of lymph nodes removed was 21 (range 0-60). 24% of patients had lymph node positive dAQ1isease. Positive surgical margins occurred in 6 cases (4%). Mean follow-up was 31 months (range 4-115 months). Two patients (1.4%) died within 90 days of their operation. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, overall survival and cancer specific survival at 60 months was 68% and 69.6%, respectively. 80 patients (54%) received a continent diversion with totally intracorporeal neobladder formation. In the neobladder subgroup median total operating time was 420 minutes (range 265-760). Daytime continence and satisfactory sexual function or potency at 12 months ranged between 70-90% in both men and women. Our experience with totally intracorporeal RARC demonstrates acceptable oncological and functional outcomes that suggest this is a viable alternative to open radical cystectomy.

  11. Harmonic Scalpel versus Electrocautery Dissection in Modified Radical Mastectomy for Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

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    Jinbo Huang

    Full Text Available Despite the common use of conventional electrocautery in modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer, the harmonic scalpel is recently emerging as a dominant surgical instrument for dissection and haemostasis, which is thought to reduce the morbidity, such as seroma and blood loss. But the results of published trials are inconsistent. So we made the meta-analysis to assess the intraoperative and postoperative endpoints among women undergoing modified radical mastectomy with harmonic scalpel or electrocautery.A comprehensive literature search of case-control studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases involving modified radical mastectomy with harmonic scalpel or electrocautery was performed. We carried out a meta-analysis of primary endpoints including postoperative drainage, seroma development, intraoperative blood loss and secondly endpoints including operative time and wound complications. We used odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs to evaluate the effect size for categorical outcomes and standardised mean differences (SMDs for continuous outcomes.A total of 11 studies with 702 patients were included for this meta-analysis. There was significant difference in total postoperative drainage (SMD: -0.74 [95%CI: -1.31, -0.16]; P< 0.01, seroma development[OR: 0.49 (0.34, 0.70; P < 0.01], intraoperative blood loss(SMD: -1.14 [95%CI: -1.81,-0.47]; P < 0.01 and wound complications [OR: 0.38 (0.24, 0.59; P < 0.01] between harmonic scalpel dissection and standard electrocautery in modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer. No difference was found as for operative time between harmonic scalpel dissection and standard electrocautery (SMD: 0.04 [95%CI: -0.41, 0.50]; P = 0.85.Compared to standard electrocautery, harmonic scalpel dissection presents significant advantages in decreasing postoperative drainage, seroma development, intraoperative blood loss and wound complications in modified radical mastectomy for

  12. [Laparoscopic radical trachelectomy for preservation of fertility in early cervical cancer. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla Ortiz, David; Montalvo-Esquivel, Gonzalo; Chanona-Vilchis, José Gregorio; Herrera Gómez, Ángel; Ñamendys Silva, Silvio Antonio; Pareja Franco, Luis René

    2016-01-01

    Radical hysterectomy is the standard treatment for patients with early-stage cervical cancer. However, for women who wish to preserve fertility, radical trachelectomy is a safe and viable option. To present the first case of laparoscopic radical trachelectomy performed in the National Cancer Institute, and published in Mexico. Patient, 34 years old, gravid 1, caesarean 1, stage IB1 cervical cancer, squamous, wishing to preserve fertility. She underwent a laparoscopic radical trachelectomy and bilateral dissection of the pelvic lymph nodes. Operation time was 330minutes, and the estimated blood loss was 100ml. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The final pathology reported a tumour of 15mm with infiltration of 7mm, surgical margins without injury, and pelvic nodes without tumour. After a 12 month follow-up, the patient is having regular periods, but has not yet tried to get pregnant. No evidence of recurrence. Laparoscopic radical trachelectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy is a safe alternative in young patients who wish to preserve fertility with early stage cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Minimally invasive radical pancreatectomy for left-sided pancreatic cancer: Current status and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang Moo; Lee, Sung Hwan; Lee, Woo Jung

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy has been regarded as a safe and effective treatment for benign and borderline malignant pancreatic lesions. However, its application for left-sided pancreatic cancer is still being debated. The clinical evidence for radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy (RAMPS)-based minimally invasive approaches for left-sided pancreatic cancer was reviewed. Potential indications and surgical concepts for minimally invasive RAMPS were suggested. Despite the limited clinical evidence for minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy in left-sided pancreatic cancer, the currently available clinical evidence supports the use of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy under oncologic principles in well-selected left sided pancreatic cancers. A pancreas-confined tumor with an intact fascia layer between the pancreas and left adrenal gland/kidney positioned more than 1 or 2 cm away from the celiac axis is thought to constitute a good condition for the use of margin-negative minimally invasive RAMPS. The use of minimally invasive (laparoscopic or robotic) anterior RAMPS is feasible and safe for margin-negative resection in well-selected left-sided pancreatic cancer. The oncologic feasibility of the procedure remains to be determined; however, the currently available interim results indicate that even oncologic outcomes will not be inferior to those of open radical distal pancreatosplenectomy. PMID:24605031

  14. Novel approaches for the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation: Time for a guideline revision?

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    Carlo Nicola De Cecco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Carlo Nicola De Cecco1,2, Vitaliano Buffa1, Vincenzo David2, Stefano Fedeli11Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, San Camillo-Forlanini Hospital, 2Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Rome, St Andrea Hospital, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Atrial fibrillation is a major health problem in Western countries, and is associated with considerable morbidity and resource consumption. Safe and reliable surgical techniques for the termination of this arrhythmia have been developed since the time of the original Cox “maze I” procedure. Novel equipment based on radiofrequency and microwave technologies can be employed to create transmural atrial lesions, even in the context of minimally invasive surgery to the atrioventricular valves via right minithoracotomy. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on this approach, and the clinical results in terms of arrhythmia termination and postoperative morbidity. With the aim to substantiate the practice of a simple, yet reliable, surgical ablation during minimally invasive heart valve surgery, we discuss the results of different patterns of atrial lesions having different degrees of surgical complexity. Finally, minimally invasive epicardial ablation for lone atrial fibrillation represents an emerging surgical indication. The results of state-of-the-art transcatheter ablation represent now its benchmark of comparison.Keywords: atrial fibrillation, surgery, minimally invasive, outcomes

  15. Management Approaches to Radical Social Media Activism: the responses of BP, HSBC and Nestlé to Greenpeace

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Corporate directed radical activism has been reframed by the internet and social media, which provide radical activists with new tools to mount innovative attack forms against corporations. These attack forms (herein termed by author as radical social media activism) happen in the digital sphere and augment radical attack forms in the physical world. Corporations are challenged with a new age of radical activism and, thus far, have displayed low competence at using social media to manage this...

  16. Preliminary experience with extraperitoneal endoscopic radical prostatectomy through duplication of the open technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias-Machado, M; Lasmar, Marco T C; Medina, Jimmy J A; Forseto, Pedro H; Juliano, Roberto V; Wroclawski, Eric R

    2005-01-01

    To describe surgical and functional results with extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with duplication of the open technique, from the experience obtained in the treatment of 28 initial cases. In a 36-month period, we prospectively analyzed 28 patients diagnosed with localized prostate cancer undergoing extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Mean surgical time was 280 min, with mean blood loss of 320 mL. As intraoperative complications, there were 2 rectal lesions repaired with laparoscopic suture in 2 planes. There was no conversion to open surgery. Median hospital stay was 3 days, with return to oral diet in the first post-operative day in patients. As post-operative complications, there were 3 cases of extraperitoneal urinary fistula. Two of these cases were resolved by maintaining a Foley catheter for 21 days, and the other one by late endoscopic reintervention for repositioning the catheter. Five out of 18 previously potent patients evolved with erectile dysfunction. The diagnosis of prostate cancer was confirmed in all patients, with focal positive margin occurring in 3 cases. During a mean follow-up of 18 months, 2 patients presented increased PSA, with no clinical evidence of disease. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is a laborious and difficult procedure, with a long learning curve. Extraperitoneal access is feasible, and it is possible to practically duplicate the principles of open surgery. The present technique can possibly offer advantages in terms of decreased blood loss, preservation of erectile function and prevention of positive margins.

  17. Mobile surgical skills education unit: a new concept in surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Faisal M; Hseino, Hazem; Hill, Arnold D K; Kavanagh, Eamon; Traynor, Oscar

    2011-08-01

    Basic surgical skills are an integral part of surgical training. Simulation-based surgical training offers an opportunity both to trainees and trainers to learn and teach surgical skills outside the operating room in a nonpatient, nonstressed environment. However, widespread adoption of simulation technology especially in medical education is prohibited by its inherent higher cost, limited space, and interruptions to clinical duties. Mobile skills laboratory has been proposed as a means to address some of these limitations. A new program is designed by the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), in an approach to teach its postgraduate basic surgical trainees the necessary surgical skills, by making the use of mobile innovative simulation technology in their own hospital settings. In this article, authors describe the program and students response to the mobile surgical skills being delivered in the region of their training hospitals and by their own regional consultant trainers.

  18. INFECTION AFTER RADICAL ABDOMINAL HYSTERECTOMY AND PELVIC LYMPHADENECTOMY - PREVENTION OF INFECTION WITH A 2-DOSE PERIOPERATIVE ANTIBIOTIC-PROPHYLAXIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOUMA, J

    1993-01-01

    Surgical site-related infections occurred in 21% of 87 consecutive patients undergoing radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy (RHPL) without planned peri-operative prophylaxis. A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 68 consecutive RHPL patients.

  19. Individualized Surgical Approach Planning for Petroclival Tumors Using a 3D Printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelleman, Thomas John; Peterson, Jeremy; Chowdhury, Naweed Iffat; Gorup, Jason; Camarata, Paul; Lin, James

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To determine the utility of three-dimensional (3D) printed models in individualized petroclival tumor resection planning by measuring the fidelity of printed anatomical structures and comparing tumor exposure afforded by different approaches. Design Case series and review of the literature. Setting Tertiary care center. Participants Three patients with petroclival lesions. Main Outcome Measures Subjective opinion of access by neuro-otologists and neurosurgeons as well as surface area of tumor exposure. Results Surgeons found the 3D models of each patient's skull and tumor useful for preoperative planning. Limitations of individual surgical approaches not identified through preoperative imaging were apparent after 3D models were evaluated. Significant variability in exposure was noted between models for similar or identical approaches. A notable drawback is that our printing process did not replicate mastoid air cells. Conclusions We found that 3D modeling is useful for individualized preoperative planning for approaching petroclival tumors. Our printing techniques did produce authentic replicas of the tumors in relation to bony structures.

  20. Radical cystectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy: pathologic, operative and morbidity outcomes in a Brazilian cohort

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    Renato B. Corradi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and Objective Radical cystectomy (RC with pelvic lymph node dissection is the standard treatment for muscle invasive bladder cancer and the oncologic outcomes following it are directly related to disease pathology and surgical technique. Therefore, we sought to analyze these features in a cohort from a Brazilian tertiary oncologic center and try to identify those who could negatively impact on the disease control. Patients and Methods We identified 128 patients submitted to radical cystectomy, for bladder cancer treatment, from January 2009 to July 2012 in one oncology tertiary referral public center (Mario Penna Institute, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. We retrospectively analyzed the findings obtained from their pathologic report and assessed the complications within 30 days of surgery. Results We showed similar pathologic and surgical findings compared to other large series from the literature, however our patients presented with a slightly higher rate of pT4 disease. Positive surgical margins were found in 2/128 patients (1.5%. The medium number of lymph nodes dissected were 15. Major complications (Clavien 3 to 5 within 30 days of cystectomy occurred in 33/128 (25.7% patients. Conclusions In the management of invasive bladder cancer, efforts should focus on proper disease diagnosis and staging, and, thereafter, correct treatment based on pathologic findings. Furthermore, extended LND should be performed in all patients with RC indication. A critical analysis of our complications in a future study will help us to identify and modify some of the factors associated with surgical morbidity.

  1. The choice of surgical approach in the treatment of two-column acetabular fractures

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    A. A. Grin’

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed a comparison of treatment results in patients with two-column acetabular fractures (AO, Type C when using different operative approaches: ilioinguinal (12, Y-type (16 and a combination of posterior-lateral and ilioinguinal approaches (3. Surgical treatment was carried out not later than 3 weeks after injury. The joint congruence was reached in all the cases. The operative time, blood loss, complications, long-term results of treatment were evaluated. The study showed the effectiveness of ilioinguinal approach in case of the simple two-column fractures. When treating patients with complex fractures of the anterior column, the authors found no significant difference in operative time and intraoperative blood loss between the cases of V-type and combined approaches. In patients with two-column fractures accompanied with posterior wall lesion the time of surgery was significantly lower when using the Y-shaped approach as against the two different approaches.

  2. Free radical scavenging and COX-2 inhibition by simple colon metabolites of polyphenols: A theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amić, Ana; Marković, Zoran; Marković, Jasmina M Dimitrić; Jeremić, Svetlana; Lučić, Bono; Amić, Dragan

    2016-12-01

    Free radical scavenging and inhibitory potency against cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by two abundant colon metabolites of polyphenols, i.e., 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3-HPAA) and 4-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (4-HPPA) were theoretically studied. Different free radical scavenging mechanisms are investigated in water and pentyl ethanoate as a solvent. By considering electronic properties of scavenged free radicals, hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanisms are found to be thermodynamically probable and competitive processes in both media. The Gibbs free energy change for reaction of inactivation of free radicals indicates 3-HPAA and 4-HPPA as potent scavengers. Their reactivity toward free radicals was predicted to decrease as follows: hydroxyl>alkoxyls>phenoxyl≈peroxyls>superoxide. Shown free radical scavenging potency of 3-HPAA and 4-HPPA along with their high μM concentration produced by microbial colon degradation of polyphenols could enable at least in situ inactivation of free radicals. Docking analysis with structural forms of 3-HPAA and 4-HPPA indicates dianionic ligands as potent inhibitors of COX-2, an inducible enzyme involved in colon carcinogenesis. Obtained results suggest that suppressing levels of free radicals and COX-2 could be achieved by 3-HPAA and 4-HPPA indicating that these compounds may contribute to reduced risk of colon cancer development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. From ancient to avant-garde: a review of traditional and modern multimodal approaches to surgical anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Minhao; Wattchow, David; de Fontgalland, Dayan

    2018-03-01

    The landscape of surgical anatomy education is progressively changing. Traditional methods, such as cadaveric dissection and didacticism are being increasingly phased out in undergraduate courses for multimodal approaches incorporating problem-based learning, radiology and computer-based simulations. Although effective at clinically contextualizing and integrating anatomical information, these approaches may be a poor substitute for fostering a grasp of foundational 'pure' anatomy. Dissection is ideal for this purpose and hence remains the cornerstone of anatomical education. However, novel methods and technological advancements continually give way to adjuncts such as cadaveric surgery, three-dimensional printing, virtual simulation and live surgical streaming, which have demonstrated significant efficacy alone or alongside dissection. Therefore, although divergent paradigms of 'new versus old' approaches have engulfed and divided the community, educators should seek to integrate the ancient and avant-garde to comprehensively satisfy all of the modern anatomy learner's educational needs. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  4. The far lateral transpontomedullary sulcus approach to pontine cavernous malformations: technical report and surgical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abla, Adib A; Benet, Arnau; Lawton, Michael T

    2014-09-01

    Pontine cavernous malformations (CMs) located on a peripheral pontine surface or the fourth ventricular floor are resectable lesions, but those deep within the pons away from a pial surface are typically observed. However, the anterior bulge of the pons formed by the brachium pontis creates a unique entry point for access to deep pontine lesions from below, working upward through the pontomedullary sulcus. We developed a transpontomedullary sulcus (TPMS) approach to these lesions. The TPMS approach used the far lateral craniotomy and upper vagoaccessory triangle to define the surgical corridor. The entry point was above the olive, lateral to the pyramidal tracts and cranial nerve (CN) VI, above the preolivary sulcus and CN XII, and medial to CNs VII and VIII and CNs IX through XI. Four patients underwent this approach. All presented with hemorrhage and CN VI palsies. All pontine CMs were resected completely. Three patients were improved or unchanged, with good outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2) in all patients. The central pons remains difficult territory to access, and new surgical corridors are needed. The bulging underbelly of the pons allows access to pontine lesions deep to the pial surface from below. The far lateral TPMS approach is a novel and more direct alternative to the retrosigmoid transmiddle cerebellar peduncle approach. Unlike the retrosigmoid approach, the TPMS approach requires minimal parenchymal transgression and uses a brainstem entry point medial to most lower CNs. Favorable results demonstrate the feasibility of resecting pontine CMs that might have been previously deemed unresectable.

  5. Enactivism, Radical Enactivism and Predictive Processing: What is Radical in Cognitive Science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gärtner Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to Enactivism, cognition should be understood in terms of a dynamic interaction between an acting organism and its environment. Further, this view holds that organisms do not passively receive information from this environment, they rather selectively create this environment by engaging in interaction with the world. Radical Enactivism adds that basic cognition does so without entertaining representations and hence that representations are not an essential constituent of cognition. Some proponents think that getting rid of representations amounts to a revolutionary alternative to standard views about cognition. To emphasize the impact, they claim that this ‘radicalization’ should be applied to all enactivist friendly views, including, another current and potentially revolutionary approach to cognition: predictive processing. In this paper, we will show that this is not the case. After introducing the problem (section 2, we will argue (section 3 that ‘radicalizing’ predictive processing does not add any value to this approach. After this (section 4, we will analyze whether or not radical Enactivism can count as a revolution within cognitive science at all and conclude that it cannot. Finally, in section 5 we will claim that cognitive science is better off when embracing heterogeneity.

  6. Congenital craniopharyngioma treated by radical surgery: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageji, Teruyoshi; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Kotani, Yumiko; Kaji, Tsuyoshi; Bando, Yoshimi; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Nakajima, Kohei; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2017-02-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are 5-10 % of all pediatric tumors, but are seldomly encountered in the perinatal period. Only seven instances of a truly antenatal diagnosis of a congenital craniopharyngioma that subsequently underwent radical surgery have been reported. We present the case of a patient who received the diagnosis of a suprasellar tumor during the prenatal period and received radical surgery. We report a case of a neonatal craniopharyngioma treated surgically. The pregnancy progressed uneventfully until a routine ultrasound at 37 weeks of gestation showed a 15 × 15 mm high echoic mass in the center of the fetal head. Neonatal Gd-enhanced T1-weighted MRI at 5 days of life showed a homogenously enhanced mass (16×22×15 mm) in the sellar and suprasellar lesion. As the tumor showed rapid growth at the 3rd month of life, the patient underwent a surgical treatment and the mass was totally removed. Three years later, the physical and mental development of the patient was normal, and Gd-MRI studies showed no tumor recurrence. The present case is the eighth case of a truly antenatal diagnosis of a craniopharyngioma that underwent successful radical surgery. Craniopharyngioma is a benign tumor and thought to be a slow growing tumor in childhood. The results of radical surgery were very poor, and the mortality and morbidity rates were high in the previous reports due to the huge size of tumor at operation. The present case demonstrated the rapid growth in short interval of Gd-MRI. This is the first report of tumor kinetics of congenital craniopharyngioma with previous reports. The calculated tumor doubling time in our case was 37 days.

  7. The prognostic importance of jaundice in surgical resection with curative intent for gallbladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-wei; Yuan, Jian-mao; Chen, Jun-yi; Yang, Jue; Gao, Quan-gen; Yan, Xing-zhou; Zhang, Bao-hua; Feng, Shen; Wu, Meng-chao

    2014-09-03

    Preoperative jaundice is frequent in gallbladder cancer (GBC) and indicates advanced disease. Resection is rarely recommended to treat advanced GBC. An aggressive surgical approach for advanced GBC remains lacking because of the association of this disease with serious postoperative complications and poor prognosis. This study aims to re-assess the prognostic value of jaundice for the morbidity, mortality, and survival of GBC patients who underwent surgical resection with curative intent. GBC patients who underwent surgical resection with curative intent at a single institution between January 2003 and December 2012 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. A total of 192 patients underwent surgical resection with curative intent, of whom 47 had preoperative jaundice and 145 had none. Compared with the non-jaundiced patients, the jaundiced patients had significantly longer operative time (p jaundice was the only independent predictor of postoperative complications. The jaundiced patients had lower survival rates than the non-jaundiced patients (p jaundiced patients. The survival rates of the jaundiced patients with preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) were similar to those of the jaundiced patients without PBD (p = 0.968). No significant differences in the rate of postoperative intra-abdominal abscesses were found between the jaundiced patients with and without PBD (n = 4, 21.1% vs. n = 5, 17.9%, p = 0.787). Preoperative jaundice indicates poor prognosis and high postoperative morbidity but is not a surgical contraindication. Gallbladder neck tumors significantly increase the surgical difficulty and reduce the opportunities for radical resection. Gallbladder neck tumors can independently predict poor outcome. PBD correlates with neither a low rate of postoperative intra-abdominal abscesses nor a high survival rate.

  8. Relationship of age to outcome and clinicopathologic findings in men submitted to radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanase Billis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It is controversial whether age is associated with higher grade and worse outcome. Some studies have not found age to be related to outcome nor younger age to be associated with better response to therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 27 patients aged 55 years or younger and 173 patients 56 years or older submitted to radical prostatectomy. The variables studied were preoperative PSA, time to PSA progression following radical prostatectomy and pathologic findings in surgical specimens: Gleason score, Gleason predominant grade, positive surgical margins, tumor extent, extraprostatic extension (pT3a, and seminal vesicle invasion (pT3b. RESULTS: Comparing patients aged 55 years or younger and 56 years or older, there was no statistically significant difference for all variables studied: preoperative PSA (p = 0.4417, Gleason score (p = 0.3934, Gleason predominant grade (p = 0.2653, tumor extent (p = 0.1190, positive surgical margins (p = 0.8335, extraprostatic extension (p = 0.3447 and seminal vesicle invasion (p > 0.9999. During the study period, 44 patients (22% developed PSA progression. No difference was found in the time to biochemical progression between men aged 55 years or younger and 56 years or older. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that age alone do not influence the biological aggressiveness of prostate cancer.

  9. Results of surgical treatment for juvenile myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Roque, F J; Hernández-Oliver, M O; Medrano Plana, Y; Castillo Vitlloch, A; Fuentes Herrera, L; Rivero-Valerón, D

    2017-04-01

    Radical or extended thymectomy is an effective treatment for myasthenia gravis in the adult population. There are few reports to demonstrate the effectiveness of this treatment in patients with juvenile myasthenia gravis. The main objective of this study was to show that extended transsternal thymectomy is a valid option for treating this disease in paediatric patients. Twenty-three patients with juvenile myasthenia gravis underwent this surgical treatment in the period between April 2003 and April 2014; mean age was 12.13 years and the sample was predominantly female. The main indication for surgery, in 22 patients, was the generalised form of the disease (Osserman stage II) together with no response to 6 months of medical treatment. The histological diagnosis was thymic hyperplasia in 22 patients and thymoma in one patient. There were no deaths and no major complications in the postoperative period. After a mean follow-up period of 58.87 months, 22 patients are taking no medication or need less medication to manage myasthenic symptoms. Extended (radical) transsternal thymectomy is a safe and effective surgical treatment for juvenile myasthenia gravis. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Surgical approaches to complex vascular lesions: the use of virtual reality and stereoscopic analysis as a tool for resident and student education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Schmitt, Paul J; Sukul, Vishad; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2012-08-01

    Virtual reality training for complex tasks has been shown to be of benefit in fields involving highly technical and demanding skill sets. The use of a stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) virtual reality environment to teach a patient-specific analysis of the microsurgical treatment modalities of a complex basilar aneurysm is presented. Three different surgical approaches were evaluated in a virtual environment and then compared to elucidate the best surgical approach. These approaches were assessed with regard to the line-of-sight, skull base anatomy and visualisation of the relevant anatomy at the level of the basilar artery and surrounding structures. Overall, the stereoscopic 3D virtual reality environment with fusion of multimodality imaging affords an excellent teaching tool for residents and medical students to learn surgical approaches to vascular lesions. Future studies will assess the educational benefits of this modality and develop a series of metrics for student assessments.

  11. Peripheral ostectomy with the use of Carnoy’s solution as a rational surgical approach to odontogenic keratocyst: A case report with a 5-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matijević Stevo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC is a rare developmental, epithelial and benign cyst of the jaws of odontogenic origin with high recurrence rates. The third molar region, especially the angle of the mandible and the ascending ramus are involved far more frequently than the maxilla. The choice of treatment approach was based on the size of the cyst, recurrence status, and radiographic evidence of cortical perforation. Different surgical treatment options like marsupialization, decompression, enucleation, enucleation with Carnoy’s solution, peripheral ostectomy with or without Carnoy’s solution, and jaw resection have been discussed in the literature with variable rates of recurrence. Case report. We presented a 52-yearold male with orthokeratinized odontogenic keratocyst. Elliptical unilocular radiolucency located in the third molar region and the ascending ramus of the mandible, 40 × 25 mm in diameter with radiographic evidence of cortical perforation at the anterior ramus border of the mandible 20 mm in diameter, was registrated on orthopantomographic radiography. Surgical treatment included enucleation of the cyst and peripheral ostectomy with the use of Carnoy’s solution and excision of the overlying attached mucosa. Postoperatively, no paresthesia in the inervation area of the inferior alveolaris nerve was registrated. Recurrences were not registrated within 5 years post-intervention. Coclusion. Treatment of odontogenic keratocyst with enucleation and peripheral ostectomy with the use of Carnoy’s solution and excision of the overlying attached mucosa had a very low rate of recurrence. Radical and more aggressive surgical treatments as jaw resection should be reserved for multiple recurrent cysts and when OKC is associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS. Following the treatment protocol in the management of OKC and systematic and long-term postsurgical follow-up are considered key elements for successful

  12. Radical C-H functionalization to construct heterocyclic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Tao; Pan, Changduo

    2016-02-07

    Heterocyclic compounds are widely present in natural products, pharmaceuticals and bioactive molecules. Thus, organic and pharmaceutical chemists have been making extensive efforts to construct those heterocyclic frameworks through developing versatile and efficient synthetic strategies. The direct C-H functionalization via the radical pathway has emerged as a promising and dramatic approach towards heterocycles with high atom- and step-economy. Heterocyclic compounds such as coumarins, furans, benzofurans, xanthones, benzothiazoles, indoles, indolines, oxindoles, quinolines, isoquinolines, quinoxaline, and phenanthridines have been successfully synthesized by C-H functionalization through the radical pathway. In this review, recent advances on radical C-H functionalization to construct heterocyclic compounds are highlighted with discussions.

  13. Hydroxyl-radical-induced oxidation of cyclic dipeptides: Reactions of free peptide radicals and their peroxyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieden, O.J.

    1989-01-01

    In the course of this study investigations were carried out into the reactions of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms with cyclic dipeptides as well as the subsequent reactions of peptide radicals and their peroxyl radicals in aqueous solution. The radiolysis products formed in the absence and presence of oxygen or transient metal complexes were characterized and determined on a quantitative basis. The linking of information from product analyses to the kinetic data for transient species obtained by time-resolving UV/VIS and conductivity measurements (pulse radiolysis) as well as computer-assisted simulations of individual events during the reaction permitted an evaluation of the mechanisms underlying the various processes and an identification of interim products with short life-times, which did or did not belong to the group of radicals. Through the characterization of key reactions of radicals and peroxyl radicals of this substance class a major advance has been made towards a better understanding of the role of radicals in the peptide compound and the mechanisms involved in indirect radiation effects on long-chain peptides and proteins. (orig.) [de

  14. Clinicopathologic features of incidental prostatic adenocarcinoma in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens

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    Vuruskan Hakan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to review all features of incidentally discovered prostate adenocarcinoma in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer. Methods The medical charts of 300 male patients who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer between 1997 and 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 62 (range 51-75 years. Results Prostate adenocarcinoma was present in 60 (20% of 300 specimens. All were acinar adenocarcinoma. Of these, 40 (66.7% were located in peripheral zone, 20 (33.3% had pT2a tumor, 12 (20% had pT2b tumor, 22(36.7% had pT2c and, 6 (10% had pT3a tumor. Gleason score was 6 or less in 48 (80% patients. Surgical margins were negative in 54 (90% patients, and tumor volume was less than 0.5 cc in 23 (38.3% patients. Of the 60 incidentally detected cases of prostate adenocarcinoma 40 (66.7% were considered clinically significant. Conclusion Incidentally detected prostate adenocarcinoma is frequently observed in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens. The majority are clinically significant.

  15. Surgical Resolution of Bilateral Hypertrophy of Masseter Muscle Through Intraoral Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trento, Guilherme Dos Santos; Benato, Leonardo Silva; Rebellato, Nelson Luis Barbosa; Klüppel, Leandro Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    Masseter muscle hypertrophy is an untypical anomaly with no definite cause and its diagnosis is easily completed through physical examination and imaging examinations. In some cases, patient may report signs and symptoms of well-localizated pain. However, it is generally asymptomatic and patient's chief complaint is about esthetic because of facial asymmetry. In this case, surgery is carefully indicated. The aim of this article is to report a case of a male patient with no painful and functional complaints but an important unease over his facial asymmetry. Patient underwent surgery involving bilateral resection of mandibular angles and unilateral resection of masseter muscle through intraoral approach. Surgical approaches and techniques rely heavily on surgeon. There are few reports in the literature about this anomaly, but those available present several techniques. The surgeon's dexterity and knowledge become extremely important, whereas this procedure is essentiallyesthetic.

  16. Orgasm associated incontinence (climacturia) following radical pelvic surgery: rates of occurrence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Judy M; Nelson, Christian J; Stasi, Jason; Mulhall, John P

    2007-06-01

    Orgasm associated incontinence, that is the inadvertent leakage of urine at orgasm, has received little attention in the literature. We evaluated the rate of occurrence of orgasm associated incontinence following radical pelvic surgery as well as its associated factors and predictors. From January 2005 to March 2006, 696 patients were evaluated for post-radical pelvic surgery sexual dysfunction. A database was created, and descriptive statistics, chi-square analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate associated factors and predictors. Of 475 patients 96 (20%) reported orgasm associated incontinence following radical pelvic surgery. The incidence was significantly less in the cystoprostatectomy group than in the open and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy groups (p Orgasm associated incontinence was more commonly found within 12 months following surgery vs greater than 12 months (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.72-0.92, p orgasm associated pain (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.16, p Orgasm associated incontinence was not associated with patient age, the degree of nerve sparing, surgical margin status, seminal vesicle or lymph node involvement, preoperative erectile function, nocturnal erections, libido level or daytime continence. Orgasm associated incontinence occurs in a fifth of men (96 of 475) following radical pelvic surgery. The incidence of orgasm associated incontinence is greater with radical prostatectomy than with radical cystectomy and it is unrelated to the type of prostatectomy performed (open vs laparoscopic). Orgasm associated incontinence is more likely to be reported within year 1 following surgery and in men who complain of orgasmic pain and/or penile shortening.

  17. Surgical strategies in patients with gallbladder cancer: nihilism to optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Sadiq S; Singh, Rajneesh K

    2006-06-15

    Gallbladder cancer is an aggressive disease with dismal results of surgical treatment and a poor prognosis. However, over the last few decades selected groups have reported improved results with aggressive surgery for gallbladder cancer. Review of recent world literature was done to provide an update on the current concepts of surgical treatment of this disease. Long-term survival is possible in early stage gallbladder carcinoma. Tis and T1a gallbladder carcinoma can be treated with simple cholecystectomy only. However, in T1b and beyond cancers, aggressive surgery (extended cholecystectomy) is important in improving the long-term prognosis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy should not be performed where there is a high index of suspicion of malignancy due to the frequent association with factors (such as gallbladder perforation and bile spill) which may lead to implantation of cancer cells and dissemination. Surgical resection for advanced carcinoma gallbladder is recommended only if a potentially curative R0 resection is possible. Aggressive surgery with vascular and multivisceral resection has been shown to be feasible albeit with an increase in mortality and morbidity. However, the true benefit of these radical resections is yet to be realized, as the actual number of long-term survivors of advanced gallbladder carcinoma is few. Surgery for gallbladder carcinoma, like other malignancies, has the potential to be curative only in local or regional disease. Pattern of loco-regional spread of disease dictates the surgical procedure. Radical surgery improves survival in early gallbladder carcinoma. The long-term benefit of aggressive surgery for advanced disease is unclear and may be offset by the high mortality and morbidity. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF CHRONIC CYSTIC PANCREATITIS

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    O. N. Sled

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the number of patients with complicated forms of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cysts observed in recent decades. Mostly people of working age are susceptible to disease. This makes the issue a social importance.The article presents a modern view of the choice of method of surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis and cystic optimal terms of therapy, depending on the degree of “maturity” of pancreatic cysts. A detailed analysis of both traditional surgery and advanced minimally invasive treatment for pancreatic cysts is performed in this review of the literature.Emphasis is placed on radical methods of treatment, particularly in the duodenum-preserving operations. Pathogenic study is carried out. The problem of choosing the most radical and at the same time the organ-preserving technique, helping to improve the immediate and long-term results, the quality of life and social and labor rehabilitation, has not lost its relevance. Studies carried out in this area are currently important.

  19. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the skull: radical resection and immediate cranioplasty after chemotherapy. A technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Maria; Rivero, Mónica; Marquez, Javier

    2013-02-01

    The current standard treatment of Ewing's sarcoma is chemotherapy followed by surgery, making an immediate cranial reconstruction in a one-step surgical procedure possible. We describe the technique used to repair a cranial defect after the resection of a primary Ewing's sarcoma of the skull in a one-step surgical procedure. Bone repair with a custom-made cranioplasty immediately after resection of a primary Ewing's sarcoma of the skull avoids deformities and late complications associated with reconstructive surgery after radiotherapy and not interfere with radiotherapy and neither with follow-up. A one-step surgical procedure after chemotherapy for primary Ewing's sarcoma of the skull could be safer, less aggressive and more radical; avoiding deformities and late complications.

  20. Peri-operative morbidity associated with radical cystectomy in a multicenter database of community and academic hospitals.

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    Luke T Lavallée

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize the frequency and timing of complications following radical cystectomy in a cohort of patients treated at community and academic hospitals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Radical cystectomy patients captured from NSQIP hospitals from January 1 2006 to December 31 2012 were included. Baseline information and complications were abstracted by study surgical clinical reviewers through a validated process of medical record review and direct patient contact. We determined the incidence and timing of each complication and calculated their associations with patient and operative characteristics. RESULTS: 2303 radical cystectomy patients met inclusion criteria. 1115 (48% patients were over 70 years old and 1819 (79% were male. Median hospital stay was 8 days (IQR 7-13 days. 1273 (55.3% patients experienced at least 1 post-operative complication of which 191 (15.6% occurred after hospital discharge. The most common complication was blood transfusion (n = 875; 38.0%, followed by infectious complications with 218 (9.5% urinary tract infections, 193 (8.4% surgical site infections, and 223 (9.7% sepsis events. 73 (3.2% patients had fascial dehiscence, 82 (4.0% developed a deep vein thrombosis, and 67 (2.9% died. Factors independently associated with the occurrence of any post-operative complication included: age, female gender, ASA class, pre-operative sepsis, COPD, low serum albumin concentration, pre-operative radiotherapy, pre-operative transfusion >4 units, and operative time >6 hours (all p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Complications remain common following radical cystectomy and a considerable proportion occur after discharge from hospital. This study identifies risk factors for complications and quality improvement needs.

  1. Surgical treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: epicardial approach without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, A; Pagani, F; Vigano, M

    1993-03-01

    Epicardial dissection without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was performed in 88 patients (56 males and 32 females, mean age 31.9 years). With intraoperative epicardial mapping, 101 accessory pathways were detected, with multiple pathways in 11 patients. CPB was avoided in all but one patient due to frequent onset of atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular rate. Surgical ablation was successful in 86 patients (97.6%). Three patients required multiple surgical procedures because of persistence of conduction along a component of the original pathway. All but two patients were discharged without antiarrhythmic medication; these two patients were given quinidine therapy because of atrial fibrillation, but had normal early and late electrophysiological studies. Surgical ablation of Kent bundles by the epicardial approach for the treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome can be achieved without the use of CPB. Optimal and steady exposure of the area are mandatory for the procedure, and dissection is eased by avoidance of heparin required for CPB.

  2. Reassessing the Barriers to Islamic Radicalization in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    of modern Kazakhstan: examin- ing attitudes and approaches to Islam. It investigates the historical roots and perspectives of a nomadic life- style ...2010.27 The Spiritual Directorate of Muslims of Kazakhstan is an authoritative institution, not a spiritual one, ac- cording to one of the country’s...operation.47 The only linkage between these incidents and radical Islam ap- parently relates to the discovery of radical literature in the trunk of a

  3. Wrong to be Right: Margin Laterality is an Independent Predictor of Biochemical Failure After Radical Prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung J; Reiter, Robert E; Kummer, Nicolas; DeKernion, Jean; Steinberg, Michael L; King, Christopher R

    2018-01-01

    To examine the impact of positive surgical margin (PSM) laterality on failure after radical prostatectomy (RP). A PSM can influence local recurrence and outcomes after salvage radiation. Unlike intrinsic risk factors, a PSM is caused by intervention and thus iatrogenic failures may be elucidated by analyzing margin laterality as surgical approach is itself lateralized. We reviewed 226 RP patients between 1991 and 2013 with PSM. Data includes operation type, pre/postoperative PSA, surgical pathology, and margin type (location, focality, laterality). The median follow-up was 47 months. Biochemical recurrence after RP was defined as PSA≥0.1 ng/mL or 2 consecutive rises above nadir. Ninety-two patients received salvage radiation therapy (SRT). Failure after SRT was defined as any PSA≥0.2 ng/mL or greater than presalvage. Kaplan-Meier and Cox multivariate analyses compared relapse rates. The majority of PSM were iatrogenic (58%). Laterality was associated with differences in median relapse: right 20 versus left 51 versus bilateral 14 months (PRight-sided margins were more likely to progress than left (hazard ratio, 1.67; P=0.04). More right-sided margins were referred for SRT (55% right vs. 23% left vs. 22% bilateral), but were equally salvaged. Only T-stage and pre-SRT PSA independently influenced SRT success. Most PSM are iatrogenic, with right-sided more likely to progress (and sooner) than left sided. Margin laterality is a heretofore unrecognized independent predictor of biochemical relapse and hints at the need to modify the traditional unilateral surgical technique.

  4. Learning curve for radical retropubic prostatectomy

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    Fernando J. A. Saito

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The learning curve is a period in which the surgical procedure is performed with difficulty and slowness, leading to a higher risk of complications and reduced effectiveness due the surgeon's inexperience. We sought to analyze the residents' learning curve for open radical prostatectomy (RP in a training program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study from June 2006 to January 2008 in the academic environment of the University of São Paulo. Five residents operated on 184 patients during a four-month rotation in the urologic oncology division, mentored by the same physician assistants. We performed sequential analyses according to the number of surgeries, as follows: = 10, 11 to 19, 20 to 28, and = 29. RESULTS: The residents performed an average of 37 RP each. The average psa was 9.3 ng/mL and clinical stage T1c in 71% of the patients. The pathological stage was pT2 (73%, pT3 (23%, pT4 (4%, and 46% of the patients had a Gleason score 7 or higher. In all surgeries, the average operative time and estimated blood loss was 140 minutes and 488 mL. Overall, 7.2% of patients required blood transfusion, and 23% had positive surgical margins. CONCLUSION: During the initial RP learning curve, we found a significant reduction in the operative time; blood transfusion during the procedures and positive surgical margin rate were stable in our series.

  5. Disarming Youth Combatants: Mitigating Youth Radicalization and Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Özerdem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the complex of motivating variables that define the push and pull factors behind recruitment and participation in civil conflict, "radicalization"—or "violent extremism"—is not conceived as a very strong motive, as is the case with studies on terrorism. As part of disarming youth combatants,the linkages between reintegration outcomes and possible rerecruitment into radical and extremist violence must be better understood to mitigate such risks. In our analysis, the policies guiding reintegration of child soldiers and youth should be better attuned to the relationship between recruitment motivations and reintegration outcomes, and must be approached from a political lens rather than a purely technical one. The risk of radicalization and involvement in violent extremism is ultimately a structural challenge, which needs to address root causes of recruitment rather than trying to find a solution through a band-aid approach of stopgap reintegration assistance.

  6. Development of a Three-dimensional Surgical Navigation System with Magnetic Resonance Angiography and a Three-dimensional Printer for Robot-assisted Radical Prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomoto, Wataru; Tanooka, Masao; Doi, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Keisuke; Mitsuie, Chiemi; Yamada, Yusuke; Suzuki, Toru; Yamano, Toshiko; Ishikura, Reiichi; Kotoura, Noriko; Yamamoto, Shingo

    2018-01-02

    We sought to develop a surgical navigation system using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and a three-dimensional (3D) printer for robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Six patients with pathologically proven localized prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled in this study. Prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), consisting of T2-weighted sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip-angle evolutions (SPACE) and true fast imaging with steady-state precession (true FISP), reconstructed by volume rendering, was followed by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRA performed with a volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) during intravenous bolus injection of gadobutrol. Images of arterial and venous phases were acquired over approximately 210 seconds. Selected images were sent to a workstation for generation of 3D volume-rendered images and standard triangulated language (STL) files for 3D print construction. The neurovascular bundles (NVBs) were found in sequence on non-contrast images. Accessory pudendal arteries (APAs) were found in all cases in the arterial phase of contrast enhancement but were ill-defined on non-contrast enhanced MRA. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRA helped to detect APAs, suggesting that this 3D system using MRI will be useful in RARP.

  7. Literature review of factors affecting continence after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Pacik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical prostatectomy (RP is the most common cause of stress urinary incontinence (UI in men. Several anatomic structures affect or may affect urinary continence - urethral sphincter, levator ani muscle, puboprostatic ligaments, bladder neck, endopelvic fascia, neurovascular bundle - and understanding of the anatomy of pelvic floor and urethra is crucial for satisfactory functional outcome of the procedure. Surgical techniques implemented to improve continence rates include nerve-sparing procedure, bladder neck preservation/plication, urethral length preservation, musculofascial reconstruction, puboprostatic ligaments preservation or seminal vesicle preservation. Perioperative (preoperative and postoperative pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT aims to shorten the duration of postoperative UI and thus, improve early continence rates postoperatively. In the review, complex information regarding anatomical, intra- and perioperative factors affecting urinary continence after RP is provided, including description of important anatomical structures, possible implications for surgical technique and evaluation of different PFMT strategies in perioperative period.

  8. Diagnosis and surgical approach of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: a retrospective study

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    Stavros Gourgiotis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Stavros Gourgiotis1, John Aggelakas1, Nikolaos Salemis1, Charalabos Elias2, Charalabos Georgiou11Second Surgical Department, 401 General Army Hospital of Athens, Greece; 2Second Surgical Department, 417 NIMTS Veterans General Hospital of Athens, GreeceBackground: Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES is a rare but potentially limb threatening peripheral vascular disease occurring predominantly in young adults. This study is a retrospective review of 49 limbs in 38 patients with PAES treated surgically over an 8-year period.Patients and methods: From 1995 to 2002, 38 patients with a mean age of 21 years (range, 18–29 years underwent surgery for PAES at a single institution. The patients’ demographic data and clinical features are recorded. The preoperative diagnosis of PAES was made based on various combinations of investigations including positional stress test, duplex ultrasonography, computed tomography, computed tomographic angiography, and angiography. Results: Nine, 33, and 7 patients had Delaney’s type I, II, and III PAES respectively. The surgical procedures consisted of simple release of the popliteal artery in 33 limbs (67.3%, autogenous saphenous vein (ASV patch angioplasty with or without thromboendarterectomy (TEA in 5 limbs (10.2% and ASV graft interposition or bypass in 11 limbs (22.5%. At a median follow up of 34 months (range, 8–42 months, there were no postoperative complications and all the patients were cured of their symptoms.Conclusions: PAES is an unusual but important cause of peripheral vascular insufficiency especially in young patients. Early diagnosis through a combined approach is necessary for exact diagnosis. Popliteal artery release alone or with vein bypass is the treatment of choice when intervention is indicated for good operative outcome and to prevent limb loss.Keywords: popliteal artery, entrapment syndrome, diagnosis, surgery, treatment

  9. Surgical and cryosurgical salvage of oral and oropharyngeal cancer recurring after radical radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyza, J.W.; Towpik, E.

    1991-01-01

    The results of salvage surgery or cryosurgery performed in 62 cases or oral or oropharyngeal cancer, recurring or persisting after radical radiotherapy, were analysed retrospectively. Salvage surgery was performed in 33 cases. The relatively high frequency of postoperative complications observed in years 1973-1984 has declined since 1985, concomitant with the introduction of myocutaneous flaps for reconstruction. Twenty-nine patients who were disqualified from major surgery, were treated by cryosurgery. Using both methods, 3-year overall survival was obtained in 24.1% of cases. (author)

  10. Routine Use of Surgical Retrograde Transtibial Endovascular Approach for Failed Attempts at Antegrade Recanalization of Chronic Peripheral Artery Total Occlusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, GangZhu; Zhang, FuXian, E-mail: gangzhuliang@126.com; Luo, XiaoYun; Zhang, ChangMing; Feng, YaPing; Niu, LuYuan; Zhang, Huan; Hu, Lu; Zhao, Hui; Cheng, Long; Zhang, MingYi [Capital Medical University, Department of Vascular Surgery, Beijing Shijitan Hospital (China)

    2016-12-15

    PurposeOur aim was to describe the technical aspects and clinical outcomes of an open surgical approach to retrograde transtibial endovascular therapy for recanalization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) of peripheral arteries because of inability to acquire antegrade intravascular access across the occlusion.Materials and MethodsBetween January 2011 and May 2014, conventional antegrade revascularization failed in 15 limbs of 15 patients (11 males, 4 females) with complex CTOs. The mean age of the patients was 74 years (range 48–83 years). Five patients had severe claudication (Rutherford Category 3), and 10 patients had critical limb-threatening ischemia (Rutherford Categories 4–5). For each of these cases of antegrade failure, an open surgical exposure of the tibial or dorsalis pedis artery was used to allow a safe retrograde transtibial endovascular approach to recanalize the CTO.ResultsSurgical retrograde access from the tibial artery was achieved successfully in 14 of the 15 patients. In the 14 successful retrograde endovascular approaches, surgical retrograde transtibial access was achieved from the dorsalis pedis artery in 8 patients and from the posterior tibial artery in 6. The average time to obtain retrograde access was 5 min (range 2–11 min). No stenosis or occlusion occurred in the tibial or dorsalis pedis arteries used for the retrograde access sites during follow-up.ConclusionsRoutine surgical exposure can be a safe and an effective method for retrograde transtibial access to the more proximal occluded arterial segments in selected patients with CTO.

  11. Routine Use of Surgical Retrograde Transtibial Endovascular Approach for Failed Attempts at Antegrade Recanalization of Chronic Peripheral Artery Total Occlusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, GangZhu; Zhang, FuXian; Luo, XiaoYun; Zhang, ChangMing; Feng, YaPing; Niu, LuYuan; Zhang, Huan; Hu, Lu; Zhao, Hui; Cheng, Long; Zhang, MingYi

    2016-01-01

    PurposeOur aim was to describe the technical aspects and clinical outcomes of an open surgical approach to retrograde transtibial endovascular therapy for recanalization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) of peripheral arteries because of inability to acquire antegrade intravascular access across the occlusion.Materials and MethodsBetween January 2011 and May 2014, conventional antegrade revascularization failed in 15 limbs of 15 patients (11 males, 4 females) with complex CTOs. The mean age of the patients was 74 years (range 48–83 years). Five patients had severe claudication (Rutherford Category 3), and 10 patients had critical limb-threatening ischemia (Rutherford Categories 4–5). For each of these cases of antegrade failure, an open surgical exposure of the tibial or dorsalis pedis artery was used to allow a safe retrograde transtibial endovascular approach to recanalize the CTO.ResultsSurgical retrograde access from the tibial artery was achieved successfully in 14 of the 15 patients. In the 14 successful retrograde endovascular approaches, surgical retrograde transtibial access was achieved from the dorsalis pedis artery in 8 patients and from the posterior tibial artery in 6. The average time to obtain retrograde access was 5 min (range 2–11 min). No stenosis or occlusion occurred in the tibial or dorsalis pedis arteries used for the retrograde access sites during follow-up.ConclusionsRoutine surgical exposure can be a safe and an effective method for retrograde transtibial access to the more proximal occluded arterial segments in selected patients with CTO.

  12. Conservative two-step procedure including uterine artery embolization with embosphere and surgical myomectomy for the treatment of multiple fibroids: Preliminary experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malartic, Cécile; Morel, Olivier; Fargeaudou, Yann; Le Dref, Olivier; Fazel, Afchine; Barranger, Emmanuel; Soyer, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of combined uterine artery embolization (UAE) using embosphere and surgical myomectomy as an alternative to radical hysterectomy in premenopausal women with multiple fibroids. Materials and methods: Mid-term clinical outcome (mean, 25 months) of 12 premenopausal women (mean age, 38 years) with multiple and large symptomatic fibroids who desired to retain their uterus and who were treated using combined UAE and surgical myomectomy were retrospectively analyzed. In all women, UAE alone was contraindicated because of large (>10 cm) or subserosal or submucosal fibroids and myomectomy alone was contraindicated because of too many (>10) fibroids. Results: UAE and surgical myomectomy were successfully performed in all women. Myomectomy was performed using laparoscopy (n = 6), open laparotomy (n = 3), hysteroscopy (n = 2), or laparoscopy and hysteroscopy (n = 1). Mean serum hemoglobin level drop was 0.97 g/dL and no blood transfusion was needed. No immediate complications were observed and all women reported resumption of normal menses. During a mean follow-up period of 25 months (range, 14–37 months), complete resolution of initial symptoms along with decrease in uterine volume (mean, 48%) was observed in all women. No further hysterectomy was required in any woman. Conclusion: In premenopausal women with multiple fibroids, the two-step procedure is safe and effective alternative to radical hysterectomy, which allows preserving the uterus. Further prospective studies, however, should be done to determine the actual benefit of this combined approach on the incidence of subsequent pregnancies.

  13. Is surgeon intuition equivalent to models of operative complexity in determining the surgical approach for nephron sparing surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: RENAL nephrometry score was associated with surgical approach intuitively chosen by an experienced surgeon, but the presence of adherent perinephric fat did not correlate with decision-making.

  14. Olfactory groove meningioma: discussion of clinical presentation and surgical outcomes following excision via the subcranial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jon-Paul; Hecht, Sarah L; Gebarski, Stephen S; Lin, Erin M; Sullivan, Stephen E; Marentette, Lawrence J

    2011-11-01

    To describe surgical outcomes and radiographic features of olfactory groove meningiomas treated by excision through the subcranial approach. Special emphasis is placed on paranasal sinus and orbit involvement. Retrospective review of a series of patients. Nineteen patients underwent excision of olfactory groove meningioma (OGM) via the transglabellar/subcranial approach between December 1995 and November 2009. Nine patients had previously undergone prior resection at outside institutions, and four had prior radiotherapy in addition to a prior excision. Transglabellar/subcranial surgical approach to the anterior skull base was performed. Tumor histology included three World Health Organization (WHO) grade III lesions, one WHO grade II lesion, and 15 WHO grade I lesions. Fourteen patients had evidence of extension into the paranasal sinuses, with the ethmoid sinus being most commonly involved. Kaplan-Meier estimates of mean overall and disease-free survival were 121.45 months and 93.03 months, respectively. The mean follow-up interval was 41.0 months, and at the time of data analysis three patients had recurrent tumors. Seven (36.8%) patients experienced a major complication in the perioperative period; there were no perioperative mortalities. Orbit invasion was observed in four patients, with optic nerve impingement in 11 patients. Of these, three patients had long-term diplopia. No patients experienced worsening of preoperative visual acuity. Olfactory groove meningiomas demonstrate a propensity to spread into the paranasal sinuses, particularly in recurrent cases. Given a tendency for infiltrative recurrence along the skull base, this disease represents an important area of collaboration between neurosurgery and otolaryngology. The subcranial approach offers excellent surgical access for excision, particularly for recurrences that involve the paranasal sinuses and optic apparatus. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society

  15. Adrenohepatic fusion: Adhesion or invasion in primary virilizant giant adrenal carcinoma? Implications for surgical resection. Two case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastrué Vidal, Antonio; Navinés López, Jordi; Julián Ibáñez, Juan Francisco; De la Ossa Merlano, Napoleón; Botey Fernandez, Mireia; Sampere Moragues, Jaume; Sánchez Torres, Maria Del Carmen; Barluenga Torres, Eva; Fernández-Llamazares Rodríguez, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Adrenohepatic fusion means union between the adrenal gland and the liver, intermingling its parenchymas. It is not possible to identify this condition by image tests. Its presence implies radical and multidisciplinar approach. We report two female cases of 45 and 50 years old with clinical virilization and palpable mass on the abdominal right upper quadrant corresponding to adrenocortical carcinoma with hepatic fusion. The contrast-enhanced tomography showed an indistinguishable mass involving the liver and the right adrenal gland. In the first case, the patient had a two-time operation, the former removing only the adrenal carcinoma, and the second performing a radical surgery after an early relapse. In the second case, a radical right en bloc adrenohepatectomy was performed. Both cases were pathologically reported as liver-infiltrating adrenal carcinoma. Only in the second case the surgery was radical effective as first intention to treat, with 3 years of disease-free survival. ACC is a rare entity with poor prognosis. The major indicators of malignancy are tumour diameter over 6cm, local invasion or metastasis, secretion of corticosteroids, virilization and hypertension and hypokalaemia. The parenchymal fusion of the adrenal cortical layer can be misdiagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma with adhesion with the Glisson capsule. AHF in such cases may be misinterpreted during surgery, what may impair its resectability, and therefore the survival. The surgical treatment must be performed en bloc, often using liver vascular control. Postoperative treatment must be offered immediately after surgery. We report two consecutive rare cases of adrenohepatic fusion in giant right adrenocortical carcinoma, not detectable by imaging, what has important implications for the surgical decision-making. As radical surgery is the best choice to offer a curative treatment, it has to be performed by a multidisciplinary well-assembled team, counting with endocrine and liver surgeons

  16. Surgical management of thalamic gliomas: case selection, technical considerations, and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Kiran, Narayanam Anantha; Thakar, Sumit; Dadlani, Ravi; Mohan, Dilip; Furtado, Sunil Valentine; Ghosal, Nandita; Aryan, Saritha; Hegde, Alangar S

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to identify (1) the thalamic gliomas suitable for surgical resection and (2) the appropriate surgical approach based on their location and the displacement of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC). A retrospective study over a 5-year period (from 2006 to 2010) was performed in 41 patients with thalamic gliomas. The mean age of these patients was 20.4 years (range, 2-65 years). Twenty (49 %) tumors were thalamic, 19 (46 %) were thalamopeduncular, and 2 (5 %) were bilateral. The PLIC, based on T2-weighted magnetic resonance axial sections, was displaced anterolaterally in 23 (56 %) cases and laterally in 6 (14 %) cases. It was involved by lesion in eight (20 %) cases and could not be identified in four (10 %) cases. Resection, favored in patients with well-defined, contrast-enhancing lesions, was performed in 34 (83 %) cases, while a biopsy was resorted to in 7 (17 %) cases. A gross total resection or near total resection (>90 %) could be achieved in 26 (63 %) cases. The middle temporal gyrus approach, used when the PLIC was displaced anterolaterally, was the commonly used approach (63.5 %). Common pathologies were pilocytic astrocytoma (58 %) in children and grade III/IV astrocytomas (86 %) in adults. Preoperative motor deficits improved in 64 % of the patients with pilocytic lesions as compared to 0 % in patients with grade III/IV lesions (P value, 0.001). Postoperatively, two patients (5 %) had marginal worsening of motor power, two patients developed visual field defects, and one patient developed a third nerve paresis. Radical resection of thalamic gliomas is a useful treatment modality in a select subset of patients and is the treatment of choice for pilocytic astrocytomas. Tailoring the surgical approach, depending on the relative position of the PLIC, has an important bearing on outcome.

  17. Laparoscopic resection of tumor recurrence after radical nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Lessandro; Cunha, Antonio Claudio; Renteria, Juan; Presto, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Local recurrence of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) after radical nephrectomy is a rare event. Some known risk factors are: clinical/pathological stage, locorregional disease and lyimph node positivity. Since up to 30-40% of patients can achieve a disease-free status, we show a case (video) in which we performed a laparoscopic excision of a local RCC, taking advantage of all the well-known benefits of laparoscopy. A 56 years old female with a history of open radical nephrectomy two years before was diagnosed with a mass at the time of surveillance CT imaging during follow-up. The suspected local recurrence was 12 cm, and vascularized predominantly by tributaries originating from the iliac vessels. There was no other site of disease (i.e. brain, lung, liver, bones) and laboratory tests were normal. Laparoscopic approach was approached, by inserting 4 trocars (2 of 10 and 2 of 5mm) with the patient in the lateral position. The procedure lasted 130 minutes, with 220 mL of estimated bleeding; the larger vessels were ligated with polymer clips (Hem-o-lok) and the smaller handled by ultrasonic clamp. The specimen was removed by a small incision below the umbilicus in an appropriate bag. The patient was feed in the first postoperative day and discharged on the third day. Histopathology revealed sarcoma, with a high degree of mitosis, and negative surgical margins. She was referred to medical oncology for adjuvant therapy consideration. The laparoscopic resection of recurrent tumor should be encouraged in highly selected cases. The minimally invasive method, with its known advantages, especially for more debilitated patients, can be advantageous when applied to suitable cases.

  18. Preliminary experience with extraperitoneal endoscopic radical prostatectomy through duplication of the open technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tobias-Machado

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe surgical and functional results with extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with duplication of the open technique, from the experience obtained in the treatment of 28 initial cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a 36-month period, we prospectively analyzed 28 patients diagnosed with localized prostate cancer undergoing extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 280 min, with mean blood loss of 320 mL. As intraoperative complications, there were 2 rectal lesions repaired with laparoscopic suture in 2 planes. There was no conversion to open surgery. Median hospital stay was 3 days, with return to oral diet in the first post-operative day in patients. As post-operative complications, there were 3 cases of extraperitoneal urinary fistula. Two of these cases were resolved by maintaining a Foley catheter for 21 days, and the other one by late endoscopic reintervention for repositioning the catheter. Five out of 18 previously potent patients evolved with erectile dysfunction. The diagnosis of prostate cancer was confirmed in all patients, with focal positive margin occurring in 3 cases. During a mean follow-up of 18 months, 2 patients presented increased PSA, with no clinical evidence of disease. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is a laborious and difficult procedure, with a long learning curve. Extraperitoneal access is feasible, and it is possible to practically duplicate the principles of open surgery. The present technique can possibly offer advantages in terms of decreased blood loss, preservation of erectile function and prevention of positive margins.

  19. Total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy for endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, C; Stănciulea, Oana; Popa, Monica; Anghel, Rodica; Herlea, V; Florescu, Arleziana

    2008-01-01

    radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy was not associated with an increased operative time or blood loss and appears to be a feasible alternative to conventional surgical approach in patients with endometrial carcinoma.

  20. Lingual Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report and Review of Surgical Approaches in the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, William; Interval, Eric; Patel, Rusha

    2018-07-01

    Lingual thyroid cancer is a rare entity with a paucity of literature guiding methods of surgical treatment. Its location presents anatomic challenges with access and excision. We present a case of T4aN1b classical variant papillary thyroid carcinoma of the lingual thyroid that was removed without pharyngeal entry. We also present a review of the literature of this rare entity and propose a treatment algorithm to provide safe and oncologic outcomes. Our review of the literature found 28 case reports of lingual thyroid carcinoma that met search criteria. The trans-cervical/trans-hyoid approach was the most frequently used and provides safe oncologic outcomes. This was followed by the transoral approach and then lateral pharyngotomy. Complications reported across the series include 1 case of pharyngocutaneous fistula associated with mandibulotomy and postoperative respiratory distress requiring reintubation or emergent tracheostomy in 2 patients. The location of lingual thyroid carcinoma can be variable, and surgical management requires knowledge of adjacent involved structures to decrease the risk of dysphagia and airway compromise. In particular, for cases where there is extensive loss to swallowing mechanisms, laryngeal suspension can allow the patient to resume a normal diet after treatment.

  1. Manipulating radicals: Using cobalt to steer radical reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Chirilă, A.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes research aimed at understanding and exploiting metallo-radical reactivity and explores reactions mediated by square planar, low-spin cobalt(II) complexes. A primary goal was to uncover novel reactivity of discrete cobalt(III)-bound carbene radicals generated upon reaction of the cobalt(II) catalysts with carbene precursors. Another important goal was to replace cobalt(II)-porphyrin catalysts with cheaper and easier to prepare metallo-radical analogues. Therefore the cata...

  2. Functionalized graphene quantum dots loaded with free radicals combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry to screen radical scavenging natural antioxidants from Licorice and Scutellariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Niu, XiuLi; Shi, Gaofeng; Chen, Xuefu; Yao, Ruixing; Chen, Fuwen

    2014-12-01

    A novel screening method was developed for the detection and identification of radical scavenging natural antioxidants based on a free radical reaction combined with liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Functionalized graphene quantum dots were prepared for loading free radicals in the complex screening system. The detection was performed with and without a preliminary exposure of the samples to specific free radicals on the functionalized graphene quantum dots, which can facilitate charge transfer between free radicals and antioxidants. The difference in chromatographic peak areas was used to identify potential antioxidants. This is a novel approach to simultaneously evaluate the antioxidant power of a component versus a free radical, and to identify it in a vegetal matrix. The structures of the antioxidants in the samples were identified using tandem mass spectrometry and comparison with standards. Fourteen compounds were found to possess potential antioxidant activity, and their free radical scavenging capacities were investigated. The order of scavenging capacity of 14 compounds was compared according to their free radical scavenging rate. 4',5,6,7-Tetrahydroxyflavone (radical scavenging rate: 0.05253 mL mg(-1) s(-1) ) showed the strongest capability for scavenging free radicals. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Lateral skull base approaches in the management of benign parapharyngeal space tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sampath Chandra; Piccirillo, Enrico; Chovanec, Martin; La Melia, Claudio; De Donato, Giuseppe; Sanna, Mario

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the role of lateral skull base approaches in the management of benign parapharyngeal space tumors and to propose an algorithm for their surgical approach. Retrospective study of patients with benign parapharyngeal space tumors. The clinical features, radiology and preoperative management of skull base neurovasculature, the surgical approaches and overall results were recorded. 46 patients presented with 48 tumors. 12 were prestyloid and 36 poststyloid. 19 (39.6%) tumors were paragangliomas, 15 (31.25%) were schwannomas and 11 (23%) were pleomorphic adenomas. Preoperative embolization was performed in 19, stenting of the internal carotid artery in 4 and permanent balloon occlusion in 2 patients. 19 tumors were approached by the transcervical, 13 by transcervical-transparotid, 5 by transcervical-transmastoid, 6, 1 and 2 tumors by the infratemporal fossa approach types A, B and D, respectively. Total radical tumor removal was achieved in 46 (96%) of the cases. Lateral skull base approaches have an advantage over other approaches in the management of benign tumors of the parapharyngeal space due to the fact that they provide excellent exposure with less morbidity. The use of microscope combined with bipolar cautery reduces morbidity. Stenting of internal carotid artery gives a chance for complete tumor removal with arterial preservation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuroprotection by Radical Avoidance: Search for Suitable Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Hardeland

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration is frequently associated with damage by free radicals. However, increases in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which may ultimately lead to neuronal cell death, do not necessarily reflect its primary cause, but can be a consequence of otherwise induced cellular dysfunction. Detrimental processes which promote free radical formation are initiated, e.g., by disturbances in calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial malfunction, and an age-related decline in the circadian oscillator system. Free radicals generated at high rates under pathophysiological conditions are insufficiently detoxified by scavengers. Interventions at the primary causes of dysfunction, which avoid secondary rises in radical formation, may be more efficient. The aim of such approaches should be to prevent calcium overload, to reduce mitochondrial electron dissipation, to support electron transport capacity, and to avoid circadian perturbations. l-Theanine and several amphiphilic nitrones are capable of counteracting excitotoxicity and/or mitochondrial radical formation. Resveratrol seems to promote mitochondrial biogenesis. Mitochondrial effects of leptin include attenuation of electron leakage. Melatonin combines all the requirements mentioned, additionally regulates anti- and pro-oxidant enzymes and is, with few exceptions, very well tolerated. In this review, the perspectives, problems and limits of drugs are compared which may be suitable for reducing the formation of free radicals.

  5. Free radical inactivation of trypsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudina, Ivana; Jovanovic, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    Reactivities of free radical oxidants, radical OH, Br2-anion radical and Cl 3 COO radical and a reductant, CO2-anion radical, with trypsin and reactive protein components were determined by pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions at pH 7, 20 0 C. Highly reactive free radicals, radical OH, Br2-anion radical and CO2-anion radical, react with trypsin at diffusion controlled rates. Moderately reactive trichloroperoxy radical, k(Cl 3 COO radical + trypsin) preferentially oxidizes histidine residues. The efficiency of inactivation of trypsin by free radicals is inversely proportional to their reactivity. The yields of inactivation of trypsin by radical OH, Br2-anion radical and CO2-anion radical are low, G(inactivation) = 0.6-0.8, which corresponds to ∼ 10% of the initially produced radicals. In contrast, Cl 3 COO radical inactivates trypsin with ∼ 50% efficiency, i.e. G(inactivation) = 3.2. (author)

  6. The chemistry of amine radical cations produced by visible light photoredox catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Amine radical cations are highly useful reactive intermediates in amine synthesis. They have displayed several modes of reactivity leading to some highly sought-after synthetic intermediates including iminium ions, α-amino radicals, and distonic ions. One appealing method to access amine radical cations is through one-electron oxidation of the corresponding amines under visible light photoredox conditions. This approach and subsequent chemistries are emerging as a powerful tool in amine synthesis. This article reviews synthetic applications of amine radical cations produced by visible light photocatalysis.

  7. Outcomes After Radical Prostatectomy in Men Receiving Prior Pelvic Radiation for Non-Prostate Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Timothy A.; Wedmid, Alexei; Sandhu, Jaspreet S.; Eastham, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Morbidity associated with salvage radical prostatectomy for locally recurrent prostate cancer after primary radiotherapy is well documented, but little is known about the impact on surgical difficulty and outcomes for radical prostatectomy in men who have had prior pelvic radiotherapy for non-prostate malignancies. We report functional outcomes of 9 patients treated at our institution. Materials and Methods From 1993 to 2007, 9 patients underwent radical prostatectomy following external beam radiotherapy for testicular seminoma (6), anorectal cancer (2), and colon cancer (1). Clinical information was obtained from a prospective prostate cancer database. Results Radical prostatectomy was completed without identifiable injury to adjacent structures in all 9 patients. Four patients had significant pelvic fibrosis, 3 required bilateral neurovascular bundle resection. Neurovascular bundle preservation was performed in the remaining 6 patients, 4 with good preoperative erectile function. However, no patient recovered erectile function postoperatively at a median follow-up time of 75 months (range 12 to 172). Of preoperatively continent men, 57% required ≤1 pad daily and 43% were completely dry, achieving complete urinary control at a median follow-up time of 7.5 months (range 2 to 20). Two patients developed anastomotic stricture, one being associated with concomitant ureteral stricture. Conclusions Radical prostatectomy after pelvic radiotherapy for non-prostate malignancies was not associated with increased intraoperative morbidity. However, rates of anastomotic stricture, erectile dysfunction, and urinary incontinence appear to be higher than those observed after radical prostatectomy in men with no prior radiotherapy and comparable to those seen in the salvage radical prostatectomy setting. PMID:19239447

  8. Results of preoperative electrical stimulation of pelvic floor muscles in the continence status following radical retropubic prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Elaine Laurienzo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate preoperative rectal electrical stimulation in the recovery of urinary continence in patients who undergo radical retropubic prostatectomy. Materials and Methods Patients were divided into 3 randomized groups: control, pelvic exercises, and electrical stimulation. A 1 hour pad-test, the ICIQ-SF, and the SF-36 were performed 1, 3, and 6 months after the surgical procedure. Results Of the 58 patients who were initially included in the study, 9 were excluded due to radiotherapy after surgical intervention, an indwelling urethral catheter for more than 30 days, high surgical risk, loss of follow-up, or incomplete participation in the study routines and spontaneous interruption. Forty-nine patients concluded the study (15 in the control group, 17 in the exercise group, and 17 in the electrical stimulation group. We did not observe any significant difference in the pad test (p > 0.05, the 8 domains of the SF-36, or ICIQ-SF score compared with control groups (control, exercise, and electrical stimulation. Conclusion Preoperative rectal electrical stimulation has no impact on continence status in patients who undergo radical retropubic prostatectomy. There is no difference in the three above mentioned groups with regard to urinary leakage and quality of life.

  9. Gamma-sterilization-induced radicals in biodegradable drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, K.; Swartz, H.M.; Domb, A.

    1996-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy (1.2 and 9.25 GHz, 25 o C) was used to characterize free radicals in gamma-ray sterilized biodegradable polymers of the type which are in clinical use. Free radicals were detected in all irradiated polymer samples. The temperature of irradiation (25 o vs dry ice temperature) had only a minor influence on the yield of radicals and the shape of the EPR spectra. In contrast, the composition of the polymers and the drugs incorporated in them did strongly influence the amount of radiation-induced free radicals and their reactivity. In general, polymers with high melting points and crystallinity had the highest yields of radicals observable at room temperature. We were able to use the free radicals induced by the usual sterilization procedures to follow the penetration of water and the degradation of the polymers in vitro and in vivo. The ability of in vivo EPR to follow drug delivery noninvasively and continuously in vivo, using the free radicals induced in the usual sterilization process indicates that this approach could be applied immediately for the characterization of these drug delivery systems in experimental animals and in the near future should be able to be used in human subjects. (author)

  10. A retinaculum-sparing surgical approach preserves porcine stifle joint cartilage in an experimental animal model of cartilage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadio, Marcelo B; Friedman, James M; Sennett, Mackenzie L; Mauck, Robert L; Dodge, George R; Madry, Henning

    2017-12-01

    This study compares a traditional parapatellar retinaculum-sacrificing arthrotomy to a retinaculum-sparing arthrotomy in a porcine stifle joint as a cartilage repair model. Surgical exposure of the femoral trochlea of ten Yucatan pigs stifle joint was performed using either a traditional medial parapatellar approach with retinaculum incision and luxation of the patella (n = 5) or a minimally invasive (MIS) approach which spared the patellar retinaculum (n = 5). Both classical and MIS approaches provided adequate access to the trochlea, enabling the creation of cartilage defects without difficulties. Four full thickness, 4 mm circular full-thickness cartilage defects were created in each trochlea. There were no intraoperative complications observed in either surgical approach. All pigs were allowed full weight-bearing and full range of motion immediately postoperatively and were euthanized between 2 and 3 weeks. The traditional approach was associated with increased cartilage wear compared to the MIS approach. Two blinded raters performed gross evaluation of the trochlea cartilage surrounding the defects according to the modified ICRS cartilage injury classification. The traditional approach cartilage received a significantly worse score than the MIS approach group from both scorers (3.2 vs 0.8, p = 0.01 and 2.8 vs 0, p = 0.005 respectively). The MIS approach results in less damage to the trochlear cartilage and faster return to load bearing activities. As an arthrotomy approach in the porcine model, MIS is superior to the traditional approach.

  11. Technological innovations in surgical approach for thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Lo, Chung-Yau

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, surgeons have witnessed dramatic changes in surgical practice as a result of the introduction of new technological advancement. Some of these changes include refinement of techniques in thyroid cancer surgery. The development of various endoscopic thyroidectomy techniques, the addition of the da Vinci robot, and the use of operative adjuncts in thyroid surgery, such as intraoperative neuromonitoring and quick intraoperative parathyroid hormone, have made thyroid cancer surgery not only safer and better accepted by patients with thyroid cancer but also offer them more surgical treatment options.

  12. Innovative Surgical Management of the Synovial Chondromatosis of Temporo-Mandibular Joints: Highly Conservative Surgical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionna, Franco; Amantea, Massimiliano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Ballini, Andrea; Maglione, Maria Grazia; Aversa, Corrado; De Cecio, Rossella; Russo, Daniela; Marrelli, Massimo; Tatullo, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is an uncommon disease characterized by a benign nodular cartilaginous proliferation arising from the joint synovium, bursae, or tendon sheaths. Although the temporomandibular joint is rarely affected by neoplastic lesions, SC is the most common neoplastic lesion of this joint. The treatment of this disease consists in the extraoral surgery with a wide removal of the lesion; in this study, the authors described a more conservative intraoral surgical approach. Patient with SC of temporomandibular joint typically refer a limitation in the mouth opening, together with a persistent not physiological mandibular protrusion and an appearance of a neoformation located at the right preauricular region: the authors reported 1 scholar patient. After biopsy of the neoformation, confirming the synovial chondromatosis, the patient underwent thus to the surgical excision of the tumor, via authors' conservative transoral approach, to facilitate the enucleation of the neoformation. The mass fully involved the pterygo-maxillary fossa with involvement of the parotid lodge and of the right TMJ: this multifocal extension suggested for a trans-oral surgical procedure, in the light of the suspicion of a possible malignant nature of the neoplasm. Our intraoral conservative approach to surgery is aimed to reduce the presence of unaesthetic scars in preauricular and facial regions, with surgical results undoubtedly comparable to the traditional surgical techniques much more aggressive. Our technique could be a valid, alternative, and safe approach to treat this rare and complex kind of oncological disease.

  13. [The "window" surgical exposure strategy of the upper anterior cervical retropharyngeal approach for anterior decompression at upper cervical spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Zhe; Wu, Jian; Lü, Jun; Gu, Xiao-Hui

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the "window" surgical exposure strategy of the upper anterior cervical retropharyngeal approach for the exposure and decompression and instrumentation of the upper cervical spine. From Jan. 2000 to July 2008, 5 patients with upper cervical spinal injuries were treated by surgical operation included 4 males and 1 female with and average age of 35 years old ranging from 16 to 68 years. There were 2 cases of Hangman's fractures (type II ), 2 of C2.3 intervertebral disc displacement and 1 of C2 vertebral body tuberculosis. All patients underwent the upper cervical anterior retropharyngeal approach through the "window" between the hypoglossal nerve and the superior laryngeal nerve and pharynx and carotid artery. Two patients of Hangman's fractures underwent the C2,3 intervertebral disc discectomy, bone graft fusion and internal fixation. Two patients of C2,3 intervertebral disc displacement underwent the C2,3 intervertebral disc discectomy, decompression bone graft fusion and internal fixation. One patient of C2 vertebral body tuberculosis was dissected and resected and the focus and the cavity was filled by bone autografting. C1 anterior arch to C3 anterior vertebral body were successful exposed. Lesion resection or decompression and fusion were successful in all patients. All patients were followed-up for from 5 to 26 months (means 13.5 months). There was no important vascular and nerve injury and no wound infection. Neutral symptoms was improved and all patient got successful fusion. The "window" surgical exposure surgical technique of the upper cervical anterior retropharyngeal approach is a favorable strategy. This approach strategy can be performed with full exposure for C1-C3 anterior anatomical structure, and can get minimally invasive surgery results and few and far between wound complication, that is safe if corresponding experience is achieved.

  14. Surgical approach in patients with hyperparathyroidism in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: total versus partial parathyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tonelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, primary hyperparathyroidism is the first endocrinopathy to be diagnosed in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, and is also the most common one. The timing of the surgery and strategy in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1/hyperparathyroidism are still under debate. The aims of surgery are to: 1 correct hypercalcemia, thus preventing persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism; 2 avoid persistent hypoparathyroidism; and 3 facilitate the surgical treatment of possible recurrences. Currently, two types of surgical approach are indicated: 1 subtotal parathyroidectomy with removal of at least 3-3 K glands; and 2 total parathyroidectomy with grafting of autologous parathyroid tissue. Transcervical thymectomy must be performed with both of these procedures. Unsuccessful surgical treatment of hyperparathyroidism is more frequently observed in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 than in sporadic hyperparathyroidism. The recurrence rate is strongly influenced by: 1 the lack of a pre-operative multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 diagnosis; 2 the surgeon's experience; 3 the timing of surgery; 4 the possibility of performing intra-operative confirmation (histologic examination, rapid parathyroid hormone assay of the curative potential of the surgical procedure; and, 5 the surgical strategy. Persistent hyperparathyroidism seems to be more frequent after subtotal parathyroidectomy than after total parathyroidectomy with autologous graft of parathyroid tissue. Conversely, recurrent hyperparathyroidism has a similar frequency in the two surgical strategies. To plan further operations, it is very helpful to know all the available data about previous surgery and to undertake accurate identification of the site of recurrence.

  15. Population-based assessment of racial/ethnic differences in utilization of radical cystectomy for patients diagnosed with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephen B; Huo, Jinhai; Kosarek, Christopher D; Chamie, Karim; Rogers, Selwyn O; Williams, Michele A; Giordano, Sharon H; Kim, Simon P; Kamat, Ashish M

    2017-07-01

    Radical cystectomy is a surgical treatment for recurrent non-muscle-invasive and muscle-invasive bladder cancer; however, many patients may not receive this treatment. A total of 27,578 patients diagnosed with clinical stage I-IV bladder cancer from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2013 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry database. We used multivariable regression analyses to identify factors predicting the use of radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze survival outcomes. A total of 1,693 (6.1%) patients with bladder cancer underwent radical cystectomy. Most patients (92.4%) who underwent radical cystectomy also underwent pelvic lymph node dissection. When compared with white patients, non-Hispanic blacks were less likely to undergo a radical cystectomy [odds ratio (OR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.96, p = 0.019]. Moreover, recent year of surgery 2013 versus 2007 (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.90-2.83, p groups diagnosed with bladder cancer, especially among older, non-Hispanic black patients.

  16. Cyclodialysis ab interno as a surgical approach to intractable glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jens F; Dietlein, Thomas S; Dinslage, Sven; Lüke, Christoph; Konen, Walter; Krieglstein, Günter K

    2007-08-01

    In glaucoma filtration surgery, the problem of subconjunctival scarring has still not been satisfactorily solved. Suprachoroidal drainage of aqueous humour offers a promising, alternative option for intractable glaucoma. We here present a clinical study on the surgical approach of gonioscopic cyclodialysis ab interno. Twenty-eight eyes of 20 patients with intractable glaucoma were included in this prospective, consecutive, case-control study. The eyes had had a mean of 4.4 +/- 2.4 previous antiglaucomatous interventions. Baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) was 34.3 +/- 10.5 mmHg despite maximum therapy. Under gonioscopic control, cyclodialysis ab interno was performed over two clock times to gain access to the suprachoroidal space. No additional trabecular meshwork surgery was performed. Success was defined as a lowering of IOP to below 21 mmHg without the need for further medication or intervention. Mean postoperative IOP was 14.6 +/- 12.4 mmHg. Mean follow-up (FU) for all eyes was 121.8 days. After a mean of 60 days, 21 eyes (75%) needed further surgical intervention. Qualified success was seen in four eyes (14.3%), with a mean FU of 383.6 days. Three eyes (10.7%) showed absolute success after a mean FU period of 202.7 days. In our series, we obtained the best results for phakic eyes, followed by pseudophakic and aphakic eyes. The results of this study do not provide convincing evidence of the functional efficacy of cyclodialysis ab interno. Nevertheless, the technique is easy to perform and offers safe and atraumatic access to the resorptive capability of the choroid. Conjunctival manipulation is avoided. Contrary to reports in the current literature, in our series, the best results were obtained for phakic eyes, though the small number of eyes included does not allow reliable statistics. Further studies will need to focus on the use of different space-retaining substances or a widening of the cyclodialysis cleft to improve surgical outcome.

  17. Influence of Free Radicals on the Intrinsic MRI Relaxation Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, Rong-Wen; Scotti, Alessandro M; Li, Weiguo; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Cai, Kejia

    2017-01-01

    Free radicals are critical contributors in various conditions including normal aging, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and diabetes. Currently there is no non-invasive approach to image tissue free radicals based on endogenous contrast due to their extremely short lifetimes and low in vivo concentrations. In this study we aim at characterizing the influence of free radicals on the MRI relaxation properties. Phantoms containing free radicals were created by treating egg white with various H 2 O 2 concentrations and scanned on a 9.4 T MRI scanner at room temperature. T 1 and T 2 relaxation maps were generated from data acquired with an inversion recovery sequence with varied inversion times and a multi-echo spin echo sequence with varied echo times (TEs), respectively. Results demonstrated that free radicals express a strong shortening effect on T 1 , which was proportional to the H 2 O 2 concentration, and a relatively small reduction in T 2 (free radicals was estimated to be in the pM range that is within the physiological range of in vivo free radical expression. In conclusion, the free radicals show a strong paramagnetic effect that may be utilized as an endogenous MRI contrast for its non-invasive in vivo imaging.

  18. Peculiarities of diagnosis and surgical treatment of mediastinal thymomas complicated by myasthenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagua, R.; Todua, F.; Kuchava, V.; Gzirishvili, L.; Tsivtsivadze, G.; Vashakidze, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the results of diagnosis and surgical treatment of mediastinal thymomas. With this reason, 128 patients with the tumors of thymus have been undergone operations at the Thoracic Department of the National Cancer Centre (NCC) of Georgia. Material and methods: Out of 128 patients, type A thymomas were diagnosed in 7, type AB - in 14, type B1 - in 52, typer B2 - in 32, type B3 - in 18 patients. Myasthenia was revealed in 51 patients. Most frequently myasthenia was found in type B1 (48.1%) and in type B2 (40.8%) thymomas while in type A and type AB - in 28.6% and in 28.5% correspondingly, but in type B3 myasthenia was found in 16.7%. Results: Helical Computerized Tomography (CT) is leading in diagnosis of mediastinal thymomas. Surgical method in the volume of thymomtymectomy is the best choice of treatment of thymomas and it is performed basically by sternotomic approach. The effectiveness of surgical treatment depended upon the optimization of patients presurgical preparing and it often included steroidal therapy and plasmapheresis. The period of post surgical liquidation of myasthenia signs was between 1 - 14 months. The remote results of treatment depend on histological type of tumor and its stage. At I-II stages of A and AB type thymomas, 100% of patients survived 5 and more years after radical operation, while in III stage - 86%. 5-year survival rate was 95-97% in thymomas of B1-3 types stage I, but at stage III it was no more than 38%. (author)

  19. [Indications and surgical approach for lamellar macular holes and pseudoholes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritoglou, C; Schumann, R G

    2017-12-01

    This article presents a discussion on the indications for surgical interventions of lamellar macular holes and pseudoholes. What are the criteria for deciding on the surgical intervention for lamellar macular holes and pseudoholes? The article is based on a literature search in PubMed RESULTS: Lamellar macular holes and pseudoholes are subdivided into degenerative and tractive alterations. Both entities are associated with relatively specific morphological and functional criteria, which correlate with the expected functional and morphological results of the surgical intervention. Patients with pseudoholes therefore profit more from a surgical intervention because alterations to the outer retina are less pronounced in these cases. The indications for surgery of lamellar macular holes and pseudoholes are established by the type of lamellar defect and the morphological and functional alterations associated with this condition.

  20. Conversion of alkyl radicals to allyl radicals in irradiated single crystal mats of polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, T.; Hayakawa, N.; Kuriyama, I.

    1978-01-01

    The decay of alkyl radicals, the conversion of alkyl radicals to allyl radicals and the trapping of allyl radicals in irradiated single crystal mats of polyethylene have been studied by electron spin resonance (e.s.r.). It has been suggested that in the crystal core alkyl radicals react with trans-vinylene double bonds and are converted into trans-vinylene allyl radicals; at the crystal surface, alkyl radicals react with vinyl end groups and are converted into allyl radicals with vinyl end groups. The decay of radical pairs and the formation of trans-vinylene double bonds are discussed. (author)

  1. The time of diagnosis impacts surgical management but not the outcome of patients with gallbladder Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löhe F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only 50% of gallbladder cancers (GBC are recognized before operation and the remaining tumors are diagnosed during surgery or afterwards by the pathologist. These situations may demand substantial modifications of the proceeding during surgery as well as the need for reoperation in some cases. Therefore, the time of diagnosis may strongly influence the surgical management of GBC and the prognosis of the patients. Methods Records and follow-up of 152 patients with gallbladder carcinoma who underwent surgery between 1980 and 2004 were examined according to the time of diagnosis, TNM staging system, surgical procedures, morbidity and predictors of survival. There were 76 patients with preoperative diagnosis of GBC (50%; group1, 44 patients with intraoperative diagnosis (29%; group 2 and 32 patients (21%; group 3 with postoperatively incidental finding of GBC. In all cases radical resection of the GBC was intended, except in 5 patients from group 1. Surgical procedures comprised from simple cholecystectomy to multivisceral resections. Results Overall 5-year survival rate was 7% with a significantly better median survival in group 3 (53.2 month, when compared to only 6.1 month (group 2 and 5.4 month (group 1, respectively. Findings at operation forced significant modifications of the surgical strategy in 85%. Complete resection of GBC was achieved in 38% of the patients. Stage- dependent survival was comparable between the groups following R0 resection. Tumor stage, in particular the nodal status and radicality of the procedure, but not the time of diagnosis were the most powerful predictors of outcome. Conclusions Complete tumor resection may provide long-term survival even in locally advanced GBC. Although the time of diagnosis of GBC causes significant changes of the intended procedures during and after surgery, it has no influence on the prognosis provided that radical (R0 resection was accomplished.

  2. Work domain constraints for modelling surgical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morineau, Thierry; Riffaud, Laurent; Morandi, Xavier; Villain, Jonathan; Jannin, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Three main approaches can be identified for modelling surgical performance: a competency-based approach, a task-based approach, both largely explored in the literature, and a less known work domain-based approach. The work domain-based approach first describes the work domain properties that constrain the agent's actions and shape the performance. This paper presents a work domain-based approach for modelling performance during cervical spine surgery, based on the idea that anatomical structures delineate the surgical performance. This model was evaluated through an analysis of junior and senior surgeons' actions. Twenty-four cervical spine surgeries performed by two junior and two senior surgeons were recorded in real time by an expert surgeon. According to a work domain-based model describing an optimal progression through anatomical structures, the degree of adjustment of each surgical procedure to a statistical polynomial function was assessed. Each surgical procedure showed a significant suitability with the model and regression coefficient values around 0.9. However, the surgeries performed by senior surgeons fitted this model significantly better than those performed by junior surgeons. Analysis of the relative frequencies of actions on anatomical structures showed that some specific anatomical structures discriminate senior from junior performances. The work domain-based modelling approach can provide an overall statistical indicator of surgical performance, but in particular, it can highlight specific points of interest among anatomical structures that the surgeons dwelled on according to their level of expertise.

  3. Nitroxide radicals formed in situ as polymer chain growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolyakina, Elena V; Grishin, Dmitry F

    2009-01-01

    Published data on controlled synthesis of macromolecules using nitroxide radicals, formed in situ during polymerization, as polymer chain growth regulators are systematized and generalized. The attention is focused on the mechanism of polymer chain growth control during reversibly inhibited radical homopolymerization and the effect of structure of precursors and regulating additives on the polymerization kinetics of monomers of different nature and the molecular-mass characteristics of the polymers thus formed. The key methods for generation of nitroxide radicals directly during polymerization are considered. The prospects for development and practical use of these approaches for the synthesis of new polymeric materials are evaluated.

  4. Metal-catalyzed living radical polymerization and radical polyaddition for precision polymer synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, M; Satoh, K [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kamigaito, M, E-mail: kamigait@apchem.nagoya-u.ac.j

    2009-08-01

    The metal-catalyzed radical addition reaction can be evolved into two different polymerization mechanisms, i.e.; chain- and step-growth polymerizations, while both the polymerizations are based on the same metal-catalyzed radical formation reaction. The former is a widely employed metal-catalyzed living radical polymerization or atom transfer radical polymerization of common vinyl monomers, and the latter is a novel metal-catalyzed radical polyaddition of designed monomer with an unconjugated C=C double bond and a reactive C-Cl bond in one molecule. The simultaneous ruthenium-catalyzed living radical polymerization of methyl acrylate and radical polyaddition of 3-butenyl 2-chloropropionate was achieved with Ru(Cp*)Cl(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2} to afford the controlled polymers, in which the homopolymer segments with the controlled chain length were connected by the ester linkage.

  5. Laparoscopically assisted vaginal radical trachelectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielik, T.; Karovic, M.; Trska, R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Radical trachelectomy is a fertility-sparing procedure with the aim to provide adequate oncological safety to patients with cervical cancer while preserving their fertility. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate, in a series of 3 patients, the feasibility, morbidity, and safety of laparoscopically assisted vaginal radical trachelectomy for early cervical cancer. Patients and Methods: Three non consecutive patients with FIGO stage IA1 and IB1 cervical cancer was evaluated in a period of years 2008 - 2011. The patients underwent a laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy and radical parametrectomy class II procedure according to the Piver classification. The section of vaginal cuff, trachelectomy, permanent cerclage and isthmo-vaginal anastomosis ware realised by vaginal approach. Results: The median operative time, the median blood loss and the mean number of resected pelvic nodes was comparable with published data. Major intraoperative complications did not occur and no patient required a blood transfusion. The median follow-up time was 33 (38-59) months. One vaginal recurrence occurred in 7 months after primary surgery. The patient was underwent a radicalisation procedure and adjuvant oncologic therapy and now is free of disease. Conclusions: Laparoscopically assisted vaginal radical trachelectomy (LAVRT)may be an alternative in fertility-preserving surgery for early cervical cancer. The procedure offers patients potential benefits of minimally invasive surgery with adequate oncological safety, but it should be reserved for oncologic surgeons trained in advanced laparoscopic procedures. (author)

  6. J/{psi} production in {radical}(s)=7 TeV pp collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Frederick

    2012-07-01

    In the first part of this work the inclusive cross section for J/{psi} production in inelastic {radical}(s) = 7 TeV pp collisions has been determined within vertical stroke y vertical stroke < 0.9 and in the decay channel J/{psi} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}. The result for the integrated value is: {sigma}{sub J/{psi}}(vertical stroke y vertical stroke < 0.9) = 10.7 {+-} 0.8 (stat.) {+-} 1.4 (syst.) {+-} 0.4 (lumi.) {mu}b. Together with the ALICE measurement in the {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} decay channel at forward rapidities and data from other experiments this result fills the gap at mid-rapidity for a comprehensive measurement of the J/{psi} rapidity distribution. Furthermore, results of the differential analysis as a function of the J/{psi} transverse momentum were presented. Finally the data are shown together with various theoretical predictions representing the current status of the three most common theoretical approaches for the description of quarkonia production: the Color-Singlet Model, the Color-Evaporation Model and NRQCD.

  7. Wrong-Site Surgery, Retained Surgical Items, and Surgical Fires : A Systematic Review of Surgical Never Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Susanne; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda; Nguyen, David K; Dawes, Aaron J; Miake-Lye, Isomi; Beroes, Jessica M; Booth, Marika J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Shanman, Roberta; Shekelle, Paul G

    2015-08-01

    -procedure prevalence of surgical fires is not known. Root-cause analyses suggest the need for improved communication. Despite promising approaches and global Universal Protocol evaluations, empirical evidence for interventions is limited.

  8. Peritoneal Dialysis and Retroperitoneal Laparoscopic Radical Nephrectomy: A Favorable Experience With a Patient Complicated by Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reika Imai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal dialysis (PD is an accepted modality for managing end-stage kidney disease. We herein report a 75-year-old female patient on chronic PD who was complicated by renal cell carcinoma. She was successfully treated with retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy followed by a prompt resumption of the procedure. Various surgeries disturbing the abdominal wall integrity often disrupt the regular PD schedule, and using minimally invasive approaches is therefore an attractive therapeutic option. Our experience emphasizes the feasibility and safety of a retroperitoneal approach–based laparoscopic technique based on several empirical examples. However, systemic studies on this topic are obviously lacking, so we strongly recommend the accumulation of more cases similar to our own. Several surgical concerns that need to be dealt with among PD patients are also discussed.

  9. A new face of phenalenyl-based radicals in the transition metal-free C-H arylation of heteroarenes at room temperature: trapping the radical initiator via C-C σ-bond formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Jasimuddin; P, Sreejyothi; Vijaykumar, Gonela; Jose, Anex; Raj, Manthan; Mandal, Swadhin K

    2017-11-01

    The radical-mediated transition metal-free approach for the direct C-H bond functionalization of arenes is considered as a cost effective alternative to transition metal-based catalysis. An organic ligand-based radical plays a key role by generating an aryl radical which undergoes a subsequent functionalization process. The design principle of the present study takes advantage of a relatively stable odd alternant hydrocarbon-based phenalenyl (PLY) radical. In this study, the first transition metal-free catalyzed direct C-H arylation of a variety of heteroarenes such as azoles, furan, thiophene and pyridine at room temperature has been reported using a phenalenyl-based radical without employing any photoactivation step. This protocol has been successfully applied to the gram scale synthesis of core moieties of bioactive molecules. The phenalenyl-based radical initiator has been characterized crystallographically by trapping it via the formation of a C-C σ-bond between the phenalenyl radical and solvent-based radical species.

  10. Mediastinal Bronchogenic Cyst With Acute Cardiac Dysfunction: Two-Stage Surgical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smail, Hassiba; Baste, Jean Marc; Melki, Jean; Peillon, Christophe

    2015-10-01

    We describe a two-stage surgical approach in a patient with cardiac dysfunction and hemodynamic compromise resulting from a massive and compressive mediastinal bronchogenic cyst. To drain this cyst, video-assisted mediastinoscopy was performed as an emergency procedure, which immediately improved the patient's cardiac function. Five days later and under video thoracoscopy, resection of the cyst margins was impossible because the cyst was tightly adherent to the left atrium. We performed deroofing of this cyst through a right thoracotomy. The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative recovery, and no recurrence was observed at the long-term follow-up visit. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Thymoma and minimally invasive surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajc, T.; Spalek, P.; Lucenic, M.; Benej, R.; Harustiak, S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the current thymoma classification schemes, diagnosis and surgical treatment options. Many minimally invasive techniques do not provide sufficient extensiveness when compared to complete sternotomy. The Zieliński technique combines transcervical, subxiphoidal and bilateral thoracoscopic approach in a hybrid procedure (MMIT, maximal minimally invasive thymectomy) based on double sternal traction, and allows for removal of the thymus gland, the thymoma and all the relevant mediastinal adipose tissue, thus adhering to principles of oncological radicality. Of the 28 patients undergoing MMIT there were 7 with myasthenia associated thymoma (MGAT) and 5 with a thymoma and no myasthenia, tumors staged Masaoka I-II. Apart from one temporary recurrent nerve palsy there were no postoperative complications. The largest thymoma measured 70 x 65 x 55 mm. Adjuvant radiotherapy was applied in 5 patients. Ectopic thymic tissue was identified in 100 % of patients with thymoma and no myasthenia and in 42.9 % of MGAT patients. Until now there were no recurrences, however, the follow-up median is very short, the longest follow-up period being 30 months. MMIT is a safe technique suitable also for Masaoka I-II thymoma patients and for some specific cases with Masaoka III stage (lung parenchyma invasion). The authors approach all the anterior mediastinal tumors with no mediastinal lymphadenopathy and no myasthenia as a potential thymoma and always attempt the MMIT procedure starting as VATS procedure on the side of tumor. (author)

  12. Pelvic lymph node dissection during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: efficacy, limitations, and complications-a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploussard, Guillaume; Briganti, Alberto; de la Taille, Alexandre; Haese, Alexander; Heidenreich, Axel; Menon, Mani; Sulser, Tullio; Tewari, Ashutosh K; Eastham, James A

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) in prostate cancer is the most effective method for detecting lymph node metastases. However, a decline in the rate of PLND during radical prostatectomy (RP) has been noted. This is likely the result of prostate cancer stage migration in the prostate-specific antigen-screening era, and the introduction of minimally invasive approaches such as robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). To assess the efficacy, limitations, and complications of PLND during RARP. A review of the literature was performed using the Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science databases with no restriction of language from January 1990 to December 2012. The literature search used the following terms: prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy, robot-assisted, and lymph node dissection. The median value of nodal yield at PLND during RARP ranged from 3 to 24 nodes. As seen in open and laparoscopic RP series, the lymph node positivity rate increased with the extent of dissection during RARP. Overall, PLND-only related complications are rare. The most frequent complication after PLND is symptomatic pelvic lymphocele, with occurrence ranging from 0% to 8% of cases. The rate of PLND-associated grade 3-4 complications ranged from 0% to 5%. PLND is associated with increased operative time. Available data suggest equivalence of PLND between RARP and other surgical approaches in terms of nodal yield, node positivity, and intraoperative and postoperative complications. PLND during RARP can be performed effectively and safely. The overall number of nodes removed, the likelihood of node positivity, and the types and rates of complications of PLND are similar to pure laparoscopic and open retropubic procedures. Copyright © 2013 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Surgical Approaches to Chronic Pancreatitis: Indications and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Monica M; Visser, Brendan C

    2017-07-01

    There are a number of surgical strategies for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis. The optimal intervention should provide effective pain relief, improve/maintain quality of life, preserve exocrine and endocrine function, and manage local complications. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was once the standard operation for patients with chronic pancreatitis; however, other procedures such as the duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resections and its variants have been introduced with good long-term results. Pancreatic duct drainage via a lateral pancreaticojejunostomy continues to be effective in ameliorating symptoms and expediting return to normal lifestyle in many patients. This review summarizes operative indications and gives an overview of the different surgical strategies in treating chronic pancreatitis.

  14. Laparoscopic resection of tumor recurrence after radical nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessandro Curcio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Local recurrence of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC after radical nephrectomy is a rare event. Some known risk factors are: clinical/pathological stage, locorregional disease and lyimph node positivity. Since up to 30-40% of patients can achieve a disease-free status, we show a case (video in which we performed a laparoscopic excision of a local RCC, taking advantage of all the well-known benefits of laparoscopy.Case report A 56 years old female with a history of open radical nephrectomy two years before was diagnosed with a mass at the time of surveillance CT imaging during follow-up. The suspected local recurrence was 12cm, and vascularized predominantly by tributaries originating from the iliac vessels. There was no other site of disease (i.e. brain, lung, liver, bones and laboratory tests were normal. Laparoscopic approach was approached, by inserting 4 trocars (2 of 10 and 2 of 5mm with the patient in the lateral position.Result The procedure lasted 130 minutes, with 220mL of estimated bleeding; the larger vessels were ligated with polymer clips (Hem-o-lok and the smaller handled by ultrasonic clamp. The specimen was removed by a small incision below the umbilicus in an appropriate bag. The patient was feed in the first postoperative day and discharged on the third day. Histopathology revealed sarcoma, with a high degree of mitosis, and negative surgical margins. She was referred to medical oncology for adjuvant therapy consideration.Conclusion The laparoscopic resection of recurrent tumor should be encouraged in highly selected cases. The minimally invasive method, with its known advantages, especially for more debilitated patients, can be advantageous when applied to suitable cases.

  15. Non-surgical treatment of esophageal achalasia

    OpenAIRE

    Annese, Vito; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2006-01-01

    Esophageal achalasia is an infrequent motility disorder characterized by a progressive stasis and dilation of the oesophagus; with subsequent risk of aspiration, weight loss, and malnutrition. Although the treatment of achalasia has been traditionally based on a surgical approach, especially with the introduction of laparoscopic techniques, there is still some space for a medical approach. The present article reviews the non-surgical therapeutic options for achalasia.

  16. Accuracy of a novel photoacoustic-based approach to surgical guidance performed with and without a da Vinci robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Neeraj; Kim, Sungmin; Kazanzides, Peter; Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.

    2017-03-01

    Minimally invasive surgery carries the deadly risk of rupturing major blood vessels, such as the internal carotid arteries hidden by bone in endonasal transsphenoidal surgery. We propose a novel approach to surgical guidance that relies on photoacoustic-based vessel separation measurements to assess the extent of safety zones during these type of surgical procedures. This approach can be implemented with or without a robot or navigation system. To determine the accuracy of this approach, a custom phantom was designed and manufactured for modular placement of two 3.18-mm diameter vessel-mimicking targets separated by 10-20 mm. Photoacoustic images were acquired as the optical fiber was swept across the vessels in the absence and presence of teleoperation with a research da Vinci Surgical System. When the da Vinci was used, vessel positions were recorded based on the fiber position (calculated from the robot kinematics) that corresponded to an observed photoacoustic signal. In all cases, compounded photoacoustic data from a single sweep displayed the four vessel boundaries in one image. Amplitude- and coherence-based photoacoustic images were used to estimate vessel separations, resulting in 0.52-0.56 mm mean absolute errors, 0.66-0.71 mm root mean square errors, and 65-68% more accuracy compared to fiber position measurements obtained through the da Vinci robot kinematics. Results indicate that with further development, photoacoustic image-based measurements of anatomical landmarks could be a viable method for real-time path planning in multiple interventional photoacoustic applications.

  17. Leiomyosarcoma of inferior vena cava involving bilateral renal veins: Surgical challenges and reconstruction with upfront saphenous vein interposition graft for left renal vein outflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Nayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of inferior vena cava (IVC involving bilateral renal veins presents a surgical challenge. Herein, we report the successful management of two such cases using restoration of left renal venous outflow by saphenous vein interposition graft as first step of surgery. Then radical resection of tumor and right kidney was done. IVC was lastly reconstructed using Gore-Tex graft. This report highlights the surgical challenges to ensure radical resection. Furthermore, the importance of restoring left renal outflow in presence of concomitant right nephrectomy is discussed. Both the patients were disease free at six months with no loss of left renal glomerular filtration rate.

  18. Associations between ABO blood groups and biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoshio; Ohori, Makoto; Nakashima, Jun; Okubo, Hidenori; Satake, Naoya; Takizawa, Issei; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Hamada, Riu; Nakagami, Yoshihiro; Yoshioka, Kunihiko; Tachibana, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated associations between ABO blood groups and prognosis in various types of cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ABO blood groups and biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). A total of 555 patients with prostate cancer who underwent RP were included in the study. No patients received neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant therapy. The effect of ABO blood groups on BCR was examined using univariate and multivariate analyses. During the follow-up period (mean, 52.0 months), 166 patients (29.9%) experienced BCR, with a 5-year BCR-free rate of 67.3%. Although the ABO blood group was not a significantly associated with BCR in the univariate analysis, it was an independent predictor of BCR in the multivariate analysis: blood type O patients had a significantly lower risk of BCR compared to type A patients (Hazard ratio, 0.608; 95% confidence interval, 0.410-0.902; P = 0.014). Further analyses revealed that surgical margin status confounded the assessment of the association between the ABO blood group and BCR. In the analyses of patients with a negative surgical margin, the 5-year BCR-free rate in blood type O patients was a significantly higher than that in type A patients (91.2% vs. 71.0%; P = 0.026). Blood type O is significantly associated with a decreased risk of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Further studies are needed to clarify the nature of this association.

  19. Radical Smiles Rearrangement: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Allart-Simon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades the Smiles rearrangement and its variants have become essential synthetic tools in modern synthetic organic chemistry. In this mini-review we summarized some very recent results of the radical version of these rearrangements. The selected examples illustrate the synthetic power of this approach, especially if it is incorporated into a domino process, for the preparation of polyfunctionalized complex molecules.

  20. Type III radical hysterectomy after induction chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Graniel, C; Reyes, M; Chanona, G; Gonzalez, A; Robles, E; Mohar, A; Lopez-Basave, H; De La Garza, J G; Dueñas-Gonzalez, A

    2001-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery is a promising approach in locally advanced cervical carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, technical aspects, and clinical results of surgery after induction chemotherapy in this patient population. Forty-one untreated cervical carcinoma patients staged as IB2 to IIIB received three 21-day courses of cisplatin 100mg/m2 on day 1 and gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 followed by surgery or concomitant chemoradiation. The response to chemotherapy, operability, surgical/pathological findings, disease-free period, and survival of the surgically treated patients were evaluated. All 41 patients were evaluated for toxicity and 40 were evaluated for response. The overall objective response rate was 95% (95% confidence interval 88%-100%), and was complete in three patients (7.5%) and partial in 35 (87.5%). Granulocytopenia grades 3/4 occurred in 13.8% and 3.4% of the courses, respectively, whereas nonhematological toxicity was mild. Twenty-three patients underwent type III radical hysterectomy. Mean duration of surgery was 3.8 h (range 2:30-5:20), median estimated blood loss was 670 ml and median hospital stay was 5.2 days. Intraoperative complications occurred in one case (venous injury). In all but one case the resection margins were negative. Four patients (17%) had positive nodes (one node each); six (26%) had complete pathologic response, three (13%) had microscopic; and 14 (60%) macroscopic residual disease. At 24 months of maximum follow-up (median 20), the disease-free and overall survival rates were 59% and 91%, respectively. Induction chemotherapy with cisplatin/gemcitabine produced a high response rate and did not increase the difficulty of surgery. Operating time, blood loss, intraoperative complications, and hospital stay were all within the range observed for type III hysterectomy in early stage patients. We therefore conclude that type III radical hysterectomy is feasible in locally

  1. Zenker's Diverticulum: Diagnostic Approach and Surgical Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Nuño-Guzmán

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Zenker's diverticulum (ZD, also known as cricopharyngeal, pharyngoesophageal or hypopharyngeal diverticulum, is a rare condition characterized by an acquired outpouching of the mucosal and submucosal layers originating from the pharyngoesophageal junction. This false and pulsion diverticulum occurs dorsally at the pharyngoesophageal wall between the inferior pharyngeal constrictor and the cricopharyngeus muscle. The pathophysiology of ZD involves altered compliance of the cricopharyngeus muscle and raised intrabolus pressure. Decreased compliance of the upper esophageal sphincter and failure to open completely for effective bolus clearance both lead to an increase in the hypopharyngeal pressure gradient. Different open surgical techniques and transoral endoscopic approaches have been described for the management of ZD, although there is no consensus about the best option. We report the case of a 61-year-old patient with a 7-year history of dysphagia and odynophagia for solid food, which after 2 months progressed to dysphagia for liquids and after 4 months to regurgitation 2-6 h after meals. The patient experienced a 12-kg weight loss. Diagnosis was established by esophagogram, which showed a diverticulum through the posterior pharyngeal wall, suggestive of a ZD. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a pouch with erythematous mucosa. Under general anesthesia, diverticulectomy and myotomy were performed. After an uneventful recovery and adequate oral intake, the patient remains free of symptoms at 4 months of follow-up.

  2. Radical Change by Entrepreneurial Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Nancy C

    1998-01-01

    .... How radical change in public policy has occurred in the past is then documented. We find examples of radical change by chance, radical change by consensus, radical change by learning, and radical change by entrepreneurial design...

  3. 3D vision improves outcomes in early cervical cancer treated with laparoscopic type B radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspagliesi, Francesco; Bogani, Giorgio; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Scaffa, Cono; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Lorusso, Domenica; Ditto, Antonino

    2017-01-21

    To evaluate the alterations on surgical outcomes after of the implementation of 3D laparoscopic technology for the surgical treatment of early-stage cervical carcinoma. Data of patients undergoing type B radical hysterectomy (with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy) and pelvic lymphadenectomy via 3D laparoscopy were compared with a historical cohort of patients undergoing type B radical hysterectomy via conventional laparoscopy. Complications (within 60 days) were graded per the Accordion severity system. Data of 75 patients were studied: 15 (20%) and 60 (80%) patients undergoing surgery via 3D laparoscopy and conventional laparoscopy, respectively. Baseline patient characteristics as well as pathologic findings were similar between groups (p>0.1). Patients undergoing 3D laparoscopy experienced a trend toward shorter operative time than patients undergoing conventional laparoscopy (176.7 ± 74.6 vs 215.9 ± 61.6 minutes; p = 0.09). Similarly, patients undergoing 3D laparoscopic radical hysterectomy experienced shorter length of hospital stay (2 days, range 2-6, vs 4 days, range 3-11; p<0.001) in comparison to patients in the control group, while no difference in estimated blood loss was observed (p = 0.88). No between-group difference in complication rate was observed. 3D technology is a safe and effective way to perform type B radical hysterectomy and pelvic node dissection in early-stage cervical cancer. Further large prospective studies are warranted in order to assess the cost-effectiveness of the introduction of 3D technology in comparison to robotic assisted surgery.

  4. Surgical strategies in childhood craniopharyngioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg eFlitsch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Craniopharyngiomas are biologically benign lesions (WHO Grade 1 of the sellar and suprasellar region, associated with a serious morbidity. About 50% of these tumors become clinically apparent during childhood. Clinical symptoms include headaches, chiasm syndrome, hydrocephalus, pituitary insufficiencies, and obesity. Growth arrest is a typical symptom in children. The treatment of craniopharyngiomas includes surgery as well as radiotherapy. The goal of surgery varies according to the tumor location and extension and may range from complete resection to biopsy. Surgical complications are well known and cause constant evaluation of surgical strategies. Diencephalic obesity is related to surgical manipulation of hypothalamic tissue. Therefore, a classification system for craniopharyngiomas based on preoperative MRI is suggested by the authors, which may help assess the surgical risk. Recurrences are frequent in craniopharyngiomas, even after complete or gross-total resection. Radiotherapy is therefore recommended to patients with incomplete resections. However, the ideal time for radiotherapy after surgery is under discussion.The treatment of craniopharyngiomas requires an interdisciplinary and multimodal approach. Each patient should receive an individually tailored treatment. Surgically, different approaches as well as different degrees of resection can be considered, depending on tumor location and tumor extension.

  5. Non-surgical treatment of esophageal achalasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annese, Vito; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2006-01-01

    Esophageal achalasia is an infrequent motility disorder characterized by a progressive stasis and dilation of the oesophagus; with subsequent risk of aspiration, weight loss, and malnutrition. Although the treatment of achalasia has been traditionally based on a surgical approach, especially with the introduction of laparoscopic techniques, there is still some space for a medical approach. The present article reviews the non-surgical therapeutic options for achalasia. PMID:17007039

  6. Surgical treatment of synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip using a modified-Hardinge approach with a Z-shaped capsular incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Takeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip is a rare condition, and the surgical treatment approach for this condition requires complete removal of loose bodies combined with synovectomy. While these, procedures are generally accepted as the optimal treatment method, this is still controversial topic. Recent studies have reported that open surgical procedures remain acceptable for synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip. These procedures include the dislocation of the femoral head, and complications such as femoral head necrosis and bursitis or great trochanter non-union due to trochanteric osteotomy have been reported. The present study reports a modified technique for surgical dislocation through a Z-shaped capsular incision without trochanteric flip osteotomy for the treatment of synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip.

  7. Primary antral carcinoma managed by en-bloc radical maxillectomy with orbital exenteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Kumar Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of maxillary sinus carcinomas is not very promising. Maxillary sinus carcinomas are usually diagnosed at advanced stages and the proximity of important organs such as the eyes and cranial nerves makes complete surgical resection difficult. We here present a case that presented late with squamous cell carcinoma and was treated by radiotherapy (RT followed by radical maxillectomy with en-bloc orbital exenteration. Patients who undergo RT followed by en-bloc radical maxillectomy with orbital exenteration as salvage, in these cases may have promising results. We had raised forehead fascio cutaneous flap and translocated it deep to the upper eyelid to bridge the cutaneous defect. Forehead defect was covered with split-thickness skin taken from left thigh. No microvascular surgery was done, but cosmetic results were comparable. In rural setups of developing countries where facilities for microvascular surgery are lacking flap translocation may have a positive outcome.

  8. The games radicals play : special issue on free radicals and radical ions

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, J.C.; Williams, F.

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry and Physics have aptly been described as “most excellent children of Intellect and Art” [1]. Both these “children” engage with many playthings, and molecules rank as one of their first favorites, especially radicals, which are amongst the most lively and exciting. Checking out radicals dancing to the music of entropy round their potential energy ballrooms is surely both entertaining and enlightening. Radicals’ old favorite convolutions are noteworthy, but the new styles, modes and a...

  9. Time resolved resonance Raman spectra of anilino radical and aniline radical cation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, G.N.R.; Schuler, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    We report, in this paper, submicrosecond time resolved resonance Raman spectra of anilino radical and its radical cation as observed in pulse radiolytic studies of the oxidation of aniline in aqueous solution. By excitation in resonance with the broad and weak electronic transition of anilino radical at 400 nm (ε--1250 M -1 cm -1 ) we have observed, for the first time, the vibrational features of this radical. The Wilson ν 8 /sub a/ ring stretching mode at 1560 cm -1 is most strongly resonance enhanced. The ν 7 /sub a/ CN stretching band at 1505 cm -1 , which is shifted to higher frequency by 231 cm -1 with respect to aniline, is also prominent. The frequency of this latter mode indicates that the CN bond in the radical has considerable double bond character. The Raman spectrum of aniline radical cation, excited in resonance with the --425 nm electronic absorption (ε--4000 M -1 cm -1 ), shows features which are similar to phenoxyl radical. Most of the observed frequencies of this radical in solution are in good agreement with vibrational energies determined by recent laser photoelectron spectroscopic studies in the vapor phase. The bands most strongly enhanced in the resonance Raman spectrum are, however, weak in the photoelectron spectrum. While the vibrational frequencies observed for anilino radical and its isoelectronic cation are quite similar, the resonance enhancement patterns are very different. In particular the ν 14 b 2 mode of anilino radical observed at 1324 cm -1 is highly resonance enhanced because of strong vibronic coupling between the 400 nm 2 A 2 -- 2 B 1 and the higher 2 B 1 -- 2 B 1 electronic transitions

  10. Periodontal probing of an impacted tooth recovered through a surgical-orthodontic approach: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinoi, Maria Teresa; Lacarbonara, Mariano; Dimartino, Salvatore; Monaco, Annalisa; Marzo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-27

    The aim of this work was to assess the periodontal support of a central upper incisor recovered through a surgical-orthodontic approach compared to the spontaneously erupted contralateral incisor. This case study describes an 8-year-old Caucasian female with an impacted upper right central incisor. Surgical-orthodontic treatment was performed to reset the impacted dental element in the arch. Periodontal probing was performed of all sites (mesio-buccal, central-buccal, disto-buccal, mesio-palatal, central-palatal and disto-palatal) of the recovered impacted tooth and the contralateral tooth. The results were compared to determine whether the treated element showed signs of periodontal injury. Most of the probing results on both her right and left incisors gave values of approximately 3mm, which were not considered pathological. Both dental elements had adequate and physiological osseous attachments.

  11. Practice management education during surgical residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kory; Lebron, Ricardo A; Mangram, Alicia; Dunn, Ernest

    2008-12-01

    Surgical education has undergone radical changes in the past decade. The introductions of laparoscopic surgery and endovascular techniques have required program directors to alter surgical training. The 6 competencies are now in place. One issue that still needs to be addressed is the business aspect of surgical practice. Often residents complete their training with minimal or no knowledge on coding of charges or basic aspects on how to set up a practice. We present our program, which has been in place over the past 2 years and is designed to teach the residents practice management. The program begins with a series of 10 lectures given monthly beginning in August. Topics include an introduction to types of practices available, negotiating a contract, managed care, and marketing the practice. Both medical and surgical residents attend these conferences. In addition, the surgical residents meet monthly with the business office to discuss billing and coding issues. These are didactic sessions combined with in-house chart reviews of surgical coding. The third phase of the practice management plan has the coding team along with the program director attend the outpatient clinic to review in real time the evaluation and management coding of clinic visits. Resident evaluations were completed for each of the practice management lectures. The responses were recorded on a Likert scale. The scores ranged from 4.1 to 4.8 (average, 4.3). Highest scores were given to lectures concerning negotiating employee agreements, recruiting contracts, malpractice insurance, and risk management. The medical education department has tracked resident coding compliance over the past 2 years. Surgical coding compliance increased from 36% to 88% over a 12-month period. The program director who participated in the educational process increased his accuracy from 50% to 90% over the same time period. When residents finish their surgical training they need to be ready to enter the world of business

  12. Photoacoustic-based approach to surgical guidance performed with and without a da Vinci robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Neeraj; Allard, Margaret; Kim, Sungmin; Kazanzides, Peter; Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.

    2017-12-01

    Death and paralysis are significant risks of modern surgeries, caused by injury to blood vessels and nerves hidden by bone and other tissue. We propose an approach to surgical guidance that relies on photoacoustic (PA) imaging to determine the separation between these critical anatomical features and to assess the extent of safety zones during surgical procedures. Images were acquired as an optical fiber was swept across vessel-mimicking targets, in the absence and presence of teleoperation with a research da Vinci Surgical System. Vessel separation distances were measured directly from PA images. Vessel positions were additionally recorded based on the fiber position (calculated from the da Vinci robot kinematics) that corresponded to an observed PA signal, and these recordings were used to indirectly measure vessel separation distances. Amplitude- and coherence-based beamforming were used to estimate vessel separations, resulting in 0.52- to 0.56-mm mean absolute errors, 0.66- to 0.71-mm root-mean-square errors, and 65% to 68% more accuracy compared to fiber position measurements obtained through the da Vinci robot kinematics. Similar accuracy was achieved in the presence of up to 4.5-mm-thick ex vivo tissue. Results indicate that PA image-based measurements of the separation among anatomical landmarks could be a viable method for real-time path planning in multiple interventional PA applications.

  13. Minimally invasive surgical approaches for temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward F.; Englot, Dario J.; Vadera, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    Surgery can be a highly effective treatment for medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The emergence of minimally invasive resective and nonresective treatment options has led to interest in epilepsy surgery among patients and providers. Nevertheless, not all procedures are appropriate for all patients, and it is critical to consider seizure outcomes with each of these approaches, as seizure freedom is the greatest predictor of patient quality of life. Standard anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) remains the gold standard in the treatment of TLE, with seizure freedom resulting in 60–80% of patients. It is currently the only resective epilepsy surgery supported by randomized controlled trials and offers the best protection against lateral temporal seizure onset. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy techniques preserve the lateral cortex and temporal stem to varying degrees and can result in favorable rates of seizure freedom but the risk of recurrent seizures appears slightly greater than with ATL, and it is not clear whether neuropsychological outcomes are improved with selective approaches. Stereotactic radiosurgery presents an opportunity to avoid surgery altogether, with seizure outcomes now under investigation. Stereotactic laser thermo-ablation allows destruction of the mesial temporal structures with low complication rates and minimal recovery time, and outcomes are also under study. Finally, while neuromodulatory devices such as responsive neurostimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, and deep brain stimulation have a role in the treatment of certain patients, these remain palliative procedures for those who are not candidates for resection or ablation, as complete seizure freedom rates are low. Further development and investigation of both established and novel strategies for the surgical treatment of TLE will be critical moving forward, given the significant burden of this disease. PMID:26017774

  14. Intramolecular transformation of thiyl radicals to α-aminoalkyl radicals: 'ab initio' calculations on homocystein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhun, S.; Berges, J.; Bleton, V.; Abedinzadeh, Z.

    2000-01-01

    One-electron oxidation of thiols by oxidizing radicals leads to the formation of thiyl radical and carbon-centered radicals. It has been shown experimentally that in the absence of oxygen, the thiyl radicals derived from certain thiols of biological interest such as glutathion, cysteine and homocysteine decay rapidly by intramolecular rearrangement reactions into the carbon-centered radical. In the present work we have investigated theoretically the structure and the stability of thiyl and carbon-centered radicals of homocysteine in order to check the possibility of this rearrangement. (author)

  15. Laparoscopic Radical Extended Right Hemicolectomy Using a Caudal-to-Cranial Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liaonan; Xiong, Wenjun; Mo, Delong; He, Yaobin; Li, Hongming; Tan, Ping; Wang, Wei; Wan, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Due to the emphasis of oncologic principle, a medial-to-lateral approach for laparoscopic right hemicolectomy was recommended.1 (,) 2 This approach, however, is technically challenging and involves several limitations with overweight patients, whose mesocolon may be too thick for identification of the vessel landmarks. Moreover, it is difficult for inexperienced surgeons to enter the retroperitoneum space accurately. This report describes a caudal-to-cranial approach for laparoscopic radical extended right hemicolectomy. First, a "yellow-white borderline" between the right mesostenium and retroperitoneum in the right iliac fossa is dissected as the entry for separation of the fusion fascial space between the visceral and parietal peritoneum.3 The right Toldt's fascia is dissected and expanded medial to the periphery of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV), cranial to the pancreas head, and lateral to the ascending colon. The posterior paries of ileocolic vessels (ICVs), right colic vessels (RCVs), and Henle's trunk are exposed. Second, the mesocolon between the ICV and SMV is dissected safely, and the ICV, RCV, and right gastroepiploic vessels as well as the right branch of the middle colic vessel are divided and ligated easily because of the separated retroperitoneal space. The lymph nodes along the SMV are dissected using a caudal-to-cranial approach. Third, the greater omental is dissected for full mobilization of the mesocolon containing 10 cm of normal colon distal to the lesion followed by complete mobilization of the lateral attachments of the ascending colon. In this study, 10 men and 8 women with hepatic flexure cancer underwent laparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy using a caudal-to-cranial approach. No conversion was recorded. The overall complication rate was 11.2 %, including one case of pulmonary infection and one case of urinary tract infection, both of which were cured with conservative measures. The mean age of the patients was 61.3 ± 12.7

  16. Free radical transfer in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonntag, C. von; Bothe, E.; Ulanski, P.

    1998-01-01

    For the present study of free-radical transfer in polymers pulse radiolysis and product studies have been carried out in aqueous solutions using thus far only the water-soluble polymers polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid and polyvinyl alcohol. When OH radicals, generated in the radiolysis of N 2 O-saturated aqueous solutions, react with polymers the lifetime of the polymer radical thus created very much depends on the number of radicals per polymer chain. When there are a large number of radicals per chain their bimolecular decay may be faster than the corresponding (diffusion controlled) decay of monomeric radicals, but when the macromolecule contains only few or even just one radical their lifetime is considerably prolonged. Highly charged polymers such as polyacrylic acid at high pH attain a rod-like conformation which again favors a long lifetime of the radicals. Under such conditions, radical transfer reactions can occur. For example, in polyacrylic acid OH radicals generate two kinds of radicals side by side. The radical in β-position to the carboxylate group converts into the thermodynamically more stable α-radicals by an H-transfer reaction as can be followed by spectrophotometry. Besides radical transfer reactions β-fragmentation reactions occur causing chain scission. Such reactions can be followed in a pulse radiolysis experiment by conductometry, because counter ions are released upon chain scission. Such a process is especially effective in the case of polymethacrylic acid, where it results in a chain depolymerization. An intramolecular H-abstraction is also observed in the γ-radiolysis of polyacrylic acid with the corresponding peroxyl radicals. This causes a chain reaction to occur. The resulting hydroperoxides are unstable and decarboxylate given rise to acetylacetone-like products. In polyvinyl alcohol the peroxyl radicals in α-position to the alcohol function undergo HO 2 -elimination. This prevents a scission of the polymer chain in the

  17. Spin-selective recombination reactions of radical pairs: Experimental test of validity of reaction operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Kiminori [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Centre for Advanced Electron Spin Resonance, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford (United Kingdom); Liddell, Paul; Gust, Devens [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 85287-1604 (United States); Hore, P. J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-21

    Spin-selective reactions of radical pairs are conventionally modelled using an approach that dates back to the 1970s [R. Haberkorn, Mol. Phys. 32, 1491 (1976)]. An alternative approach based on the theory of quantum measurements has recently been suggested [J. A. Jones and P. J. Hore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 488, 90 (2010)]. We present here the first experimental attempt to discriminate between the two models. Pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to investigate intramolecular electron transfer in the radical pair form of a carotenoid-porphyrin-fullerene molecular triad. The rate of spin-spin relaxation of the fullerene radical in the triad was found to be inconsistent with the quantum measurement description of the spin-selective kinetics, and in accord with the conventional model when combined with spin-dephasing caused by rotational modulation of the anisotropic g-tensor of the fullerene radical.

  18. Surgical treatment of gynecomastia: complications and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Chang; Fu, Ju-Peng; Chang, Shun-Cheng; Chen, Tim-Mo; Chen, Shyi-Gen

    2012-11-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as the benign enlargement of the male breast. Multiple surgical options have been used to improve outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the surgical approaches to the treatment of gynecomastia and their outcomes over a 10-year period. All patients undergoing surgical correction of gynecomastia in our department between 2000 and 2010 were included for retrospective evaluation. The data were analyzed for etiology, stage of gynecomastia, surgical technique, complications, risk factors, and revision rate. The surgical result was evaluated with self-assessment questionnaires. A total of 41 patients with 75 operations were included. Techniques included subcutaneous mastectomy alone or with additional ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL) and isolated UAL. The surgical revision rate for all patients was 4.8%. The skin-sparing procedure gave good surgical results in grade IIb and grade III gynecomastia with low revision and complication rates. The self-assessment report revealed a good level of overall satisfaction and improvement in self-confidence (average scores 9.4 and 9.2, respectively, on a 10-point scale). The treatment of gynecomastia requires an individualized approach. Subcutaneous mastectomy combined with UAL could be used as the first choice for surgical treatment of grade II and III gynecomastia.

  19. [Applicability of the da Vinci robotic system in the skull base surgical approach. Preclinical investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Nogueras Jimenez, Francisco J; Segura Fernandez-Nogueras, Miguel; Jouma Katati, Majed; Arraez Sanchez, Miguel Ángel; Roda Murillo, Olga; Sánchez Montesinos, Indalecio

    2015-01-01

    The role of robotic surgery is well established in various specialties such as urology and general surgery, but not in others such as neurosurgery and otolaryngology. In the case of surgery of the skull base, it has just emerged from an experimental phase. To investigate possible applications of the da Vinci surgical robot in transoral skull base surgery, comparing it with the authors' experience using conventional endoscopic transnasal surgery in the same region. A transoral transpalatal approach to the nasopharynx and medial skull base was performed on 4 cryopreserved cadaver heads. We used the da Vinci robot, a 30° standard endoscope 12mm thick, dual camera and dual illumination, Maryland forceps on the left terminal and curved scissors on the right, both 8mm thick. Bone drilling was performed manually. For the anatomical study of this region, we used 0.5cm axial slices from a plastinated cadaver head. Various skull base structures at different depths were reached with relative ease with the robot terminals Transoral robotic surgery with the da Vinci system provides potential advantages over conventional endoscopic transnasal surgery in the surgical approach to this region. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis of fused azole-piperidionoses: A free radical cyclization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco-Contelles, Jose; Alhambra Jimenez, Carolina [Instituto de Quimica Organica General (CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

    1999-08-01

    A new strategy has been reported for the synthesis of fused azole-piperidinoses featuring and unprecedented and very efficient 6-exo-trig free radical cyclization onto heterocyclic sugar templates. These compounds are key intermediates for the synthesis of known or analogues of azole-glycosidase inhibitors. In this communication we describe our recent and successful results on the synthesis of fused triazole-piperidinoses. Radical precursors have been prepared by standard methodologies from 1, 2:5, 6-bis-O-isopropylidene-{alpha}-D-glucofuranose (4) via triazoles linked at C3 with {beta}-orientation, readily obtained by 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of azide 5 with diethyl acetylenedicarboxylate or methyl propiolate, and by S{sub N}2 displacement of the tosylate at C3 with 1, 2, 4-triazole in compound 20. The key 6-exp-trig free radical cyclizations proceeded in the usual conditions [tributyltin hydride or tris(trimethylsily)silane, AIBN, toluene] yielding the azaannulated sugars 9, 11, 19 and 23 in good or excellent yields. A mechanism for these cyclizations has been proposed. [Spanish] Se ha informado una nueva estrategia para la sintesis azol-piperidinosas fusionadas mediante una ciclizacion 6-exo-trig muy eficiente y sin precedentes, sobre plantillas de azucares heterociclicos. Estos compuestos son intermediarios claves para la sintesis de inhibidores de azol-glicosidasa conocidos analogos de ellos. En esta comunicacion describimos nuestros resultados recientes y exitosos sobre la sintesis de triazol-piperidinosas. Los precursores de radicales fueron preparados por la metodologia usual a partir de 1, 2:5, 6-bis-O-isopropiliden-{alpha}-D-glucofuranosa (4) via triazoles unidos en C3, con orientacion {beta}, los cuales se obtienen facilmente por cicloadicion 1, 3-dipolar de la azida 5 con acetilendicarboxilato de dietilo o propiolato de metilo y por desplazamiento S{sub N}2 del tosilato en C3 con 1, 2, 4-triazol en el compuesto 20. Las ciclizaciones 6-exo

  1. Tiroides lingual: un nuevo abordaje quirúrgico Lingual thyroid: a new surgical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zubillaga Rodríguez

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available El tiroides lingual es una rara anomalía congénita del desarrollo tiroideo resultante de la ausencia de descenso del mismo desde el foramen caecum hasta la localización prelaríngea habitual. Presentamos el caso de una paciente en edad postmenopáusica con diagnóstico anatomopatológico de tiroides lingual de gran tamaño y localización profunda en la base de la lengua que producía disfagia y dificultad respiratoria crecientes. Asimismo, planteamos un nuevo abordaje quirúrgico para la resección combinando cervicotomía media, pull-through lingual y glosotomía media. Se discuten las distintas pruebas complementarias para llegar a su diagnóstico y se revisan las diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas habitualmente empleadas en su tratamiento concluyendo con las ventajas del abordaje empleado en este caso.Lingual thyroid is an uncommon congenital disorder of thyroid gland development, resulting in a lack of descend of the gland from the foramen caecum to his normal prelaringeal location. In this paper we present a case of a postmenopausic patient presenting with a big size lingual thyroid deeply located in the base of the tongue, suffering increasing disphagia and respiratory impairment. For tumor resection, we chose a surgical approach combining a cervical submental incision, lingual pull- through and midline glossotomy. We discuss the different image studies recommended for proper diagnosis also reviewing the most common surgical techniques used for treatment, as compared with the approach we have described in this case.

  2. The Effect of Round Window vs Cochleostomy Surgical Approaches on Cochlear Implant Electrode Position: A Flat-Panel Computed Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiam, Nicole T; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Pearl, Monica S; Limb, Charles J

    2016-09-01

    The round window insertion (RWI) and cochleostomy approaches are the 2 most common surgical techniques used in cochlear implantation (CI). However, there is no consensus on which approach is ideal for electrode array insertion, in part because visualization of intracochlear electrode position is challenging, so postoperative assessment of intracochlear electrode contact is lacking. To measure and compare electrode array position between RWI and cochleostomy approaches for CI insertion. Retrospective case-comparison study of 17 CI users with Med-El standard-length electrode arrays who underwent flat-panel computed tomography scans after CI surgery at a tertiary referral center. The data was analyzed in October 2015. Flat-panel computed tomography scans were collected between January 1 and August 31, 2013, for 22 electrode arrays. The surgical technique was identified by a combination of operative notes and imaging. Eight cochleae underwent RWI and 14 cochleae underwent cochleostomy approaches anterior and inferior to the round window. Interscalar electrode position and electrode centroid distance to the osseous spiral lamina, lateral bony wall, and central axis of the modiolus. Nine participants were men, and 8, women; the mean age was 54.4 (range, 21-64) years. Electrode position was significantly closer to cochlear neural elements with RWI than cochleostomy approaches. Between the 2 surgical approaches, the RWI technique produced shorter distances between the electrode and the modiolus (mean difference, -0.33 [95% CI, -0.29 to -0.39] mm in the apical electrode; -1.42 [95% CI, -1.24 to -1.57] mm in the basal electrode). This difference, which was most prominent in the first third and latter third of the basal turn, decreased after the basal turn. The RWI approach was associated with an increased likelihood of perimodiolar placement. Opting to use RWI over cochleostomy approaches in CI candidates may position electrodes closer to cochlear neural substrates and

  3. Radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy. Immediate or early delayed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottke, D.; Bartkowiak, D.; Schrader, M.; Wiegel, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP) is associated with risk indicators, including Gleason score, preoperative PSA level, tumor stage, seminal vesicle invasion, and positive surgical margins. The 5-year biochemical progression rate among predisposed patients is as high as 50-70%. Post-RP treatment options include adjuvant radiotherapy (ART, for men with undetectable PSA) or salvage radiotherapy (SRT, for PSA persisting or re-rising above detection threshold). Presently, there are no published randomized trials evaluating ART vs. SRT directly. Methods: Published data on ART and SRT were reviewed to allow a comparison of the two treatment approaches. Results: Three randomized phase III trials demonstrated an almost 20% absolute benefit for biochemical progression-free survival after ART (60-64 Gy) compared to a 'wait and see' policy. The greatest benefit was achieved in patients with positive margins and pT3 tumors. SRT can be offered to patients with elevated PSA after RP. In 30-70% of SRT patients, PSA will decrease to an undetectable level, thus giving a second curative chance. The rate of side effects for both treatments is comparably low. The role of irradiation of pelvic lymph nodes and the additional use of hormone therapy and radiation dose are discussed. Conclusion: It remains unclear whether early SRT initiated after PSA failure is equivalent to ART. Where SRT is indicated, it should be started as early as possible. (orig.)

  4. An unusual localization of seven months delayed pelvic lymphocele following radical retropubic prostatectomy: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berk Hazır

    Full Text Available Introduction: A pelvic lymphocele is a collection of lymphatic fluid that develops after extensive lymphadenectomies in surgeries such as urological malignancies or renal transplantation. Pelvic lymphoceles may cause complications such as fever, abdominal pain, leg swelling, genital swelling and flank pain. This report summarizes the management of a pelvic lymphocele after open radical retropubic prostatectomy with bilateral lymphadenectomy. Presentation of case: Herein, we present a case in which a pelvic lymphocele developed seven months post-radical open retropubic prostatectomy and through this patient we discussed the lymphocele following radical prostatectomy. The pelvic lymphocele occurred along the sciatic nerve from the sciatica foramen to the intergluteal muscles. The patient was treated with three drainage catheters. This localization is an atypical and unusual for lymphocele after radical retropubic prostatectomy. Discussion: Lymphocele formation that leads to major complications after radical prostatectomy is rare. Lymphocele formation is most commonly seen in the early postoperative period, but it should be considered in patients with fever, abdominal pain or leg swelling during the late postoperative period. Lymphocele formation was the most common cause of hospital readmission after radical prostatectomy. Conclusion: Lymphocele formation can be seen in atypical regions and can lead to unexpected complications after radical prostatectomy. Therefore, it should be brought to mind when complaints such as fever and lower extremity swelling occurred in patients underwent extensive lymph node dissection. Surgical treatment options are available, but percutaneous interventions can also be used. Keywords: Radical retropubic prostatectomy, Pelvic lymphocele, Percutaneous drainage, Prostate cancer, Case-report

  5. Radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yossepowitch, Ofer; Eastham, James A

    2008-06-01

    Consensus recommendations for the identification and treatment of men whose apparent organ confined prostate cancer has high risk features are lacking. Despite ongoing refinements in surgical technique and improvements in morbidity and functional outcomes, the tradition of steering high-risk patients away from radical prostatectomy (RP) remains steadfast. We performed a medical literature search in English using MEDLINE/PubMed that addressed high risk prostate cancer. We analyzed the literature with respect to the historical evolution of this concept, current risk stratification schemes and treatment guidelines and related short and long term outcomes following RP. Contemporary evidence suggest that patients classified with high-risk prostate cancer by commonly used definitions do not have a uniformly poor prognosis after RP. Many cancers categorized clinically as high risk are actually pathologically confined to the prostate, and most men with such cancers who undergo RP are alive and free of additional therapy long after surgery. RP in the high-risk setting appears to be associated with a similar morbidity as in lower-risk patients. Men with clinically localized high-risk prostate cancer should not be categorically disqualified from local definitive therapy with RP. With careful attention to surgical technique, cancer control rates should improve further, and adverse effects on quality of life after RP should continue to decrease.

  6. Biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy: what does it mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourinho-Barbosa, Rafael; Srougi, Victor; Nunes-Silva, Igor; Baghdadi, Mohammed; Rembeyo, Gregory; Eiffel, Sophie S.; Barret, Eric; Rozet, Francois; Galiano, Marc; Cathelineau, Xavier; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Radical prostatectomy (RP) has been used as the main primary treatment for prostate cancer (PCa) for many years with excellent oncologic results. However, approximately 20-40% of those patients has failed to RP and presented biochemical recurrence (BCR). Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) has been the pivotal tool for recurrence diagnosis, but there is no consensus about the best PSA threshold to define BCR until this moment. The natural history of BCR after surgical procedure is highly variable, but it is important to distinguish biochemical and clinical recurrence and to find the correct timing to start multimodal treatment strategy. Also, it is important to understand the role of each clinical and pathological feature of prostate cancer in BCR, progression to metastatic disease and cancer specific mortality (CSM). Review design A simple review was made in Medline for articles written in English language about biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Objective To provide an updated assessment of BCR definition, its meaning, PCa natural history after BCR and the weight of each clinical/pathological feature and risk group classifications in BCR, metastatic disease and CSM. PMID:29039897

  7. Impact of Surgical Approach on Long-term Survival in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Patients With or Without Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordman, Bo Jan; van Klaveren, David; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; Wijnhoven, Bas P L; Gisbertz, Suzanne S; Lagarde, Sjoerd M; van der Gaast, Ate; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Biermann, Katharina; Steyerberg, Ewout W; van Lanschot, J Jan B

    2018-05-01

    To compare overall survival in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma who underwent transhiatal esophagectomy (THE) with limited lymphadenectomy or transthoracic esophagectomy (TTE) with extended lymphadenectomy with or without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT). The application of neoadjuvant therapy might change the association between the extent of lymphadenectomy and survival in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. This may influence the choice of surgical approach in patients treated with nCRT. Patients with potentially curable subcarinal esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with surgery alone or nCRT followed by surgery in 7 centers were included. The effect of surgical approach on overall survival, differentiated by the addition or omission of nCRT, was analyzed using a multivariable Cox regression model that included well-known prognostic factors and factors that might have influenced the choice of surgical approach. In total, 701 patients were included, of whom 318 had TTE with extended lymphadenectomy and 383 had THE with limited lymphadenectomy. TTE had differential effects on survival (P for interaction = 0.02), with a more favorable prognostic effect in patients who were treated with surgery alone [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58-1.03]. This association was statistically significant in a subgroup of patients with 1 to 8 positive lymph nodes in the resection specimen (HR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.43-0.90). The favorable prognostic effect of TTE over THE was absent in the nCRT and surgery group (HR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.80-1.66) and in the subgroup of nCRT patients with 1 to 8 positive lymph nodes in the resection specimen (HR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.61-1.68). Compared to surgery alone, the addition of nCRT may reduce the need for TTE with extended lymphadenectomy to improve long-term survival in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  8. Combined Surgical Treatment of Gynecomastia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanov Y.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of gynecomastia could present unique challenges for the plastic surgeon. Achieving a good balance between effectiveness of the selected approach and the satisfactory aesthetic outcome often is a difficult endeavor. Optimal surgical treatment involves a combination of liposuction and direct excision. In the present study the charts of 11 patients treated with suction-assisted liposuction and direct surgical excision were retrospectively reviewed; a special emphasis is placed on the surgical technique. The mean follow-up period of the patients was 11.6 months. No infection, hematoma, nipple-areola complex necrosis and nipple retraction was encountered in this series. The combined surgical treatment of gynecomastia has shown to be a reliable technique in both small and moderate breast enlargement including those with skin excess.

  9. Glutathione--hydroxyl radical interaction: a theoretical study on radical recognition process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Fiser

    Full Text Available Non-reactive, comparative (2 × 1.2 μs molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to characterize the interactions between glutathione (GSH, host molecule and hydroxyl radical (OH(•, guest molecule. From this analysis, two distinct steps were identified in the recognition process of hydroxyl radical by glutathione: catching and steering, based on the interactions between the host-guest molecules. Over 78% of all interactions are related to the catching mechanism via complex formation between anionic carboxyl groups and the OH radical, hence both terminal residues of GSH serve as recognition sites. The glycine residue has an additional role in the recognition of OH radical, namely the steering. The flexibility of the Gly residue enables the formation of further interactions of other parts of glutathione (e.g. thiol, α- and β-carbons with the lone electron pair of the hydroxyl radical. Moreover, quantum chemical calculations were carried out on selected GSH/OH(• complexes and on appropriate GSH conformers to describe the energy profile of the recognition process. The relative enthalpy and the free energy changes of the radical recognition of the strongest complexes varied from -42.4 to -27.8 kJ/mol and from -21.3 to 9.8 kJ/mol, respectively. These complexes, containing two or more intermolecular interactions, would be the starting configurations for the hydrogen atom migration to quench the hydroxyl radical via different reaction channels.

  10. Imidazoline and imidazolidine nitroxides as controlling agents in nitroxide-mediated pseudoliving radical polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edeleva, M. V.; Marque, S. R. A.; Bagryanskaya, E. G.

    2018-04-01

    Controlled, or pseudoliving, radical polymerization provides unique opportunities for the synthesis of structurally diverse polymers with a narrow molecular-weight distribution. These reactions occur under relatively mild conditions with broad tolerance to functional groups in the monomers. The nitroxide-mediated pseudoliving radical polymerization is of particular interest for the synthesis of polymers for biomedical applications. This review briefly describes one of the mechanisms of controlled radical polymerization. The studies dealing with the use of imidazoline and imidazolidine nitroxides as controlling agents for nitroxide-mediated pseudoliving radical polymerization of various monomers are summarized and analyzed. The publications addressing the key steps of the controlled radical polymerization in the presence of imidazoline and imidazolidine nitroxides and new approaches to nitroxide-mediated polymerization based on protonation of both nitroxides and monomers are considered. The bibliography includes 154 references.

  11. Development of a new free radical absorption capacity assay method for antioxidants: aroxyl radical absorption capacity (ARAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Nagai, Kanae; Fujii, Yuko; Ouchi, Aya; Mukai, Kazuo

    2013-10-23

    A new free radical absorption capacity assay method is proposed with use of an aroxyl radical (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(4'-methoxyphenyl)phenoxyl radical) and stopped-flow spectroscopy and is named the aroxyl radical absorption capacity (ARAC) assay method. The free radical absorption capacity (ARAC value) of each tocopherol was determined through measurement of the radical-scavenging rate constant in ethanol. The ARAC value could also be evaluated through measurement of the half-life of the aroxyl radical during the scavenging reaction. For the estimation of the free radical absorption capacity, the aroxyl radical was more suitable than the DPPH radical, galvinoxyl, and p-nitrophenyl nitronyl nitroxide. The ARAC value in tocopherols showed the same tendency as the free radical absorption capacities reported previously, and the tendency was independent of an oxygen radical participating in the scavenging reaction and of a medium surrounding the tocopherol and oxygen radical. The ARAC value can be directly connected to the free radical-scavenging rate constant, and the ARAC method has the advantage of treating a stable and isolable radical (aroxyl radical) in a user-friendly organic solvent (ethanol). The ARAC method was also successfully applied to a palm oil extract. Accordingly, the ARAC method would be useful in free radical absorption capacity assay of antioxidative reagents and foods.

  12. Echosonography and surgical therapy of facial skin tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Zoran U.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the 20 century, echosonography has been used in many medical specialties. In 1992 and 1993 highfrequencies echosonography was used in the examination of irritant and allergic skin lesions in order to examine the effects of different therapeuthical agents on the skin lesions [1-4]. Hoffmann used highfrequencies echosonography in the examination of healing of skin lesions [3]. By their incidence skin tumors are the largest group of newly discovered tumors, and their usual location is on the face [5-7]. By clinical examination it is not possible to precisely determine the depth of tumor border; therefore, the radically performed surgical excision is the only correct surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to estimate the results of preoperatively performed high frequencies echosonography in order to reduce the number of incorrectly performed surgical excisions of skin tumors. The group was composed of 40 patients with 45 tumors, who first underwent echosonographic diagnostic procedure (20 MHz, Hadsund electronic, Hadsund Technology, Denmark and then surgical excision; patients in control group (45 patients with 45 tumors were only subjected to surgical excision. Excised tumors were then pathohistologically analyzed, and measurements of tumor depth progression were performed. Margins of pathohistological specimen were controlled for the presence of tumor cells. Results of measurements of tumor depth obtained by echosonography and pathohistological measurements were compared. By Jate's modification of c2 test results regarding correct and incorrect surgical excision in patients and control group were compared. By linear regression analysis results of tumor depth obtained by echosonographic and pathohistologic examinations were compared. Hypoechogen zone echosonographic results were used like criteria for tumor expansion. Results of tumor depth measurements are presented in Table 1. Linear regression analysis showed (R = 0

  13. Robotic Laparoendoscopic Single-site Retroperitioneal Renal Surgery: Initial Investigation of a Purpose-built Single-port Surgical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Matthew J; Ramirez, Daniel; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2017-04-01

    Robotic single-site retroperitoneal renal surgery has the potential to minimize the morbidity of standard transperitoneal and multiport approaches. Traditionally, technological limitations of non-purpose-built robotic platforms have hindered the application of this approach. To assess the feasibility of retroperitoneal renal surgery using a new purpose-built robotic single-port surgical system. This was a preclinical study using three male cadavers to assess the feasibility of the da Vinci SP1098 surgical system for robotic laparoendoscopic single-site (R-LESS) retroperitoneal renal surgery. We used the SP1098 to perform retroperitoneal R-LESS radical nephrectomy (n=1) and bilateral partial nephrectomy (n=4) on the anterior and posterior surfaces of the kidney. Improvements unique to this system include enhanced optics and intelligent instrument arm control. Access was obtained 2cm anterior and inferior to the tip of the 12th rib using a novel 2.5-cm robotic single-port system that accommodates three double-jointed articulating robotic instruments, an articulating camera, and an assistant port. The primary outcome was the technical feasibility of the procedures, as measured by the need for conversion to standard techniques, intraoperative complications, and operative times. All cases were completed without the need for conversion. There were no intraoperative complications. The operative time was 100min for radical nephrectomy, and the mean operative time was 91.8±18.5min for partial nephrectomy. Limitations include the preclinical model, the small sample size, and the lack of a control group. Single-site retroperitoneal renal surgery is feasible using the latest-generation SP1098 robotic platform. While the potential of the SP1098 appears promising, further study is needed for clinical evaluation of this investigational technology. In an experimental model, we used a new robotic system to successfully perform major surgery on the kidney through a single small

  14. Use of a cocktail of spin traps for fingerprinting large range of free radicals in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Valérie; Charlier, Nicolas; Verrax, Julien; Buc-Calderon, Pedro; Levêque, Philippe; Gallez, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that the formation of radical species centered on various atoms is involved in the mechanism leading to the development of several diseases or to the appearance of deleterious effects of toxic molecules. The detection of free radical is possible using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and the spin trapping technique. The classical EPR spin-trapping technique can be considered as a "hypothesis-driven" approach because it requires an a priori assumption regarding the nature of the free radical in order to select the most appropriate spin-trap. We here describe a "data-driven" approach using EPR and a cocktail of spin-traps. The rationale for using this cocktail was that it would cover a wide range of biologically relevant free radicals and have a large range of hydrophilicity and lipophilicity in order to trap free radicals produced in different cellular compartments. As a proof-of-concept, we validated the ability of the system to measure a large variety of free radicals (O-, N-, C-, or S- centered) in well characterized conditions, and we illustrated the ability of the technique to unambiguously detect free radical production in cells exposed to chemicals known to be radical-mediated toxic agents.

  15. Physiology of free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals imply that every atom, molecule, ion, group of atoms, or molecules with one or several non-paired electrons in outer orbital. Among these are: nitrogenoxide (NO•, superoxide-anion-radical (O2•-, hydroxyl radical (OH•, peroxyl radical (ROO•, alcoxyl radical (RO• and hydroperoxyl radical (HO2•. However, reactive oxygen species also include components without non-paired electrons in outer orbital (so-called reactive non-radical agents, such as: singlet oxygen (1O2, peroxynitrite (ONOO-, hydrogen-peroxide (H2O2, hypochloric acid (eg. HOCl and ozone (O3. High concentrations of free radicals lead to the development of oxidative stress which is a precondition for numerous pathological effects. However, low and moderate concentrations of these matter, which occur quite normally during cell metabolic activity, play multiple significant roles in many reactions. Some of these are: regulation of signal pathways within the cell and between cells, the role of chemoattractors and leukocyte activators, the role in phagocytosis, participation in maintaining, changes in the position and shape of the cell, assisting the cell during adaption and recovery from damage (e.g.caused by physical effort, the role in normal cell growth, programmed cell death (apoptosis and cell ageing, in the synthesis of essential biological compounds and energy production, as well as the contribution to the regulation of the vascular tone, actually, tissue vascularization.

  16. Loading of free radicals on the functional graphene combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry screening method for the detection of radical-scavenging natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Shi, Gaofeng; Chen, Xuefu; Chen, Fuwen; Yao, Ruixing; Wang, Zhenju

    2013-11-13

    radical scavenging capacity. The use of the free radical reaction screening method based on LC-PDA-ESI/APCI-MS/MS would provide a new approach for rapid detection and identification of radical-scavenging natural antioxidants from complex matrices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Synergy between low and high energy radical femtochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauduel, Y A

    2011-01-01

    The deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on integrated biological targets being dependent on the spatio-temporal distribution of short-lived radical processes, a thorough knowledge of these early events requires a real-time probing in the range 10 -15 - 10 -10 s. This manuscript review is focused on the synergy that exists between low (1-10 eV) and high (MeV) energy radiation femtochemistry (LERF, HERF respectively). The synergy remains crucial for the investigation of primary radical processes that take place within the prethermal regime of low energy secondary electrons. The quantum character of very-short lived electron in a prehydrated configuration provides a unique sub-nanometric probe to spatially explore some early radiation-induced biomolecular damage. This approach would foreshadow the development of innovative applications for spatio-temporal radiation biology such as, i) a highly-selective pro-drug activation using well-defined quantum states of short-lived radicals, ii) the real-time nanodosimetry in biologically relevant environments, and iii) the ultrashort irradiation of living cells.

  18. How Hume's Philosophy Informed Radical Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzolilli, Andrew E; Diller, James W

    2015-05-01

    The present paper analyzes consistencies between the philosophical systems of David Hume and B. F. Skinner, focusing on their conceptualization of causality and attitudes about scientific behavior. The ideas that Hume initially advanced were further developed in Skinner's writings and shaped the behavior-analytic approach to scientific behavior. Tracing Skinner's logical antecedents allows for additional historical and philosophical clarity when examining the development of radical behaviorism.

  19. Transformations of dissolved organic matter induced by UV photolysis, Hydroxyl radicals, chlorine radicals, and sulfate radicals in aqueous-phase UV-Based advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanasi, Lathika; Coscarelli, Erica; Khaksari, Maryam; Mazzoleni, Lynn R; Minakata, Daisuke

    2018-05-15

    Considering the increasing identification of trace organic contaminants in natural aquatic environments, the removal of trace organic contaminants from water or wastewater discharge is an urgent task. Ultraviolet (UV) and UV-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H 2 O 2 ), UV/free chlorine and UV/persulfate, are attractive and promising approaches for the removal of these contaminants due to the high reactivity of active radical species produced in these UV-AOPs with a wide variety of organic contaminants. However, the removal efficiency of trace contaminants is greatly affected by the presence of background dissolved organic matter (DOM). In this study, we use ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to evaluate the transformation of a standard Suwanee River fulvic acid DOM isolate in UV photolysis and UV-AOPs. The use of probe compounds allows for the determination of the steady-state concentrations of active radical species in each UV-AOP. The changes in the H/C and O/C elemental ratios, double bond equivalents, and the low-molecular-weight transformation product concentrations of organic acids reveal that different DOM transformation patterns are induced by each UV-AOP. By comparison with the known reactivities of each radical species with specific organic compounds, we mechanistically and systematically elucidate the molecular-level DOM transformation pathways induced by hydroxyl, chlorine, and sulfate radicals in UV-AOPs. We find that there is a distinct transformation in the aliphatic components of DOM due to HO• in UV/H 2 O 2 and UV/free chlorine. Cl• induced transformation of olefinic species is also observed in the UV/free chlorine system. Transformation of aromatic and olefinic moieties by SO 4 •- are the predominant pathways in the UV/persulfate system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Surgical experts: born or made?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadideen, Hazim; Alvand, Abtin; Saadeddin, Munir; Kneebone, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The concept of surgical expertise and the processes involved in its development are topical, and there is a constant drive to identify reliable measures of expert performance in surgery. This review explores the notion of whether surgical experts are "born" or "made", with reference to educational theory and pertinent literature. Peer-reviewed publications, books, and online resources on surgical education, expertise and training were reviewed. Important themes and aspects of expertise acquisition were identified in order to better understand the concept of a surgical expert. The definition of surgical expertise and several important aspects of its development are highlighted. Innate talent plays an important role, but is insufficient on its own to produce a surgical expert. Multiple theories that explore motor skill acquisition and memory are relevant, and Ericsson's theory of the development of competence followed by deliberate self-practice has been especially influential. Psychomotor and non-technical skills are necessary for progression in the current climate in light of our training curricula; surgical experts are adaptive experts who excel in these. The literature suggests that surgical expertise is reached through practice; surgical experts are made, not born. A deeper understanding of the nature of expert performance and its development will ensure that surgical education training programmes are of the highest possible quality. Surgical educators should aim to develop an expertise-based approach, with expert performance as the benchmark. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vinylcyclopropylacyl and polyeneacyl radicals. Intramolecular ketene alkyl radical additions in ring synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, Benoit; Herbert, Nicola M A; Harrington-Frost, Nicole M; Pattenden, Gerald

    2005-01-21

    Treatment of a variety of substituted vinylcyclopropyl selenyl esters, e.g. 11, with Bu(3)SnH-AIBN in refluxing benzene leads to the corresponding acyl radical intermediates, which undergo rearrangement and intramolecular cyclisations via their ketene alkyl radical equivalents producing cyclohexenones in 50-60% yield. By contrast, treatment of conjugated triene selenyl esters, e.g. 32, with Bu(3)SnH-AIBN produces substituted 2-cyclopentenones via intramolecular cyclisations of their ketene alkyl radical intermediates. Under the same radical-initiating conditions the selenyl esters derived from o-vinylbenzoic acid and o-vinylcinnamic acid undergo intramolecular cyclisations producing 1-indanone and 5,6-dihydrobenzocyclohepten-7-one respectively in 60-70% yields. A tandem radical cyclisation from the alpha,beta,gamma,delta-diene selenyl ester 31 provides an expeditious synthesis of the diquinane 35 in 69% yield.

  2. Surgical therapeutic management of perforated peptic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karla de Sousa Almeida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Perforated peptic ulcer is an emergency should be readily corrected by surgical approach to reduce potential damage and the risk of mortality associated with the extension frame. The option of handling most commonly used by surgeons is laparotomy, however, there is evidence pointing to approach laparoscopically like a viable, safe and with good results for their treatment. Therefore, it is appropriate to evaluate the data about each management and minimally invasive procedure, laparoscopy if overcomes the open surgical approach regarding the laparotomy regarding the treatment of patients with this condition.

  3. Diode Laser Clinical Efficacy and Mini-Invasivity in Surgical Exposure of Impacted Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliario, Mario; Rizzi, Manuela; Lucchina, Alberta Greco; Renò, Filippo

    2016-11-01

    The gold standard to arrange impacted teeth in the dental arch is represented by a surgical approach followed by orthodontic traction force application. In the literature, many surgical approaches are proposed to reach such a scope. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate how laser technique could positively assist surgical approaches.Study population was composed by 16 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment of 20 impacted teeth. In 10 patients (population A) surgical exposure of the impacted teeth was performed using a 980 nm diode laser, while in the other 10 patients (population B), surgical incision was performed using a traditional lancet.Only 3 patients of the population A needed local anesthesia for surgical procedure while the remaining 7 patients reported only faint pain during surgery. Two patients referred postsurgical pain (numerical rating scale average value = 2) and needed to take analgesics. None of the patients showed other postsurgical side effects (bleeding, edema).All population B patients needed infiltrative anesthesia and referred postsurgical pain (numerical rating scale average value >4) treated with analgesics. Moreover, in such population, 4 patients referred lips edema while 4 showed bleeding and 6 needed surgical sutures of soft tissues.The lack of side effects of laser surgical approach to expose impacted teeth must persuade dental practitioners to choose such a clinical approach to closed surgical approach every time it is possible.

  4. Robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy: surgical technique using a 3-arm approach and sliding-clip renorrhaphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Cabello

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: For the treatment of renal tumors, minimally invasive nephron-sparing surgery has become increasingly performed due to proven efficiency and excellent functional and oncological outcomes. The introduction of robotics into urologic laparoscopic surgery has allowed surgeons to perform challenging procedures in a reliable and reproducible manner. We present our surgical technique for robotic assisted partial nephrectomy (RPN using a 3-arm approach, including a sliding-clip renorrhaphy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our RPN technique is presented which describes the trocar positioning, hilar dissection, tumor identification using intraoperative ultrasound for margin determination, selective vascular clamping, tumor resection, and reconstruction using a sliding-clip technique. CONCLUSION: RPN using a sliding-clip renorrhaphy is a valid and reproducible surgical technique that reduces the challenge of the procedure by taking advantage of the enhanced visualization and control afforded by the robot. The renorrhaphy described is performed under complete control of the console surgeon, and has demonstrated a reduction in the warm ischemia times in our series.

  5. The application of digital surgical diagnosis and treatment technology: a promising strategy for surgical reconstruction of craniomaxillofacial defect and deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-ya; Du, Hong-ming; Zhang, Gang; Tang, Wei; Liu, Lei; Jing, Wei; Long, Jie

    2011-12-01

    The craniomaxillofacial defect and deformity always leads to serious dysfunction in mastication and facial contour damage, significantly reducing patients' quality of life. However, surgical reconstruction of a craniomaxillofacial hard tissue defect or deformity is extremely complex and often does not result in desired facial morphology. Improving the result for patients with craniomaxillofacial defect and deformity remains a challenge for surgeons. Using digital technology for surgical diagnosis and treatment may help solve this problem. Computer-assisted surgical technology and surgical navigation technology are included in the accurate digital diagnosis and treatment system we propose. These technologies will increase the accuracy of the design of the operation plan. In addition, the intraoperative real-time navigating location system controlling the robotic arm or advanced intelligent robot will provide accurate, individualized surgical treatment for patients. Here we propose the hypothesis that a digital surgical diagnosis and treatment technology may provide a new approach for precise surgical reconstruction of complicated craniomaxillofacial defect and deformity. Our hypothesis involves modern digital surgery, a three-dimensional navigation surgery system and modern digital imaging technology, and our key aim is to establish a technological platform for customized digital surgical design and surgical navigation for craniomaxillofacial defect and deformity. If the hypothesis is proven practical, this novel therapeutic approach could improve the result of surgical reconstruction for craniomaxillofacial defect and deformity for many patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Capacity as Quantified with Iron-Free Hydroxyl Radical Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Nobuyuki; Oowada, Shigeru; Sueishi, Yoshimi; Shimmei, Masashi; Makino, Keisuke; Fujii, Hirotada; Kotake, Yashige

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a simple ESR spin trapping based method for hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging-capacity determination, using iron-free OH radical source. Instead of the widely used Fenton reaction, a short (typically 5 seconds) in situ UV-photolysis of a dilute hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution was employed to generate reproducible amounts of OH radicals. ESR spin trapping was applied to quantify OH radicals; the decrease in the OH radical level due to the specimen’s scavenging activity was converted into the OH radical scavenging capacity (rate). The validity of the method was confirmed in pure antioxidants, and the agreement with the previous data was satisfactory. In the second half of this work, the new method was applied to the sera of chronic renal failure (CRF) patients. We show for the first time that after hemodialysis, OH radical scavenging capacity of the CRF serum was restored to the level of healthy control. This method is simple and rapid, and the low concentration hydrogen peroxide is the only chemical added to the system, that could eliminate the complexity of iron-involved Fenton reactions or the use of the pulse-radiolysis system. PMID:19794928

  7. Pathological and 3 Tesla Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predictors of Biochemical Recurrence after Robotic Assisted Radical Prostatectomy: Correlation with Whole Mount Histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Nelly; Shen, Luyao; Khoshnoodi, Pooria; Alcalá, Héctor E; Yu, Weixia; Hsu, William; Reiter, Robert E; Lu, David Y; Raman, Steven S

    2018-05-01

    We sought to identify the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging variables predictive of biochemical recurrence after robotic assisted radical prostatectomy in patients who underwent multiparametric 3 Tesla prostate magnetic resonance imaging. We performed an institutional review board approved, HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) compliant, single arm observational study of 3 Tesla multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging prior to robotic assisted radical prostatectomy from December 2009 to March 2016. Clinical, magnetic resonance imaging and pathological information, and clinical outcomes were compiled. Biochemical recurrence was defined as prostate specific antigen 0.2 ng/cc or greater. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was performed. Biochemical recurrence had developed in 62 of the 255 men (24.3%) included in the study at a median followup of 23.5 months. Compared to the subcohort without biochemical recurrence the subcohort with biochemical recurrence had a greater proportion of patients with a high grade biopsy Gleason score, higher preoperative prostate specific antigen (7.4 vs 5.6 ng/ml), intermediate and high D'Amico classifications, larger tumor volume on magnetic resonance imaging (0.66 vs 0.30 ml), higher PI-RADS® (Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System) version 2 category lesions, a greater proportion of intermediate and high grade radical prostatectomy Gleason score lesions, higher pathological T3 stage (all p <0.01) and a higher positive surgical margin rate (19.3% vs 7.8%, p = 0.016). On multivariable analysis only tumor volume on magnetic resonance imaging (adjusted OR 1.57, p = 0.016), pathological T stage (adjusted OR 2.26, p = 0.02), positive surgical margin (adjusted OR 5.0, p = 0.004) and radical prostatectomy Gleason score (adjusted OR 2.29, p = 0.004) predicted biochemical recurrence. In this cohort tumor volume on magnetic resonance imaging and pathological variables, including Gleason score

  8. Relative stability of radicals derived from artemisinin: A semiempirical and DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, C.; de Araujo, M. T.; Taranto, A. G.; de M. Carneiro, J. W.

    The semiempirical AM1 and PM3 methods, as well as the density functional (DFT/B3LYP) approach using the 6-31g(d) basis set, were employed to calculate the relative stability of intermediate radicals derived from artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone having an endoperoxide bridge that is essential for its antimalarial activity. The compounds studied have their nonperoxidic oxygen atom of the trioxane ring and/or the carbonyl group replaced by a CH2 unit. Relative stabilities were calculated by means of isodesmic equations using artemisinin as reference. It was found that replacement of oxygen atoms decreases the relative stability of the anionic radical intermediates. In contrast, for compounds with inverted stereochemistry the intermediate radicals were found to be more stable than those with the artemisinin-like stereochemistry. These relative stabilities may modulate the antimalarial potency. Radicals centered on carbon are always more stable than the corresponding radicals centered on oxygen.

  9. A surgical approach appropriate for targeted cochlear gene therapy in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jero, J; Tseng, C J; Mhatre, A N; Lalwani, A K

    2001-01-01

    Therapeutic manipulations of the mammalian cochlea, including cochlear gene transfer, have been predominantly studied using the guinea pig as the experimental model. With the significant developments in mouse genomics and the availability of mutant strains of mice with well-characterized hearing loss, the mouse justifiably will be the preferred animal model for therapeutic manipulations. However, the potential advantages of the mouse model have not been fully realized due to the surgical difficulty of accessing its small cochlea. This study describes a ventral approach, instead of the routinely used postauricular approach in other rodents, for accessing the mouse middle and inner ear, and its application in cochlear gene transfer. This ventral approach enabled rapid and direct delivery of liposome-transgene complex to the mouse inner ear while avoiding blood loss, facial nerve morbidity, and mortality. Transgene expression at 3 days was detected in Reissner's membrane, spiral limbus, spiral ligament, and spiral ganglion cells, in a pattern similar to that previously described in the guinea pig. The successful access and delivery of material to the mouse cochlea and the replication of gene expression seen in the guinea pig demonstrated in this study should promote the use of the mouse in future studies investigating targeted cochlear therapy.

  10. Quantifying surgical access in eyebrow craniotomy with and without orbital bar removal: cadaver and surgical phantom studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zador, Zsolt; Coope, David J; Gnanalingham, Kanna; Lawton, Michael T

    2014-04-01

    Eyebrow craniotomy is a recently described minimally invasive approach for tackling primarily pathology of the anterior skull base. The removal of the orbital bar may further expand the surgical corridor of this exposure, but the extent of benefit is poorly quantified. We assessed the effect of orbital bar removal with regards to surgical access in the eyebrow craniotomy using classic morphometric measurements in cadaver heads. Using surgical phantoms and neuronavigation, we also measured the 'working volume', a new parameter for characterising the volume of surgical access in these approaches. Silicon injected cadaver heads (n = 5) were used for morphometric analysis of the eyebrow craniotomy with and without orbital bar removal. Working depths and 'working areas' of surgical access were measured as defined by key anatomical landmarks. The eyebrow craniotomy with or without orbital bar removal was also simulated using surgical phantoms (n = 3, 90-120 points per trial), calibrated against a frameless neuronavigation system. Working volume was derived from reference coordinates recorded along the anatomical borders of the eyebrow craniotomy using the "α-shape algorithm" in R statistics. In cadaver heads, eyebrow craniotomy with removal of the orbital bar reduced the working depth to the ipsilateral anterior clinoid process (42 ± 2 versus 33 ± 3 mm; p < 0.05), but the working areas as defined by deep neurovascular and bony landmarks was statistically unchanged (total working areas of 418 ± 80 cm(2) versus 334 ± 48 cm(2); p = 0.4). In surgical phantom studies, however, working-volume for the simulated eyebrow craniotomies was increased with orbital bar removal (16 ± 1 cm(3) versus 21 ± 1 cm(3); p < 0.01). In laboratory studies, orbital bar removal in eyebrow craniotomy provides a modest reduction in working depth and increase in the working volume. But this must be weighed up against the added morbidity of the

  11. Partial maxillectomy for ameloblastoma of the maxilla with infratemporal fossa involvement: A combined endoscopic endonasal and transoral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, A; Hart, L; Polachova, H; Chovanec, M; Schalek, P

    2018-02-21

    Ameloblastoma represents the most common epithelial odontogenic tumor. Because of the proximity of the maxillary tumors to the orbit and skull base, it should be managed as radically as possible. Maxillectomy, mainly via the transfacial or transoral approach, represents the most common type of surgical procedure. Drawback of these approaches is limited control of the superiomedial extent of the tumour in the paranasal area. We report the use of a combined endoscopic endonasal and transoral approach to manage maxillary plexiform ameloblastoma in a 48-year-old male patient. A combined endoscopic endonasal and transoral approach enabled the radical removal of tumour with a 1.5cm margin of radiographically intact bone with good control from both intrasinusal and intraoral aspects. Adequate visualization of the extent of the lesion (e.g. orbit, infratemporal fossa, anterior cranial base) had been achieved. Non-complicated healing was achieved. This technique of partial maxillectomy led to very good aesthetic and functional results. No recurrence had been noted during review appointments. The combination of endoscopic endonasal and transoral approach for a partial maxillectomy allows sufficient reduction of the defect, thus eliminating the necessity for reconstruction and reducing the morbidity associated with it. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Radical transfer between proteins: role of tyrosine, tryptophan and protein peroxyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.A.; Ostdal, H.; Davies, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Reaction of the Fe(III) forms of the heme proteins myoglobin (Mb) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with H 2 O 2 gives rise to high-oxidation-state heme-derived species which can be described as a Fe(IV)-oxo porphyrin radical-cation ('Compound 1'). In the case of Mb, the Fe(IV)-oxo porphyrin radical-cation undergoes rapid electron transfer with the surrounding protein to give protein (globin)-derived radicals and an Fe(lV)-oxo species ('Compound 2'). The globin-derived radicals have been shown to be located at two (or more) sites: Tyr-103 or Trp-14, with the latter radical known to react with oxygen to give a Trp-derived peroxyl radical (Mb-Trp-OO*). With HRP, the Fe(lV)-oxo porphyrin radical-cation carries out two successive one-electron oxidation reactions at the exposed heme edge to give firstly 'Compound 2' [the Fe(lV)oxo species] and then the resting Fe(III) state of the enzyme. n this study we have investigated whether the Trp-14 peroxyl radical from Mb and the Compound 1 and 2 species from HRP (in the absence and presence of free Tyr) can oxidise amino acids, peptides and proteins. Such reactions constitute intermolecular protein-to-protein radical transfer reactions and hence protein chain-oxidation. We have also examined whether these oxidants react with antioxidants. Reaction of these heme-protein derived oxidants with amino acids, proteins and antioxidants has been carried out at room temperature for defined periods of time before freeze-quenching to 77K to halt reaction. The radical species present in the reaction system at the time of freezing were subsequently examined by EPR spectroscopy at 77K. Three free amino acids, Tyr, Trp and Cys (with Cys the least efficient) have been shown to react rapidly with Mb-Trp-OO*, as evidenced by the loss of the characteristic EPR features of Mb-Trp-OO* on inclusion of increasing concentrations of the amino acids. All other amino acids are much less reactive. Evidence has also been obtained for (inefficient) hydrogen

  13. Intraoperative registered transrectal ultrasound guidance for robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohareri, Omid; Ischia, Joseph; Black, Peter C; Schneider, Caitlin; Lobo, Julio; Goldenberg, Larry; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2015-01-01

    To provide unencumbered real-time ultrasound image guidance during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, we developed a robotic transrectal ultrasound system that tracks the da Vinci® Surgical System instruments. We describe our initial clinical experience with this system. After an evaluation in a canine model, 20 patients were enrolled in the study. During each procedure the transrectal ultrasound transducer was manually positioned using a brachytherapy stabilizer to provide good imaging of the prostate. Then the transrectal ultrasound was registered to the da Vinci robot by a previously validated procedure. Finally, automatic rotation of the transrectal ultrasound was enabled such that the transrectal ultrasound imaging plane safely tracked the tip of the da Vinci instrument controlled by the surgeon, while real-time transrectal ultrasound images were relayed to the surgeon at the da Vinci console. Tracking was activated during all critical stages of the surgery. The transrectal ultrasound robot was easy to set up and use, adding 7 minutes (range 5 to 14) to the procedure. It did not require an assistant or additional control devices. Qualitative feedback was acquired from the surgeons, who found transrectal ultrasound useful in identifying the urethra while passing the dorsal venous complex suture, defining the prostate-bladder interface during bladder neck dissection, identifying the seminal vesicles and their location with respect to the rectal wall, and identifying the distal prostate boundary at the apex. Real-time, registered robotic transrectal ultrasound guidance with automatic instrument tracking during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is feasible and potentially useful. The results justify further studies to establish whether the approach can improve procedure outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Approach for Apoplectic Pituitary Tumor: Surgical Outcomes and Complications in 45 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Rucai; Li, Xueen; Li, Xingang

    2016-02-01

    Objective To assess the safety and effectiveness of the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETA) for apoplectic pituitary adenoma. Design A retrospective study. Setting Qilu Hospital of Shandong University; Brain Science Research Institute, Shandong University. Participants Patients admitted to Qilu Hospital of Shandong University who were diagnosed with an apoplectic pituitary tumor and underwent EETA for resection of the tumor. Main Outcome Measures In total 45 patients were included in a retrospective chart review. Data regarding patient age, sex, presentation, lesion size, surgical procedure, extent of resection, clinical outcome, and surgical complications were obtained from the chart review. Results In total, 38 (92.7%) of 41 patients with loss of vision obtained visual remission postoperatively. In addition, 16 patients reported a secreting adenoma, and postsurgical hormonal levels were normal or decreased in 14 patients. All other symptoms, such as headache and alteration of mental status, recovered rapidly after surgery. Two patients (4.4%) incurred cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Six patients (13.3%) experienced transient diabetes insipidus (DI) postoperatively, but none of these patients developed permanent DI. Five patients (11.1%) developed hypopituitarism and were treated with replacement of hormonal medicine. No cases of meningitis, carotid artery injury, or death related to surgery were reported. Conclusion EETA offers a safe and effective surgical option for apoplectic pituitary tumors and is associated with low morbidity and mortality.

  15. An exact approach for relating recovering surgical patient workload to the master surgical schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanberkel, P.T.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Hans, Elias W.; Hurink, Johann L.; van Lent, Wineke A.M.; van Lent, W.A.M.; van Harten, Wim H.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2009-01-01

    No other department influences the workload of a hospital more than the Department of Surgery and in particular, the activities in the operating room. These activities are governed by the master surgical schedule (MSS), which states which patient types receive surgery on which day. In this paper we

  16. An exact approach for relating recovering surgical patient workload to the master surgical schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanberkel, P.T.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Hans, Elias W.; Hurink, Johann L.; van Lent, W.A.M.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2011-01-01

    No other department influences the workload of a hospital more than the Department of Surgery and in particular, the activities in the operating room. These activities are governed by the master surgical schedule (MSS), which states which patient types receive surgery on which day. In this paper, we

  17. Homegrown religious radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    It has been reported that a growing number of youngsters from Western Europe are engaging in conflicts motivated by religious and political conflicts in the Middle East. This paper explores the reasons behind this seemingly religious radicalization from the point of view of the youngsters...... youngsters and parents of youngsters who have chosen a radicalized path in life. The paper will shed light on how the sense of and yearning for belonging and recognition have to be taken into account in our understanding of homegrown religious radicalization...

  18. Posterior pelvic exenteration and retrograde total hysterectomy in patients with locally advanced ovarian cancer: Clinical and functional outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Berretta

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Our study confirmed that pelvic posterior exenteration associated with retrograde radical hysterectomy represents the safest radical surgical approach to advanced ovarian cancer, which permits preservation of the pelvic autonomic nerve plexus and, therefore, bladder and colorectal functions.

  19. SAGES TAVAC safety and effectiveness analysis: da Vinci ® Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Shawn; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Gould, Jon; Azagury, Dan; Sandler, Bryan; Hutter, Matthew; Ross, Sharona; Haas, Eric; Brody, Fred; Satava, Richard

    2015-10-01

    The da Vinci(®) Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is a computer-assisted (robotic) surgical system designed to enable and enhance minimally invasive surgery. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cleared computer-assisted surgical systems for use by trained physicians in an operating room environment for laparoscopic surgical procedures in general, cardiac, colorectal, gynecologic, head and neck, thoracic and urologic surgical procedures. There are substantial numbers of peer-reviewed papers regarding the da Vinci(®) Surgical System, and a thoughtful assessment of evidence framed by clinical opinion is warranted. The SAGES da Vinci(®) TAVAC sub-committee performed a literature review of the da Vinci(®) Surgical System regarding gastrointestinal surgery. Conclusions by the sub-committee were vetted by the SAGES TAVAC Committee and SAGES Executive Board. Following revisions, the document was evaluated by the TAVAC Committee and Executive Board again for final approval. Several conclusions were drawn based on expert opinion organized by safety, efficacy, and cost for robotic foregut, bariatric, hepatobiliary/pancreatic, colorectal surgery, and single-incision cholecystectomy. Gastrointestinal surgery with the da Vinci(®) Surgical System is safe and comparable, but not superior to standard laparoscopic approaches. Although clinically acceptable, its use may be costly for select gastrointestinal procedures. Current data are limited to the da Vinci(®) Surgical System; further analyses are needed.

  20. Surgical extrusion: A reliable technique for saving compromised teeth. A 5-years follow-up case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenner Argueta

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To present a long term follow up clinical case in which a compromised anterior tooth was saved by a surgical extrusion procedure. Summary: Although different techniques have been suggested for clinical crown lengthening in the anterior zone, some of them have limitations in terms of aesthetics and procedural requirements. The current case report demonstrates how a simplified surgical extrusion procedure was successfully performed for saving a severely damaged anterior tooth; furthermore, it is possible to apply the technique described in this case using minimum and simple armamentarium like a scalpel, elevators, forceps and splinting flexible cord. Key-learning points: Saving severely compromised anterior teeth is possible by applying surgical extrusion techniques when crown-root ratio allows it. Risk of root resorption or ankylosis is minimum. Riassunto: Obiettivo: Presentare un caso clinico con controllo a 5 anni in cui un dente anteriore compromesso è stato recuperato con una procedura di estrusione chirurgica. Riassunto: Sebbene siano state suggerite diverse tecniche per l’allungamento della corona clinica nella zona anteriore, alcune di esse presentano limitazioni in termini di estetica e competenza nelle procedure. Il presente case report dimostra come una procedura di estrusione chirurgica semplificata sia stata eseguita con successo per salvare un dente anteriore gravemente danneggiato. Va sottolineato che la tecnica descritta in questo caso può essere portata a termine utilizzando un armamentario minimo e molto semplice come un bisturi, leve, pinze e uno splintaggio flessibile. Key learning points: E’ possibile salvare elementi dentari gravemente compromessi applicando tecniche di estrusione chirurgica quando il rapporto corona-radice lo consente. Il rischio di riassorbimento della radice o anchilosi è minimo. Keywords: Crown fracture, Crown lengthening, Surgical extrusion, Surgical repositioning, Biologic width, Parole

  1. Risk factors predicting the outcome of salvage radiotherapy in patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Shimizu, Yosuke; Mizowaki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Salvage radiotherapy is the only curative treatment for patients with prostate cancer showing biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy. In this study, we evaluated the clinicopathological parameters that influence the outcome of salvage radiotherapy. Medical records of 49 patients who underwent salvage radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy from 1997 to 2008 at the Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, were retrospectively reviewed. Radiotherapy was carried out with 66 Gy on the prostatic bed. Biochemical progression-free survival after salvage radiotherapy at 2, 5 and 7 years was 51.0%, 42.2% and 42.2%, respectively. Significant parameters predicting biochemical progression after salvage radiotherapy by Cox regression analysis were prostatectomy Gleason score sum ≥8 (hazard ratio 0.08; 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.22; P=0.001), prostate-specific antigen nadir after radical prostatectomy ≥0.04 ng/mL (hazard ratio 0.30; 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.69; P=0.005) and negative surgical margin (hazard ratio 0.28; 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.70; P=0.006). When the patients were subgrouped by these risk factors, the 5-year progression-free survival rates after salvage radiotherapy were 77.8%, 50.0% and 6.7% in patients with 0, 1 and ≥2 predictors, respectively. In order to discriminate favorable candidates for salvage radiotherapy, Gleason score of prostatectomy, prostate-specific antigen nadir after prostatectomy and positive surgical margin represent independent predictors. Thus, progression-free survival might be more precisely predicted according to the presence/absence of these risk factors. The significance of this risk classification should be confirmed by large prospective studies. (author)

  2. Surgical Application of the Suboccipital Subtonsillar Approach to Reach the Inferior Half of Medulla Oblongata Tumors in Adult Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadán, Alejandra T; Campero, Alvaro; Hernández, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Medulla oblongata (MO) tumors are uncommon in adults. Controversies about their treatment arise regarding the need for histological diagnosis in this eloquent area of the brain, weighing benefits of a reliable diagnosis, and the potential disadvantages of invasive procedures. As a broader variety of pathological findings could be found in this localization, the accurate histopathological definition could not only allow an adequate therapy but also can prevent the disastrous consequences of empiric treatments. There are few publications about their surgical management and all belongs to small retrospective cohorts. In this scenario, we are reporting two patients with exophytic or focal lesions in the inferior half of the medulla, who underwent surgery by suboccipital midline subtonsillar approach. This approach was not specifically described to reach MO before, and we found that the lesions produced a mild elevation of the tonsils providing a wide surgical view from the medulla to the foramen of Luchska laterally, and up to the middle cerebellar peduncle, offering a wide and safe access.

  3. REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pavlov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained by Russian and foreign investigators, the major complication after radical prostatectomy (RPE is urinaryincontinence that is recorded in 20-30% of cases.Objective. To improve the results of surgical treatment in patients with prostate cancer, by developing and introducing a well-rounded post-operative rehabilitation program.Subjects and methods. Seventy-four patients who were treated at the urology clinic, Bashkir State Medical University, and underwent RPEin 2005 to 2007 have been examined; 27 of them were diagnosed as having urinary incontinence (UI. After discharge from the clinic, acontrol group received rehabilitative treatment at the sanatorium “Krasnousolsk” of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Results and discussion. Therapeutic exercises and pelvic floor electrostimulation halve the number of day urinations and paddings used inpatients with UI, by increasing the bladder capacity from 138.2±12.7 to 196±11.2 ml and improving the trophism of the bladder neck andurethra in the sphincteral area. 

  4. Non-surgical approach to advanced chronic periodontitis: a 17.5-year case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, M; Sadamori, S; Okada, M; Sasahara, H; Hamada, T

    2004-03-01

    This 17.5-year longitudinal case report details the treatment of advanced chronic periodontitis in a female patient commencing at 34 years of age. The woman was provided with periodontal care comprising of temporary fixation, scaling and root planing, intra-pocket irrigation using a root canal syringe and regular supervised maintenance. The patient presented with a 10-year history of bleeding gums. Therapy conducted in general practice had included simple curettage and irrigation. However, these treatments proved unsuccessful and the patient often changed dentists seeking better treatment. She presented to the University Dental Hospital, for diagnosis and treatment of her periodontal conditions after her mandibular lateral incisor had exfoliated. On presentation a purulent exudate could be expressed from all of the pockets. All anterior teeth, excluding the maxillary canines, demonstrated +2 to +3 mobility. The patient did not want any surgical treatment or her teeth extracted. It was decided to treat the patient conservatively without surgery. By postponing extraction, the authors were in a better position to determine the prognosis of the remaining teeth after the infection was under control. Although six teeth were extracted during the 17.5 years, this case report suggests that a non-surgical approach is a viable option while maintaining regular visits for periodontal care.

  5. [Concomitant oncopathological changes in the prostate of urinary bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystoprostateectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komyakov, B K; Sergeev, A V; Fadeev, V A; Ismailov, K I; Ulyanov, A Yu; Shmelev, A Yu; Onoshko, M V

    2017-09-01

    To determine the incidence of spreading bladder transitional cell carcinoma and primary adenocarcinoma to the prostate in patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy. From 1995 to 2016, 283 men underwent radical cystectomy with removal of the bladder, perivesical tissue, prostate, seminal vesicles and pelvic lymph nodes. Prostate sparing cystectomy was performed in 45 (13.7%) patients. The whole prostate and the apex of the prostate were preserved in 21 (6.4%) and 24 (7.3%) patients, respectively. The spread of transitional cell cancer of the bladder to the prostate occurred in 50 (15.2%) patients. Twelve (3.6%) patients were found to have primary prostate adenocarcinoma. Clinically significant prostate cancer was diagnosed in 4 (33.3%) patients. We believe that the high oncological risk of prostate sparing cystectomy, despite some functional advantages, dictates the need for complete removal of the prostate in the surgical treatment of bladder cancer.

  6. The European Respiratory Society and European Society of Thoracic Surgeons clinical guidelines for evaluating fitness for radical treatment (surgery and chemoradiotherapy) in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Alessandro; Charloux, Anne; Bolliger, Chris T; Rocco, Gaetano; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Varela, Gonzalo; Licker, Marc; Ferguson, Mark K; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Huber, Rudolf Maria; Clini, Enrico M; Win, Thida; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Goldman, Lee

    2009-07-01

    The European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) established a joint task force with the purpose to develop clinical evidence-based guidelines on evaluation of fitness for radical therapy in patients with lung cancer. The following topics were discussed, and are summarized in the final report along with graded recommendations: Cardiologic evaluation before lung resection; lung function tests and exercise tests (limitations of ppoFEV1; DLCO: systematic or selective?; split function studies; exercise tests: systematic; low-tech exercise tests; cardiopulmonary (high tech) exercise tests); future trends in preoperative work-up; physiotherapy/rehabilitation and smoking cessation; scoring systems; advanced care management (ICU/HDU); quality of life in patients submitted to radical treatment; combined cancer surgery and lung volume reduction surgery; compromised parenchymal sparing resections and minimally invasive techniques: the balance between oncological radicality and functional reserve; neoadjuvant chemotherapy and complications; definitive chemo and radiotherapy: functional selection criteria and definition of risk; should surgical criteria be re-calibrated for radiotherapy?; the patient at prohibitive surgical risk: alternatives to surgery; who should treat thoracic patients and where these patients should be treated?

  7. The Da Vinci Xi and robotic radical prostatectomy-an evolution in learning and technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, S S; Cahill, D

    2017-06-01

    The da Vinci Xi robot has been introduced as the successor to the Si platform. The promise of the Xi is to open the door to new surgical procedures. For robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP)/pelvic surgery, the potential is better vision and longer instruments. How has the Xi impacted on operative and pathological parameters as indicators of surgical performance? This is a comparison of an initial series of 42 RARPs with the Xi system in 2015 with a series using the Si system immediately before Xi uptake in the same calendar year, and an Si series by the same surgeon synchronously as the Xi series using operative time, blood loss, and positive margins as surrogates of surgical performance. Subjectively and objectively, there is a learning curve to Xi uptake in longer operative times but no impact on T2 positive margins which are the most reflective single measure of RARP outcomes. Subjectively, the vision of the Xi is inferior to the Si system, and the integrated diathermy system and automated setup are quirky. All require experience to overcome. There is a learning curve to progress from the Si to Xi da Vinci surgical platforms, but this does not negatively impact the outcome.

  8. Low grade papillary transitional cell carcinoma pelvic recurrence masquerading as high grade invasive carcinoma, ten years after radical cystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortazavi Amir

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor recurrence following radical cystectomy for a low-grade superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC is exceedingly uncommon and has not been reported previously. Case presentation We describe a case of a young male presenting with anorexia, weight loss and a large, painful locally destructive pelvic recurrence, ten years after radical cystoprostatectomy. The pathology was consistent with a low-grade urothelial carcinoma. After an unsuccessful treatment with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, the patient underwent a curative intent hemipelvectomy with complete excision of tumor and is disease free at one year follow-up. Conclusion A literature review related to this unusual presentation is reported and a surgical solutions over chemotherapy and radiotherapy is proposed.

  9. Radical constructivism: Between realism and solipsism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Delgado, Alberto

    2002-11-01

    This paper criticizes radical constructivism of the Glasersfeld type, pointing out some contradictions between the declared radical principles and their theoretical and practical development. These contradictions manifest themselves in a frequent oscillation between solipsism and realism, despite constructivist claims to be an anti-realist theory. The paper also points out the contradiction between the relativism of the radical constructivist principles and the constructivist exclusion of other epistemological or educational paradigms. It also disputes the originality and importance of the radical constructivist paradigm, suggesting the idea of an isomorphism between radical constructivist theory and contemplative realism. In addition, some pedagogical and scientific methodological aspects of the radical constructivist model are examined. Although radical constructivism claims to be a rational theory and advocates deductive thinking, it is argued that there is no logical deductive connection between the radical principles of constructivism and the radical constructivist ideas about scientific research and learning. The paper suggests the possibility of an ideological substratum in the construction and hegemonic success of subjective constructivism and, finally, briefly advances an alternative realist model to epistemological and educational radical constructivism.

  10. [Modern didactics in surgical education--between demand and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape-Köhler, C; Chmelik, C; Rose, M; Heiss, M M

    2010-12-01

    Surgical residency contains an inadequate amount of hands-on training in the operating room and time constraints further make this type of education on the floor unlikely. Due to these deficits in residency training, private surgical courses outside of the established residency programmes are in high demand. Therefore, surgical residents must spend their own resources and time in addition to their residency training in order to receive adequate clinical exposure. Didactic approaches like problem-based learning have begun to influence our modern education. These novel education approaches along with visualisation training, video-based presentations, and multimedia-based training can be useful adjuncts to traditional surgical training. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart ˙ New York.

  11. Surgical management of pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If these therapies fail, and with a thorough multidisciplinary approach involving carefully ... Generally, surgical pain management is divided into neuro- modulative .... 9 suggested. It is important to be sure that the underlying instability or.

  12. New approaches to non-surgical sterilization for dogs and cats: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Linda

    2017-04-01

    Over the last 40 years, researchers have explored methods to non-surgically suppress fertility in animals. Immunocontraception has been used to control wildlife populations but does not confer long-term immunity. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist deslorelin, formulated as an implant to provide 6-month to 1-year suppression of fertility in male dogs, is available commercially in some countries. Neither of these approaches provide permanent sterility. A single-dose, permanent treatment would be a valuable tool in dog and cat population control. The Michelson Prize and Grants (MPG) programme was initiated "to eliminate shelter euthanasia of healthy, adoptable companion animals and reduce populations of feral and free-roaming cats and dogs" offering a $25 million US prize for a non-surgical sterilant that is effective as a single treatment in both male and female dogs and cats. Michelson Prize and Grants programme has offered US $50 million in grant money for research and has attracted scientists worldwide. Approaches under study include gene therapy, small interfering RNA to inhibit reproductive targets and delivery of cytotoxins to pituitary gonadotrophs or GnRH producing neurons in the hypothalamus. Research in implant technology that could deliver compounds over an animal's lifetime is also underway. Details of funded grants and results to date can be found at: http://www.michelsonprizeandgrants.org/michelson-grants/research-findings. The next steps are translating the most promising research into products. The Alliance for Contraception of Cats and Dogs (ACC&D) is helping to research practical methods of marking sterilized animals to avoid costly retreatment and population modelling that will help guide field workers in use of resources for sterilization programmes. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Toward a Radically Embodied Neuroscience of Attachment and Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lane eBeckes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969/1982 posits that internal working models are a foundational feature of human bonds. Radical embodied approaches suggest that cognition requires no computation or representation, favoring a cognition situated in a body in context with affordances for action (Barrett, 2011; Chemero, 2009; Wilson & Golonka, 2013. We explore whether embodied approaches to social soothing, interpersonal warmth, separation distress, and support seeking could replace representational constructs such as internal working models with a view of relationship cognition anchored in the resources afforded to the individual by their brain, body, and environment interacting. We review the neurobiological bases for social attachments and relationships and attempt to delineate how these systems overlap or don’t with more basic physiological systems in ways that support or contradict a radical embodied explanation. We suggest that many effects might be the result of the fact that relationship cognition depends on and emerges out of the action of neural systems that regulate several clearly physically grounded systems. For example, the neuropeptide oxytocin appears to be central to attachment and pair-bond behavior (Carter & Keverne, 2002 and is implicated in social thermoregulation, being necessary for maintaining a warm body temperature in rats (Kasahara et al., 2007 and humans (Beck et al., 1979.Finally, we discuss the most challenging issues around taking a radically embodied perspective on social relationships. We find the most crucial challenge in individual differences in support seeking and responses to social contact, which have long been thought to be a function of representational structures in the mind (e.g., Baldwin, 1995. Together we entertain the thought to explain such individual differences without mediating representations or computations ending with a discussion of how representational approaches might be integrated with embodied

  14. Liver parenchyma transection-first approach in hemihepatectomy with en bloc caudate lobectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma: A safe technique to secure favorable surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yasunari; Hayashi, Hikota; Yano, Seiji; Tajima, Yoshitsugu

    2017-06-01

    Although hemihepatectomy with total caudate lobectomy (hemiHx-tc) is essential for the surgical treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma, the advantage of an anterior approach for hemiHx-tc has not been fully discussed technically; the significance of an anterior approach without liver mobilization for preventing infectious complications also remains unknown. The liver parenchyma transection-first approach (Hp-first) technique is an early transection of the hepatic parenchyma without mobilization of the liver that utilizes a modified liver-hanging maneuver to avoid damaging the future remnant liver. Between May 2010 and August 2016, a total of 40 consecutive patients underwent surgery for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Of these, 19 patients underwent a conventional hemihepatectomy with total caudate lobectomy (cHx), while 21 patients received a Hp-first. The patients in the Hp-first group had significantly less intraoperative blood loss (P hilar cholangiocarcinoma because it resulted in improved surgical outcomes as compared with the conventional approach. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Surgical therapy in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C P; Dennison, A R; Garcea, G

    2012-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas which causes chronic pain, as well as exocrine and endocrine failure in the majority of patients, together producing social and domestic upheaval and a very poor quality of life. At least half of patients will require surgical intervention at some stage in their disease, primarily for the treatment of persistent pain. Available data have now confirmed that surgical intervention may produce superior results to conservative and endoscopic treatment. Comprehensive individual patient assessment is crucial to optimal surgical management, however, in order to determine which morphological disease variant (large duct disease, distal stricture with focal disease, expanded head or small duct/minimal change disease) is present in the individual patient, as a wide and differing range of surgical approaches are possible depending upon the specific abnormality within the gland. This review comprehensively assesses the evidence for these differing approaches to surgical intervention in chronic pancreatitis. Surgical drainage procedures should be limited to a small number of patients with a dilated duct and no pancreatic head mass. Similarly, a small population presenting with a focal stricture and tail only disease may be successfully treated by distal pancreatectomy. Long-term results of both of these procedure types are poor, however. More impressive results have been yielded for the surgical treatment of the expanded head, for which a range of surgical options now exist. Evidence from level I studies and a recent meta-analysis suggests that duodenum-preserving resections offer benefits compared to pancreaticoduodenectomy, though the results of the ongoing, multicentre ChroPac trial are awaited to confirm this. Further data are also needed to determine which of the duodenum-preserving procedures provides optimal results. In relation to small duct/minimal change disease total pancreatectomy represents the only

  16. A MULTICENTRE STUDY OF ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SALVAGING LYMPHADENECTOMY IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER WITH DISEASE PROGRESSION AFTER THE RADICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Y. Alekseev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is one of the most urgent problems of modern oncourology because of the continuing high incidence of this pathology. The main methods of radical treatment of patients with localized and locally advanced prostate cancer are radical prostatectomy (RP and radiotherapy – remote (RRT or brachytherapy.  However, the frequency of biochemical markers of disease progression after curative treatment is high and reaches up to 27–53%. It is extremely important to find the tumor lesion that leads to the increase of the marker. The  palliative hormone therapy (PHT was the only accepted method in patients with occurrence of distant metastases in recent time. However, a significant number of patients relapse marker may be associated with the so-called oligo-metastatic disease progression, in which the number of detected metastatic lesions is minimal. As the results of the research, the use of surgical or radiological treatment in selected patients of this cohort can significantly increase the length of time prior to the appointment of HT, and in some cases completely abandon its holding.Purpose. To evaluate the results of the saving pelvic lymphadenectomy in patients with prostate cancer with disease progression after radical therapies.Patients and methods. The article summarizes the results of surgical treatment of patients who have undergone life-saving lymphadenectomy about oligo-nodal metastatic progression of prostate cancer after treatment in 3 centers – P. Hertsen MORI, the branch of NMRRC; N. Petrov Research Institute of Oncology and Russian scientific center of radiology and surgical technologies. In this multicenter study they evaluated the immediate and remote results of surgical treatment of 57 patients.Results. The results performed the high efficiency of the method of the saving pelvic lymphadenectomy in patients with prostate cancer with disease progression after radical treatment. So, response to therapy and reduction

  17. Surgical management and perioperative morbidity of patients with primary borderline ovarian tumor (BOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillsch, Fabian; Ruetzel, Jan David; Herwig, Uwe; Doerste, Ulrike; Woelber, Linn; Grimm, Donata; Choschzick, Matthias; Jaenicke, Fritz; Mahner, Sven

    2013-07-09

    Surgery is the cornerstone for clinical management of patients with borderline ovarian tumors (BOT). As these patients have an excellent overall prognosis, perioperative morbidity is the critical point for decision making when the treatment strategy is developed and the primary surgical approach is defined. Clinical and surgical parameters of patients undergoing surgery for primary BOT at our institutions between 1993 and 2008 were analyzed with regard to perioperative morbidity depending on the surgical approach (laparotomy vs. laparoscopy). A total of 105 patients were analyzed (44 with primary laparoscopy [42%], 61 with primary laparotomy [58%]). Complete surgical staging was achieved in 33 patients at primary surgical approach (31.4%) frequently leading to formal indication of re-staging procedures. Tumor rupture was significantly more frequent during laparoscopy compared to laparotomy (29.5% vs. 13.1%, p = 0.038) but no other intraoperative complications were seen in laparoscopic surgery in contrast to 7 of 61 laparotomies (0% vs. 11.5%, p = 0.020). Postoperative complication rates were similar in both groups (19.7% vs. 18.2%, p = 0.848). Irrespective of the surgical approach, surgical management of BOT has acceptable rates of perioperative complications and morbidity. Choice of initial surgical approach can therefore be made independent of complication-concerns. As the recently published large retrospective AGO ROBOT study observed similar oncologic outcome for both approaches, laparoscopy can be considered for staging of patients with BOT if this appears feasible. An algorithm for the surgical management of BOT patients has been developed.

  18. Large Conization and Laparoendoscopic Single-Port Pelvic Lymphadenectomy in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer for Fertility Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polat Dursun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility preservation in early-stage cervical cancer is a hot topic in gynecologic oncology. Although radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT is suggested as a fertility preserving approach, there are some serious concerns like cervical stenosis, second trimester loss, preterm delivery in survivors, and lack of residual tumor in the majority of the surgical specimens. Therefore, less radical surgical operations have been proposed in early-stage cervical carcinomas. On the other hand, single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS is an evolving endoscopic approach for minimal access surgery. In this report, we present a case with early-stage cervical cancer who wishes to preserve fertility. We successfully performed single-port pelvic lymphadenectomy and large conization to preserve fertility potential of the patient. We think that combination of less radical approach like conization and single-port pelvic lymphadenectomy might be less minimally invasive and is still an effective surgical approach in well-selected cases with cervical carcinomas. Incorporation of single-port laparoscopy into the minimally invasive fertility sparing management of the cervical cancer will improve patients outcome with less complications and better cosmesis. Further studies are needed to reach a clear conclusion.

  19. [The transperygoid approach to the removal of a recurrent juvenile angiofibroma at the base of the skull without preoperative embolization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, N S; Vorozhtsov, I N

    The authors report a clinical case of successful elimination of a recurrent juvenile angiofibroma at the base of the skull (JAFBS) with the application of the optical navigation system and a cold plasma scalpel in the absence of preoperative embolization. It has been demonstrated using the proposed transperygoid approach to the extirpation of the tumour that a recurrent juvenile angiofibroma at the base of the skull can be efficiently removed by means of a modern minimally invasive and at the same time radical surgical method.

  20. Surgical Excision of Benign Papillomas Diagnosed with Core Biopsy: A Community Hospital Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozentsvayg, Eka; Carver, Kristen; Borkar, Sunita; Mathew, Melvy; Enis, Sean; Friedman, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Our goal was to assess the value of surgical excision of benign papillomas of the breast diagnosed on percutaneous core biopsy by determining the frequency of upgrade to malignancies and high risk lesions on a final surgical pathology. We reviewed 67 patients who had biopsies yielding benign papilloma and underwent subsequent surgical excision. Surgical pathology of the excised lesions was compared with initial core biopsy pathology results. 54 patients had concordant benign core and excisional pathology. Cancer (ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma) was diagnosed in five (7%) patients. Surgery revealed high-risk lesions in 8 (12%) patients, including atypical ductal hyperplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia, and lobular carcinoma in situ. Cancer and high risk lesions accounted for 13 (19%) upstaging events from benign papilloma diagnosis. Our data suggests that surgical excision is warranted with core pathology of benign papilloma

  1. Surgical treatment for residual or recurrent strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the surgical treatment is a relatively effective and predictable method for correcting residual or recurrent strabismus, such as posterior fixation sutures, medial rectus marginal myotomy, unilateral or bilateral rectus re-recession and resection, unilateral lateral rectus recession and adjustable suture, no standard protocol is established for the surgical style. Different surgical approaches have been recommended for correcting residual or recurrent strabismus. The choice of the surgical procedure depends on the former operation pattern and the surgical dosages applied on the patients, residual or recurrent angle of deviation and the operator''s preference and experience. This review attempts to outline recent publications and current opinion in the management of residual or recurrent esotropia and exotropia.

  2. Prognostic role of mesenteric lymph nodes involvement in patients undergoing posterior pelvic exenteration during radical or supra-radical surgery for advanced ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Roberto; Capozzi, Vito Andrea; Sozzi, Giulio; Volpi, Lavinia; Ceni, Valentina; Melpignano, Mauro; Giordano, Giovanna; Marchesi, Federico; Monica, Michela; Di Serio, Maurizio; Riccò, Matteo; Ceccaroni, Marcello

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this retrospective study is to analyze the prognostic role and the practical implication of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) involvements in advanced ovarian cancer (AOC). A total of 429 patients with AOC underwent surgery between December 2007 and May 2017. We included in the study 83 patients who had primary (PDS) or interval debulking surgery (IDS) for AOC with bowel resection. Numbers, characteristics and surgical implication of MLN involvement were considered. Eighty-three patients were submitted to bowel resection during cytoreduction for AOC. Sixty-seven patients (80.7%) underwent primary debulking surgery (PDS). Sixteen patients (19.3%) experienced interval debulking surgery (IDS). 43 cases (51.8%) showed MLN involvement. A statistic correlation between positive MLN and pelvic lymph nodes (PLN) (p = 0.084), aortic lymph nodes (ALN) (p = 0.008) and bowel infiltration deeper than serosa (p = 0.043) was found. A longer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival was observed in case of negative MLN in the first 20 months of follow-up. No statistical differences between positive and negative MLN in terms of operative complication, morbidity, Ca-125, type of surgery (radical vs supra-radical), length and site of bowel resection, residual disease and site of recurrence were observed. An important correlation between positive MLN, ALN and PLN was detected; these results suggest a lymphatic spread of epithelial AOC similar to that of primary bowel cancer. The absence of residual disease after surgery is an independent prognostic factor; to achieve this result should be recommended a radical bowel resection during debulking surgery for AOC with bowel involvement.

  3. Artificial urinary sphincter for urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy: a historical cohort from 2004 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Cesar Soares dos Santos Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate a cohort of patients with prostate cancer and persistent urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy. From January 2004 to December 2015, eighty-six individuals were identified to have received an AUS implant, provided by a private nonprofit HMO operating in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. On total, there were 91 AUS implants, with a median interval between radical prostatectomy and AUS implant of 3.6 years (IQR 1.9 to 5.5. The rate of AUS cumulative survival, after a median follow-up of 4.1 years (IQR 1.7-7.2 years, was 44% (n=40. The median survival of AUS implants was 2.9 years (IQR 0.5-7.9 years. Thirty-seven AUS implants (40.7% resulted in grade III surgical complications. There were 5 deaths at 2.1, 4.7, 5.7, 5.7 and 6.5 years of follow-up, but none due to causes directly associated to the AUS implant. Persistent severe incontinence was documented in 14 (15.3% additional patients. From the 51 AUS implants which resulted in grade III surgical complications or persistent severe incontinence, 24 (47.1% underwent surgical revisions. Explantation of the sphincter or its components was observed in 6 cases (25.0%. Mechanical failure, described as fluid loss and/or inability to recycle the AUS device, was observed in 4 devices (16.7%. In conclusion, although AUS implants are recommended as the gold-standard treatment of severe urinary incontinence after prostatectomy, the observed high rates of malfunction and grade III adverse events are a matter of concern warranting further assessment on the safety and efficacy of these devices.

  4. First report on joint use of a Da Vinci® surgical system with transfer of surgical know-how between two public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Agostino; Thoms, Michael; Ferrari, Matteo; La Croce, Giovanni; Danuser, Hansjörg; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Engeler, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The costs of a Da Vinci® device for robot- assisted surgery, in particular for robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), can be a considerable issue for hospitals with limited caseloads. Since January 2011 the cantonal hospitals of Lucerne and St. Gallen (Switzerland) have shared a four-arm Da Vinci® device, transferring the surgical know-how by a Lucerne teaching surgeon to a St. Gallen surgeon. Complete pre- and perioperative data, including 3-month surgical RARP outcomes, were prospectively documented. For statistical analysis, Wilcoxon, exact Poisson and χ(2) tests were used. During the first year, the two hospitals (61 RARP patients in Lucerne, 19 RARP patients in St. Gallen) did not differ significantly in preoperative, perioperative or oncological and functional results except for prostate volume (median 33 [interquartile range 24-40] vs. 40 [interquartile range 33-57] ml; p = 0.02), operation time (mean 252 ± 49 vs. 351 ± 50 min; p = 0.0001), number of lymph nodes removed (median 16 [interquartile range 13-21] vs. 15 [interquartile range 8-16] nodes; p = 0.02), biopsy (p = 0.04) and specimen Gleason scores (p = 0.03), and length of hospital stay (median 8 [interquartile range 7-14] vs. 9 [interquartile range 8-18] days; p < 0.01). Da Vinci® device sharing with transfer of surgical know-how can reduce the costs of RARP without compromising surgical outcomes, even at the beginning of the learning curve. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Muoniated acyl and thioacyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, Iain; Brodovitch, Jean-Claude; Ghandi, Khashayar; Percival, Paul W.

    2006-01-01

    The product of the reaction of muonium with tert-butylisocyanate was previously assigned as the muoniated tert-butylaminyl radical (I. McKenzie, J.-C. Brodovitch, K. Ghandi, S. Kecman, P. W. Percival, Physica B 326 (2003) 76). This assignment is incorrect since the muon and 14 N hyperfine-coupling constants (hfcc) of this radical would have the opposite sign, which is in conflict with the experimental results. The radical is now reassigned as the muoniated N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical, based on the similarities between the experimental muon and 14 N hfcc and hfcc calculated at the UB3LYP/6-311G(d,p)//UB3LYP/EPR-III level. The large zero-point energy in the N-Mu bond results in the dissociation barrier of the muoniated N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical being above the combined energy of the reactants, in contrast to the N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical where the dissociation barrier lies below the combined energy of the reactants. The reaction of muonium with tert-butylisothiocyanate produced both conformers of the muoniated N-tert-butylthiocarbamoyl radical and their assignment was based on the similarities between the experimental and calculated muon hfcc. These are the first acyl and thioacyl radicals to be directly detected by muon spin spectroscopy

  6. Muoniated acyl and thioacyl radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, Iain [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, 8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., V5A 1S6 (Canada); Brodovitch, Jean-Claude [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, 8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., V5A 1S6 (Canada); Ghandi, Khashayar [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, 8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., V5A 1S6 (Canada); Percival, Paul W. [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, 8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., V5A 1S6 (Canada)]. E-mail: percival@sfu.ca

    2006-03-31

    The product of the reaction of muonium with tert-butylisocyanate was previously assigned as the muoniated tert-butylaminyl radical (I. McKenzie, J.-C. Brodovitch, K. Ghandi, S. Kecman, P. W. Percival, Physica B 326 (2003) 76). This assignment is incorrect since the muon and {sup 14}N hyperfine-coupling constants (hfcc) of this radical would have the opposite sign, which is in conflict with the experimental results. The radical is now reassigned as the muoniated N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical, based on the similarities between the experimental muon and {sup 14}N hfcc and hfcc calculated at the UB3LYP/6-311G(d,p)//UB3LYP/EPR-III level. The large zero-point energy in the N-Mu bond results in the dissociation barrier of the muoniated N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical being above the combined energy of the reactants, in contrast to the N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical where the dissociation barrier lies below the combined energy of the reactants. The reaction of muonium with tert-butylisothiocyanate produced both conformers of the muoniated N-tert-butylthiocarbamoyl radical and their assignment was based on the similarities between the experimental and calculated muon hfcc. These are the first acyl and thioacyl radicals to be directly detected by muon spin spectroscopy.

  7. [Informed Treatment Consent and Refusal in Advanced Endonasal Surgery: The Ethical Dilemma of Olfaction Sacrifice in Surgery for Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Polyposis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtil, João; Araújo, João Pedro; Saraiva, José; Santos, Alberto; Vera-Cruz, Paulo; Paço, João; Pais, Diogo

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction is frequently affected in chronic rhino-sinusitis with polyposis and has been recognised to have important impact on quality of life. Surgical resolution on cases of maximal medical therapy failure is an option to relieve symptoms, with debates as to how extensive surgery should be. A more radical approach will achieve better disease control with less relapse, but can also compromise olfaction. This decision about a more radical surgical approach should be shared with the patient. Thorough informed consent regarding disease control and hyposmia should be taken. Literature review and consultation with a board of experts. We propose some elements to be included in the informed consent discussion, in order to broadly address the surgical limitations regarding anosmia as a frequent complaint, as well as the different options and their associated consequences. Radical surgery decision making should be shared with the patient and the informed consent should be as thorough as possible regarding disease control and hyposmia resolution.

  8. Muonium and muonic radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, P.; Fischer, H.; Roduner, E.; Strub, W.; Geeson, D.; Symons, M.C.R.

    1985-01-01

    An energetic positive muon which is injected in a liquid sample of substrate molecules (S) creates an ionization track consisting of substrate cations (S + ) and electrons. Near the end of this track the muon may combine with an electron to form muonium (Mu) which is observable in inert liquids, but which reacts by addition to form a radical. Alternatively, the electron can add to S to form S - , which then combines with the muon to form the radical. Furthermore, instead of ending up in Mu or in a radical the muon may stay in a diamagnetic environment as a solvated muon, or as a muon substituting a proton in a molecule. Of interest in these schemes are the mechanisms and rates of formation of muonated radicals and in particular the rate constants for their reactions to products. Investigations are based on the observation of Mu and the radical by means of the μSR technique in transverse magnetic fields. (Auth.)

  9. Mechanistic investigations of novel photoinitiators for radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesser, M.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a wide variety of photoinitiators (PIs) available for radical polymerizations. A common example are two-component (Type II) systems such as benzophenone and tertiary amines. However these systems also suffer from problems due to bimolecularity. These include the possible back electron transfer (BET) leading to deactivation, as well as the solvent cage effect, occurring in highly viscous media. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the reaction mechanism of several photoinitiating systems, which show superior performance. Moreover, they exhibit additional benefits such as circumvention of oxygen inhibition by decarboxylation. Thereby this work helps to understand the molecular basis of the performance of different PI systems. In vestigated PIs included benzaldoxime esters, covalently linked benzophenone and N-phenylglycine as well as derivatives of both systems. Furthermore a PI based on benzophenone extended by ethynyl moeities is discussed. The main tool in this investigation was photo-CIDNP (chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization), an NMR based technique for studying radical reactions. A complementary view was obtained with TR-EPR (time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance), which provides direct information about the active radical species. The results were further compared with quantum mechanical calculations (DFT) of the magnetic properties of the radicals. The theoretical approach was further applied to other paramagnetic species such as donor-acceptor systems. (author) [de

  10. Leghemoglobin-derived radicals. Evidence for multiple protein-derived radicals and the initiation of peribacteroid membrane damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, S; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Mathieu, C

    1996-01-01

    , with the consequent generation of lipid-derived radicals. The formation of such radicals may result in the depletion of membrane antioxidants and the initiation of lipid peroxidation. This transfer of damage from the heme center via the protein surface to neighboring membranes may be of considerable biological......-derived phenoxyl radical present at Tyr-133 in the soybean protein and Tyr-138 in the lupin protein. To obtain further information on these protein radicals and their potential interaction with the physiologically important peribacteroid membrane (which surrounds the microsymbiont in vivo), EPR spin trapping......); these radicals may be side chain- or alpha-carbon-derived, their exact sites have not been determined. Some of these radicals are on the protein surface and may be key intermediates in the formation of protein dimers. These radicals have been shown to be capable of reacting with peribacteroid membrane fractions...

  11. Specifically requesting surgical tattoo removal: are deep personal motivations involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koljonen, V; Kluger, N

    2012-06-01

      Motivations for tattoo removal include employment reasons, stigmata, changes in lifestyles or partners, incompatibility with present attitudes and values and clothing problems. Most studies on the motivations for tattoo removal have focused on patients seeking laser therapy. We hypothesized that patients seeking surgical tattoo removal would present with different motivations.   We analysed the characteristics and motivations of patients specifically requesting surgical tattoo removal.   We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 16 patients in Helsinki, Finland, from 2005 to 2011. Demographic, clinical data, number of tattoos, location and size, time elapsed since tattooing, reason(s) for wanting surgical tattoo removal and surgical operations were analysed and compared with the other literature on tattoo removal.   Patients were mainly Caucasian females (ratio 3 : 1, median age of 26 years). Tattoos were all done by studio artists, most measured less than 30 cm², and were quite recent (median 5.3 years). Personal reasons accounted for 42.8% of all reasons, professional/social reasons for 37.5% and miscellaneous for 18.8%. Personal concerns were usually marital status changes, with few expressing dissatisfaction with the actual design of the tattoo. Tattoos were excised during a single procedure in 70% of the cases with only one case producing a hypertrophic scar.   Patients seeking surgical removal were aware of the limits and risks of the technique. They expressed intense personal reasons for wanting radical surgical removal. The possibility of surgical tattoo removal should be accessible to patients if the tattoo is small and discussion reveals strong personal motivation. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  12. Impact of surgical volume on functional results and cardiospecific survival rates in patients with clinically localized renal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Volkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the impact of surgical volume on functional results and cardiospecific survival rates in patients with clinically localized renal carcinoma.Subjects and methods. Four hundred and fifty-three patients with pT1–3aN0M0 renal cell carcinoma and normally functioning secondkidney who had undergone radical nephrectomy (n = 226 (49.9 % or kidney resection (n = 227 (50.1 % were selected for the investigation. The patient groups who had undergone different-volume operations were matched for gender, age, body mass index (BMI, side of involvement, tumor sizes, and baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR (p > for all. The median baseline Charlson index and the rate of ASA classes III–IV operative risk were significantly higher in candidates for radical nephrectomy (p < 0.05 for all, the rate of diseases affecting kidney function, pT1a category, and G1 anaplasia were higher in the kidney resection group (p < 0.0001. The median follow-up was 50 (12–224 months.Results. Within 28 days postsurgery, the rate of acute renal dysfunction (ARD was 36.2 %. The independent risk factors of ARD were kidney resection (risk ratio (RR = 0.210; 95 % confidence interval (CI 0.115–0.288; р < 0.0001 and ischemia time (RR = 0.012; 95 % CI 0.004–0.021; p = 0.004. The degree of ARD after kidney resection was significantly lower than that following radical nephrectomy (p < 0.0001. In the late postoperative period, the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD Stage ≥ III was 38.4 %. Its independent risk factors were low baseline GFR (RR = 0.003; 95 % CI 0.002–0.005; p < 0.0001, radical nephrectomy (RR = 0.195; 95 % CI 0.093–0.298; p < 0.0001, and ARD (RR = 0.281; 95 % CI 0.187–0.376; p = 0.0001. Ten-year specific and cardiospecific survival rates in all the patients were 98.5 and 94.9 %, respectively, and unrelated to surgical volume. The independent predictors of poor cardiospecific survival were BMI, Charlson index, and ASA risk

  13. Impact of surgical volume on functional results and cardiospecific survival rates in patients with clinically localized renal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Volkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the impact of surgical volume on functional results and cardiospecific survival rates in patients with clinically localized renal carcinoma.Subjects and methods. Four hundred and fifty-three patients with pT1–3aN0M0 renal cell carcinoma and normally functioning secondkidney who had undergone radical nephrectomy (n = 226 (49.9 % or kidney resection (n = 227 (50.1 % were selected for the investigation. The patient groups who had undergone different-volume operations were matched for gender, age, body mass index (BMI, side of involvement, tumor sizes, and baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR (p > for all. The median baseline Charlson index and the rate of ASA classes III–IV operative risk were significantly higher in candidates for radical nephrectomy (p < 0.05 for all, the rate of diseases affecting kidney function, pT1a category, and G1 anaplasia were higher in the kidney resection group (p < 0.0001. The median follow-up was 50 (12–224 months.Results. Within 28 days postsurgery, the rate of acute renal dysfunction (ARD was 36.2 %. The independent risk factors of ARD were kidney resection (risk ratio (RR = 0.210; 95 % confidence interval (CI 0.115–0.288; р < 0.0001 and ischemia time (RR = 0.012; 95 % CI 0.004–0.021; p = 0.004. The degree of ARD after kidney resection was significantly lower than that following radical nephrectomy (p < 0.0001. In the late postoperative period, the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD Stage ≥ III was 38.4 %. Its independent risk factors were low baseline GFR (RR = 0.003; 95 % CI 0.002–0.005; p < 0.0001, radical nephrectomy (RR = 0.195; 95 % CI 0.093–0.298; p < 0.0001, and ARD (RR = 0.281; 95 % CI 0.187–0.376; p = 0.0001. Ten-year specific and cardiospecific survival rates in all the patients were 98.5 and 94.9 %, respectively, and unrelated to surgical volume. The independent predictors of poor cardiospecific survival were BMI, Charlson index, and ASA risk

  14. Studies of radiation-produced radicals and radical ions. Progress report, June 1, 1981-August 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.F.

    1982-01-01

    The discovery and characterization of novel radical ions produced by the γ irradiation of solids continues to be a fertile field for investigation. This Progress Report describes the generation and ESR identification of several new paramagnetic species, some of which have long been sought as important intermediates in radiation chemistry. We have also contributed to a general theoretical problem in ESR spectroscopy. Solid-state studies of electron attachment reactions, both non-dissociative and dissociative, reveal interesting structural and chemical information about the molecular nature of these processes for simple compounds. In particular, ESR measurements of the spin distribution in the products allow a fairly sharp distinction to be drawn between radical anions and radical-anion pairs or adducts. Dimer radical anion formation can also take place but the crystal structure plays a role in this process, as expected. Some radical anions undergo photolysis to give radical-anion pairs which may then revert back to the original radical anion by a thermal reaction. The chemistry of these reversible processes is made more intricate by a competing reaction in which the radical abstracts a hydrogen atom from a neighboring molecule. However, the unraveling of this complication has also served to extend our knowledge of the role of quantum tunneling in chemical reactions. The results of this investigation testify to the potential of solid-state techniques for the study of novel and frangible radical ions. Progress in this field shows no sign of abating, as witness the recent discovery of perfluorocycloalkane radical anions and alkane radical cations

  15. Early and late surgical site infections in ear surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastier, P L; Leroyer, C; Lashéras, A; Rogues, A-M; Darrouzet, V; Franco-Vidal, V

    2016-04-01

    A retroauricular approach is routinely used for treating chronic otitis media. The incidence of surgical site infections after ear surgery is around 10% in contaminated or dirty procedures. This observational prospective study describes surgical site infections after chronic otitis media surgery with the retroauricular approach and investigated their potential predictive factors. This observational prospective study included patients suffering from chronic otitis media and eligible for therapeutic surgery with a retroauricular approach. During follow-up, surgical site infections were defined as "early" if occurring within 30 days after surgery or as "late" if occurring thereafter. The data of 102 patients were analysed. Concerning early surgical site infections, four cases were diagnosed (3.9%) and a significant association was found with preoperative antibiotic therapy, wet ear at pre-operative examination, class III (contaminated) in the surgical wound classification, NNIS (National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance) index > 1, and oral post-operative antibiotic use. Seven late surgical site infections were diagnosed (7.1%) between 90 and 160 days after surgery and were significantly correlated to otorrhoea during the 6 months before surgery, surgery duration ≤60 minutes, canal wall down technique and use of fibrin glue. Surgical site infections after chronic otitis media surgery seem to be associated with factors related to the inflammatory state of the middle ear at the time of surgery in early infections and with chronic inflammation in late infections. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  16. Current management of oral cancer. A multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, R A; Blanchaert, R H

    2001-11-01

    Recent basic science discoveries have contributed to our understanding of the etiology of oral cancer and allowed us to consider innovative approaches to therapy. The authors evaluated and summarized current approaches to the management of oral cancer, emphasizing the multidisciplinary team approach to coordinate surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Current concepts in management, including complications of therapy, are described. State-of-the-art surgical techniques can spare patients with oral cancer from much of the morbidity and complications common in the past. The refinement of treatment strategies reduces complications and improves efficacy. Many exciting new clinical trials in the areas of gene therapy and immunomodulation are showing promise. Management of oral cancer has undergone radical change in the past 10 years and continues to evolve rapidly. Discoveries in molecular biology, diagnosis, surgery, radiation therapy and medical oncology have altered many traditional concepts and practices. General dental practitioners need to understand current treatment modalities for oral and pharyngeal cancers to determine to whom they should refer patients for the most appropriate treatment, and to make recommendations regarding complications associated with these cancers.

  17. Posterior fossa meningioma (surgical experiences) | Moussa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symptoms included headache (75%), cerebellar manifestations (60%), cranial nerve affection (40%) and hearing disturbances (15%). Most of the cases (50%) were cerebellopontine angle meningioma while the least (5%) were foramen magnum meningioma. Surgical approaches used included retrosigmoid approach ...

  18. Surgical approach for systemic-pulmonary shunt in neonates with functionally univentricular heart: comparison between sternotomy and thoracotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Takeda, Yuko; Ohnakatomi, Yasuko; Asou, Toshihide

    2016-09-01

    The preferred surgical approach for systemic-pulmonary shunts has changed from thoracotomy to sternotomy in our institution, to concomitantly manage the ductus arteriosus during surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of systemic-pulmonary shunts for neonates with functionally univentricular hearts based on surgical approach. Fifty-two neonates with functionally univentricular hearts underwent systemic-pulmonary shunt via sternotomy (n = 28) or thoracotomy (n = 24). Patient characteristics, achievement rates of right heart bypass, and survival rates were compared for the different approaches. Prenatal diagnosis was made more common in the sternotomy group (p = 0.006). The shunt was placed more centrally in the sternotomy group. The ductus arteriosus was ligated or banded in most patients in the sternotomy group (26/28) and in a few patients in the thoracotomy group (6/24). Frequency of ductal management in the early postoperative phase was not different between the groups (21 vs 25 %), but three new incisions had to be made in the thoracotomy group. No differences were seen in the achievement rates of bidirectional cavopulmonary shunts (86 vs 87 % at 10 months of age) and total cavopulmonary connection (81 vs 81 % at 2 years of age), or in the survival rates (92 vs 96 % at 8 years). There were no differences in short- and long-term outcomes between the groups. The sternotomy approach might be preferable in the current era of prenatal diagnosis, to allow simultaneous duct management during systemic-pulmonary shunt surgery, particularly in patients with large ducts associated with functionally univentricular hearts.

  19. Muonium-containing vinyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, C.J.; Symons, M.C.R.; Roduner, E.; Heming, M.

    1987-01-01

    Exposure of trimethylsilylacetylene and bis(trimethylsilyl)acetylene to positive muons gave radicals whose muon-electron hyperfine coupling constants establish that the corresponding vinyl radicals were formed. (author)

  20. Radicals in arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Palenstijn (Willem Jan)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractLet K be a field. A radical is an element of the algebraic closure of K of which a power is contained in K. In this thesis we develop a method for determining what we call entanglement. This describes unexpected additive relations between radicals, and is encoded in an entanglement

  1. High-Grade Hydronephrosis Predicts Poor Outcomes After Radical Cystectomy in Patients with Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Suk; Cho, Kang Su; Lee, Young Hoon; Cho, Nam Hoon; Oh, Young Taek

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether the presence and severity of preoperative hydronephrosis have prognostic significance in patients who underwent