WorldWideScience

Sample records for radical scavenging effect

  1. Scavenging Effects of Dexrazoxane on Free Radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junjing, Zhang; Yan, Zhao; Baolu, Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Dexrazoxane (ICRF-187) has been clinically used to reduce doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity for more than 20 years. It has been proposed that dexrazoxane may act through its rings-opened hydrolysis product ADR-925, which can either remove iron from the iron-doxorubicin complex or bind to free iron, thus preventing iron-based oxygen radical formation. However, it is not known whether the antioxidant actions of dexrazoxane are totally dependent on its metabolization to its rings-opened hydrolysis product and whether dexrazoxane has any effect on the iron-independent oxygen free radical production. In this study, we examined the scavenging effect of dexrazoxane on hydroxyl, superoxide, lipid, DPPH and ABTS+ free radicals in vitro solution systems. The results demonstrated that dexrazoxane was an antioxidant that could effectively scavenge these free radicals and the scavenging effects of dexrazoxane did not require the enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, dexrazoxane was capable to inhibit the generation superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in iron free reaction system, indicating that the antioxidant properties of dexrazoxane were not solely dependent on iron chelation. Thus the application of dexrazoxane should not be limited to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Instead, as an effective antioxidant that has been clinically proven safe, dexrazoxane may be used in a broader spectrum of diseases that are known to be benefited by antioxidant treatments. PMID:21103033

  2. Roasting effects on phenolic content and free-radical scavenging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their mechanisms of action include scavenging reactive oxygen and decreasing localised oxygen concentration thereby reducing molecular oxygen's oxidation potential, metabolising lipid peroxides to non-radical products and chelating metal ions to prevent generation of free radicals in humans. The study aimed at ...

  3. Anti-oxidative, metal chelating and radical scavenging effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate protein hydrolysates and membrane ultrafiltration fractions of blue-spotted stingray for metal chelating and radical scavenging activities, as well as protection against oxidative protein damage. Methods: Stingray protein isolates were hydrolysed with alcalase, papain and trypsin for 3 h. Alcalase ...

  4. Solvent effects and improvements in the deoxyribose degradation assay for hydroxyl radical-scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xican

    2013-12-01

    The deoxyribose degradation assay is widely used to evaluate the hydroxyl (OH) radical-scavenging ability of food or medicines. We compared the hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity of 25 antioxidant samples prepared in ethanol solution with samples prepared after removing the ethanol (residue). The data suggested that there was an approximately 9-fold difference between assay results for the ethanol solution and residue samples. This indicated a strong alcoholic interference. To further study the mechanism, the scavenging activities of 18 organic solvents (including ethanol) were measured by the deoxyribose assay. Most pure organic solvents (especially alcohols) could effectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. As hydroxyl radicals have extremely high reactivities, they will quickly react with surrounding solvent molecules. This shows that any organic solvent should be completely evaporated before measurement. The proposed method is regarded as a reliable hydroxyl radical-scavenging assay, suitable for all types of antioxidants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Heating on DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of Meat Substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyeun Sung; Bae, Jun Kyu; Park, Inshik

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity of meat substitute by heating. The meat substitute showed higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than those of other foods rich in protein such as beef, pork, chicken, and soybean curd. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of meat substitute was dependent upon concentration, heating temperature and heating time of meat substitute. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of meat substitute was enhanced with increasing heating temperature and time. The increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity was only applied to meat substitute without showing any activation in other foods rich in protein such as beef, pork, chicken, and soybean curd.

  6. Anti-Oxidative, Metal Chelating and Radical Scavenging Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    only due to their high abundance as well as their active participation in most cellular processes. Oxidative protein damage is associated with aging and human pathologies [15]. The < 3 kDa fraction was as potent as reduced glutathione in quenching hydroxyl radicals and in protecting against oxidative protein damage. The.

  7. 8-METHOXYNEORAUTENOL AND RADICAL SCAVENGING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    8-METHOXYNEORAUTENOL AND RADICAL SCAVENGING FLAVONOIDS FROM. ERYTHRINA ABYSSINICA. Abiy Yenesew1*, Hannington Twinomuhwezi1 ... shown that the plant elaborates alkaloids [1], flavanones, pterocarpans, chalcones and isoflavonoids [1, 3]; some of which have been shown to have antimicrobial ...

  8. Free radical scavenging and radioprotective effects of carnosine and anserine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Haiying [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata shirane, Tokaimura, Nakagun, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Katsumura, Yosuke [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata shirane, Tokaimura, Nakagun, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata shirane, Tokaimura, Nakagun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)], E-mail: katsu@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Lin Mingzhang [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata shirane, Tokaimura, Nakagun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Muroya, Yusa; Hata, Kuniki [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata shirane, Tokaimura, Nakagun, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Fujii, Kentaro; Yokoya, Akinari; Hatano, Yoshihiko [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata shirane, Tokaimura, Nakagun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    Two histidine-containing natural dipeptides, carnosine and anserine ({beta}-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine), have been examined for their antioxidant and radioprotective abilities. Pulse radiolysis studies indicated the antioxidative properties of carnosine and anserine aqueous solutions at different pH. The rate constants for the reaction OH radical with carnosine at neutral pH were determined to be 5.3x10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} at 300 nm, and 4.1x10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} at 400 nm, respectively. Carnosine and anserine also protected plasmid pUC18 DNA from X-ray radiation-induced strand breaks as evidenced from the studies by agarose gel electrophoresis. Carnosine showed higher protective efficiency under the experimental conditions. Our data demonstrated that carnosine and anserine may play an important role in the maintenance of the antioxidant system.

  9. Anthocyanin extracts with antioxidant and radical scavenging effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielska, J.; Langner, M. [Technical Univ. Wroclaw (Poland). Dept. of Physics and Biophysics; Oszmianski, J. [Technical Univ. Wroclaw (Poland). Dept. of Fruit and Vegetable Technology; Komorowska, M. [Politechnika Wroclawska, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. Fizyki

    1999-06-01

    The antioxidative activity of three anthocyanin pigments, extracted from the fruits of chokeberry, honeysuckle and sloe, were studied. Lipid oxidation in the liposome membrane, induced by UV radiation, was evaluated with a thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay. The antioxidant efficiency of the studied compounds follows this sequence: chokeberry>sloe>honeysuckle. The extract concentrations at which a 50% reduction of phosphatidylcholine oxidation was observed, were respectively: 48, 54 and 60 mg/l. The end products of lipid membrane oxidation were evaluated using HPLC. It was found that the antioxidative potency of anthocyanin extracts is concentration-dependent. As shown by EPR technique the efficiency of the extracts to eliminate free radicals from the solution follows the order of the antioxidant activity. (orig.)

  10. Antioxidant mechanisms of isoflavones in lipid systems: paradoxical effects of peroxyl radical scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R P; Boersma, B J; Crawford, J H; Hogg, N; Kirk, M; Kalyanaraman, B; Parks, D A; Barnes, S; Darley-Usmar, V

    2001-12-15

    Oxidation of lipids has been implicated in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that scavenging of lipid peroxyl radicals contribute to the antiatherosclerotic effects of naturally occurring compounds such as the isoflavones. This group of polyphenolics includes genistein and is present in relatively high concentrations in food products containing soy. Soy isoflavones are capable of inhibiting lipoprotein oxidation in vitro and suppressing formation of plasma lipid oxidation products in vivo. However, key aspects of the antioxidant mechanisms remain unknown. In this study the antioxidant effects of genistein and other soy isoflavones on lipid peroxidation initiated by mechanistically diverse oxidants was investigated. Although isoflavones inhibited lipid peroxidation stimulated by both metal-dependent and independent processes, the concentration required for these effects were relatively high compared to those found in vivo. Interestingly, however, isoflavones were not consumed and remained in the native state over the time during which inhibition of lipid peroxidation was observed. This was also the case under conditions where synergistic inhibition of LDL oxidation was observed with ascorbate. Furthermore, in an oxidation system driven solely by peroxyl radicals, isoflavones were found to be relatively poor peroxyl radical scavengers. Consistent with the apparent lack of reactivity with lipid-derived oxidants, isoflavones were also relatively resistant to oxidation mediated by the potent oxidant peroxynitrite. The potential antioxidant mechanisms of isoflavones are discussed in the context of possible reactivities of isoflavone-derived phenoxyl radicals.

  11. Scavenging of superoxide anion radical by chaparral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, L Y; Cosma, G; Gardner, H; Starks, K; Shi, X; Vallyathan, V

    1999-06-01

    Chaparral is considered to act as an antioxidant. However, the inhibitory effects of chaparral on specific radical species are not well understood. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in combination with spin trapping techniques, we have found that chaparral scavenges superoxide anion radical (O2*-) in a dose-dependent manner. 5,5-dimethyl-lpyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) was used as a spin trapping agent and the reaction of xanthine and xanthine oxidase as a source of O2*-. The kinetic parameters, IC50 and Vmax, for chaparral scavenging of O2*- were found to be 0.899 microg/mL and 8.4 ng/mL/sec, respectively. The rate constant for chaparral scavenging O2*- was found to be 1.22 x 10(6) g(-1) s(-1). Our studies suggest that the antioxidant properties of chaparral may involve a direct scavenging effect of the primary oxygen radical, O2*-.

  12. Effects of oxygen radical scavengers on the inactivation of SS phi X174 DNA by the semi-quinone free radical of the antitumor agent etoposide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, M.J.; Mans, D.R.A.; Lafleur, M.V.M.; Van Schaik, M A; de Vries, J; Vermeulen, N P; Retèl, J.; Lankelma, J

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the effects of oxygen radical scavengers on the inactivation of ss phi X174 DNA by the semi-quinone free radical of the antitumor agent etoposide (VP 16-213), which was generated from the ortho-quinone of etoposide at pH greater than or equal to 7.4. A semi-quinone free radical of

  13. Effects of radical scavengers on aqueous solutions exposed to heavy-ion irradiation using the liquid microjet technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Shinji [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Tsuchida, Hidetsugu, E-mail: tsuchida@nucleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Furuya, Ryousuke; Miyahara, Kento [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Majima, Takuya; Itoh, Akio [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    The effects of the radical scavenger ascorbic acid on water radiolysis are studied by fast heavy-ion irradiation of aqueous solutions of ascorbic acid, using the liquid microjet technique under vacuum. To understand the reaction mechanisms of hydroxyl radicals in aqueous solutions, we directly measure secondary ions emitted from solutions with different ascorbic acid concentrations. The yield of hydronium secondary ions is strongly influenced by the reaction between ascorbic acid and hydroxyl radicals. From analysis using a simple model considering chemical equilibria, we determine that the upper concentration limit of ascorbic acid with a radical scavenger effect is approximately 70 μM.

  14. Evaluation of free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidative damage effect of resveratrol-nanostructured lipid carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ju; Shi, Fan; Li, Qiu-wen; Li, Pei-shan; Chen, Tong-sheng; Wang, Yi-fei; Wang, Zhi-ping

    2016-03-01

    Cellular damage induced by free-radicals like reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several diseases. 2, 2-azobis(2-amidino-propane) dihydrochloride(AAPH) generates two potent ROS capable of inducing lipid peroxidation: alkoxy radical(RO-) and peroxy radical(ROO-). These radicals are similar to those that are physiologically active and thus might initiate a cascade of intracellular toxic events leading to oxidation, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and subsequent cell death. Hence naturally anti-oxidant play a vital role in combating these conditions. In this study, resveratrol loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (Res-NLC) was prepared by hot melting and then high pressure homogenization technique. The effects of Res-NLC on free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidative damage is investigated. The particle size and zeta potential of Res-NLC were 139.3 ± 1.7 nm and -11.21 ± 0.41 mV, respectively. By free radical scavenging assays, the IC50 value of Res-NLC were 19.25, 5.29 μg/mL with DPPH, ABTS assay respectively, and 0.161 mg ferrous sulfate/1 mg Res-NLC with FRAP assay; and by AAPH-induced oxidative injury cell model assay, Res-NLC showed the strong protective effect against the human liver tumor HepG2 cell oxidative stress damage. These results indicated that the antioxidant properties of Res-NLC hold great potential used as an alternative to more toxic synthetic antioxidants as an additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations for the oxidative diseases treatment.

  15. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Orhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus  communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum, are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. Materials and Methods: α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. Results: H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2 on α-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent α-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 μg/ml. Conclusion:Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes.

  16. Effects of Different Drying Methods and Storage Time on Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Cosmos Caudatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mediani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD, oven (OD and freeze drying (FD on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS. Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g, whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained.

  17. Radical-scavenging effects of Aloe arborescens Miller on prevention of pancreatic islet B-cell destruction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Hidehiko; Koike, Takaaki; Shimpo, Kan; Chihara, Takeshi; Hoshino, Motoyuki; Ida, Chikako; Kuzuya, Hiroshi

    2003-11-01

    We evaluated the possible scavenging effects of Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger (Kidachi aloe in Japanese) on free radicals generated by streptozotocin (Sz) or alloxan (Ax). The components of Kidachi aloe were added to a reaction system in which .OH radicals derived from Sz or Ax as pancreatic islet B-cell toxins and hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XO)-derived O(2) radicals destroy isolated islet B-cells, and we observed its preventive effects. The Kidachi aloe components inhibited the destruction of rat pancreatic islet B-cells by Sz, Ax or HX-XO. These components were prepared in the form of a freeze-dried powder of the boiled leaf skin of Kidachi aloe, and measurement of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity showed higher radical-scavenging activity in this boiled leaf skin powder than the non-boiled leaf skin powder.Furthermore, HPLC chromatograms of the "Boiled leaf skin powder" were similar to those of commercially available aloin (barbaloin content: approximately 20%). Therefore, the main component may be a phenol compound. In addition, the phenolic fraction of the Boiled leaf skin contained large amounts of 2'-O-p-coumaroylaloesin and 2'-O-feruloylaloesin, which have higher DPPH radical-scavenging activity than barbaloin. These results suggest that the action mechanism of Kidachi aloe Boiled leaf skin components, which prevent destruction of the pancreatic islets by specific pancreatic islet toxins such as Sz, Ax, and HX-XO, involves inhibition of free radical-scavenging effects, and may be associated with a thermostable low molecular component. The co-existence of Kidachi aloe-derived 2'-O-p-coumaroylaloesin, 2'-O-feruloylaloesin, and aloin may result in the potentiation of radical-scavenging activity.

  18. Kinetic evaluation of polyamines as radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Kadoma, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    To clarify whether polyamines scavenge alkyl (carbon-centered) and peroxy (oxygen-centered) radicals, we analyzed their effects on the kinetics of polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) induced by 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, a R* radical) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO, a PhCOO* radical) under nearly anaerobic conditions. Stoichiometric factors (n; number of free radicals trapped by one mole of antioxidant moiety) were determined by the induction period method. The n value for polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) was 0.1-0.7, whereas that for conventional synthetic antioxidants, BHA and BHT, was about 2. These n values were not different between the AIBN and BPO systems. The n value for polyamines declined in the order spermine > spermidine > putrescine. The K(inh)/K(p) value for polyamines (20-115) was greater than that (4-7) for BHT or BHA. Radical-scavenging activity largely depends on the stoichiometric factor of antioxidants rather than their effects on initial rate of polymerization, a rate of propagation. Polyamines may scavenge alkyl or peroxy radicals derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids in biological systems.

  19. Free Radical Scavenging Properties of Annona squamosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikas, Biba; Akhil B, S; P, Remani; Sujathan, K

    2017-10-26

    Annona squamosa has extensively been used in the traditional and folkloric medicine and found to possess many biological activities. Different solvents, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Annona squamosa seeds (ASPE, ASCH, ASEA, ASME) have been used to prepare plant extracts. The present investigations dealt with the free radical scavenging activity of four extracts using various techniques such as total reducing power estimation, total phenolic count, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, evaluation of ABTS cation decolorisation capacity, FRAP assay, hdroxyl radical scavenging assay, super oxide assay and Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay of the extracts. The results showed that the four extracts of Annona squamosa showed significant reducing power in four extracts. The total phenolic contents in petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol extracts and positive control were 0.64±0.17, 0.54±0.27, 0.49±0.24, 0.57±0.22 and 0.66±0.33. The antioxidant capacity by ABTS assay of ASPE, ASCH, ASEA, ASME and positive control, trolox showed 77.75±0.5,73.25±1.7,78.5± 1.2 , 80 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 94.2 ± 0.9 respectively. The (50 % scavenging activity) SA50 of ASPE and ASCH, ASEA and ASME was found to be 34.4 μg/ml, 43.8 μg/ml 34.7 μg/m and 28.8 μg/ml respectively by DPPH assay. The percentage of hydroxyl radical scavenging increased with the increasing concentration of the extracts. ASPE, ASCH, ASEA and ASME showed superoxide radical scavenging activity, as indicated by their values 66 ± 0.5, 68 ± 1 ,63 ± 1 and 70 ± 0.5 μg/ml respectively compared to gallic acid which was 97 ± 0.5 μg/ml. The values for scavenging of nitric oxide for ASPE, ASCH, ASEA and ASME were 91.0 ± 1.0, 66.75 ± 0.5, 71.75 ± 1.1 and 75.75 ± 1.15 μg/ml while value for standard ascorbic acid was 91.0 ± 1.0 μg/ml. The results revealed strong antioxidants in four extracts may lead to the development of potent

  20. Evaluation of antitumor, immunomodulatory and free radical scavenging effects of a new herbal prescription seaweed complex preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Shao, Changlun; Kong, Wenwen; Fang, Yuchun; Wang, Changyun

    2013-09-01

    Seaweed Complex Preparation (SCP) is a clinical traditional Chinese medicine preparation which is composed of seven traditional Chinese herbs, and it has been used for treatment of lung cancer, liver cancer and digestive cancer. However, little information is available about the pharmacodynamic basis. The antitumor, immunomodulatory and free radical scavenging effects of SCP were evaluated in this study. Transplanted tumor in vivo method was used to determine the antitumor effect. The effects on splenocyte proliferation and phagocytosis of macrophages in tumor-bearing mice were measured by the MTT method and the phagocytizing cock red blood cell (CRBC) method respectively. The scavenging activities of SCP on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in vitro were investigated. It was found that the medium-dose and high-dose of SCP could significantly inhibit the growth of transplanted hepatic tumor of murine hepatocarcinoma cell line H22, and promote proliferation of splenocytes and phagocytosis of macrophages. SCP possessed noticeable scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The antitumor effects of SCP might be achieved by improving immune system and scavenging free radicals, which is in accordance with the viewpoint of traditional Chinese medicine in promoting the body resistance and eliminating pathogenic factors for cancer treatment.

  1. RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF SOME NATURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (DFT) were applied to calculate the adiabatic ionization potential (IP), bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) and other radical scavenging properties of antioxidant systems [5-11]. The ... scavenging processes of chain-breaking antioxidant (ArOH) [14, 15]. Both the mechanisms are significant for the scavenging activity of reactive ...

  2. Radical scavenging compounds from Ethiopian medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the secondary metabolites isolated from these active fractions were found to exhibit significant antioxidant activity, as judged by scavenging stable DPPH free radicals. However, the flavonol glycoside rutin figured as the most active radical scavenger with an IC50 value of 9.5 mM. Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal Vol.

  3. Superoxide anion radical scavenging property of catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kładna, Aleksandra; Berczyński, Paweł; Kruk, Irena; Michalska, Teresa; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2013-01-01

    The direct effect of the four catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine and isoproterenol) on superoxide anion radicals (O2•) was investigated. The reaction between 18-crown-6-ether and potassium superoxide in dimethylsulfoxide was used as a source of O2•. The reactivity of catecholamines with O2• was examined using chemiluminescence, reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium and electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping techniques. 5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide was included as the spin trap. The results showed that the four catecholamines were effective and efficient in inhibiting chemiluminescence accompanying the potassium superoxide/18-crown-6-ether system in a dose-dependent manner over the range 0.05-2 mM in the following order: adrenaline > noradrenaline > dopamine > isoproterenol, with, IC50 = 0.15 ± 0.02 mM 0.21 ± 0.03 mM, 0.27 ± 0.03 mM and 0.50 ± 0.04 mM, respectively. The catecholamines examined also exhibited a strong scavenging effect towards O2• when evaluated this property by the inhibition of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction (56-73% at 1 M concentration). A very similar capacity of O2• scavenging was monitored in the 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide spin-trapping assay. The results suggest that catecholamines tested may involve a direct effect on scavenging O2- radicals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Sphingomyelinase inhibitory and free radical scavenging potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extractsf sphingomyelinase inhibitory potencies were assessed colorimetrically and their free radical scavenging capabilities were assayed by the ability to quench 2,2]diphenyl]1]picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide anion (O2.]) radical. Considering their IC50 (ƒÊg/ml) values, the extracts inhibited the ...

  5. Effect of deodorization of camelina (Camelina sativa) oil on its phenolic content and the radical scavenging effectiveness of its extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrastar, Robert; Terpinc, Petra; Košir, Iztok Jože; Abramovič, Helena

    2013-08-28

    The influence of deodorization parameters (temperature (T), steam flow (S), time (t)) on the phenolic content and radical scavenging effectiveness (RSE) of methanolic extracts of camelina oil was investigated and analyzed by response-surface methodology (RSM). The phenolic content can be considered to be a linear function of all three parameters. A positive linear relationship between the content of phenolic compounds in deodorized oils and RSE was observed. Deodorization at 210 °C with a steam flow of 3 mL/h for 90 min resulted in the best preservation of phenolics, amounting to 29.9 mg/kg. The lowest reduction from RSE of 12.4 μM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g oil for the crude oil was observed for oil treated at 195 °C and 18 mL/h for 60 min with RSE of 10.1 μM TE/g oil. The lack of correlation between RSE or total phenolic content and oxidative stability (OS) of the deodorized oils suggests that antioxidants in scavenging radicals react by different mechanisms, depending on radical type and reaction medium.

  6. Effect of processing on phenolic acids composition and radical scavenging capacity of barley pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paula, Rosanna; Rabalski, Iwona; Messia, Maria Cristina; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Marconi, Emanuele

    2017-12-01

    Phenolic acids, total phenolics content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity in raw ingredients, fresh and dried spaghetti, and in uncooked and cooked spaghetti were evaluated and compared with semolina spaghetti as a reference. Ferulic acid was the major phenolic acid found in the free and bound phenolic extracts in all the investigated pasta samples. The addition of barley flour into pasta at incorporation levels of 30, 50 and 100% increased phenolic acids and total phenolics content. Pasta processing did not significantly affect the total phenolics content and free radical scavenging capacity, but a significant reduction in total phenolic acids measured by HPLC was found. Drying process differently affected individual phenolic compounds in the free and bound fractions, and thus, the total phenolic acids content. Free vanillic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids did not significantly change, while p-hydroxybenzoic and ferulic acids of the free extracts showed higher values compared to the corresponding fresh pasta. Cooking did not greatly affect total phenolic acids, more leading to conserving free and bound phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preservation of kombucha tea-effect of temperature on tea components and free radical scavenging properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, Rasu; Marimuthu, Subbaiya; Thangaraj, Periyasamy; Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy; Binupriya, Arthur Raj; Swaminathan, Krishnaswami; Yun, Sei Eok

    2008-10-08

    Kombucha tea is sugared black tea fermented with a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts (tea fungus) for 14 days. The tea tastes slightly sweet and acidic. The formation of tea fungal biofilms during storage is a big problem when kombucha tea is being stored and commercialized. Various thermal treatments have been tried for long-term storage of kombucha tea. The present study revealed the influence of heat on the biochemical constituents and the free radical scavenging properties of kombucha tea. Heat treatment at 60, 65, and 68 degrees C for 1 min controlled biofilm formation in kombucha tea without changing its clarity, taste, and flavor. However, tea polyphenols and black tea quality parameters showed varying stability during the storage period. A decrease in free radical scavenging properties was also found during the storage period. Because the biological activities of kombucha tea depended on the biochemical constituents, it was concluded that heat treatment was not a suitable method for kombucha tea preservation.

  8. Free radical-scavenging activities of oligomeric proanthocyanidin from Rhodiola rosea L. and its antioxidant effects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Yin, Zhi-Ping; Ma, Lei; Zhao, Wen; Hao, Hong-Wei; Li, Hui-Ling

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of oligomeric proanthocyanidin from Rhodiola rosea L. (OPCRR). The free radical-scavenging activities exhibited by OPCRR, as determined by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion (√[Formula: see text]) scavenging assays, were greater than that of vitamin C. The effects of OPCRR on the antioxidant enzymes activity and lipid peroxide content in vivo were evaluated through three observation biomarkers, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum, heart, liver and brain tissues in mice. The OPCRR significantly enhanced the SOD and GSH-Px activities, and reduced the MDA content in mice. These results indicated that the OPCRR has a great potential to be a natural antioxidant due to its considerable antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Free radical scavenging activity of Lafoensia pacari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, S; Lopes, L; Teixeira de Sousa, P; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G

    2000-09-01

    The methanolic extract of the stem bark of Lafoensia pacari (Lythraceae) showed free radical scavenging activity in the diphenyl picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH) decoloration assay and inhibited the enzyme xanthine oxidase 'in vitro'. Bioassay-guided isolation led to ellagic acid (EA) as the main active compound of Brazilian and Paraguayan collections of the plant.

  10. Phytochemical investigation and radical scavenging activities of Melia azedarach and its DNA protective effect in cultured lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Balakrishnan, Padmaja; Nair, Sudarsan

    2013-10-01

    Melia azedarach Linn (Meliaceae) is an Ayurvedic medicinal plant which is native to India. It is traditionally used for the treatment of leprosy, inflammation, scrofula, anthelmintic, antilithic, diuretic, deobstruent and cardiac disorders. To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of the ethanol leaf extract of Melia azedarach (MA) and its protective effect against H2O2-induced cellular damage in cultured lymphocytes. The dose-dependent study of MA (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 µg/ml) was used to study in vitro radical scavenging assays. The effective dose of MA (60 µg/ml) was further used to study the H2O2-induced DNA damage (comet assay and DNA fragmentation assay) in cultured lymphocytes. The ethanol extract of MA (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 µg/ml) exhibited a significant dose-dependent inhibition of in vitro radical scavenging assays and their corresponding IC50 values as follows: hydroxyl radical (26.50 ± 0.26 µg/ml), superoxide anion (30.00 ± 0.32 µg/ml), nitric oxide radical (48.00 ± 0.48 µg/ml), DPPH radical (30.55 ± 0.32 µg/ml) and reducing power (22.00 ± 0.22 µg/ml). The increase in the severity of DNA damage and TBARS was increased significantly (p<0.05) at 500 µM H2O2-treated cultured lymphocytes and RBC cellular membranes. The phytochemical screening studies identified 13 chemical constituents present in the leaf extract of MA. The results of this study demonstrate that MA offers protection against H2O2-induced cellular damage and it can be developed as an effective antioxidant during oxidative stress.

  11. The elevation effect on water-soluble polysaccharides and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of Ganoderma lucidum K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsih, C.; Apriyana, W.; Nur Hayati, S.; Taufika Rosyida, V.; Hernawan; Dewi Poeloengasih, C.

    2017-02-01

    Water soluble polysaccharide is one of the important phytochemical in Ganoderma lucidum K. Phytochemicals in the plants, microorganisms, and plants were affected by internal and external factors. The objective of the research was to evaluate the effect of elevation on the water-soluble polysaccharides and its DPPH radical scavenging activity. We found that the water-polysaccharides in mushroom from Godean (elevation Ganoderma lucidum K from Godean (IC50 11.5 ± 0.29 mg/mL) higher than Kaliurang (IC50 14.4 ± 0.27%).

  12. Free radical scavenging by brain homogenate: implication to free radical damage and antioxidant defense in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A; Liu, J; Wang, X; Kawai, M

    1994-03-01

    To study the mechanisms of free radical-induced brain damage and the antioxidant defense in the brain, we quantified the superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging effects of brain homogenate using electron spin resonance spectrometry. Brain homogenate was found to scavenge both superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in concentration-dependent fashion. Heat denaturation significantly decreased these scavenging effects. The ability of brain homogenate to scavenge free radicals implies that brain damage can be induced by free radicals since they are known to react virtually with any type of molecule such as nucleic acids, membrane lipids, and proteins in the brain. On the other hand, some molecules which can be regenerated or repaired after free radical scavenging are considered to be antioxidants which include both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Measurement of the decrease in antioxidant activity following heat denaturation suggests that the contribution of enzymatic antioxidants is about 20-40% in scavenging superoxide radicals and about 10-20% in scavenging hydroxyl radicals.

  13. [Screening DPPH radical scavengers from Monascus sp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G; Wu, X

    2000-08-01

    A strain belongs to Monascus sp. was separated from hongqu(Chinese beni-coji) which was used to brew red wine in Changxin county, Zhejiang province, and its DPPH radical scavenging metabolites were studied. Results showed that the yield and radical scavenging activity of neutral extract with EtOAc were higher than that of acid and basic extract. After shaken at 30 degrees C, 100 r/min for 5 days, this strain produced largest amount of neutral extract. Further partitioning the neutral fraction with silica gel column chromatograph, LH-20 column chromatograph, MPLC and HPLC, we screened 15 free radical scavengers whose yield was more than 2 mg and purity was higher than 85% in HPLC (260 nm absorption). Several of them were analyzed with 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectrum from which we concluded that B1-3 and C3-1-7 were two kinds of substitute of benzene, and C3-1-7 may be 3-OH-4-OCH3-benzoic acid. The scavenging activity of 40 mumol/L B1-3 was about 65%, and that of C3-1-7 was lower than 56%, while as the control the scavenging activity of 40 mumol/L Vc and Ve was 80.4% and 78.4% respectively.

  14. High-molar-mass hyaluronan behavior during testing its radical scavenging capacity in organic and aqueous media: effects of the presence of manganese(II) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapta, Peter; Valachová, Katarína; Gemeiner, Peter; Soltés, Ladislav

    2009-02-01

    This study compares the radical scavenging capacity of high-molar-mass hyaluronan (HA) using standardized methods applying 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and 2,2'-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonate] (ABTS) radical cations as oxidants. Additionally, spin-trapping technique combined with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used to evaluate the ability of HA to scavenge reactive radicals. The thermal decomposition of K2S2O8 in pure H2O or in a H2O/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixture at 333 K was used as a source of reactive paramagnetic species. We found that HA does not exhibit radical-scavenging activity when DPPH radicals or ABTS(.+) radical cations are used as oxidant, but that HA is an effective radical scavenger at low concentrations, if the oxidation reactions are initiated by the decomposition of K2S2O8. At higher HA concentrations, a more complex behavior and prooxidant HA action was observed. The influence of Mn(II) ions on the reaction mechanisms of radical generation and termination in the K2S2O8/H2O/DMSO system in the presence of HA was studied in detail.

  15. Phytochemical screening, free radical scavenging and antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones, phenolics, alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids/triterpenoids and cardiac glycosides. Qualitatively screening for free radical scavenging compounds using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-PicrylHydrazyl (DPPH) was carried ...

  16. Radical Scavenging, Antimicrobial and Insecticidal Efficacy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lichens are self-supporting symbiotic association of mycobiont and photobiont. The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial, insecticidal and radical scavenging potential of methanol extract of two macrolichens viz. Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale and Dirinaria applanata (Fée) D.D. Awasthi.

  17. Radical Scavenging Activity and Preliminary Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of preliminary phytochemical screening indicated the possible presence of anthraquinones, carbohydrates, deoxy-sugars, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids. It can be concluded that pods of C. arereh may contain medicinally relevant constituents such as terpenoids and displayed strong radical scavenging activity, ...

  18. Synergistic effects of free radical scavengers and cochlear vasodilators: a new otoprotective strategy for age-related hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Juan Carlos; Fuentes-Santamaría, Verónica; Melgar-Rojas, Pedro; Valero, María Llanos; Gabaldón-Ull, María Cruz; Miller, Josef M.; Juiz, José M.

    2015-01-01

    The growing increase in age-related hearing loss (ARHL), with its dramatic reduction in quality of life and significant increase in health care costs, is a catalyst to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent or reduce this aging-associated condition. In this regard, there is extensive evidence that excessive free radical formation along with diminished cochlear blood flow are essential factors involved in mechanisms of other stress-related hearing loss, such as that associated with noise or ototoxic drug exposure. The emerging view is that both play key roles in ARHL pathogenesis. Therapeutic targeting of excessive free radical formation and cochlear blood flow regulation may be a useful strategy to prevent onset of ARHL. Supporting this idea, micronutrient-based therapies, in particular those combining antioxidants and vasodilators like magnesium (Mg2+), have proven effective in reducing the impact of noise and ototoxic drugs in the inner ear, therefore improving auditory function. In this review, the synergistic effects of combinations of antioxidant free radicals scavengers and cochlear vasodilators will be discussed as a feasible therapeutic approach for the treatment of ARHL. PMID:26029103

  19. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among cultivated ginseng, and cultivated wild ginseng extracts -Using the measurement of superoxide and hydroxy radical scavenging activities-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Jin, Rhim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among cultivated wild ginseng and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts. Results : 1. In the superoxide radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 0.25 and 0.50㎎/㎖. 2. In the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0㎎/㎖. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had higher antioxidant activities to cultivated ginseng.

  20. Effect of dietary astaxanthin on free radical scavenging capacity and nitrite stress tolerance of postlarvae shrimp, Pleoticus muelleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Ana Cristina; Velurtas, Susana María; Espino, María Laura; Fenucci, Jorge Lino

    2014-12-24

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of astaxanthin feed supplementation and environmental nitrite stress in postlarvae of Pleoticus muelleri (15 ± 0.004 mg initial weight) under culture conditions. Diets containing three levels of astaxanthin, 0 mg kg(-1) of diet (C0), 100 mg kg(-1) of diet (C(100)), and 300 mg kg(-1) of diet (C(300)), were used. Postlarvae fed with each diet were exposed to different concentrations of nitrite (NO(2)Na) (0-200 mg L(-1)). The 96 h median lethal concentration (LC50) values of nitrite N were 76.3, 89.7, and 157 mg L(-1) for shrimps fed to C0, C(100), and C(300). The scavenging properties were evaluated against the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by electron resonance spectroscopy (EPR). For all feed treatments, the extracts exhibited strong DPPH scavenging activity; however, shrimp fed with C(100) and C(300) showed the greatest activity to quench DPPH (62 and 59%, respectively) with respect to C0 (43%). It can be concluded that astaxanthin acts as a protector of nitrite stress in P. muelleri.

  1. Differential effects of radical scavengers on X-ray-induced mutation and cytotoxicity in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corn, B.W.; Liber, H.L.; Little, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of X irradiation on a human lymphoblast cell line were examined in the presence of two radioprotective agents which modulate damage to DNA. The cells were treated with X rays alone or in the presence of either dimethyl sulfoxide or cysteamine. Surviving fraction and mutation to trifluorothymidine resistance (tk locus) and to 6-thioguanine resistance (hgprt locus) were measured. Survival was enhanced when the cells were irradiated in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide; the D0 rose from 58 to 107 rad. However, at both genetic loci the induced mutant fractions were identical in the presence or absence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Survival was enhanced to a greater degree when the cells were irradiated in the presence of cysteamine; the D0 rose from 58 to 200 rad. Cysteamine also protected the cells from X-ray-induced mutation; the frequencies of X-ray-induced mutation at both the tk and hgprt loci were reduced by 50-75%. No protective effects were observed unless dimethyl sulfoxide or cysteamine was present during irradiation. These findings are discussed in terms of the hypothesis that, unlike for cell killing, radiation-induced mutagenesis in human lymphoblast cells is not mediated by the actions of aqueous free radicals, but rather by the direct effects of ionizing radiation.

  2. Radical scavenging activity of crude polysaccharides from Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A preparation of crude polysaccharides (TPS was isolated from Camellia sinensis by precipitation and ultrafiltration. TPS1, TPS2, and TPS3 had molecular weights of 240, 21.4, and 2.46 kDa, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of TPS were evaluated by DPPH free radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging. These results revealed that TPS exhibited strong radical scavenging activity in a concentration-dependent manner. TPS3 with lowest molecular weight showed a higher radical scavenging activity.

  3. Study of antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging power of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the possibility of substituting these materials with effective compounds of herbal plants have been considered by the researchers. In this study, at first, the Physalis Alkekengi flower extract was extracted by using maceration method with methanol. The Phenolic compounds and the amount of free radical scavenging activity ...

  4. Free radical scavenging and cytotoxic activity of five commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polygonum cuspidatum), and pomegranate (Punica granatum). It shows radical scavenging activity in the following order, according to their median effective concentration (EC

  5. Free-radical scavenging capacity and antimicrobial activity of wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free-radical scavenging capacity and antimicrobial activity of wild edible mushroom from Turkey. ... concentration of both RF ethanol extract and the standards the higher the inhibition effect. ... The ethanol extract of R. flava inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria better than Gram-negative bacteria and yeast.

  6. Metabolomic Analyses of Brain Tissue in Sepsis Induced by Cecal Ligation Reveal Specific Redox Alterations-Protective Effects of the Oxygen Radical Scavenger Edaravone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hara, Naomi; Chijiiwa, Miyuki; Yara, Miki

    2015-01-01

    at analyzing the preventive effect of the free radical scavenger edaravone on sepsis-induced brain alterations. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and the mice were divided into three groups-CLP vehicle (CLPV), CLP and edaravone (MCI-186, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) (CLPE...

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima, E-mail: khattakkf@yahoo.co [Food Science Division, Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Peshawar (Pakistan); School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, BS8 1TS, Bristol (United Kingdom); James Simpson, Thomas [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, BS8 1TS, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    The efficacy of gamma irradiation as a method of decontamination for food and herbal materials is well established. In the present study, Glycyrrhiza glabra roots were irradiated at doses 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator. The irradiated and un-irradiated control samples were evaluated for phenolic contents, antimicrobial activities and DPPH scavenging properties. The result of the present study showed that radiation treatment up to 20 kGy does not affect the antifungal and antibacterial activity of the plant. While sample irradiated at 25 kGy does showed changes in the antibacterial activity against some selected pathogens. No significant differences in the phenolic contents were observed for control and samples irradiated at 5, 10 and 15 kGy radiation doses. However, phenolic contents increased in samples treated with 20 and 25 kGy doses. The DPPH scavenging activity significantly (p<0.05) increased in all irradiated samples of the plant.

  8. Kinetic radical-scavenging activity of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Kadoma, Yoshinori; Ishihara, Mariko; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Yokoe, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    able to scavenge harmful carbon-centred radicals in vivo.

  9. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and tyrosinase inhibitory effects of constituents of sugarcane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Kensaku; Otsuka, Keiko; Wada, Koji; Iwasaki, Hironori; Yamashita, Masatsugu

    2007-01-01

    In the course of our work into the use of cane by-products, we have studied the isolation and structural determination of bioactive compounds in sugarcane molasses. In this study, three stereo isomers of syringyl glycerol 3'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, three stereo isomers of guaiacyl glycerol 3'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, a syringyl glycerol 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, tachioside and a 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4-(H)-pyran-4-one (DDMP) were isolated from the 25% methanol eluate by Amberlite XAD-2 column chromatography of sugarcane molasses. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. These isolated compounds were examined for their scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical species, and for their inhibitory activity against mushroom tyrosinase. All of the isolated compounds showed DPPH radical scavenging activity, while DDMP and tachioside showed mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity.

  10. Mode of action of poly(vinylpyridine-N-oxide) in preventing silicosis: Effective scavenging of carbonate anion radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, S.; Czapski, G.; Heller, A. [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    2006-01-15

    Inhalation of quartz crystallites causes silicosis, a devastating lung disease afflicting miners, particularly coal and stone workers. Poly(vinylpyridine-N-oxide)s (PVPNOs) have been applied in the prevention and treatment of silicosis, but their mode of action has been obscure. Here, we show that PVPNOs do not react with peroxynitrite but scavenge exceptionally rapidly carbonate radicals, which are produced in the decomposition of ONOO- in bicarbonate solutions.

  11. Kinetic Study of Free Radicals Scavenging by Saffron Petal Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ardalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron petal is the main by-product of saffron processing which is produced in large amounts, annually. The objectives of this study were to study the antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging effects of saffron petal extracts. The ability of saffron petal to act as an antioxidant using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free-radical method was investigated by applying the Uv–Vis spectrometry. The Uv–Vis spectra of reaction mixtures in acetonitrile revealed that saffron petal has a considerable effect on scavenging free radical. Kinetic studies were conducted by measuring the disappearance of DPPH in acetonitrile over the wavelength range of 515-522 nm under pseudo-first-order conditions at 37oC. Furthermore, the pseudo first order rate constants were determined

  12. Radioprotection of tendon tissue via crosslinking and free radical scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Aaron; Gatt, Charles J; Dunn, Michael G

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing radiation could supplement tissue bank screening to further reduce the probability of diseases transmitted by allografts if denaturation effects can be minimized. It is important, however, such sterilization procedures be nondetrimental to tissues. We compared crosslinking and free radical scavenging potential methods to accomplish this task in tendon tissue. In addition, two forms of ionizing irradiation, gamma and electron beam (e-beam), were also compared. Crosslinkers included 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and glucose, which were used to add exogenous crosslinks to collagen. Free radical scavengers included mannitol, ascorbate, and riboflavin. Radioprotective effects were assessed through tensile testing and collagenase resistance testing after irradiation at 25 kGy and 50 kGy. Gamma and e-beam irradiation produced similar degenerative effects. Crosslinkers had the highest strength at 50 kGy, EDC treated tendons had 54% and 49% higher strength than untreated, for gamma and e-beam irradiation respectively. Free radical scavengers showed protective effects up to 25 kGy, especially for ascorbate and riboflavin. Crosslinked samples had higher resistance to collagenase and over a wider dose range than scavenger-treated. Of the options studied, the data suggest EDC precrosslinking or glucose treatment provides the best maintenance of native tendon properties after exposure to ionizing irradiation.

  13. Hydroxyl radical scavenging ability of bacterioruberin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takeshi; Miyabe, Yuko; Ide, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Osamu

    1997-09-01

    A red carotenoid pigment, bacterioruberin, was extracted from Rubrobacter radiotolerans. The OH scavenging effect of this pigment was studied using a system of thymine degradation and compared with those of cysteine and β-carotene. Thymine solution (5 × 10 -4 mol/dm 3 with 0.2% SDS buffered at pH 7.0) was irradiated with 60Co γ-rays in the presence and absence of the scavengers. We found that the dose reducing factor (5.3) of bacterioruberin is much higher than that (2.5) of cysteine and β-carotene.

  14. Regional effects of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) on free radical scavengers in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, A S; Tordzro, W K; Katz, M; Jackson-Lewis, V; Cooper, T B; Fahn, S; Cadet, J L

    1989-12-11

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured in the caudate-putamen (CPu), the hippocampus (HIP), and the brainstem (BS) of the brains of control animals and of rats treated with one intracerebroventricular infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Injection of 6-OHDA resulted in significant decreases in the activity of SOD in the CPu, the BS, and in the HIP. There were decreases in catalase in the CPu and in the BS, but not in the HIP. GSH was reduced in the CPu and the BS but not changed in the HIP. There were small decreases in the activity of GSH-Px only in the BS. These changes may be secondary to the production of free radicals after the infusion of 6-OHDA in rat brain.

  15. Free radical scavenging capacity, anticandicidal effect of bioactive compounds from Sida cordifolia L., in combination with nystatin and clotrimazole and their effect on specific immune response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Maurice; Konaté, Kiessoun; Lepengué, Alexis Nicaise; Souza, Alain; M'Batchi, Bertrand; Sawadogo, Laya L

    2012-12-26

    Infectious diseases caused by fungi are still a major threat to public health, despite numerous efforts by researchers. Use of ethnopharmacological knowledge is one attractive way to reduce empiricism and enhance the probability of success in new drug-finding efforts. In this work, the total alkaloid compounds (AC) from Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) have been investigated for their free radical scavenging capacity, antifungal and immunostimulatory properties. The antifungal activity was investigated against five candida strains using the microplate dilution method and the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) of compounds was evaluated. The antioxidant activity of the samples was evaluate using three separate methods, at last, the immunostimulatory effect on immunosuppressed wistar rats was performed. As for the antifungal activity, result varied according to microorganism. The results obtained in this antifungal activity were interesting and indicated a synergistic effect between alkaloid compounds and the antifungal references such as Nystatin and Clotrimazole. Antioxidant capacity noticed that the reduction capacity of DPPH radicals obtained the best result comparatively to the others methods of free radical scavenging. Our results showed a low immunostimulatory effect and this result could be explained by the lack of biologically active antioxidants such as polyphenol compounds lowly contained in the alkaloid compounds. The results of this study showed that alkaloid compounds in combination with antifungal references (Nystatin and Clotrimazole) exhibited antimicrobial effects against candida strains tested. The results supported the utilization of these plants in infectious diseases particularly in treatment of candida infections.

  16. Identification of Radical Scavengers in Sweet Grass (Hierochloe odorata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Veldhuizen, van A.; Groot, de Æ.

    2002-01-01

    Extracts from aerial parts of sweet grass (Hierochloe odorata) were active DPPH free radical scavengers, The active compounds were detected in extract fractions using HPLC with on-line radical scavenging detection. After multistep fractionation of the extract, two new natural products possessing

  17. pH-dependent radical scavenging capacity of green tea catechins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muzolf, M.; Szymusiak, H.; Gliszczynska-Swiglo, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Tyrakowska, B.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of pH on the radical scavenging capacity of green tea catechins was investigated using experimental as well as theoretical methods. It was shown that the radical scavenging capacity of the catechins, quantified by the TEAC value, increases with increasing pH of the medium. Comparison of

  18. Carotenoid stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles derived from the Actinomycete Gordonia amicalis HS-11 as effective free radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowani, Harshada; Mohite, Pallavi; Damale, Shailesh; Kulkarni, Mohan; Zinjarde, Smita

    2016-12-01

    The Actinomycete Gordonia amicalis HS-11 produced orange pigments when cultivated on n-hexadecane as the sole carbon source. When cells of this pigmented bacterium were incubated with 1mM chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) or silver nitrate (AgNO3), pH 9.0, at 25°C, gold and silver nanoparticles, respectively, were obtained in a cell associated manner. It was hypothesized that the pigments present in the cells may be mediating metal reduction reactions. After solvent extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography, two major pigments displaying UV-vis spectra characteristic of carotenoids were isolated. These were identified on the basis of Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (APCI-MS) in the positive mode as 1'-OH-4-keto-γ-carotene (Carotenoid K) and 1'-OH-γ-carotene (Carotenoid B). The hydroxyl groups present in the carotenoids were eliminated under alkaline conditions and provided the reducing equivalents necessary for synthesizing nanoparticles. Cell associated and carotenoid stabilized nanoparticles were characterized by different analytical techniques. In vitro free radical scavenging activities of cells (control, gold and silver nanoparticle loaded), purified carotenoids and carotenoid stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles were evaluated. Silver nanoparticle loaded cells and carotenoid stabilized silver nanoparticles exhibited improved nitric oxide (NO) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities compared to their control and gold counterparts. This paper thus reports cell associated nanoparticle synthesis by G. amicalis, describes for the first time the role of carotenoid pigments in metal reduction processes and demonstrates enhanced free radical scavenging activities of the carotenoid stabilized nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Strand break formation in plasmid DNA irradiated in aqueous solution: effect of medium temperature and hydroxyl radical scavenger concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, H; Kai, M; Kusama, T; Aoki, Y

    1995-03-01

    Plasmid pBR322 DNA (4363 base pairs) in aerobic aqueous solution was irradiated with 60Co gamma-radiation. The change of diffusion coefficients (D) of chemical species, rate constants (k) of radical-DNA interaction and solubilities of O2 in water cannot be ignored when a temperature varies more than a few tens of centigrade. It is important to examine the variation of the yields of DNA strand breaks as a function of temperature in order to analyze the mechanisms of DNA strand breaks from the chemical point of view. Hence, we observed the change of the yield of strand breaks with temperatures between -20 and 42 degrees C by agarose gel electrophoresis. We also observed the change of the yield of strand breaks with the concentration of OH scavenger (Tris) from 1 mmol dm-3 to 100 mmol dm-3 and summarized it with previous experiments. This summarization indicated that the order of the lifetime of OH radical in cellular environment is several nanosecond. This value is consistent with the measurement of the lifetime of 8.7 nanosecond for OH radical in mammalian cell (Roots, R. and Okada, S. (1975) Radiat. Res. 64, 306-320).

  20. Free Radical Scavenging and Cellular Antioxidant Properties of Astaxanthin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Dose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin is a coloring agent which is used as a feed additive in aquaculture nutrition. Recently, potential health benefits of astaxanthin have been discussed which may be partly related to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Our electron spin resonance (ESR and spin trapping data suggest that synthetic astaxanthin is a potent free radical scavenger in terms of diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and galvinoxyl free radicals. Furthermore, astaxanthin dose-dependently quenched singlet oxygen as determined by photon counting. In addition to free radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching properties, astaxanthin induced the antioxidant enzyme paroxoanase-1, enhanced glutathione concentrations and prevented lipid peroxidation in cultured hepatocytes. Present results suggest that, beyond its coloring properties, synthetic astaxanthin exhibits free radical scavenging, singlet oxygen quenching, and antioxidant activities which could probably positively affect animal and human health.

  1. Studies on free radical scavenging activity in Chinese seaweeds part I. Screening results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Jun; Fang, Guo-Ming; Lou, Qing-Xiang

    1999-09-01

    Antioxidants have attracted the attention of researchers due to their beneficial effects as free radical scavengers. Application of a stable free radical named 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) to screen the free radical scavenging activity in 27 species of Chinese seaweed showed that 15 of them had significant activity in at least one of the organic solvent extracts. The most interesting seaweed species were Gelidium amansii, Gloiosiphonia capillaris, Polysiphonia urceolata, Sargassum kjellmanianum, Desmarestia viridis, and Rhodomela teres.

  2. Radical Scavenging Efficacy of Thiol Capped Silver Nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    picryl hydrazil (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals as spectrophotometric assay. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scaveng- ing efficacy has been determined by titration method. Ascorbic acid has been used as standard for all ...

  3. Antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts from five indigenous Palestinian medicinal plants including Rosmarinus officinalis, Pisidium guajava, Punica granatum peel, grape seeds and Teucrium polium were investigated for antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities against eight microorganisms, using well diffusion method. The microorganisms ...

  4. Anti-bacterial, free radical scavenging activity and cytotoxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... Quantitative analysis of the scavenging ability showed that acetone extracts exhibited good free radical scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner. The berries extract had the highest LC50 (lowest toxicity) of 551.68 68 µg/mL. Conclusion: Acetone extract of leaves and roots of Grewia flava contain ...

  5. Determination of in vitro free radical scavenging and antiproliferative effect of Pennisetum alopecuroides on cultured A549 human lung cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githa Elizabeth Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This is the 1 st time a pharmacological exploration of P. alopecuroides grasses has been conducted. We have shown that P. alopecuroides exhibits good free radical scavenging and strong in vitro cytotoxic activities against human lung cancer cell lines.

  6. Beneficial effect of the oxygen free radical scavenger amifostine (WR-2721 on spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanikolas Menelaos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraplegia is the most devastating complication of thoracic or thoraco-abdominal aortic surgery. During these operations, an ischemia-reperfusion process is inevitable and the produced radical oxygen species cause severe oxidative stress for the spinal cord. In this study we examined the influence of Amifostine, a triphosphate free oxygen scavenger, on oxidative stress of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion in rabbits. Methods Eighteen male, New Zealand white rabbits were anesthetized and spinal cord ischemia was induced by temporary occlusion of the descending thoracic aorta by a coronary artery balloon catheter, advanced through the femoral artery. The animals were randomly divided in 3 groups. Group I functioned as control. In group II the descending aorta was occluded for 30 minutes and then reperfused for 75 min. In group III, 500 mg Amifostine was infused into the distal aorta during the second half-time of ischemia period. At the end of reperfusion all animals were sacrificed and spinal cord specimens were examined for superoxide radicals by an ultra sensitive fluorescent assay. Results Superoxide radical levels ranged, in group I between 1.52 and 1.76 (1.64 ± 0.10, in group II between 1.96 and 2.50 (2.10 ± 0.23, and in group III (amifostine between 1.21 and 1.60 (1.40 ± 0.19 (p = 0.00, showing a decrease of 43% in the Group of Amifostine. A lipid peroxidation marker measurement ranged, in group I between 0.278 and 0.305 (0.296 ± 0.013, in group II between 0.427 and 0.497 (0.463 ± 0.025, and in group III (amifostine between 0.343 and 0.357 (0.350 ± 0.007 (p Conclusion By direct and indirect methods of measuring the oxidative stress of spinal cord after ischemia/reperfusion, it is suggested that intra-aortic Amifostine infusion during spinal cord ischemia phase, significantly attenuated the spinal cord oxidative injury in rabbits.

  7. Effect of vacuum and oven drying on the radical scavenging activity and nutritional contents of submerged fermented Maitake (Grifola frondosa mycelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheng Yuen SIM

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Maitake (Grifola frondosa mycelia contain high dietary and medicinal values that have gained great attentions from consumers. Proper drying can preserve their bio-availabilities prior to subsequent processing or consumption. Pure Maitake (Grifola frondosa strain was cultivated in Mushroom Complete Medium (MCM using submerged fermentation for 14 days. Maitake mycelia were harvested and treated respectively by vacuum, oven drying treatments while the fresh mycelia were assigned as control. All the samples were tested for Total Phenolic Content, DPPH radical scavenging assays and nutritional contents. Submerged fermentation produced mycelia biomass (1.3 ± 0.1 g/L within 14 days of fermentation. Both the pH and reduced sugar content had decreased (P < 0.05 throughout fermentation. Vacuum dried mycelia had shown higher (P < 0.05 total phenolic (20.0 ± 0.4 mg GAE/g, DPPH radical scavenging activity (84.7 ± 0.1%, and soluble protein content (283.6 ± 7.1 µg/mL as compared to other treated samples. The crude protein (39.1 ± 0.2, fat (5.7 ± 0.7, ash (11.1 ± 0.3% of mycelia were well preserved using vacuum drying as compared to oven dried samples. The study has suggested that vacuum drying at 70 °C, 1000mBar has the advantage to preserve the nutritional and radical scavenging activity of high value maitake mycelia effectively at lower cost.

  8. Effect of solute–solvent interactions on DPPH radical scavenging efficiency of some flavonoid antioxidants in various binary water–methanol mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moallem, Hamid Reza; Jabbari, Morteza

    ...-immune diseases, ageing, and diabetes. 1 – 3 However, most interest has been devoted to naturally occurring antioxidants that can be used to protect humans from oxidative stress damage. 4 There are many natural free radical scavengers and antioxidants that can protect biomolecules against the attack of free radicals or suppress the resultan...

  9. Effect of gamma sterilization on microhardness of the cortical bone tissue of bovine femur in presence of N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine free radical scavenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaveisi, Farzaneh; Hashemi, Bijan; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad

    2014-05-01

    Gamma sterilization is usually used to minimize the risk of infection transmission through bone allografts. However, it is believed that gamma irradiation affects the mechanical properties of allografts and free radical scavengers can be used to alleviate the radiation-induced degradation of these properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effects of N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC) free radical scavenger on the material properties of sterilized bovine cortical bone at microstructure level. Forty-two cortical tissue specimens were excised from three bovine femurs and irradiated to 35 and 70 kGy gamma rays in the presence of 5, 50, and 100 mM concentrations of NAC. The localized variations in microhardness were evaluated via indentation in the radial and longitudinal directions to examine different regions of the microstructures of the specimens, including the osteonal and interstitial tissues. A significant increase was observed in the hardness of osteonal, interstitial, and longitudinal combined microstructures exposed to 35 and 70 kGy radiations (P ionizing radiation and can be used to improve the material properties of sterilized allografts. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Comb Tooth Cap Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium ramosum (Higher Basidiomycetes) Mycelia on DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity and Nerve Growth Factor Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suruga, Kohei; Kadokura, Kazunari; Sekino, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Takafumi; Matsuo, Koichi; Irie, Keiichi; Mishima, Kenichi; Yoneyama, Makoto; Komatsu, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of and nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis caused by Hericium ramosum mycelia. Wild mushroom fruiting bodies were collected from nature to isolate their mycelia. Pieces of H. ramosum fruiting bodies were plated onto 90-mm Petri dishes with potato dextrose agar medium to isolate their mycelia. Antioxidant activity was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity in vitro; the ethanol extract from H. ramosum mycelia (63.11 µmol Trolox/g) was more potent than that of other mushroom mycelia extracts. There was a proportional relationship (R2 = 0.7929) between DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content in extracts of different mushroom mycelia. We investigated the ability of H. ramosum mycelia to inducing NGF synthesis in vivo. Oral administration of H. ramosum mycelia significantly increased concentrations of NGF in the hippocampus of intact mice. These results are the first concerning antioxidant activity and NGF synthesis of H. ramosum mycelia. These mushroom mycelia could be useful as food and/or nutritional supplements because of certain biological functions.

  11. Free radical scavenging activity of Eagle tea and their flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Meng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an online HPLC-DAD-MS coupled with 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS assay was employed for evaluating free radical scavenging activity of Eagle tea and their active components. Twenty-three chromatographic peaks were detected, and nineteen components had free radical scavenging activity. Among them, eight compounds were identified as flavonoids (hyperin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, catechins, chlorogenic acid and epicatechin based on MS data and standard chromatographic characters.

  12. Free radical scavenging potential of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, R; Vijayakumar, M; Rawat, A K S; Mehrotra, Shanta

    2003-08-01

    For assessing free radical scavenging potential of P. kurrooa, the antioxidant activity of P. kurrooa extract was studied by lipid peroxidation assay using rat liver homogenate. The extract (1 mg/ml) showed marked protection (up to 66.68%) against peroxidation of liver phospholipids. Besides, reduced glutathione showed very encouraging activity. The extract also exhibited significant scavenging activity. Thus augmenting the wide use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine, which may partly be due to antioxidant and free radical scavening activity of the extract.

  13. Radical scavenging, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Caatinga plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Juceni P; Meira, Marilena; David, Jorge M; Brandão, Hugo N; Branco, Alexsandro; de Fátima Agra, M; Barbosa, M Regina V; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Giulietti, Ana M

    2007-04-01

    Extracts of 32 plants from the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region called Caatinga were evaluated through DPPH radical scavenging assay, beta-carotene bleaching, and brine shrimp lethality tests (BST). Among the extracts studied Byrsonima cf. gardneriana, Mascagnia coriacea, Cordia globosa, Diodia apiculata and Hypenia salzmannii showed the highest activities in DPPH radical scavenging test. In the beta-carotene bleaching test the highest activities were observed for Passiflora cincinnata, Chamaecrista repens, B. cf. gardneriana, Rollinia leptopetala, Serjania glabrata, Diospyros gaultheriifolia, C. globosa, Mimosa ophtalmocentra, M. coriacea and Lippia cf. microphylla. In contrast, R. leptopetala, Zornia cf. brasiliensis and Leonotis nepetifolia were the most active species in the BST.

  14. Short Communication Radical Scavenging Activity and Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    ABSTRACT. Cassia arereh is traditionally used as a fish poison and to manage different disease conditions including gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders, infertility, diabetes, insect bite, and infections. Free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a range of chronic diseases; and many medicinal plants are ...

  15. Effect of topical application of antioxidants and free radical scavengers on protection of hairless mouse skin exposed to chronic doses of ultraviolet B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muizzuddin, N.; Shakoori, A.R. [Univ. of the Punjab, Dept. of Zoology, Cell and Molecular Biology Lab., Lahore (Pakistan); Marenus, K.D. [SUNY at Stonybrook, Stonybrook, NY (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Background/aims: Within the past three decades, there has emerged a greater awareness of the molecular effects of solar rays especially ultraviolet radiation (UV-R), to the extent that the harmful effects of solar radiation are recognized not only by molecular biologists and physicians, but also by the general public. Various sunscreen molecules that effectively block the UVB component of the sun are available; however, a large part of Western populations elicits adverse reactions against chemical sunscreens. This study was designed to observe the protective effect of antioxidants against the damaging effects of chronic UVB exposure of skin in an attempt to introduce antioxidants and free radical scavengers as topical sun protective agents. Methods: Jackson hairless mice were exposed to suberythemal doses of UVB, three times a week, and topically treated with a cream containing the anti-oxidants vitamin E, butylated hydroxytoluene, nordihydroguaradinic acid and vitamin C. Results: Treatment with vehicle alone along with UVB exposure resulted in an increase in epidermal thickness showing a 38%, 77% and 112% increase after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively. Chronic UVB exposed skin treated with the material containing free radical scavengers and antioxidants mix (AO mix) exhibited 39%, 73% and 124% thicker epidermis than the untreated control after, respectively, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of treatment. The vehicle did not appear to protect skin against UV irradiation, since there appeared to be more (16%) sunburn cells in vehicle treated skin than the untreated, UV exposed skin after 4 weeks of treatment. After 8 weeks and 12 weeks, there were 33% and 36% less sunburn cells in the vehicle treated skin than the untreated, UV exposed skin. The antioxidant mix was significantly effective (P=<0.001) in protecting against UVB irradiation, having 63%, 71% and 79% fewer sunburn cells than the untreated, UV exposed skin af after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of

  16. Free radical scavenging activities of tea drinks on the market

    OpenAIRE

    中川, 一夫; Nakagawa, Kazuo; 仲村, 明子; Nakamura, Akiko; 松永, 博絵; Matsunaga, Hiroe

    2002-01-01

    Tea drinks, prepared from the tea plant classified as Camellia sinensis, contain antioxidative phenolic compounds, like catechins and flavonols. We evaluated the free radical scavenging activities of tea drinks on the market by measuring luminol-amplified chemiluminescence stimulated by the free radical initiator 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane9 dihydrochloride, and the absorption of 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radica cation at 734 nm. Black tea drinks and green tea ...

  17. In vitro screening of Crataegus succulenta extracts for free radical scavenging and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedreag, Catrinel Florentina Giurescu; Trifan, Adriana; Vasincu, Al; Miron, S D; Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Miron, Anca

    2014-01-01

    Crataegus succulenta Schrad. ex Link is widely spread in North America. A literature survey revealed no studies on the chemical composition and biological effects of this species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenolic content, free radical scavenging and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory effects of Crataegus succulenta leaf and flower extracts. Total phenolic, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents were quantified by spectrophotometric methods. Both extracts were evaluated for their ability to scavenge DPPH, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals and to inhibit 15-lipoxygenase activity. There were noticed no striking differences in the total phenolic, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents between leaf and flower extracts. Both extracts showed similar 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory effects. Flower extract scavenged more effectively DPPH and superoxide radicals while leave extract was more active against hydroxyl radical. In superoxide anion radical scavenging assay, both extracts were more active than (+)-catechin. In hydroxyl radical scavenging and 15-lipoxygenase inhibition assays, the extracts were only 4-5 times less active than (+)-catechin. The high antioxidant potential of Crataegus succulenta extracts suggest a possible use as ingredients in functional foods for the prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases.

  18. A protocol for detecting and scavenging gas-phase free radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi; Dzikovski, Boris G; Freed, Jack H

    2012-01-02

    Cigarette smoking is associated with human cancers. It has been reported that most of the lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking (5,6,7,12). Although tobacco tars and related products in the particle phase of cigarette smoke are major causes of carcinogenic and mutagenic related diseases, cigarette smoke contains significant amounts of free radicals that are also considered as an important group of carcinogens(9,10). Free radicals attack cell constituents by damaging protein structure, lipids and DNA sequences and increase the risks of developing various types of cancers. Inhaled radicals produce adducts that contribute to many of the negative health effects of tobacco smoke in the lung(3). Studies have been conducted to reduce free radicals in cigarette smoke to decrease risks of the smoking-induced damage. It has been reported that haemoglobin and heme-containing compounds could partially scavenge nitric oxide, reactive oxidants and carcinogenic volatile nitrosocompounds of cigarette smoke(4). A 'bio-filter' consisted of haemoglobin and activated carbon was used to scavenge the free radicals and to remove up to 90% of the free radicals from cigarette smoke(14). However, due to the cost-ineffectiveness, it has not been successfully commercialized. Another study showed good scavenging efficiency of shikonin, a component of Chinese herbal medicine(8). In the present study, we report a protocol for introducing common natural antioxidant extracts into the cigarette filter for scavenging gas phase free radicals in cigarette smoke and measurement of the scavenge effect on gas phase free radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) using spin-trapping Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy(1,2,14). We showed high scavenging capacity of lycopene and grape seed extract which could point to their future application in cigarette filters. An important advantage of these prospective scavengers is that they can be obtained in large quantities from byproducts of

  19. Free radical-scavenging and antimutagenic potential of acetone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant potency of acetone, chloroform and methanol extracts of Argemone mexicana was investigated by employing in vitro systems like nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay whereas antimutagenic activity was determined by Maron and Ames assay ...

  20. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... Departamento de Alimentos y Biotecnología, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito. Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, México, D.F., 04510, México. Accepted 25 April ..... In general, extracts with the highest radical scavenging and antioxidant activity showed the highest ...

  1. Radical scavenging activity of some natural tropolones by density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We shed light on the electro-optical and molecular properties, e.g. energy gaps, highest occupied molecular orbitals, lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, absorption wavelengths, electronegativity (χ), hardness (η), electrophilicity (ω), softness (S), electrophilicity index (ωi) and the radical scavenging activity (RSA).

  2. Phytochemical Screening and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To compare the phytochemical constituents in the leaves and fruits of Allanblackia floribunda and determine their free radical scavenging activity. Methods: The fruit and leaves of AF collected from the uncultivated farmlands of Okeigbo, Ondo State, Nigeria, were dried, milled and extracted with methanol.

  3. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Abilities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was aimed at determining the antioxidants and free radical scavenging abilities of some packaged fruit juices (PFJ) widely used as source of fluids in Nigeria. Materials and methods: Packaged fruit juice samples produced by The Coca cola Company and Chi company namely: Apple(AP), blackcurrant, ...

  4. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-two species of medicinal plants collected in the Mexican state of Morelos were selected to evaluate their free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. The extracts from the aerial parts of the plants were obtained using hexane, acetone and methanol (66 extracts). The initial qualitative screening of antioxidants ...

  5. Free radical scavenging activity of some fungi indigenous to Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate free radical scavenging capacity of crude extracts from forest basidiomycetous fungi, domestic zygomycetous fungi and marine ascomycetous fungi. Lethal concentration values that kill 50% of the brine shrimps (LC50) were determined from 19 fungal extracts using brine shrimp test ...

  6. Antibacterial and Radical Scavenging Activity of Selected Orchids of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to determine antibacterial and radical scavenging activity of extract of four epiphytic orchids (Orchidaceae family) namely Luisia zeylanica Lindl., Pholidota pallida Lindl., Dendrobium nutantiflorum A. D. Hawkes and A. H. Heller and Coelogyne breviscapa Lindl collected at different places ...

  7. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of peptide from sea cucumber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enzyme complex, sea cucumber protein hydrolysis was carried out to obtain hydrolysates that have hydroxyl-radical-scavenging activity (HRSA). The hydrolytic process was monitored by HRSA and conditions for this process were optimized as follows: pH 6.5, temperature 35°C, 12 mg enzyme complex in a reaction solution ...

  8. Free radical scavenging activity and phenolic contents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthocleista djalonensis extract is widely used in Nigerian folk medicine to treat conditions whose pathogenesis implicate oxidative stress, such as diabetes and hepatitis. However, little is known of the mechanism underlying these activities. In this study, the free radical scavenging potential of a methanol extract of A.

  9. Radical scavenging compounds from the aerial parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Solenostemon monostachys Briq. (Lamiaceae) is a weed widely used in ethno medicine to treat infections and inflammatory conditions but the active compounds are yet to be identified. This study isolated and identified the radical scavenging compounds from S. monostachys crude extract using diphenyl-1, ...

  10. Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Methanol Extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Picralima nitida commonly called picralima or pile plant is a tree or shrub with widely varied applications in West African folk medicine. The study evaluated the free radical scavenging activities of the crude methanol extract of Picralima nitida root bark and its various fractions. The methanol extract of P. nitida and its fractions ...

  11. In vitro free radical scavenging activity of Ixora coccinea L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moni Rani Saha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Ixora coccinea L. was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity using phosphomolybdenum method. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that the extract of the flower of I. coccinea possesses flavonoids, steroids and tannin materials. The extract showed significant activities in all antioxidant assays compared to the standard antioxidant in a dose dependent manner and remarkable activities to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS may be attributed to the high amount of hydrophilic phenolics. In DPPH radical scavenging assay the IC50 value of the extract was found to be 100.53 μg/mL while ascorbic acid had the IC50 value 58.92 μg/mL. Moreover, I. coccinea extract showed strong reducing power and total antioxidant capacity.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms behind Free Radical Scavengers Function against Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadinejad, Fereshteh; Geir Møller, Simon; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Bidkhori, Gholamreza; Jami, Mohammad-Saeid

    2017-07-10

    Accumulating evidence shows that oxidative stress is involved in a wide variety of human diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancers, etc. Here, we discuss the significance of oxidative conditions in different disease, with the focus on neurodegenerative disease including Parkinson's disease, which is mainly caused by oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively), collectively known as RONS, are produced by cellular enzymes such as myeloperoxidase, NADPH-oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Natural antioxidant systems are categorized into enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant groups. The former includes a number of enzymes such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase, while the latter contains a number of antioxidants acquired from dietary sources including vitamin C, carotenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. There are also scavengers used for therapeutic purposes, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) used routinely in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (not as a free radical scavenger), and 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (Edaravone) that acts as a free radical detoxifier frequently used in acute ischemic stroke. The cell surviving properties of L-DOPA and Edaravone against oxidative stress conditions rely on the alteration of a number of stress proteins such as Annexin A1, Peroxiredoxin-6 and PARK7/DJ-1 (Parkinson disease protein 7, also known as Protein deglycase DJ-1). Although they share the targets in reversing the cytotoxic effects of H₂O₂, they seem to have distinct mechanism of function. Exposure to L-DOPA may result in hypoxia condition and further induction of ORP150 (150-kDa oxygen-regulated protein) with its concomitant cytoprotective effects but Edaravone seems to protect cells via direct induction of Peroxiredoxin-2 and inhibition of apoptosis.

  13. Molecular Mechanisms behind Free Radical Scavengers Function against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ahmadinejad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows that oxidative stress is involved in a wide variety of human diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cancers, etc. Here, we discuss the significance of oxidative conditions in different disease, with the focus on neurodegenerative disease including Parkinson’s disease, which is mainly caused by oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively, collectively known as RONS, are produced by cellular enzymes such as myeloperoxidase, NADPH-oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Natural antioxidant systems are categorized into enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant groups. The former includes a number of enzymes such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase, while the latter contains a number of antioxidants acquired from dietary sources including vitamin C, carotenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. There are also scavengers used for therapeutic purposes, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA used routinely in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (not as a free radical scavenger, and 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (Edaravone that acts as a free radical detoxifier frequently used in acute ischemic stroke. The cell surviving properties of L-DOPA and Edaravone against oxidative stress conditions rely on the alteration of a number of stress proteins such as Annexin A1, Peroxiredoxin-6 and PARK7/DJ-1 (Parkinson disease protein 7, also known as Protein deglycase DJ-1. Although they share the targets in reversing the cytotoxic effects of H2O2, they seem to have distinct mechanism of function. Exposure to L-DOPA may result in hypoxia condition and further induction of ORP150 (150-kDa oxygen-regulated protein with its concomitant cytoprotective effects but Edaravone seems to protect cells via direct induction of Peroxiredoxin-2 and inhibition of apoptosis.

  14. A study of the free radical scavenging effects of Piper betle leaf extract in patients with vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Mitra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitiligo is an idiopathic skin disease manifested by depigmented macules. It is characterised by melanocyte destruction, and redox imbalance is proposed to play a contributory role. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of an ethanolic extract of Piper betle leaves on the generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes sourced from vitiligo patients. Methods: The effect of Piper betle on the generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes was measured by flow cytometry in patients with active and stable vitiligo versus healthy controls, using 5-(and-6-chloromethyl-2'-7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Results: The generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes was higher in patients with vitiligo (n = 23 compared to healthy controls (n = 18. The geometrical mean fluorescence channel was 23.05 ± 2.11 in patients versus 17.77 ± 1.79 in controls, P = 0.039. The levels of reactive oxygen species were higher in patients with active vitiligo. Treatment of erythrocytes with Piper betle in concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 μg/ml significantly decreased the baseline levels of reactive oxygen species by 31.7% in healthy controls, and 47.6% and 44.3% in patients with active vitiligo, respectively. Piper betle effectively scavenged hydrogen peroxide, which was evident by a decrease in the geometrical mean fluorescence channel by 52.4% and 62.9% in healthy controls, and 45.0% and 57.0% in patients with active vitiligo. Limitations: The study had a small sample size. Future studies should focus on evaluation of the antioxidant role of Piper betle at the lesional site. Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that patients with active vitiligo demonstrate enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes, which was significantly reduced following ex vivo treatment with Piper betle.

  15. A study of the free radical scavenging effects of Piper betle leaf extract in patients with vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sneha; Pati, Ayan Kumar; Manna, Alak; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Sen, Sumit; Chatterjee, Suparna; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2017-01-01

    Vitiligo is an idiopathic skin disease manifested by depigmented macules. It is characterised by melanocyte destruction, and redox imbalance is proposed to play a contributory role. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of an ethanolic extract of Piper betle leaves on the generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes sourced from vitiligo patients. The effect of Piper betle on the generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes was measured by flow cytometry in patients with active and stable vitiligo versus healthy controls, using 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2'-7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. The generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes was higher in patients with vitiligo (n = 23) compared to healthy controls (n = 18). The geometrical mean fluorescence channel was 23.05 ± 2.11 in patients versus 17.77 ± 1.79 in controls, P = 0.039. The levels of reactive oxygen species were higher in patients with active vitiligo. Treatment of erythrocytes with Piper betle in concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 μg/ml significantly decreased the baseline levels of reactive oxygen species by 31.7% in healthy controls, and 47.6% and 44.3% in patients with active vitiligo, respectively. Piper betle effectively scavenged hydrogen peroxide, which was evident by a decrease in the geometrical mean fluorescence channel by 52.4% and 62.9% in healthy controls, and 45.0% and 57.0% in patients with active vitiligo. The study had a small sample size. Future studies should focus on evaluation of the antioxidant role of Piper betle at the lesional site. This pilot study indicates that patients with active vitiligo demonstrate enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes, which was significantly reduced following ex vivo treatment with Piper betle.

  16. Evaluation of the radical scavenging activity of a series of synthetic hydroxychalcones towards the DPPH radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOYAN P. PARUSHEV

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen hydroxychalcones were synthesized in sufficient purity by the Claisen–Schmidt condensation between appropriate acetophenones and aromatic aldehydes. All the compounds were evaluated for their ability to scavenge the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical. Important structure–activity relationships were observed that strongly contribute to the knowledge for the design of DPPH radical scavenging chalcones. Relevant theoretical parameters were computed in an attempt to understand and explain the obtained experimental results.

  17. Development of nitroxide radicals-containing polymer for scavenging reactive oxygen species from cigarette smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, Toru; Kuramochi, Kazuhiro; Binh Vong, Long; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    We developed a nitroxide radicals-containing polymer (NRP), which is composed of poly(4-methylstyrene) possessing nitroxide radicals as a side chain via amine linkage, to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) from cigarette smoke. In this study, the NRP was coated onto cigarette filters and its ROS-scavenging activity from streaming cigarette smoke was evaluated. The intensity of electron spin resonance signals of the NRP in the filter decreased after exposure to cigarette smoke, indicating consumption of nitroxide radicals. To evaluate the ROS-scavenging activity of the NRP-coated filter, the amount of peroxy radicals in an extract of cigarette smoke was measured using UV-visible spectrophotometry and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The absorbance of DPPH at 517 nm decreased with exposure to cigarette smoke. When NRP-coated filters were used, the decrease in the absorbance of DPPH was prevented. In contrast, both poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters, which have no nitroxide radical, did not show any effect, indicating that the nitroxide radicals in the NRP scavenge the ROS in cigarette smoke. As a result, the extract of cigarette smoke passed through the NRP-coated filter has a lower cellular toxicity than smoke passed through poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters. Accordingly, NRP is a promising material for ROS scavenging from cigarette smoke.

  18. Reduction of cathodic delamination rates of anticorrosive coatings using free radical scavengers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Weinell, C. E.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    formed as intermediates in the cathodic reaction during the corrosion process. In this study, antioxidants (i.e., free radical scavengers and peroxide decomposers) have been incorporated into various generic types of coatings to investigate the effect of antioxidants on the rate of cathodic delamination......, copper, aluminum, galvanized steel, and brass also showed a reduction in the rate of cathodic delamination when the coating was modified with a free radical scavenger. The protective mechanism of free radical scavengers investigated for the primers are similar to that of antioxidants used for protection...... against photochemical degradation by UV-radiation of top coatings. Both substrate corrosion and degradation of a coating exposed to UV-radiation lead to the formation of free radicals as reactive intermediates....

  19. Biochemical characterization of radical scavenging polyphenols from Nyctanthes arbortristis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Meghashri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Antioxidants are quenchers of free radical that are responsible for inducing oxidative stress generated via reactive oxygen species-induced degenerative diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases etc. Plant and plant products are recognized as safe and potential health promoting and nutritive sources. Aims: To investigate the antioxidant potency of polyphenol extract (PE of Nyctanthes arbortristis leaves and identification of the active constituent by HPLC. Materials and Methods: PE of N. arbortristis leaves was investigated for antioxidant activity employing various established in vitro systems, such as lipid peroxidation in liposome, DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, reducing power assay, and iron ion chelation. Identification of active constituent in PE of N. arbortristis responsible for antioxidant activity by HPLC. Statistical analysis used: All experiments were carried out in triplicates. Data were shown as mean ± standard deviation (SD. SPSS 10.0.5 version for windows (SPSS software Inc., USA computer program was used for statistical analysis. Results: Identification of active constituent in PE revealed gallic acid 75.8 ± 0.21, protocatechuic acid 14.6 ± 0.5, chlorogenic acid 6.79 ± 0.43, and caffeic acid 5.34 ± 0.2 μg/ml. PE showed strong inhibitory activity of 73% at 200 μg/ml toward lipid peroxidation in egg lecithin, concentration-dependent inhibition of deoxyribose oxidation at 200 μg/ml was 85% inhibition, and considerable antioxidant activity in DPPH radical assay system at 200 μg/ml was 79% inhibition. BHA and gallic acid showed significant observations. Conclusion: The antioxidant potency significantly correlated with the phenolic content of PE. Considering that medicinal herbs contain potent phytochemicals, which is effectively utilized for various degenerative disease, these in vitro results showed that N. arbortristis leaves could be effectively employed in functional food, to

  20. Hydroxylated chalcones with dual properties: Xanthine oxidase inhibitors and radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Emily; Webster, Jonathan; Do, Thuy; Kline, Reid; Snider, Lindsey; Hauser, Quintin; Higginbottom, Grace; Campbell, Austin; Ma, Lili; Paula, Stefan

    2016-02-15

    In this study, we evaluated the abilities of a series of chalcones to inhibit the activity of the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) and to scavenge radicals. 20 mono- and polyhydroxylated chalcone derivatives were synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation reactions and then tested for inhibitory potency against XO, a known generator of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In parallel, the ability of the synthesized chalcones to scavenge a stable radical was determined. Structure-activity relationship analysis in conjunction with molecular docking indicated that the most active XO inhibitors carried a minimum of three hydroxyl groups. Moreover, the most effective radical scavengers had two neighboring hydroxyl groups on at least one of the two phenyl rings. Since it has been proposed previously that XO inhibition and radical scavenging could be useful properties for reduction of ROS-levels in tissue, we determined the chalcones' effects to rescue neurons subjected to ROS-induced stress created by the addition of β-amyloid peptide. Best protection was provided by chalcones that combined good inhibitory potency with high radical scavenging ability in a single molecule, an observation that points to a potential therapeutic value of this compound class. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Short Communication Radical Scavenging Activity and Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Cassia arereh is traditionally used as a fish poison and to manage different disease conditions including gastrointestinal ... diseases; and many medicinal plants are thought to be effective in managing such diseases, ... Cassia arereh is a woody, wild small tree widely spread in India and tropical Africa (Olusola et al., 2011).

  2. Radical scavenging activity of lipophilized products from lipase-catalyzed transesterification of triolein with cinnamic and ferulic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Wee-Sim; Birch, Edward John

    2009-02-01

    Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of triolein with cinnamic and ferulic acids using an immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica (E.C. 3.1.1.3) was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the lipophilized products as model systems for enhanced protection of unsaturated oil. The lipophilized products were identified using ESI-MS. Free radical scavenging activity was determined using the DPPH radical method. The polarity of the solvents proved important in determining the radical scavenging activity of the substrates. Ferulic acid showed much higher radical scavenging activity than cinnamic acid, which has limited activity. The esterification of cinnamic acid and ferulic acid with triolein resulted in significant increase and decrease in the radical scavenging activity, respectively. These opposite effects were due to the effect of addition of electron-donating alkyl groups on the predominant mechanism of reaction (hydrogen atom transfer or electron transfer) of a species with DPPH. The effect of esterification of cinnamic acid was confirmed using ethyl cinnamate which greatly enhances the radical scavenging activity. Although, compared to the lipophilized cinnamic acid product, the activity was lower. The radical scavenging activity of the main component isolated from lipophilized cinnamic acid product using solid phase extraction, monocinnamoyl dioleoyl glycerol, was as good as the unseparated mixture of lipophilized product. Based on the ratio of a substrate to DPPH concentration, lipophilized ferulic acid was a much more efficient radical scavenger than lipophilized cinnamic acid.

  3. Radical Scavenging and DNA Cleavage Inhibitory Activities of 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoyl Glycine Obtained from Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh J. Ahire

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A catecholate type of iron chelator (siderophore; 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl glycine (DHBG was produced by Bacillus sp. under i ron stress conditions. Pure DHBG was subjected for DPPH ( α,α−Diphenyl−β− Picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and radical induced DNA cleavage inhibition assay. In results, DHBG showed the highest radical scavenging effect and DNA cleavage inhibition activity when it was free from iron. This study revealed antioxidative potential of iron chelator DHBG; and its probable mechanism.

  4. New phenanthrene derivatives with nitric oxide inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities from Pholidota imbricata Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Wang, Tiejie; Xie, Pu; Yin, Guo; Li, Xiaofan

    2014-01-01

    One new phenanthrene derivative phoimbrtol A (1) with seven known compounds, loddigesiinol B (2), shanciol B (3), (-)-medioresinol (4), (-)-pinoresinol (5), quercetin 3-O-β-L-arabinofuranoside (6), luteolin 7-O-β-glucoside (7) and platycaryanin D (8) have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the air-dried whole plant of Pholidota imbricata Hook. Their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were examined. Among these compounds, 8 exhibited the most potent activity at NO production inhibitory assay and DPPH radical scavenging assay, stronger than those of the familiar antioxidative agents, quercetin and resveratrol.

  5. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Spondias pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Nripendranath

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many diseases are associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. Current research is directed towards finding naturally-occurring antioxidants of plant origin. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activities of Spondias pinnata stem bark extract. Methods A 70% methanol extract of Spondias pinnata stem bark was studied in vitro for total antioxidant activity, for scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen and hypochlorous acid, and for iron chelating capacity, reducing power, and phenolic and flavonoid contents. Results The extract showed total antioxidant activity with a trolox equivalent antioxidant concentration (TEAC value of 0.78 ± 0.02. The IC50 values for scavenging of free radicals were 112.18 ± 3.27 μg/ml, 13.46 ± 0.66 μg/ml and 24.48 ± 2.31 μg/ml for hydroxyl, superoxide and nitric oxide, respectively. The IC50 for hydrogen peroxide scavenging was 44.74 ± 25.61 mg/ml. For the peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen and hypochlorous acid scavenging activities the IC50 values were 716.32 ± 32.25 μg/ml, 58.07 ± 5.36 μg/ml and 127.99 ± 6.26 μg/ml, respectively. The extract was found to be a potent iron chelator with IC50 = 66.54 ± 0.84 μg/ml. The reducing power was increased with increasing amounts of extract. The plant extract (100 mg yielded 91.47 ± 0.004 mg/ml gallic acid-equivalent phenolic content and 350.5 ± 0.004 mg/ml quercetin-equivalent flavonoid content. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that a 70% methanol extract of Spondias pinnata stem bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  6. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Spondias pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Bibhabasu; Biswas, Santanu; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2008-12-09

    Many diseases are associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. Current research is directed towards finding naturally-occurring antioxidants of plant origin. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activities of Spondias pinnata stem bark extract. A 70% methanol extract of Spondias pinnata stem bark was studied in vitro for total antioxidant activity, for scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen and hypochlorous acid, and for iron chelating capacity, reducing power, and phenolic and flavonoid contents. The extract showed total antioxidant activity with a trolox equivalent antioxidant concentration (TEAC) value of 0.78 +/- 0.02. The IC50 values for scavenging of free radicals were 112.18 +/- 3.27 microg/ml, 13.46 +/- 0.66 microg/ml and 24.48 +/- 2.31 microg/ml for hydroxyl, superoxide and nitric oxide, respectively. The IC50 for hydrogen peroxide scavenging was 44.74 +/- 25.61 mg/ml. For the peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen and hypochlorous acid scavenging activities the IC50 values were 716.32 +/- 32.25 microg/ml, 58.07 +/- 5.36 microg/ml and 127.99 +/- 6.26 microg/ml, respectively. The extract was found to be a potent iron chelator with IC50 = 66.54 +/- 0.84 microg/ml. The reducing power was increased with increasing amounts of extract. The plant extract (100 mg) yielded 91.47 +/- 0.004 mg/ml gallic acid-equivalent phenolic content and 350.5 +/- 0.004 mg/ml quercetin-equivalent flavonoid content. The present study provides evidence that a 70% methanol extract of Spondias pinnata stem bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  7. Radioprotective effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine free radical scavenger on compressive mechanical properties of the gamma sterilized cortical bone of bovine femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaveisi, Farzaneh; Hashemi, Bijan; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad

    2015-03-01

    Gamma sterilization of bone allografts is used as a gold standard method to provide safety against disease transmission. However, it is well documented that high dose levels of ionizing radiation can degrade bone mechanical properties. This effect, which is attributed to the formation of free radicals through radiolysis of the water content of collagen, can lead to post-implantation difficulties such as pre-failure and/or secondary fractures of bone allografts. Recently, treatment of irradiated allografts with free radical scavengers is used to protect them against radiation-induced damages. This study aimed to investigate the radioprotective role of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) during the gamma sterilization of the cortical bone of bovine femurs using the compressive test. Totally, 195 cubic specimens with a dimension of 5 × 5 × 3 cubic mm were divided into 13 groups including a control and 12 experimental groups exposed to 18, 36, and 70 kGy at three different NAC concentrations (1.25, 12.5, and 25 mM for 18 kGy; 5, 50, and 100 mM for 36 kGy; 10, 100, and 200 mM for 70 kGy). The mechanical behavior of the sterilized specimens was studied using the uniaxial compressive test. The results indicated a concentration-dependent radioprotection effect of NAC on the plastic properties of the cortical bones. The concentration dependency of NAC was in turn related to radiation dose levels. In conclusion, treatment of bone specimens with a characteristic concentration of NAC during exposure to specific radiation dose levels can provide an efficient radioprotection window for preserving the mechanical stability of gamma sterilized allografts.

  8. Cytotoxic and free radical scavenging activities of Zingiberaceous rhizomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwat Keawpradub

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extracts, water extracts and volatile oils of the fresh rhizomes of Alpinia galanga, Boesenbergia pandurata, Curcuma longa, Kaempferia galanga and Zingiber officinale have been assessed for free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and cytotoxic activity against MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma and LS174T (colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Methanol extract of C. longa exhibited the most pronounced radical scavenging activity with an EC50 value of 9.7 μg/ml, whereas the water extracts and volatile oils showed weak activity. All volatile oils and the methanol extract of C. longa showed strong activity against MCF7 and LS174T with IC50 less than 50 μg/ml. The oils of A. galanga (AGV, B. pandurata (BPV, C. longa (CLV, K. galanga (KGV and Z. officinale (ZOV were analyzed by GC/MS. Trans-3-acetoxy-1,8-cineole, camphor, ar-turmerone, ethyl cinnamate and geranial (E-citral were detected as main compounds in AGV, BPV, CLV, KGV and ZOV, respectively. The novel compound, pcoumaryl- 9-methyl ether, was isolated from methanol extract of A. galanga. ar-Turmerone, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin were isolated from the methanol extract of C. longa while 6-shogaol, 6-dehydrogingerdione (or 1-dehydrogingerdione and 6-gingerol were isolated from the methanol extract of Z. officinale. Curcumin was the most potent compound for free radical scavenging activity with an EC50 value of 2.0 μg/ml. Demethoxycurcumin was found to be the most active compound against LS174T with an IC50 value of 0.8 μg/ml and 6-shogaol was the most potent compound against MCF7 with an IC50 value of 1.7 μg/ml.

  9. Antioxidant effects of Etlingera elatior flower extract against lead acetate - induced perturbations in free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid peroxidation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Srikumar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Etlingera elatior or 'pink torch ginger' (Zingiberaceae are widely cultivated in tropical countries and used as spices and food flavoring. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of Etlingera elatior against lead - induced changes in serum free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid hydroperoxides in rats. Findings Rats were exposed to lead acetate in drinking water (500 ppm for 14 days alone or plus the ethanol extract of E. elatior (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. Blood lead levels, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl contents and oxidative marker enzymes were estimated. Lead acetate in drinking water elicited a significant increase in lipid hydroperoxides (LPO and protein-carbonyl-contents (PCC. There was a significant decrease in total antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase levels with lead acetate treatment. Supplementation of E. elatior was associated with reduced serum LPO and PCC and a significant increase in total antioxidants and antioxidant enzyme levels. Conclusions The results suggest that flower extract of Etlingera elatior has powerful antioxidant effect against lead - induced oxidative stress and the extract may be useful therapeutic agent against lead toxicity. However, detailed evaluations are required to identify the active antioxidant compounds from this plant extract.

  10. Isolation and Characterisation of in Vitro and Cellular Free Radical Scavenging Peptides from Corn Peptide Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Corn gluten meal, a corn processing industry by-product, is a good source for the preparation of bioactive peptides due to its special amino acid composition. In the present study, the in vitro and cellular free radical scavenging activities of corn peptide fractions (CPFs were investigated. Results indicated that CPF1 (molecular weight less than 1 kDa and CPF2 (molecular weight between 1 and 3 kDa exhibited good hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid diammonium salt (ABTS radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC. Meanwhile, the in vitro radical scavenging activity of CPF1 was slightly higher than that of CPF2. Both CPF1 and CPF2 also exhibited significant cytoprotective effects and intracellular reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in Caco-2 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. The amino acid composition analysis revealed that the CPF were rich in hydrophobic amino acids, which comprised of more than 45% of total amino acids. An antioxidant peptide sequence of Tyr-Phe-Cys-Leu-Thr (YFCLT was identified from CPF1 using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS. The YFCLT exhibited excellent ABTS radical scavenging activity with a 50% effective concentration (EC50 value of 37.63 µM, which was much lower than that of Trolox. In conclusion, corn gluten meal might be a good source to prepare antioxidant peptides.

  11. Extraction and free radical scavenging activity of polysaccharide from 'Anji Baicha' (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongshan; Wang, Xiaomei; Li, Jingfen; Wang, Guozhi; Mao, Genxiang

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the optimization of the extraction conditions of polysaccharide from 'Anji Baicha' (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) (AP) was investigated by response surface methodology (RSM). Three main independent variables (extraction temperature, time, ratio of water to raw material) were taken into consideration. And then the free radical scavenging activities of the sample were investigated including scavenging effects of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The RSM analysis showed good correspondence between experimental and predicted values.. The optimal condition to obtain the highest yield of AP was determined as follows: temperature 76.79 °C, time 2.48 h, ratio of water to material 22.53 mL/g. For the free radical scavenging activity, the IC50 values of Vc and AP were 7.78 and 83.25 μg/mL. And for the scavenging effect on hydroxyl radical, that of AP and Vc were 1.80 and 1.69 mg/mL. AP showed excellent antioxidant activity. This exhibited AP had a good potential for antioxidant. The purification and structure needs to be study in further. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of catechol O-methylation on radical scavenging characteristics of quercetin and luteolin, a mechanistic insight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemanska, K.; Woude, van der H.; Szymusiak, H.; Boersma, M.G.; Gliszczynska-Swiglo, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Tyrakowska, B.

    2004-01-01

    The biological effect of flavonoids can be modulated in vivo due to metabolism. The O-methylation of the catechol group in the molecule by catechol O-methyl transferase is one of the important metabolic pathways of flavonoids. In the present study, the consequences of catechol O-methylation for the

  13. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of isoquinoline alkaloids isolated from Coptis chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Moon Hee; Kim, Hyun Young; Kang, Ki Sung; Yokozawa, Takako; Park, Jeong Hill

    2009-03-01

    The hydroxyl radical (*OH) scavenging and ferrous ion chelating activities of four isoquinoline alkaloids isolated from Coptis chinensis Franch were studied for the identification of their structural characteristics to scavenge *OH. The *OH was generated via Fe(II)-catalazed Fenton reaction in this study and the reliable measurement of *OH scavenging activities of isoquinoline alkaloids were achieved using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry method. At the 1 mM concentration, berberrubine (85%) showed the strongest *OH scavenging activity and the next were in the decreasing order of coptisine (79%), berberine (23%), and palmatine (22%). The ferrous ion chelating effects of the alkaloids showed similar pattern with their *OH scavenging effects. These results suggest that *OH scavenging effects of the alkaloids were closely related to their ferrous ion chelating activities. In addition, metal chelating functional groups such as hydroxy group at C-9 and methylenedioxy group at C-9 and C-10 were thought to contribute to the *OH scavenging activities of the isoquinoline alkaloids.

  14. Efecto secuestrador del D-002 sobre radicales hidroxilo en mucosa gástrica Scavenger effect of D-002 on hydroxyl radicals in the gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohani Pérez Guerra

    2012-03-01

    purified from the beeswax, cause some multiple mechanism-mediated gastroprotective effects and decrease of lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosa. Objective: to determine whether D-002 can scavenge the in vivo added or in vivo generated hydroxyl radical in rats with indometacin-induced gastric ulcer or not. Methods: For the in vitro experiment, D-002 was added at concentrations 0.9 and 1 000 mg/mL For the in vivo experiment, the rats were randomized into 6 groups: one negative control, and five indometacin-treated groups as follows a positive excipient-treated control, three under D-002 treatment (5, 25 or 100 mg/kg, respectively, p.o., and another group treated with Omeprazole (20 mg/kg i.p.. These lines of treatment were given 1 hour (excipient and D-002 or 30 min (Omeprazole prior to inducing the ulcers. In both experiments, aliquots from the gastric mucosa were taken and the damage infringed to 2-deoxiribose by the hydroxyl radical was determined. Results: oral administration of D-002, rather than in vitro addition, significantly protected 2-desoxiribose from the oxidative damage depending on the dosage as compared to the positive control. Conclusions: these results indicate that the ability of the orally administered D-002 (25 and 100 mg/kg to scavenge the hydroxyl radical endogenously generated on the gastric mucosa by indometacin could contribute to its antioxidant and gastroprotective effects against the damage that the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs carry to the gastric mucosa.

  15. Radical-scavenging-linked antioxidant activities of extracts from black chokeberry and blueberry cultivated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seok Joon; Yoon, Won Byong; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Cha, Seung Ju; Kim, Jong Dai

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the radical-scavenging-linked antioxidant properties of the extracts from black chokeberry and blueberry cultivated in Korea. The 70% ethanol extracts were prepared from black chokeberry and blueberry, and evaluated for total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, total proanthocyanidin content, and antioxidative activities, using various in vitro assays, such as DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS(2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulphonic acid)) radical-scavenging activity, FRAP(ferric-reducing antioxidant power) and reducing power. The major phenolic compounds, including cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-arabinoside, neochlorogenic acid, procyanidin B1, were analysed by HPLC with a photodiode array detector. Results showed that total phenol, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of black chokeberry extract were higher than those of blueberry extract. In addition, black chokeberry extract exhibited higher free radical-scavenging activity and reducing power than did blueberry extract. Cyanidin-3-galactoside was identified as a major phenolic compound, with considerable content in black chokeberry, that correlated with its higher antioxidant and radical-scavenging effects. These results suggest that black chokeberry extracts could be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants and functional food ingredients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrolysis kinetics and radical-scavenging activity of gelatin under simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Liang, Qiufang; Chen, Qiuhong; Xu, Junmin; Shi, Zhujun; Wang, Zhenbin; Liu, Yang; Ma, Haile

    2014-11-15

    The hydrolysis kinetics and radical-scavenging activity of gelatin were investigated under simulated gastrointestinal digestion in this study. In the gastric phase, the degree of gelatin hydrolysis increased from 0.17% to 1.20%, while the DPPH radical-scavenging rate increased from 6.27% to 24.56%. Further digestion in the intestinal phase brought the degree of hydrolysis and radical-scavenging rate to 26.08% and 44.76%, respectively. After digestion, the gelatin hydrolysates were separated into two fractions by ultrafiltration. The fraction with an average molecular weight of 312.98 Da exhibited the higher yield (78.26%) and radical-scavenging activity (IC50=2.09 mg/ml), suggesting the high digestibility and bioactivity of gelatin after oral administration. The fraction was further purified with multi-step column chromatography and identified to be Gly-Pro-Met (303.38 Da) by UPLC-ESI-MS. These results may help us to better understand its physiological effects and to use it properly in foods and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities of Orthosiphon stamineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshawsh, Mohammed A; Abdulla, Mahmood A; Ismail, Salmah; Amin, Zahra A; Qader, Suhailah W; Hadi, Hamid A; Harmal, Nabil S

    2012-05-08

    Orthosiphon stamineus is considered an important traditional folk medicine. In this study ethanol and aqueous extracts of O. stamineus were evaluated in vitro for their antioxidant, antimicrobial as well as for their immunomodulatory properties on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The DPPH radical scavenging method was used for the determination of antioxidant activity, while the antibacterial efficacy was investigated by both disc diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against four bacterial strains (Gram-positive and Gram-negative). Furthermore, the immunomodulatory potential of the extracts was investigated through the MTT assay. Aqueous extract of O. stamineus exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity with IC₅₀ 50 9.6 µg/mL, whereas the IC₅₀ for the ethanol extract was 21.4 µg/mL. The best antimicrobial activity was shown by the aqueous extract of O. stamineus against Staphylococcus aureus, with inhibition zone of 10.5 mm and MIC value 1.56 mg/mL. Moreover, the results observed from the MTT assay showed that both plant extracts stimulated the PBMCs proliferation in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner, but the aqueous extract has remarkable activity against PBMCs. These findings indicate that O. stamineus showed high antioxidant activity and may be considered as an immunomodulatory agent.

  18. Phytoconstituents with Radical Scavenging and Cytotoxic Activities from Diospyros shimbaensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Aronsson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of our search for natural products having antioxidant and anticancer properties, the phytochemical investigation of Diospyros shimbaensis (Ebenaceae, a plant belonging to a genus widely used in East African traditional medicine, was carried out. From its stem and root barks the new naphthoquinone 8,8′-oxo-biplumbagin (1 was isolated along with the known tetralones trans-isoshinanolone (2 and cis-isoshinanolone (3, and the naphthoquinones plumbagin (4 and 3,3′-biplumbagin (5. Compounds 2, 4, and 5 showed cytotoxicity (IC50 520–82.1 μM against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Moderate to low cytotoxicity was observed for the hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts of the root bark (IC50 16.1, 29.7 and > 100 μg/mL, respectively, and for the methanol extract of the stem bark (IC50 59.6 μg/mL. The radical scavenging activity of the isolated constituents (1–5 was evaluated on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. The applicability of the crude extracts and of the isolated constituents for controlling degenerative diseases is discussed.

  19. Effect of Harvest Time on the Levels of Phytochemicals, Free Radical Scavenging Activity, α-Amylase Inhibition, and Bile Acid Binding Capacity of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkat, Noorani; Singh, Jashbir; Jayaprakasha, G K; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2017-12-28

    Spinach is a green leafy vegetable, rich in health-promoting compounds. The present study analyzed the levels of phytochemicals and health-promoting properties of spinach harvested at 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 days after planting. The time of harvest had a significant effect on nitrate levels, which increased from 1909±70.6 μg g-1 (20 days) to 3668±101.3 μg g-1 (40 days) and then decreased to 974±164 μg g-1 (60 days). Lutein, chlorophyll a, and chlorophyll b were found to be maximum at 60 days whereas β-carotene was higher at 50 days. Liquid chromatography high resolution time-of-flight quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to identify 12 flavonoids and their tentative fragmentation pathways have been proposed. Spinach harvested at 30 and 60 days exhibited significantly higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical-scavenging activities, and inhibition of amylase. The levels of total phenolics ranged from 885±35.1 to 1162±112.4 μg g-1 in the samples. In vitro bile acid-binding capacity showed that glycochenodeoxycholate and glycodeoxycholate were bound to maximum levels in all spinach samples. The harvest time has a major effect on the levels of phytochemicals and health-beneficial properties, which indicates that consumption of both baby and mature spinach will provide maximum health benefits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of meclofenoxate with ginkgo biloba extract or zinc on lipid peroxide, some free radical scavengers and the cardiovascular system of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Zuhair, H; Abd el-Fattah, A; el-Sayed, M I

    1998-07-01

    Aged rats are highly prone to many physiological changes such as blood pressure and heart rate. These changes could be due to modification in membrane phospholipid composition of their blood vessels. Lipid peroxide in vivo has been identified as a basic deteriorative reaction in cellular mechanisms of aging in human. The effect of a nootropic drug, meclofenoxate (MF) or its combination with extract of ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) or zinc (Zn) on malondialdehyde (MDA) product as an index of endogenous lipid peroxidation; phospholipid; glutathione (GSH) and protein thiols (PrSHs) contents as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in blood, brain, heart and liver of 24-month-old male rats was investigated. Aged rats were treated with MF once daily at oral doses of 100 mg kg-1 body wt. alone or with either EGb at a dose of 150 mg kg-1 body wt. or Zn at 10.5 mg kg-1 body wt. for 4 weeks. This study showed that aging caused a higher increment in MDA level of brain and heart than liver and plasma accompanied with reduction in brain and heart phospholipid contents as well as alteration of the antioxidant systems as compared to 4-month-old rats. Treatment of aged rats with MF alone or combined with either EGb or Zn caused improvement in the measured free radical scavengers especially in brain and heart tissues. Our results also showed that both EGb and Zn induced a significant potential effect of MF action on blood pressure and heart rate. The results were explained in the light of the antioxidant properties of EGb and Zn. Thus it is concluded that EGb and Zn have a beneficial role with MF in diminishing cumulative oxidative changes in aging.

  1. Polyphenolics profile, antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of leaves and stem of Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Narasu, Mangamoori Lakshmi; Gowda, Bandi Boje

    2010-03-01

    Aerial parts (leaves and stem) of Raphanus sativus, which are usually discarded were found to possess potent antioxidant and radical scavenging activity, as measured by standard antioxidant assays. Methanolic and acetone extracts of R. sativus leaves had total polyphenolic content of 86.16 and 78.77 mg/g dry extract, which were comparable to the traditional rich sources such as green tea and black tea. HPLC identification of polyphenolics indicated the presence of catechin, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, o-coumaric acid, myricetin, and quercetin in leaves and stem. Among the different extraction solvents, methanolic extract of leaves and stem showed potent reductive capacity, significantly inhibited linoleic acid peroxidation and displayed metal chelating activity. Further, they scavenged free radicals effectively with IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 31 and 42 microg/ml for DPPH radical, 23 and 52 microg/ml for superoxide radical, 67 and 197 microg/ml for hydrogen peroxide,and 56 and 62 microg/ml for nitric oxide, respectively. Leaves showed most potent antioxidant and radical scavenging activity as compared to stem, which may be accounted for the high polyphenolic content. Leaves and stem of R. sativus,often under-utilized part of this vegetable, thus possessed considerable amount of polyphenolics. Hence, it should be egarded as a potential source of natural antioxidants and could be effectively employed as an ingredient in health or in functional food.

  2. Computational Studies of Free Radical-Scavenging Properties of Phenolic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alov, Petko; Tsakovska, Ivanka; Pajeva, Ilza

    2015-01-01

    For more than half a century free radical-induced alterations at cellular and organ levels have been investigated as a probable underlying mechanism of a number of adverse health conditions. Consequently, significant research efforts have been spent for discovering more effective and potent antioxidants / free radical scavengers for treatment of these adverse conditions. Being by far the most used antioxidants among natural and synthetic compounds, mono- and polyphenols have been the focus of both experimental and computational research on mechanisms of free radical scavenging. Quantum chemical studies have provided a significant amount of data on mechanisms of reactions between phenolic compounds and free radicals outlining a number of properties with a key role for the radical scavenging activity and capacity of phenolics. The obtained quantum chemical parameters together with other molecular descriptors have been used in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses for the design of new more effective phenolic antioxidants and for identification of the most useful natural antioxidant phenolics. This review aims at presenting the state of the art in quantum chemical and QSAR studies of phenolic antioxidants and at analysing the trends observed in the field in the last decade. PMID:25547098

  3. Drying and pickling on phenols, capsaicinoids, and free radical-scavenging activity in Anaheim and Jalapeño peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina Blanco-Rios

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The effects of sun-drying, air-drying and pickling processes on phenol and capsaicinoid contents, and free radical-scavenging activity [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and 2,2′-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS] in Anaheim (red and Jalapeño peppers were evaluated. Sun-drying process in Anaheim pepper caused the highest phenols retention (100%, and the free radical-scavenging activity (100% when compared with air-drying (80%. Pickling process in Jalapeño pepper caused a moderate reduction on the phenol content (24% and the radical-scavenging activity by DPPH (35%. Processes studied did not cause variations in the capsaicinoid fractions neither in its radical-scavenging activity. Results suggested that dried and pickled peppers are a good source of phenolics and capsaicinoids with antioxidant activity.

  4. Phytochemical constituents and in vitro radical scavenging activity of different Aloe species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucini, Luigi; Pellizzoni, Marco; Pellegrino, Roberto; Molinari, Gian Pietro; Colla, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    The phytochemical profile of Aloe barbadensis Mill. and Aloe arborescens Mill. was investigated using colorimetric assays, triple quadrupole and time-of-flight mass spectrometry, focusing on phenolic secondary metabolites in the different leaf portions. Hydroxycinnamic acids, several characteristic anthrones and chromones, the phenolic dimer feralolide and flavonoids such as flavones and isoflavones were identified. The stable radical DPPH test and the ORAC assay were then used to determine the in vitro radical scavenging. The outer green rind was the most active, while the inner parenchyma was much less effective. The 5-methylchromones aloesin, aloeresin A and aloesone were the most active among the pure secondary metabolites tested. The results suggest that several compounds are likely to contribute to the overall radical scavenging activity, and indicate that leaf portion must be taken into account when the plant is used for its antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. BPIC: A novel anti-tumor lead capable of inhibiting inflammation and scavenging free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Wang, Yuji; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Jianhui; Peng, Shiqi

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation has a critical role in the tumor progression, free radical damage can worse the status of patients in cancer condition. The anti-cancer agents capable of inhibiting inflammation and scavenging free radicals attract a lot of our interest. Aimed at the discovery of such anti-tumor agent, a novel intercalator, benzyl 1-[4-hydroxy-3-(methoxycarbonyl)-phenyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-carboxylate (BPIC) was presented. The docking investigation of BPIC and doxorubicin towards the DNA (PDB ID: 1NAB) gave equal score and similar feature. The anti-proliferation assay of 8 cancer cells identified S180 cells had equal sensitivity to BPIC and doxorubicin. The anti-tumor assay defined the efficacy of BPIC been 2 folds higher than that of doxorubicin. At 1μmol/kg of dose BPIC effectively inhibited xylene-induced ear edema and decreased the plasma TNF-α and IL-8 of the mice. BPIC scavenged ∙OH, ∙O2(-) and NO free radicals in a concentration dependent manner and NO free radicals had the highest sensitivity. BPIC could be a novel anti-tumor lead capable of simultaneously inhibiting inflammation and scavenging free radicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro radical scavenging activity of two Columbian Magnoliaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas M., Miguel A.; Mesa v., Ana M.; Sáez v., Jairo A.

    2005-08-01

    The recent interest in the conservation of the tropical forest is due, at least in part, to the potential economic and health benefits that can be exploited from several plants. This report shows the in vitro antioxidant activity of some fractions isolated from leaves of two Columbian Magnoliaceae, Talauma hernandezii G. Lozano-C and Dugandiodendron yarumalense Lozano. The activity was determined using the radical monocation 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS·+) and the stable free radical 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·), as part of general biological screening of these plants. The antioxidant capacity obtained from fractions was similar to those of α-tocopherol, tert-butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and ascorbic acid. The most active scavenger extract was the fraction 7 (TAA = 48.6 mmol Trolox/kg extract and IC50 ≤ 0.01 kg extract/mmol DPPH); and the least active was the fraction 1 (TAA = 11.23 mmol Trolox/kg extract and IC50 = 0.21 kg extract/mmol DPPH) all of them isolated from D. yarumalense. These results suggest that these plants can be attractive as source of antioxidant compounds with the ability to reduce radicals like ATBS and DPPH.

  7. Gastroprotective effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark extract: possible involvement of H(+)-K(+)-ATPase inhibition and scavenging of hydroxyl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Uday; Biswas, Kausik; Chatterjee, Ratna; Bandyopadhyay, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Ishita; Ganguly, Chayan Kumar; Chakraborty, Tapan; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Banerjee, Ranajit K

    2002-11-01

    The antisecretory and antiulcer effects of aqueous extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark have been studied along with its mechanism of action, standardisation and safety evaluation. The extract can dose dependently inhibit pylorus-ligation and drug (mercaptomethylimidazole)-induced acid secretion with ED(50) value of 2.7 and 2 mg Kg(-1) b.w. respectively. It is highly potent in dose-dependently blocking gastric ulcer induced by restraint-cold stress and indomethacin with ED(50) value of 1.5 and 1.25 mg Kg(-1) b.w. respectively. When compared, bark extract is equipotent to ranitidine but more potent than omeprazole in inhibiting pylorus-ligation induced acid secretion. In a stress ulcer model, it is more effective than ranitidine but almost equipotent to omeprazole. Bark extract inhibits H(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro in a concentration dependent manner similar to omeprazole. It offers gastroprotection against stress ulcer by significantly preventing adhered mucus and endogenous glutathione depletion. It prevents oxidative damage of the gastric mucosa by significantly blocking lipid peroxidation and by scavenging the endogenous hydroxyl radical ((z.rad;)OH)-the major causative factor for ulcer. The (z.rad;)OH-mediated oxidative damage of human gastric mucosal DNA is also protected by the extract in vitro. Bark extract is more effective than melatonin, vitamin E, desferrioxamine and alpha-phenyl N-tert butylnitrone, the known antioxidants having antiulcer effect. Standardisation of the bioactive extract by high pressure liquid chromatography indicates that peak 1 of the chromatogram coincides with the major bioactive compound, a phenolic glycoside, isolated from the extract. The pharmacological effects of the bark extract are attributed to a phenolic glycoside which is apparently homogeneous by HPLC and which represents 10% of the raw bark extract. A single dose of 1g of raw extract per kg b.w. (mice) given in one day and application of 0.6g raw extract per

  8. CBLB502, an agonist of Toll-like receptor 5, has antioxidant and scavenging free radicals activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiguang; Ge, Changhui; Yang, Liu; Wang, Ruixue; Lu, Yiming; Gao, Yan; Li, Zhihui; Wu, Yonghong; Zheng, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhaoyan; Zhang, Chenggang

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial protein flagellin is the known agonist of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5). It has been reported that CBLB502, a novel agonist of TLR5 derived from Salmonella flagellin, could reduce radiation toxicity in mouse and primate models, protect mice from dermatitis and oral mucositis caused by radiation, inhibit acute renal ischemic failure, and inhibit the growth of A549 lung cancer cell. The property of CBLB502 is able to bind to TLR5 and activates NF-κB signaling. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant potential and free radicals scavenging properties of CBLB502 in vitro. Interestingly, we found that CBLB502 has a direct and distinct antioxidant capacity and can efficiently scavenge a variety of free radicals, including superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, and ABTS cation (ABTS(+)). Through wave scanning and kinetic evaluation of scavenging ABTS(+), we found that the ABTS(+) scavenging process of CBLB502 is relatively slow, and the ABTS(+) scavenging activity of CBLB502 has a consistently kinetics characteristics. In conclusion, our results suggested that CBLB502 has antioxidant and scavenging free radicals activities in vitro. It is implied that CBLB502 might partially promote the beneficial protective effect through its scavenging free radicals. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Synthesis of heterocyclic chalcone derivatives and their radical scavenging ability toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kijun; Kim, Hoseok; Kim, Beomtae [Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of); Han, Incheol [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    A series of heterocyclic chalcone derivatives bearing heterocycles such as thiophene or furan ring as an isostere of benzene ring were carefully prepared, and the influence of heterocycles on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities was systematically investigated. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) analysis showed that the activities of thiophene ring-containing chalcones were higher than those of furan ring containing chalcones, and the presence of methyl substituent of heterocyclic ring distinctly affected the activities compared with non-substituted heterocycles in an opposite manner, with the 4'-methyl group of thiophene ring increasing activity and the 3'-methyl group of the furan ring decreasing activity. The distinct isosteric effect of heterocycles (i.e., thiophene or furan ring) on radical scavenging activities of heterocyclic chalcones was distinctly demonstrated in our work.

  10. Kinetic radical-scavenging activity of colchicine and tropolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoma, Yoshinori; Ishihara, Mariko; Yokoe, Ichiro; Fujisawa, Seiichiro

    2007-01-01

    The kinetics of radical-scavenging activities for colchicine and tropolone remain unknown. Their antioxidant activities were determined by the induction period (IP) method in the polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, R*) or benzoyl peroxide (BPO, PhCOO*) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under nearly anaerobic conditions. The IPs for colchicine and tropolone were very short despite the addition of a high concentration of these compounds relative to initiators; the stoichiometric factor (n, the number of moles of PhCOO* trapped by the antioxidant) was approximately 0.03 and 0.04 for colchicine and tropolone, respectively. The n value of these compounds for R* was less than that for PhCOO*. The rate constant of inhibition to that of propagation (kinh/kp) for both compounds was 23-27, and the difference between them was considerably small. Both compounds had weak antioxidant properties at very high concentrations.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of the Radical-Scavenging Activities of Fucoxanthin and Its Stereoisomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fucoxanthin (Fuco is a characteristic carotenoid of brown seaweeds. In the present study, Fuco and its stereoisomers 9'Z-Fuco, 13Z- and 13'Z-Fuco were extracted from Laminaria japonica Aresch. They were isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20, and reversed-phase HPLC. The radical-scavenging activities of the three stereoisomers were evaluated toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide radical. The order of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 13Z- and 13'Z-Fuco > (all-E-Fuco > 9'Z-Fuco. The order of 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities were 9'Z-Fuco > (all-E-Fuco > 13Z-and 13'Z-Fuco. The order of superoxide radical-scavenging activity was 13Z- and 13'Z-Fuco > (all-E-Fuco > 9'Z-Fuco. The scavenging activities of Fuco and its stereoisomers toward the four radical types were all dose-dependent. The ABTS, DPPH, and superoxide radical-scavenging activities were all weaker than that of tocopherol (VE, while their hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities were stronger than that of VE. The results confirmed that Fuco and its stereoisomers have potent antioxidant activities.

  12. Effect of blanching treatments on antioxidant activity of frozen green capsicum (Capsicum annuum L. var bell pepper) using radical scavenging activity (DPPH) assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizzuddin, Norafida; Abdullah, Aminah

    2016-11-01

    Blanching treatments are needed to deactivate enzymes in frozen vegetables. Antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging activity assay were evaluated in steaming, boiling water, and microwave blanching at different temperature, time and microwave power level on frozen green capsicum. Green capsicum was chosen for frozen treatment compared to other capsicum with different maturity index because of the firm texture. The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant activity of frozen green capsicum between conventional and Oxi Count Kit® assay for DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results showed frozen green capsicum blanched using microwave at high level/90 seconds (sample J) contained higher level of DPPH in both conventional method and Oxi Count Kit® compared to other treatments. However, there were no significant differences between sample J and fresh sample (sample A). Overall, the sequences from highest to lowest in blanching treatments for both DPPH conventional method, and DPPH Oxi Count Kit® were J (microwave high level/90 seconds) > A (Fresh) > H (Microwave Medium Level/120 seconds) > D (Boiling Water 80°C/150 seconds) > K (Microwave High Level/120 seconds) > I (Microwave Medium Level/150 seconds) > F (Microwave Low Level/150 seconds)> B (Steam 100°C/150 seconds) > E (Boiling Water 100°C /120 seconds) > G (Microwave Low Level /180 seconds)> C (Steam 100°C/180 seconds). Almost all frozen green capsicum samples showed no significant differences for comparison between test using DPPH conventional method and Oxi Count Kit®. Frozen storage for 0, and 3rd months showed no significant differences which indicate no changes on antioxidant activity during frozen storage at -18°C.

  13. Free radical scavenging alleviates the biomechanical impairment of gamma radiation sterilized bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Ozan; Belaney, Ryan M; Das, Prasenjit

    2005-07-01

    Terminal sterilization of bone allografts by gamma radiation is often essential prior to their clinical use to minimize the risk of infection and disease transmission. While gamma radiation has efficacy superior to other sterilization methods it also impairs the material properties of bone allografts, which may result in premature clinical failure of the allograft. The mechanisms by which gamma radiation sterilization damages bone tissue are not well known although there is evidence that the damage is induced via free radical attack on the collagen. In the light of the existing literature, it was hypothesized that gamma radiation induced biochemical damage to bone's collagen that can be reduced by scavenging for the free radicals generated during the ionizing radiation. It was also hypothesized that this lessening of the extent of biochemical degradation of collagen will be accompanied by alleviation in the extent of biomechanical impairment secondary to gamma radiation sterilization. Standardized tensile test specimens machined from human femoral cortical bone and specimens were assigned to four treatment groups: control, scavenger treated-control, irradiated and scavenger treated-irradiated. Thiourea was selected as the free radical scavenger and it was applied in aqueous form at the concentration of 1.5 M. Monotonic and cyclic mechanical tests were conducted to evaluate the mechanical performance of the treatment groups and the biochemical integrity of collagen molecules were assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The native mechanical properties of bone tissue did not change by thiourea treatment only. The effect of thiourea treatment on mechanical properties of irradiated specimens were such that the post-yield energy, the fracture energy and the fatigue life of thiourea treated-irradiated treatment group were 1.9-fold, 3.3-fold and 4.7-fold greater than those of the irradiated treatment group, respectively. However, the

  14. Radical Scavenging Capacity of Wine Anthocyanins Is Strongly pH-Dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borowski, T.; Tyrakowska, B.; Oszmianski, J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The radical scavenging capacity of red wine anthocyanins was quantified by the so-called TEAC assay with special emphasis on the influence of pH and conjugation on this activity. The pH appears to be a dominant factor in the radical scavenging capacity of wine anthocyanins, with higher pH values

  15. Identification of Radical Scavenging Compounds in Rhaponticum carthamoides by Means of LC-DAD-SPE-NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Beek, van T.A.; Waard, de P.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2005-01-01

    A hyphenated LC-DAD-SPE-NMR setup in combination with on-line radical scavenging detection has been applied for the identification of radical scavenging compounds in extracts of Rhaponticum carthamoides. After NMR measurements, the pure compounds were infused into a mass spectrometer. The technique

  16. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Radical Scavengers from Thymus vulgaris Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapkevicius, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Lelyveld, G.P.; Veldhuizen, van A.; Groot, de Æ.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Venskutonis, R.

    2002-01-01

    2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH*) scavenging activity-guided fractionation of a leaf extract of Thymus vulgaris led to the isolation of the radical scavengers rosmarinic acid 1, eriodictyol, taxifolin, luteolin 7-glucuronide, p-cymene 2,3-diol, p-cymene 2,3-diol 6-6'-dimer, carvacrol,

  17. Intracellular ROS protection efficiency and free radical-scavenging activity of curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Barzegar

    Full Text Available Curcumin has many pharmaceutical applications, many of which arise from its potent antioxidant properties. The present research examined the antioxidant activities of curcumin in polar solvents by a comparative study using ESR, reduction of ferric iron in aqueous medium and intracellular ROS/toxicity assays. ESR data indicated that the steric hindrance among adjacent big size groups within a galvinoxyl molecule limited the curcumin to scavenge galvinoxyl radicals effectively, while curcumin showed a powerful capacity for scavenging intracellular smaller oxidative molecules such as H₂O₂, HO•, ROO•. Cell viability and ROS assays demonstrated that curcumin was able to penetrate into the polar medium inside the cells and to protect them against the highly toxic and lethal effects of cumene hydroperoxide. Curcumin also showed good electron-transfer capability, with greater activity than trolox in aqueous solution. Curcumin can readily transfer electron or easily donate H-atom from two phenolic sites to scavenge free radicals. The excellent electron transfer capability of curcumin is because of its unique structure and different functional groups, including a β-diketone and several π electrons that have the capacity to conjugate between two phenyl rings. Therfore, since curcumin is inherently a lipophilic compound, because of its superb intracellular ROS scavenging activity, it can be used as an effective antioxidant for ROS protection within the polar cytoplasm.

  18. Extracts, Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as Radical Scavengers and Enzyme Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Barsett

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and isolated procyanidins B2, B5 and C1 from the berries and bark of Aronia melanocarpa were investigated for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. Four different bioassays were used, namely scavenging of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO, inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO and inhibition of α-glucosidase. Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-arabinoside possessed the strongest and cyanidin 3-xyloside the weakest radical scavenging and enzyme inhibitory activity. These effects seem to be influenced by the sugar units linked to the anthocyanidin. Subfractions enriched in procyanidins were found to be potent α-glucosidase inhibitors; they possessed high radical scavenging properties, strong inhibitory activity towards 15-LO and moderate inhibitory activity towards XO. Trimeric procyanidin C1 showed higher activity in the biological assays compared to the dimeric procyanidins B2 and B5. This study suggests that different polyphenolic compounds of A. melanocarpa can have beneficial effects in reducing blood glucose levels due to inhibition of α-glucosidase and may have a potential to alleviate oxidative stress.

  19. Study on the free radical scavenging activity of sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) gelatin hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mingyong; Xiao, Feng; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Li, Bafang; Dong, Shiyuan

    2007-07-01

    Gelatin from the sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) was hydrolyzed by bromelain and the hydrolysate was found to have a high free radical scavenging activity. The hydrolysate was fractionated through an ultrafiltration membrane with 5 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). The portion (less than 5 kDa) was further separated by Sephadex G-25. The active peak was collected and assayed for free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging rates for superoxide anion radicals (O2·-) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) of the fraction with the highest activity were 29.02% and 75.41%, respectively. A rabbit liver mitochondrial free radical damage model was adopted to study the free radical scavenging activity of the fraction. The results showed that the sea cucumber gelatin hydrolysate can prevent the damage of rabbit liver and mitochondria.

  20. The use of comet assay data with a simple reaction mechanism to evaluate the relative effectiveness of free radical scavenging by quercetin, epigallocatechin gallate and N-acetylcysteine in UV-irradiated MRC5 lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Leo; Clifford, Tim; Morley, Nick; Gould, David; Campbell, Sandra; Curnow, Alison

    2004-07-19

    Comet assay data (tail DNA %) have been gathered for the concentration dependent role of three antioxidants (AOs); quercetin (Q), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in reducing UV-induced damage to DNA in normal fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC5). All three compounds demonstrate a concentration dependent reduction maximum with a pro-oxidant effect at higher (though not cytotoxic) concentrations. Manipulation of a simple 4-step reaction mechanism for free radical (FR) scavenging by AOs produced rate constant ratios which allowed the relative effectiveness (Q > EGCG > NAC) of the AOs to be evaluated.

  1. Radical scavenging propensity of Cu2 +, Fe3 + complexes of flavonoids and in-vivo radical scavenging by Fe3 +-primuletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Erum; Janjua, Naveed Kausar; Ahmed, Safeer; Murtaza, Iram; Ali, Tahir; Hameed, Shahid

    2017-01-01

    Cu2 + and Fe3 + complexes of three flavonoids (morin or mo, quercetin or quer and primuletin or prim) were synthesized with the objective of improving antioxidant capacities of flavonoids. The radical scavenging activities of pure flavonoids and their metal complexes were assayed to monitor their tendencies towards sequestering of radicals at physiological conditions. The scavenger potencies of metal-flavonoid complexes were significantly higher than those of the parent flavonoids. Further, influence of the solvent polarity on the radical capturing by flavonoids and their metal complexes was in favor for the polar solvent. Fe3 +-prim displayed its radical scavenging ability via up gradation of CAT and SOD activities in in-vivo antioxidant assays.

  2. Increase in the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd by a heat-drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Shaoyun, Wang; Shutao, Liu; Jianwu, Zhou; Lijing, Ke; Pingfan, Rao

    2013-12-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.) is widely regarded as one of the best remedy foods for diabetes. The positive effect of bitter gourd on diabetes has been attributed in part to the remarkable free radical scavenging activity of its boiled water extract from sun-dried fruits. It is well known that a heat process significantly influences the antioxidant activity of fresh fruits. However, the heat drying processes of bitter gourd have not been studied so far. Here, we show that the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd extract significantly increases after the heat drying process, while the content of flavonoids and phenols, which are generally regarded as the main antioxidant components in bitter gourd, remain unaffected. Furthermore, the content of free amino acids and the total reducing sugar were found to decrease with increasing browning index, indicating the progression of the Maillard reaction, products of which are known to possess significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, it suggests that Maillard reaction products may be the main contributors to the increase in antioxidant capability. Finally, the bitter gourd extract with the higher antioxidant activity, was shown to manifest a corresponding higher proliferation activity on NIT-1 beta-cells. These results suggest that controllable conditions in the heat-drying processing of fresh bitter gourd fruit is of significance for enhancing the total free radical scavenging capacity, beta-cell proliferation activity and possibly the anti-diabetic activity of this fruit.

  3. Investigation of gold nanoparticle radiosensitization mechanisms using a free radical scavenger and protons of different energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, J C G; Merchant, M J; Spindler, A; Wera, A-C; Kirkby, K J

    2014-11-07

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been shown to sensitize cancer cells to x-ray radiation, particularly at kV energies where photoelectric interactions dominate and the high atomic number of gold makes a large difference to x-ray absorption. Protons have a high cross-section for gold at a large range of relevant clinical energies, and so potentially could be used with GNPs for increased therapeutic effect.Here, we investigate the contribution of secondary electron emission to cancer cell radiosensitization and investigate how this parameter is affected by proton energy and a free radical scavenger. We simulate the emission from a realistic cell phantom containing GNPs after traversal by protons and x-rays with different energies. We find that with a range of proton energies (1-250 MeV) there is a small increase in secondaries compared to a much larger increase with x-rays. Secondary electrons are known to produce toxic free radicals. Using a cancer cell line in vitro we find that a free radical scavenger has no protective effect on cells containing GNPs irradiated with 3 MeV protons, while it does protect against cells irradiated with x-rays. We conclude that GNP generated free radicals are a major cause of radiosensitization and that there is likely to be much less dose enhancement effect with clinical proton beams compared to x-rays.

  4. Evaluation of free radical scavenging properties of two classical polyherbal formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagul, Milind S; Kanaki, Niranjan S; Rajani, M

    2005-08-01

    Two polyherbal formulations of Ayurveda viz., Chandraprabha Vati and Maha yogaraja Guggulu were evaluated for their free radical scavenging properties. Methanolic extracts of the formulations were studied in four different in vitro and ex vivo models. Total phenolic content of Chandraprabha Vati and Maha yogaraja Guggulu was found to be 5.24% and 10.74% respectively. Methanolic extracts of the formulations were good scavengers of all the radicals but there was a difference in the activity of the two formulations in different models. Chandraprabha Vati was a good scavenger of superoxide radical and Maha yogaraja Guggulu was efficient in scavenging nitric oxide (NO), while both inhibited lipid peroxidation efficiently. Free radical scavenging activity of the different extracts can be attributed to the presence of various chemical components including phenolics.

  5. Kinetic studies of the radical-scavenging activity of ebselen, a seleno-organic compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Kadoma, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    Ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one) is now under active investigation as a neuroprotective and anticancer agent. In the present study, the induction period method was used to investigate the antioxidant activity of ebselen in the radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) at 70 degrees C. The reaction of ebselen with growing MMA radicals (lipid radicals) showed a k(inh) of 4 x 10(4) M(-1)s(-1). This value was similar to that for mercaptomethylimidazole (MMI, a thiol) and 10-fold greater than that for butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The ratio of the rate of chain inhibition to that of chain propagation (CI/CP) for ebselen, MMI and BHA was 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001, respectively, whereas the stoichiometric factor (n, the number of free radicals trapped by one mole of antioxidant moiety) for the corresponding compounds was 0.02, 0.2 and 2, respectively. Ebselen preferentially affected CP rather than CI, indicating that it was an effective scavenger (suppressor) of growing MMA radicals. These results suggest that ebselen is a potent suppressor of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) radicals, which are harmful radicals in biological systems.

  6. Cranberry flavonoids prevent toxic rat liver mitochondrial damage in vivo and scavenge free radicals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapshina, Elena A; Zamaraeva, Maria; Cheshchevik, Vitali T; Olchowik-Grabarek, Ewa; Sekowski, Szymon; Zukowska, Izabela; Golovach, Nina G; Burd, Vasili N; Zavodnik, Ilya B

    2015-06-01

    The present study was undertaken for further elucidation of the mechanisms of flavonoid biological activity, focusing on the antioxidative and protective effects of cranberry flavonoids in free radical-generating systems and those on mitochondrial ultrastructure during carbon tetrachloride-induced rat intoxication. Treatment of rats with cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) during chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication led to prevention of mitochondrial damage, including fragmentation, rupture and local loss of the outer mitochondrial membrane. In radical-generating systems, cranberry flavonoids effectively scavenged nitric oxide (IC50  = 4.4 ± 0.4 µg/ml), superoxide anion radicals (IC50  = 2.8 ± 0.3 µg/ml) and hydroxyl radicals (IC50  = 53 ± 4 µg/ml). The IC50 for reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) was 2.2 ± 0.3 µg/ml. Flavonoids prevented to some extent lipid peroxidation in liposomal membranes and glutathione oxidation in erythrocytes treated with UV irradiation or organic hydroperoxides as well as decreased the rigidity of the outer leaflet of the liposomal membranes. The hepatoprotective potential of cranberry flavonoids could be due to specific prevention of rat liver mitochondrial damage. The mitochondria-addressed effects of flavonoids might be related both to radical-scavenging properties and modulation of various mitochondrial events. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Prenylated Xanthones from the Bark of Garcinia xanthochymus and Their 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH Radical Scavenging Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-wu He

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia xanthochymus has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for expelling worms and removing food toxins. Bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOAc-soluble extract of G. xanthochymus stem bark led to the isolation of six new xanthones. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, especially 2D-NMR techniques. Free-radical-scavenging activities of the isolated compounds were elucidated through DPPH method. Most of the isolated compounds showed considerable free radical scavenging activity on DPPH assay. Compound 1 exhibited effective antioxidant scavenging activity against DPPH radical with an IC50 value of 19.64 μM, and compound 6 showed the lowest activity among all the tested molecules, with an IC50 value of 66.88 μM. These findings support the notion that the plant genus Garcinia is a good source of bioactive compounds.

  8. A hydrogen-donating monohydroxamate scavenges ferryl myoglobin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, C E; Green, E S; Rice-Evans, C A

    1994-01-01

    produced by oxidation of the hydroxamate group are observed. Similar results are observed with the trihydroxamate, desferrioxamine. "Ferryl myoglobin" is still able to initiate lipid peroxidation even after the short-lived protein free radicals are no longer detectable (E.S.R. Newman, C.A. Rice-Evans and M.......J. Davies (1991) Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 179, 1414-1419). It is suggested that the longer-lived protein radicals described here may be partly responsible for this effect. The mechanism of inhibition of initiation of lipid peroxidation by hydroxyamate drugs, such as NMBH, may......The addition of 25 microM hydrogen peroxide to 20 microM metmyoglobin produces ferryl (FeIV = O) myoglobin. Optical spectroscopy shows that the ferryl species reaches a maximum concentration (60-70% of total haem) after 10 minutes and decays slowly (hours). Low temperature EPR spectroscopy...

  9. Kinetic studies of the radical-scavenging activity of estrogens and antiestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Kadoma, Yoshinori

    2004-01-01

    Quinoids, quinoid radicals and phenoxyl radicals formed from estrogens (estrone; diethylstilbestrol, DES) and antiestrogens (tamoxifen; toremifene) may be responsible for adverse effects such as carcinogenesis. The radical-scavenging activity of estrogens and antiestrogens was determined quantitatively by the induction period method for the polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) or benzoyl peroxide (BPO) under nearly anaerobic conditions. The inhibition rate constant (k(inh), x10(-3) M(-1)s(-1)) for estrone, DES, tamoxifen, toremifene and 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methyphenol (BHT) was 1-3, 2-4, 6-12, 6-13 and 1-2, respectively. The k(inh) for antiestrogens was two-fold greater than that for estrogens or BHT. In contrast, the stoichiometric factor (n, number of free radicals trapped by one mole of antioxidant moiety) for estrone, DES, tamoxifen, toremifene and BHT was 1.2-1.5, 1.8-2.4, 0.5-0.9, 0.4- 0.5 and 1.5-1.9, respectively. The fully oxidized n values for estrone, DES and BHT would be 2, whereas that for antiestrogens would be 1. However, the n values for estrone and antiestrogens were markedly less than 2 and 1, respectively, suggesting a complex oxidation process resulting in the formation of quinoids, quinoid radicals and phenoxyl radicals during the induction period.

  10. Nitric oxide radical scavenging potential of some Elburz medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some plants scavenge nitric oxide (NO) with high affinity. For this purpose, forty extracts from 26 medicinal plants, growing extensively in Elburz mountains, were evaluated for their NO scavenging activity. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of these extracts were also measured by Folin Ciocalteu and AlCl3 colorimetric ...

  11. Blue-green algae (Arthrospira platensis) as an ingredient in pasta: free radical scavenging activity, sensory and cooking characteristics evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, Nacim; Abid, Mouna; Fakhfakh, Nahed; Ayadi, M A; Zorgui, Lazhar; Ayadi, Moez; Attia, Hamadi

    2011-12-01

    The effects of semolina enrichment with blue-green algae (Arthrospira platensis) at three different levels (1, 2 and 3 g/100 g of semolina) on the colour, cooking properties, firmness, free radical scavenging activity and sensory characteristics of pasta are reported. Microalgae addition resulted in higher swelling index and lower cooking loss than the control sample. A significant increase in pasta firmness was evidenced with an increase of added microalgae due to structural reinforcement. In addition to colouring, the use of A. platensis (2 g/100 g of semolina) can enhance the sensory quality and nutraceutical potential as evaluated by free radical scavenging activity of pasta.

  12. Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Beek, van T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides,

  13. Radical-scavenging activity and phenolic constituents of propolis from different regions of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, Shigenori; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon; Fujimoto, Takunori; Kato, Masashi

    2010-05-01

    Propolis is a resinous substance collected by honeybees from various plant sources. The composition of propolis depends on the type of vegetation and the area of collection. We examined the radical-scavenging activity of propolis from the following regions of Argentina: Mendoza, Rio Negro, La Pampa, and Entre Rios. Ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP) were prepared and their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities were evaluated. Furthermore, the major constituents in EEP were identified by HPLC with photodiode array (PDA) detection, and each component was quantitatively analysed. Almost all of the propolis samples, except La Pampa, had radical-scavenging activity. Propolis with strong radical-scavenging activity contained large amounts of antioxidative compounds, such as caffeic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester.

  14. Free radical-scavenging activity and flavonoid contents of Polygonum orientale leaf, stem, and seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to explore the total flavonoid and taxifolin contents and the radical-scavenging activity of 50% ethanol extracts of Polygonum orientale leaves, stems, and seeds by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. The extract with higher total flavonoid content has higher radical scavenging activity. Taxifolin (IC50 = 2.83 μmol/L has antioxidant activity stronger than that of rutin (IC50 = 3.08 μmol/L. The free radical-scavenging potentials of chloroform, ethyl acetate, water, ethanol, and methanol extracts of Polygonum orientale seeds were also investigated. The free radical-scavenging abilities of various extracts were determined as: methanol > ethanol > water > ethyl acetate > chloroform.

  15. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Drops and Spray Containing Propolis—An EPR Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Pawel Olczyk; Katarzyna Komosinska-Vassev; Pawel Ramos; Lukasz Mencner; Krystyna Olczyk; Barbara Pilawa

    2017-01-01

    The influence of heating at a temperature of 50 °C and UV-irradiation of propolis drops and spray on their free radical scavenging activity was determined. The kinetics of interactions of the propolis samples with DPPH free radicals was analyzed. Interactions of propolis drops and propolis spray with free radicals were examined by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. A spectrometer generating microwaves of 9.3 GHz frequency was used. The EPR spectra of the model DPPH free radicals we...

  16. In vitro anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antiinflammatory potential was carried out using inhibition of protein denaturation of egg albumin as a model of anti-inflammatory capacity. Results: Both the crude methanolic extract and saponins showed inhibition of DPPH, ABTS and NO2 scavenging activity. However, the free radical scavenging activity of isolated ...

  17. Synthesis and in Vitro Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of 3-Carboxycoumarin Derivatives and QSAR Study of Their DPPH• Radical Scavenging Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Sumaya-Martínez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antioxidant activities of eight 3-carboxycoumarin derivatives were assayed by the quantitative 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH• radical scavenging activity method. 3-Acetyl-6-hydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (C1 and ethyl 6-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-3-carboxylate (C2 presented the best radical-scavenging activity. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR study was performed and correlated with the experimental DPPH• scavenging data. We used structural, geometrical, topological and quantum-chemical descriptors selected with Genetic Algorithms in order to determine which of these parameters are responsible of the observed DPPH• radical scavenging activity. We constructed a back propagation neural network with the hydrophilic factor (Hy descriptor to generate an adequate architecture of neurons for the system description. The mathematical model showed a multiple determination coefficient of 0.9196 and a root mean squared error of 0.0851. Our results shows that the presence of hydroxyl groups on the ring structure of 3-carboxy-coumarins are correlated with the observed DPPH• radical scavenging activity effects.

  18. Optimization of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exopolysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus in submerged fermentation using response surface methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Xu, X.; Zhu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of fermentation medium on the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exopolysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus by response surface methodology (RSM). A two-level fractional factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of different

  19. Inhibition of microsomal oxidation of alcohols and of hydroxyl-radical-scavenging agents by the iron-chelating agent desferrioxamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbaum, A I; Dicker, E

    1983-01-15

    Rat liver microsomes (microsomal fractions) catalyse the oxidation of straight-chain aliphatic alcohols and of hydroxyl-radical-scavenging agents during NADPH-dependent electron transfer. The iron-chelating agent desferrioxamine, which blocks the generation of hydroxyl radicals in other systems, was found to inhibit the following microsomal reactions: production of formaldehyde from either dimethyl sulphoxide or 2-methylpropan-2-ol (t-butylalcohol); generation of ethylene from 4-oxothiomethylbutyric acid; release of 14CO2 from [I-14C]benzoate; production of acetaldehyde from ethanol or butanal (butyraldehyde) from butan-1-ol. Desferrioxamine also blocked the increase in the oxidation of all these substrates produced by the addition of iron-EDTA to the microsomes. Desferrioxamine had no effect on a typical mixed-function-oxidase activity, the N-demethylation of aminopyrine, nor on the peroxidatic activity of catalase/H2O2 with ethanol. H2O2 appears to be the precursor of the oxidizing radical responsible for the oxidation of the alcohols and the other hydroxyl-radical scavengers. Chelation of microsomal iron by desferrioxamine most likely decreases the generation of hydroxyl radicals, which results in an inhibition of the oxidation of the alcohols and the hydroxyl-radical scavengers. Whereas desferrioxamine inhibited the oxidation of 2-methylpropan-2-ol, dimethyl sulphoxide, 4-oxothiomethylbutyrate and benzoate by more than 90%, the oxidation of ethanol and butanol could not be decreased by more than 45-60%. Higher concentrations of desferrioxamine were required to block the metabolism of the primary alcohols than to inhibit the metabolism of the other substrates. The desferrioxamine-insensitive rate of oxidation of ethanol was not inhibited by competitive hydroxyl-radical scavengers. These results suggest that primary alcohols may be oxidized by two pathways in microsomes, one dependent on the interaction of the alcohols with hydroxyl radicals (desferrioxamine

  20. Free radical scavengers from the Mexican herbal tea "poleo" (Hedeoma drummondii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros-Valdez, Ezequiel; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; Mendoza, Sandra; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    The aerial parts of the Lamiaceae Hedeoma drummondii (Benth.) are used in Mexico to prepare a herbal tea and by North American Amerindians as a spice. The methanolic extract of the aerial parts exhibited a strong antioxidant effect measured by the scavenging of the free diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Assay-guided fractionation of the crude methanolic extract allowed the identification of three major active constituents, chlorogenic, caffeic and rosmarinic acid, as well as sideritoflavone derivatives and simple phenolics. The TEAC, FRAP, total phenolic and flavonoid content were determined. The high content of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid relates to the antioxidant activity of H. drummondii.

  1. Ferrous Ion Chelating, Superoxide Anion Radical Scavenging and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Properties of Pure and Commercial Essential Oils of Anetrhum Graveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Darvish Alipour Astaneh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite slight toxicities of essential oils, they are not under strict control in many countries. Anethum graveolens is widely consumed and its essential oils are at public reach. This study was designed to study essential oils of Anethum graveolens. Methods: The biological properties of pure and commercial essential oils of Anethum graveolens were investigated. In fact, Ferrous ion chelating activity, superoxide anion radical scavenging property, tyrosinase inhibition and total flavonoids of the oils were determined. Results: Chelating activity of 7.8 µg of EDTA was equivalent to 2 µg of the pure oil. The oils had superoxide anion radical scavenging activities which may be related to their total phenol and flavonoid contents. IC50 of ferrous ion chelating, antityrosiase and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of pure and commercial oils were 1.3, 1.4, 1 and (171.6, 589, 132 µg respectively. Antityrosiase activity of 6.4 µg pure oil was equal to 1000 µg of the commercial oil. Conclusion: Anethum possesses antioxidative and free radical scavenging properties. This oil chelates ferrous ions and superoxide radicals. It is effective in formation of reactive toxic products. Anethum has good potentials regarding its applications in food and drug industries.

  2. Changes in free-radical scavenging ability of kombucha tea during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, R; Subathradevi, P; Marimuthu, S; Sathishkumar, M; Swaminathan, K

    2008-07-01

    Kombucha tea is a fermented tea beverage produced by fermenting sugared black tea with tea fungus (kombucha). Free-radical scavenging abilities of kombucha tea prepared from green tea (GTK), black tea (BTK) and tea waste material (TWK) along with pH, phenolic compounds and reducing power were investigated during fermentation period. Phenolic compounds, scavenging activity on DPPH radical, superoxide radical (xanthine-xanthine oxidase system) and inhibitory activity against hydroxyl radical mediated linoleic acid oxidation (ammonium thiocyanate assay) were increased during fermentation period, whereas pH, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability (ascorbic acid-iron EDTA) and anti-lipid peroxidation ability (thiobarbituric assay) were decreased. From the present study, it is obvious that there might be some chances of structural modification of components in tea due to enzymes liberated by bacteria and yeast during kombucha fermentation which results in better scavenging performance on nitrogen and superoxide radicals, and poor scavenging performance on hydroxyl radicals. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Kinetic study of the radical-scavenging activity of vitamin E and ubiquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Kadoma, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative in vitro studies of antioxidant activities have been performed under aerobic conditions. However, since the biological system has lower oxygen tension, the effectiveness of antioxidants may be considerably different in vivo. alpha-Tocopherol, in vivo the most active tocopherol, is a very poor antioxidant in vitro. To clarify these points, the radical-scavenging activities of vitamin E (Toc) (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols) and ubiquinone were evaluated by the induction period method from the kinetics of polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) (alkyl radical, R*), or benzoyl peroxide (BPO) (peroxyl radical, PhCOO*) under nearly anaerobic conditions. The ratio of the rate constant of inhibition to that of propagation (k(inh)/k(p)) for Toc was about 10 in a system with a molar ratio of AIBN to Toc of 100:1, whereas in the corresponding BPO system k(inh)/k(p) declined in the order alpha (47) > beta (15) > gamma (10) > delta (7). In contrast, with AIBN the number of free radicals trapped by the phenolic moiety (n) declined in the order delta (3.0) > gamma (2.5) > alpha (2.2) > beta (1.6), whereas with BPO n declined in the order delta (1.9) > gamma (1.4) > beta (1.0) > alpha (0.3). A similar tendency was found in systems with a molar ratio of 10:1. Also, ubiquinone-10 showed radical-scavenging activity, although the n (0.02) was much less than that for Toc. The low n value for alpha-Toc (n = 0.3) may be attributed to the formation of stable alpha-Toc during the induction period. With a n = about 1 for beta- and gamma-Toc, a dimerization coupling of Tocs is suggested. Thus, the radical-scavenging activity is affected by the number and position of the methyl groups in the benzene nucleus of the various tocopherol compounds.

  4. Role of allyl group in the hydroxyl and peroxyl radical scavenging activity of S-allylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Perla D; Alvarez-Idaboy, J Raúl; Aguilar-González, Adriana; Lira-Rocha, Alfonso; Jung-Cook, Helgi; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Galano, Annia

    2011-11-17

    S-Allylcysteine (SAC) is the most abundant compound in aged garlic extracts, and its antioxidant properties have been demonstrated. It is known that SAC is able to scavenge different reactive species including hydroxyl radical (•OH), although its potential ability to scavenge peroxyl radical (ROO•) has not been explored. In this work the ability of SAC to scavenge ROO• was evaluated, as well as the role of the allyl group (-S-CH(2)-CH═CH(2)) in its free radical scavenging activity. Two derived compounds of SAC were prepared: S-benzylcysteine (SBC) and S-propylcysteine (SPC). Their abilities to scavenge •OH and ROO• were measured. A computational analysis was performed to elucidate the mechanism by which these compounds scavenge •OH and ROO•. SAC was able to scavenge •OH and ROO•, in a concentration-dependent way. Such activity was significantly ameliorated when the allyl group was replaced by benzyl or propyl groups. It was shown for the first time that SAC is able to scavenge ROO•.

  5. Screening of Potential Free Radicals Scavenger and Antibacterial Activities of Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningrum, Retno; Utami, Pri Iswati; Dhiani, Binar Asrining; Kumalasari, Malikhah; Kusumawardani, Rizka Sari

    2016-11-01

    Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk) is a traditional medicinal plant used for its aphrodisiac values. This plant was originated Dieng Plateu, Central Java, Indonesia. Purwoceng has been reported to contain steroid, flavonoids, glycoside, saponins, tannins, and phenolic. Based on secondary metabolite compounds of Purwoceng herbs, a research need to be done to determine the other potential free radicals scavenger and antibacterial activities of Purwoceng. The objectives of this research are to screen the potential free radicals scavenger activity of in vitro using DPPH (1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil) radicals and NO• (nitric oxide) radicals, and antibacterial activity of Purwoceng. The extraction is done by a maceration method with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and ethanol solvent, respectively. Free radicals scavenger test was performed using DPPH radicals and NO• radicals, while antibacterial activity screening was performed using agar diffusion test. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract of Purwoceng has free radical scavenger activity with IC50 53.07 ppm lower than butylated hydroxytoluene. Ethyl acetate extract and ethanol extract of Purwoceng have antibacterial activity against Staphyloccus aureus, Escherichia coli, and MG42 bacterial isolate.

  6. New insights on dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) features as a free radical scavenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gabriela; Aguiar, María Belen; Martinez, Hugo D; Puntarulo, Susana

    2012-03-01

    Recently, a number of synthetic drugs used in a variety of therapeutic indications have been reported to have antiaging effects. Among them, Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE), an anologue of dietylaminoethanol, is a precursor of choline, which in turn allows the brain to optimize the production of acetylcholine that is a primary neurotransmitter involved in learning and memory. The data presented here includes new information on the ability of the compound to scavenge specific free radicals, assessed by Electron Spectroscopic Resonance (EPR), to further analyze the role of DMAE as an antioxidant. DMAE ability to directly react with hydroxyl, ascorbyl and lipid radicals was tested employing in vitro assays, and related to the supplemented dose of the compound.

  7. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of edible weeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl, nitric oxide radicals, play an important role in oxidative stress related to the pathogenesis of various important diseases. Active (or reactive) oxygen species and free radical-mediated reactions are involved in degenerative or ...

  8. [Free radical scavenging agents in myocardial protection during cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menasche, P; Grousset, C; Gauduel, Y; Mouas, C; Piwnica, A

    1986-10-15

    Oxygen free radicals are very unstable metabolites which are produced in abundant quantity during the reoxygenation of an ischemic organ. Oxidation, by these radicals, of the structural lipids of the membranes, is at the origin of cellular lesions all the more extensive as the ischemia, by itself, decreases the ischemic tissue content in "trapping" molecules which usually inactivate those free radicals. Thus, was introduced the concept of an exogenous supply of trappers intended to bring under control the production of radicals and consequently preserve the membrane integrity in the revascularized tissue. This review summarizes, in light of our experience, the results obtained with free radicals trappers in the scope of myocardial preservation, especially in cardiac surgery, and analyzes some of the problems that remain to be resolved before considering the clinical use of these trappers.

  9. Evaluation of antioxidant and free-radical scavenging potential of Artemisia absinthium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Kundan Singh; Sharma, Anupam

    2011-12-01

    Currently there has been an increased global interest to identify antioxidant compounds for use in preventive medicine and the food-industry that are pharmacologically potent and have low or no side effects. As plants produce significant amount of antioxidants to prevent oxidative stress, they represent a potential source of new compounds with antioxidant activity. The current study was designed to evaluate the methanol extract of Artemisia absinthium Linn. (Asteraceae; MAB) for its in vitro free-radical scavenging effects using different classical assays, and in vivo antioxidant activity using global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R)-induced oxidative stress in mice. The in vitro scavenging activity was studied on the superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl, nitric oxide radical, and reducing power. Further, in the in vivo studies, the animal model of global cerebral I/R was established by occluding the bilateral carotid artery for 15 min followed by 24-h reperfusion. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content were determined by colorimetric assays. In the in vitro assays, methanol extract of A. absinthium showed significant (pabsinthium possess potent antioxidant properties, and may be used as a protective agent against disorders associated with oxidative stress.

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant, radical scavenging activity and polyphenolics profile in Solanum torvum L. fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, C H; Kumar, M Suresh; Suyavaran, V Sujatha A; Mareeswaran, R; Thirunavukkarasu, C

    2012-08-01

    Solanum torvum fruit widely used in traditional medicine of India and also in food preparation. Three different extracts such as water (WE), methanol (ME), and ethanol (EE) were used to evaluate their antioxidant and radical scavenging activity by different methods. All the assays results were compared with well-known standard antioxidants. The IC(50) values of assays were determined. The total phenolic and flavonoids content were found to be maximum in water and ethanol extracts, respectively. The electron quenching ability of fruit extract was assayed by DPPH and reducing power assays succeeding order were ME > EE > WE, respectively. Inhibition of membrane damage, was assayed interns of oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation assays, among all WE extract shows 58.00% and 68.55 5% percentage of inhibition with 0.9 and 0.8 correlations (r(2)), respectively. Antioxidant and radical quenching efficiency were assayed by β-carotene bleaching and hydroxyl radical scavenging method and results were compared with vitamin C and catechin. The in vitro free radical quenching and antioxidant results were well correlated with in vitro DNA protection assay. As analyzed by HPTLC gallic acid content is high in WE (1394 ± 25.0) and ME (598 ± 54.0) whereas ferulic acid is high in EE (32 ± 5.94) μg/g, respectively. This study indicate that S. torvum fruit is an excellent source of natural antioxidant and could be an effective nutritional food supplement, which interns will have therapeutic applications. In siddha medicine on the traditional systems of India the, ripened fruits are used in the preparation of tonic named as a "sundaivattaral choornam" is used to improve the health and prevent several diseases. This study has given an experimental evidence that S. torvum fruit is an excellent source of natural antioxidants. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Scavenger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Scavenger is one of the cyber foraging frameworks developed in the Locusts project. It has been released as open source software at http://code.google.com/p/scavenger-cf/......Scavenger is one of the cyber foraging frameworks developed in the Locusts project. It has been released as open source software at http://code.google.com/p/scavenger-cf/...

  12. Kinetic radical-scavenging activity of platonin, a cyanine photosensitizing dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Mariko; Kadoma, Yoshinori; Fujisawa, Seiichiro

    2006-01-01

    Platonin is known to possess antioxidant activity. However, the kinetics of the radical-scavenging activities of this compound remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the radical-scavenging activities of platonin by the induction period method in the polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobis (isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) (a carbon-centered radical, R*), and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) (an oxygen-centered radical, PhCOO*), under nearly anaerobic conditions. The number of moles of R* or PhCOO* radicals trapped by platonin calculated with respect to 1 mole of inhibitor moiety unit (stoichiometric factor, n) was determined, and this showed that the n of fully oxidized platonin was 4. The inhibition rate constant (k(inh)) of platonin showed a wide range of 0.8 x 10(3) M(-1)s(-1) to 1.6 x 10(4) M(-1)s(-1). To clarify the interaction between platonin and thiols, 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (MMI) was used as a representative thiol, because glutathiones were unsuitable due to their limited solubility in MMA. MMI in the presence of platonin showed neither catalytic activities nor synergistic activities. Platonin possesses radical-scavenging activities and acts as an antioxidant. On the basis of our experimental results, the radical-scavenging mechanism is discussed.

  13. Kinetic study of the aroxyl radical-scavenging reaction of alpha-tocopherol in methanol solution: notable effect of the alkali and alkaline earth metal salts on the reaction rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Aya; Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Abe, Kouichi; Mukai, Kazuo

    2009-10-08

    A kinetic study of the aroxyl (ArO*) radical-scavenging reaction of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TocH) has been performed in the presence of six kinds of alkali and alkaline earth metal salts (LiI, LiClO(4), NaI, NaClO(4), KI, and Mg(ClO(4))(2)) in methanol solution, using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The decay rate of the ArO* for the reaction of alpha-TocH with ArO* increased linearly with increasing concentration of metal salts. The second-order rate constants (k(s)) for the reaction of alpha-TocH with ArO* increased in the order of no metal salt concentration of metal salts. For example, the k(s) values in methanol solution including 4.00 x 10(-1) M of LiI and Mg(ClO(4))(2) were 3.04 and 1.30 times larger than that in the absence of metal salts, respectively. The alkali and alkaline earth metal salts having smaller ionic radius of cation and anion and larger charge of cation gave larger rate constants (k(s)). Effects of metal cations on the UV-vis absorption spectra of the alpha-Toc* (and ArO*) radical were negligible in methanol solution, suggesting that the complex formation between the alpha-Toc* (and ArO*) radical molecule and metal cations is hindered by the hydrogen bond between radical and methanol molecules. The results indicate that the hydrogen transfer reaction of alpha-TocH proceeds via an electron transfer intermediate from alpha-TocH to ArO* radicals followed by proton transfer. Both the coordinations of metal cations to the one-electron reduced anions of ArO* (ArO: (-)) and of counteranions to the one-electron oxidized cations of alpha-TocH (alpha-TocH(+)*) may stabilize the intermediate, resulting in the acceleration of electron transfer. On the other hand, the effect of metal salts on the rate of bimolecular self-reaction (2k(d)) of the alpha-Toc* radical was not observed. The result suggests that the hydrogen transfer reaction between two alpha-Toc* radical molecules proceeds via a one-step hydrogen atom transfer mechanism rather than via an

  14. Resveratrol analogues like piceatannol are potent antioxidants as quantitatively demonstrated through the high scavenging ability against reactive oxygen species and methyl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueishi, Yoshimi; Nii, Risako; Kakizaki, Naru

    2017-12-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) analogues have attracted much attention because of the expected health functions including antioxidant activities. We have carried out a quantitative determination of the scavenging abilities of six trans-RSV analogues against various reactive oxygen species and methyl radical (hydroxyl radical, superoxide, alkoxyl radical, peroxyl radical, methyl radical, and singlet oxygen). RSV analogues are in general more potent scavenger than the parent RSV. Furthermore, piceatannol (PIC) having two OH groups in the ortho position of resveratrol was found to show 11 times higher scavenging ability against peroxyl radical than parent resveratrol. With the aid of previous theoretical studies, the enhanced antioxidant ability was interpreted based on the effects of substituent that modifies the original resveratrol structure and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of an ayurvedic formulation, panchvalkala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandjiwala, Sheetal; Bagul, M S; Parabia, M; Rajani, M

    2008-01-01

    We report the free radical scavenging activity of an Ayurvedic preparation Panchvalkala and its individual components (stem bark of Ficus benghalensis, F. glomerata, F. religiosa, F. virens and Thespesia populnea). Being stem barks, these samples contain phenolics (ranging from 3.5% to 10.8% w/w) and tannins (1.6% to 7.0% w/w). This prompted us to study the free radical scavenging activity of Panchvalkala and its components which was evaluated in three in vitro models viz. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay. Panchvalkala and its individual components showed significant antiradical activity by bleaching 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (EC(50) ranging from 7.27 to 12.08 microg) which was comparable to pyrogallol (EC(50) 4.85 microg). Thin layer chromatography of the methanol extracts when sprayed with 0.2% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl in methanol revealed several bands with antiradical activity as seen by bleaching of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. All the samples showed good superoxide scavenging potential (EC(50) ranging from 41.55 to 73.56 microg) comparable to ascorbic acid (EC(50) 45.39 microg) in a dose-dependent manner. The reduction ability, Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) transformation was found to increase with increasing concentrations of all the sample extracts.

  16. Corni fructus scavenges hydroxy radicals and decreases oxidative stress in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon-Ok; Kim, Sun Young; Han, Sag-Myung; Kim, Hye-Mi; Ham, Seung-Shi; Kang, Il-Jun

    2006-01-01

    Corni fructus has been used as a tonic, analgesic, and diuretic in Korean herbal medicine. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidative effect of corni fructus and its capacity to protect cells against oxidative damage. The radical scavenging activity of corni fructus extracts was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and the antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the peroxide value in a linoleic acid emulsion system. In addition, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with corni fructus extracts and incubated with H(2)O(2) to investigate protection against apoptosis induction. Both ethanol and water extracts of corni fructus produced higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts. Strong antioxidative activities of both water and ethanol extracts were observed in an emulsion system containing linoleic acid and phosphate buffer. The incubation of HUVECs with the addition of ethanol extract significantly decreased H(2)O(2)-initiated damage of endothelial cells, but the water extract did not. The pretreatment with ethanol extract, but not with water extract, significantly decreased apoptotic damage of the H(2)O(2)-treated HUVECs and kept the morphological normality. This study demonstrates that corni fructus is a potent antioxidant substance, and suggests that further investigation is needed to characterize the difference between extract types and to identify its antioxidant compounds.

  17. Stable free radical scavenging and antiperoxidative properties of resveratrol compared in vitro with some other bioflavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanduja, K L; Bhardwaj, Anjana

    2003-12-01

    Stable free radical scavenging and antiperoxidative activities of resveratrol, a component of grapes and red wine, were evaluated and compared with some other known bioflavonoids (quercetin, catechin, kaempferol, myricetin, fisetin, ellagic acid and naringenin) widely present in the plant kingdom. Free radical scavenging activity was measured in an in vitro chemical system (DPPH assay), while for antiperoxidative activity, biological system comprising of hepatic and pulmonary homogenates was employed. Antiradical activity assay showed quercetin and myricetin to be stronger antiradical agents than resveratrol. Structure-activity study revealed that O-dihydroxy group on ring B of flavonoid plays a crucial role. A double bond at 2-3 position conjugated with a 4-oxo function and hydroxy groups at positions 3 and 5 also contribute towards antiradical activity of flavonoids. Resveratrol exhibited stronger antiradical activity than kaempferol and naringenin and was also more efficient than alpha-tocopherol, a known strong endogenous non-flavonoid antioxidant, used for comparison. In vitro antiperoxidative assay showed fisetin as the strongest and kaempferol as the weakest antioxidant. Resveratrol was found to be stronger antioxidant than catechin, myricetin, kaempferol and naringenin, but was weaker than quercetin, fisetin and alpha-tocopherol. Antiradical and antiperoxidative activities of resveratrol may explain its beneficial effects in disease states. Assays exhibited no direct correlation between antiradical and antiperoxidative activities of the phenolics.

  18. Scavenging of free-radical metabolites of aniline xenobiotics and drugs by amino acid derivatives: toxicological implications of radical-transfer reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Karim; Baghdasarian, Argishti; Narwaley, Malyaj; Aljuhani, Naif; Siraki, Arno G

    2013-12-16

    We investigated a novel scavenging mechanism of arylamine free radicals by poly- and monoaminocarboxylates. Free radicals of arylamine xenobiotics and drugs did not react with oxygen in peroxidase-catalyzed reactions; however, they showed marked oxygen uptake in the presence of an aminocarboxylate. These free-radical intermediates were identified using the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), a polyaminocarboxylate, caused a concentration-dependent attenuation of N-centered radicals produced by the peroxidative metabolism of arylamines with the subsequent formation of secondary aliphatic carbon-centered radicals stemming from the cosubstrate molecule. Analogously, N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) and N-methyliminodiacetate (MIDA), but not iminodiacetic acid (IDA), demonstrated a similar scavenging effect of arylamine-derived free radicals in a horseradish peroxidase/H2O2 system. Using human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell lysate as a model of human neutrophils, DTPA, MIDA, and DMG readily reduced anilinium cation radicals derived from the arylamines and gave rise to the corresponding carbon radicals. The rate of peroxidase-triggered polymerization of aniline was studied as a measure of nitrogen-radical scavenging. Although, IDA had no effect on the rate of aniline polymerization, this was almost nullified in the presence of DTPA and MIDA at half of the molar concentration of the aniline substrate, whereas a 20 molar excess of DMPO caused only a partial inhibition. Furthermore, the yield of formaldehyde, a specific reaction endproduct of the oxidation of aminocarboxylates by aniline free-radical metabolites, was quantitatively determined. Azobenzene, a specific reaction product of peroxidase-catalyzed free-radical dimerization of aniline, was fully abrogated in the presence of DTPA, as confirmed by GC/MS. Under aerobic conditions, a radical-transfer reaction

  19. Radical-scavenging Activity of Natural Methoxyphenols vs. Synthetic Ones using the Induction Period Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Yokoe

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The radical-scavenging activities of the synthetic antioxidants 2-allyl-4-X-phenol (X=NO2, Cl, Br, OCH3, COCH3, CH3, t-(CH33, C6H5 and 2,4-dimethoxyphenol, and the natural antioxidants eugenol and isoeugenol, were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC by measuring their anti-1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical activity and the induction period for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN and benzoyl peroxide (BPO. 2-Allyl-4-methoxyphenol and 2,4-dimethoxy-phenol scavenged not only oxygen-centered radicals (PhCOO. derived from BPO, but also carbon-centered radicals (R. derived from the AIBN and DPPH radical much more efficiently, in comparison with eugenol and isoeugenol. 2-Allyl-4-methoxyphenol may be useful for its lower prooxidative activity.

  20. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of various extracts of leaves from Kedrostis foetidissima (Jacq. Cogn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaisezhiyen Pavithra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the in vitro free radical scavenging activity of various leaf extracts (aqueous, methanol, acetone chloroform and petroleum ether of Kedrostis foetidissima. In vitro free radical scavenging activities of the extracts were assessed against DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The metal chelating activity and reducing power ability of the extracts were also determined. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be high in methanolic extract for DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration dependent manner followed by chloroform, aqueous, acetone and petroleum ether extracts. The metal chelating activity and reducing power ability was also found to be high in methanolic extract. The difference in scavenging potential of the extracts may be due to variation in the percentage of phytoconstituents extracted in various solvents. Thus the result suggests that the methanolic leaf extract of K. foetidissima could serve as a potential source of antioxidants and can be explored as a therapeutic agent in free radical induced diseases.

  1. [Correlation Between Functional Groups and Radical Scavenging Activities of Acidic Polysaccharides from Dendrobium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ying; Yuan, Wen-yu; Zheng, Wen-ke; Luo, Ao-xue; Fan, Yi-jun

    2015-11-01

    To compare the radical scavenging activity of five different acidic polysaccharides, and to find the correlation with the functional groups. Alkali extraction method and Stepwise ethanol precipitation method were used to extract and concentrate the five Dendrobium polysaccharides, and to determine the contents of sulfuric acid and uronic acid of each kind of acidic polysaccharides, and the scavenging activity to ABTS+ radical and hydroxyl radical. Functional group structures were examined by FTIR Spectrometer. Five kinds of Dendrobium polysaccharides had different ability of scavenging ABTS+ free radical and hydroxyl free radical. Moreover, the study had shown that five kinds of antioxidant activity of acidic polysaccharides had obvious correlation withuronic acid and sulfuric acid. The antioxidant activity of each sample was positively correlated with the content of uronic acid, and negatively correlated with the content of sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid can inhibit the antioxidant activity of acidic polysaccharide but uronic acid can enhance the free radical scavenging activity. By analyzing the structure characteristics of five acidic polysaccharides, all samples have similar structures, however, Dendrobium denneanum, Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium officinale which had β configuration have higher antioxidant activity than Dendrobium nobile and Dendrobium fimbriatum which had a configuration.

  2. Synthesis of novel carbazole chalcones as radical scavenger, antimicrobial and cancer chemopreventive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandgar, Babasaheb P; Adsul, Laxman K; Lonikar, Shrikant V; Chavan, Hemant V; Shringare, Sadanand N; Patil, Sachin A; Jalde, Shivkumar S; Koti, Basawaraj A; Dhole, Nagesh A; Gacche, Rajesh N; Shirfule, Amol

    2013-06-01

    A series of novel carbazole chalcones has been synthesised and evaluated for radical scavenging activity, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities. Compounds 12m, 12o and 12c exhibited good 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, compounds 12e, 12m and 12d were excellent hydroxyl radical scavengers and compounds 12a, 12e, 12g, 12n and 12m have shown inhibition of oxidative DNA damage induced by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane hydrochloride). Compounds 12j, 12i, 12n, 12c, 12m and 12e were most active against the selected cancer cell lines. Compounds 12a, 12e and 12m showed good antibacterial activity and compounds 12h and 12m have shown good antifungal activity. All the compounds were subjected for absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) predictions by computational method and found that these molecules could be considered as potential candidates for oral drug development.

  3. Novel hydroxyl radical scavenging antioxidant activity assay for water-soluble antioxidants using a modified CUPRAC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektaşoğlu, Burcu; Esin Celik, Saliha; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Apak, Reşat

    2006-07-07

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion, hydroxyl ((*)OH), peroxyl, and alkoxyl radicals may attack biological macromolecules giving rise to oxidative stress-originated diseases. Since (*)OH is very short-lived, secondary products resulting from (*)OH attack to various probes are measured. Although the measurement of aromatic hydroxylation with HPLC/electrochemical detection is more specific than the low-yield TBARS test, it requires sophisticated instrumentation. As a more convenient and less costly alternative, we used p-aminobenzoate, 2,4- and 3,5-dimethoxybenzoate probes for detecting hydroxyl radicals generated from an equivalent mixture of Fe(II)+EDTA with hydrogen peroxide. The produced hydroxyl radicals attacked both the probe and the water-soluble antioxidants in 37 degrees C-incubated solutions for 2h. The CUPRAC (i.e., our original method for total antioxidant capacity assay) absorbance of the ethylacetate extract due to the reduction of Cu(II)-neocuproine reagent by the hydroxylated probe decreased in the presence of (*)OH scavengers, the difference being proportional to the scavenging ability of the tested compound. A rate constant for the reaction of the scavenger with hydroxyl radical can be deduced from the inhibition of color formation. The second-order rate constants of the scavengers were determined with competition kinetics by means of a linear plot of A(0)/A as a function of C(scavenger)/C(probe), where A(0) and A are the CUPRAC absorbances of the system in the absence and presence of scavenger, respectively, and C is the molar concentration of relevant species. The 2,4- and 3,5-dimethoxybenzoates were the best probes in terms of linearity and sensitivity. Iodide, metabisulfite, hexacyanoferrate(II), thiourea, formate, and dimethyl sulfoxide were shown by the modified CUPRAC assay to be more effective scavengers than mannitol, glucose, lysine, and simple alcohols, as in the TBARS assay. The developed method is less lengthy, more

  4. Screening of Antioxidant and Radical Scavenging Activities of Some Omani Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Al-Busafi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available n-Butanol extracts of nine medicinal plants, Cressa cretica, Ziziphus spina-christ, Acacia tortilis, Tephrosia haussknechti, Aristolochiae bracteolata, Citrullus colocynthis, Teucrium mascatense, Rhazya stricta and Nerium oleander, found in Oman were screened for their antioxidant activity using phosphomolybdenum complex assays and their radical scavenging activity using DPPH assays. Ocimumi basilicum, a plant with well documented antioxidant activity, was used as a reference. A. tortilis, and T. haussknechti extracts possessed very high antioxidant activity (AOA and high radical scavenging activity (RSA.

  5. Chemical Constituents and their DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of Nepalese Crude Drug Begonia picta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khem Raj Joshi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitexin (1, isovitexin (2, orientin (3, isoorientin (4 and 1, 3 - dih y d roxy - 6, 7 - dimethoxyxanthone (5 were isolated from the whole plant of Begonia picta , a Nepalese crude drug commonly known as “ Magarkaanche ”. Structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods. All of these compounds were isolated for the first time from B. picta and their in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl ( DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Compounds 3 and 4 showed significant free radical scavenging activity.

  6. Free radical scavenging activity of Pterogyne nitens Tul. (Fabaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... and the mechanism of antioxidant action of hydroxyflavones. Free. Radical Biol. Med. 31: 868-881. Lorenzi H (1998). Árvores brasileiras; manual de identificação e cultivo de plantas arbóreas do Brasil. Plantarum, Nova Odessa, p. 162. Markham KR, Ternai B, Stanley R, Geiger H, Mabry TJ (1978). Carbon-.

  7. In vitro antibacterial and radical scavenging activities of Malaysian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six types of table salad (ulam) namely Mentha arvensis (mint), Lactuca sativa var capitata (cabbage lettuce), Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (winged bean), Pluchea indica Less. (beluntas), Premna cordifolia (bebuas) and Limnocharis flava L. buchenau (yellow velvetleaf) were investigated for their antimicrobial and radical ...

  8. Structural evidence for the DPPH radical-scavenging mechanism of 2-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Akihiro; Iomori, Atsuko; Ito, Hideyuki

    2017-10-15

    2-O-α-d-Glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) exhibits biological activities after enzymatic hydrolysis to ascorbic acid (AA) by α-glucosidase. We have found that AA-2G per se exerted radical-scavenging activity toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH radical). The radical-scavenging property of AA-2G was greatly different from that of AA; that is, the reaction rate with DPPH radical of AA-2G was far slower than that of AA, but the long-lasting radical-scavenging ability per one molecule of AA-2G was superior to that of AA. We purified key intermediates for the characteristic radical-scavenging reaction of AA-2G and carried out time-course studies of the radical-scavenging reactions of the intermediates, AA-2G and AA to determine both the reaction rate and stoichiometry of AA-2G with DPPH radical. One mole of AA-2G quenched 2.7mol of DPPH radical over a period of 120min, while one mole of AA quenched 1.9mol of the radical. The high reaction stoichiometry of AA-2G against DPPH radical was associated with adduct formation of AA-2G with DPPH radical. The radical-scavenging reaction mechanism of AA-2G consists of the following three steps: (1) At an early stage of the reaction, AA-2G scavenged DPPH radical to generate AA-2G radical, (2) AA-2G radical immediately reacted with an additional DPPH radical to give two types of AA-2G-DPPH adducts and (3) AA-2G-DPPH adducts slowly quenched the other DPPH radical to generate several reaction products. Our results suggest the practical value of AA-2G, even before being converted into AA, as a beneficial antioxidant in food and cosmetic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radical-scavenging activity of penicillin G, ampicillin, oxacillin, and dicloxacillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berczyński, Paweł; Kładna, Aleksandra; Kruk, Irena; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the antioxidant activity of penicillin G (PG), ampicillin (AMP), oxacillin (OX) and dicloxacillin (DOX) through their reactivity towards reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion radical, O2•̅; hydroxyl radical, HO(•) ; peroxyl radical, ROO(•) ; hydrogen peroxide, H2 O2 ; DPPH(•) ) using various in vitro antioxidant assays with chemiluminescence (CL) and spectrophotometry as measurement techniques. In hydroxyl radical assays , PG, OX and AMP were found to inhibit the CL signal arising from the Fenton-like reaction in a dose-dependent manner with IC50  = 0.480 ± 0.020 mM, IC50  = 0.569 ± 0.021 mM, and IC50  = 0.630 ± 0.019 mM, respectively. The highest reactivity of PG among the tested penicillins towards the HO radical was confirmed in the deoxyribose degradation assay. In the ABAP-derived ROO radical assay, the radical-scavenging ability of the test penicillins was in the following order: AMP > PG > DOX > OX. The number of reduced DPPH radicals by the drugs tested was <1 being the biggest for PG. The weak antioxidant capacity of the test penicillins was confirmed in the trolox antioxidant capacity assay (0.075 ± 0.004; 0.093 ± 0.006; 0.123 ± 0.005; 0.126 ± 0.004) for OX, AMP, DOX, PG, respectively. Use of luminol as a CL probe for estimation of penicillin reactivity towards H2 O2 showed that only AMP was able to quench light emission; the remaining antibiotics demonstrated a strong enhancing effect. All the examined compounds showed a weak antioxidant potential when estimated using the ferric-ferrozine assay. This study is the first to report the evaluation of test penicillins as antioxidants under the same reaction conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Influence of Tunisian Ficus carica fruit variability in phenolic profiles and in vitro radical scavenging potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emna Faleh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ficus carica L., Moraceae, is one of the first plants that were cultivated by humans, being the fruit an important crop worldwide for dry and fresh consumption. In this work, phenolics and antioxidant potential of dried fruits of seventeen Tunisian F. carica varieties, from green, red and black phenotypes, were assessed for the first time. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed. All samples presented a similar qualitative profile. The phenolics content ranged between 29.18 and 55.56 mg/kg (in black and red phenotypes, respectively and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside was always the major compound. The antioxidant potential against DPPH•, superoxide and nitric oxide radicals of three varieties representing each phenotype was checked. All samples exhibited activity against the first two radicals in a concentration-dependent way, "Bayoudi" variety being the most effective one (IC25 values of 10.32 and 2.89 µg/ mL, respectively. Nevertheless, only "Hammouri" variety presented some capacity to scavenge nitric oxide radical. Our results reveal nice perspectives for these typical fruits, as they present an interesting phenolic composition and good antiradical activity and may encourage their consumption for health protection.

  11. Selenium-Doped Carbon Quantum Dots for Free-Radical Scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Li, Tianyu; Sun, Chenxing; Xia, Jiahao; Jiao, Yang; Xu, Huaping

    2017-08-07

    Heteroatom doping is an effective way to adjust the fluorescent properties of carbon quantum dots. However, selenium-doped carbon dots have rarely been reported, even though selenium has unique chemical properties such as redox-responsive properties owing to its special electronegativity. Herein, a facile and high-output strategy to fabricate selenium-doped carbon quantum dots (Se-CQDs) with green fluorescence (quantum yield 7.6 %) is developed through the hydrothermal treatment of selenocystine under mild conditions. Selenium heteroatoms endow the Se-CQDs with redox-dependent reversible fluorescence. Furthermore, free radicals such as (.) OH can be effectively scavenged by the Se-CQDs. Once Se-CQDs are internalized into cells, harmful high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells are decreased. This property makes the Se-CQDs capable of protecting biosystems from oxidative stress. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Radical scavenging and antimicrobial activity of essential oil and extracts of Echinophora sibthorpiana Guss. from Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mileski Ksenija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the antioxidant and antimicrobial effect of essential oil and extracts of Echinophora sibthorpiana Guss. (fam. Apiaceae collected in Macedonia. The chemical composition of E. sibthorpiana essential oil was characterized by the presence of methyl eugenol (60.40%, p-cymene (11.18% and α-phellandrene (10.23%. The free radical scavenging activity of extracts and essential oil was evaluated by DPPH and ABTS assays. The aqueous extract of aerial parts exhibited the strongest scavenging activity (IC50=1.67 mg/ml; results of the ABTS test showed that the most effective was the ethanol extract of aerial parts (1.11 mg vit. C/g. The essential oil showed stronger antioxidant activity compared to hydroxyanisole, ascorbic acid and quercetin that were used in the DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. The total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations in the extracts ranged between 38.65-60.72 mg GA/g, and 3.15-19.00 mg Qu/g, respectively. The antimicrobial properties of the extracts and essential oil were investigated using a micro-well dilution technique against human pathogenic strains. The results were comparable with the effects of the positive controls, streptomycin and fluconazole. These findings indicate that E. sibthorpiana extracts and oil can be used in preventive treatments and as an alternative for synthetic preservatives. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173029 i br. 173021

  13. Monocyte-macrophage membrane possesses free radicals scavenging activity: stimulation by polyphenols or by paraoxonase 1 (PON1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblat, M; Elias, A; Volkova, N; Aviram, M

    2013-04-01

    In the current study, we analysed free radicals scavenging activity of monocytes-macrophages in the absence or presence of antioxidants such as polyphenols or paraoxonase 1 (PON1). THP-1 human monocytic cell line, murine J774A.1 macrophages, as well as human primary monocytes have the capability to scavenge free radicals, as measured by the 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. This effect (which could be attributed to the cell's membrane) was cell number and incubation time dependent. Upon incubation of J774A.1 macrophages with acetylated LDL (Ac-LDL), with VLDL, or with the radical generator, AAPH, the cells' lipid peroxides content, and paraoxonase 2 (PON2) activity were significantly increased. While non-treated cells decreased DPPH absorbance by 65%, the Ac-LDL-, VLDL- or AAPH-treated cells, decreased it by only 33%, 30%, or 45%, respectively. We next analysed the effect of J774A.1 macrophage enrichment with antioxidants, such as polyphenols or PON1 on the cells' free radicals scavenging activity. Non-treated cells decreased DPPH absorbance by 50%, whereas vitamin E-, punicalagin- or PJ-treated cells significantly further decreased it, by 75%. Similarly, in PON1-treated cells DPPH absorbance was further decreased by 63%, in association with 23% increment in PON1 catalytic activity. In cells under oxidative stress [treated with AAPH-, or with oxidized LDL], PON1 activity was decreased by 31% or 40%, as compared to the activity observed in PON1 incubated with non-treated cells. We conclude that monocytes-macrophages possess free radicals scavenging activity, which is decreased under atherogenic conditions, and increased upon cell enrichment with potent antioxidants such as nutritional polyphenols, or PON1.

  14. Hydroxyl radical-scavenging property of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) isolated from flax-seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K

    1997-03-01

    Recently there has been a moderate resurgence in the use of flax-seed in a variety of ways including bread. The scientific basis of its use is very limited. There is some claim for beneficial effects in cancer and lupus nephritis. These claims could be due to its ability to scavenge oxygen radicals. However, its antioxidant activity is not known. Recently a method has been developed to isolate secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) from defatted flax-seed in large quantity (patent pending). We investigated the ability of SDG to scavenge .OH using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. .OH was generated by photolysis of H2O2 (1.25-10.0 mumoles/ml) with ultraviolet light and was trapped with salicylic acid which is hydroxylated to produce .OH-adduct products 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 2,5-DHBA. H2O2 produced a concentration-dependent .OH as estimated by 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA. A standard curve was constructed for known concentrations of 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA against corresponding area under the peaks which then was used for measurement of 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA generated by UV irradiation of H2O2 in the presence of salicylic acid. SDG in the concentration range of 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 2000 micrograms/ml (36.4, 72.8, 145.6, 364.0, 728.0, 1092.0, 1456.0 and 2912.0 microM respectively) produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the formation of 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA, the inhibition being 4 and 4.65% respectively with 25 micrograms/ml (36.4 microM) and 82 and 74% respectively with 2000 micrograms/ml (2912.0 microM). The decrease in .OH-adduct products was due to scavenging of .OH and not by scavenging of formed 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA. SDG prevented the lipid peroxidation of liver homogenate in a concentration-dependent manner in the concentration range from 319.3-2554.4 microM. These results suggest that SDG scavenges .OH and therefore has an antioxidant activity.

  15. Preventive efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract of Cymbopogon citratus against radiation-induced DNA damage on V79 cells and free radical scavenging ability against radicals generated in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B S S; Shanbhoge, R; Rao, B N; Adiga, S K; Upadhya, D; Aithal, B K; Kumar, M R S

    2009-04-01

    This study presents the findings of free radical scavenging and antigenotoxic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Cymbopogon citratus (CCE). The CCE at a concentration of 60 microg/mL resulted in a significant scavenging ability of 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH; (85%), 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS; 77%), hydroxyl (70%), superoxide (76%), nitric oxide (78%) free radicals generated using in vitro and also a moderate anti-lipid peroxidative effect (57%). Further, the radiation-induced antigenotoxic potential of CCE was assessed in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79) using micronucleus assay. The CCE resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the yield of radiation-induced micronuclei, with a maximum effect at 125 microg/mL CCE for 1 h before 2 Gy of radiation. Similarly, there was a significant (P < 0.05-0.0001) decrease in percentage of micronuclei when V79 cells were treated with optimal dose of CCE (125 microg/mL) before exposure to different doses of gamma radiation, that is, 0.5-4 Gy, compared with radiation alone groups. The results of the micronucleus study indicated antigenotoxic effect demonstrating the radioprotective potential of CCE and, which may partly due to its and antioxidant capacity as it presented its ability to scavenge various free radicals in vitro and anti-lipid peroxidative potential.

  16. Isolation and identification of radical scavengers in olive tree (Olea europaea) wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Salido, S.; Beek, van T.A.; Linares-Palomino, P.J.; Altarejos, J.; Nogueras, M.; Sánchez, A.

    2006-01-01

    Several extracts of Olea europaea wood (Picual olive cultivar) were obtained with solvents of different polarity and their antioxidant activities determined. The active compounds were detected in fractions of an ethyl acetate extract using HPLC with on-line radical scavenging detection. After

  17. Preliminary assay on the radical scavenging activity of olive wood extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altarejos, J.; Salido, S.; Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Linares-Palomino, P.J.; Beek, van T.A.; Nogueras, M.; Sánchez, A.

    2005-01-01

    The dichloromethane and ethanol extracts of Olea europaea wood (picual olive cultivar) were screened for antioxidant activity, determined by the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The ethanol extract displayed potent antioxidant activity. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical Constituents with Free-Radical-Scavenging Activities from the Stem of Microcos paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The free-radical-scavenging activities of various solvent extracts of Microcos paniculata were evaluated through in vitro model systems, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS and Co (II EDTA-induced luminol chemiluminescence by flow injection. In all three of these systems the ethyl acetate (EtOAc extract showed the highest free-radical-scavenging activity compared with the other three (n-BuOH, water and petroleum ether extracts. Free-radical-scavenging assay-guided chromatographic separation of the EtOAc extract, using a normal-phase and reverse-phase silica gel column chromatography yielded five compounds: a new triterpene named methyl 3b-O-p-hydroxy-E-cinnamoyloxy-2a,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oate (1, whose spectral data are presented for the first time, together with four known compounds, epicatechin (2, 3-trans-feruloyl maslinic acid (3, maslinic acid (4 and sucrose (5. All of the compounds were isolated from Microcos paniculata for the first time. The compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods. Among them, compound 2 displayed significant free-radical-scavenging activity which is similar to that of standard antioxidant ascorbic acid (VC and therefore may be a promising natural antioxidant.

  19. An easy and fast test to compare total free radical scavenger capacity of foodstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler-Rivas, C.; Espin, J.C.; Wichers, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    An easy and fast test has been designed to compare the total free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of various food samples. Black and green teas from different countries, and wines of different brands were studied and compared as examples of coloured liquids (water- and methanol-soluble); oils from

  20. Iron-chelating, free radical scavenging and anti-proliferative activities of Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangjit, Kanjana; Tantiphaipunwong, Payungsak; Sajjapong, Wittawas; Srichairatanakool, Somdet

    2014-04-01

    Excessive production of reactive oxygen species leads to oxidative stress which occurs in various diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and secondary iron overload in thalassemia. Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit the oxidative processes and delay or suppress oxidative stress. Phytochemicals in herbs are interesting sources of natural antioxidants with cancer preventive properties. The use of natural products is beneficial for the prevention and/or treatment of oxidative stress mediated diseases. The study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-proliferative properties of ethanolic extract from Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves. Neem leaves were extracted by 80% ethanol (v/v). The ethanolic extract was tested for free radical scavenging activity by 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiaziline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and for the reduction of the power of ferric ion (Fe3+) to ferrousion (Fe2+) by ferric reducing antioxidant plasma (FRAP) assay. Furthermore, the ability of iron-binding activity was investigated by the spectrophotometry technique. The inhibitory effect on the growth of human promyelocytic leukemic cell line (HL-60 cells) was determined by MTT assay. The ethanolic extract from neem leaves exhibited free radical scavenging activities and reduced the power of ferric ion (Fe3+) to ferrous ion (Fe2+) in dose responses. Furthermore, it was able to bind with iron rapidly within 5 minutes. Interestingly, this extract inhibited human promyelocytic leukemic cell line (HL-60 cells) growth in concentration response (0-500 microg/ml) for 24 hour treatment. The ethanolic extract from neem leaves had strong antioxidant activity and an anti-proliferative effect on cancer cells.

  1. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some medicinal plants from the Lamiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkowski, Adam; Piotrowska, Magdalena

    2006-07-01

    Antioxidative effects of methanolic extracts from six wild European Lamiaceae species have been studied with the use of three in vitro assays. The ability of scavenging free radicals was measured by DPPH reduction spectrophotometric assay. The reducing potential towards transition metals was tested by phosphomolybdenum method and the inhibition of lipid oxidation was tested by Fe/ascorbate system with photometric TBARS detection. All studied herbs exposed strong antioxidant capability, but the results were different for each species depending on the applied test. In DPPH scavenging the order from strongest to the weakest was: Leonurus cardiaca, Lamium album, Marrubium vulgare, Stachys officinalis, Lamium purpureum, Galeopsis speciosa. With phosphomolybdenum method the extract of S. officinalis was the strongest in both 40 degrees Celsius and 90 degrees Celsius but other species acted differently in both temperatures. In lipid peroxidation assay, the maximum inhibition of 78% was reached by S. officinalis and M. vulgare, whereas for both Lamium sp. and L. cardiaca slightly exceeded 70% and for G. speciosa reached 65%. The observed differences indicate the complexity of involved mechanisms and support the necessity of combining several assays in studying the antioxidant potential of medicinal plants.

  2. Determination of Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenols of Wine and Spices: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugemwa, Fulgentius Nelson; Snyder, Amanda L; Shaikh, Koonj

    2013-07-25

    Thirty eight bottles of red wine (Carbanet Sauvignon) were randomly selected based on vintage, region, price, and age (number of months in a barrel). The total phenolic content of each wine was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Apart from a few bottles that exhibited above average radical scavenging activity and phenolic content, there was no good correlation of those two quantities with region, price or vintage. The average phenolic amount was 2874 mg/L. The lowest phenolic content was found to be 1648 mg/L for an eight dollar wine. Wine with the highest amount of phenol of 4495 mg/L was a 2007, nine dollar bottle from South America. High amount of phenols did not translate into high radical scavenging activity. Barrel-aging did not increase the amount of phenols or the radical scavenging activity of wine. In order to discover new and potent sources of antioxidants from plants, the following spices were studied: ginger, cilantro, cumin, anise, linden, eucalyptus, marjoram, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary. Whole spices were crushed and extracted for 96 h at room temperature using a combination of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 4.5:4.5:1 (v/v/v). The radical scavenging activity of extracts was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The total phenolic content of each spice was also determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Eucalyptus was found to be the most potent antioxidant with an LC50 of 324.1 mg of phenol/L, followed by marjoram with an LC50 of 407.5 mg of phenol/L, and rosemary with an LC50 of 414.0 mg/L. The least potent antioxidants were ginger and cilantro with LC50 of 7604 mg/L of phenol and 7876 mg of phenol/L, respectively.

  3. Radical Scavenging Activities of Tannin Extracted from Amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyeon-Ju; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Yoon, Jin A; Lee, Kwon-Jai; Song, Byeong Chun; An, Jeung Hee

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the bioactivity of tannin from amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) extracts. The antioxidant activities of the extracts from amaranth leaves, flowers, and seeds were evaluated. Tannin from leaves of amaranth has been evaluated for superoxide scavenging activity by using DPPH and ABTS(+) analysis, reducing power, protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in L-132 and BNL-CL2 cells, and inhibition of superoxide radical effects on HL-60 cells. At a concentration of 100 μg/ml, tannin showed protective effects and restored cell survival to 69.2% and 41.8% for L-132 and BNL-CL2 cells, respectively. Furthermore, at the same concentration, tannin inhibited 41% of the activity of the superoxide radical on HL-60 cells and 43.4% of the increase in nitric oxide levels in RAW 264.7 cells. The expression levels of the antioxidant-associated protein SOD-1 were significantly increased in a concentration-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells treated with tannin from amaranth leaves. These results suggest that tannin from the leaves of Amaranthus caudatus L. is a promising source of antioxidant component that can be used as a food preservative or nutraceutical.

  4. Evaluation of antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal activities of Artemisia scoparia and A. Spicigera, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba H. Afshar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia species (Asteraceae, widespread throughout the world, are a group of important medicinal plants. The extracts of two medicinal plants of this genus, Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. and A. spicigera C. Koch, were evaluated for potential antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal properties, using the heme biocrystallisation and inhibition assay, the DPPH assay and the contact toxicity bioassay using the pest Tribolium castaneum, respectively. The methanol extracts of both species showed strong free-radical-scavenging activity and the RC50 values were 0.0317 and 0.0458 mg/mL, respectively, for A. scoparia and A. spicigera. The dichloromethane extracts of both species displayed a moderate level of potential antimalarial activity providing IC50 at 0.778 and 0.999 mg/mL for A. scoparia and A. spicigera, respectively. Both species of Artemisia showed insecticidal properties. However, A. spicigera was more effective than A. scoparia.

  5. Composition of Essential Oil, Radical Scavenging and Antibacterial Properties of Interspecific Hybrid Thymus × oblongifolius Opiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lo žienė

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical scavenging and antibacterial properties of thyme extracts isolated from the two different Thymus × oblongifolius Opiz samples (TO1 and TO2 were studied. The oil of the TO1 was constituted mainly of hydrocarbon terpenes (83.4%, while the oil of the TO2 was composed mainly of oxygenated compounds with a -terpenyl acetate (37.9% being the major one. The extracts isolated with hexane, acetone and ethanol from the whole and deodorized herb were tested for their radical scavenging capacity (RSC in the model reaction systems containing stable radical DPPH • and cation radical ABTS •+. The extracts isolated with ethanol from undeodorized herb possessed the strongest RSC, while hexane extracts were not active. Undeodorized acetone extracts of the TO1 possessed higher RSC than those of the TO2, while undeodorized ethanol extracts of the TO2 were stronger radical scavengers than similar extracts of the TO1. The antibacterial activity of the extracts tested by using seven food pathogenic species depended on the species, extract concentration and extract type. Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and St. epidermidis were more sensitive to plant extracts than Micrococcus luteus, Esherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Enterobacter aerogenes.

  6. Functionalized graphene quantum dots loaded with free radicals combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry to screen radical scavenging natural antioxidants from Licorice and Scutellariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Niu, XiuLi; Shi, Gaofeng; Chen, Xuefu; Yao, Ruixing; Chen, Fuwen

    2014-12-01

    A novel screening method was developed for the detection and identification of radical scavenging natural antioxidants based on a free radical reaction combined with liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Functionalized graphene quantum dots were prepared for loading free radicals in the complex screening system. The detection was performed with and without a preliminary exposure of the samples to specific free radicals on the functionalized graphene quantum dots, which can facilitate charge transfer between free radicals and antioxidants. The difference in chromatographic peak areas was used to identify potential antioxidants. This is a novel approach to simultaneously evaluate the antioxidant power of a component versus a free radical, and to identify it in a vegetal matrix. The structures of the antioxidants in the samples were identified using tandem mass spectrometry and comparison with standards. Fourteen compounds were found to possess potential antioxidant activity, and their free radical scavenging capacities were investigated. The order of scavenging capacity of 14 compounds was compared according to their free radical scavenging rate. 4',5,6,7-Tetrahydroxyflavone (radical scavenging rate: 0.05253 mL mg(-1) s(-1) ) showed the strongest capability for scavenging free radicals. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Drops and Spray Containing Propolis-An EPR Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczyk, Pawel; Komosinska-Vassev, Katarzyna; Ramos, Pawel; Mencner, Lukasz; Olczyk, Krystyna; Pilawa, Barbara

    2017-01-13

    The influence of heating at a temperature of 50 °C and UV-irradiation of propolis drops and spray on their free radical scavenging activity was determined. The kinetics of interactions of the propolis samples with DPPH free radicals was analyzed. Interactions of propolis drops and propolis spray with free radicals were examined by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. A spectrometer generating microwaves of 9.3 GHz frequency was used. The EPR spectra of the model DPPH free radicals were compared with the EPR spectra of DPPH in contact with the tested propolis samples. The antioxidative activity of propolis drops and propolis spray decreased after heating at the temperature of 50 °C. A UV-irradiated sample of propolis drops more weakly scavenged free radicals than an untreated sample. The antioxidative activity of propolis spray increased after UV-irradiation. The sample of propolis drops heated at the temperature of 50 °C quenched free radicals faster than the unheated sample. UV-irradiation weakly changed the kinetics of propolis drops or spray interactions with free radicals. EPR analysis indicated that propolis drops and spray should not be stored at a temperature of 50 °C. Propolis drops should not be exposed to UV-irradiation.

  8. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülçin, Ilhami

    2005-11-01

    Water and ethanol crude extracts from black pepper (Piper nigrum) were investigated for their antioxidant and radical scavenging activities in six different assay, namely, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. Both water extract (WEBP) and ethanol extract (EEBP) of black pepper exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. The 75 microg/ml concentration of WEBP and EEBP showed 95.5% and 93.3% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. On the other hand, at the same concentration, standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol exhibited 92.1%, 95.0%, and 70.4% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. Also, total phenolic content in both WEBP and EEBP were determined as gallic acid equivalents. The total phenolics content of water and ethanol extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and 54.3 and 42.8 microg gallic acid equivalent of phenols was detected in 1 mg WEBP and EEBP.

  9. Novel spectroscopic sensor for the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity measurement of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekdeşer, Burcu; Özyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Apak, Reşat

    2012-09-15

    A novel spectroscopic sensor was developed and validated for hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS) activity estimation using terephthalate (TP) as probe. This sensor was designed by electrostatic immobilization of the chromogenic oxidizing agent of the CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (CUPRAC) method, Cu(II)-Neocuproine (Cu(II)-Nc) complex, on a Nafion cation-exchange membrane, and the spectrophotometric assay developed in aqueous-alcoholic solutions was integrated to the CUPRAC sensor. Hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH) generated from an equivalent mixture of Fe(II)+EDTA with hydrogen peroxide attacked both the probe and the (•)OH scavengers in 37 °C-incubated solutions for 1/2h. The HRS activity was measured using the decrease in CUPRAC absorbance at 450 nm - arising from the reduction of Cu(II)-Nc reagent to the Cu(I)-neocuproine chelate - of the hydroxylated probe (TP) undergoing radical attack in the presence of (•)OH scavengers. The HRS activity was evaluated as the second-order rate constants of biologically active compounds for (•)OH scavenging and also as the percentage scavenging of a measured compound or sample relative to a reference compound. Using this reaction, a kinetic approach was adopted to assess the HRS activity of amino acids, plasma- and thiol-antioxidants. This assay, applicable to small molecule antioxidants and tissue homogenates, proved to be efficient for serine and albumin for which the widely used TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) test is nonresponsive. Under optimal conditions, about half of the probe (TP) was converted into 2-hydroxyterephthalate (hTP), and this monohydroxylated derivative, being the only product of hydroxylation, was a more specific marker of (•)OH than the non-specific malondialdehyde end-product of the TBARS test. The sensor gave a linear response to scavenger concentration in the competition kinetic equation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Metallothionein as a Scavenger of Free Radicals - New Cardioprotective Therapeutic Agent or Initiator of Tumor Chemoresistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Zbynek; Rodrigo, Miguel Angel Merlos; Krizkova, Sona; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Zalewska, Marta; Del Pozo, Elena Maria Planells; Pelfrene, Aurelie; Pourrut, Bertrand; Stiborova, Marie; Eckschlager, Tomas; Emri, Gabriella; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    Cardiotoxicity is a serious complication of anticancer therapy by anthracycline antibiotics. Except for intercalation into DNA/RNA structure, inhibition of DNA-topoisomerase and histone eviction from chromatin, the main mechanism of their action is iron-mediated formation of various forms of free radicals, which leads to irreversible damage to cancer cells. The most serious adverse effect of anthracyclines is, thus, cardiomyopathy leading to congestive heart failure, which is caused by the same mechanisms. Here, we briefly summarize the basic types of free radicals formed by anthracyclines and the main processes how to scavenge them. From these, the main attention is paid to metallothioneins. These low-molecular cysteine-rich proteins are introduced and their functions and properties are reviewed. Further, their role in detoxification of metals and drugs is discussed. Based on these beneficial roles, their use as a new therapeutic agent against oxidative stress and for cardioprotection is critically evaluated with respect to their ability to increase chemoresistance against some types of commonly used cytostatics.

  11. Free radical scavenging and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of Origanum majorana L. essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossa, A T H; Nawwar, G A M

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, Origanum majorana L. essential oil (EO) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and evaluated for free radical scavenging and anticholinesterase activities. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 4-terpineol (29.97%), γ-terpinene (15.40%), trans-sabinene hydrate (10.93), α-terpinene (6.86%), 3-cycolohexene-1-1 methanal,a,a4-trimethyl-,(S)-(CAS) (6.54%), and sabinene (3.91%) as main constituents. Origanum majorana L. EO exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitory effects on 2,2'-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)), hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, reducing power, and lipid peroxidation with IC(50) values of 58.67, 67.11, 91.25, 78.67, and 68.75 µg/mL, respectively; while the IC(50) values for the standard trolox were noted to be 23.95, 44.97, 51.30, 42.22, and 52.72 µg/mL, respectively. Interestingly, cholinesterase inhibitory activity was also found with IC(50) values of 36.40 µg/mL. We can conclude that the marjoram EO has a significant potential to be used as a natural antioxidant and anti-AChE.

  12. The Relationships between Phenolic Content, Pollen Diversity, Physicochemical Information and Radical Scavenging Activity in Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Carlo Lozzia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey is rich in different secondary plant metabolites acting as natural antioxidants and contributing to human health. Radical scavenging activity (RSA is related to antioxidant activity, while the correlation between the phenolic content and RSA is often weak. Consequently, exclusive information on phenolics is often insufficient to qualify the RSA and the health promoting effects of honey. The paper deals with a case study of honey samples originating from the alpine areas of Italy’s Lombardia and Veneto regions and realized by standard physicochemical and statistical analytical methods. In pure honey, the total phenolic content and the RSA were measured in spectrophotometric tests with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH· free radical and Folin-Ciocalteu assays, respectively. Melissopalynological data was used to qualify pollen diversity through rank-frequency curves separating the samples into two groups. On the basis of physicochemical data, the samples were analyzed through multivariate classification and ranking procedures resulting in the identification of an outlier. Elimination of the outlier produced a high correlation between the total phenolic content and RSA in the two pollen diversity groups. The case study suggests that, after disregarding outliers, the RSA activity can be satisfactorily qualified on the basis of phenolics with pollen diversity as a covariate.

  13. Prediction of radical scavenging activities of anthocyanins applying adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with quantum chemical descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhin, Changho; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2014-08-22

    Radical scavenging activity of anthocyanins is well known, but only a few studies have been conducted by quantum chemical approach. The adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is an effective technique for solving problems with uncertainty. The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for predicting radical scavenging activities of anthocyanins with good prediction efficiency. ANFIS-applied QSAR models were developed by using quantum chemical descriptors of anthocyanins calculated by semi-empirical PM6 and PM7 methods. Electron affinity (A) and electronegativity (χ) of flavylium cation, and ionization potential (I) of quinoidal base were significantly correlated with radical scavenging activities of anthocyanins. These descriptors were used as independent variables for QSAR models. ANFIS models with two triangular-shaped input fuzzy functions for each independent variable were constructed and optimized by 100 learning epochs. The constructed models using descriptors calculated by both PM6 and PM7 had good prediction efficiency with Q-square of 0.82 and 0.86, respectively.

  14. Modified Radical Scavenging and Antioxidant Activity Measurement of β-Carotene with β-Cyclodextrins Complexation in Aqueous Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Saliha Esin; Bekdeser, Burcu; Tufan, Ayse Nur; Apak, Resat

    2017-01-01

    In order to evaluate the antioxidant capacity/activity of β-carotene (BC) in aqueous media, we investigated the inclusion complexes of BC with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD), 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and 2-hydroxyethyl-β-cyclodextrin (HE-β-CD) that enhance water solubility and chemical stability. The inclusion complexes (monitored by FTIR) exhibited higher solubility than free BC, and phase solubility studies showed a linear increase in the solubility with the Me-β-CD concentration. Cupric ion-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ABTS-persulfate, peroxyl and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays were applied. CD-complexed β-carotene exhibited less effective antioxidative and radical scavenging than free BC dissolved in acetone. β-Carotene showed the highest antioxidant capacity in the presence of HE-β-CD, and the lowest with Me-β-CD, probably due to the deeper and more hydrophobic cavity of the latter. We believe that this is the first report on devising simple spectrophotometric methods for the wholistic assessment of antioxidant activity/capacity, hydroxyl and peroxyl radical scavenging activity of β-carotene in aqueous solution with CDs.

  15. Free radical scavengers in mercuric chloride-induced acute renal failure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paller, M S

    1985-04-01

    Oxygen free radicals have recently been found to mediate cell injury after ischemia in the kidney. We sought to determine whether oxygen free radicals mediate damage in mercuric chloride (HgCl2)-induced acute renal failure, a toxic model of acute renal failure. Neither superoxide dismutase nor allopurinol, which scavenges or inhibits production of superoxide radical, respectively, provided protection against renal dysfunction after HgCl2. Similarly, the hydroxyl radical scavengers tryptophan, N-acetyl-tryptophan, and ascorbic acid were unable to protect against HgCl2. However, dimethylthiourea and dimethyl sulfoxide, both hydroxyl radical scavengers, were beneficial. Dimethylthiourea completely prevented the rise in plasma creatinine concentration after HgCL2. In control rats plasma creatinine concentration rose from 0.4 mg/dl to 3.2 +/- 0.8, 5.1 +/- 1.0, and 6.1 +/- 1.6 mg/dl at 24, 48, and 72 hours after HgCl2. Dimethylthiourea-treated rats had plasma creatinine concentration less than 0.5 mg/dl at all times. Furthermore, a mixture of HgCl2 and equimolar amounts of dimethylthiourea was less toxic than HgCl2 alone. Dimethyl sulfoxide attenuated the HgCl2-induced rise in creatinine concentration: 1.3 +/- 0.2, 3.2 +/- 0.3, and 3.1 +/- 0.2 mg/dl at 24, 48, and 72 hours after HgCl2. Measurement of kidney malondialdehyde content after HgCl2 provided no evidence for oxygen free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation. We conclude that there is no convincing role for oxygen free radicals in the pathogenesis of HgCl2-induced acute renal failure. The ability of dimethylthiourea and dimethyl sulfoxide to protect against HgCl2-induced renal dysfunction may be related to their ability to form complexes with Hg2+.

  16. Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and radical-scavenging properties of Acalypha manniana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumedem, Jaures Ak; Tamokou, Jean de Dieu; Teke, Gerald Ngo; Momo, Rosine Cd; Kuete, Victor; Kuiate, Jules Roger

    2013-01-01

    Acalypha manniana (Euphorbiaceae) is a plant popularly used in Cameroon and in several parts of Africa for the treatment of various microbial diseases like diarrhea and skin infections. The present study was designed to evaluate the phytochemical composition, antimicrobial and radical-scavenging activities of A. manniana methanol leaf extract and its fractions. The methanol extract was partitioned into hexane, ethyl acetate and residual fractions and phytochemical analysis was conducted using standard methods. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against nine bacterial species and four dermatophyte species. The free radical scavenging activities of the methanol extract and its fractions were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The results obtained showed that A. manniana contains alkaloids, tannins, anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenols and steroids. The methanol extract as well as the hexane, ethyl acetate and residual fractions exhibited both antibacterial and antidermatophytic activities that varied between the microbial species (MIC = 0.12 - 2.04 mg/mL). These tested samples also showed high radical-scavenging activities (RaS50 = 3.34 - 4.80 μg/mL) when compared with vitamin C used as reference antioxidant (RaS50 = 1.74 μg/mL). These findings provide evidence that the studied plant possesses antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and may act as potential antioxidant for biological systems susceptible to free radical-mediated reactions.

  17. Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of Radical Scavenging Ability of Ellagic Acid-Loaded Nanogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Behl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ellagic acid (EA, a potential antioxidant phytochemical has low aqueous solubility and bioavailability. In this paper, encapsulation of ellagic acid has been carried out into the biodegradable disulfide crosslinked poly (ethylene glycol PEO-based nanogels synthesized via AGET (activator generated electron transfer ATRP (atom transfer radical polymerization, and their radical scavenging ability was evaluated. The encapsulation of the EA was carried out at two drug loading percentages, that is, 10 and 20 wt.% of the nanogels. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryldrazyl (DPPH assay was utilized in order to assess the radical scavenging ability of the ellagic acid-loaded nanogels. A drug-loading level of about 2.5 wt.% was achieved with encapsulation efficiency of about 25% at 10 wt.% of the EA w.r.t nanogels, which was found to increase to about 4.7 wt.% with decreased encapsulation efficiency of 23.5% as EA content was increased to 20wt.% of the nanogels. Ellagic acid loading was found to be accompanied with increase in the size of the nanogels from 144.6±39.52 nm for neat nanogels to 217.8±105.5 and 633±160.1 nm at 2.5 and 4.7 wt.% drug loading level. The nanogels were found to be capable of scavenging radicals and biocompatible on human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa cells at appropriate concentrations.

  18. Free Radical Scavenging and Alpha/Beta-glucosidases Inhibitory Activities of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Widowati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM is associated with oxidative reaction and hyperglycemic condition. Human body has an antioxidant defense system toward free radical, but overproduction of free radical causing imbalance condition between the free radical and the antioxidant defense in the body that lead to several diseases, including DM. Glucosidase is an enzyme that hydrolize carbohydrates causing increase of blood glucose level, so by inhibiting this enzyme blood glucose level in plasma could be effectively decreased. Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. peel has been reported to have many potential roles, such as antioxidant and anti-glycemia. Therefore our current study was conducted to evaluate possible effectivity of Rambutan peel to scavenge free radical and to inhibit α- and β-glucosidases. METHODS: Rambutan peel extraction (RPE was performed based on maceration method. Geraniin was used as control. For antioxidant study, 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging test was performed. For glucosidase inhibitory activity study,  α- and β-glucosidases inhibitory activity tests were performed. Results were analyzed for median of Inhibitory Concentration (IC50. RESULTS: The scavenging activity of RPE was comparable with Geraniin. Meanwhile, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of RPE was higher than the one of Geraniin. The α-glucosidase-inhibitory-activity IC50 of RPE and Geraniin were 0.106±0.080 μg/ml and 16.12±0.29 μg/ml, respectively. The β-glucosidase inhibitory activity of RPE was also higher than the one of Geraniin. The β-glucosidase-inhibitory-activity IC50 of RPE and Geraniin were 7.02±0.99 μg/ml and 19.81±0.66 μg/ml, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Since RPE showed comparable free radical scavenging activity with Geraniin and higher α- and β-glucosidases inhibitory activities than Geraniin, RPE could be suggested as a promising antioxidant and antiglycemic agent.  KEYWORDS

  19. free radical scavenging and cytotoxic activity of standardized extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ledy

    susceptible to polifenoles (Matić et al., 2010). Our results confirm the cytotoxic effect for the red wine extract on. HeLa cells, and it will be interesting to discover the mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic effect. As shown in. Figure 1G, the red wine extract completely destroyed the cell monolayer, and because the method used ...

  20. Efficient scavenging of β-carotene radical cations by antiinflammatory salicylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hong; Liang, Ran; Han, Rui-Min

    2014-01-01

    by the anion of salicylic acid with 2.2 × 10 L mol s, but still of possible importance for light-exposed tissue. Surprisingly, acetylsalicylate, the aspirin anion, reacts with an intermediate rate in a reaction assigned to the anion of the mixed acetic-salicylic acid anhydride formed through base induced......The radical cation generated during photobleaching of β-carotene is scavenged efficiently by the anion of methyl salicylate from wintergreen oil in a second-order reaction approaching the diffusion limit with k = 3.2 × 10 L mol s in 9:1 v/v chloroform-methanol at 23 °C, less efficiently...... rearrangements. The relative scavenging rate of the β-carotene radical cation by the three salicylates is supported by DFT-calculations....

  1. Study of Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Cotoneaster medicus and Glycyrrhiza glabra Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Heravi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of Cotoneaster medicus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, as endemic plants of Iran, along with mixture of them were investigated for their antioxidant activities using 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH reagent. UV-Vis spectrophotometry method was used to evaluate the ability of Cotoneaster and Glycyrrhiza glabra antioxidant to scavenge DPPH radical. The kinetic parameters such as rate constant and activation energy in experimental conditions were calculated. The rate constants of the H atom abstraction by DPPH (k1, in the presence of C. medicus and G. glabra antioxidant were obtained under pseudo-first-order conditions at different temperatures. The order in DPPH radical-scavenging was: mixture of C. medicus and G. glabra > C. medicus > G.  glabra plants. The numerical values of activation energy were found to be 45.84 kJ.mol-1for G. glabra and 62.02kJ.mol-1 for C. medicus.

  2. Efficient scavenging of β-carotene radical cations by antiinflammatory salicylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hong; Liang, Ran; Han, Rui-Min; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Skibsted, Leif H

    2014-02-01

    The radical cation generated during photobleaching of β-carotene is scavenged efficiently by the anion of methyl salicylate from wintergreen oil in a second-order reaction approaching the diffusion limit with k2 = 3.2 × 10(9) L mol(-1) s(-1) in 9 : 1 v/v chloroform-methanol at 23 °C, less efficiently by the anion of salicylic acid with 2.2 × 10(8) L mol(-1) s(-1), but still of possible importance for light-exposed tissue. Surprisingly, acetylsalicylate, the aspirin anion, reacts with an intermediate rate in a reaction assigned to the anion of the mixed acetic-salicylic acid anhydride formed through base induced rearrangements. The relative scavenging rate of the β-carotene radical cation by the three salicylates is supported by DFT-calculations.

  3. Propolis in Kenya: Antioxidative and Radical Scavenging Activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dept. of Food Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... disease and cancer [1]. Synthetic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyanisole. (BHA), butylated hydroxyltoluene (BHT), and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), are widely used in the food industry because they are effective and less expensive than natural antioxidants. Their safety however, has been ...

  4. Characterization and DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of Gallic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The UV and IR spectra of the complex showed an additive effect of gallic acid and lecithin, in which the ... animal and plant tissues, and in egg yolk [4], .... X-ray diffractograms. The powder x-ray diffraction patterns of gallic acid, lecithin, their physical mixture and the complex are shown in Figure 5. The powder.

  5. Evaluation of antioxidant, free radical scavenging and antimicrobial, activity of Quercus incana Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana eSarwar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the indigenous utilization of Quercus incana Roxb., the present study deals with the investigation of antioxidant, free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and antimicrobial activity of Quercus incana Roxb. In vitro antioxidant activity of the plant fractions were determined by DPPH and NO scavenging method. Total phenolic contents were determined by gallic acid equivalent (GAE and antimicrobial activities were determined by agar well diffusion method. It was observed that Quercus incana Roxb. showed significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. n-Butanol fraction showed maximum activity against Micrococcus leuteus with 19 mm zone of inhibition. n-Butanol fraction of Quercus incana Roxb. showed immense antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (32 mm ± 0.55 and Aspergillus flavus (28 mm ± 0.45. Similarly n-butanol fraction showed relatively good antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 55.4 ± 0.21μg/mL. The NO scavenging activity of ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 = 23.21 ± 0.31 μg/mL was fairly good compared to other fractions. The current study of Quercus incana Roxb. suggests the presences of synergetic action of some biological active compounds that may be present in the leaves of medicinal plant. Further studies are needed to better characterize the important active constituents responsible for the antimicrobial, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity.

  6. Synthesis, spectroscopic and radical scavenging studies of palladium(II)-hydrazide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ain, Qurrat Ul; Ashiq, Uzma; Jamal, Rifat Ara; Mahrooof-Tahir, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    In present study, a series of palladium(II) complexes with biologically active hydrazide ligands have been synthesized, characterized and screened for their antioxidant (superoxide and DPPH radical scavenging) properties. Spectral studies (FT-IR, EI-mass, 13C and 1H NMR spectroscopy) and physico-chemical measurements including elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements represented square planar structure for all complexes. Substituted and unsubstituted benzohydrazides (1-4) have shown monodentate behavior forming complexes of general formula [PdL2Cl2]. However, pyridinecarbohydrazides (5 and 6) were coordinated in bidentate fashion of [PdLCl2] general formula producing stable five-membered chelate ring. All palladium complexes were found to be considerably more potent inhibitors of DPPH free radical compared to free hydrazides. These complexes are even stronger DPPH scavengers than standard antioxidant propyl gallate. The complexes have also shown good superoxide scavenging ability compared to inactive free hydrazides, however complexes are weaker superoxide scavengers than ascorbic acid, a standard superoxide inhibitor. An interesting structure activity relationship has been evaluated.

  7. In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of Ixora coccinea L

    OpenAIRE

    Moni Rani Saha; Md Ashraful Alam; Raushanara Akter; Rumana Jahangir

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Ixora coccinea L. was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity using phosphomolybdenum method. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that the extract of the flower of I. coccinea possesses flavonoids, steroids and tannin materials. The extract showed significant activities in all antioxidant assays compared to the standard antioxidant in a dose dependent manner and remarkable activiti...

  8. Radical Scavenging by Acetone: A New Perspective to Understand Laccase/ABTS Inactivation and to Recover Redox Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Zhou, Pandeng; Wu, Xing; Sun, Jianliang; Chen, Shicheng

    2015-11-04

    The biosynthetic utilization of laccase/mediator system is problematic because the use of organic cosolvent causes significant inhibition of laccase activity. This work explored how the organic cosolvent impacts on the laccase catalytic capacity towards 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) in aqueous solution. Effects of acetone on the kinetic constants of laccase were determined and the results showed Km and Vmax varied exponentially with increasing acetone content. Acetone as well as some other cosolvents could transform ABTS radicals into its reductive form. The content of acetone in media significantly affected the radical scavenging rates. Up to 95% of the oxidized ABTS was successfully recovered in 80% (v/v) acetone in 60 min. This allows ABTS recycles at least six times with 70%-75% of active radicals recovered after each cycle. This solvent-based recovery strategy may help improve the economic feasibility of laccase/ABTS system in biosynthesis.

  9. Free radical scavengers from Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) stapf plants cultivated in bioreactors by the temporary immersion (TIS) principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Alejandro; Cheel, José; Theoduloz, Cristina; Rodríguez, Jaime; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Gerth, Andre; Wilken, Dirk; Jordan, Miguel; Jiménez-González, Elio; Gomez-Kosky, Rafael; Mendoza, Elisa Quiala

    2007-01-01

    The biomass production of Cymbopogon citratus shoots cultivated in bioreactors according to the temporary immersion (TIS) principle was assessed under different growth conditions. The effect of gassing with CO2-enriched air, reduced immersion frequency, vessel size and culture time on total phenolic and flavonoid content and free radical scavenging effect of the methanolic extracts was measured. From the TIS-culture of C. citratus, seven compounds were isolated and identified as caffeic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), neochlorogenic acid (3), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), p-hydroxybenzoic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (5), glutamic acid (6) and luteolin 6-C-fucopyranoside (7). The occurrence of compounds 1-7 and their variability in C. citratus grown under different TIS conditions was determined by HPLC. The free radical scavenging effect of the methanolic extract and compounds was measured by the discoloration of the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The main metabolites in 6- and 8-week-old cultures, both in 5 and 10 1 vessels, were chlorogenic acid (2) (100-113 mg%) and neochlorogenic acid (3) (80-119 mg%), while in the cultures with CO2-enriched air and reduced immersion frequency the main compound detected in the extracts was glutamic acid (6) (400 and 670 mg% for the green and white biomass and 619 and 630 mg% for the green and white biomass, respectively). The most active compounds, as free radical scavengers, in the DPPH discoloration assay were caffeic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), neochlorogenic acid (3) and the flavonoid luteolin 6-C-fucopyranoside (7).

  10. Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, free-radical-scavenging, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Vanja M; Dobrić, Silva; Marković, Goran M; Dordević, Sofija M; Arsić, Ivana A; Menković, Nebojsa R; Stević, Tanja

    2008-09-10

    Hawthorn [Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Crataegus oxyacantha L.; sin. Crataegus laevigata (Poiret) DC., Rosaceae] leaves, flowers, and berries are used in traditional medicine in the treatment of chronic heart failure, high blood pressure, arrhythmia, and various digestive ailments, as well as geriatric and antiarteriosclerosis remedies. According to European Pharmacopoeia 6.0, hawthorn berries consist of the dried false fruits of these two species or their mixture. The present study was carried out to test free-radical-scavenging, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract. Phenolic compounds represented 3.54%, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Determination of total flavonoid aglycones content yielded 0.18%. The percentage of hyperoside, as the main flavonol component, was 0.14%. With respect to procyanidins content, the obtained value was 0.44%. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the extract was concentration-dependent, with EC50 value of 52.04 microg/mL (calculation based on the total phenolic compounds content in the extract). Oral administration of investigated extract caused dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in a model of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The obtained anti-inflammatory effect was 20.8, 23.0, and 36.3% for the extract doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. In comparison to indomethacin, given in a dose producing 50% reduction of rat paw edema, the extract given in the highest tested dose (200 mg/kg) showed 72.4% of its activity. Gastroprotective activity of the extract was investigated using an ethanol-induced acute stress ulcer in rats with ranitidine as a reference drug. Hawthorn extract produced dose-dependent gastroprotective activity (3.8 +/- 2.1, 1.9 +/- 1.7, and 0.7 +/- 0.5 for doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively), with the efficacy comparable to that of the reference drug. Antimicrobial testing of the extract revealed its moderate bactericidal

  11. Radical Scavenging Capacity of Methanolic Phillyrea latifolia L. Extract: Anthocyanin and Phenolic Acids Composition of Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naciye Erkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical scavenging capacity of a crude methanolic extract from the fruits of Phillyrea latifolia L., commonly known as green olive tree or mock privet, was investigated with reference to anthocyanin standards, as flavonoids, and phenolic acid standards, as phenylpropanoids. Characterization with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD indicated the presence of keracyanin, kuromanin, cyanidin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid at amounts of 289.1, 90.4, 191.4, 225.2, 221.2 and 190.1 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW of fruits, respectively. Chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids were found to exist in lower amounts. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and IC50 values of the plant extract were found to be 1.8 mM Trolox equivalents (TE/g FW of fruits and 69.4 µg/mL, respectively, indicating the close radical scavenging activity of the extract to those of keracyanin and p-coumaric acid. The crude methanolic P. latifolia L. fruit extract was seen to be fairly potent in radical scavenging. Total phenolic content (TPC of the plant extract was found to be 1652.9 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g FW of fruits.

  12. Polyphenols Isolated from Xanthoceras sorbifolia Husks and Their Anti-Tumor and Radical-Scavenging Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Yan; Ha, Wei; Lin, Yong; Jiang, Kan; Yang, Jun-Li; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2016-12-09

    Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge. is used in traditional medicine in North China. To evaluate the anti-tumor and radical-scavenging activities of X. sorbifolia husks polyphenols and determine their structure-activity relationships, 37 polyphenols 1-37 were obtained by bioassay-guided fractionation. Two new compounds 1-2, and compounds 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 14-17, 21-25, 27-29, 31, 33, 34, 36, and 37 were isolated from the genus Xanthoceras for the first time. Compounds 1-37 did not show strong cytotoxicity against the four tested tumor cell lines (A549, HepG2, MGC-803, and MFC) compared to paclitaxel and under the conditions tested in the anti-tumor assay, but compounds 3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 18-20, 25, 26, 29, 30, 32, and 35 exhibited stronger radical-scavenging activity than ascorbic acid in a 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt assay. This was the first report on the anti-tumor and radical-scavenging activities of the polyphenols isolated from X. sorbifolia husks. Overall, the present study contributed valuable information concerning X. sorbifolia husks use in medicine and pharmacology.

  13. Lactoferrin Directly Scavenges Hydroxyl Radicals and Undergoes Oxidative Self-Degradation: A Possible Role in Protection against Oxidative DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ogasawara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the protective effect of lactoferrin against DNA damage induced by various hydroxyl radical generation systems. Lactoferrin (LF was examined with regard to its potential role as a scavenger against radical oxygen species using bovine milk LF. Native LF, iron-saturated LF (holo-LF, and apolactoferrin (apo-LF effectively suppressed strand breaks in plasmid DNA due to hydroxyl radicals produced by the Fenton reaction. In addition, both native LF and holo-LF clearly protected calf thymus DNA from fragmentation due to ultraviolet irradiation in the presence of H2O2. We also demonstrated a protective effect of all three LF molecules against 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG formation in calf thymus DNA following ultraviolet (UV irradiation with H2O2. Our results clearly indicate that native LF has reactive oxygen species-scavenging ability, independent of its nature as a masking component for transient metals. We also demonstrated that the protective effect of LF against oxidative DNA damage is due to degradation of LF itself, which is more susceptible to degradation than other bovine milk proteins.

  14. Recent Updates in Redox Regulation and Free Radical Scavenging Effects by Herbal Products in Experimental Models of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Min Hong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a complex multifactorial disease marked by extensive neuropathology in the brain with selective yet prominent and progressive loss of mid-brain dopaminergic neurons. The etiological factors involved in the development of PD are still elusive, but oxidative stress arising when reactive oxygen species (ROS exceed amounts required for normal redox signaling is considered one of the major factors. ROS cause oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA and are one of the most prominent factors related to neurodegeneration. Pre-clinical and clinical studies clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of PD. Therefore, regulation of redox signaling and inhibiting excess ROS would contribute greatly not only to extend longevity but also to ameliorate the progression of dopaminergic cell death seen in patients with PD. Several herbal products are beneficial for maintaining nerve cell function and for treating various neurodegenerative disorders by reducing oxidative stress. Here, we summarize the recent knowledge concerning promising herbs that have shown significant beneficial effects based on regulation of redox status and ROS inhibition in toxin-induced PD models.

  15. Tempol, a Membrane-Permeable Radical Scavenger, Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory and Cardioprotective Effects in the Cerulein-Induced Pancreatitis Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Andrzej; Walczyna, Beata; Rajtar, Grażyna; Marciniak, Sebastian; Wojtak, Andrzej; Lasiecka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    To date, it remains unclear whether mild form of acute pancreatitis (AP) may cause myocardial damage which may be asymptomatic for a long time. Pathogenesis of AP-related cardiac injury may be attributed in part to ROS/RNS overproduction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stress changes in both the pancreas and the heart and to estimate the protective effects of 1-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxypiperidine (tempol) at the early phase of AP. Cerulein-induced AP led to the development of acute edematous pancreatitis with a significant decrease in the level of sulfhydryl (-SH) groups (oxidation marker) both in heart and in pancreatic tissues as well as a substantial increase in plasma creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) activity (marker of the heart muscle lesion) which confirmed the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of cardiac damage. The tempol treatment significantly reduced the intensity of inflammation and oxidative damage and decreased the morphological evidence of pancreas injury at early AP stages. Moreover, it markedly attenuated AP-induced cardiac damage revealed by normalization of the -SH group levels and CK-MB activity. On the basis of these studies, it is possible to conclude that tempol has a profound protective effect against cardiac and pancreatic damage induced by AP.

  16. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Capacity of Seed and Shell Essential Oils Extracted from Abrus precatorius (L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday O. Okoh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from plants have been proven safe as natural antioxidants, and few are already marketed as digestive enhancers as well as in prevention of several degenerative diseases. This study evaluated the antioxidant capacity of seed and shell essential oils of Abrus precatorius (L, a herb used for ethno-medicinal practices in Nigeria. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation. The ability of the oils to act as hydrogen/electrons donor or scavenger of radicals were determined by in-vitro antioxidant assays using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH. scavenging; 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging; lipid peroxide and nitric oxide radicals scavenging assays. The IC50 of the seed and shell oils (2.10 mg/mL and 1.20 mg/mL respectively showed that antioxidant activity is higher than that for the standard drugs (3.20 mg/mL and 3.40 mg/mL for the nitric oxide scavenging assay. The lipid peroxidation radical activity of the oils were similar to vitamin C, weak DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were discovered in comparison to vitamin C and rutin. Generally, in the four antioxidant assays, a significant correlation existed between concentrations of the oils and percentage inhibition of free radicals and lipid peroxidation. The composition of A. precatorius essential oils reported earlier may account for their antioxidant capacity.

  17. Determination of Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenols of Wine and Spices: A Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgentius Nelson Lugemwa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty eight bottles of red wine (Carbanet Sauvignon were randomly selected based on vintage, region, price, and age (number of months in a barrel. The total phenolic content of each wine was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Apart from a few bottles that exhibited above average radical scavenging activity and phenolic content, there was no good correlation of those two quantities with region, price or vintage. The average phenolic amount was 2874 mg/L. The lowest phenolic content was found to be 1648 mg/L for an eight dollar wine. Wine with the highest amount of phenol of 4495 mg/L was a 2007, nine dollar bottle from South America. High amount of phenols did not translate into high radical scavenging activity. Barrel-aging did not increase the amount of phenols or the radical scavenging activity of wine. In order to discover new and potent sources of antioxidants from plants, the following spices were studied: ginger, cilantro, cumin, anise, linden, eucalyptus, marjoram, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary. Whole spices were crushed and extracted for 96 h at room temperature using a combination of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 4.5:4.5:1 (v/v/v. The radical scavenging activity of extracts was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH assay. The total phenolic content of each spice was also determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Eucalyptus was found to be the most potent antioxidant with an LC50 of 324.1 mg of phenol/L, followed by marjoram with an LC50 of 407.5 mg of phenol/L, and rosemary with an LC50 of 414.0 mg/L. The least potent antioxidants were ginger and cilantro with LC50 of 7604 mg/L of phenol and 7876 mg of phenol/L, respectively.

  18. Evaluation of antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacities of some Nigerian indigenous medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinmoladun, Afolabi C; Obuotor, Efere M; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2010-04-01

    Methanolic extracts of 10 selected Nigerian medicinal plants-Psidium guajava, Alstonia boonei, Cassia alata, Newbouldia laevis, Spondias mombin, Globimetula cupulatum, Chromolaena odorata, Securidaca longepedunculata, Ocimum gratissimum, and Morinda lucida-widely used in ethnomedicine, were assessed for phytochemical constituents and antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities using seven different antioxidant assay methods. Phytochemical screening gave positive tests for steroids, terpenoids, and cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids contained in the extracts. P. guajava contained the highest amount of total phenolics (380.08 +/- 4.40 mg/L gallic acid equivalents), and the highest amounts of total flavonoids were found in the leaf extracts of C. alata (275.16 +/- 1.62 microg/mL quercetin equivalents [QE]), C. odorata (272.12 +/- 2.32 microg/mL QE), and P. guajava (269.72 +/- 2.78 microg/mL QE). Percentage 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was highest in S. mombin (88.58 +/- 3.04%) and P. guajava (82.79 +/- 2.84%) and compared with values obtained for ascorbic acid and gallic acid. All the extracts, generally, had low nitric oxide radical scavenging activities, and G. cupulatum had the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (63.84 +/- 0.97%). The extracts in general demonstrated high lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, with only M. lucida (38.74 +/- 1.99%) and A. boonei (47.16 +/- 0.59%) being exceptions. The reductive potential was highest in P. guajava (0.79 +/- 0.04) and least in S. longepedunculata (0.26 +/- 0.00). DPPH assay correlated well with total phenolic contents (r(2) = 0.76) and reductive potential (r(2) = 0.81) and fairly with lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity (r(2) = 0.51). There was a good correlation between total phenolic contents and reductive potential (r(2) = 0.79) and a fair correlation between total phenolic contents and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity (r(2

  19. Free radical scavenging potency of quercetin catecholic colonic metabolites: Thermodynamics of 2H(+)/2e(-) processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amić, Ana; Lučić, Bono; Stepanić, Višnja; Marković, Zoran; Marković, Svetlana; Dimitrić Marković, Jasmina M; Amić, Dragan

    2017-03-01

    Reaction energetics of the double (2H(+)/2e(-)), i.e., the first 1H(+)/1e(-) (catechol→ phenoxyl radical) and the second 1H(+)/1e(-) (phenoxyl radical→ quinone) free radical scavenging mechanisms of quercetin and its six colonic catecholic metabolites (caffeic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, homoprotocatechuic acid, protocatechuic acid, 4-methylcatechol, and catechol) were computationally studied using density functional theory, with the aim to estimate the antiradical potency of these molecules. We found that second hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and second sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanisms are less energy demanding than the first ones indicating 2H(+)/2e(-) processes as inherent to catechol moiety. The Gibbs free energy change for reactions of inactivation of selected free radicals indicate that catecholic colonic metabolites constitute an efficient group of more potent scavengers than quercetin itself, able to deactivate various free radicals, under different biological conditions. They could be responsible for the health benefits associated with regular intake of flavonoid-rich diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparative study of free radical scavengers in cardioplegic solutions. Improved protection with peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menasche, P; Grousset, C; Gauduel, Y; Piwnica, A

    1986-08-01

    Oxygen-derived free radicals play an important role in the myocardial injury associated with ischemia and reperfusion. This study was designed to assess whether the protection afforded by a K+ rich, Mg2+ rich cardioplegic solution could be enhanced by the addition of free radical scavengers acting at different levels of the radical generating pathway. Forty isolated isovolumic rat hearts were divided into five groups (n = 8). Four groups of hearts were subjected to 90 minutes of normothermic cardioplegic arrest followed by 45 minutes of reperfusion. Hearts were given an initial bolus of either unmodified cardioplegic solution or cardioplegic solution enriched with superoxide dismutase (200,000 U/L) reduced glutathione (0.1 mmol/L), or peroxidase (6,000 U/L). One group of hearts was aerobically perfused throughout the experimental protocol and served as nonischemic controls. Based on comparisons of postreperfusion ventricular pressure development, maximal ventricular dP/dt, left ventricular compliance and coronary flow, peroxidase-containing cardioplegic solution afforded the best myocardial protection, with values of these indicators not significantly different from those of nonischemic perfused control heart. Glutathione afforded protection slightly inferior to that of peroxidase but still markedly better than in groups receiving superoxide dismutase or unmodified cardioplegic solution. This study confirms that cardioplegic protection can be enhanced by the addition of free radical scavengers, in particular peroxidase.

  1. Evaluation of Free Radical Scavenging Activity in Ethanolic Extract from Promising Accessions of Curcuma aeruginosa RoxB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waras Nurcholis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the free radical scavenging activity in ethanolic extracts from 20 accessions of Curcuma aeruginosa. The radical scavenging activity of the extract accessions was investigated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical. IC50 values for DPPH radical scavenging activity ranged from 89.81 to 505.65 µg mL-1. Based on IC50 values, twenty accessions of C. aeruginosa can be divided into three groups: strong (two accessions; moderate (seventeen accessions; and low (one accession of DPPH scavenger. Sukoharjo (SH and Muara Bungo (MB showed promising accessions for antioxidant potential, thus these accessions important to selection for future breeding program in pharmaceutical products.

  2. Extraction method for high free radical scavenging activity of Siamese neem tree flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worarat Chaisawangwong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. siamensis Valeton is a medicinal plant found in Thailand. Youngleaves and young flowers of this plant are commonly consumed as a bitter tonic vegetable. The flowers are also used fortreatment of fever. The flower extract has been reported to exhibit in vitro free radical scavenging activity and can inhibitlipid peroxidation of bronchogenic cancer cell line. Active compounds in the flowers are flavonoids such as rutin andquercetin. The content of these compounds in the crude extract depends on the method of extraction. Therefore, the appropriateextraction method promoting high yield of total flavonoids and high free radical scavenging activity was investigated inthis study. Six different extraction methods, i.e. maceration, percolation, decoction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction(UE, and microwave assisted extraction (MA were carried out for extracting dried powder of Siamese neem tree young flowers. The solvent used for maceration, percolation, and soxhlet extraction was 50% ethanol, while distilled water was used for decoction and MA, and both solvents were used for UE. The content of crude extract, free radical scavenging activity, and total flavonoids content of each extract were investigated and compared. Comparing the various extraction methods, decoction provided an extract containing a high amount of total flavonoids (17.54 mgRE/g extract and promoting the highest scavenging activity at EC50 11.36 g/ml. Decoction is also simple, cheap, and convenient and could be used in developing countries. Thus, it should be the recommended extraction method for the flowers of Siamese neem tree for furtherdevelopment of antioxidant pharmaceutical preparations.

  3. PCL assay application in superoxide anion-radical scavenging capacity of tea Camellia sinensis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Sidor, Andrzej; Reguła, Julita; Kulczyński, Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    Plant polyphenols are known for their limiting of adverse effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological systems. The photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay allows to evaluate the antiradical activity of a compound in the presence of a superoxide anion-radical (O •-), which is one of the ROS directly associated with the human body. In this work, determination of the superoxide anion radical scavenging activity of different tea extracts using the PCL assay was performed. Investigations were conducted on different tea leaves extracts. The study included five kinds of tea leaves subjected to aqueous and ethanol extraction procedure. Catechins content was evaluated using HPLC. Antiradical activity of the samples was conducted with use of Photochem assay. Analysis of total catechins content in tea aqueous extracts enabled them to be arranged as follows: yellow > green > white > red > black, while for ethanol extracts it was: yellow = green > white > red > black. The examined tea extracts were ranked from highest to lowest water-soluble antioxidative capacity (ACW) values as follows: yellow > green > white > red > black. The results of lipid-soluble antioxidative capacity (ACL) values for aqueous extracts were similar; however, were approximately 50% lower than those presented as ACW. The second examined group were ethanol extracts, which ranked for ACW values: yellow > green = red = white > black, while ACL values ranked as follows: yellow > white = black = red > green. PCL assay results were correlated with total catechin content in aqueous extracts. Antiradical activity of different tea leaves extracts in PCL assay, showed that the highest activity was found in extracts of yellow tea; the lowest, however, was identified in black tea extracts.

  4. Free radical scavenging behavior of antioxidant compounds of sesame (sesamum indicum L.) in DPPH(*) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suja, Kizhiyedathu Polachira; Jayalekshmy, Anathasankaran; Arumughan, Chami

    2004-02-25

    The free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of antioxidants from sesame cake extract was studied using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)()) on a kinetic model. Pure lignans and lignan glycosides isolated from methanolic extract by preparative HPLC were used in the study. To understand the kinetic behavior better and to determine the RSC of sesame antioxidants, the second-order rate constant (k(2)) was calculated for the quenching reaction with [DPPH(*)] radical. The k(2) values of the sesame antioxidants were compared with those of butylated hydroxytoluene and alpha-tocopherol. The k(2) values for sesamol, sesamol dimer, sesamin, sesamolin, sesaminol triglucoside, and sesaminol diglucoside were 4.00 x 10(-)(5), 0.50 x 10(-)(5), 0.36 x 10(-)(5), 0.13 x 10(-)(5), 0.33 x 10(-)(5), and 0.08 x 10(-)(5) microM(-)(1) s(-)(1), respectively.

  5. Kinetic evaluation of reactivity of bisphenol A derivatives as radical scavengers for methacrylate polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoma, Y; Fujisawa, S

    2000-11-01

    The reactivity of bisphenol A (BPA), diethylstilbestrol (DEST) 2,2'-biphenol (22'BP), 4,4'-biphenol (44'BP) and hydroquinone (HQ) as radical scavengers was examined in 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN)- and benzoyl peroxide (BPO)-induced methyl methacrylate (MMA) polymerization with respect to kinetic considerations. The initial rate of polymerization (IRP) was found to decrease in the order: 44'BP > BPA, DEST > 22'BP > HQ, while the stoichiometric factor (n) of free radicals trapped by phenolic moiety decreased in the order: 44'BP (2.3) > HQ (2.0) > BPA, DEST (1.8) > 22'BP (0.8). It was found that BPA was a more highly efficient inhibitor than HQ and that HQ acts as a retarder at higher concentrations in the BPO system. The high activity of BPA indicated that BPA is probably oxidized by a radical interaction in the dental resin system.

  6. Antioxidant, Radical Scavenging and Antimicrobial Activities of Red Onion (Allium cepa L) Skin and Edible Part Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Škerget, M.; Majhenič, L.; Bezjak, M.; Knez, Ž.

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant, radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities of extracts from skin and edible part of red onion have been investigated. Crude extracts of red onion were obtained separately with acetone, ethanol and mixtures of solvents with water. The amounts of isolated phenolic compounds and quercetin from onion skin were approximately 3 to 5 times higher as from the onion edible part. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of onion skin extracts were generally high, results were...

  7. In vitro and In vivo evaluation of free radical scavenging potential of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of the methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQE) against free radical damage. The test extract exhibited significant inhibition in DPPH free radical formation, superoxide radical production and lipid peroxide production in erythrocytes. The activities of liver ...

  8. Formulation of microspheres containing Crataegus monogyna Jacq. extract with free radical scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucconi, Giulia; Chlapanidas, Theodora; Martino, Emanuela; Gaggeri, Raffaella; Perteghella, Sara; Rossi, Daniela; Faragò, Silvio; Vigo, Daniele; Faustini, Massimo; Collina, Simona; Torre, Maria Luisa

    2014-02-01

    Extracts of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (hawthorn) show an interesting free radical scavenging (FRS) effect, related to their flavonoids content. Unfortunately, their oral administration is affected by their low bioavailability. The aim of this work is to obtain a multiparticulate drug delivery system for hawthorn extracts for oral administration. The extracts from flowering tops (FL) or fruits (FR) of hawthorn were obtained with maceration, using ethanol as an extraction solvent, and their antioxidant activity was evaluated. FL extract showed the highest FRS activity (EC50 3.72 ± 1.21 µg/ml), so it was selected to prepare microparticulate systems by a spray-drying technique, which were characterized by granulometric analysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, confocal fluorescence microscopy and hyperoside content. Antioxidant activity was evaluated before and after gastrointestinal transit in vitro simulation. Results indicate that the microparticulate systems maintained the antioxidant activity of hawthorn also after gastrointestinal transit in vitro simulation, exhibiting properties suitable for oral administration.

  9. Free radical scavenging, antioxidant and cancer chemoprevention by grape seed proanthocyanidin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Debasis; Swaroop, Anand; Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Manashi

    2014-10-01

    A large number of investigations have demonstrated a broad spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) against oxidative stress and degenerative diseases including cardiovascular dysfunctions, acute and chronic stress, gastrointestinal distress, neurological disorders, pancreatitis, various stages of neoplastic processes and carcinogenesis including detoxification of carcinogenic metabolites. GSP exhibited potent free radical scavenging abilities in both in vitro and in vivo models. GSP exerted significant in vivo protection against structurally diverse drug and chemical-induced hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and spleentoxicity. GSP also protected against idarubicin and 4-hydroxyperoxy-cyclophosphamide-induced cytotoxicity toward human normal liver cells. GSP exhibited selective cytotoxicity toward selected human cancer cells, while enhancing the growth and viability of normal cells. GSP exhibited potent modulatory effects of pro-apoptotic and apoptotic regulatory bcl-XL, p53, c-myc, c-JUN, JNK-1 and CD36 genes. Long-term exposure to GSP may serve as a novel chemoprotectant against three stages of DMN-induced liver carcinogenesis and tumorigenesis including initiation, promotion and progression. GSP may selectively protect against oxidative stress, genomic integrity and cell death patterns in vivo. These results demonstrate that GSP may serve as a novel therapeutic intervention against carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Separation and scavenging superoxide radical activity of chitooligomers with degree of polymerization 6-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kecheng; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Qin, Yukun; Li, Bing; Wang, Xueqin; Li, Pengcheng

    2012-12-01

    The separation of chitooligomers (COS) with well-defined degree of polymerization (DP) is of interest to further study their bioactivity. However, there has been no report on separation of chitooligomers with DP>6 and the activity of these oligomers is unknown. This paper focuses on separating COS with DP>6 and five fractions were separated from the prepared fully deacetylated chitooligomers mixture by CM Sepharose Fast Flow column and analyzed by HPLC, which mainly contained glucosamine oligomers with DP6-7 (41.31%, 50.22%), DP7-8 (22.47%, 70.13%), DP9-10 (53.06%, 27.99%), DP10-12 (18.45%, 49.36%, 22.31%), and DP>12, respectively. The superoxide radical scavenging activity of each fraction was investigated. The oligomers with DP ranging from 10 to 12 exhibited higher scavenging activity than other fractions and in combination with the DP distribution of fractions, it was further concluded that the chitooligomers with DP11 was likely to be optimal for scavenging superoxide radical activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Anthocyanin Profile of Cabernet Sauvignon Wines from the Balkan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaga Radovanović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on anthocyanin derivatives characterizing the antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced from different vineyard regions in the Balkans. These bioactive compounds were quantified with a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-diode array detection (DAD method. The antiradical activity was estimated by the ability of the wine to scavenge the stable 2,2`-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH·. The results show that the total anthocyanin content varied from 205.88 to 1940.28 mg/L, depending on agroclimatic factors and the enological practices of the corresponding vineyard region. The most prominent antocyanin in all investigated Cabernet Sauvignon wines was malvidin-3-O-monoglucoside, which accounted for 50.57% of total content, followed by its acetyl derivatives, 15.45%, and p-coumaryl derivatives 5.66%. The relationship between the anthocyanin derivatives and free radical scavenging activity is discussed. A high correlation between total anthocyanin content and DPPH· scavenging ability of tested wines was confirmed (r2 = 0.9619. The significant correlations were obtained between antiradical activity and the sum of 3-monoglucoside (r2 = 0.95594, the sum of 3-acetyl-3-glucoside (r2 = 0.9728 and the sum of p-coumaryl-3-glucoside (r2 = 0.8873 of wine samples. It can be concluded that, the anthocyanin composition can be used as biochemical marker for the authenticity of red grape cultivar and their corresponding single-cultivar wine.

  12. Free radical scavenging activity and anthocyanin profile of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from the Balkan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanović, Blaga; Radovanović, Aleksandra

    2010-06-10

    The present study is focused on anthocyanin derivatives characterizing the antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced from different vineyard regions in the Balkans. These bioactive compounds were quantified with a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD) method. The antiradical activity was estimated by the ability of the wine to scavenge the stable 2,2;-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH(*)). The results show that the total anthocyanin content varied from 205.88 to 1940.28 mg/L, depending on agroclimatic factors and the enological practices of the corresponding vineyard region. The most prominent antocyanin in all investigated Cabernet Sauvignon wines was malvidin-3-O-monoglucoside, which accounted for 50.57% of total content, followed by its acetyl derivatives, 15.45%, and p-coumaryl derivatives 5.66%. The relationship between the anthocyanin derivatives and free radical scavenging activity is discussed. A high correlation between total anthocyanin content and DPPH scavenging ability of tested wines was confirmed (r(2) = 0.9619). The significant correlations were obtained between antiradical activity and the sum of 3-monoglucoside (r(2) = 0.95594), the sum of 3-acetyl-3-glucoside (r(2) = 0.9728) and the sum of p-coumaryl-3-glucoside (r(2) = 0.8873) of wine samples. It can be concluded that, the anthocyanin composition can be used as biochemical marker for the authenticity of red grape cultivar and their corresponding single-cultivar wine.

  13. In vitro alpha glucosidase inhibition and free-radical scavenging activity of propolis from Thai stingless bees in mangosteen orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonyadist Vongsak

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe chemical component and biological activity of propolis depend on flora area of bee collection and bee species. In the study, the propolis from three stingless bee species, Lepidotrigona ventralis Smith, Lepidotrigona terminata Smith, and Tetragonula pagdeni Schwarz, was collected in the same region of mangosteen garden from Thailand. Total phenolic content, alpha glucosidase inhibitory effect, and free-radical scavenging activity using FRAP, ABTS, DPPH assays were determined. The most potent activity of propolis extract was investigated for bioactive compounds and their quantity. The ethanol extract of T. pagdeni propolis had the highest total phenolic content 12.83 ± 0.72 g of gallic acid equivalents in 100 g of the extract, and the strongest alpha glucosidase inhibitory effect with the IC50 of 70.79 ± 6.44 µg/ml. The free-radical scavenging activity evaluated by FRAP, ABTS, DPPH assays showed the FRAP value of 279.70 ± 20.55 µmol FeSO4 equivalent/g extract and the IC50 of 59.52 ± 10.76 and 122.71 ± 11.76 µg/ml, respectively. Gamma- and alpha-mangostin from T. pagdeni propolis extract were isolated and determined for the biological activity. Gamma-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity for both alpha glucosidase inhibitory effect and free-radical scavenging activity. Using HPLC quantitative analysis method, the content of gamma- and alpha-mangostin in the extract was found to be 0.94 ± 0.01 and 2.77 ± 0.08% (w/w, respectively. These findings suggested that T. pagdeni propolis may be used as a more suitable raw material for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products and these mangostin derivatives as markers.

  14. The extra cellular synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles and their free radical scavenging and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, C H; Padma, M; samadanam, I Daisy mariya; Mareeswaran, R; Suyavaran, A; Kumar, M Suresh; Premkumar, K; Thirunavukkarasu, C

    2013-02-01

    The bio reduction of chloro auric acid (HAuCl(4)) and silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) is achieved extracellularly by using the aqueous extract of Solanum torvum (S. torvum) fruit. The nanoparticle formation was screened by UV-visible spectroscopy through color conversion due to surface plasma resonance bands at 560 nm and 430 nm for gold and silver nanoparticles respectively. The spherical shapes with smooth surface of gold and silver nanoparticles were analyzed through scanning electron microscope and its presence was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). The functional groups in the gold and silver salts and the bio interactive functional groups present in the S. torvum extract were characterized by employing Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The biomedical properties of gold and silver nanoparticles were premeditated as free radical scavenging activity and antibacterial static agents. Gold and silver nanoparticles serve as strong hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide and DPPH radical scavengers in contrast to their corresponding metal oxides. The radical quenching properties of gold and silver nanoparticles were found to correlate with in vitro DNA protective effect. The silver nanoparticles show strong zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas and Bacillus whereas, gold nanoparticles exhibit fair zone of inhibition. To our knowledge this is the first report that S. torvum extract can reduce metal acids to nano materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative study of radical scavenger and antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds from Vitis vinifera cell cultures using in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauconneau, B; Waffo-Teguo, P; Huguet, F; Barrier, L; Decendit, A; Merillon, J M

    1997-01-01

    Vitis vinifera cell suspensions were used to isolate and characterize the flavonoids (anthocyanins, catechins) and non-flavonoids (stilbenes) found in red wine. Furthermore, we showed that astringin is produced although this stilbene has not previously been reported to be a constituent of V. vinifera or wine. The ability of these compounds to act as radical scavengers was investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), a stable free radical. Antioxidant activities were assessed by their capacity to prevent Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in microsomes and their action on Cu2+-induced lipid peroxidation in low-density lipoproteins. The results showed that astringin has an important antioxidant effect similar to that of trans-resveratrol, and a higher radical scavenger activity than the latter. Astringinin appeared to be more active. These data indicate that phenolic compounds (stilbenes, catechins, anthocyanins) exhibit interesting properties which may account in part for the so-called "French paradox," i.e. that moderate drinking of red wine over a long period of time can protect against coronary heart disease.

  16. [Photometric micro-titration model of DPPH radicals scavenging activity and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yun-tao; Wei, Wei; Ye, Li-qing; Li, Xiao-fen; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Hong-jiao; Yang, Lu; Yu, Jiao-jiao; Cha, Jia-wei

    2015-02-01

    In the present paper, the stoichiometric ratio (R) for the interreaction of DPPH radicals with the antoxidant was employed as a evaluation index for DPPH radicals scavenging activity of antioxidants. This evaluation index was related only with the stoichiometric relationship between DPPH radicals and the antioxidant, not the relationship with the initial DPPH amount and the volume of sample, which could offer a solution for the problem of poor comparability of EC50 under different conditions. A novel photometric micro-titration method was proposed for the determination of the stoichiometric ratio (R) for the interreaction of DPPH radicals with the antoxidant. The titration equation was established based on the absorbance difference (deltaA) of DPPH radicals in the titration process and the added amount of antoxidant. The stoichiometric ratio (R) for the reaction of DPPH radicals with the addition amount of antoxidant was determined by the titration equation obtained, while, the DPPH median elimination concentration (EC50) of antoxidant can be calculated by the stoichiometric ratio (R). The above photometric micro-titration model was verified using rutin as DPPH radicals scavenger. As experiment results, the stoichiometric ratio (R) of DPPH radicals to rutin was determined to be in the range of 1.817-1.846. The calculated value of EC50 was 1.196 x 10(-3), 2.392 x 10(-3), 4.819 x 10(-3) and 7.292 x 10(-3) mg x mL(-1) for 1.12 x 10(-7), 2.24 x 10(-7), 4.48 x 10(-7) and 6.72 x 10(-7) mol of the additon amount of DPPH radicals, respectively. The proposed method has better precision and reliability with smaller amount of sample than conventional method. While, the obtained stoichiometric ratio value (R) of rutin was employed to calculate the rutin median elimination concentration for DPPH EC50) according to the conditions as reported in the literatures, and the calculated results were consistent with that reported in the literatures.

  17. Selenium and Zinc content and radical scavenging capacity of edible mushrooms Armilaria mellea and Lycoperdon saccatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zeković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Armillaria mellea and Lycoperdon saccatum are two delicious mushrooms growing widely trough all Balkan region. Investigation of A. mellea and L. saccatum antioxidant properties includes preparation of mushrooms extracts, determination of Selenium and Zinc content and evaluation of theirs antioxidant activity involving scavenging activity of ˙O2- radicals, DPPH and reducing power assay. Higher extraction yield of 24.48 % has been achieved for L. saccatum, but higher content of Selenium and Zinc was determined in A. mallea extract, 2.359 mg/kg and 50.380 mg/kg, respectively. The radical scavenging activity was found to exhibit 50 % of inhibition value (IC50 value at the extracts concentration of 0.0161±0.0001 mg/ml for the L. saccatum extract and 0.0108±0.0002 mg/ml for A. mallea extract. The determined relative inhibition of ˙O2- radicals for L. sacatum extract is lower than for A. malea. It was determined that both mushrooms extract posses’ reductive capabilities and thus were capable of reducing iron (III.

  18. Phytochemical composition and radical scavenging activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus seed constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Otutu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a known fact that antioxidant phytochemicals in foods have many health benefits including prevention of various diseases associated with oxidative stress such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, neuro-degeneration and diabetes. Watermelon seed constituents (whole meal, shelled and shells flours were evaluated for phytochemical components and in vitro antioxidant activity to determine the potential practical applications in food and other related areas. Antioxidant activity was investigated by measuring its DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl and ABTS (2, 2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline- 6-sulphonic acid radical scavenging ability as well as FRAP method (ferric reducing power. Quantitative estimation of the constituents showed cardiac glycosides (9.94-14.35 mg/g and saponins (11.62-32.48 mg/g as the most concentrated phytochemicals in the constituents, while alkaloids (47.2-95.8 mg/g, total phenol (5.63-8.40 mg GAE/g, flavonoids 3.51-7.76 mg QE/g. A positive radical scavenging ability of the constituents against ABTS and DPPH free radicals ranged from 0.02 to 0.04 mg Trolox equivalent /g seed flour and 39.89 to 61.11 mg ascorbic acid equivalent /g seed flour respectively. There was a considerable ferric reducing power and higher activity was observed in whole meal than shelled seeds and shells. The significant antioxidant capacities of the seed constituents underline the potential source of natural antioxidants and bioactive compounds for therapeutic purposes.

  19. Free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extracts from herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from 23 different dried herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil were investigated for their free radical scavenging properties using the stable free radicals 2,2'-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+, and Trolox as reference (TEAC for both radicals. The kinetic curves for both radicals showed to follow the first order kinetics model and the decay rate constant (k obs was calculated. For all the samples, the two methods showed a good linear TEAC correlation, indicating that the average reactivity of the compounds present in the ethanolic extracts was similar. Sage and rosemary extracts showed the highest free radical scavenging capacities, while onion showed negligible activity and colorifico, one of the most consumed spices in Brazil, showed low ABTS•+ scavenging activity. Three distinct situations were found for the extracts concerning the DPPH• scavenging capacities: (1 extracts, like rosemary and laurel, that presented the same efficient concentrations (EC50 but differed in the TEAC values and velocities of action (k obs, (2 extracts, such as garlic and basil, that showed similar EC50 and TEAC values, but different k obs values and (3 extracts that reacted at the same velocities but completely differed in the free radical scavenging capacities, like black pepper, savory, nutmeg, rosemary and sage. Similar considerations could be done for the ABTS•+ results. For the first time the ABTS•+ scavenging activity for allspice, basil, cardamom, chives, colorifico, cumin, dill, laurel, marjoram, parsley and tarragon was reported.Extratos etanólicos de 23 ervas e condimentos desidratados comercializados no Brasil foram analisados quanto as suas propriedades antioxidantes utilizando os radicais 2,2'-difenil-β-picrilhidrazil (DPPH• e ácido 2,2'-azino-bis(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico (ABTS•+, Trolox foi usado como referência para ambos radicais

  20. Online RP-HPLC-DPPH screening method for detection of radical-scavenging phytochemicals from flowers of Acacia confusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jyh-Horng; Huang, Chih-Yu; Tung, Yu-Tang; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2008-01-23

    Acacia confusa is traditionally used as a medicinal plant in Taiwan. In this study, phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of extracts from flowers of A. confusa were investigated for the first time. In addition, a rapid screening method, online RP-HPLC-DPPH system, for individual antioxidants in complex matrices was developed. Accordingly, six antioxidants including gallic acid ( 1), myricetin 3-rhamnoside ( 2), quercetin 3-rhamnoside ( 3), kaempferol 3-rhamnoside ( 4), europetin 3-rhamnoside ( 5), and rhamnetin 3-rhamnoside ( 6) were detected using the developed screening method. Of these, compounds 2, 3, and 5 were found to be major bioactive phytochemicals, and their contents were determined as 11.3, 6.7, and 8.7 mg/g of crude extract, respectively. By comparison with quercetin, a well-known antioxidant, these compounds had the order of compound 2 > compound 5 > quercetin > compound 3 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity. Their IC 50 values were 3.0, 3.2, 4.5, and 7.4 microM, respectively. Moreover, the same order was observed for superoxide radical-scavenging activity, and their IC50 values were 2.6, 2.7, 4.3, and 5.3 microM, respectively. However, for lipid peroxidation, quercetin, an aglycon, showed the best inhibitory activity. The IC50 values of quercetin, compound 2, compound 5, and compound 3 were 46.7, 88.5, 90.7, and 124.6 microM, respectively. These results indicated that a rhamnoside at the C3 position of flavonoids had a negative effect on radical-scavenging activity and antilipid peroxidation. In contrast, the number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring exhibited a positive relationship with their inhibitory activities.

  1. Kinetics of the radical scavenging activity of beta-carotene-related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, S; Ishihara, M; Kadoma, Y

    2004-02-01

    To clarify the non-enzymatic radical-scavenging activity of beta-carotene-related compounds and other polyenes, we used differential scanning calorimetry to study the kinetics of radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) by 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) or benzoyl peroxide (BPO) in the absence or presence of polyenes under nearly anaerobic conditions at 70 degrees C, and analyzed the results with an SAR approach. The polyenes studied were all-trans retinol, retinol palmitate, calciferol, beta-carotene and lycopene. Polyenes produced a small induction period. The stoichiometric factor (n) (i.e. the number of radicals trapped by each inhibitor molecule) of polyenes was close to 0. Tetraterpenes (beta-carotene, lycopene) suppressed significantly more of the initial rate of polymerization (R(inh)) than did diterpenes (retinol, retinol palmitate). The inhibition rate constants (k(inh)) for the reaction of beta-carotene with AIBN- or BPO-derived radicals were determined to be 1.2-1.6x10(5) l/mol s, similar to published values. A linear relationship between (k(inh)) and the kinetic chain length (KCL) for polyenes was observed; as (k(inh)) increased, KCL decreased. KCL also decreased significantly as the number of conjugated double bonds in the polyenes increased. Polyenes, particularly beta-carotene and lycopene, acted as interceptors of growing poly-MMA radicals.

  2. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay for antioxidants in human serum and for hydroxyl radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Bektaşoğlu, Burcu; Bener, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    , for which the FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant potency) test is basically nonresponsive. The additivity of absorbances of all the tested antioxidants confirmed that antioxidants in the CUPRAC test do not chemically interact among each other so as to cause an intensification or quenching of the theoretically expected absorbance, and that a total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay of serum is possible. As a distinct advantage over other electron-transfer based assays (e.g., Folin, FRAP, ABTS, DPPH), CUPRAC is superior in regard to its realistic pH close to the physiological pH, favorable redox potential, accessibility and stability of reagents, and applicability to lipophilic antioxidants as well as hydrophilic ones. The CUPRAC procedure can also assay hydroxyl radicals, being the most reactive oxygen species (ROS). As a more convenient, efficient, and less costly alternative to HPLC/electrochemical detection techniques and to the nonspecific, low-yield TBARS test, we use p-aminobenzoate, 2,4- and 3,5-dimethoxybenzoate probes for detecting hydroxyl radicals generated from an equivalent mixture of [Fe(II)+EDTA] with hydrogen peroxide. The produced hydroxyl radicals attack both the probe and the water-soluble antioxidants in 37 degrees C-incubated solutions for 2 h. The CUPRAC absorbance of the ethylacetate extract due to the reduction of Cu(II)-neocuproine reagent by the hydroxylated probe decreases in the presence of (.)OH scavengers, the difference being proportional to the scavenging ability of the tested compound. The developed method is less lengthy, more specific, and of a higher yield than the classical TBARS assay.

  3. Synergistic radical scavenging potency of curcumin-in-β-cyclodextrin-in-nanomagnetoliposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadinath, W.; Bhushani, Anu; Anandharamakrishnan, C., E-mail: anandhram@cftri.res.in

    2016-07-01

    Curcumin is a highly potent nutraceutical associated with various health benefits. However, its hydrophobic nature affects its bioavailability and bioactivity, and limits nutraceutical applications. Drug-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposome has the ability to mask the hydrophobic nature of drug and achieve better encapsulation. Also, encapsulating iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) within liposomes endow additional beneficial functionalities of IONPs. In the present study, curcumin-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex (IC) and IONPs were co-encapsulated within liposomes (curcumin-in-β-cyclodextrin-in-nanomagnetoliposomes) to achieve the synergistic antioxidant potential of curcumin and IONPs. IC of curcumin-β-cyclodextrin was prepared by a simple rapid method and successful inclusion was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Mean diameter of IONPs was found to be 180 nm and X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of hematite nanoparticles. Band gap energy calculated using absorption spectra was 2.25 eV, which falls in close proximity with the theoretically calculated values of hematite. Mean diameter of curcumin-in-β-cyclodextrin-in-nanomagnetoliposomes was 67 nm and encapsulation efficiency of curcumin was found to be 71%. Further, the co-encapsulated particles possessed significantly low IC{sub 50} value (64.7791 μg/ml, p < 0.01) compared to conventional curcumin liposome and IONPs, indicating its synergistically enhanced radical scavenging property. - Highlights: • Curcumin-in-β-cyclodextrin-in-nanomagnetoliposomes (mean diameter, 67 nm) has been prepared. • Encapsulation efficiency of curcumin was found to be 71%. • IONPs in the nano-carrier play dual role of targeted delivery and radical scavenging activities. • Conjunction of IONPs and curcumin into the liposomes increases the radical scavenging activity.

  4. Analysis of free-radical scavenging of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguriensis) using electron spin resonance and radical-induced DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephen S; Hogans, Vallie J; Coppes-Petricorena, Zulema; Peer, Cody J; Vining, Timothy A; Fleming, David W; Harris, Gabriel K

    2010-01-01

    Mate (MT) is a popular South American beverage that has been used as a traditional medicine for centuries, spurring recent interest in its nutraceutical properties. MT is prepared as an infusion of leaves from the Yerba Mate (llex paraguriensis) tree. MT has been reported to have antioxidant properties in vitro and in vivo, but these have not been fully characterized in terms of effects against specific radicals. Accordingly, we examined the antioxidant effects of an MT infusion against hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in both chemical and cell culture assays. MT infusions were prepared at 3.10 g/L in boiling water and diluted to experimental dilutions from this stock. Electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments indicated that MT scavenged hydroxyl radicals (produced via the Fenton reaction) and superoxide radicals (produced via the xanthine/xanthine oxidase enzymatic reaction) at all concentrations tested (P chemical and cell culture systems, as well as DNA-protective properties. These data further clarify the reported antioxidant effects of Yerba Mate infusions.

  5. Urocanic acid isomers are good hydroxyl radical scavengers: a comparative study with structural analogues and with uric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammeyer, A.; Eggelte, T. A.; Bos, J. D.; Teunissen, M. B.

    1999-01-01

    UV-exposure of the epidermis leads to the isomerisation of trans-UCA into cis-UCA as well as to the generation of hydroxyl radicals. This study shows by means of the deoxyribose degradation test that UCA isomers are more powerful hydroxyl radical scavengers than the other 4-(5-)substituted imidazole

  6. Dihydronaflavonols from the leaves of Derris urucu (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and DPPH radical-scavenging activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Livia T.; Silva, Geilson A. da; Ferreira, Malisson; Silva, Milton N. da; Santos, Alberdan S.; Arruda, Alberto C.; Guilhon, Gisele M.S.P.; Santos, Lourivaldo S.; Arruda, Mara Silvia P. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e Naturais. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica], e-mail: mspa@ufpa.br; Borges, Rosilvaldo dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia. Inst. de Ciencias

    2009-07-01

    Derris urucu is an Amazonian plant with insecticide and ichthyotoxic properties. Studies with this species show the presence of flavonoids, mainly rotenoids, as well as stilbenes. The ethanol extract of the leaves of Derris urucu (Leguminosae) afforded three new dihydroflavonols named urucuol A (1), B (2) and C (3), and the dihydroflavonol isotirumalin (4). Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR, UV and IR spectra and MS data and comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds (1-4) were evaluated for DPPH radical scavenging activity and showed a relatively lower antioxidant ability compared to the commercial antioxidant trans-resveratrol. (author)

  7. Green Synthesis of Bifunctional Fluorescent Carbon Dots from Garlic for Cellular Imaging and Free Radical Scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shaojing; Lan, Minhuan; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Xue, Hongtao; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Meng, Xiangmin; Lee, Chun-Sing; Wang, Pengfei; Zhang, Wenjun

    2015-08-12

    Nitrogen and sulfur codoped carbon dots (CDs) were prepared from garlic by a hydrothermal method. The as-prepared CDs possess good water dispersibility, strong blue fluorescence emission with a fluorescent quantum yield of 17.5%, and excellent photo and pH stabilities. It is also demonstrated that the fluorescence of CDs are resistant to the interference of metal ions, biomolecules, and high ionic strength environments. Combining with low cytotoxicity properties, CDs could be used as an excellent fluorescent probe for cellular multicolor imaging. Moreover, the CDs were also demonstrated to exhibit favorable radical scavenging activity.

  8. Quinones and coumarins from Ajania salicifolia and their radical scavenging and cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-Ru; Zhang, Wei; Pang, Xiao-Yan; Gong, Yuan; Obulqasim, Xian Muxinuer U; Li, Hong-Fang; Zhu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    1,4-Naphthoquinone (1) and a new coumarin (3) were isolated from Ajania salicifolia, together with two known compounds (2, 4). The structures and stereochemistry of new compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. Two compounds exhibited potent ABTS cation radical scavenging activities with IC50 values ranging 7.97-8.44 μM. Two quinones (1, 2) exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against the human cancer cell lines (Hela, HepG2, and K562) with IC50 values of 11.24-35.15 μM in vitro. This is the first report of naphthoquinone in the genus Ajania.

  9. LC/PDA/ESI-MS Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins in Various Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichiro Nakajima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin extracts of two blueberries, Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry and Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry, and of three other berries, Ribes nigrum (black currant, Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry, and Sambucus nigra (elderberry, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/ESI-MS. Both bilberry and rabbiteye blueberry contained 15 identical anthocyanins with different distribution patterns. Black currant, chokeberry, and elderberry contained 6, 4, and 4 kinds of anthocyanins, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of these berry extracts were analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. All these extracts showed potent antiradical activities.

  10. Evaluation and comparison of radical scavenging properties of solvent extracts from Justicia adhatoda leaf using DPPH assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Deepak Kumar; Panda, Likun; Ramaiah, Sudha; Anbarasu, Anand

    2014-12-01

    2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method is routinely practiced for the assessment of antioxidant activity of compounds and their mixtures. The method is based on the spectrophotometric measurement of DPPH(·) concentration that changes resulting from the DPPH radical reaction with an antioxidant. The amount of remaining DPPH(·) in the examined system is a measure of the antioxidant activity of compounds. Our study aims at exploring the antioxidant properties of Justicia adhatoda leaf extract and comparing the results in terms of effective concentration which scavenges 50 % radical (EC50). The correlation of the activities for both cold and Soxhlet methanolic extracts is reported with DPPH assay. The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract derived by two different methods is positively correlated. Correlation between antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of methanolic extract in both the cases indicates the efficiency of the extraction procedure. Positive correlation and p value <0.05 validate the efficiency of the procedures and results.

  11. Enhanced photostability, radical scavenging and antitumor activity of indole-3-carbinol-loaded rose hip oil nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrcke, Mailine; Giuliani, Laura Minussi; Ferreira, Luana Mota; Barbieri, Allanna Valentini; Sari, Marcel Henrique Marcondes; da Silveira, Elita Ferreira; Azambuja, Juliana Hofstatter; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Braganhol, Elizandra; Cruz, Letícia

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to develop poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules loaded with indole-3-cabinol (I3C) using rose hip oil (RHO) or medium chain triglycerides (MCT) as oil core. In vitro radical scavenging activity (DPPH method), hemolysis, and antitumor effects on breast (MCF-7) and glioma (C6) cells were conducted. Preformulation evaluations revealed that RHO is suitable to prepare the nanocapsules considering the log P determination and dissolution/swelling experiments of polymer films. The nanocapsules were prepared and presented adequate physicochemical characteristics as mean size around 250nm, polydispersity index values <0.2, zeta potential negative values and I3C encapsulation efficiency around 42%, without any influence of the oil core (RHO or MCT) on these parameters. However, the photodegradation study demonstrated that RHO nanocapsules showed less degree of I3C degradation in comparison to MCT nanocapsules. The in vitro release profile showed that both nanocapsule suspensions demonstrated an initial burst effect followed by a prolonged I3C release. In addition, the formulations were considered hemocompatibles at 10μg/mL and showed an enhanced radical scavenging activity in comparison to free I3C. Moreover, nanocapsules prepared with RHO increased about two times the antitumor effect of I3C on MCF-7 and C6 cells without significant reduction of astrocyte cell viability. In conclusion, nanocapsule formulations developed in this study might be considered promising for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Ability of Bile to Scavenge Superoxide Radicals and Pigment Gallstone Formation in Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Lin

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available After partial ligation of the common bile duct (CBD of guinea pigs, 14 of 16 animals developed pigment gallstones within one week (S group. Intraperitoneal injection of Vit. E and C, each 10 mg/kg daily from 3 days before CBD ligation to one week after the operation (S+V group, decreased the gallstone incidence to 5/14 (exact probability0.05, but Vit. E and C normalized the SR, and the difference between S group and S+V group was significant (p<0.05. These results suggested that Vit. E and C, known as antioxidants, enhanced the ability to scavenge oxygen radical in S+V group; and that in addition to the increases of UCB and Ca2+ concentrations, the participation of oxygen radicals might be of importance for pigment gallstone formation induced by bile duct obstruction.

  13. Free-radical Scavenging Flavonol 3-O-glycosides from the Leaves of Ribes biebersteinii Berl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Delazar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ribes biebersteinii Berl. (Grossulariaceae, commonly known as ‘reddish-black berry’, is an Iranian medicinal plant found mainly in the region of the Arasbaran forests in Iran. Reversed-phase preparative HPLC analyses of the methanol extract of the leaves of this plant afforded four flavonol glycosides, e.g. quercetin 3-O-sophoroside (1, quercetin 3-O-sambubioside (2, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside (3 and kaempferol 3,5-di-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (4. The free-radical-scavenging properties of the n-hexane, DCM and MeOH extracts, as well as the isolated compounds 1-4 were evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay. Keywords:Ribes biebersteinii Berl.; Grossulariaceae; free-radical

  14. Antioxidant content and free radical scavenging ability of fresh red pummelo [Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck] juice and freeze-dried products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiu-Ling; Chang, Sam K C; Chang, Sue-Joan

    2007-04-18

    The antioxidative phytochemicals in various fruits and vegetables are widely recognized for their role in scavenging free radicals, which are involved in the etiology of many chronic diseases. Colored fruits are especially considered a quality trait that correlates with their nutritional values and health benefits. The specific aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidants in the juice and freeze-dried flesh and peel of red pummelo and their ability to scavenge free radicals and compare them with those in white pummelo juice. The total phenolic content of red pummelo juice extracted by methanol (8.3 mg/mL) was found to be significantly higher than that of white pummelo juice (5.6 mg/mL). The carotenoid content of red pummelo juice was also significantly higher than that in white pummelo juice. The contents of vitamin C and delta-tocopherol in red pummelo juice were 472 and 0.35 mug/mL, respectively. The ability of the antioxidants found in red pummelo juice to scavenge radicals were found by methanol extraction to approximate that of BHA and vitamin C with a rapid rate in a kinetic model. The ability of methanol extracts of freeze-dried peel and flesh from red pummelo to scavenge these radicals was 20-40% that of BHA and vitamin C effects. Fresh red pummelo juice is an excellent source of antioxidant compounds and exhibited great efficiency in scavenging different forms of free radicals including DPPH, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide radicals.

  15. Essential Oil from Flowers and Leaves of Elaeagnus Angustifolia (Elaeagnaceae): Composition, Radical Scavenging and General Toxicity Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbati, Mohammadali; Asnaashari, Solmaz; Heshmati Afshar, Fariba

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the flowers and leaves of Elaeagnus angostifolia (Elaeagnaceae) along with evaluate the radical scavenging and general toxicity activities. A combination of GC-MS and GC-FID were utilized for analyzing the chemical profile of the essential oils extracted by hydro-distillation from the leaves and flowers of E. angustifolia. The essential oils were subjected to general toxicity and radical scavenging assays using brine shrimp lethality test and DPPH method, respectively. In total, 53 and 25 components were identified and quantified in the essential oils of flowers and leaves, accounting for 96.59% and 98.97% of the oil, respectively. The both oils were observed to be rich in ester compounds. The most abundant components of the oil from flowers were E-ethyl cinnamate (60.00%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (9.99%), palmitic acid (5.20%) and phytol (3.29%). The major constituents of the oil from leaves were E-ethyl cinnamate (37.27%), phytol (12.08%), nonanal (10.74%) and Z-3-hexenyl benzoate (7.65%). Both oils showed moderate activity in DPPH assay; however, they exhibited potent tocixity in brine shrimp lethality test. The remarkable toxicity effects of the oils are worthy to further investigation to find the probable mechanisms of action accountable for the noticeable toxic effect of these essential oils.

  16. The QSAR study of flavonoid-metal complexes scavenging rad OH free radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo-chu; Qian, Jun-zhen; Fan, Ying; Tan, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Flavonoid-metal complexes have antioxidant activities. However, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) of flavonoid-metal complexes and their antioxidant activities has still not been tackled. On the basis of 21 structures of flavonoid-metal complexes and their antioxidant activities for scavenging rad OH free radical, we optimised their structures using Gaussian 03 software package and we subsequently calculated and chose 18 quantum chemistry descriptors such as dipole, charge and energy. Then we chose several quantum chemistry descriptors that are very important to the IC50 of flavonoid-metal complexes for scavenging rad OH free radical through method of stepwise linear regression, Meanwhile we obtained 4 new variables through the principal component analysis. Finally, we built the QSAR models based on those important quantum chemistry descriptors and the 4 new variables as the independent variables and the IC50 as the dependent variable using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and we validated the two models using experimental data. These results show that the two models in this paper are reliable and predictable.

  17. Insights in the radical scavenging mechanism of syringaldehyde and generation of its anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancheva, D.; Velcheva, E.; Glavcheva, Z.; Stamboliyska, B.; Smelcerovic, A.

    2016-03-01

    The ability of syringaldehyde, a naturally occurring phenolic antioxidant and medicinally important compound, to scavenge free radicals according different mechanisms was elucidated by computing the respective reaction enthalpies at DFT B3LYP/6-311++G** level. Bond dissociation enthalpy, ionization potentials and proton affinities were calculated in gas phase, benzene, water and DMSO in order to account for different environment (nonpolar lipid membranes and polar physiological liquids) where the antioxidant action in the living organism could take place and various experimental in vitro conditions. Molecular and electronic properties influencing the reactivity of syringaldehyde according to the different mechanisms were discussed in the light of the reported radical scavenging activities in crocin bleaching, oxidation potential of the first anodic peak and DPPH test. According to the calculated reaction enthalpies, in polar environment the syringaldehyde reacts preferably by sequential proton loss electron transfer which is related to the formation of a phenoxy anion. Such phenoxy anion was generated in DMSO solution and the changes in the force field, steric and electronic structure, resulting from the conversion, were described in detail based on the IR spectral data and DFT computations.

  18. Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial Screening and Free-Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Novel Substituted Pyrazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagwa Mohamed Mahrous Hamada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the synthesis of acetoxysulfonamide pyrazole derivatives, substituted 4,5-dihydropyrazole-1-carbothioamide and 4,5-dihydropyrazole-1-isonicotinoyl derivatives starting from substituted vanillin chalcones. Acetoxysulfonamide pyrazole derivatives were prepared from the reaction of chalcones with p-sulfamylphenylhydrazine followed by treatment with acetic anhydride. At the same time 4,5-dihydropyrazole-1-carbothioamide and 4,5-dihydropyrazole-1-isonicotinoyl derivatives were prepared from the reaction of chalcones with either thiosemicarbazide or isonicotinic acid hydrazide, respectively. The synthesized compounds were structurally characterized on the basis of IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectral data and microanalyses. All of the newly isolated compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial screening using the agar well-diffusion method revealed that the chloro derivatives are the most active ones. Moreover, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of these chloro derivatives are also studied using the DPPH radical scavenging and NO radical scavenging methods, respectively.

  19. Radical Scavenging, Proteases Activities, and Phenolics Composition of Bark Extracts from 21 Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asam Raza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem barks derived from twenty-one medicinal plants were extracted in methanol (100% and acetone-water (70 : 30 v/v and at room as well as at reflux temperature conditions. Total phenolic contents, determined using FC (Folin Ciocalteu reagent, ranged from 528 to 715 mg GAE/g of crude extract. 15 out of 21 plants showed DPPH activity more than 90% and the rest of plants exhibited the activity in the range of 87–89%. The methanolic extract of P. granatum obtained at room temperature showed the highest antiradical activity (96%. The extracts with similar % radical scavenging of DPPH∙ showed significant variation in EC50 value. Radical scavenging activity of E. rostrata, M. champaca, A. modesta, P. roxburghii, P. longifolia, E. suberosa, and F. infectoria was evaluated for the first time. A strong correlation between total phenols and antiradical activity was exhibited with R values ranging from 0.7580 to 0.8874 indicating a linear relationship The extracts phenolic composition was studied by HPLC. All extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activity (87 to 96% while moderate activity was exhibited against protease (22 to 56%. Gallic acid, tannic acid, quercetin, rutin, catechin, hesperidin, and cinnamic acid were identified as the major phenolic acids in the extracts of selected medicinal plants.

  20. New mono-ether of glycerol and triterpenes with DPPH radical scavenging activity from Cameroonian propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talla, Emmanuel; Tamfu, Alfred Ngenge; Gade, Isaac Sylvère; Yanda, Lambert; Mbafor, Joseph Tanyi; Laurent, Sophie; Elst, Luce Vander; Popova, Milena; Bankova, Vassya

    2017-06-01

    The extracts of some propolis samples were analysed by GC-MS and then purified by column chromatography. The latter led to the isolation of a new mono-ether of glycerol, 1'-O-eicosanyl glycerol and a new triterpene, methyl-3β,27-dihydroxycycloart-24-en-26-oate together with known triterpenoids namely betulin, 3β-hydroxylanostan-9,24-dien-21-oic acid, mangiferonic acid, a mixture of ambolic acid and β-sitosterol, 3β-hydroxycycloartan-12,24(25)-diene and 27-hydroxymangiferonic acid. The DPPH radical scavenging potential of some extracts and compounds were measured. The radical scavenging activity varied from Hexane extract of Foumban propolis (IC50 = 5.6 mg/mL) to Methanol extract of Foumban propolis (IC50 = 1.07 mg/mL) for the extracts and from 3β-hydroxylanostan-9,24-dien-21-oic acid (IC50 = 1.22 mg/mL) to 1'-O-eicosanyl glycerol (IC50 = 0.93 mg/mL) for the compounds. Activities of samples were moderate as they remained closer to those of the standard antioxidants Gallic acid (IC50 = 0.30 mg/mL) and vitamin C (IC50 = 0.80 mg/mL), especially 1'-O-eicosanyl glycerol, the most active compound.

  1. Enhancement of cardioplegic protection with the free-radical scavenger peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menasche, P; Grousset, C; Gauduel, Y; Mouas, C; Piwnica, A

    1986-11-01

    This study assesses the ability of the free-radical scavenger peroxidase to enhance cardioplegic protection when given during or before myocardial ischemia. Forty-four isolated isovolumetric buffer-perfused rat hearts were studied. In a first series of experiments that consisted of three groups, hearts were subjected to 90 min of normothermic global ischemia followed by 45 min of reperfusion. One group received a crystalloid cardioplegic solution given as a single dose at the onset of arrest. A second group received cardioplegic solution supplemented with superoxide dismutase (200,000 U/liter), and a third group received cardioplegic solution supplemented with peroxidase (6000 U/liter). Based on comparisons of postreperfusion coronary flow, left ventricular developed pressure, maximum dP/dt, and diastolic pressure, we found that the best protection was provided by peroxidase-enriched cardioplegia. A second series of experiments was then undertaken to assess the effects of the latter enzyme given as a pretreatment. Hearts were subjected to 3 hr of global ischemia, during which myocardial protection was provided by hypothermia (15 degrees C) along with multidose cardioplegia. The treatment group was given peroxidase (10,000 U/liter) added to the perfusate fluid for 15 min before the onset of cardioplegic arrest without further enzyme supplementation during ischemia or reperfusion. Hearts perfused with standard buffer for an equal period of time served as controls. While the two groups demonstrated the same degree of postischemic increase in myocardial stiffness, peroxidase-pretreated hearts had a significantly better recovery of contractile indexes at 30 and 45 min of reflow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Development of a triple hyphenated HPLC-radical scavenging detection-DAD-SPE-NMR system for the rapid identification of antioxidants in complex plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Waard, de P.

    2005-01-01

    A rapid method for the simultaneous detection and identification of radical scavenging compounds in plant extracts was developed by combining an HPLC with on-line radical scavenging using DPPH as a model radical and an HPLC¿DAD¿SPE¿NMR system. Using this method a commercial rosemary extract was

  3. Radical-Scavenging Activity of a Sunscreen Enriched by Antioxidants Providing Protection in the Whole Solar Spectral Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carla; Maia Campos, Patrícia; Schanzer, Sabine; Albrecht, Stephanie; Lohan, Silke B; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E; Meinke, Martina C

    2017-01-01

    The main reason for extrinsic skin aging is the negative action of free radicals. The formation of free radicals in the skin has been associated with ultraviolet (UV) exposure and also to visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) irradiations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a sunscreen in the whole solar range. The radical-scavenging activity of a sunscreen in the UV, VIS, and NIR ranges was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Ex vivo penetration profiles were determined using confocal Raman microscopy on porcine ear skin at different time points after application. Compared to the untreated skin, the sunscreen decreased the skin radical formation in the UV and VIS regions. Additional protection in the VIS and NIR ranges was observed for the sunscreen containing antioxidants (AO). The penetration depth of the cream was less than 11.2 ± 3.0 µm for all time points. A sunscreen containing AO improved the photoprotection in the VIS and NIR ranges. The sunscreen was retained in the stratum corneum. Therefore, these results show the possibility of the development of effective and safer sunscreen products. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. How Do Nutritional Antioxidants Really Work: Nucleophilic Tone and Para-Hormesis Versus Free Radical Scavenging in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Henry Jay; Davies, Kelvin J. A.; Ursini, Fulvio

    2013-01-01

    We present arguments for an evolution in our understanding of how antioxidants in fruits and vegetables exert their health-protective effects. There is much epidemiological evidence for disease prevention by dietary antioxidants and chemical evidence that such compounds react in one-electron reactions with free radicals in vitro. Nonetheless, kinetic constraints indicate that in vivo scavenging of radicals is ineffective in antioxidant defense. Instead, enzymatic removal of non-radical electrophiles, such as hydroperoxides, in two-electron redox reactions is the major antioxidant mechanism. Furthermore, we propose that a major mechanism of action for nutritional antioxidants is the paradoxical oxidative activation of the Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) signaling pathway, which maintains protective oxidoreductases and their nucleophilic substrates. This maintenance of ‘Nucleophilic Tone,’ by a mechanism that can be called ‘Para-Hormesis,’ provides a means for regulating physiological non-toxic concentrations of the non-radical oxidant electrophiles that boost antioxidant enzymes, and damage removal and repair systems (for proteins, lipids, and DNA), at the optimal levels consistent with good health. PMID:23747930

  5. Free radical scavenging activity in in vitro-derived tissues of Eruca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ali, Jawad; Ali, Mohammad; Zia, Muhammad; Bokhari, Saleem A; Khan, Mubarak Ali

    2016-01-01

    Feasible regeneration protocol for economically important plant Eruca sativa was established and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity of regenerated tissues was evaluated and compared with plant material collected from the wild. Leaf portions inoculated onto Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium responded to all plant growth regulators exploited. Optimum callus production was achieved on a combination of 2.0 mg l(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) + 1.0 mg l(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and the lowest response was recorded for 0.5 mg l(-1) gibberellic acid (GA3) + 1.0 mg l(-1) NAA. The callus was subcultured on similar composition/concentrations of plant growth regulators after 4 weeks of culture time. A 5.0 mg l(-1) 6-BA + 1.0 mg l(-1) NAA produced optimum percentage shoot organogenesis after 4 weeks of subculturing. However, optimum number of shoots per explant was recorded for moderate concentrations (1.0 and 2.0 mg l(-1)) of kinetin. Incorporation of NAA into MS medium-containing GA3 also produced a feasible number of shoots/explant. Similar mean shoot length was recorded for 2.0 mg l(-1) kinetin + 1.0 mg l(-1) NAA and optimum concentrations (2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mg l(-1)) of GA3 + 1.0 mg l(-1) NAA. In vitro generated shoots were shifted to MS medium augmented with indole acetic acid (IAA) for rooting after 4 weeks of subculturing. Moderate concentrations (5.0 mg l(-1)) of IAA produced feasible rooting. Investigation of radical scavenging activity showed that callus possesses higher levels of radical scavengers than other plant tissues tested. Phenolics and glucosides are reported to be active components of Eruca sativa phytochemistry. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Loading of free radicals on the functional graphene combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry screening method for the detection of radical-scavenging natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Shi, Gaofeng; Chen, Xuefu; Chen, Fuwen; Yao, Ruixing; Wang, Zhenju

    2013-11-13

    A novel free radical reaction combined with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (FRR-LC-PDA-ESI/APCI-MS/MS) screening method was developed for the detection and identification of radical-scavenging natural antioxidants. Functionalized graphene was prepared by chemical method for loading free radicals (superoxide radical, peroxyl radical and PAHs free radical). Separation was performed with and without a preliminary exposure of the sample to specific free radicals on the functionalized graphene, which can facilitate reaction kinetics (charge transfers) between free radicals and potential antioxidants. The difference in chromatographic peak areas is used to identify potential antioxidants. The structure of the antioxidants in one sample (Swertia chirayita) is identified using MS/MS and comparison with standards. Thirteen compounds were found to possess potential antioxidant activity, and their free radical-scavenging capacities were investigated. The thirteen compounds were identified as 1,3,5-trihydroxyxanthone-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (PD1), norswertianin (PD2), 1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (PD3), 3, 3', 4', 5, 8-penta hydroxyflavone-6-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid-6'-pentopyranose-7-O-glucopyranoside (PD4), 1,5,8-trihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone (PD5), swertiamarin (PS1), 2-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-1,3,7-trihydroxylxanthone (PS2), 1,3,7-trihydroxylxanthone-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (PL1), 1,3,8-trihydroxyl xanthone-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (PL2), 1,3,7-trihydroxy-8-methoxyxanthone (PL3), 1,2,3-trihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyxanthone (PL4), 1,8-dihydroxy-2,6-dimethoxy xanthone (PL5) and 1,3,5,8-tetramethoxydecussatin (PL6). The reactivity and SC50 values of those compounds were investigated, respectively. PD4 showed the strongest capability for scavenging PAHs free radical; PL4 showed prominent scavenging capacities in the lipid peroxidation processes; it was found that all components in S. chirayita exhibited weak reactivity in the superoxide

  7. Enhanced radical scavenging activity of a procyanidin B3 analogue comprised of a dimer of planar catechin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Mirei; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichiro; Fukuhara, Kiyoshi

    2017-11-15

    Proanthocyanidins are oligomers of catechins that exhibit potent antioxidative activity and inhibit binding of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) to the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1), which is involved in the onset and development of arteriosclerosis. Previous attempts aimed at developing proanthocyanidin derivatives with more potent antioxidative activity and stronger inhibition for LOX-1 demonstrated the synthesis of a novel proanthocyanidin derivative (1), in which the geometry of one catechin molecule in procyanidin B3 was constrained to a planar orientation. The radical scavenging activity of 1 was 1.9-fold higher than that of procyanidin B3. Herein, we synthesized another procyanidin B3 analogue (2), in which the geometries of both catechin molecules in the dimer were constrained to planar orientations. The radical scavenging activity of 2 was 1.5-fold higher than that of 1, suggesting that 2 may be a more effective candidate than 1 as a therapeutic agent to reduce oxidative stress induced in arteriosclerosis or related cerebrovascular disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Triphala, an ayurvedic rasayana drug, protects mice against radiation-induced lethality by free-radical scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Malagi, Krishna J; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Venkatesh, Ponemone; Veruva, Rosi Reddy

    2004-12-01

    The effects of 10 mg/kg of triphala extract (TE) was studied on radiation-induced sickness and mortality in mice exposed to 7-12 Gray (Gy) of gamma-irradiation. Treatment of mice with triphala once daily for 5 consecutive days before irradiation delayed the onset of mortality and reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the non-drug double distilled water treated irradiated controls (DDW). Triphala provided protection against both gastrointestinal and hemopoetic death. However, animals of both the TE + irradiation and DDW + irradiation groups did not survive up to 30 days post-irradiation beyond 11 Gy irradiation. The LD50/30 was found to be 8.6 Gy for the DDW + irradiation group and 9.9 Gy for TE + irradiation group. The administration of triphala resulted in an increase in the radiation tolerance by 1.4 Gy, and the dose reduction factor was found to be 1.15. To understand the mechanism of action of triphala, the free radical scavenging activity of the drug was evaluated. Triphala was found to scavenge (.)OH, O(2) (.) 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) diammonium salt (ABTS)(.+) and NO(.) radicals in a dose dependent manner.

  9. Acute Superoxide Radical Scavenging Reduces Blood Pressure but Does Not Influence Kidney Function in Hypertensive Rats with Postischemic Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Miloradović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in hypertensive surroundings. We investigated superoxide radical molecules influence on systemic haemodynamic and kidney function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR with induced postischemic AKI. Experiment was performed in anesthetized adult male SHR. The right kidney was removed, and left renal artery was subjected to ischemia by clamping for 40 minutes. The treated group received synthetic superoxide dismutase mimetic TEMPOL in the femoral vein 5 minutes before, during, and 175 minutes after the period of reperfusion, while the control AKI group received the vehicle via the same route. All parameters were measured 24 h after renal reperfusion. TEMPOL treatment significantly decreased mean arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance P<0.05 compared to AKI control. It also increased cardiac output and catalase activity P<0.05. Lipid peroxidation and renal vascular resistance were decreased in TEMPOL P<0.05. Plasma creatinine and kidney morphological parameters were unchanged among TEMPOL treated and control groups. Our study shows that superoxide radicals participate in haemodynamic control, but acute superoxide scavenging is ineffective in glomerular and tubular improvement, probably due to hypertension-induced strong endothelial dysfunction which neutralizes beneficial effects of O2− scavenging.

  10. Antioxidant capacity, radical scavenger activity, lipid oxidation protection analysis and antimicrobial activity of red grape extracts from different varieties cultivated in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Ana C; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity, radical scavenger activity, lipid oxidation protection and antimicrobial activity of grape extracts from 12 different red grape varieties cultivated in Portugal. The mean values of total phenolic content quantified in grape extracts varied from 833.7 to 2005.6 mg/L gallic acid. Antioxidant capacity results showed different values for each grape variety ranging from 3.96 to 32.96 mm/L Fe(II). The scavenger activity values ranged from 15.99% to 54.82% for the superoxide radical and from 11.79% to 29.67% for the hydroxyl radical. The grape extracts with the highest antioxidant capacity had a positive effect on the lipid oxidation protection and induced low peroxide values in butter samples. Finally, concerning antimicrobial activity, grape extracts from Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz grape varieties had significant antimicrobial activity, especially notable for total mesophilic aerobics.

  11. Variations in free radical scavenging activities and antioxidant responses in salivary glands of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayukh Ghosh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Hyalomma dromedarii ticks are of major economic importance in the livestock sector as the vector of tropical theileriosis causing huge production loss, mostly in tropical countries. The release of different reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by exogenous and endogenous means can potentially induce oxidative damage to the ticks during their prolonged feeding on their vertebrate hosts. Hence, ticks need an effective free radical scavenging and antioxidant defense system for their successful feeding of a blood meal. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the interspecies variations in antioxidant response, free radical scavenging, and anti-inflammatory activities in salivary gland extracts (SGE of the two species as they differ considerably in relation to feeding behavior and host specificity. Materials and Methods: Tick salivary glands were dissected out under ice from semi-fed female ticks of both the species and homogenized at low temperature to prepare SGE. SGE was stored at −40°C for analysis of free radical scavenging activities and antioxidant status. Results: Significant depletion in reduced glutathione concentrations, malondialdehyde level and elevation in free radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutase, anti-inflammatory activity were found in SGE of engorging female H. dromedarii ticks as compared to H. a. anatolicum. Conclusion: Higher antioxidant status and free radical scavenging activities in H. dromedarii might have enabled these ticks to suck more blood from the host in spite of continuous host’s immune responses. These findings about tick biology will help in improving tick control strategies.

  12. Antioxidant activity of South African red and white cultivar wines: free radical scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A; Manley, Marena

    2003-02-12

    The free radical scavenging activity of South African red (n = 46) and white (n = 40) cultivar wines was determined using 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothialozinesulfonic acid) radical cations (ABTS(.+)) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH.). The total antioxidant activities (TAA) of red and white wines using ABTS(.+) were 14.916 and 0.939 mM Trolox, respectively, at corresponding total phenol (TP) contents of 2339.0 and 273.8 mg of gallic acid equiv/L. Ruby Cabernet wines had the lowest TAA(ABTS) (13.177 mM Trolox) of the red wines, whereas the TAA(ABTS) values of Chardonnay and Chenin blanc wines were the highest (1.060 mM Trolox) and lowest (0.800 mM Trolox) of the white wines. The TAA(DPPH) values were of the same magnitude as the TAA(ABTS) values, and similar trends were observed. TAA correlated (P red (r = 0.935) and white (r = 0.907) wines, as well as flavanol content of red wines (r = 0.866) and tartaric acid ester content of white wines (r = 0.767). Canonical discriminant analysis using phenolic composition and antioxidant activity was applied to differentiate between red and white cultivar wines.

  13. Antimutagenic, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of ethyl acetate extracts from white, yellow and red onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Mi-Yae; Choi, Sang-Do; Kahng, Goon-Gjung; Nam, Sang-Hae; Sung, Nak-Ju

    2004-04-01

    The beneficial effects of red, yellow and white onion extracts have been assessed by antioxidant activity and antimutagenic activity. And the effects compared to BHT and ascorbic acid. Total phenolic compounds and flavonoids in onion extracts were determined. Yellow onion extract had more organic acid and free sugar than those detected in the white and red onion extract. The scavenging activity of DPPH radical and H(2)O(2) were increased depending on the concentration. The antioxidant activities using beta-carotene-linoleate system and reducing power were increased but the effect was small to that of BHT and ascorbic acid. After digested, extracts showed antimutagenic activities, and it seems that they inhibit the mutagenicity for digesting. This study demonstrated that the antimutagenicities and antioxidant properties of ethyl acetate extract against mutagens were related to their phenols and flavonoids, which are heat stable and losses digestive juices are relatively low.

  14. Free radical-scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Pouzolzia zeylanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEIYUAN LI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pouzolzia zeylanica was extracted with different solvents (acetone, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether, using different protocols (cold-extraction and Soxhlet extraction. To evaluate the antiradical and antioxidant abilities of the extracts, four in vitro test systems were employed, i.e., DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays and a reducing power assay. All extracts exhibited outstanding antioxidant activities that were superior to that of butylated hydroxytoluene. The ethyl acetate extracts exhibited the most significant antioxidant activities, and cold-extraction under stirring seemed to be the more efficacious method for acquiring the predominant antioxidants. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities and total phenolic (TP content of different extracts followed the same order, i.e., there is a good correlation between antioxidant activities and TP content. The results showed that these extracts, especially the ethyl acetate extracts, could be considered as natural antioxidants and may be useful for curing diseases arising from oxidative deterioration.

  15. Flavanol Derivatives from Rhizophora stylosa and Their DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Gui Wang

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A new acetylated flavanol, 3,7-O-diacetyl (–-epicatechin (3, and seven known flavanol derivatives, (–-epicatechin (1, 3-O-acetyl (–-epicatechin (2, 3,3′,4′,5,7-O-pentaacetyl (–-epicatechin (4, (+-afzelechin (5, (+-catechin (6, cinchonain Ib (7, and proanthocyanidin B2 (8, were isolated from the stems and twigs of the mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa and identified. The crude extract, the different fractions and all of the purified compounds were evaluated for DPPH radical scavenging activity.

  16. Free radical scavenging capacity in the aging of selected red Spanish wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrauri, J A; Sánchez-Moreno, C; Rupérez, P; Saura-Calixto, F

    1999-04-01

    Free radical scavenging capacity by the DPPH(*) method and main physicochemical properties, polyphenols content by HPLC, color by a tristimulus colorimeter, and UV-vis spectra in the aging of selected red Spanish wines, were studied. As the wines age, they become darker (lower lightness, L) and increase their hue angle (lower red color) as well as the ratio of absorbance at 420 nm to that at 520 nm. Main polyphenolics identified in the samples were tannic acid, oenin, and gallic acid. The antiradical efficiency of the samples increased during aging, which could be related to an increase in the tannic acid concentration shown by the following correlationship: EC(50) = 1/(0.18 + 0.0011[tannic acid](mg/L)) with a correlation coefficient of 0.744.

  17. Characterization of fatty acids, bioactive lipids, and radical scavenging activity of Canterbury bells seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanien, M. F.R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the chemical composition and radical scavenging activity of Canterbury bells (Campanula medium seed oil. C. medium seeds contained 9.2% extractable oil. The lipid classes, fatty acids, phytosterol and tocopherol composition of C. medium seed oil were determined. The amount of neutral lipids in the oil was the highest, followed by glycolipids and phospholipids. Linoleic and oleic were the main fatty acids. C. medium oil is characterized by high levels of phytosterols and β-sitosterol was the main compound. β-Tocopherol constituted 42.5% of the total tocopherol content followed by γ-tocopherol. The radical scavenging activity (RSA toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals and galvinoxyl radicals of C. medium oil were higher than those of extra virgin olive oil. The diverse potential uses of C. medium oil may make this plant industrially important.El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la composición química y la actividad de captación de radicales de aceites de semillas de campanillas de Canterbury (Campanula medium. Las semillas de C. medium contenían 9,2 % de aceite extraíble. Se determinó la composición de las diferentes clases de lípidos, ácidos grasos, fitoesteroles y tocoferoles. La cantidad de lípidos neutros en el aceite fue mayoritario, seguido de glicolípidos y fosfolípidos. Linoleico y oleico fueron los ácidos grasos principales. El aceite de C. medium se caracteriza por altos niveles de fitoesteroles y β-sitosterol fue el compuesto principal. β-tocoferol constituía 42,5 % del contenido total de tocoferol seguido de γ-tocoferol. La actividad de captación de radicales (RSA a 1,1-difenil-2- picrilhidrazil (DPPH y radicales galvinoxil de C. medium fueron superiores a las de aceite de oliva virgen extra. Los diversos usos potenciales de los aceites de C. medium pueden hacer que esta planta pueda ser importante industrialmente.

  18. Radical scavenging activity of orange and tangerine varieties cultivated in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzzioni, Alexandra G; Franco, Andréa G; de Sylos, Célia M

    2009-01-01

    Four citrus fruit varieties cultivated in Brazil (two kinds of sweet orange and two kinds of tangerine) were analyzed for physicochemical characteristics contents of total phenolics, total carotenoids and ascorbic acid, and antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activities of aqueous, methanolic, and acetone extracts of the citrus fruit juices were assessed on the basis of their ability to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•). The cravo tangerine has the highest content of citric acid, while the pera orange is richest in ascorbic acid. The lima orange has the highest total phenolic contents, and the ponkan the highest total carotenoids. The antioxidant activities, expressed as the concentration of antioxidant able to scavenge 50% of the initial DPPH• (EC₅₀), ranged from 139.1 ± 27.3 to 182.2 ± 28.8 g extract/l for juice of orange varieties and 186.3 ± 29.6 to 275.5 ± 3.3g extract/l for juice of tangerine citrus varieties. In methanolic extracts the EC₅₀ ranged from 192.5 ± 43.1 to 267.4 ± 41.4 g extract/l for orange varieties and from 225.2 ± 69.8 to 336.3 ± 27.2 g extract/l for tangerine varieties. For EC₅₀ values of acetone fractions, there were no statistically significant differences between the different varieties. For every citrus fruit in the present study, the radical scavenging capacity was higher in the aqueous than in the methanolic or acetone fractions.

  19. Phenylpropanoid Glycoside Analogues: Enzymatic Synthesis, Antioxidant Activity and Theoretical Study of Their Free Radical Scavenger Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Munguía, Agustín; Hernández-Romero, Yanet; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Miranda-Molina, Alfonso; Regla, Ignacio; Martínez, Ana; Castillo, Edmundo

    2011-01-01

    Phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPGs) are natural compounds present in several medicinal plants that have high antioxidant power and diverse biological activities. Because of their low content in plants (less than 5% w/w), several chemical synthetic routes to produce PPGs have been developed, but their synthesis is a time consuming process and the achieved yields are often low. In this study, an alternative and efficient two-step biosynthetic route to obtain natural PPG analogues is reported for the first time. Two galactosides were initially synthesized from vanillyl alcohol and homovanillyl alcohol by a transgalactosylation reaction catalyzed by Kluyveromyces lactis β-galactosidase in saturated lactose solutions with a 30%–35% yield. To synthesize PPGs, the galactoconjugates were esterified with saturated and unsaturated hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives using Candida antarctica Lipase B (CaL-B) as a biocatalyst with 40%–60% yields. The scavenging ability of the phenolic raw materials, intermediates and PPGs was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) method. It was found that the biosynthesized PPGs had higher scavenging abilities when compared to ascorbic acid, the reference compound, while their antioxidant activities were found similar to that of natural PPGs. Moreover, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to determine that the PPGs antioxidant mechanism proceeds through a sequential proton loss single electron transfer (SPLET). The enzymatic process reported in this study is an efficient and versatile route to obtain PPGs from different phenylpropanoid acids, sugars and phenolic alcohols. PMID:21674039

  20. Investigation of two o-hydroxy Schiff bases in terms of prototropy and radical scavenging activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak Kaştaş, Çiğdem; Kaştaş, Gökhan; Güder, Aytaç; Gür, Mahmut; Muğlu, Halit; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2017-02-01

    Two Schiff bases, namely (E)-4,6-dibromo-3-methoxy-2-[(phenylimino)methyl]phenol (1) and (Z)-2,4-dibromo-6-[(4-buthylphenylamino)methylene]-5-methoxycyclohexa-2,4-dienone (2), have been investigated by considering solvent, substituent and temperature dependence of prototropy, and scavenging activities. Experimental (X-ray diffraction, UV-vis and NMR) and computational (DFT) techniques have been used to obtain key data on prototropy and other properties of interest. X-ray and UV-vis results underline the variability in the structural preferences of the compounds with respect to the phase and solvent media conditions. This kind of tautomeric behavior has been elaborated by 1H NMR and 13C NMR experiments performed at room and low temperatures. Radical scavenging properties of two compounds have been probed for their usage potentials as therapeutic agent and ingredient in medicinal and food industries, respectively. For this purpose, three different test methods (DPPH, ABTS•+ and DMPD•+) have been used. It has been found from in vivo and in vitro studies that the compound 2 could be interesting as an active component in pharmaceutical industry or as an additive in food industry when its antiradical activity is considered.

  1. Erythrocyte free radical scavenger enzymes in bicycle professional racers. Adaptation to training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, P; Maynar, M; Gutierrez, J M; Maynar, J; Timon, J; Campillo, J E

    1991-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the influence of endurance training on the activities of the scavenger enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) measured in erythrocytes from sedentary subjects, amateur bicycle racers and in professional bicycle racers who were cycling in two real cyclist contests including the top-class race Vuelta a España (VCE). Under resting conditions the SOD activity was higher (p less than 0.01) in cyclists than in controls. The activities of CAT and GSH-Px were higher (p less than 0.05 and p less than 0.01, respectively) under resting conditions in professional cyclists versus measured both in sedentary subjects and amateur cyclists. The enzyme activities were not modified significantly in professional cyclists after a bout of exercise of 22 km in 5 hrs, but the SOD activity was increased (p less than 0.05) and CAT activity reduced (p less than 0.05) after 2800 km in 20 days (VCE). The present results shown that aerobic endurance training, when at a professional level, produces an increase in the erythrocyte activities of the main free radicals scavenger enzymes.

  2. Arbutin, an intracellular hydroxyl radical scavenger, protects radiation-induced apoptosis in human lymphoma U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Hua; Li, Peng; Zhao, Qing-Li; Piao, Jin-Lan; Jiao, Yu-Fei; Kadowaki, Makoto; Kondo, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Excessive ROS have the potential to damage cellular macromolecules including DNA, proteins, and lipids and eventually lead to cell death. In this study, we evaluated the potential of arbutin, a drug chosen from a series of traditional herbal medicine by measuring intracellular hydroxyl radical scavenging ability in X-irradiated U937 cells. Arbutin (hydroquinone-β-D-glucopyranoside), a naturally occurring glucoside of hydroquinone, has been traditionally used to treat pigmentary disorders. However, there are no reports describing the effect of arbutin on IR-induced apoptosis. We confirmed that arbutin can protect cells from apoptosis induced by X-irradiation. The combination of arbutin and X-irradiation could reduce intracellular hydroxyl radical production and prevent mitochondrial membrane potential loss. It also could down-regulate the expression of phospho-JNK, phospho-p38 in whole cell lysate and activate Bax in mitochondria. Arbutin also inhibits cytochrome C release from mitochondria to cytosol. To verify the role of JNK in X-irradiation-induced apoptosis, the cells were pretreated with a JNK inhibitor, and found that JNK inhibitor could reduce apoptosis induced by X-irradiation. Taken together, our data indicate that arbutin plays an anti-apoptotic role via decreasing intracellular hydroxyl radical production, inhibition of Bax-mitochondria pathway and activation of the JNK/p38 MAPK pathway.

  3. Radical scavenging-linked antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of diverse types of extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, O-H; Lee, B-Y; Kim, Y-C; Shetty, K; Kim, Y-C

    2008-09-01

    The present study evaluated the radical scavenging-linked antioxidant activity of hexane/80% ethanol extracts from several types of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) derived from varieties arbequina, hojiblanca, picual, their blends, and pure olive oil (POO). The antioxidant potential of the olive oil extracts was assessed by radical scavenging assays using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and hydroxyl radical, as well as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion inhibitory activities. Electron donating ability (EDA) using DPPH assay of 80% ethanol extracts from EVOOs, except arbequina oil, was significantly higher than POO. EDA was markedly higher in blended and picual EVOOs than the extracts from arbequina and hojiblanca EVOOs (P EVOOs was in order of picual EVOO > blended EVOO > hojiblanca EVOO >or= POO >or= arbequina EVOO. Further, the superoxide anion scavenging activity of blended, picual, and arbequina EVOOs was significantly higher than that of hojiblanca EVOO and POO, which were barely detectable. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of arbequina and hojiblanca was higher than that of blended, picual EVOOs, and POO. In addition, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity of the extracts from blended, arbequina, hojiblanca, picual EVOOs, and POO was 63.1 +/- 3.1%, 44.4 +/- 10.2%, 52.0 +/- 2.7%, 71.8 +/- 2.5%, and 35.7 +/- 10.0%, respectively. Our results indicate that ethanol extracts of several EVOOs contained higher radical scavenging and antioxidant activity than the POO. This antioxidant potential is partly due to the phenolic compounds present in different olive oil grade and is influenced by cultivar type.

  4. Inhibition of microsomal oxidation of alcohols and of hydroxyl-radical-scavenging agents by the iron-chelating agent desferrioxamine.

    OpenAIRE

    Cederbaum, A I; Dicker, E

    1983-01-01

    Rat liver microsomes (microsomal fractions) catalyse the oxidation of straight-chain aliphatic alcohols and of hydroxyl-radical-scavenging agents during NADPH-dependent electron transfer. The iron-chelating agent desferrioxamine, which blocks the generation of hydroxyl radicals in other systems, was found to inhibit the following microsomal reactions: production of formaldehyde from either dimethyl sulphoxide or 2-methylpropan-2-ol (t-butylalcohol); generation of ethylene from 4-oxothiomethyl...

  5. A multiple free-radical scavenging (MULTIS) study on the antioxidant capacity of a neuroprotective drug, edaravone as compared with uric acid, glutathione, and trolox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamogawa, Erisa; Sueishi, Yoshimi

    2014-03-01

    Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-5-one) is a neuroprotective drug that has been used for brain ischemia injury treatment. Because its activity is speculated to be due to free radical scavenging activity, we carried out a quantitative determination of edaravone's free radical scavenging activity against multiple free radical species. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping-based multiple free-radical scavenging (MULTIS) method was employed, where target free radicals were hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, alkoxyl radical, alkylperoxyl radical, methyl radical, and singlet oxygen. Edaravone showed relatively high scavenging abilities against hydroxyl radical (scavenging rate constant k=2.98×10(11) M(-1) s(-1)), singlet oxygen (k=2.75×10(7) M(-1) s(-1)), and methyl radical (k=3.00×10(7) M(-1) s(-1)). Overall, edaravone's scavenging activity against multiple free radical species is as robust as other known potent antioxidant such as uric acid, glutathione, and trolox. A radar chart illustration of the MULTIS activity relative to uric acid, glutathione, and trolox indicates that edaravone has a high and balanced antioxidant activity with low specificity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radical scavenging ability of gallic acid toward OH and OOH radicals. Reaction mechanism and rate constants from the density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Tiziana; Galano, Annia; Russo, Nino

    2014-09-04

    Gallic acid is a ubiquitous compound, widely distributed in the vegetal kingdom and frequently found in the human diet. In the present work, its primary antioxidant activity has been investigated using the density functional theory (DFT), and the quantum mechanics-based test for overall free radical scavenging activity (QM-ORSA) protocol. It was found that gallic acid is a better antioxidant than the reference compound, Trolox, regardless of the polarity of the environment. In addition, gallic acid is predicted to be among the best peroxyl radical scavengers identified so far in nonpolar (lipid) media. This compound is capable of scavenging hydroxyl radicals at diffusion-limited rates, and hydroperoxyl radicals with rate constants in the order of 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). The deprotonation of gallic acid, in aqueous solution, is predicted to increase the protective action of this compound against oxidative stress. Gallic acid was also identified as a versatile scavenger, capable of rapidly deactivating a wide variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) via electron transfer at physiological pH.

  7. Optimization of Polysaccharide Ultrasonic Extraction Conditions Using Purple Sweet Potato Tubers Based on Free Radical Scavenging and Glycosylation Inhibitory Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haihua; Kong, Fansheng; Yan, Chunyan

    2017-01-01

    The purple sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas, belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. It is one of the most widely consumed tubers in Asia and is found in many dishes. Many people with diabetes eat purple sweet potato tubers to help reduce blood glucose in China. To predict the ultrasonic conditions for getting the optimal in vitro antioxidant and antiglycated activity of ultrasonic extracted polysaccharides from purple sweet potato (I. batatas) tubers, the artificial neural network (ANN) regression models was used in this study. The antioxidant activity of polysaccharides was quantified by evaluating the hydroxyl radical scavenging effect after ultrasonic extraction, and the data were used in conjunction with optimized extraction conditions to train the predictive ANN models. The following conditions were predicted to yield optimal hydroxyl scavenging activity: 200 W, 22°C, and 40 min. In contrast, conditions of 230 W, 22°C, and 50 min yielded the greatest inhibitory effect on albumin nonenzymatic glycosylation. The accuracy and predictive ability of the models ranged from good to excellent, as indicated by R(2) values ranging from 0.953 to 0.998. The results of the present study showed that ANN predictive models are useful in ultrasonic processing, which can rapidly and accurately predict the optimum extraction conditions for polysaccharides based on their antioxidant and antiglycated activities. In addition, the results of the present study suggest that the consumption of sweet potatoes may help reduce free radicals in the body and prevent or treat diabetes. Ultrasonic extraction conditions were simulated and optimized using artificial neural networkBioactivities showed nonlinear relationship with ultrasonic conditionsThe optimal extraction conditions were 200 W, 22°C, and 40 min for the highest antioxidant capacityThe optimal extraction conditions were 230 W, 22°C, and 50 min for the highest antiglycated effect. Abbreviations used: IBP: Polysaccharide of Ipomoea

  8. In Vitro Antimicrobial Bioassays, DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity, and FTIR Spectroscopy Analysis of Heliotropium bacciferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and functional group analysis of Heliotropium bacciferum extracts. Disc diffusion susceptibility method was followed for antimicrobial assessment. Noteworthy antimicrobial activities were recorded by various plant extracts against antibiotic resistant microorganisms. Plant flower extracts antioxidant activity was investigated against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical by ultraviolet spectrophotometer (517 nm. Plant extracts displayed noteworthy radical scavenging activities at all concentrations (25–225 μg/mL. Notable activities were recorded by crude, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts up to 88.27% at 225 μg/mL concentration. Compounds functional groups were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies. Alkanes, alkenes, alkyl halides, amines, carboxylic acids, amides, esters, alcohols, phenols, nitrocompounds, and aromatic compounds were identified by FTIR analysis. Thin layer chromatography bioautography was carried out for all plant extracts. Different bands were separated by various solvent systems. The results of the current study justify the use of Heliotropium bacciferum in traditional remedial herbal medicines.

  9. In Vitro Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Gallic Acid Isolated From Caesalpinia Decapetala Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Bhadoriya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of Gallic Acid isolated from plant Caesalpinia decapetala were investigated. Caesalpinia decapetala is a plant used to treat burns, biliousness and stomach disorders. Methods: The antioxidant activity was estimated by the ABTS and DPPH methods. The total phenolic was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Identification of isolated Gallic Acid was also performed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC using Cosmosil C18 column (150mm x 4.6mm, 5毺 m particle. The mobile phase was a mixture of ethyl acetate: ethanol: water (1:5:4, v/v/v delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. Results: The total phenolic content was found to be 4.31% (w/w. Isolation of Gallic Acid with optimum yield was performed using a mixture of solvents (Ethanol: Water 65:35. Isolated Gallic Acid showed significant in vitro free radical scavenging activity in both model; but in ABTS assay significant % inhibition of free radical was observed as compared to DPPH assay. Conclusions: Research concluded that Caesalpinia decapetala extract can be used as potent antioxidant which can play vital role against the diseases like neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation, viral infections and gastric ulcer

  10. Free radical scavenging potential of in vitro raised and greenhouse acclimatized plants of Artemisia amygdalina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, R; Ganai, B A; Akbar, S; Kamili, A N

    2013-07-01

    Artemisia amygdalina Decne. (Asteraceae) is a critically endangered and endemic herb of Kashmir Himalayan sub-alpine region and Pakistan. Scientific research throughout the world has evidence to support the tremendous medicinal utility of the genus Artemisia. The natural resources of medicinal plants are being reduced day by day. This study provides the alternative way for medicinal resource utilization and conservation of A. amygdalina. In vitro-raised plants and greenhouse acclimatized plants were obtained by culturing wild explants on Murashige and Skoog's medium. Plant extracts were obtained and subjected to different antioxidant assays: DPPH assay, riboflavin photo-oxidation assay, deoxy ribose assay, ferric thiocyanate assay, thiobarbituric acid assay, post mitochondrial supernatant assay and DNA damage on agarose gel. In vitro grown plants, as well as those acclimatized in the greenhouse reveals antioxidant activity against hydroxyl, superoxide, and lipid peroxyl radicals. This preliminary study revealed the free radical scavenging potential of tissue culture-raised plant extracts of A. amydalina. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Selective control of the radical-scavenging activity of poly(phenols) in aqueous media in terms of their electron-donor properties, using a stable organic radical as chemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Juan Antonio; Torres, Josep Lluís; Juliá, Luis

    2012-11-15

    The tri-potassium salt of tris(2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-4-hydroxysulphonylphenyl)methyl radical, 3K(+) TSPTM(3-), is a good chemical sensor of the radical-scavenging activity of poly(phenols) in aqueous media. Its water solubility and its stability at all pH values facilitates the study of the influence of the pH of the medium on the activity of poly(phenols). The radical-scavenging activity of three flavonoids of the catechol and pyrogallol type and the activity of catechol, pyrogallol and methyl gallate at pH values 7 and 8 which are close to physiological pH value (7.4) have been measured. This radical species reacts exclusively by an electron transfer mechanism against the reducing poly(phenols). Therefore, the experiments to determine the radical-scavenging activity of poly(phenols) with 3K(+) TSPTM(3-) are related to their ionization potentials (IP). As IP is a function of the pH of the medium, the electron donor ability of a poly(phenol) depends on the acidity or basicity of the fluid in question. The radical-scavenging activity of poly(phenols) 1-6 is higher at pH 8 than at pH 7. 3K(+) TSPTM(3-) is able to discriminate between catecholic and pyrogallolic moieties of poly(phenols) in water solutions by taking measurements at different pH values. By adjusting the pH of the medium 3K(+) TSPTM(3-) will easily detect those moieties (e.g. pyrogallol) most prone to elicit prooxidant effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Applied QSAR with Quantum Chemical Descriptors for Predicting Radical Scavenging Activities of Carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhin, Changho; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2015-01-01

    One of the physiological characteristics of carotenoids is their radical scavenging activity. In this study, the relationship between radical scavenging activities and quantum chemical descriptors of carotenoids was determined. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) applied quantitative structure-activity relationship models (QSAR) were also developed for predicting and comparing radical scavenging activities of carotenoids. Semi-empirical PM6 and PM7 quantum chemical calculations were done by MOPAC. Ionisation energies of neutral and monovalent cationic carotenoids and the product of chemical potentials of neutral and monovalent cationic carotenoids were significantly correlated with the radical scavenging activities, and consequently these descriptors were used as independent variables for the QSAR study. The ANFIS applied QSAR models were developed with two triangular-shaped input membership functions made for each of the independent variables and optimised by a backpropagation method. High prediction efficiencies were achieved by the ANFIS applied QSAR. The R-square values of the developed QSAR models with the variables calculated by PM6 and PM7 methods were 0.921 and 0.902, respectively. The results of this study demonstrated reliabilities of the selected quantum chemical descriptors and the significance of QSAR models.

  13. Screening of free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis extracts with focus on location and harvesting times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yesil Celiktas, O.; Girgin, G.; Orhan, H.; Wichers, H.J.; Bedir, E.; Vardar Sukan, F.

    2007-01-01

    Methanolic extracts from the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) harvested from different locations of Turkey at four different times of the year were analyzed by HPLC, and their radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities were studied by various assays. The amounts of carnosol,

  14. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Applied QSAR with Quantum Chemical Descriptors for Predicting Radical Scavenging Activities of Carotenoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changho Jhin

    Full Text Available One of the physiological characteristics of carotenoids is their radical scavenging activity. In this study, the relationship between radical scavenging activities and quantum chemical descriptors of carotenoids was determined. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS applied quantitative structure-activity relationship models (QSAR were also developed for predicting and comparing radical scavenging activities of carotenoids. Semi-empirical PM6 and PM7 quantum chemical calculations were done by MOPAC. Ionisation energies of neutral and monovalent cationic carotenoids and the product of chemical potentials of neutral and monovalent cationic carotenoids were significantly correlated with the radical scavenging activities, and consequently these descriptors were used as independent variables for the QSAR study. The ANFIS applied QSAR models were developed with two triangular-shaped input membership functions made for each of the independent variables and optimised by a backpropagation method. High prediction efficiencies were achieved by the ANFIS applied QSAR. The R-square values of the developed QSAR models with the variables calculated by PM6 and PM7 methods were 0.921 and 0.902, respectively. The results of this study demonstrated reliabilities of the selected quantum chemical descriptors and the significance of QSAR models.

  15. Edaravone, a Free Radical Scavenger, Delayed Symptomatic and Pathological Progression of Motor Neuron Disease in the Wobbler Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ikeda

    Full Text Available Edaravone, a free radical scavenger is used widely in Japanese patients with acute cerebral infarction. This antioxidant could have therapeutic potentials for other neurological diseases. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects the upper and the lower motor neuron, leading to death within 3-5 years after onset. A phase III clinical trial of edaravone suggested no significant effects in ALS patients. However, recent 2nd double-blind trial has demonstrated therapeutic benefits of edaravone in definite patients diagnosed by revised El Escorial diagnostic criteria of ALS. Two previous studies showed that edaravone attenuated motor symptoms or motor neuron degeneration in mutant superoxide dismutase 1-transgenic mice or rats, animal models of familial ALS. Herein we examined whether this radical scavenger can retard progression of motor dysfunction and neuropathological changes in wobbler mice, sporadic ALS-like model. After diagnosis of the disease onset at the postnatal age of 3-4 weeks, wobbler mice received edaravone (1 or 10 mg/kg, n = 10/group or vehicle (n = 10, daily for 4 weeks by intraperitoneal administration. Motor symptoms and neuropathological changes were compared among three groups. Higher dose (10 mg/kg of edaravone treatment significantly attenuated muscle weakness and contracture in the forelimbs, and suppressed denervation atrophy in the biceps muscle and degeneration in the cervical motor neurons compared to vehicle. Previous and the present studies indicated neuroprotective effects of edaravone in three rodent ALS-like models. This drug seems to be worth performing the clinical trial in ALS patients in the United States of American and Europe, in addition to Japan.

  16. Phytochemical screening, free radical scavenging, antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Dodonaea viscosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Tauheeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. Methanolic extract of the plant was dissolved in distilled water and partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and nbutanol sequentially. Phytochemical screening showed presence of phenolics, flavonoides and cardiac glycosides in large amount in chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fraction. The antioxidant potential of all these fractions and remaining aqueous fraction was evaluated by four methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP assay and ferric thiocyanate assay along with determination of their total phenolics. The results revealed that ethyl acetate soluble fraction exhibited highest percent inhibition of DPPH radical as compared to other fractions. It showed 81.14 ± 1.38% inhibition of DPPH radical at a concentration of 60 μg/ml. The IC50 of this fraction was found to be 33.95 ± 0.58 μg/ml, relative to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, having IC50 of 12.54 ± 0.89 μg/mL. It also showed highest FRAP value (380.53 ± 0.74 μM of trolox equivalents as well as highest total phenolic contents (208.58 ± 1.83 GAE μg/g and highest value of inhibition of lipid peroxidation (58.11 ± 1.49% at concentration of 500 μg/ml as compared to the other studied fractions. The chloroform fraction showed highest total antioxidant activity i.e.1.078 ± 0.59 (eq. to BHT.

  17. Structural features, kinetics and SAR study of radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of phenolic and anilinic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hussein M; Abo-Shady, Ahmed; Sharaf Eldeen, Hany A; Soror, Hany A; Shousha, Wafaa G; Abdel-Barry, Osama A; Saleh, Ahmed M

    2013-03-16

    Phenolic compounds are widely distributed in plant kingdom and constitute one of the most important classes of natural and synthetic antioxidants. In the present study fifty one natural and synthetic structurally variant phenolic, enolic and anilinic compounds were examined as antioxidants and radical scavengers against DPPH, hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals. The structural diversity of the used phenolic compounds includes monophenols with substituents frequently present in natural phenols e.g. alkyl, alkoxy, ester and carboxyl groups, besides many other electron donating and withdrawing groups, in addition to polyphenols with 1-3 hydroxyl groups and aminophenols. Some common groups e.g. alkyl, carboxyl, amino and second OH groups were incorporated in ortho, meta and para positions. SAR study indicates that the most important structural feature of phenolic compounds required to possess good antiradical and antioxidant activities is the presence of a second hydroxyl or an amino group in o- or p-position because of their strong electron donating effect in these positions and the formation of a stable quinone-like products upon two hydrogen-atom transfer process; otherwise, the presence of a number of alkoxy (in o or p-position) and /or alkyl groups (in o, m or p-position) should be present to stabilize the resulted phenoxyl radical and reach good activity. Anilines showed also similar structural feature requirements as phenols to achieve good activities, except o-diamines which gave low activity because of the high energy of the resulted 1,2-dimine product upon the 2H-transfer process. Enols with ene-1,2-diol structure undergo the same process and give good activity. Good correlations were obtained between DPPH inhibition and inhibition of both OH and peroxyl radicals. In addition, good correlations were obtained between DPPH inhibition and antioxidant activities in sunflower oil and liver homogenate systems. In conclusion, the structures of good anti radical and

  18. Mechanism of biochemical action of substituted 4-methylbenzopyran-2-ones. Part I: Dioxygenated 4-methyl coumarins as superb antioxidant and radical scavenging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, H G; Parmar, V S; Jain, S C; Goel, S; Poonam; Himanshu; Malhotra, S; Singh, A; Olsen, C E; Wengel, J

    1998-06-01

    Twenty-three 4-methylcoumarins bearing different functionalities have been examined for the first time for their effect on NADPH-catalysed liver-microsomal lipid peroxidation with a view to establish structure-activity relationship. Dihydroxy- and diacetoxy-4-methylcoumarins produced dramatic inhibition of lipid peroxidation. 7,8-Diacetoxy-4-methylcoumarin and 7,8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin were found to possess superb antioxidant and radical scavenging activities.

  19. Free radical scavenging and anti-acne activities of mangosteen fruit rind extracts prepared by different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothitirat, Werayut; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Supabphol, Roongtawan; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2010-02-01

    The ethanol extracts of mangosteen fruit rinds prepared by several extraction methods were examined for their contents of bioactive compounds, DPPH-scavenging activity, and anti-acne producing bacteria against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The dried powder of the fruit rind was extracted with 95% ethanol by maceration, percolation, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and extraction using a magnetic stirrer. Soxhlet extraction promoted the maximum contents of crude extract (26.60% dry weight) and alpha-mangostin (13.51%, w/w of crude extract), and also gave the highest anti-acne activity with MIC 7.81 and 15.63 microg/mL and MBC 15.53 and 31.25 microg/mL against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, respectively. Ethanol 70% and 50% (v/v) were also compared in Soxhlet extraction. Ethanol 50% promoted the extract with maximum amounts of total phenolic compounds (26.96 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g extract) and total tannins (46.83 g tannic acid equivalents/100 g extract), and also exhibited the most effective DPPH-scavenging activity (EC(50) 12.84 microg/mL). Considering various factors involved in the process, Soxhlet extraction carried a low cost in terms of reagents and extraction time. It appears to be the recommended extraction method for mangosteen fruit rind. Ethanol 50% should be the appropriate solvent for extracting free radical-scavenging components, phenolic compounds, and tannins, while 95% ethanol is recommended for extraction of alpha-mangostin, a major anti-acne component from this plant.

  20. Preliminary assessment of free radical scavenging, thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing capabilities of organic fractions of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis.) skeels leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farhana; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur

    2016-07-26

    Callistemon citrinus (Curtis.) (Family- Myrtaceae) is a popular evergreen shrub in Bangladesh. In the present study, the leaves of this plant have been assessed comprehensively for free radical scavenging, thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing activities. The leaves were collected, powdered and extracted with methanol. The extract was then concentrated and successively fractionated into petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and aqueous soluble fractions. The extractives were investigated for free radical scavenging, thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing activities. In case of 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assays, the crude methanol extract of the leaves showed the highest free radical scavenging activity among the tested materials including standard ascorbic acid (p = 0.0000). Besides, this extract was also found significantly rich (p = 0.0000) in phenolics and flavonoids compared to other organic fractions. In thrombolytic study, the petroleum ether fraction exhibited significantly stronger thrombolysis (p = 0.024) than other leaf extractives but was weaker than the standard streptokinase. In membrane stabilizing assay, the activity of chloroform fraction was similar to that of standard acetylsalicylic acid (p = 1.000) in hypotonic solution induced hemolysis. However, membrane stabilization activity of this chloroform fraction was found significantly stronger than that of the standard (p = 0.0000) in heat induced hemolysis. This study has revealed the medicinal capabilities of different organic fractions of C. citrinus displaying free radical scavenging, thrombolysis and membrane stabilizing antiinflammatory potentials. Further bioactivity guided isolation is required to obtain pharmacologically secondary metabolites.

  1. In vitro antioxidant and radical-scavenging capacities of Citrullus colocynthes (L) and Artemisia absinthium extracts using promethazine hydrochloride radical cation and contemporary assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, M Nadeem; Khan, I Ullah; Bano, N

    2011-10-01

    A new, quick and economical decolorization assay based upon the generation of a radical cation made from promethazine hydrochloride (PMZH) is described for screening of antioxidant activity of plants/herbal extracts. PMZH radical cations, produced through a reaction between PMZH and potassium persulfate (K(2)S(2)O(8)) in phosphoric acid medium, have maximum absorption at 515 nm in their first-order derivative spectrum. Theconcentrations of chromagen and K(2)S(2)O(8) were optimized (final concentration of PMZH and K₂S₂O₈ were 0.166 mM and 0.11 mM, respectively) for better stability and sensitivity of the radical cation produced. Agood linear correlation was found between the percentage inhibition and the increasing amounts of standard antioxidants, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.989 to 0.999. The newly developed assay was employed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of Citrullus colocynthes L. and Artemisia absinthium extracts. The proposed assay involved a more stable radical cation and required only 1 h for preparation of a working solution in comparison to the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation decolorizaion assay, which was reported to be less sensitive at low pH and almost 12-16 h were required for preparation of a working ABTS solution. Other assays employed to evaluate the antioxidant potential andradical-scavenging capacities of the extracts were the ferric-reducing antioxidant power, 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, total phenolic contents assay, total flavonoid contents and metal-chelating activity assays, and the lipid peroxidation value in linoleic acid emulsion systems. The results indicate that boththe plants have potent free radical-scavenging activity and the ability to prevent lipid peroxidation and radical chain reactions.

  2. Traditional Uighur Medicine Karapxa decoction, inhibits liver xanthine oxidase and reduces serum uric acid concentrations in hyperuricemic mice and scavenges free radicals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Nurmuhammat; Umar, Anwar; Hoxur, Parida; Anaydulla, Mihrigul; Imam, Guzalnur; Aziz, Ranagul; Upur, Halmurat; Kijjoa, Anake; Moore, Nicholas

    2015-04-25

    Karapxa decoction (KD) is a Traditional Uighur Medicine used for hepatitis, cholecystitis, gastralgia, oedema, gout and arthralgia. Because of its purported effect in gout, its effects were tested in hyperuricemic mice models induced by yeast extract paste or potassium oxonate, as well as its capacity to scavenge free radicals in vitro. Hyperuricemia was induced in mice by yeast extract paste or potassium oxonate. KD was given orally for 14 days at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day, with Allopurinol 10 mg/kg/day as positive control. Serum uric acid (UA), and liver xanthine oxidase activity (XO) were measured. Scavenging activity of KD on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPP•), nitric oxide (•NO), superoxide (O2•-), efficiency against lipid peroxidation, and XO inhibition were determined in vitro. KD inhibited liver XO activity and reduced serum uric acid in hyperuricemic mice. KD also showed noticeable antioxidant activity, scavenging free radicals (DPP•, •NO and O2•-). It was effective against lipid peroxidation and inhibited XO in vitro. This study supports the traditional use of Karapxa decoction to treat hyperuricemia and gout.

  3. Identification of Free Radical Scavengers from Brazilian Green Propolis Using Off-Line HPLC-DPPH Assay and LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuiping; Shen, Xiaoge; Chen, Jiawei; Jiang, Xiasen; Hu, FuLiang

    2017-07-01

    Brazilian green propolis is known as an appreciable natural antioxidant with abundant polyphenolic compounds. For quality control, a fingerprint-efficacy study of Brazilian green propolis was carried out in this work. Chemical fingerprints of Brazilian green propolis from 22 different sources were determined by HPLC and investigated by similarity analysis. The fingerprint-efficacy relationships between chemical fingerprint and DPPH radical-scavenging activity were established. The results showed that 14 characteristic common peaks were identified, and 9 compounds were discovered with free radical-scavenging activities. Caffeoylquinic acids and artepillin C might be the major effective components for quality control of Brazilian green propolis due to their specificity and strong antioxidant activity. This study provides new markers for the quality assessment of Brazilian green propolis and its derived products. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Sugars as hydroxyl radical scavengers: proof-of-concept by studying the fate of sucralose in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matros, Andrea; Peshev, Darin; Peukert, Manuela; Mock, Hans-Peter; Van den Ende, Wim

    2015-06-01

    Substantial formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is inevitable in aerobic life forms. Due to their extremely high reactivity and short lifetime, hydroxyl radicals are a special case, because cells have not developed enzymes to detoxify these most dangerous ROS. Thus, scavenging of hydroxyl radicals may only occur by accumulation of higher levels of simple organic compounds. Previous studies have demonstrated that plant-derived sugars show hydroxyl radical scavenging capabilities during Fenton reactions with Fe(2+) and hydrogen peroxide in vitro, leading to formation of less detrimental sugar radicals that may be subject of regeneration to non-radical carbohydrates in vivo. Here, we provide further evidence for the occurrence of such radical reactions with sugars in planta, by following the fate of sucralose, an artificial analog of sucrose, in Arabidopsis tissues. The expected sucralose recombination and degradation products were detected in both normal and stressed plant tissues. Oxidation products of endogenous sugars were also assessed in planta for Arabidopsis and barley, and were shown to increase in abundance relative to the non-oxidized precursor during oxidative stress conditions. We concluded that such non-enzymatic reactions with hydroxyl radicals form an integral part of plant antioxidant mechanisms contributing to cellular ROS homeostasis, and may be more important than generally assumed. This is discussed in relation to the recently proposed roles for Fe(2+) and hydrogen peroxide in processes leading to the origin of metabolism and the origin of life. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Comparison of free radical scavenging activity of Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss var. siamensis Valeton) leaf extracts prepared by different methods of extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithisarn, Pongtip; Supabphol, Roongtawan; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts of leaves of Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss var. siamensis Valeton) from several extracting and drying methods using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging assay. The leaves of Siamese neem tree were extracted using percolation, decoction, maceration, soxhlet extraction, freeze drying or spray drying methods. The extract was tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH-scavenging assay. Thin-layer chromatography of the extract from decoction was also investigated. The freeze drying method gave the highest yield (51.50%, w/w) of crude extract, while decoction gave the most effective DPPH-scavenging activity (EC(50): 31.4 microg/ml). Thin-layer chromatography analysis was used to screen the leaf extract obtained using decoction, and the chromatogram showed spots corresponding to quercetin and rutin flavonoids which exhibited antioxidant activities (EC(50): 2.29 and 34.67 microg/ml, respectively). Siamese neem tree leaf extracts possessed free radical scavenging activity against the DPPH radical. The most active extract was obtained with the leaf decoction method. It showed antioxidant activity with EC(50) of 31.4 microg/ml. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Chemical constituents and free radical scavenging activity of corn pollen collected from Apis mellifera hives compared to floral corn pollen at Nan, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantarudee Atip

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bee pollen is composed of floral pollen mixed with nectar and bee secretion that is collected by foraging honey (Apis sp. and stingless bees. It is rich in nutrients, such as sugars, proteins, lipids, vitamins and flavonoids, and has been ascribed antiproliferative, anti-allergenic, anti-angiogenic and free radical scavenging activities. This research aimed at a preliminary investigation of the chemical constituents and free radical scavenging activity in A. mellifera bee pollen. Methods Bee pollen was directly collected from A. mellifera colonies in Nan province, Thailand, in June, 2010, whilst floral corn (Zea mays L. pollen was collected from the nearby corn fields. The pollen was then sequentially extracted with methanol, dichloromethane (DCM and hexane, and each crude extract was tested for free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH assay, evaluating the percentage scavenging activity and the effective concentration at 50% (EC50. The most active crude fraction from the bee pollen was then further enriched for bioactive components by silica gel 60 quick and adsorption or Sephadex LH-20 size exclusion chromatography. The purity of all fractions in each step was observed by thin layer chromatography and the bioactivity assessed by the DPPH assay. The chemical structures of the most active fractions were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Results The crude DCM extract of both the bee corn pollen and floral corn pollen provided the highest active free radical scavenging activity of the three solvent extracts, but it was significantly (over 28-fold higher in the bee corn pollen (EC50 = 7.42 ± 0.12 μg/ml, than the floral corn pollen (EC50 = 212 ± 13.6% μg/ml. After fractionation to homogeneity, the phenolic hydroquinone and the flavone 7-O-R-apigenin were found as the minor and major bioactive compounds, respectively. Bee corn pollen contained a reasonably diverse array of nutritional components, including

  7. Chemical constituents and free radical scavenging activity of corn pollen collected from Apis mellifera hives compared to floral corn pollen at Nan, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Bee pollen is composed of floral pollen mixed with nectar and bee secretion that is collected by foraging honey (Apis sp.) and stingless bees. It is rich in nutrients, such as sugars, proteins, lipids, vitamins and flavonoids, and has been ascribed antiproliferative, anti-allergenic, anti-angiogenic and free radical scavenging activities. This research aimed at a preliminary investigation of the chemical constituents and free radical scavenging activity in A. mellifera bee pollen. Methods Bee pollen was directly collected from A. mellifera colonies in Nan province, Thailand, in June, 2010, whilst floral corn (Zea mays L.) pollen was collected from the nearby corn fields. The pollen was then sequentially extracted with methanol, dichloromethane (DCM) and hexane, and each crude extract was tested for free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH assay, evaluating the percentage scavenging activity and the effective concentration at 50% (EC50). The most active crude fraction from the bee pollen was then further enriched for bioactive components by silica gel 60 quick and adsorption or Sephadex LH-20 size exclusion chromatography. The purity of all fractions in each step was observed by thin layer chromatography and the bioactivity assessed by the DPPH assay. The chemical structures of the most active fractions were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Results The crude DCM extract of both the bee corn pollen and floral corn pollen provided the highest active free radical scavenging activity of the three solvent extracts, but it was significantly (over 28-fold) higher in the bee corn pollen (EC50 = 7.42 ± 0.12 μg/ml), than the floral corn pollen (EC50 = 212 ± 13.6% μg/ml). After fractionation to homogeneity, the phenolic hydroquinone and the flavone 7-O-R-apigenin were found as the minor and major bioactive compounds, respectively. Bee corn pollen contained a reasonably diverse array of nutritional components, including biotin (56.7 μg/100

  8. Streptomyces sp. MUM212 as a Source of Antioxidants with Radical Scavenging and Metal Chelating Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loh Teng-Hern Tan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species and other radicals potentially cause oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA which may ultimately lead to various complications including mutations, carcinogenesis, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease, aging, and inflammatory disease. Recent reports demonstrate that Streptomyces bacteria produce metabolites with potent antioxidant activity that may be developed into therapeutic drugs to combat oxidative stress. This study shows that Streptomyces sp. MUM212 which was isolated from mangrove soil in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia, could be a potential source of antioxidants. Strain MUM212 was characterized and determined as belonging to the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. The MUM212 extract demonstrated significant antioxidant activity through DPPH, ABTS and superoxide radical scavenging assays and also metal-chelating activity of 22.03 ± 3.01%, 61.52 ± 3.13%, 37.47 ± 1.79%, and 41.98 ± 0.73% at 4 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, MUM212 extract was demonstrated to inhibit lipid peroxidation up to 16.72 ± 2.64% at 4 mg/mL and restore survival of Vero cells from H2O2-induced oxidative damages. The antioxidant activities from the MUM212 extract correlated well with its total phenolic contents; and this in turn was in keeping with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis which revealed the presence of phenolic compounds that could be responsible for the antioxidant properties of the extract. Other chemical constituents detected included hydrocarbons, alcohols and cyclic dipeptides which may have contributed to the overall antioxidant capacity of MUM212 extract. As a whole, strain MUM212 seems to have potential as a promising source of novel molecules for future development of antioxidative therapeutic agents against oxidative stress-related diseases.

  9. Antioxidant, free radical-scavenging activity and cytotoxicity of different solvent extracts and their phenolic constituents from the fruit hull of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Opanasopi, Praneet; Sukma, Monrudee; Sittisombut, Chavalit; Kat, Atsushi; Adachi, Isao

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidative, skin protective activities, and cytotoxicity of three extracts (water, methanol, and hexane) from the fruit hull of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn. (Guttiferae)) and their phenolic constituents such as alpha-mangostin, epicatechin, and tannin, were evaluated. The amounts of alpha-mangostin, total flavonoid, and total tannin were different among the three extracts, except those of total tannin in methanol and hexane extracts. For the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical-scavenging, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation experiment, the water extract showed higher activity than the methanol extract and hexane extract. alpha-Mangostin, epicatechin, and tannin also revealed these antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. When added simultaneously with H(2)O(2) (200 microM) to keratinocyte cells, the water extract (50 microg/mL), epicatechin (200 microM), and tannin (200 microM) effectively protected cells from oxidative damage, but the methanol extract, hexane extract, and alpha-mangostin did not. The methanol extract and hexane extract exhibited moderate cytotoxicity, whereas alpha-mangostin showed strong cytotoxicity. The present study provides the evidence that Garcinia mangostana extracts, especially the G. mangostana water extract, act as antioxidants and cytoprotective agents against oxidative damage, which is at least partly due to its phenolic compounds in mangosteen.

  10. Homogenate-assisted Vacuum-powered Bubble Extraction of Moso Bamboo Flavonoids for On-line Scavenging Free Radical Capacity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinnan Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A homogenate-assisted vacuum-powered bubble extraction (HVBE method using ethanol was applied for extraction of flavonoids from Phyllostachys pubescens (P. pubescens leaves. The mechanisms of homogenate-assisted extraction and vacuum-powered bubble generation were discussed in detail. Furthermore, a method for the rapid determination of flavonoids by HPLC was established. HVBE followed by HPLC was successfully applied for the extraction and quantification of four flavonoids in P. pubescens, including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. This method provides a fast and effective means for the preparation and determination of plant active components. Moreover, the on-line antioxidant capacity, including scavenging positive ion and negative ion free radical capacity of different fractions from the bamboo flavonoid extract was evaluated. Results showed that the scavenging DPPH˙ free radical capacity of vitexin and isovitexin was larger than that of isoorientin and orientin. On the contrary, the scavenging ABTS+˙free radical capacity of isoorientin and orientin was larger than that of vitexin and isovitexin.

  11. Metabolic profiles and free radical scavenging activity of Cordyceps bassiana fruiting bodies according to developmental stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Hee Hyun

    Full Text Available The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana.

  12. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and radical scavenging activity of 21 selected tropical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, R A; Abdul Hamid, A; Mohamed, S; Bakar, F Abu

    2010-01-01

    Free radical scavenging activity of 21 tropical plant extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay (DPPH). Total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC, respectively. Results of the study revealed that all the plants tested exhibited excellent antioxidant activity with IC(50) in the range of 21.3 to 89.6 microg/mL. The most potent activity was demonstrated by Cosmos caudatus (21.3 microg/mL) and Piper betle (23.0 microg/mL) that are not significantly different than that of -tocopherol or BHA. L. inermis extract was found to consist of the highest concentration of phenolics, catechin, epicatechin, and naringenin. High content of quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were identified in Vitex negundo, Centella asiatica, and Sesbania grandiflora extracts, respectively. Luteolin and apigenin, on the other hand, were found in Premna cordifolia and Kaempferia galanga extracts. Strong correlation (R = 0.8613) between total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids (R = 0.8430) and that of antioxidant activity of the extracts were observed. The study revealed that phenolic, in particular flavonoids, may be the main contributors to the antioxidant activity exhibited by the plants. Potent antioxidant from natural sources is of great interest to replace the use of synthetic antioxidants. In addition, some of the plants have great potential to be used in the development of functional ingredients/foods that are currently in demand for the health benefits associated with their use.

  13. Total phenolic content, radical scavenging properties, and essential oil composition of Origanum species from different populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambolena, José S; Zunino, María P; Lucini, Enrique I; Olmedo, Rubén; Banchio, Erika; Bima, Paula J; Zygadlo, Julio A

    2010-01-27

    The aim of this work was to compare the antiradical activity, total phenol content (TPC), and essential oil composition of Origanum vulgare spp. virens, Origanum x applii, Origanum x majoricum, and O. vulgare spp. vulgare cultivated in Argentina in different localities. The experiment was conducted in the research station of La Consulta (INTA-Mendoza), the research station of Santa Lucia (INTA-San Juan), and Agronomy Faculty of National University of La Pampa, from 2007 to 2008. The composition of the essential oils of oregano populations was independent of cultivation conditions. In total, 39 compounds were identified in essential oils of oregano from Argentina by means of GC-MS. Thymol and trans-sabinene hydrate were the most prominent compounds, followed by gamma-terpinene, terpinen-4-ol, and alpha-terpinene. O. vulgare vulgare is the only Origanum studied which is rich in gamma-terpinene. Among tested oregano, O. x majoricum showed the highest essential oil content, 3.9 mg g(-1) dry matter. The plant extract of O. x majoricum had greater total phenol content values, 19.36 mg/g dry weight, than the rest of oregano studied. To find relationships among TPC, free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), and climate variables, canonical correlations were calculated. The results obtained allow us to conclude that 70% of the TPC and FRSA variability can be explained by the climate variables (R(2) = 0.70; p = 8.3 x 10(-6)), the temperature being the most important climatic variable.

  14. 9, 10-Dihydrophenanthrene derivatives from Pholidota yunnanensis and scavenging activity on DPPH free radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X-Y; Wang, J; Wang, N-L; Kitanaka, S; Yao, X-S

    2007-03-01

    Three new 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene derivatives named phoyunnanins A-C, together with six known 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene constituents, 4,4',7,7'-tetrahydroxy-2,2'-dimethoxy-9,9',10,10'-tetrahydro-1,1'-biphenanthrene (4), lusianthridin (5), eulophiol (6), 2,4,7-trihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (7) and imbricatin (8), were isolated from the 60% ethanolic extract of air-dried whole plant of Pholidota yunnanensis Rolfe. The structures of phoyunnanins A-C were established as 6-[2'-(3',3''-dihydroxy-5'-methoxybibenzy)]-4,7-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (1), 6-[6'-(trans-3',3''-dihydroxy-5'-methoxystilbeny)]-4,7-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (2) and 4,4',7,7'-tetrahydroxy-2,2'-dimethoxy-9,9',10,10'-tetrahydro-1,6'-biphenanthrene (3), respectively, on the basis of the spectroscopic analysis. All eight compounds (1-8) were found to show the DPPH free radical scavenging activity with EC(50) from 8.8 to 55.9 microM.

  15. Phytochemical Study and Anti-inflammatory, Antidiabetic and Free Radical Scavenger Evaluations of Krameria pauciflora Methanol Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berenice Aguilar-Guadarrama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant Krameria pauciflora MOC et. Sessé ex DC. is used as an anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects of a methanol extract from the roots of K. pauciflora. Dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts obtained by partitioning the methanol extract were also evaluated. Complete methanol and dichloromethane extracts showed anti-inflammatory effects at 3 mg/kg. An anti-inflammatory effect similar to indomethacin (10 mg/kg was observed when the methanol and dichloromethane extracts, which contain a cycloartane-type triterpene and an sterol, were administered orally at several doses (3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg, whereas no anti-inflammatory effect was observed at any dose for the ethyl acetate extract, which contains catechin-type flavonoids. The antidiabetic effect of each extract was also determined. An antihyperglycaemic effect was observed in diabetic rats, but no effect in normoglycaemic animals was observed when the methanol extract was administrated at 30 mg/kg. All of the extracts exhibited radical scavenger activity. Additionally, constituents from all of the extracts were identified by NMR. This article supports the use of K. pauciflora as an anti-inflammatory because it exhibits a similar effect to indomethacin. However, its antidiabetic effect is not completely clear, although it could be useful for preventing diabetic complications.

  16. Antiglycation, radical scavenging, and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibitory activities of acetohydroxamic acid in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuh-Hwa Liu,1,2,* Yeh-Lin Lu,3,* Der-Zen Liu,4 Wen-Chi Hou5 1Division of Gastroenterology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department of General Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Graduate Institute of Pharmacognosy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs can promote intracellular reactive oxygen species production, and the levels of AGEs are highly correlated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes complications. Acetohydroxamic acid (acetH is a bacterial urease inhibitor drug used to treat kidney stones and infections in the urinary tract, and hydroxyurea (HU is a drug used for antineoplasm and sickle cell diseases. Both acetH and HU are hydroxamic acid derivatives. It was found that acetH and HU at 2.5 or 5 mM showed anti-AGE formation by lowering the AGEs’ fluorescent intensities and Nε-(carboxymethyllysine formation in bovine serum albumin/galactose models, and both showed better and significant differences (P<0.05 compared to the positive control of aminoguanidine. Regarding radical scavenging activities, the half-inhibition concentrations (IC50 of acetH against α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical and hydroxyl radical were 34.86 and 104.42 µM, respectively. The IC50 of acetH against semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase was 10.56 µM, and acetH showed noncompetitive inhibition respective to the substrates (benzylamine. The antiglycation, antioxidant, and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibitory activities of acetH prove that it has the potential for treating cardiovascular disease and diabetes complications and it needs further investigation in animal models. Keywords: acetH, AGEs, Nε

  17. Mechanism of Action of Sulforaphane as a Superoxide Radical Anion and Hydrogen Peroxide Scavenger by Double Hydrogen Transfer: A Model for Iron Superoxide Dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, P C

    2015-06-25

    The mechanism of action of sulforaphane as a scavenger of superoxide radical anion (O2(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) in both gas phase and aqueous media. Iron superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) involved in scavenging superoxide radical anion from biological media was modeled by a complex consisting of the ferric ion (Fe(3+)) attached to three histidine rings. Reactions related to scavenging of superoxide radical anion by sulforaphane were studied using DFT in the presence and absence of Fe-SOD represented by this model in both gas phase and aqueous media. The scavenging action of sulforaphane toward both superoxide radical anion and hydrogen peroxide was found to involve the unusual mechanism of double hydrogen transfer. It was found that sulforaphane alone, without Fe-SOD, cannot scavenge superoxide radical anion in gas phase or aqueous media efficiently as the corresponding reaction barriers are very high. However, in the presence of Fe-SOD represented by the above-mentioned model, the scavenging reactions become barrierless, and so sulforaphane scavenges superoxide radical anion by converting it to hydrogen peroxide efficiently. Further, sulforaphane was found to scavenge hydrogen peroxide also very efficiently by converting it into water. Thus, the mechanism of action of sulforaphane as an excellent antioxidant has been unravelled.

  18. The ability of Abelmoschus manihot L. leaf extract in scavenging of free radical DPPH and total flavonoid determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudewi, S.; Lolo, W. A.; Warongan, M.; Rifai, Y.; Rante, H.

    2017-11-01

    Abelmoschus manihot L. has reported to have flavonoids content. This study aims were to determine the ability of A. manihot extract in counteracting free radical DPPH and determine the content of total flavonoids. A. manihot leaf was taken from 2 regions in North Sulawesi, namely Tomohon and Kotamobagu. The maceration was carried out to extract the active compound in a 96% ethanol solvent. Free radical scavenging analysis was carried out by DPPH and determination of its total flavonoid in the extract was measured using spectrophotometri method. The results showed that A. manihot extract from Tomohon and Kotamobagu could counteract free radical of DPPH with value of free radical activity of 88.151 and 88.801 %, respectively. A. manihot leaf from Kotamobagu has higher total flavonoids content 61.763 mg/g compare to Tomohon 46.679 mg/g which presented as quercetin. A. manihot has antioxidant activity.

  19. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Trigonella foenum-graecum L, Murraya koenigii , Coriandrum sativum and Centella asiatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Dutta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are naturally occurring substances that combat oxidative damage in biological entities. An antioxidant achieves this by slowing or preventing the oxidation process that can damage cells in the body. It does this by getting oxidized itself in place of the cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of aqueous and 95% methanol leaf extracts of four herbs viz. Trigonella foenum-graecum L, Murraya koenigii, Coriandrum sativum and Centella asiatica which have frequent use in Indian cuisine. Both aqueous and 95% methanol leaf extracts have shown significant amount reducing power. Both aqueous and 95% methanol leaf extracts of Coriandrum sativum had significant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 0.21± 0.3 mg/L and 0.176 ± 0.008 mg/L respectively. The aqueous leaf extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L showed low scavenging activity. Among all the leaf extracts, the aqueous leaf extract of Centella asiatica has exhibited significantly high NO radical scavenging activity (80% with IC50 value of 0.11 ± 0.17 mg/L. The aqueous leaf extracts of the samples have showed significantly high superoxide radical scavenging activity. The activity was maximum for the aqueous leaf extract of Centella asiatica, IC50 value is 4.36 ± 0.41 mg/L. anti lipid peroxide activities were very high ( 90 % for aqueous leaf extracts of Coriandrum sativum (IC50 = 0.064 ± 0.85 mg/L and Centella asiatica (IC50 = 0.066 ± 0.9mg/L at a concentration of 0.16 mg/L. The aqueous leaf extracts of the samples were found to contain large amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exhibited high antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. These in vitro assays indicate that these plant extracts are significant source of natural antioxidants which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.

  20. Phenolic profile and free radical-scavenging activity of Cabernet Sauvignon wines of different geographical origins from the Balkan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanović, Blaga C; Radovanović, Aleksandra N; Souquet, Jean-Marc

    2010-11-01

    The phenolic profile, determined by the relative proportions of different phenolic compounds, is characteristic for each grape variety and its corresponding wine. The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic and hydroxycinnamate acid, flavan-3-ol and flavonol contents and free radical-scavenging activity of single-cultivar (Cabernet Sauvignon) wines from selected Balkan vineyard regions by spectrophotometric methods and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array and fluorescence detection. The contents of phenolic compounds varied depending on the agroclimatic factors and oenological practices of the vineyard region. The antioxidant activity of wine samples was estimated by their ability to scavenge the stable 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH). All wines showed high DPPH-scavenging activity (70.03-83.53%, mean 73.76%). Significant correlations between catechin (R(2) = 0.8504) and quercetin (R(2) = 0.8488) concentrations and DPPH-scavenging ability of the wines were found. The concentrations of the main components catechin and quercetin can be used as biochemical markers for the authentication of red grape cultivars and their corresponding single-cultivar wines. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  1. Hyaluronidase inhibiting activity and radical scavenging potential of flavonols in processed onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Peña, Diana; Colina-Coca, Clara; Char, Cielo D; Cano, M Pilar; de Ancos, Begoña; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción

    2013-05-22

    The flavonol content and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of onion treated by high-pressure processing (HPP) and HPP combined with freeze-drying and pulverization (HPP-FD-P) were evaluated. Allium cepa L. var. cepa, 'Recas' was treated at T1 (200 MPa/25 °C/5 min), T2 (400 MPa/25 °C/5 min), and T3 (600 MPa/25 °C/5 min). After treatment, HP-treated and untreated samples were frozen (diced onion, HP-treated). Subsequently, part of the diced samples was freeze-dried and pulverized (pulverized onion, HP-treated and freeze-dried). Flavonol content and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities (hyaluronidase inhibiting activity, NO(•), ABTS(•+), and DPPH(•) scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and antioxidative capacity by photochemiluminescence) were measured in nonhydrolyzed and hydrolyzed extracts. Hydrolysis was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of HPP and HPP-FD-P on both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of extracts mainly containing aglycone forms. HPP-FD-P increased quercetin 3,4'-diglucoside, quercetin 4'-glucoside, quercetin 3-glucoside, and isorhamnetin 3,4'-diglucoside extractability. The present study suggests that HPP (especially treatment at 400 MPa) and HPP-FD-P may be of benefit for obtaining functional ingredients from onion, as suggested by increased NO(•) scavenging capacity and maintenance of the antioxidant activity mainly in hydrolyzed extracts.

  2. Free Radical Scavenging Potential and Essential Oil Composition of the Dorema glabrum Fisch. C.A. Mey Roots from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nazemiyeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dorema glabrum is an endangered species that grow in Transcaucasia and North West of Iran. The plant has extensive uses e.g. as an herbal remedy or food additive in these regions. The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oil of D. glabrum growing in Iran was analyzed by GC-MS for the first time. Methods: The essential oil of air-dried roots was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger type apparatus. The oil was subjected to GC-MS analysis and its free radical scavenging properties were determined by DPPH method. Results: Thirty four constituents were identified that represented 81.6% of the total oil. The main compounds were delta-Cadinene (12.77%, beta-bisabolene (7.48%, alpha-Fenchyl acetate (6.32%, Copaene (5.68% and Cubenol (5.42%. The essential oil had weak free radical scavenging properties with the RC50 value of 2.24 mg/mL. Conclusion: Present work is the first report on chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from D. glabrum roots. GC-MS Analysis showed that the oil was rich in sesquiterpenes. It deems that weak free radical scavenging activity of the oil is due to absence of potent antioxidant compounds.

  3. Antimutagenic Activity and Radical Scavenging Activity of Water Infusions and Phenolics from Ligustrum Plants Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Nagy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water infusions of Ligustrum delavayanum and Ligustrum vulgare leaves and eight phenolics isolated therefrom have been assayed in vitro on ofloxacin-induced genotoxicity in the unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis. The tested compounds luteolin, quercetin, luteolin-7-glucoside, luteolin-7-rutinoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside, apigenin-7-rutinoside, tyrosol and esculetin inhibited the mutagenic activity of ofloxacin (43 µM in E. gracilis. Water infusions from leaves of L. delavayanum and L. vulgare showed higher antimutagenic effect (pt < 0.001. The activity of these samples against ofloxacin (86 µM-induced genotoxicity was lower, but statistically significant (pt < 0.05, excluding the water infusion of L. delavayanum leaves (pt < 0.01. Efficacy of quercetin, luteolin-7-rutinoside, apigenin-7-rutinoside was insignificant. The antimutagenic effect of most phenolics we studied could be clearly ascribed to their DPPH scavenging activity, substitution patterns and lipophilicity.

  4. In vitro antioxidant properties, free radicals scavenging activities of extracts and polyphenol composition of a non-timber forest product used as spice: Monodora myristica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Moukette Moukette

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive production of free radicals causes direct damage to biological molecules such as DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates leading to tumor development and progression. Natural antioxidant molecules from phytochemicals of plant origin may directly inhibit either their production or limit their propagation or destroy them to protect the system. In the present study, Monodora myristica a non-timber forest product consumed in Cameroon as spice was screened for its free radical scavenging properties, antioxidant and enzymes protective activities. Its phenolic compound profile was also realized by HPLC. RESULTS: This study demonstrated that M. myristica has scavenging properties against DPPH',OH',NO', and ABTS'radicals which vary in a dose depending manner. It also showed an antioxidant potential that was comparable with that of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT and vitamin C used as standard. The aqueous ethanol extract of M. myristica barks (AEH; showed a significantly higher content in polyphenolic compounds (21.44 ±0.24 mg caffeic acid/g dried extract and flavonoid (5.69 ± 0.07 quercetin equivalent mg/g of dried weight as compared to the other studied extracts. The HPLC analysis of the barks and leaves revealed the presence of several polyphenols. The acids (3,4-OH-benzoic, caffeic, gallic, O- and P- coumaric, syringic, vanillic, alcohols (tyrosol and OH-tyrosol, theobromine, quercetin, rutin, catechine and apigenin were the identified and quantified polyphenols. All the tested extracts demonstrated a high protective potential on the superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and peroxidase activities. CONCLUSION: Finally, the different extracts from M. myristica and specifically the aqueous ethanol extract reveal several properties such as higher free radical scavenging properties, significant antioxidant capacities and protective potential effects on liver enzymes.

  5. An in vitro study on the free radical scavenging capacity of ergothioneine: comparison with reduced glutathione, uric acid and trolox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzoni, F; Colognato, R; Galetta, F; Laurenza, I; Barsotti, M; Di Stefano, R; Bocchetti, R; Regoli, F; Carpi, A; Balbarini, A; Migliore, L; Santoro, G

    2006-09-01

    Treatment of oxidative stress-related pathologies is a possible therapeutical strategy for the future. Natural product with antioxidant properties could trigger this goal. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the antioxidant activity of the natural product ergothioneine (EGT), a compound of plant origin, which is assimilated and conserved by mammals in erythrocytes, kidney, seminal fluid and liver. We measured the antioxidant activity of EGT as its ability to antagonize the oxidation of alpha-keto-gamma-methiolbutyric acid (KMBA) by hydroxyl radical, peroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite. The results are expressed as total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) units. Glutathione (GSH), uric acid and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (trolox), the water-soluble analog of vitamin E, were used as the reference antioxidants. EGT was the most active scavenger of free radicals as compared to classic antioxidants as GSH, uric acid and trolox. In particular, the highest antioxidant capacity exhibited by EGT vs. peroxyl radicals (5.53 +/- 1.27 units) resulted 25% higher than the value obtained with the reference antioxidant trolox (4.4 +/- 0.6 units, P trolox and uric acid. This appears of interest, given the increasing use of non-vitamins cocktails for therapeutical approaches to many oxidative-induced pathologies.

  6. Free radical scavenging and angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) skin gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Dai-Hung; Ryu, Bomi; Vo, Thanh-Sang; Himaya, S W A; Wijesekara, Isuru; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-12-01

    Potent antioxidative peptides were purified from Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) skin gelatin using alcalase, neutrase, papain, trypsin, pepsin, and α-chymotrypsin. Among them, the papain hydrolysate exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. Therefore, it was further purified and obtained two peptides with amino acid sequences of Thr-Cys-Ser-Pro (388 Da) and Thr-Gly-Gly-Gly-Asn-Val (485.5 Da). The antioxidant activity of the purified peptides was performed by electron spin resonance technique. Moreover, their intracellular free radical scavenging activity using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and the protective effect against oxidation-induced DNA damage were evaluated in mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells). Furthermore, both peptides have shown potential angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory effect. The present study demonstrated that the peptides derived from Pacific cod (G. macrocephalus) skin gelatin could be used in the food industry as functional ingredients with potent antioxidative and antihypertensive benefits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbohydrase inhibition and anti-cancerous and free radical scavenging properties along with DNA and protein protection ability of methanolic root extracts of Rumex crispus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Supriya Shiwani; Naresh Kumar Singh; Myeong Hyeon Wang

    2012-01-01

    The study elucidated carbohydrase inhibition, anti-cancerous, free radical scavenging properties and also investigated the DNA and protein protection abilities of methanolic root extract of Rumex crispus (RERC...

  8. Thiaflavan scavenges radicals and inhibits DNA oxidation: a story from the ferrocene modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hai-Wang; Liu, Zai-Qun

    2014-06-23

    4-Thiaflavan is a sulfur-substituted flavonoid with a benzoxathiin scaffold. The aim of this work is to compare abilities of sulfur and oxygen atom, hydroxyl groups, and ferrocene moiety at different positions of 4-thiaflavan to trap radicals and to inhibit DNA oxidation. It is found that abilities of thiaflavans to trap radicals and to inhibit DNA oxidation are increased in the presence of ferrocene moiety and are further improved by the electron-donating group attaching to thiaflavan skeleton. It can be concluded that the ferrocene moiety plays the major role for thiaflavans to be antioxidants even in the absence of phenolic hydroxyl groups. On the other hand, the antioxidant effectiveness of phenolic hydroxyl groups in thiaflavans can be improved by the electron-donating group. The influences of sulfur and oxygen atoms in thiaflavans on the antioxidant property of para-hydroxyl group exhibit different manners when the thiaflavans are used to trap radicals and to inhibit DNA oxidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Beer thiol-containing compounds and redox stability: kinetic study of 1-hydroxyethyl radical scavenging ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Natália E C; Lund, Marianne N; Andersen, Mogens L; Cardoso, Daniel R

    2013-10-02

    The 1-hydroxyethyl radical is a central intermediate in oxidative reactions occurring in beer. The reactivity of thiol-containing compounds toward 1-hydroxyethyl radical was evaluated in beer model solutions using a competitive kinetic approach, employing the spin-trap 4-POBN as a probe and by using electron paramagnetic resonance to detect the generated 1-hydroxyethyl/4-POBN spin adduct. Thiol-containing compounds were highly reactive toward the 1-hydroxyethyl radical with apparent second-order rate constants close to the diffusion limit in water and ranging from 0.5 × 10⁹ L mol⁻¹ s⁻¹ for the His-Cys-Lys-Phe-Trp-Trp peptide to 6.1 × 10⁹ L mol⁻¹ s⁻¹ for the reduced lipid transfer protein 1 (LTP1) isolated from beer. The reactions gave rise to a moderate kinetic isotope effect (k(H)/k(D) = 2.3) suggesting that reduction of the 1-hydroxyethyl radical by thiol-containing compounds takes place by hydrogen atom abstraction from the RSH group rather than electron transfer. The content of reduced thiols in different beers was determined using a previously established method based on ThioGlo-1 as the thiol derivatization reagent and detection of the derivatized thiols by reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescence detector. The total level of thiol in beer (oxidized and reduced) was determined after a reduction step employing 3,3',3″-phosphanetriyltripropanoic acid (TCEP) as the disulfide reductant. A good correlation among total protein and total thiol content in different beers was observed. The results suggest a similar ratio between reduced thiols and disulfides in all of the tested beers, which indicates a similar redox state.

  10. Polysulfides and products of H2S/S-nitrosoglutathione in comparison to H2S, glutathione and antioxidant Trolox are potent scavengers of superoxide anion radical and produce hydroxyl radical by decomposition of H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misak, Anton; Grman, Marian; Bacova, Zuzana; Rezuchova, Ingeborg; Hudecova, Sona; Ondriasova, Elena; Krizanova, Olga; Brezova, Vlasta; Chovanec, Miroslav; Ondrias, Karol

    2017-09-23

    Exogenous and endogenously produced sulfide derivatives, such as H 2 S/HS - /S 2- , polysulfides and products of the H 2 S/S-nitrosoglutathione interaction (S/GSNO), affect numerous biological processes in which superoxide anion (O 2 - ) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals play an important role. Their cytoprotective-antioxidant and contrasting pro-oxidant-toxic effects have been reported. Therefore, the aim of our work was to contribute to resolving this apparent inconsistency by studying sulfide derivatives/free radical interactions and their consequent biological effects compared to the antioxidants glutathione (GSH) and Trolox. Using the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping technique and O 2 - , we found that a polysulfide (Na 2 S 4 ) and S/GSNO were potent scavengers of O 2 - and cPTIO radicals compared to H 2 S (Na 2 S), GSH and Trolox, and S/GSNO scavenged the DEPMPO-OH radical. As detected by the EPR spectra of DEPMPO-OH, the formation of OH in physiological solution by S/GSNO was suggested. All the studied sulfide derivatives, but not Trolox or GSH, had a bell-shaped potency to decompose H 2 O 2 and produced OH in the following order: S/GSNO > Na 2 S 4  ≥ Na 2 S > GSH = Trolox = 0, but they scavenged OH at higher concentrations. In studies of the biological consequences of these sulfide derivatives/H 2 O 2 properties, we found the following: (i) S/GSNO alone and all sulfide derivatives in the presence of H 2 O 2 cleaved plasmid DNA; (ii) S/GSNO interfered with viral replication and consequently decreased the infectivity of viruses; (iii) the sulfide derivatives induced apoptosis in A2780 cells but inhibited apoptosis induced by H 2 O 2 ; and (iv) Na 2 S 4 modulated intracellular calcium in A87MG cells, which depended on the order of Na 2 S 4 /H 2 O 2 application. We suggest that the apparent inconsistency of the cytoprotective-antioxidant and contrasting pro-oxidant-toxic biological effects of sulfide derivatives results from their time

  11. Scavenging free radicals and soaring osteoinduction by extra cellular matrix protein-based nanocomposites on degenerative bone treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiah, Kavitha; Duraisamy, Navaneethan; Amirthalingam, Vinoth; Ramasamy, Balagurunathan

    2017-08-01

    A number of materials are now available to alleviate the ever-growing bone disruption. However, these are inadequate and inappropriate for addressing issues associated natural process of aging and degeneration of bone due to diseases. This study advances the existing material and offers more privileged and synergistically active remedy for these conditions. Here, they are three different nano-composites prepared such as nano-TiO 2 with chitosan (TC), nano-TiO 2 with chondroitin 4-sulfate (TG), and nano-TiO 2 with chitosan and chondroitin 4-sulfate (TCG), whereas nano-TiO 2 act as a control. The prepared nanocomposite was studied for determining its bactericidal and fungicidal activity by using disk diffusion method. In addition, the osteoinductive, free radical forming, and scavenging abilities of the nanocomposite treated MG-63 cell lines were analyzed using gene expression and biochemical analysis respectively. The augmented fungicidal (~16mm) activities of TCG against bone-infecting pathogens can be effectively used in bone transplantation application. The expression of osteoblast-inducing genes in MG-63 cell line and their up-regulation in nanocomposite treatment, especially in TCG, made this material more desirable. The formation of free radicals such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and nitric oxide gradually reduced with the treatment of nanocomposites than control and nano-TiO 2 . Contrarily, it was found that MG-63 along with nanocomposites statistically increases the production of ALP, antioxidant enzymes (super oxide mutase) and total antioxidant activity (ferric reducing antioxidant power) in several folds compare with the control and nano-TiO 2 . All the results with statistical scale suggest TCG as an effectual and affordable biomaterial in bone regeneration therapy among the prepared samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Free Radical Scavenging, Cytotoxic and Hemolytic Activities from Leaves of Acacia nilotica (L. Wild. ex. Delile subsp. indica (Benth. Brenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kalaivani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of phytochemicals having antioxidant activity is associated with a lower risk of mortality from many diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the free radical scavenging, cytotoxic and hemolytic activities of leaves of Acacia nilotica by using various methods. The results of the present study revealed that ethanol extract was the most effective and IC50 value was found to be 53.6 μg mL−1 for Vero cell lines and 28.9 μg mL−1 for Hela cell lines in cytotoxicity assays. The zone of color retention was 14.2 mm in -carotene bleaching assay, which was as significant as positive control, butylated hydroxy toluene. None of the tested extracts possessed any hemolytic activity against rat and human erythrocytes revealing their cytotoxic mechanism and non-toxicity. Thus, only the ethanol extract could be considered as a potential source of anticancer and antioxidant compounds. Further phytochemical studies will be performed for specification of the biologically active principles.

  13. Changes of Major Antioxidant Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity of Palm Oil and Rice Bran Oil during Deep-Frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Abdul Hamid

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in antioxidant properties and degradation of bioactives in palm oil (PO and rice bran oil (RBO during deep-frying were investigated. The alpha (α-tocopherol, gamma (γ-tocotrienol and γ-oryzanol contents of the deep-fried oils were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was determined using 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results revealed that the antioxidant activity of PO decreased significantly (p < 0.05, while that of RBO was preserved after deep-frying of fries. As expected, the concentration of α-tocopherol in PO and γ-tocotrienol in both PO and RBO decreased significantly (p < 0.05 with increased frying. Results also showed that γ-tocotrienol was found to be more susceptible to degradation compared to that of α-tocopherol in both PO and RBO. Interestingly, no significant degradation of α-tocopherol was observed in RBO. It is suggested that the presence of γ-oryzanol and γ-tocotrienol in RBO may have a protective effect on α-tocopherol during deep-frying.

  14. Synthesis, crystal structure, ABTS radical-scavenging activity, antimicrobial and docking studies of some novel quinoline derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Sumaiya; Suresha Kumara, T. H.; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Millikan, Sean P.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Sujan Ganapathy, P. S.; Sowmya, H. B. V.; More, Sunil S.; Nagendrappa, Gopalpur; Kaur, Manpreet; Jose, Gilish

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a series of nine novel 2-chloroquinolin-3-yl ester derivatives have been synthesized via a two-step protocol from 2-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde. The structures of all these compounds were confirmed by spectral data. The single crystal X-ray structure of two derivatives, (2-chloroquinolin-3-yl)methyl acetate [6a] and (2-chloro-6-methylquinolin-3-yl)methyl acetate [6e] have also been determined. The synthesized compounds were further evaluated for their ABTS radical-scavenging activity and antimicrobial activities. Amongst all the tested compounds, 6a exhibited maximum scavenging activity with ABTS. Concerning antibacterial and antifungal activities, compound (2-chloro-6-methoxyquinolin-3-yl)methyl 2,4-dichlorobenzoate [6i] was found to be the most active in the series against B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumonia, C. albicans and A. niger species. The structure-antimicrobial activity relationship of these derivatives were studied using Autodock.

  15. In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles using Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauthal, Preeti; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi

    2013-01-01

    In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold (Au-NPs) and silver (Ag-NPs) nanoparticles was investigated in the present study. Natural precursor Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract was used as a reducing agent for the nanoparticle synthesis. The free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1'-diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS assay. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Appearance of optical absorption peak at 537 nm (2.20 keV) and 435 nm (3 keV) within 0.08 and 0.5 h of reaction time was confirmed the presence of metallic Au and Ag nanoclusters, respectively. Nearly spherical nanoparticles with majority of particle below 20 nm (TEM) for both Au-NPs and Ag-NPs were synthesized. XRD pattern confirmed the existence of pure nanocrystalline Au-NPs while few additional peaks in the vicinity of fcc silver-speculated crystallization of metalloproteins of fruit extract on the surface of the Ag-NPs and vice versa. FTIR spectra was supported the role of amino acids of protein/enzymes of fruit extract for synthesis and stabilization of nanoparticles. Dose-dependent scavenging activity was observed for Au-NPs and Ag-NPs in both DPPH and ABTS in-vitro assay. 50 % scavenging activity for DPPH were 11.27 and 16.18 mg and for ABTS 3.40 and 7.12 mg with Au-NPs and Ag-NPs, respectively.

  16. Study On DPPH Free Radical - Scavenging Activity Of Antioxidant Compounds In Plants Composing BIN-5 Biological Active Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purevjav Urjintseren

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been common trend among people to refuse from food and medications produced via synthetic method but try to consume natural products as much as possible instead. In this regard wild berries and medicinal plants are considered to be highly essential for human health as these kinds of plants serve as rich sources of biological active substances-phenol compounds. As a result of conducting research on source and spread of herbs which are commonly used as anti-diabetic medication we have developed a technological method to extract preparations from medicinal herbs such as Peony Paeonia lactiflora Pall Dandelion Taraxacum officinalis Wigg. Huckleberry Vaccinium myrtillus L Blueberry Vaccinium uliginosum L Cranberry Vaccinium vitisidaea L and Stinging nettles Urtica dioica accordingly studied chemical composition and antioxidant activity and conducted pharmacological study. With the use of Folin Denis amp Folin Ciocalteu reagent methodit was determined that the content of polyphenol compounds was 4.14-5.17 and 27.5 101.5mgml. The study was also aimed to investigate DPPH free radical-scavenging activity in connection with term temperature and concentration to identify the most rational technological procedure. As a result of study it was identified that free radical-scavenging activity of herbs selected for the study was generally estimated at 564.25-1750.00 mcgml whereas antioxidant activity of solvents with 2-10 mgml concentration was 417.20-1750.00 mcg ml respectively. This shows that such activity is dependent on concentration. However in temperature of 30 1000amp1057 degrees their activity has slowly been decreased by 1750 mcgml 476.7mcgml depending on temperature. Regarding the stinging nettles the activity was grown directly dependent from temperature. DPHH free radical-scavenging activity was gradually increased in 1-10 minutes but was relatively stable and active in 11-16 minutes.

  17. Functional Teas from the Leaves of Arbutus unedo: Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Detection of Efficient Radical Scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkekoglou, Ioannis; Nenadis, Nikolaos; Samara, Efrosini; Mantzouridou, Fani Th

    2017-06-01

    The phenolic content/composition and antioxidant activity of hot/cold infusion and decoction from the leaves of Arbutus unedo were studied for the first time. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH ● ), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS ●+ ), crocin-bleaching, copper-reducing, and liposome accelerated oxidation assays were used for the evaluation of the activity in vitro. In vivo, the extracts were examined for their ability to protect S. cerevisiae cells from H 2 O 2 induced oxidative stress. An on-line high-performance liquid chromatography-DPPH ● assay was applied to identify potent radical scavengers and comment on their contribution to the total activity. The addition of leaves to boiling water (decoction) was the most appropriate practice to apply since the highest phenol intake (220.2 mg gallic acid/cup served) was obtained. Additionally, its antioxidant activity was equal or superior to that of the other extracts. Flavonols (~51-61 mg/g dry extract) were the main phenols in all the extracts, with quercitrin accounting for ~20% of the total phenol amount. The on-line DPPH ● method verified the high potency of the decoction and indicated as the most active radical scavengers, two galloylquinic acid derivatives and myricitrin, accounting for ~28-45% and ~11-13% of the total scavenging, respectively. Present data may contribute to the future exploitation of A. unedo leaves by the food industry for health-promoting herbal tea preparations and dietary supplements.

  18. The flavonoid content and antiproliferative, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of Annona dioica St. Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formagio Anelise S N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annona dioica St. Hill (Annonacaeae is a Brazilian plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of several types of rheumatisms and diarrhoea. The focus of this work was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant activity and the in vivo hypoglycaemic and anti-inflammatory activity of A. dioica and identify the principal constituents of this plant. Methods The crude methanol extract (EAD and hexane (HF, chloroform (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF and hydromethanol fractions (HMF were evaluated for free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH assay. The EAD and EAF were assayed for hypoglycaemic activity in rats. The EAD was tested in an antiproliferation assay and for anti-inflammatory effects in paw oedema, in addition to myeloperoxidase activity induced by carrageenan (Cg in mice. The EAF was assayed using chromatographic methods. Results The fractionation of the EAF through chromatographic methods identified derivatives of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol. Among all the tested fractions, the ethyl acetate and hydromethanol fractions were the most potent, exhibiting an IC50 of 8.53 and 10.57 μg/mL, respectively, which is comparable to that of the commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. The oral administration of the EAD (100 mg/kg and EAF (15 mg/kg inhibited the increase of glucose levels, resulting in a hypoglycaemic effect. The EAD (30 to 300 mg/kg exhibited an anti-oedematogenic effect in Cg-induced paw oedema in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The results showed a reduction of MPO activity by A. dioica 6 h after the induction of paw oedema at all doses tested with maximal inhibition at 300 mg/kg. Conclusions Our results reveal for the first time that compounds contained in the A. dioica leaves exert anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, antiproliferative, and antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity may be associated with the presence of flavonoids.

  19. Isolation and Characterization of the 2,2'-Azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) Radical Cation-Scavenging Reaction Products of Arbutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Akihiro; Ohno, Asako; Ito, Hideyuki

    2016-09-28

    Arbutin, a glucoside of hydroquinone, has shown strong 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation-scavenging activity, especially in reaction stoichiometry. This study investigated the reaction mechanism of arbutin against ABTS radical cation that caused high stoichiometry of arbutin in an ABTS radical cation-scavenging assay. HPLC analysis of the reaction mixture of arbutin and ABTS radical cation indicated the existence of two reaction products. The two reaction products were purified and identified to be a covalent adduct of arbutin with an ABTS degradation fragment and 3-ethyl-6-sulfonate benzothiazolone. A time-course study of the radical-scavenging reactions of arbutin and the two reaction products suggested that one molecule of arbutin scavenges three ABTS radical cation molecules to generate an arbutin-ABTS fragment adduct as a final reaction product. The results suggest that one molecule of arbutin reduced two ABTS radical cation molecules to ABTS and then cleaved the third ABTS radical cation molecule to generate two products, an arbutin-ABTS fragment adduct and 3-ethyl-6-sulfonate benzothiazolone.

  20. Analysis of passion fruit rinds (Passiflora edulis: isoorientin quantification by HPTLC and evaluation of antioxidant (radical scavenging capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Zeraik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of isoorientin in passion fruit rinds (Passiflora edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Degener was determined by HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromatography with densitometric analysis. The results revealed a higher amount of isoorientin in healthy rinds of P. edulis (92.275 ± 0.610 mg L-1 than in rinds with typical symptoms of PWV (Passion fruit Woodiness Virus infection (28.931 ± 0.346 mg L-1. The HPTLC data, allied to assays of radical scavenging activity, suggest the potential of P. edulis rinds as a natural source of flavonoids or as a possible functional food.

  1. A Comparative Study of the Radical-scavenging Activity of the Phenolcarboxylic Acids Caffeic Acid, p-Coumaric Acid, Chlorogenic Acid and Ferulic Acid, With or Without 2-Mercaptoethanol, a Thiol, Using the Induction Period Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro Fujisawa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolcarboxylic acid antioxidants do not act in vivo as radical-scavengers in isolation, but rather together with GSH (glutathione, a coantioxidant, they constitute an intricate antioxidant network. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid with or without 2-mercaptoethanol (ME, as a substitute for GSH, was investigated by the induction period (IP method for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, a source of alkyl radicals, R. and benzoyl peroxide (BPO, a source of peroxy radicals, PhCOO. using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Upon PhCOO. radical scavenging, the stoichiometric factors (n, number of free radical trapped by one mole of antioxidant for caffeic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid were 2.4, 1.8, 1.7 and 0.9, whereas upon R. radical scavenging, the corresponding values were 1.3, 1.2, 1.0 and 0.8, respectively. Antioxidants with n values close to 2 suggest the stepwise formation of semiquinone radicals and quinones. By contrast, those with n values close to 1 suggest the formation of dimers after single-electron oxidation, possibly due to recombination of corresponding aryloxy radicals. The ratio of the rate constant of inhibition to that of propagation (kinh/kp declined in the order chlorogenic acid > p-coumaric acid > ferulic acid > caffeic acid. The ratio of the observed IP for the phenolcarboxylic acid/2-mercapto-ethanol (ME mixture (1:1 molar ratio (A to the calculated IP (the simple sum of phenol acid antioxidant and ME (B was investigated. Upon R. scavenging, the caffeic acid or p-coumaric acid/ME mixture was A/B > 1, particularly the former was 1.2, suggesting a synergic effect. By contrast, upon PhCOO. scavenging, the corresponding mixture was A/B < 1, particularly the latter was 0.7, suggesting an antagonistic effect. Upon both radicals scavenging, the A/B for the ferulic acid or chlorogenic acid

  2. Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus extracts for antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities using in vitro assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Insaf A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. leaves and seeds are considered as valuable traditional medicine. The aromatic seeds of this plant are aphrodisiac, ophthalmic, cardio tonic, antispasmodic and used in the treatment of intestinal complaints and check queasiness. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the seed and leaf extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Methods In this study, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of A. moschatus extracts were evaluated in a series of in vitro assay involving free radicals, reactive oxygen species and their IC50 values were also determined. The antioxidant activities of the seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus were determined by total antioxidant, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods. In addition, the antiproliferative activity was also evaluated using colorectal adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma human cancer cell lines. Moreover, six bacterial reference strains, two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella enterica paratyphi and one fungal strain (Candida albicans were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of A. moschatus as determined by the total phenol, flavonoids, total antioxidant and FRAP methods were higher in leaf than that of the seed extracts. On the other hand, the aqueous overnight seed extract (AMS-I has shown significant radical scavenging activity as in 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide and lipid peroxidation as compared to other seed and leaf extracts. The AMS-I and AML-IV have shown activity against six and seven microorganisms respectively. Simulteneously, AMS-IV and AML

  3. Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus extracts for antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities using in vitro assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. leaves and seeds are considered as valuable traditional medicine. The aromatic seeds of this plant are aphrodisiac, ophthalmic, cardio tonic, antispasmodic and used in the treatment of intestinal complaints and check queasiness. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the seed and leaf extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Methods In this study, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of A. moschatus extracts were evaluated in a series of in vitro assay involving free radicals, reactive oxygen species and their IC50 values were also determined. The antioxidant activities of the seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus were determined by total antioxidant, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) methods. In addition, the antiproliferative activity was also evaluated using colorectal adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma human cancer cell lines. Moreover, six bacterial reference strains, two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella enterica paratyphi) and one fungal strain (Candida albicans) were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of A. moschatus as determined by the total phenol, flavonoids, total antioxidant and FRAP methods were higher in leaf than that of the seed extracts. On the other hand, the aqueous overnight seed extract (AMS-I) has shown significant radical scavenging activity as in 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide and lipid peroxidation as compared to other seed and leaf extracts. The AMS-I and AML-IV have shown activity against six and seven microorganisms respectively. Simulteneously, AMS-IV and AML-IV have demonstrated

  4. Antiviral, Immunomodulatory, and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of a Protein-Enriched Fraction from the Larvae of the Housefly, Musca domestica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Hui; Wang, Furong; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Lingyao; Lei, Chaoliang

    2013-01-01

    In our previous study, protein-enriched fraction (PEF) that was isolated from the larvae of the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), showed excellent hepatoprotective activity as well as the potential for clinical application in therapy for liver diseases. In this study, antiviral, immunomodulatory, and free radical scavenging activities of PEF were evaluated. The antiviral results demonstrated that PEF inhibited the infection of avian influenza virus H9N2 and had a virucidal effect against the multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus of the alfalfa looper, Autographa californica Speyer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in vitro. The mortality of silkworm larve in a PEF treatment group decreased significantly compared with a negative control. PEF showed excellent scavenging activity for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion radicals, which were similar to those of ascorbic acid. The imunomodulatory results suggested that PEF could effectively improve immune function in experimental mice. Our results indicated that PEF could possibly be used for the prophylaxis and treatment of diseases caused by avian influenza virus infection. In addition, PEF with virucidal activity against insect viruses might provide useful for the development of antimicrobial breeding technology for economically important insects. As a natural product from insects, PEF could be a potential source for the discovery of potent antioxidant and immunomodulatory agents. PMID:24735244

  5. Protective properties of butanolic extract of the Calendula officinalis L. (marigold) against lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsomes and action as free radical scavenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Clarissa A S; Siqueira, Ionara R; Netto, Carlos A; Yunes, Rosendo A; Volpato, Ana M; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Curi-Pedrosa, Rozangela; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia B

    2002-01-01

    Calendula officinalis (marigold) has many pharmacological properties. It is used for the treatment of skin disorders, pain and also as a bactericide, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are known to participate in the pathogenesis of various human diseases and may be involved in the conditions which C. officinalis is used to treat. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the beneficial properties of this plant and its antioxidant action. The butanolic fraction (BF) was studied because it is non-cytotoxic and is rich in a variety of bioactive metabolites including flavonoids and terpenoids. Superoxide radicals (O(2)(*-)) and hydroxyl radicals (HO(*)) are observed in decreasing concentrations in the presence of increasing concentrations of BF with IC(50) values of 1.0 +/- 0.09 mg/ml and 0.5 +/- 0.02 mg/ml, respectively, suggesting a possible free radical scavenging effect. Lipid peroxidation in liver microsomes induced by Fe(2+)/ascorbate was 100% inhibited by 0.5 mg/ml of BF (IC(50) = 0.15 mg/ml). Its total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) (in microM Trolox equivalents) was 368.14 +/- 23.03 and its total antioxidant reactivity (TAR) was calculated to be 249.19 +/- 14.5 microM. The results obtained suggest that the butanolic fraction of C. officinalis possesses a significant free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity and that the proposed therapeutic efficacy of this plant could be due, in part, to these properties.

  6. Development of an in Silico Model of DPPH• Free Radical Scavenging Capacity: Prediction of Antioxidant Activity of Coumarin Type Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Goya Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR study of the 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• radical scavenging ability of 1373 chemical compounds, using DRAGON molecular descriptors (MD and the neural network technique, a technique based on the multilayer multilayer perceptron (MLP, was developed. The built model demonstrated a satisfactory performance for the training ( R 2 = 0.713 and test set ( Q ext 2 = 0.654 , respectively. To gain greater insight on the relevance of the MD contained in the MLP model, sensitivity and principal component analyses were performed. Moreover, structural and mechanistic interpretation was carried out to comprehend the relationship of the variables in the model with the modeled property. The constructed MLP model was employed to predict the radical scavenging ability for a group of coumarin-type compounds. Finally, in order to validate the model’s predictions, an in vitro assay for one of the compounds (4-hydroxycoumarin was performed, showing a satisfactory proximity between the experimental and predicted pIC50 values.

  7. Prooxidant/Antioxidant Ratio (ProAntidex as a Better Index of Net Free Radical Scavenging Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwee Ming Cheng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of several Malaysian plant extracts was analyzed simultaneously with their pro-oxidant capacity. This ratio represents an index (ProAntidex of the net free radical scavenging ability of whole plant extracts. We observed that ethanolic extracts of Nephelium lappaceum peel, Fragaria x ananassa leaf, Lawsonia inermis leaf, Syzygium aqueum leaf and grape seed had a lower Pro-Antidex than the commercially available Emblica™ extract which is an antioxidant agent with very low pro-oxidant activity. Among the aqueous extracts, Lawsonia inermis leaf, Nephelium mutobile leaf and grape seed had lower pro-oxidant activity compared to the Emblica™ extract. Among these extracts, aqueous extract of Nephelium mutobile leaf had a very low index of 0.05 compared to 0.69 for Emblica™. Most of the extracts had a far lower ProAntidex compared to the Vitamin C. The index enables us to identify extracts with high net free radical scavenging activity potential. The ProAntidex is beneficial as a screening parameter to the food industries and healthcare.

  8. Prooxidant/antioxidant ratio (ProAntidex) as a better index of net free radical scavenging potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lai Teng; Palanisamy, Uma D; Cheng, Hwee Ming

    2010-11-03

    The antioxidant activity of several Malaysian plant extracts was analyzed simultaneously with their pro-oxidant capacity. This ratio represents an index (ProAntidex) of the net free radical scavenging ability of whole plant extracts. We observed that ethanolic extracts of Nephelium lappaceum peel, Fragaria x ananassa leaf, Lawsonia inermis leaf, Syzygium aqueum leaf and grape seed had a lower Pro-Antidex than the commercially available Emblica™ extract which is an antioxidant agent with very low pro-oxidant activity. Among the aqueous extracts, Lawsonia inermis leaf, Nephelium mutobile leaf and grape seed had lower pro-oxidant activity compared to the Emblica™ extract. Among these extracts, aqueous extract of Nephelium mutobile leaf had a very low index of 0.05 compared to 0.69 for Emblica™. Most of the extracts had a far lower ProAntidex compared to the Vitamin C. The index enables us to identify extracts with high net free radical scavenging activity potential. The ProAntidex is beneficial as a screening parameter to the food industries and healthcare.

  9. Kinetics of radical-scavenging activity of hesperetin and hesperidin and their inhibitory activity on COX-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Atsusi; Murakami, Yukio; Shoji, Masao; Kadoma, Yoshinori; Fujisawa, Seiichiro

    2005-01-01

    The radical-scavenging activities of the flavanones hesperetin and hesperidin were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) monitoring of the polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, an R* radical) or benzoylperoxide (BPO, a PhCOO* radical) at 70 degrees C under nearly anaerobic conditions. Their stoichiometric factor (number of free radicals trapped by one mole of antioxidant moiety (n)) and the ratio of the rate constant of inhibition to that of propagation (k(inh)/k(p)) were determined and compared with that for trolox The n value declined in the order trolox (2.0) > hesperetin (0.8) > hesperidin (0.2) in the AIBN system, whereas it declined in the order hesperetin (0.9) > trolox (0.1) > hesperidin (0.0) in the BPO system. The k(inh)/k(p) value declined in the order hesperidin (195) > hesperetin (33) > trolox (12) in the AIBN system, whereas it declined in the order hesperidin (362) > trolox (127) > hesperetin (18) in the BPO system. The n value of about 1 for hesperetin with a relatively small k(inh)/k(p) value suggests the formation of dimers, as a result of the coupling reaction of phenolic monomers. In contrast, n values methyl methacrylate radicals, although its n value was small, suggesting that this compound may also suppress polyunsaturated fatty acid radicals. In the concentration range 250-500 microM, hesperetin and hesperidin showed potent inhibition of LPS-induced expression of the COX-2 gene in RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting the anti-inflammatory activity of these compounds. The ability of hesperetin and hesperidin to suppress COX-2 gene expression may be a consequence of their antioxidant activity.

  10. Edaravone, a hydroxyl radical scavenger, ameliorates the severity of pulmonary hypertension in a porcine model of neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sachiko; Hussein, Mohamed Hamed; Daoud, Ghada AbdEl-Hamid; Goto, Tatenobu; Kato, Shin; Kakita, Hiroki; Mizuno, Haruo; Ito, Tetsuya; Fukuda, Sumio; Kato, Ineko; Suzuki, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Takashi; Togari, Hajime

    2011-04-01

    Systemic infection in the newborn (neonatal sepsis) is the most common cause of neonatal mortality. Neonatal sepsis is complicated by pulmonary hypertension. In this study, we analyzed the effect of edaravone, a free radical scavenger that is known to reduce the production of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), on pulmonary hypertension. Experimental and sham groups were drawn from 19 three-day-old piglets; 5 underwent a modified procedure of cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) (CLP group), 8 underwent CLP followed 30 min later by edaravone intravenous administration (edaravone group), and 6 did not undergo CLP and did not receive edaravone (sham group). To evaluate the pulmonary blood pressure despite the sepsis-induced low cardiac output, mean arterial blood pressure (mABP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), and comparative pulmonary hypertension ratio (mPAP/mABP) were determined. Serum TNFα levels were measured before the procedure and at 1, 3, and 6 h after. The mPAP levels were higher in the CLP group at 9 h compared to the edaravone group. The mPAP/mABP ratio was lower in the edaravone and sham groups compared to the CLP group at 6 and 9 h. TNFα in the edaravone and sham groups were lower at 1 and 3 h compared to that in the CLP group. In all animals, mPAP/mABP at 6 h correlated with serum levels of TNFα at 1, 3, and 6 h. These findings suggest that edaravone ameliorates the severity of pulmonary hypertension in a neonatal sepsis model by reducing serum TNFα levels. © Tohoku University Medical Press

  11. Topical application of nitrosonifedipine, a novel radical scavenger, ameliorates ischemic skin flap necrosis in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Yutaka; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Horinouchi, Yuya; Sairyo, Eriko; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Abe, Yoshiro; Hashimoto, Ichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2017-04-01

    Ischemic skin flap necrosis can occur in random pattern flaps. An excess amount of reactive oxygen species is generated and causes necrosis in the ischemic tissue. Nitrosonifedipine (NO-NIF) has been demonstrated to possess potent radical scavenging ability. However, there has been no study on the effects of NO-NIF on ischemic skin flap necrosis. Therefore, they evaluated the potential of NO-NIF in ameliorating ischemic skin flap necrosis in a mouse model. A random pattern skin flap (1.0 × 3.0 cm) was elevated on the dorsum of C57BL/6 mice. NO-NIF was administered by topical injection immediately after surgery and every 24 hours thereafter. Flap survival was evaluated on postoperative day 7. Tissue samples from the skin flaps were harvested on postoperative days 1 and 3 to analyze oxidative stress, apoptosis and endothelial dysfunction. The viable area of the flap in the NO-NIF group was significantly increased (78.30 ± 7.041%) compared with that of the control group (47.77 ± 6.549%, p NIF reduced oxidative stress, apoptosis and endothelial dysfunction, which were evidenced by the decrease of malondialdehyde, p22phox protein expression, number of apoptotic cells, phosphorylated p38 MAPK protein expression, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 protein expression while endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expression was increased. In conclusion, they demonstrated that NO-NIF ameliorated ischemic skin flap necrosis by reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis, and endothelial dysfunction. NO-NIF is considered to be a candidate for the treatment of ischemic flap necrosis. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.

  12. HPLC method for evaluation of the free radical-scavenging activity of foods by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T; Takamura, H; Matoba, T; Terao, J

    1998-06-01

    An HPLC method for evaluation of the free radical-scavenging activity of foods by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) is reported. The activity was evaluated by measuring the decrease of DPPH detected at 517 nm. By using this novel method, we determined the free radical-scavenging activity of several antioxidants: ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, Trolox, and cysteine. The results gave good correlation between the radical-scavenging activity determined by HPLC and by conventional colorimetry. This methodology was applied to determine the free radical-scavenging activity of 8 beverages. The activity of coffee was the highest, followed by red wine, green tea, oolong tea, black tea, rosé wine, white wine, and orange juice. The results well agree with those of previous reports. This method is expected to be useful for a simple and rapid determination of free radical-scavenging activity in colored foods, because coloring substances in foods do not interfere with the measurement.

  13. Correlation among Singlet-Oxygen Quenching, Free-Radical Scavenging, and Excited-State Intramolecular-Proton-Transfer Activities in Hydroxyflavones, Anthocyanidins, and 1-Hydroxyanthraquinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Shin-Ichi; Bandoh, Yuki; Nagashima, Umpei; Ohara, Keishi

    2017-10-26

    Singlet-oxygen (1O2) quenching, free-radical scavenging, and excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer (ESIPT) activities of hydroxyflavones, anthocyanidins, and 1-hydroxyanthraquinones were studied by means of laser, stopped-flow, and steady-state spectroscopies. In hydroxyflavones and anthocyanidins, the 1O2 quenching activity positively correlates to the free-radical scavenging activity. The reason for this correlation can be understood by considering that an early step of each reaction involves electron transfer from the unfused phenyl ring (B-ring), which is singly bonded to the bicyclic chromen or chromenylium moiety (A- and C-rings). Substitution of an electron-donating OH group at B-ring enhances the electron transfer leading to activation of the 1O2 quenching and free-radical scavenging. In 3-hydroxyflavones, the OH substitution at B-ring reduces the activity of ESIPT within C-ring, which can be explained in terms of the nodal-plane model. As a result, the 1O2 quenching and free-radical scavenging activities negatively correlate to the ESIPT activity. A catechol structure at B-ring is another factor that enhances the free-radical scavenging in hydroxyflavones. In contrast to these hydroxyflavones, 1-hydroxyanthraquinones having an electron-donating OH substituent adjacent to the O-H---O═C moiety susceptible to ESIPT do not show a simple correlation between their 1O2 quenching and ESIPT activities, because the OH substitution modulates these reactions.

  14. Crystal structure, DFT and HF calculations and radical scavenging activities of (E)-4,6-dibromo-3-methoxy-2-[(3-methoxyphenylimino)methyl]phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaşalvar, Can; Soylu, Mustafa Serkan; Güder, Aytaç; Albayrak, Çiğdem; Apaydın, Gökhan; Dilek, Nefise

    In this study, (E)-4,6-dibromo-3-methoxy-2-[(3-methoxyphenylimino)methyl]phenol has been synthesized and characterized by using X-ray technique and FT-IR experimentally and using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and HF/6-31G(d,p) methods theoretically. The intermolecular and intramolecular interactions of the title compound have been determined according to X-ray results. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies of the title compound in the ground state have been calculated using the density functional B3LYP and HF method with the 6-31G(d,p) basis set and calculated bond parameters and vibrational frequencies values show good agreement with experimental values. Theoretical and experimental results show that tautomeric form of the structure is phenol-imine form. Besides HOMO-LUMO energy gap, molecular electrostatic potential map were performed at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. It is worthy note of that, the free radical scavenging activities of the title compound were assessed using DPPHrad , DMPDrad +, and ABTSrad + assays. The obtained results show that the title compound has effective DPPHrad (SC50 2.61 ± 0.09 μg/mL), DMPDrad + (SC50 2.82 ± 0.14 μg/mL), and ABTSrad + (SC50 4.91 ± 0.18 μg/mL) radical scavenging activities when compared with standard antioxidants (BHA, rutin, and trolox).

  15. Lens Aldose Reductase Inhibitory and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Fractions of Chromolaena odorata (Siam Weed: Potential for Cataract Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O. AJANI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Searching for effective and safe aldose reductase (AR inhibitor agent is a major thrust area in the mainstream of anti-cataractogenic research. This study was set up to investigate the in vitro aldose reductase inhibitory (ARI activity of fractions of methanolic extract of Chromolaena odorata leaves, on partially purified AR from goat lens, for potential use in the development of anticataractogenic agent. The phyto-constituents of the leaves were screened in aqueous and methanolic extracts and the free radical scavenging activities of the fractions were evaluated. The kinetics of the enzyme in the presence of fractions of the leaves was then compared. Phenol, flavonoid, alkaloid, saponin, terpenoid, quinones and phlobatannins were detected in both extracts. All the fractions inhibited AR in an uncompetitive manner, showing a reduced V max and Km when compared with glyceraldehyde. ARI activity was found to be the highest with aqueous fraction (IC50, 0.22 ± 0.01 mg/ml. All other fractions showed mild to moderate AR inhibition capacity, while it was found to be the lowest within hexane fraction (IC50, 1.20 ± 0.10 mg/ml. All the fractions showed free radical scavenging activity and metal chelating activity. The study confirmed the ARI and antioxidant capacity of Chromolaena odorata which may be due to its phenolic constituents, indicating that the plant may serve as a base for the development of anticataract agent.

  16. Carbohydrase inhibition and anti-cancerous and free radical scavenging properties along with DNA and protein protection ability of methanolic root extracts of Rumex crispus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiwani, Supriya; Singh, Naresh Kumar; Wang, Myeong Hyeon

    2012-10-01

    The study elucidated carbohydrase inhibition, anti-cancerous, free radical scavenging properties and also investigated the DNA and protein protection abilities of methanolic root extract of Rumex crispus (RERC). For this purpose, pulverized roots of Rumex crispus was extracted in methanol (80% and absolute conc.) for 3 hrs for 60℃ and filtered and evaporated with vacuum rotary evaporator. RERC showed high phenolic content (211 µg/GAE equivalent) and strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (IC(50) = 42.86 (absolute methanol) and 36.91 µg/mL (80% methanolic extract)) and reduced power ability. Furthermore, RERC exhibited significant protective ability in H(2)O(2)/Fe(3+)/ascorbic acid-induced protein or DNA damage and percentage inhibition of the HT-29 cell growth rate following 80% methanolic RERC exposure at 400 µg/mL was observed to be highest (10.2% ± 1.03). Moreover, methanolic RERC inhibited α-glucosidase and amylase effectively and significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusively, RERC could be considered as potent carbohydrase inhibitor, anti-cancerous and anti-oxidant.

  17. Comparative in vitro study on free radical scavenging potential of selected bivalve species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenai-Tirodkar, P.S.; Pawar, R.T.; Jagtap, T.G.

    , DNA and carbohydrates leading to number of diseases especially cancer, aging, arthritis, inflammation, diabetes, parkinson’s disease and atherosclerosis (4, 5). In addition, radical-mediated lipid peroxidation negatively impacts flavour, texture...

  18. A new acylated flavone glycoside with antioxidant and radical scavenging activities from Teucrium polium leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abrosca, Brigida; Pacifico, Severina; Scognamiglio, Monica; D'Angelo, Grazia; Galasso, Silvia; Monaco, Pietro; Fiorentino, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    The antioxidant properties of six flavones from Teucrium polium L., one of them isolated for the first time, have been established through the determination of their abilities to inhibit free radicals using DPPH, ABTS radicals and ORAC test. The structure of the new metabolite has been elucidated by 1-D (1H, 13C and DEPT) and 2-D (COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, CIGAR) NMR experiments and by ESI Q-TOF HRMS analysis. Flavones 1-3 presented an efficacious activity towards the stable DPPH radical. Analogously, compounds 2 and 3 resulted significantly active also versus ABTS cation radical. On the basis of the comparable bioactivity of luteolin-based compounds, the presence of an ortho-dihydroxy substitution in the flavone B-ring is supposed to be the structural feature responsible for the antioxidant activity.

  19. Effects of gamma-ray-induced free radicals on the metal content and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MTs are involved in metal homeostasis and heavy metal detoxification, and are efficient scavengers of free radicals. This article describes zinc release from human MT-1 and modification of its amino acid composition when subjected to free radicals generated during gamma ray radiolysis. The effect of gamma ray radiolysis ...

  20. Bioactive lipids, radical scavenging potential, and antimicrobial properties of cold pressed clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assiri, Adel Mohamad Ali; Hassanien, Mohamed F R

    2013-11-01

    Health promoting cold pressed oils may improve human health and prevent certain diseases. It is hard to find any research concerning the composition and functional properties of cold pressed clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil (CO). Cold pressed CO was evaluated for its lipid classes, fatty acid profiles, and tocol contents. In addition, antiradical and antimicrobial properties of CO were evaluated. The amounts of neutral lipids in CO was the highest (∼94.7% of total lipids), followed by glycolipids and phospholipids. The main fatty acids in CO were linoleic and oleic, which comprise together ∼80% of total fatty acids. Stearic and palmitic acids were the main saturated fatty acids. α- and γ-tocopherols and δ-tocotrienol were the main detected tocols. CO had higher antiradical action against DPPH• and galvinoxyl radicals than virgin olive oil. The results of antimicrobial properties revealed that CO inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms. CO had a drastic effect on the biosynthesis of proteins and lipids in cells of Bacillus subtilis. In consideration of potential utilization, detailed knowledge on the composition and functional properties of CO is of major importance.

  1. Isolation and evaluation of the radical-scavenging activity of the antioxidants in the leaves of an edible plant, Mallotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Hiromasa; Katsube, Takuya; Tsuma, Terumi; Ohta, Yukari; Imawaka, Naoto; Utsumi, Toshihiko

    2008-07-01

    The antioxidative properties of a hot water extract of the leaves of Mallotus japonicus were evaluated. The extract had a high phenolic content and strong antioxidative activity, compared with green tea, rooibos tea, and red wine. Six phenolic compounds were isolated as antioxidative components by HPLC. They were identified as mallotinic acid, mallotusinic acid, corilagin, geraniin, rutin, and ellagic acid. These antioxidative compounds were subjected to DPPH radical-scavenging, superoxide radical-scavenging, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays, and compared with other antioxidative compounds. Four of the compounds, mallotinic acid, mallotusinic acid, corilagin and geraniin, exhibited much stronger antioxidative activity than gallic acid, rutin, ellagic acid, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid, and were as active as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a strong antioxidant in green tea. Mallotus japonicus leaves are an excellent source of strong natural antioxidative materials. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sulfur and selenium antioxidants: challenging radical scavenging mechanisms and developing structure-activity relationships based on metal binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Matthew T; Bayse, Craig A; Ramoutar, Ria R; Brumaghim, Julia L

    2015-04-01

    Because sulfur and selenium antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage, numerous animal and clinical trials have investigated the ability of these compounds to prevent the oxidative stress that is an underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer, among others. One of the most common sources of oxidative damage is metal-generated hydroxyl radical; however, very little research has focused on determining the metal-binding abilities and structural attributes that affect oxidative damage prevention by sulfur and selenium compounds. In this review, we describe our ongoing investigations into sulfur and selenium antioxidant prevention of iron- and copper-mediated oxidative DNA damage. We determined that many sulfur and selenium compounds inhibit Cu(I)-mediated DNA damage and that DNA damage prevention varies dramatically when Fe(II) is used in place of Cu(I) to generate hydroxyl radical. Oxidation potentials of the sulfur or selenium compounds do not correlate with their ability to prevent DNA damage, highlighting the importance of metal coordination rather than reactive oxygen species scavenging as an antioxidant mechanism. Additional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and UV-visible studies confirmed sulfur and selenium antioxidant binding to Cu(I) and Fe(II). Ultimately, our studies established that both the hydroxyl-radical-generating metal ion and the chemical environment of the sulfur or selenium significantly affect DNA damage prevention and that metal coordination is an essential mechanism for these antioxidants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of curcumin against oxidation of biomolecules by hydroxyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Sai Krishna; Mahendra, Jaideep; Gurumurthy, Prema; Jayamathi; Iqbal, Shabeer S; Mahendra, Little

    2014-10-01

    Among various reactive oxygen species, hydroxyl radicals have the strongest chemical activity, which can damage a wide range of essential biomolecules such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. The objective of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of curcumin on prevention of oxidative damage of biomolecules by hydroxyl radicals generated in in vitro by a Fenton like reaction. We have incubated the serum, plasma and whole blood with H2O2/Cu2+/ Ascorbic acid system for 4 hours at 37 0C and observed the oxidation of biomolecules like albumin, lipids, proteins and DNA. Curcumin at the concentrations of 50,100 and 200 μmoles, prevented the formation of ischemia modified albumin, MDA, protein carbonyls, oxidized DNA and increased the total antioxidant levels and GSH significantly. These observations suggest the hydroxyl radical scavenging potentials of curcumin and protective actions to prevent the oxidation of biomolecules by hydroxyl radicals.

  4. The Cytotoxic, Antibacterial and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Crude Extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua

    KAUST Repository

    Seddek, Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The discovery of drugs from natural sources has been a rapidly growing science in this era. Plants used for medicinal purposes have been usually studied as rich sources of bioactive chemical compounds that can be used as medications. Several plant-derived drugs have been approved so far. Cancer and infectious diseases have been common targets for the science of drug discovery, due to the high mortality rates caused by these diseases all over the world. Several plant-derived compounds are being marketed now as anti-cancer agents. However, finding novel antimicrobial and anti-cancer compounds has become an important goal to overcome the problems of existing anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents, such as resistance and non-selectivity. In this thesis project, an attempt to find out useful biological activities of the crude extracts of some plants used traditionally for medicinal purposes in Saudi Arabia has been made. Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua have been selected for study, based on the literature review performed. These plants were screened for three biological activities; anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and free radical scavenging activities. The experimental part of the study consisted of some common in-vitro techniques, such as cytotoxicity and cell viability assays, disk diffusion assay and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay. In addition, the crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla has undergone chemical fractionation and four solvent fractions were obtained using column chromatography. The crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla showed a promising anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli and a very promising free radical scavenging activity that was comparable to ascorbic acid, an important anti-oxidant. The four solvent fractions obtained from that extract showed that these activities were produced by more than one compound belonging to different solvent fractions. In addition, the crude extract of Artemisia annua showed

  5. Radical scavenging potential and DNA damage protection of wild edible mushrooms of Kashmir Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsheen Shameem

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The edible mushrooms Verpa bohemica and Morchella esculenta are locally used for dietary and antioxidant in tribal areas of Kashmir Himalaya. In the present study, sequences of solvents on the basis of their polarity were used for the extraction from selected mushrooms. The comprehensive antioxidant activity of all edible mushroom extracts was evaluated by seven different methods. V. bohemica exhibited significant inhibitory activity of radicals among all the mushrooms while Morchella extracts protected the DNA damage from OH· radicals. This study provides us the substantiation for the use of these mushrooms as antioxidants besides being already eaten as food.

  6. Flavonoids from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb: Free Radical Scavenging and DNA Oxidative Damage Protection Activities and Analysis of Bioactivity-Structure Relationship Based on Molecular and Electronic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liancai; Chen, Jinqiu; Tan, Jun; Liu, Xi; Wang, Bochu

    2017-02-26

    To clarify the substantial basis of the excellent antioxidant capacity of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. Fourteen flavonoids were isolated and identified from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb, seven of which have notable DPPH radical scavenging activities, i.e., catechin, luteolin, quercetin, quercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside with IC50 values of 5.06, 7.29, 4.36, 7.12, 6.34, 6.36 and 8.12 µM, respectively. The DNA nicking assay showed that five flavonoids from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb-taxifolin, catechin, hyperoside, quercitrin and rutin-have good protective activity against DNA oxidative damage. Further, we analyzed the bioactivity-structure relationship of these 14 flavonoids by applying quantum theory. According to their O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), C ring's spin density and stable molecular structure, the relationship between their structures and radical scavenging capacities was evaluated and clarified. We found that among flavonoid aglycones from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb, the O-H BDE of quercetin is lowest with the values of 69.02 and the O-H BDE of apigenin is highest with the values of 79.77. It is interesting that the O-H BDE value of isovitexin (78.55) with glycoside at C-6 position is lower than that of its aglycone (79.77) and vitexin (99.20) with glycoside at C-8 position. Further analysis indicated that the glycosidation of flavonoids at C-6 in the A-ring makes a more uniform distribution of spin density and improves the stability of free radicals leading to the increase in antioxidant capacity. Flavonoids with good antioxidant capacity might contribute to the pharmacological effects of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb.

  7. Free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of Acacia nilotica wood lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadil, Keshaw Ram; Barapatre, Anand; Sahu, Sudha; Jha, Harit; Tiwary, Bhupendra Nath

    2014-06-01

    Nine different fractions of lignin extracted by alkali, hot water and organosolv methods from Acacia wood powder were assessed for antioxidants activity. Results indicated that methanolic lignin fraction had highest polyphenol content of 393.30±9.2μg/ml (GAE). The oraganosolv lignin with total phenols and phenolic hydroxyl group content exhibited significant antioxidant activity as compared to other lignin fractions. Antioxidant properties of acetone fractions revealed a high antiradical scavenging activity (products for cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidative Properties of White Saffron Extract (Curcuma mangga Val) in The B-Carotene Bleaching and DPPH-Radical Scavenging Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Pujimulyani, Dwiyati; Wazyka, Agung; Anggrahini, Sri; Santoso, Umar

    2014-01-01

    Study on antioxidative properties of white saffron extract in the emulsion system of b-carotene linoleic acid (b-carotene bleaching method) and DPPH-radical scavenging method was undertaken. The objective of this study was to examine the antioxidative activity of white saffron extract in the emulsion system of b-carotene linoleic acid and for radical scavenging activity by DPPH method. The extraction was carried out as follows: fresh white saffron was peeled and blanched in the 0.5% boiling c...

  9. Comparison of bioactive compounds content, free radical scavenging and anti-acne inducing bacteria activities of extracts from the mangosteen fruit rind at two stages of maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothitirat, Werayut; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Supabphol, Roongtawan; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2009-10-01

    Contents of bioactive components, free radical scavenging and anti-acne producing bacteria activities of young and mature fruit rind extracts of mangosteen were compared. The young fruit rind extract contained significantly higher contents of phenolics and tannins and promoted higher free radical scavenging activity than the mature fruit rind extract, while the later extract contained higher contents of flavonoids and alpha-mangostin xanthone and gave higher anti-acne producing bacteria activity than the young fruit rind extract. Thus, the young and mature stages of mangosteen fruit rind should be beneficial for further development of antioxidant and anti-acne pharmaceutical preparations, respectively.

  10. Free radical scavenging potential, reducing power, phenolic and biochemical constituents of Porphyra species from India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pise, N.M.; Jena, K.B.; Maharana, D.; Gaikwad, D.; Jagtap, T.G.

    by antioxidant catechins isolated from Chinese green tea. Carcinogenesis, 10:1003-1008. Ruch, R. J., Chung, S. U. & Klaunig, J. E., 1984. Spin trapping of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. Methods in Enzymology, 105:198-209. Rao, S., Mantri, P. V...

  11. Isolation and free-radical-scavenging properties of cyanidin 3-O-glycosides from the fruits of Ribes biebersteinii Berl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delazar, Abbas; Khodaie, Laleh; Afshar, Jalil; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2010-03-01

    The reversed-phase preparative high performance liquid chromatographic purification of the methanol extract of the fruits of Ribes biebersteinii Berl. (Grossulariaceae) afforded five cyanidin glycosides, 3-O-sambubiosyl-5-O-glucosyl cyanidin (1), cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside (2), cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (3), cyanidin 3-O-(2(G)-xylosyl)-rutinoside (4) and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (5). They showed considerable free-radical-scavenging properties in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay with the RC(50) values of 9.29 x 10(-6), 9.33 x 10(-6), 8.31 x 10(-6), 8.96 x 10(-6) and 9.55 x 10(-6) mol L(-1), respectively. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by various chemical hydrolyses and spectroscopic means. The total anthocyanin content was 1.9 g per 100 g dried fruits on cyanidin 3-glucoside basis.

  12. Antioxidant Composition of a Selection of Italian Red Wines and Their Corresponding Free-Radical Scavenging Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cassino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study correlates the antioxidant composition profiles and the overall antioxidant capacities of 36 Italian red wine samples. The samples were fully characterized by chromatographic and spectrophotometric techniques. The overall antioxidant capacity was determined by titrating a solution of the semistable free radical DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl with each wine sample followed by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR spectroscopy and then measuring the resulting decrease in DPPH-signal. The antioxidant activities of the samples were expressed as (+-catechin equivalents and related to their antioxidant composition profiles. Samples with a high polyphenol content showed a high DPPH scavenging ability as well. Seven well-defined groups, mainly constituted by wines coming from the same cultivar, were evidenced by PCA analysis. Alcohol content and pH did not influence the wine DPPH scavenging ability. The most important variables contributing to the wines’ antioxidant power are total flavonoid, total phenol, and proanthocyanidin indices together with fertaric acid, trans-caftaric acid, trans-coutaric acid, and both quercetin glucoside and quercetin glucuronide. EPR is demonstrated to be faster than the other analytical methods (spectrophotometric and chromatographic analyses to determine the wine overall antioxidant activity.

  13. Poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles loaded with ursolic acid: Characterization and in vitro evaluation of radical scavenging activity and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antônio, Emilli; Antunes, Osmar Dos Reis; de Araújo, Isis Souza; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles containing ursolic acid (UA) by an emulsification-solvent evaporation technique and evaluate the radical scavenging activity over hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and cytotoxicity over erythrocytes and tumor cells. Nanoparticles were successfully obtained and presented mean size of 246nm with spherical or slightly oval morphology, negative zeta potential and 96% of UA encapsulation efficiency. Analyses of FTIR, XRD and DSC-DTG suggest interaction/complexation of UA with PLA matrix and drug amorphization promoted by nanoencapsulation process. Stability study showed that room temperature was the best condition for nanoparticles storage. The in vitro release study showed UA was released from the polymeric matrix over two constants (α, β), suggesting a second order kinetics. After 120h of assay, 60% of UA were released by diffusion. In the HOCl scavenging activity, after 72h of assay UA-loaded nanoparticles presented the same efficacy of free drug. In cytotoxicity test over red blood cells, UA-loaded nanoparticles showed less toxicity on cells than free drug. The cytotoxicity assay over melanoma cells line (B16-F10) showed after 72h that nanoparticles were able to reduce the cell viability in 70%. PLA nanoparticles showed be potential carriers for UA maintaining the antioxidant and antitumor activity of the UA and decreasing its cytotoxicity over normal cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. X-ray crystal structure of embelin and its DFT scavenging of superoxide radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Francesco; Paumier, Sarah; Rossi, Miriam

    2017-08-28

    Embelin is a phytochemical component of tropical plants that have a long history of being used in ethnic pharmacology in various parts of the world, including Ayurdvedic and Chinese medicinal texts. Many modern studies confirm its promise as a medicinal compound. The X-ray crystal structure determination of embelin shows a remarkably ordered alkyl chain and particularly strong pi-pi interactions for a nonaromatic system. The molecule has a torsion angle of 67° between the ring and the alkyl chain of the molecule and differs markedly from that seen when embelin is embedded in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) binding site (almost planar-with about 10° torsion angle). This suggests that embelin's flexible structural skeleton can be useful in biological environment. Apart from this, its many biological activities likely depend on embelin's hydrophobic nonpolar tail that allows a variety of interactions. Computationally, we evaluated embelin's sequestering ability toward the superoxide radical and see that embelin executes this reaction in a novel manner. Namely, as shown by our DFT calculations, instead of releasing a H atom to the superoxide radical to form the anionic species O2 H- , embelin prefers to accept an electron from the superoxide radical, which then transforms into molecular oxygen, O2 . © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Stepwise sequential analysis of stable multiradicals formation in polyphenolic myricetin active OH groups throughout the antioxidant process to scavenge free radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Abolfazl; Rezaei-Sadabady, Rogaie

    2017-10-01

    Five galvinoxyl radicals (Grad) reduction by one polyphenolic myricetin (Myc, 3,3‧,4‧,5,5‧,7-Hexahydroxyflavone) molecule-using EPR method-demonstrated that each Myc should donate at least five H atoms resulted in multiradicals Myc5rad (5 Grad + 1Myc → 5 GH + 1 Myc5rad). The process that five H atoms donation occurs from different OH sites of Myc lead to appearing of five unpaired valence electrons of Myc5rad via two possible different mechanisms. First; concerted five H atoms donation from five different OH groups that directly results in Myc5rad radicals (Myc → Myc5rad). Second; the step-wise radical formation in five different OH groups of Myc (Myc → Mycrad → Myc2rad → Myc3rad → Myc4rad → Myc5rad). Computational DFT method was used to analyze all the six different OH groups of Myc which involved in free radical reactions for the purposes of clarification the stable multiradicals Myc5rad formation mechanism. The fast semi-empirical combined quantum method, AM1/DFT, as well as full DFT geometry optimization approaches of B3LYP functional DFT/DFT with different basis sets of 6-31G (d), 6-311 + G (d,p) and 6-311 + G (2d,2p) confirmed the stepwise H atom abstraction trend on the main three hydroxyl sites as 4‧-Orad → 4‧-Orad3-Orad → 4‧-Orad3-Orad-7Orad both in the gas and water phase. Spin delocalization over the entire Myc, adding the co-planarity, contributed to the stabilization of respective radical species. The excellent stability of Myc radicals should give an effective chain-breaking antioxidant activity for Myc in biological environment which is expected to have far fewer side effects. These findings may be useful to elucidate the radical scavenging mechanism of other flavonoids regarding to design novel antioxidants.

  16. Free radical scavenging activity of peptide fractions from defatted soybean meal hydrolysates evaluated by electron spin resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Zhao, Qingshan; Qu, Yanyan; Ye, Fei

    2013-12-01

    Defatted soybean meal, a by-product of soybean oil extraction, was pretreated by ultrasonic and hydrolyzed with neutrase. The DSMH pretreated at 400 W of ultrasonic power, identified to possess the strongest antioxidant activity, was fractionated according to molecular weight into three fractions of DSMH-I (>10 kDa), DSMH-II (5-10 kDa), and DSMH-III (<5 kDa) using ultrafiltration. The fraction, DSMH-III (<5 kDa), exhibited the highest antioxidative activity and was further purified using ion-exchange chromatography. The DSMH-III was separated into five fractions (A, B, C, D, and E). Fraction C with molecular weight of 2434 Da exhibited the strongest free radical scavenging, which was evidenced by the electron spin resonance of 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl hydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals. Fraction C was subjected to reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and the sequences of the highest activity peptide were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The strongest antioxidant activity peptide had the amino acid sequence of Glu-Glu-Gln-Glu-Trp-Pro-Arg-Lys-Glu-Glu-Lys. In conclusion, ultrasonic treatment and ultrafiltration could enhanced antioxidant activity of DSMH.

  17. Two New Saccharide Fatty Acid Esters from the Fruit of Morinda citrifolia L. and Their ABTS Radical Scavenging Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Cai Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two n ew saccharide fatty acid esters (1 and (2, and six other compounds were isolated from the fruit of Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae The structures were established as (2E-oct-2-enoate-2-O-β-D - glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside(1, (2E-2,6-dimethyl -6-hydroxyl-oct-2,7-dienoate-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside(2, saccharumoside C(3, O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6-O-β-D-glucopyranosides of 3-methyl-2-butenol(4, 3-methyl-but-2-en-1-yl β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside(5, benzyl - glucopyranoside(6, Hexyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(7, and caproic acid(8. Compound 1 and 2 showed moderate activity against ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate radical in concentration of 0.1-3.2 mg/mL. Morinda citrifolia L., saccharide fatty acid ester, ABTS radical scavenging activity

  18. An efficient method for high-purity anthocyanin isomers isolation from wild blueberries and their radical scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorfa, Nasima; Savard, Sylvain; Belkacemi, Khaled

    2016-04-15

    An efficient process for the purification of anthocyanin monomeric isomers from wild blueberries of Lake Saint-Jean region (Quebec, Canada) was developed and easy scalable at industrial purpose. The blueberries were soaked in acidified ethanol, filtered, and the filtrate was cleaned by solid phase extraction using silica gel C-18 and DSC-SCX cation-exchange resin. Anthocyanin-enriched elutes (87 wt.%) were successfully fractionated by preparative liquid chromatography. The major anthocyanins mono-galactoside, -glucoside and -arabinoside isomers of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin were isolated with a purity up to 100% according to their LC-MS and (1)H NMR spectra. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the obtained pure anthocyanins was evaluated. Delphinidin-3-galactoside has the highest capacity (13.062 ± 2.729 μmol TE/μmol), and malvidin-3-glucoside the lowest (0.851 ± 0.032 μmol TE/μmol). A mechanistic pathway preview is suggested for the anthocyanins scavenging free radical activity by hydrogen transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro antibacterial and free radical scavenging activity of green hull of Juglans regia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep Sharma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant supplements from plants are vital to count the oxidative damage in cells. We assessed the antioxidants and antibacterial activity of green hull of Juglans regia in this study. According to our results the maximum antibacterial activity was observed in ethanolic extract when compared to other extract. So, the ethanolic extract was studied for antioxidant activity which exhibited high antiradical activity against DPPH, hydroxyl, and nitric oxide radicals. In conclusion, green hull of J. regia showed strong reducing power activity and total antioxidant capacity. The results justify the therapeutic application of plant in the indigenous system of medicine. Keywords: Juglans regia, Ethanolic extract, Antioxidants, DPPH, Antibacterial activity

  20. An on-line normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography method for the rapid detection of radical scavengers in non-polar food matrixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; van der Klift, E.J.C.; Janssen, H.-G.; van Beek, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    An on-line method for the rapid pinpointing of radical scavengers in non-polar mixtures like vegetable oils was developed. To avoid problems with dissolving the sample, normal-phase chromatography on bare silica gel was used with mixtures of hexane and methyl tert-butyl ether as the eluent. The high

  1. The free radical scavenger Trolox dampens neuronal hyperexcitability, reinstates synaptic plasticity, and improves hypoxia tolerance in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janc, Oliwia A; Müller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RS) causes severe cognitive impairment, loss of speech, epilepsy, and breathing disturbances with intermittent hypoxia. Also mitochondria are affected; a subunit of respiratory complex III is dysregulated, the inner mitochondrial membrane is leaking protons, and brain ATP levels seem reduced. Our recent assessment of mitochondrial function in MeCP2 (methyl-CpG-binding protein 2)-deficient mouse (Mecp2 (-) (/y)) hippocampus confirmed early metabolic alterations, an increased oxidative burden, and a more vulnerable cellular redox balance. As these changes may contribute to the manifestation of symptoms and disease progression, we now evaluated whether free radical scavengers are capable of improving neuronal and mitochondrial function in RS. Acute hippocampal slices of adult mice were incubated with the vitamin E derivative Trolox for 3-5 h. In Mecp2 (-) (/y) slices this treatment dampened neuronal hyperexcitability, improved synaptic short-term plasticity, and fully restored synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP). Furthermore, Trolox specifically attenuated the increased hypoxia susceptibility of Mecp2 (-) (/y) slices. Also, the anticonvulsive effects of Trolox were assessed, but the severity of 4-aminopyridine provoked seizure-like discharges was not significantly affected. Adverse side effects of Trolox on mitochondria can be excluded, but clear indications for an improvement of mitochondrial function were not found. Since several ion-channels and neurotransmitter receptors are redox modulated, the mitochondrial alterations and the associated oxidative burden may contribute to the neuronal dysfunction in RS. We confirmed in Mecp2 (-) (/y) hippocampus that Trolox dampens neuronal hyperexcitability, reinstates synaptic plasticity, and improves the hypoxia tolerance. Therefore, radical scavengers are promising compounds for the treatment of neuronal dysfunction in RS and deserve further detailed evaluation.

  2. The free radical scavenger Trolox dampens neuronal hyperexcitability, reinstates synaptic plasticity, and improves hypoxia tolerance in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliwia Alicja Janc

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RS causes severe cognitive impairment, loss of speech, epilepsy, and breathing disturbances with intermittent hypoxia. Also mitochondria are affected; a subunit of respiratory complex III is dysregulated, the inner mitochondrial membrane is leaking protons, and brain ATP levels seem reduced. Our recent assessment of mitochondrial function in MeCP2-deficient mouse (Mecp2-/y hippocampus, confirmed early metabolic alterations, an increased oxidative burden, and a more vulnerable cellular redox balance. As these changes may contribute to the manifestation of symptoms and disease progression, we now evaluated whether free radical scavengers are capable of improving neuronal and mitochondrial function in RS. Acute hippocampal slices of adult mice were incubated with the vitamin E derivative Trolox for 3-5 h. In Mecp2-/y slices this treatment dampened neuronal hyperexcitability, improved short-term plasticity, and fully restored synaptic long-term potentiation. Furthermore, Trolox specifically attenuated the increased hypoxia susceptibility of Mecp2-/y slices. Also, the anticonvulsive effects of Trolox were assessed, but the severity of 4-aminopyridine provoked seizure-like discharges was not significantly affected. Adverse side effects of Trolox on mitochondria can be excluded, but clear indications for an improvement of mitochondrial function were not found. Since several ion-channels and neurotransmitter receptors are redox modulated, the mitochondrial alterations and the associated oxidative burden may contribute to the neuronal dysfunction in RS. We confirmed in Mecp2-/y hippocampus that Trolox dampens neuronal hyperexcitability, reinstates synaptic plasticity, and improves hypoxia tolerance. Therefore, radical scavengers are promising compounds for the treatment of neuronal dysfunction in RS and deserve further detailed evaluation.

  3. Microbial inhibitory and radical scavenging activities of cold-pressed terpeneless Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) oil in different dispersing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalova, Vesela I; Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C

    2010-04-15

    Due to their low solubility in water, oil-based bioactive compounds require dispersion in a surface-active agent or appropriate solvents to ensure maximum contact with microorganisms. These combinations, however, may change their physical and/or chemical characteristics and consequently alter the desired functionality. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of selected dispersing agents, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and Tween-80, on cold-pressed terpeneless (CPT) Valencia orange oil to function as a free radical scavenger and an antimicrobial food additive. When dissolved in ethanol or DMSO, the orange oil fraction had similar minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19 115 (0.3% and 0.25% v/v respectively), which were significantly lower (P orange oil (up to 3%) in an aqueous solution of 0.1% Tween-80 yielded no inhibitory activities against any of the test bacteria. However, the 1% natural orange oil dispersed in Tween-80 exhibited 56.86% 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical inhibition versus 18.37% and 16.60% when the same level of orange oil was dissolved in DMSO or ethanol, respectively. At the same orange oil concentration, the oil/Tween-80 suspension yielded 57.92% neutralization of hydroxyl radicals. This represents 71.37% of the mannitol antioxidant activity, which was used as a positive control. These findings suggest that Tween-80 is an appropriate dispersing agent only if the antioxidant functionality is desired. If both antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are needed, the CPT Valencia orange oil should be dispersed in either DMSO or ethanol. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Free radical scavenging and antimicrobial properties of extracts of wild mushrooms Atividade sequestradora de radicais livres e propriedades antimicrobianas de extratos de cogumelos selvagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Oyetayo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of extracts obtained from four wild mushrooms, Termitomyces clypeatus (TCE, Termitomyces robustus (TRE, Lentinus subnudus (LSE and Lenzites species (LZE collected in Nigeria were investigated. LSE and LZE displayed good scavenging activity against 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and ferrous ion radicals at concentration of 2 mg/mL. However, TRE and TCE exhibited better superoxide anion scavenging effect at 2 mg/mL. All extracts (TCE, TRE, LSE and LZE had comparable scavenging effect on hydroxyl radicals as butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT used as control. Moreover, extracts from the wild mushrooms were able to inhibit the growth of all indicator organisms at concentrations between 12.5 mg/mL to 100 mg/mL. LSE and LZE, however, showed better antimicrobial effect on the indicator organisms. The results suggest that extracts obtained from the four wild mushrooms may serve as sources of new bioactive compounds with effective antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.Foram investigadas as propriedades antioxidantes e antimicrobianas de extratos obtidos de quatro cogumelos selvagens da Nigéria: Termitomyces clypeatus (TCE, Termitomyces robustus (TRE, Lentinus subnudus (LSE and Lenzites species (LZE. LSE e LZE, na concentração de 2 mg/ml, apresentaram boa atividade sequestrante contra 2,2'-difenil-b-picrilhidrazil (DPPH• e radicais ferrosos. Entretanto, TER e TCE a 2 mg/ml apresentaram melhor efeito sequestrador de anions superóxido .Todos os extratos apresentaram feito semelhante de seqüestro de radicais hidroxila como BHT usado como controle. Além disso, todos os extratos dos cogumelos selvagens, na concentração de 12,5 mg/ml até 100 mg/ml, foram capazes de inibir a multiplicação de todos os microrganismos indicadores testados, mas LSE e LZE apresentaram efeito antimicrobiano mais intenso. Os resultados sugerem que os extratos obtidos dos quatro cogumelos selvagens podem ser fontes de novos

  5. The role of supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation in altering the metabolite profile, essential oil content and composition, and free radical scavenging activities of Coleus forskohlii, an indigenous medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Swabha; Agrawal, S B

    2016-04-01

    The effects of supplemental ultraviolet-B (s-UV-B; 3.6 kJ m(-2) day(-1) above ambient) radiation were investigated on plant metabolite profile, essential oil content and composition, and free radical scavenging capacities of methanolic extracts of Coleus forskohlii (an indigenous medicinal plant) grown under field conditions. Essential oil was isolated using hydrodistillation technique while alterations in metabolite profile and oil composition were determined via gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Leaf and root methanolic extracts were investigated via various in vitro assays for their DPPH radical-, superoxide radical-, hydrogen peroxide-, hydroxyl radical-, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities, ferrous ion chelating activity, and reducing power. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthocyanins, coumarins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. Oil content was found to be reduced (by ∼7 %) in supplemental UV-B (s-UV-B) treated plants; the composition of the plant extracts as well as essential oil was also considerably altered. Methanolic extracts from treated plant organs showed more potency as free radical scavengers (their EC50 values being lower than their respective controls). Anomalies were observed in Fe(2+) chelating activity for both leaves and roots. The present study concludes that s-UV-B adversely affects oil content in C. forskohlii and also alters the composition and contents of metabolites in both plant extracts and oil. The results also denote that s-UV-B treated plant organs might be more effective in safeguarding against oxidative stress, though further studies are required to authenticate these findings.

  6. Antimicrobial, free radical scavenging activities and catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol by nano-silver synthesized from the leaf extract of Aristolochia indica L.: a promenade towards sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, C.; Sivasubramanian, G.; Parthasarathi, Bera; Baskaran, K.; Balachander, R.; Parameswaran, V. R.

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized from aqueous silver nitrate through a simple route using the leaf extract of Aristolochia indica L. (LAIL) which acted as a reducing as well as capping agent. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the synthesized silver particles have a face centred cubic structure. EDS predicted the presence of elemental silver. The SEM images showed the synthesis of spherically mono-dispersed particles, with nano dimensions accounted by the TEM images. Infra-red spectrum adopted to the different organic functionalities present at the surface of the particles. TGA indicated an overall 11 % weight loss up to 1000 °C, suggesting desorption of biomolecules from the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed the presence of metallic silver nanoparticles. The prepared material was utilized as catalyst in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol with molecular oxygen as the oxidant in methanol, under ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. Also Ag-NPs showed good to moderate anti-microbial activity employing the Agar disc diffusion method against various strains using Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole as standard. Free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1-diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS in vitro assays. The work presented here demonstrates the adaptability of the synthesized Ag-NPs in participating as a disinfectant agent, free radical scavenger and an effective oxidation catalyst. The basic premise of attaining sustainability through the green synthesis of smart multifaceted materials has been consciously addressed.

  7. Preparation of Orthosiphon stamineus enriched-extracts and evaluation of their free radical scavenging activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Che Nurul Ain Nadirah Che; Latip, Jalifah; Markom, Masturah

    2016-11-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus is one of the important herbal plants used in folk medicine to cure variety of diseases. Three compounds namely rosmarinic acid (RA), sinensetin (SEN) and eupatorin (EUP) were identified as the bioactive markers. However, a standardized extraction method for the preparation of O. stamineus extract enriched with the bioactive compounds was still undiscovered. Thus, this study aims to establish the optimal extraction method that can be used to prepare the enriched extract with anti-oxidant property. Maceration, reflux and Soxhlet were the extraction methods employed, with ethanol, 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol and water were chosen as the solvents. Each extracts were evaluated for their biomarker contents (RA, SEN and EUP) and anti-oxidant capacity using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay respectively. Among the three extraction methods employed, the highest total extraction yield was obtained from reflux (72.73%) followed by Soxhlet (62.51%) and maceration (37.78%). Although all extracts found to contain the three biomarkers via TLC visualization analysis, there was variation in the extracts' anti-oxidant capacity, ranging from 6.17% to 72.97%. The variation was expected to be due to the difference in the quantity of the biomarkers in each extract. Furthermore, the anti-oxidative potency of the RA was found comparable to natural anti-oxidant vitamin C, and higher than the synthetic anti-oxidant butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). These preliminary results may serve as a starting point towards the preparation of standardized bioactive O. stamineus extract.

  8. roasting effects on phenolic content and free- radical scavenging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    Polyphenols are phytochemicals responsible for the astringency, bitterness, green flavoursand antioxidant activities in Theobroma cacao beans. Polyphenols degradation in cocoa beans during roasting is crucial to the flavour outcome and it is influenced by factors such as temperature, time and pod storage. Antioxidants ...

  9. 5-S-lipoylhydroxytyrosol, a multidefense antioxidant featuring a solvent-tunable peroxyl radical-scavenging 3-thio-1,2-dihydroxybenzene motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorati, Riccardo; Valgimigli, Luca; Panzella, Lucia; Napolitano, Alessandra; d'Ischia, Marco

    2013-10-04

    5-S-Lipoylhydroxytyrosol (1), the parent member of a novel group of bioinspired multidefense antioxidants, is shown herein to exhibit potent peroxyl radical scavenging properties that are controlled in a solvent-dependent manner by the sulfur center adjacent to the active o-diphenol moiety. With respect to the parent hydroxytyrosol (HTy), 1 proved to be a more potent inhibitor of model autoxidation processes in a polar solvent (acetonitrile), due to a lower susceptibility to the adverse effects of hydrogen bonding with the solvent. Determination of O-H bond dissociation enthalpies (BDE) in t-butanol by EPR radical equilibration technique consistently indicated a ca. 1.5 kcal/mol lower value for 1 relative to HTy. In good agreement, DFT calculations of the BDEOH using an explicit methanol molecule to mimic solvent effects predicted a 1.2 kcal/mol lower value for 1 relative to HTy. Forcing the geometry of the -S-R group to coplanarity with the aromatic ring resulted in a dramatic decrease in the computed BDEOH values suggesting a potentially higher activity than the reference antioxidant α-tocopherol, depending on geometrical constrains in microheterogeneous environments. These results point to sulfur substitution as an expedient tool to tailor the chain-breaking antioxidant properties of catechol derivatives in a rational and predictable fashion.

  10. Hydroxyl radical scavenger ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by preventing oxidative stress, redox state unbalance, impairment of energetic metabolism and apoptosis in rat kidney mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, N A G; Bezerra, C S Catão; Martins, N M; Curti, C; Bianchi, M L P; Santos, A C

    2008-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity is the major dose-limiting factor of cisplatin chemotherapy. Reactive oxygen species generated in mitochondria are thought to be the main cause of cellular damage in such injury. The present study examined, in vivo, the protective potential of the hydroxyl radical scavenger dimethylthiourea (DMTU) against cisplatin-induced effects on renal mitochondrial bioenergetics, redox state and oxidative stress. Adult male Wistar rats (200 to 220 g) were divided into four groups of eight animals each. The control group was treated only with an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of saline solution (1 ml/100 g body weight). The second group was given only DMTU (500 mg/kg body weight, i.p, followed by 125 mg/Kg, i.p., twice a day until they were killed). The third group was given a single injection of cisplatin (10 mg/kg body weight, i.p.). The fourth group was given DMTU (500 mg/kg body weight, i.p.), just before the cisplatin injection (10 mg/kg body weight, i.p.), followed by injections of DMTU (125 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) twice a day until they were killed. Animals were killed 72 h after the treatment. Besides not presenting any direct effect on mitochondria, DMTU substantially inhibited cisplatin-induced mitochondrial injury and cellular death by apoptosis, suppressing the occurrence of acute renal failure. All the following cisplatin-induced effects were prevented by DMTU: (1) increased plasmatic levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN); (2) decreased ATP content, calcium uptake and electrochemical potential; (3) oxidation of lipids, including cardiolipin; and oxidation of proteins, including sulfhydryl, and aconitase enzyme, as well as accumulation of carbonyl proteins; (4) depletion of the antioxidant defense (NADPH and GSH) and (5) increased activity of the apoptosis executioner caspase-3. Our findings show the important role played by mitochondria and hydroxyl radicals in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, as well as the effectiveness of DMTU in

  11. Some biological compounds, radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. sub sp. montana from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emre, I.; Kursat, M.; Yilmaz, O.; Erecevit, P.

    2011-07-01

    This study determined some biological compounds (fatty acid compositions, lipid-soluble vitamins, sterols, flavonoids), radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was found that palmitic acid (C16:0; 8.54+-0.13-3.05+-0.04%), oleic acid (C18:1 n9, 22.41+-0.8-18.83+-0.1%) and a-inolenic acid were the dominant fatty acids in both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was concluded that both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contained stigmasterol and ergosterol as well as beta-sitosterol. The present findings show that Nepeta italica L. contains morin, catechin, naringin and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contains morin, naringenin as major flavonoids. It was also determined that methanol extracts of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana were most effective against DPPH radicals. The results of the present study show that the vitamins, flavonoids and fatty acid extracts in the seeds of N. italica L. and S. montana L. subsp. montana prevented the growth of the microorganisms used in the tests at different ratios. (Author).

  12. Some biological compounds, radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emre, I.; Kursat, M.; Yilmaz, O.; Erecevit, P.

    2011-07-01

    This study determined some biological compounds (fatty acid compositions, lipid-soluble vitamins, sterols, flavonoids), radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was found that palmitic acid (C16:0; 8.54+-0.13-3.05+-0.04%), oleic acid (C18:1 n9, 22.41+-0.8-18.83+-0.1%) and a-inolenic acid were the dominant fatty acids in both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was concluded that both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contained stigmasterol and ergosterol as well as beta-sitosterol. The present findings show that Nepeta italica L. contains morin, catechin, naringin and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contains morin, naringenin as major flavonoids. It was also determined that methanol extracts of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana were most effective against DPPH radicals. The results of the present study show that the vitamins, flavonoids and fatty acid extracts in the seeds of N. italica L. and S. montana L. subsp. montana prevented the growth of the microorganisms used in the tests at different ratios. (Author).

  13. Chemical characterization and radical scavenging activity of leaves of Juniperus foetidisima, J. excelsa and J. communis from Macedonian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Karapandzova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical characterization of three Juniperus species: J. foetidisima (JF, J. excelsa (JE and J. communis (JC from Macedonian flora enclosed determination of yield and essential oil composition of the oils obtained by hydro-distillation of dried leaves and determination of the content of total phenols and total flavonoids in dried plant material. GC/FID/MS analysis showed mainly monoterpene profile of the JC oil and combined monoterpene/sesquiterpene profile of JF and JE oils. Sesquiterpene cedrol was found as an important constituent of the JF and JE, thus the JF oil was characterized by three main components (a-pinene, limonene and cedrol, in amount up to 67.63%, 27.11% and 33.91%, respectively and JE oil by four components (a-pinene, sabinene, cis-thujone and cedrol, in amount up to 33.83%, 29.49%, 26.20% and 24.44%, respectively. The JC oil was free of cedrol, but contained relatively large sesquiterpene fraction (sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygen containing sesquiterpenes in amounts up to 28.64% and 13.57%, respectively. The JC oil was characterized by three monoterpene components (a-pinene, sabinene and terpinen-4-ol, presented up to 28.68%, 16.27% and 12.16%, respectively. The content of total phenols determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method ranged from 96.18-122.91 mg GAE/g dw (water extraction while the content of total flavonoids ranged from 2.05-11.91 mg CE/g dw (ethanol extraction. Both water and ethanol extracts possessed radical scavenging activity against DPPH radical. Water extracts were more powerful with % of inhibition of DPPH ranging up to 64.52%, 67.40% and 78.23% for water extract (10 mg/ml of JF, JE and JC, respectively. Obtained results showed correlation with the content of total phenols.

  14. Oxygen free-radical scavengers and immune destruction of murine islets in allograft rejection and multiple low-dose streptozocin-induced insulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendola, J; Wright, J R; Lacy, P E

    1989-03-01

    We examined the effects of desferrioxamine (DFX), a potent inhibitor of the formation of oxygen-derived hydroxyl radicals, and nicotinamide (NIC), a poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase inhibitor and a weak free-radical scavenger, on two models of immune destruction of murine islets [i.e., allograft rejection and multiple low-dose streptozocin (STZ)-induced insulitis]. Freshly isolated or low-temperature-cultured BALB/cJ islets were transplanted beneath the kidney capsules of C57BL/6J recipients. The recipients were treated with NIC alone (500 mg.kg-1.day-1), DFX alone (4.2 mg/day x 14 days), or NIC + DFX. Only recipients treated with NIC + DFX, receiving cultured islets, showed a mean graft survival time significantly longer than control mice receiving freshly isolated or cultured islets. Control CD-1 mice treated with multiple low doses of STZ developed insulitis and diabetes. Treatment with NIC alone, DFX alone, or NIC + DFX decreased the severity of hyperglycemia relative to the controls. Treatment with DFX alone was more effective than NIC alone or NIC + DFX. Only the group treated with DFX alone had a lower incidence of diabetes (mean plasma glucose level greater than 200 mg/dl) than the controls after 4 wk. Histologically, islets from control mice showed severe insulitis, islet destruction, and absence of stainable insulin, whereas islets from DFX-treated mice showed only mild peri-insulitis and a relative preservation of beta-cell granulation. Our study showed that NIC and DFX partially protect islets from immune destruction in allograft rejection and in low-dose STZ-induced insulitis. Apparently, hydroxyl radicals play important roles in both of these models.

  15. Oil, protein, antioxidants and free radical scavenging activity of stone from wild olive trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannachi, Hédia; Elfalleh, Walid; Marzouk, Sizaiem

    2013-05-01

    The wild olive trees or oleaster (var. sylvestris) and the cultivated olive trees (var. europaea) constitute the two botanical varieties of Olea europaea L. from Mediterranean. In this study, a partial chemical profile was conducted including the total lipids, the fatty acid profiles, soluble proteins, polyphenols, flavanoids contents and antioxidants activities of stone from six oleaster trees. The comparison was made by two olive cultivars cultivated in the same region. The oleaster and cultivar stones were richer in oil content having an average of 8.99 and 7.38 % dry weight basis (DW), respectively. Qualitatively, all studied oils have the same fatty acids profile with the oleic acid C18:1n-9 as the major fatty acid. The oleaster stone oils were richer in monounsaturated fatty acids having an average of 64.87%. They, also, richer in protein content with an average of 198.86 mg/g DW.The globulin is the major fraction, followed by the albumin, the prolamin and the glutemin fractions. The oleaster stone extracts contain polyphenols, flavonoids with an average of 151.14 and 11.91 mg gallic acid equivalent/100g of DW, respectively. The studied extracts showed antioxidant activity using the free radical scavenging activity determined by DPPH and ABTS. The unexploited oleaster stone seems to be a source of oil with good fatty acids balance, in protein and antioxidants metabolites and would be useful for the formulation of supplements and/or pharmaceutical ingredients.

  16. GC/MS analysis, free radical scavenging, anticancer and β-glucuronidase inhibitory activities of Trillium govanianum rhizome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiq ur Rahman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to investigate the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant, β-glucuronidase inhibitory and anticancer activities of Trillium govanianum rhizome. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of steroidal glycosides, saponins, sterols, flavonoids and carbohydrates. GC/MS analyses of n-hexane fraction identified 12 compounds, including 70% unsaturated and 30% saturated fatty acids. Higher free radical scavenging capacity was observed in n-hexane and chloroform fraction compared with the other fractions. Based on IC50 (μg/mL values, antiproliferative activity on HeLa cells was observed for chloroform (0.8 ± 0.2, ethyl acetate (1.4 ± 0.1 and butanol (1.6 ± 0.3 fractions by comparison to anticancer drug doxorubicin (0.3 ± 0.0. Similarly, all fractions exhibited cytotoxicity on PC-3 cells. Moreover, the methanol extract (IC50: 140.8 ± 3.8 and butanol fraction (196.2 ± 1.9 exhibited a moderate level of β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity. These findings may validate the folkloric uses of T. govanianum rhizome in cancer management, and can be a promising candidate as an anticancer agent.

  17. Changes of hydrogen peroxide and radical-scavenging activity of raspberry during osmotic, convective, and freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaković, Miroslav M; Stevanović, Snežana M; Gorjanović, Stanislava Ž; Jovanovic, Predrag M; Tešević, Vele V; Janković, Miodrag A; Sužnjević, Desanka Ž

    2011-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of different drying treatments on antioxidant (AO) activity and phenolic content of raspberry (Rubus idaeus), cultivar Willamette. Whole raspberry fruits were dried convectively (air-drying), osmotically, and freeze-dried. Acetone-water extracts of fresh and dried raspberries were assessed for total phenolic content by standard Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two AO assays were applied, a recently developed direct current (DC) polarographic assay based on decrease of anodic oxidation current of hydrogen peroxide and widely used radical scavenge against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Strong correlation has been obtained between both AO assays and total phenolic content. In addition, some individual phenolic compounds present in raspberry have been assessed using DPPH and DC polarographic assay. Comparison and evaluation of drying methods has been based on preservation of AO activity and total phenolic content. Obtained results confirmed superiority of freeze-drying; convective drying caused slight changes while osmotic dehydration showed a significant decrease of phenolic compounds and AO activity. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Free radical scavenging activity and comparative metabolic profiling of in vitro cultured and field grown Withania somnifera roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaiselvi Senthil

    Full Text Available Free radical scavenging activity (FRSA, total phenolic content (TPC, and total flavonoid content (TFC of in vitro cultured and field grown Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha roots were investigated. Withanolides analysis and comprehensive metabolic profiling between 100% methanol extracts of in vitro and field grown root tissues was performed using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, respectively. Significantly higher levels of FRSA, TPC, and TFC were observed in in-vitro cultured roots compared with field grown samples. In addition, 30 day-cultured in vitro root samples (1 MIR exhibited a significantly higher FRSA (IC50 81.01 μg/mL, TPC (118.91 mg GAE/g, and TFC (32.68 mg CE/g compared with those in 45 day-cultured samples (1.5 MIR. Total of 29 metabolites were identified in in vitro cultured and field grown roots by GC-MS analysis. The metabolites included alcohols, organic acids, purine, pyrimidine, sugars, and putrescine. Vanillic acid was only observed in the in vitro cultured root samples, and higher level of the vanillic acid was observed in 1 MIR when compared to 1.5 MIR. Therefore, it is suggested that 1 MIR might serve as an alternative to field grown roots for the development of medicinal and functional food products.

  19. Syntheses, structural characterization, and DPPH radical scavenging activity of cocrystals of caffeine with 1- and 2-naphthoxyacetic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, G. S.; Seethalakshmi, P. G.; Sumathi, D.; Bhuvanesh, N.; Kumaresan, S.

    2013-03-01

    Caffeine:1-naphthoxyacetic acid [(caf)(1-naa)] and caffeine:2-naphthoxyacetic acid [(caf)(2-naa)] cocrystals have been synthesized and single crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. The structures of the grown crystals were elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Both the cocrystals belong to the monoclinic crystallographic system with space group P21/c, Z = 4, and α = γ = 90°, whereas β = 111.4244(18)° for [(caf)(1-naa)] and β = 109.281(6)° for [(caf)(2-naa)]. The crystal packing is predominantly stabilized by hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions. The presence of unionized -COOH functional group in both the cocrystals was identified by FTIR spectral analysis. Thermal behavior and stability of both the cocrystals were studied by TGA/DTA analyses. Solvent-free formation of these cocrystals was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analyses. The theoretical energy of cocrystals showed that the formers have higher energy than cocrystals 1 and 2. DPPH radical scavenging activity of cocrystals 1 and 2 is slightly greater than the formers.

  20. Variation of total phenolics, anthocyanins, ellagic acid and radical scavenging capacity in various raspberry (Rubus spp.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobinaitė, Ramunė; Viškelis, Pranas; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the level of some phytochemicals in 19 raspberry cultivars grown in Lithuania. The content of total ellagic acid measured after 20h acidic hydrolysis of investigated raspberry cultivars, varied from 119.8 (cv. 'Pokusa') to 323.5mg/100g (cv. 'Bristol'). The content of total phenolics ranged from 278.6 (cv. 'Pokusa') to 714.7mg/100g (cv. 'Bristol'). The total anthocyanins content varied from 2.1 (yellow cv. 'Beglianka') to 325.5mg/100g (black cv. 'Bristol'). The radical scavenging capacity of the tested raspberry cultivars highly correlating with their total phenolics and total ellagic acid content (r=0.90 and 0.92, respectively). The results of this study expand the knowledge about variation in the content of valuable bioactive compounds in raspberries and may help for the selection and validation of the most productive cultivars. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) Formation by Alkoxy Radical Scavenging of Flavonoids and Their Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship in a Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chundi; Shao, Zeping; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shuo

    2016-08-01

    The inhibitory effect of 10 flavonoids on the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in a creatinine-phenylalanine model system was investigated through electronic spin resonance and a quantitative structure-activity relationship. Alkoxy radicals were observed during the heating process, providing evidence for a radical pathway in the formation of PhIP. The alkoxy radical scavenging capability of the flavonoids was proportional to their inhibition of PhIP formation (IC50 ). We deduced that flavonoid inhibition of PhIP generation occurs via scavenging of alkoxy radicals during the heating process. Multiple linear regression and partial least squares models were used to elucidate the relationship between PhIP inhibition activity and structure characteristics of the flavonoids. The lipo-hydro partition coefficient and molecular fractional polar surface area of the flavonoids were found to be predictive of the inhibition effect. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Radical scavenging and gastroprotective activity of methanolic extract of Gmelina arborea stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincy Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: The results indicate that the gastroprotective effect of GA is probably related to its antioxidant activities that protect gastric mucosa against oxidative damage and antilipid peroxidative activity that maintain membrane integrity.

  3. Natural anthraquinone derivatives from a marine mangrove plant-derived endophytic fungus Eurotium rubrum: structural elucidation and DPPH radical scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Li; Li, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2009-07-01

    There is considerable interest in the isolation of potent radical scavenging compounds from natural resources to treat diseases involving oxidative stress. In this report, four new fungal metabolites including one new bisdihydroanthracenone derivative (1, eurorubrin), two new seco-anthraquinone derivatives [3, 2-O-methyl-9-dehydroxyeurotinone and 4, 2-Omethyl- 4-O-(alpha-D-ribofuranosyl)-9-dehydroxyeurotinone], and one new anthraquinone glycoside [6, 3-O-(alpha-D-ribofuranosyl)- questin], were isolated and identified from Eurotium rubrum, an endophytic fungal strain that was isolated from the inner tissue of the stem of the marine mangrove plant Hibiscus tiliaceus. In addition, three known compounds including asperflavin (2), 2-O-methyleurotinone (5), and questin (7) were also isolated and identified. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. All of the isolated compounds were evaluated for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radical scavenging activity.

  4. Free radical scavengers from the aerial parts of Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn. (Apiaceae and GC-MS analysis of the essential oils from its fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nazemiyeh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn (Apiaceae is one of three endemic Iranian species of the genus Grammosciadium DC. Consumption of the aerial parts of this plant affects renal function and causes diuresis. In the DPPH assay the methanol extract showed the highest level of free radical scavenging activity (RC50 = 1.196 x 10-2 mg/mL among the extracts. Reversed-phase preparative HPLC analyses of the methanol extract yielded nine flavonoids, which were responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of the MeOH extract. The GC-MS analyses of the essential oils led to the identification of 29 terpenoids, mainly monoterpenes (non-oxygenated 3.97% and oxygenated 77.49% accounting for over 96% of the total oils.

  5. Phytochemical Characteristics, Free Radical Scavenging Activities, and Neuroprotection of Five Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia Lin Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine phytochemical characteristics, chemiluminescence antioxidant capacities, and neuroprotective effects on PC12 cells for methanol extracts of Spatholobus suberectus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Alpinia officinarum, Drynaria fortunei, and Crataegus pinnatifida. The C. pinnatifida extract (CPE afforded the greatest yield and total phenolic content. The S. suberectus extract (SSE yielded the greatest total flavonoid content. The U. rhynchophylla extract (URE produced the greatest total tannin content, and the A. officinarum extract (AOE produced the greatest total triterpenoid content. The D. fortunei extract, assayed using horseradish peroxidase-luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and AOE using pyrogallol-luminol assay each exhibited better antioxidant activity than the L-ascorbic acid and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid did. The CPE, SSE, and URE presented neurogrowth effects and neuroprotective activities on H2O2-induced PC12 cell death at 0.5–5.0 μg/mL. The CPE represents a promising medicinal plant source for the treatment of H2O2-induced neurodegenerative disease, because of its useful phytochemical characteristics.

  6. Anthocyanins encapsulated by PLGA@PEG nanoparticles potentially improved its free radical scavenging capabilities via p38/JNK pathway against Aβ1-42-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Faiz Ul; Shah, Shahid Ali; Badshah, Haroon; Khan, Mehtab; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2017-02-07

    In order to increase the bioavailability of hydrophilic unstable drugs like anthocyanins, we employed a polymer-based nanoparticles approach due to its unique properties such as high stability, improved bioavailability and high water-soluble drug loading efficiency. Anthocyanins constitute a subfamily of flavonoids that possess anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. However, anthocyanins are unstable because their phenolic hydroxyl groups are easily oxidized into quinones, causing a reduced biological activity. To overcome this drawback and improve the free radical scavenging capabilities of anthocyanins, in the current study we for the first time encapsulated the anthocyanins in biodegradable nanoparticle formulation based on poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and a stabilizer polyethylene glycol (PEG)-2000. The biological activity and neuroprotective effect of anthocyanin loaded nanoparticles (An-NPs) were investigated in SH-SY5Y cell lines. Morphological examination under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the formation of smooth spherically shaped nanoparticles. The average particle size and zeta potential of An-NPs were in the range of 120-165 nm and -12 mV respectively, with a low polydispersity index (0.4) and displayed a biphasic release profile in vitro. Anthocyanins encapsulation in PLGA@PEG nanoparticles (NPs) did not destroy its inherent properties and exhibit more potent neuroprotective properties. An-NPs were nontoxic to SH-SY5Y cells and increased their cell viability against Aβ1-42 by its free radical scavenging characteristics and abrogated ROS generation via the p38-MAPK/JNK pathways accompanied by induction of endogenous nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Comparative to native bulk anthocyanins, An-NPs effectively attenuated Alzheimer's markers like APP (amyloid precursor protein), BACE-1 (beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1), neuroinflammatory

  7. Free Radicals Scavenging Activity of Essential Oils and Different Fractions of Methanol Extract of Zataria Multiflora, Salvia Officinalis, Rosmarinus Officinalis, Mentha Pulegium and Cinnamomum Zeylanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Changizi Ashtiani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Essential oils and extracts from medicinal plants are regarded as natural food preservatives and health promoting drugs. Considering their antioxidant activity, most of them can prevent oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to evaluate free radicals scavenging activity of essential oils and different fractions of methanol extracts from cinnamon, pennyroyal, black cumin, sage, rosemary and azkand. Methods: Antioxidant property of essential oils and different fractions of these medicinal plants was studied by determining their DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals scavenging activity. Results: There were significant differences among the free radical scavenging activity of studied essential oils and different fractions. Ethyl acetate fractions were identified as the most active fractions than other ones and even synthetic antioxidant (BHT, IC50 value of 239.5μg/ml with the highest activity in Mentha pulegium (47.2 μg/ml μg/ml. Among others, n-hexane fraction of rosemary (969 μg/ml, dichloromethane fraction of rosemary (205.46 μg/ml and zatar (344 μg/ml and aqueous fractions of cinnamon (117.6 μg/ml and sage (321.3 μg/ml exhibited appreciable antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Regarding considerable activity of studied extracts, they have the potential to be used as natural antioxidants in relevant industries.

  8. Assessment of antioxidant activity of cane brown sugars by ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging assays: determination of their polyphenolic and volatile constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payet, Bertrand; Shum Cheong Sing, Alain; Smadja, Jacqueline

    2005-12-28

    Seven cane brown sugars (four from La Réunion, two from Mauritius, and one from France) were investigated for their polyphenol content and volatile composition in relation to their free radical scavenging capacity determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. The thin layer coated on the sugar crystal was extracted by Soxhlet extractor with dichloromethane. The volatile compounds of brown sugars were studied by GC-MS, and 43 compounds were identified. The total phenolic content of brown sugars was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Phenolic compounds were quantified in the brown sugar extracts by LC-UV-ESI-MS. Brown sugar aqueous solutions exhibited weak free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay and higher antioxidant activity in the ABTS assay at relatively high concentration. The brown sugar extracts showed interesting free radical scavenging properties despite the low concentration of phenolic and volatile compounds. Sugar is a common foodstuff traditionally used for its sweetening properties, which might be accompanied by antioxidant properties arising from molecules (polyphenols, Maillard products) other than sucrose of the cane brown sugars.

  9. Chemical Characterization, Free Radical Scavenging, and Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of a Stilbenoid-Rich Root Extract of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ewald, Philipp; Yasui, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Haruka; Wagner, Anika E; Matsugo, Seiichi; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dietary stilbenoids are receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, most studies concerning the bioactivity of stilbenoids were conducted with pure compounds, for example, resveratrol. The aim of this study was to characterize a complex root extract of Vitis vinifera in terms of its free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the root extract of Vitis vinifera identified seven stilbenoids including two monomeric (resveratrol and piceatannol), two dimeric (trans-ɛ-viniferin and ampelopsin A), one trimeric (miyabenol C), and two tetrameric (r-2-viniferin = vitisin A and r-viniferin = vitisin B) compounds which may mediate its biological activity. Electron spin resonance and spin trapping experiments indicate that the root extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, galvinoxyl, and superoxide free radicals. On a cellular level it was observed that the root extract of Vitis vinifera protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces Nrf2 and its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Furthermore, the root extract could induce the antiatherogenic hepatic enzyme paraoxonase 1 and downregulate proinflammatory gene expression (interleukin 1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in macrophages. Collectively our data suggest that the root extract of Vitis vinifera exhibits free radical scavenging as well as cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  10. Free radical scavenging, in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of folk medicine Trichodesma sedgwickianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta S. Saboo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichodesma sedgwickianum has been used in folk medicine possessing anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activity. This led us to investigate for its antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential. Different polarities extracts were subjected to polyphenolic estimation and in vitro antioxidant activity. The potential extract was tested for in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity, assessed by carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in rats. Phytochemical identification of major constituents has been carried out by HPLC, GC-MS, 1HNMR and 13C NMR. Amongst the extracts, successive ethanol extract showed higher concentration of polyphenols (25.4 ± 0.1% w/w and in vitro antioxidant property. The in vivo antioxidant efficiency was confirmed by comparing the enzymatic level, superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and MDA in test group with the standard and control. Hepatoprotective effect was observed by changes in the serum enzyme level which were further supported by histological examination. Phytochemically ethanol extract contains gallic acid and catechin along with other constituents. Thus present study provides a scientific rationale for their traditional use.

  11. Pressurized liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from Anatolia propolis and their radical scavenging capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Selim; Ates, Burhan; Durmaz, Gokhan; Yilmaz, Ismet; Seckin, Turgay

    2011-07-01

    Propolis samples from important honey producing locations of Anatolia namely; Bingol (BG), Rize (RZ), Tekirdag (TK) and Van (VN), were evaluated for their antiradical capacities, total phenolic contents and individual phenolic compounds which was recovered by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). Several extraction parameters of PLE such as; temperature, pressure, solvent type, extraction time and cell size were investigated for their effects on the extraction performances. The results showed that, 40 °C, 1500 psi, Ethanol:water:HCl; (70:25:5, v/v/v) containing 0.1% tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) as solvent, three extraction cycles within 15 min, and a cell size of 11 mL was the most favorable PLE operating conditions. Results of the tests performed to designate the success of the polyphenol analysis showed that the recovery was in the range of 97.2% and 99.7%. Major phenolic compounds in all samples were found to be gallocatechin (GCT), catechin (CT), epicatechin gallate (ECTG), caffeic acid (CA), chlorogenic acid (ChA), and myricetin (Myr). ChA level of BG propolis was 4.5, 3 and 23 times higher than that of RZ, TK and VN region, respectively. Antiradical tests showed that all propolis samples have superior antiradical capacities up to 500 mg Trolox equivalent activity per gram of extract. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Protective effects of Korean mistletoe lectin on radical-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boh Kyung; Choi, Mi Jin; Park, Kun Young; Cho, Eun Ju

    2010-01-01

    The radical scavenging effects and protective activities against oxidative stress of Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) lectin were investigated in vitro and with a cellular system using LLC-PK(1) renal epithelial cells. The Korean mistletoe lectin (KML) showed 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity with an IC(50) value of 42.6 microg/ml. It also exerted nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion (O(2)(-)), and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities in concentration-dependent manners. These results suggest that KML is a promising antioxidant by scavenging free radicals. Furthermore, under the LLC-PK(1) cellular model, the cells showed declines in viability and increases in lipid peroxidation through oxidative stress induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and pyrogallol, generators of NO and O(2)(-), respectively. However, KML significantly and dose-dependently inhibited cell cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation. In addition, 3-morpholinosydnonimnie (SIN-1), a generator of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) formed by simultaneously releases of NO and O(2)(-), caused cytotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and NO overproduction in the LLC-PK(1) cells while KML ameliorated ONOO(-)-induced oxidative damage. Furthermore, overexpressions of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible NO synthase induced by SIN-1 were observed, but KML down-regulated the expression levels of both genes. KML also reduced SIN-1-induced nuclear factor kappa B expression and the phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B alpha in LLC-PK(1) cells. These results indicate that KML has protective activities against oxidative damage induced by free radicals.

  13. Stress influenced increase in phenolic content and radical scavenging capacity of Rhodotorula glutinis CCY 20-2-26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salar, Raj Kumar; Certik, Milan; Brezova, Vlasta; Brlejova, Marta; Hanusova, Vladimira; Breierová, Emília

    2013-02-01

    Rhodotorula glutinis CCY 20-2-26 when grown under controlled stress of either NaCl (1-5 %) or H2O2 (1-5 mM) on basal media exhibited a twofold increase in its total phenolic contents. The radical scavenging capacities (RSCs) as determined by ABTS test were found to be highest in 4 mM H2O2 (1.44 mM TEAC mg-1) and 4 % NaCl (1.13 mM TEAC mg-1) as compared to control samples (0.41 mM TEAC mg-1). Similarly, the RSCs as determined by DPPH test were also highest in 4 % NaCl (1.83 mM TEAC mg-1) and 4 mM H2O2 (1.78 mM TEAC mg-1) compared to control (0.48 TEAC mg-1). The relative RSCs from EPR spin-trapping assay for H2O2-stressed cultures were highest in 1 mM H2O2 (56.1 μM TEAC g-1) whereas in NaCl-stressed cultures it was highest in 5 % NaCl (44.6 μM TEAC g-1) as compared to control (30.9 μM TEAC g-1). Five phenolic compounds (gallic acid, benzoic acid, catechin, caffeic acid and ferulic acid) were detected for the first time in R. glutinis CCY 20-2-26.

  14. Free radical scavenging enzyme activity and related trace metals in clozapine-induced agranulocytosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linday, L A; Pippenger, C E; Howard, A; Lieberman, J A

    1995-10-01

    We hypothesized that patients who had experienced clozapine-induced agranulocytosis would have abnormalities in their free radical scavenging enzyme activity (FRESA) and levels of related trace metals. We therefore measured FRESA profiles and related trace metals in four groups: post-clozapine agranulocytosis (POST CLOZ AGRAN) (N = 9); clozapine no agranulocytosis (CLOZ NO AGRAN) (N = 12); West Coast controls (WC CONTROLS) (N = 14); and Long Island Jewish Medical Center controls (LIJ CONTROLS) (N = 12). Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, P1) levels in plasma were slowest in the POST CLOZ AGRAN group (34.3 +/- 6.9 IU/dl [standard deviation; SD]; p < 0.002); red blood cell glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, RBC) was highest in the WC CONTROLS (38.7 +/- 4.7 IU/g hemoglobin [Hgb]; p < 0.008); and selenium (SE) levels in plasma were lower in both the POST CLOZ AGRAN group (111.6 +/- 14.7 ng/ml) and the CLOZ NO AGRAN group(115.0 +/- 17.8) than in the WC CONTROLS (142.5 +/- 18.3; p < 0.0006). SE was also lower in the POST CLOZ AGRAN group than in the LIJ CONTROLS (129.1 +/- 21.6; p < 0.04). The presence of at least one of the following: (1) GSH-Px, P1 < 37.6 IU/dl; (2) GSH-Px, RBC < 31.0 IU/g Hgb; or (3) SE < 112.4 ng/ml, distinguished POST CLOZ AGRAN subjects from the WC CONTROLS, but not from the LIJ CONTROLS. Data from this cross-sectional pilot study suggest that abnormalities in the body's antioxidant defense system may be involved in the pathogenesis of clozapine-associated agranulocytosis. If confirmed in large-scale, prospective studies, these preliminary findings have potential clinical application in the screening and prophylaxis of clozapine agranulocytosis.

  15. Scavenging effect of Trolox released from brushite cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestres, Gemma; Santos, Carlos F; Engman, Lars; Persson, Cecilia; Ott, Marjam Karlsson

    2015-01-01

    In this study a brushite cement was doped with the chain-breaking antioxidant Trolox. The effect of the antioxidant on the physical properties of the cement was evaluated and the release of Trolox was monitored by UV spectroscopy. The ability of the Trolox set free to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) released by macrophages was determined in vitro using a luminol-amplified chemiluminescence assay. Trolox did not modify the crystalline phases of the set cement, which mainly formed crystalline brushite after 7 days in humid conditions. The setting time, compressive strength and morphology of the cement also remained unaltered after the addition of the antioxidant. Trolox was slowly released from the cement following a non-Fickian transport mechanism and nearly 64% of the total amount was released after 3 days. Moreover, the capacity of Trolox to scavenge the ROS released by macrophages increased in a dose-dependent manner. Trolox-loaded cements are expected to reduce some of the first harmful effects of acute inflammation and can thus potentially protect the surrounding tissue during implantation of these as well as other materials used in conjunction. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Oxidative stress and enzymatic scavenging of superoxide radicals induced by solar UV-B radiation in Ulva canopies from southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Bischof

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and scavenging of the superoxide radical by superoxide dismutase (SOD was studied in mat-like canopies of the green macroalga Ulva rotundata Bliding in a tidal brine pond system in southern Spain. Artificial canopies were covered with different cut-off filters, generating different radiation conditions. ROS and SOD were assessed after three days of exposure. ROS induced lipid peroxidation depended on the position of individual thalli within the canopy and on radiation conditions. Samples exposed to the full solar spectrum were most affected, whereas samples either exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR alone or UV radiation without PAR exhibited fewer peroxidation products. The activity of SOD appeared to be controlled by the impinging UV-A and UV-B radiation and also increased in response to oxidative stress. The results provide evidence for additive effects of high PAR and UV-B under field conditions and support the previously proposed hypothesis that UV-B effects are mediated by an inhibition of the xanthophyll cycle, which increases ROS production and, consequently, causes oxidative damage to components of the photosynthetic machinery, such as proteins and pigments.

  17. Investigation of the Mechanism of Electron Capture and Electron Transfer Dissociation of Peptides with a Covalently Attached Free Radical Hydrogen Atom Scavenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Chang Ho; Yin, Sheng; Peng, Ivory; Loo, Joseph A; Beauchamp, J L

    2015-11-15

    The mechanisms of electron capture and electron transfer dissociation (ECD and ETD) are investigated by covalently attaching a free-radical hydrogen atom scavenger to a peptide. The 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-l-oxyl (TEMPO) radical was chosen as the scavenger due to its high hydrogen atom affinity (ca. 280 kJ/mol) and low electron affinity (ca. 0.45 ev), and was derivatized to the model peptide, FQX TEMPO EEQQQTEDELQDK. The X TEMPO residue represents a cysteinyl residue derivatized with an acetamido-TEMPO group. The acetamide group without TEMPO was also examined as a control. The gas phase proton affinity (882 kJ/mol) of TEMPO is similar to backbone amide carbonyls (889 kJ/mol), minimizing perturbation to internal solvation and sites of protonation of the derivatized peptides. Collision induced dissociation (CID) of the TEMPO tagged peptide dication generated stable odd-electron b and y type ions without indication of any TEMPO radical induced fragmentation initiated by hydrogen abstraction. The type and abundance of fragment ions observed in the CID spectra of the TEMPO and acetamide tagged peptides are very similar. However, ECD of the TEMPO labeled peptide dication yielded no backbone cleavage. We propose that a labile hydrogen atom in the charge reduced radical ions is scavenged by the TEMPO radical moiety, resulting in inhibition of N-C α backbone cleavage processes. Supplemental activation after electron attachment (ETcaD) and CID of the charge-reduced precursor ion generated by electron transfer of the TEMPO tagged peptide dication produced a series of b + H (b H ) and y + H (y H ) ions along with some c ions having suppressed intensities, consistent with stable O-H bond formation at the TEMPO group. In summary, the results indicate that ECD and ETD backbone cleavage processes are inhibited by scavenging of a labile hydrogen atom by the localized TEMPO radical moiety. This observation supports the conjecture that ECD and ETD processes involve long

  18. Scavenging of superoxide radical anion and hydroxyl radical by urea, thiourea, selenourea and their derivatives without any catalyst: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, P. C.

    2017-09-01

    Scavenging of O2rad- and OH by urea, thiourea, selenourea and their derivatives in both gas phase and aqueous medium has been investigated using density functional theory. It has been found that O2rad- would be scavenged efficiently by single hydrogen abstraction from thiourea and selenourea but not from urea and by addition to pairs of carbon sites of thiourea and selenourea derivatives but not to those of urea derivatives, in agreement with experiment. Further, OH is found to be scavenged efficiently by hydrogen abstraction from thiourea and selenourea but not from urea and by addition to carbon sites of the derivatives.

  19. Photoluminescent reduced graphene oxide quantum dots from latex of Calotropis gigantea for metal sensing, radical scavenging, cytotoxicity, and bioimaging in Artemia salina: A greener route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Balaji; Sonamuthu, Jegatheeswaran; Pandiyan, Nithya; Pandi, Boomi; Samayanan, Selvam; Mahalingam, Sundrarajan

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we report the fabrication of green fluorescent reduced graphene oxide quantum dots (rGOQDs) from the latex of Calotropis gigantea by simple one-step microwave assisted greener route. The latex of Calotropis gigantea calcined at 300°C and its ethanolic extract is used for the synthesis of QDs, The rGOQDs showed particle size ranging from 2 to 8nm and it exhibited green fluorescent in longer UV region at 360-520nm. The rGOQDs graphitic nature was confirmed by RAMAN and XRD analysis. The FTIR, XPS demonstrate that presence of functional groups such as CO, COC, -OH, hence it's addressing them as rGOQDs. It is used to design the greener and economically adopted fluorescent probe for the detection of Pb2+ ions. It provides simple and appropriate for the selective and sensitive detection of Pb2+ ions in water purification process. It also trapped the free radicals and neutralized that and act as an excellent radical scavenger in DPPH radical scavenging assessment. These rGOQDs showed excellent biocompatibility on brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) up to 160μg/mL for 24h incubation. Furthermore, rGOQDS were demonstrated as fluorescent bioimaging probe selectively in the inner digestion part of Artemia salina. In summary, stable, economically viable, highly biocompatible, greener method based rGOQDs were prepared for heavy metal ion detecting, radical scavenging, bioimaging applications which can play a vital role in the future nanotechnology-based biomedical field. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Organometallic ruthenium(II) complexes: synthesis, structure and influence of substitution at azomethine carbon towards DNA/BSA binding, radical scavenging and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyadevi, Palanisamy; Krishnamoorthy, Paramasivam; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Kalaiselvi, Palaniswamy; Vijaya Padma, Viswanadha; Dharmaraj, Nallasamy

    2012-09-01

    Bivalent, ruthenium organometallics containing hydrazone ligands with the composition [RuH(CO)(PPh(3))(2)(L(1-3))] (4-6) have been synthesised from the reactions of [RuH(2)(CO)(PPh(3))(3)] and benzoic acid pyridine-2-ylmethylene-hydrazide (HL(1)) (1) /benzoic acid (1-pyridin-2-yl-ethylidene)-hydrazide (HL(2)) (2)/benzoic acid (phenyl-pyridin-2-yl-methylene)-hydrazide (HL(3)) (3) and characterised by various physico-chemical techniques. The X-ray crystal structure of one of the above complexes, [RuH(CO)(PPh(3))(2)(L(3))] (6) demonstrated a distorted octahedral coordination geometry around the metal centre. Results of our investigation on the effect of substitution (H or CH(3) or C(6)H(5)) at the azomethine carbon of coordinated hydrazone in these ruthenium chelates on the potential binding with DNA/BSA, free radical scavenging and cytotoxicity is presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-enzymatic browning reaction of glucosamine at mild conditions: Relationship between colour formation, radical scavenging activity and α-dicarbonyl compounds production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Pui Khoon; Betti, Mirko

    2016-12-01

    Glucosamine (GlcN, 5% w/v) was incubated in either phosphate buffer or ammonium hydroxide solutions at 40 and 60°C for up to 48h in order to yield caramel solutions. Non-enzymatic browning was monitored via changes in absorption at 280, 320 and 420nm and the physico-chemical properties as well as the generation of short chain α-dicarbonyl compounds were evaluated. Accumulation of GlcN autocondensation products (280nm) proceeded in parallel with the development of pre-melanoidins (320nm) and melanoidins (420nm). The reactive α-dicarbonyls were detected at temperature as low as 40°C within 3h with a maximum level of diacetyl recorded at 6h. The caramel solutions showed a high efficacy in scavenging DPPH and ABTS radicals in accordance with the increasing browning intensity. The results suggest that GlcN browning can be modulated according to the specific desired properties to produce a multi-functional food ingredient that has health-promoting effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Design and environmentally benign synthesis of novel thiophene appended pyrazole analogues as anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging agents: Crystallographic, in silico modeling, docking and SAR characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhudeva, Malledevarapura Gurumurthy; Bharath, Srinivasan; Kumar, Achutha Dileep; Naveen, Shivalingegowda; Lokanath, Neratur Krishnappagowda; Mylarappa, Bantaganahalli Ningappa; Kumar, Kariyappa Ajay

    2017-08-01

    Oxidative-stress induces inflammatory diseases and infections caused by drug-resistant microbial strains are on the rise necessitating the discovery of novel small-molecules for intervention therapy. The current study presents an effective and new green protocol for the synthesis of thiophene-appended pyrazoles through 3+2 annulations method. Chalcones 3(a-g) were prepared from 5-chloro-2-acetylthiophene and aromatic aldehydes by Claisen-Schmidt approach. The reaction of chalcones 3(a-g) with phenylhydrazine hydrochlorides 4(a-b) in acetic acid (30%) medium and also with freshly prepared citrus extract medium under reflux conditions produced the thiophene appended pyrazoles 5(a-l) in moderate yields. Structures of synthesized new pyrazoles were confirmed by spectral studies, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Further, preliminary assessment of the anti-inflammatory properties of the compounds showed that, amongst the series, compounds 5d, 5e and 5l have excellent anti-inflammatory activities. Further, compounds 5c, 5d, 5g, and 5i exhibited excellent DPPH radical scavenging abilities in comparison with the standard ascorbic acid. Furthermore, using detailed structural modeling and docking efforts, combined with preliminary SAR, we show possible structural and chemical features on both the small-molecules and the protein that might contribute to the binding and inhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Scavenging and characterization of short-lived radicals using a novel stable nitroxide radical with a characteristic UV-vis absorption spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, Ryuta; Gotoh, Hiroaki; Sakakibara, Kazuhisa

    2014-08-01

    A stable tert-butyl(10-phenyl-9-anthryl)nitroxide (BPAN) radical was newly synthesized and used for the capture/characterization of reactive radicals. Adducts obtained from the reactions of BPAN with in situ generated reactive radicals showed excellent stability, assuring complete isolation and purification. The structures of the adducts were established by LC-MS and NMR analyses.

  4. Antitumor, Antioxidant, and Nitrite Scavenging Effects of Chinese Water Chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) Peel Flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ge; Pan, Leiqing; Tu, Kang; Jiao, Shunshan

    2016-10-01

    The preparation, quantification, and characterization of flavonoid compounds from Chinese water chestnut peel (CWCP) flavonoid extract and ethyl acetate fraction (EF), n-butanol fraction, and water fraction were studied. Among these, EF showed the maximum free radical levels (IC50 values of 0.36, 0.40, and 0.37 mg/mL for DPPH•, ABTS•+ , and •OH, respectively), nitrite scavenging effects (IC50 = 1.89 mg/mL), and A549 cell inhibitory activities (IC50 = 776.12 μg/mL) with the highest value of total flavonoid content (TFC, 421.32 mg/g). Moreover, the contents of 8 flavonoids in this fraction were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography, and fisetin, diosmetin, luteolin, and tectorigenin were the 4 major flavonoids with levels of 31.66, 29.91, 13.69, and 12.41 mg/g, respectively. Luteolin produced a greater inhibition of human lung cancer A549 cells (IC50 = 59.60 μg/mL) than did fisetin, diosmetin, and tectorigenin. Flow cytometry revealed that the cellular mechanisms of luteolin inhibition of A549 cells were achieved via the induction of cell proliferation arrest at G1 phase and apoptosis/necrosis. Our findings suggest that flavonoids are closely associated with antitumor, antioxidant, and nitrite scavenging effects of CWCP. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Free-radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant properties of some selected onions (Allium cepa L. and garlic (Allium sativum L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Benkeblia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The radical scavenging activity (RAS, chain-breaking activity, H2O2-scavenging, reducing capacity and total phenolics of four types of onions (Green onion, Yellow, Red and Purple and garlic were investigated. Total phenolics varied from 30 mg (green onion to 49 mg.100 g-1 fresh weight (garlic. Garlic extract showed the highest RAS, while green onion showed the lowest one. The chain-breaking activity of green onion extract was higher (0.48 than garlic extract (0.029. Chain-breaking activity of yellow, red and purple onion extracts was 0.19, 0.048 and 0.032 respectively. However, heating treatment (90 ºC, 3h caused an increase in this activity. Low ability of green onion extract to scavenge hydrogen peroxide was noted (35%, whereas high ability was noted in other onion and garlic extracts and ranged from 60 to 90%. The lowest reducing capacity was noted in green onion extract (18%, whereas the highest in garlic extract (196%. Statistically, high significant correlations were observed between total phenolics content and reducing power, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and chain-breaking activity of extract

  6. Comparative evaluation of post-column free radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays for screening of antioxidants in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudonis, Raimondas; Raudone, Lina; Jakstas, Valdas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2012-04-13

    ABTS and FRAP post-column techniques evaluate the antioxidant characteristics of HPLC separated compounds with specific reagents. ABTS characterize their ability to scavenge free radicals by electron-donating antioxidants, resulting in the absorbance decrease of the chromophoric radical. FRAP - is based on the reduction of Fe(III)-tripyridyltriazine complex to Fe(II)-tripyridyltriazine at low pH by electron-donating antioxidants, resulting in an absorbance increase. Both post-column assays were evaluated and compared according to the following validation parameters: specificity, precision, limit of detection (LoD), limit of quantitation (LoQ) and linearity. ABTS and FRAP post-column assays were specific, repeatable and sensitive and thus can be used for the evaluation of antioxidant active compounds. Antioxidant active compounds were quantified according to TEAC for each assay and ABTS/FRAP ratio was derived. No previous records of antioxidative activity of leaves and fruits of strawberries (Fragaria viridis, Fragaria moschata) research have been found. The research results confirm the reliability of ABTS and FRAP post-column assays for screening of antioxidants in complex mixtures and the determination of radical scavenging and ferric reducing ability by their TEAC values. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antioxidant and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl Free Radical Scavenging Activities of New the Calix[4]arene-bodipy Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. ERDEM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene was synthesized with the condesation reaction of p-tert-butylphenol and formaldehyde in basic conditions and then has derivatized from the both of two hydroxyl position with chloride which is containing donor oxygen atoms. BODIPY compound (4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene was synthesized with appropriate pyrrole and aldehyde compounds and then was bonded p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene derivative via lower rim hydroxyl groups.The antioxidant activity of the calix[4]arene-BODIPY compound were determined using β-karotene-linoleic acid system. Moreover, the free radical scavenging activity values were tested with DPPH free radical. The compound showed strong antioxidant activity.Total antioxidant activity of the compound was determined using β–carotenelinoleic acid model system and was found the antioxidant activity of 72,50%. The free radical scavenging activities were determined as 75.19%. Results show that, calix[4]arene-BODIPY compound has the antioxidant activity. 

  8. Antioxidant and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Boniger Acid and Calix[4]arene Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. ERDEM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Diazonium derivative of calix[4]arene has been synthesized using three different synthetic steps. Initially p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene was synthesized with the condensation reaction of p-tert-butylphenol and formaldehyde in basic conditions. Calix[4]arene was obtained after the debutylation reaction of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene with AlCl3. Calix[4]arene reacted with diazonium salt of Böniger acid to yield the 5,17-[(Bis(azo-bis(5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonicacid]-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy calix[4]arene which has eight free phenolic hydroxyl group. Reaction steps were shown in Fig.1.2,7-naphthalenedisulfonicacid]-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy calix[4]arene The antioxidant activity of the Böniger acid and calix[4]aren derivative were determined using β-karotene-linoleic acid system. Moreover, the free radical scavenging activity values were tested with DPPH free radical. The two compounds showed strong antioxidant activity. Total antioxidant activity of Böniger acid and calix[4]aren derivative was determined using β–carotenelinoleic acid model system and was found the antioxidant activity of 84.00% and 85.60 % respectively. The free radical scavenging activities were determined as 83.05% and 84.69 %. Results show that, two compounds has the antioxidant activity. The calix[4]aren derivaties has more higher activity then Boniger acid because of calix[4]aren derivative has much hydroxl groups.

  9. Improved brain MRI indices in the acute brain stem infarct sites treated with hydroxyl radical scavengers, Edaravone and hydrogen, as compared to Edaravone alone. A non-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hirohisa; Nishijima, Yoji; Adachi, Naoto; Tachibana, Shigekuni; Chitoku, Shiroh; Mukaihara, Shigeo; Sakamoto, Masaki; Kudo, Yohei; Nakazawa, Jun; Kaneko, Kumi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi

    2011-06-07

    In acute stage of cerebral infarction, MRI indices (rDWI & rADC) deteriorate during the first 3-7 days after the ictus and then gradually normalize in approximately 10 days (pseudonormalization time), although the tissue is already infarcted. Since effective treatments improve these indices significantly and in less than the natural pseudonormalization time, a combined analysis of these changes provides an opportunity for objective evaluation on the effectiveness of various treatments for cerebral infarction. Hydroxyl radicals are highly destructive to the tissue and aggravate cerebral infarction. We treated brainstem infarction patients in acute stage with hydroxyl radical scavengers (Edaravone and hydrogen) by intravenous administration and evaluated the effects of the treatment by a serial observation and analysis of these MRI indices. The effects of the treatment were evaluated and compared in two groups, an Edaravone alone group and a combined group with Edaravone and hydrogen, in order to assess beneficial effects of addition of hydrogen. The patients were divided in Edaravone only group (E group. 26 patients) and combined treatment group with Edaravone and hydrogen enriched saline (EH group. 8 patients). The extent of the initial hump of rDWI, the initial dip of rADC and pseudo-normalization time were determined in each patient serially and averages of these data were compared in these two groups and also with the natural course in the literatures. The initial hump of rDWI reached 2.0 in the E group which was better than 2.5 of the natural course but was not as good as 1.5 of the EH group. The initial dip of rADC was 0.6 in the E group which was close to the natural course but worse than 0.8 of the EH group. Pseudonormalization time of rDWI and rADC was 9 days only in EH group but longer in other groups. Addition of hydrogen caused no side effects. Administration of hydroxyl radical scavengers in acute stage of brainstem infarction improved MRI indices

  10. Improved brain MRI indices in the acute brain stem infarct sites treated with hydroxyl radical scavengers, Edaravone and hydrogen, as compared to Edaravone alone. A non-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Hirohisa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In acute stage of cerebral infarction, MRI indices (rDWI & rADC deteriorate during the first 3-7 days after the ictus and then gradually normalize in approximately 10 days (pseudonormalization time, although the tissue is already infarcted. Since effective treatments improve these indices significantly and in less than the natural pseudonormalization time, a combined analysis of these changes provides an opportunity for objective evaluation on the effectiveness of various treatments for cerebral infarction. Hydroxyl radicals are highly destructive to the tissue and aggravate cerebral infarction. We treated brainstem infarction patients in acute stage with hydroxyl radical scavengers (Edaravone and hydrogen by intravenous administration and evaluated the effects of the treatment by a serial observation and analysis of these MRI indices. The effects of the treatment were evaluated and compared in two groups, an Edaravone alone group and a combined group with Edaravone and hydrogen, in order to assess beneficial effects of addition of hydrogen. Methods The patients were divided in Edaravone only group (E group. 26 patients and combined treatment group with Edaravone and hydrogen enriched saline (EH group. 8 patients. The extent of the initial hump of rDWI, the initial dip of rADC and pseudo-normalization time were determined in each patient serially and averages of these data were compared in these two groups and also with the natural course in the literatures. Results The initial hump of rDWI reached 2.0 in the E group which was better than 2.5 of the natural course but was not as good as 1.5 of the EH group. The initial dip of rADC was 0.6 in the E group which was close to the natural course but worse than 0.8 of the EH group. Pseudonormalization time of rDWI and rADC was 9 days only in EH group but longer in other groups. Addition of hydrogen caused no side effects. Conclusions Administration of hydroxyl radical scavengers in

  11. 'Poly(ethylene glycol)-magnetic nanoparticles-curcumin' trio: directed morphogenesis and synergistic free-radical scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konwarh, Rocktotpal; Saikia, Jyoti Prasad; Karak, Niranjan; Konwar, Bolin Kumar

    2010-12-01

    Research on curcumin (polyphenol derived from the rhizome of herb Curcuma longa) has occupied a unique niche owing to its distinctive properties, unique molecular architecture and multi-potent efficacies, particularly in the bio-medical domain with recent interest in material science. In the present study, conjugation of curcumin onto biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol)--templated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNP) (2-5 nm), prepared through a simple wet chemical route is reported along with modulation of the activity of the partners. Statistical optimization, using response surface methodology, of sonication parameters (8 min, 0.4 cycle and 60% amplitude) for maximal curcumin loading (86%), has shown major morphology directing effect generating triads, tetrads, amongst others and chain-like arrangement (TEM imaging) of the bio-conjugated nanoparticles (80-90 nm). Intonation of the magnetometric parameters of the PEG assisted MNPs on bioconjugation was also evident. The synergistic potency of the partners, the polymer templated iron oxide nanoparticles and curcumin, was unmasked during scavenging of diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH). The system represents an architecturally appealing, magnetically responsive bio-conjugated system possessing synergistic participation of the partners, with prospective applications in medical domain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbonate Anion Radical Generated by the Peroxidase Activity of Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase: Scavenging of Radical and Protection of Enzyme by Hypotaurine and Cysteine Sulfinic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseggio Conrado, Alessia; Maina, Simonetta; Moseley, Harry; Francioso, Antonio; Mosca, Luciana; Capuozzo, Elisabetta; Fontana, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD) is considered one of the most important mammalian antioxidant defenses and plays a relevant role due to its main function in catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide anion to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. However, interaction between SOD and H 2 O 2 produced a strong copper-bound oxidant (Cu(II) • OH) that seems able to contrast the self-inactivation of the enzyme or oxidize other molecules through its peroxidase activity. The bicarbonate presence enhances the peroxidase activity and produces the carbonate anion radical (CO 3 •- ). CO 3 •- is a freely diffusible reactive species capable of oxidizing several molecules that are unwieldy to access into the reactive site of the enzyme. Cu(II) • OH oxidizes bicarbonate to the CO 3 •- , which spreads out of the binding site and oxidizes hypotaurine and cysteine sulfinic acid to the respective sulfonates through an efficient reaction. These findings suggest a defense role for sulfinates against the damage caused by CO 3 •- . The effect of hypotaurine and cysteine sulfinic acid on the CO 3 •- -mediated oxidation of the peroxidase probe ABTS to ABTS cation radical (ABTS •+ ) has been studied. Both sulfinates are able to inhibit the oxidation of ABTS mediated by CO 3 •- . The effect of hypotaurine and cysteine sulfinic acid against SOD inactivation by H 2 O 2 (~42% protection of enzyme activity) has also been investigated. Interestingly, hypotaurine and cysteine sulfinic acid partially avoid the H 2 O 2 -mediated SOD inactivation, suggesting that the two sulfinates may have access to the SOD reactive site and preserve it by reacting with the copper-bound oxidant. In this way hypotaurine and cysteine sulfinic acid not only intercept CO 3 •- which could move out from the reactive site and cause oxidative damage, but also prevents the inactivation of SOD.

  13. Kinetic studies of the free radical-scavenging actions of tocopherol metabolites (alpha-, gamma-, and delta-carboxyethyl-6-hydroxychroman) and Trolox in ethanol and micellar solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarai, Akiko; Ouchi, Aya; Mukai, Kyohei; Tokunaga, Aiko; Mukai, Kazuo; Abe, Kouichi

    2008-01-09

    The reaction rates ( k s) of tocopherol metabolites (alpha-, gamma-, and delta-CEHC) and Trolox with aroxyl radical have been measured in ethanol and micellar solution by a stopped-flow spectrophotometer, and the k s values obtained were compared with those reported for tocopherols (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol, TocH) and tocol. The rate constants ( k s) increased in the order of Tocol Trolox approximately gamma-TocH approximately beta-TocH Trolox showed notable pH dependence. As a result of the detailed analysis of the pH dependence of the rate constants ( k s), the structure-activity relationship in the free radical-scavenging action of the tocopherol metabolites and Trolox has been clarified.

  14. Plant Phenolics Extraction from Flos Chrysanthemi: Response Surface Methodology Based Optimization and the Correlation Between Extracts and Free Radical Scavenging Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanfang; Wang, Xinsheng; Xue, Jintao; Fan, Enguo

    2017-11-01

    Huaiju is one of the most famous and widely used Flos Chrysanthemi (FC) for medicinal purposes in China. Although various investigations aimed at phenolics extraction from other FC have been reported, a thorough optimization of the phenolics extraction conditions from Huaiju has not been achieved. This work applied the widely used response surface methodology (RSM) to investigate the effects of 3 independent variables including ethanol concentration (%), extraction time (min), and solvent-to-material ratio (mL/g) on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolics from FC. The data suggested the optimal UAE condition was an ethanol concentration of 75.3% and extraction time of 43.5 min, whereas the ratio of solvent to material has no significant effect. When the free radical scavenging ability was used as an indicator for a successful extraction, a similar optimal extraction was achieved with an ethanol concentration of 72.8%, extraction time of 44.3 min, and the ratio of solvent to material was 29.5 mL/g. Furthermore, a moderate correlation between the antioxidant activity of TP extract and the content of extracted phenolic compounds was observed. Moreover, a well consistent of the experimental values under optimal conditions with those predicted values suggests RSM successfully optimized the UAE conditions for phenolics extraction from FC. The work of the research investigated the plant phenolics in Flos Chrysanthemi and antioxidant capacities. These results of this study can support the development of antioxidant additive and relative food. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists.

  15. Free-radical scavenging activity and bioactive secondary metabolites from various extracts of Glinus oppositifolius (L. Aug. DC. (Molluginaceae roots, stems and leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Janet R. Martin-Puzon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Glinus oppositifolius (G. oppositifolius and to determine the presence of phytochemical constituents in ethanol, methanol and chloroform extracts of the roots, stems and leaves of G. oppositifolius. Methods: The extracts were examined for antioxidant property by free–radical [2,2–diphenyl– 1–picrylhydrazyl (DPPH] scavenging activity and screened for the presence of bioactive phytochemical constituents, i.e., alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, sterols, tannins, and terpenes. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were quantified by Folin– Ciocalteu method and aluminum chloride method, respectively. Results: The results showed that all the plant parts, i.e., roots, stems and leaves, exhibited free–radical scavenging activity which can be attributed to the presence of phytochemical constituents in the various extracts. The root chloroformic extract had the highest DPPH inhibition activity which was 70% relative to gallic acid, followed by the root methanolic and ethanolic extracts exhibiting 37% and 28% DPPH inhibition activity, respectively. Conclusions: This paper has reported for the first time the antioxidant activity of the different parts of G. oppositifolius, i.e., roots and stems. The results demonstrate great potential of the plant as a new source of food supplements, drug components and other materials or ingredients for health and wellness.

  16. Synthesis of Amide and Ester Derivatives of Cinnamic Acid and Its Analogs: Evaluation of Their Free Radical Scavenging and Monoamine Oxidase and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Koichi; Toda, Kazuhiro; Saito, Takayuki; Sugita, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    A series of cinnamic acid derivatives, amides (1-12) and esters (13-22), were synthesized, and structure-activity relationships for antioxidant activity, and monoamine oxidases (MAO) A and B, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities were analyzed. Among the synthesized compounds, compounds 1-10, 12-18, and rosmarinic acid (23), which contained catechol, o-methoxyphenol or 5-hydroxyindole moieties, showed potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity. Compounds 9-11, 15, 17-22 showed potent and selective MAO-B inhibitory activity. Compound 20 was the most potent inhibitor of MAO-B. Compounds 18 and 21 showed moderate BChE inhibitory activity. In addition, compound 18 showed potent antioxidant activity and MAO-B inhibitory activity. In a comparison of the cinnamic acid amides and esters, the amides exhibited more potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity, while the esters showed stronger inhibitory activities against MAO-B and BChE. These results suggested that cinnamic acid derivatives such as compound 18, p-coumaric acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl ester, and compound 20, p-coumaric acid phenethyl ester, may serve as lead compounds for the development of novel MAO-B inhibitors and candidate lead compounds for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Activity-guided isolation and identification of free radical-scavenging components from various leaf extracts of Sorbus aria (L.) Crantz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Monika A; Michel, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Nine phenolics were obtained from the leaves of Sorbus aria (L.) Crantz by activity-directed isolation: isorhamnetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside (1), astragalin (2), isoquercitrin (3), hyperoside (4), kaempferol 3-O-β-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (5), quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (6), rutin (7), chlorogenic acid (8) and neochlorogenic acid (9). The isolates were identified by spectral methods (UV, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR, COSY, HMQC and HMBC), and their free radical-scavenging activity was tested using the l,l-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The antioxidant potential of the different extracts obtained in the fractionation process was evaluated using the DPPH test in relation to the HPLC contents of the isolates 1-9, total phenolics and total proanthocyanidins. Among the analytes tested, superior activity was expressed by isoquercitrin (3, EC(50) = 2.76 mg L(-1)) and the ethyl acetate extract (EC(50) = 2.99 mg L(-1)). Five strongly active isolates 3, 6, 7, 8 and 9 were found to be major components and to be principally responsible for the radical-scavenging activity of S. aria extracts.

  18. Design, synthesis, kinetic mechanism and molecular docking studies of novel 1-pentanoyl-3-arylthioureas as inhibitors of mushroom tyrosinase and free radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larik, Fayaz Ali; Saeed, Aamer; Channar, Pervaiz Ali; Muqadar, Urooj; Abbas, Qamar; Hassan, Mubashir; Seo, Sung-Yum; Bolte, Michael

    2017-12-01

    A series of novel 1-pentanoyl-3-arylthioureas was designed as new mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors and free radical scavengers. The title compounds were obtained in excellent yield and characterized by FTIR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and X-ray crystallography in case of compound (4a). The inhibitory effects on mushroom tyrosinase and DPPH were evaluated and it was observed that 1-Pentanoyl-3-(4-methoxyphenyl) thiourea (4f) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity (IC 50 1.568 ± 0.01 mM) comparable to Kojic acid (IC 50 16.051 ± 1.27 mM). Interestingly compound 4f exhibited higher antioxidant potential compared to other derivatives. The docking studies of synthesized 1-Pentanoyl-3-arylthioureas analogues were also carried out against tyrosinase protein (PDBID 2ZMX) to compare the binding affinities with IC 50 values. The predicted binding affinities are in good agreement with the IC 50 values as compound (4f) showed highest binding affinity (-7.50 kcal/mol) compared to others derivatives. The kinetic mechanism analyzed by Line-weavere Burk plots exhibited that compound (4f) inhibit the enzyme inhibits the tyrosinase non-competitively to form an enzyme inhibitor complex. The inhibition constants Ki calculated from Dixon plots for compound (4f) is 1.10 μM. It was also found from kinetic analysis that derivative 4f irreversible enzyme inhibitor complex. It is proposed on the basis of our investigation that title compound (4f) may serve as lead structure for the design of more potent tyrosinase inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Cavendish banana peel extract and its antibacterial and free radical scavenging assay: a novel biological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokila, T.; Ramesh, P. S.; Geetha, D.

    2015-11-01

    Biosynthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles has now become an alternative to physical and chemical approaches. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from Cavendish banana peel extract (CBPE) and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Field emission scanning electronic microscope (FESEM), Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential (ZP). The AgNPs formation was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy through color conversion due to surface plasma resonance band at 430 nm. The effect of pH on nanoparticle synthesis was determined by adjusting the various pH of the reaction mixtures. The crystalline nature of nanoparticles was confirmed from the XRD pattern, and the grain size was found to be around 34 nm. To identify the compounds responsible for the bioreduction of Ag+ ion and the stabilization of AgNPs produced, the functional group present in Cavendish banana peel extract was investigated using FTIR. AFM has proved to be very helpful in determining morphological features and the diameter of AgNPs in the range of 23-30 nm was confirmed by FESEM. DLS studies revealed that the average size of AgNPs was found to be around 297 nm. Zeta potential value for AgNPs obtained was -11 mV indicating the moderate stability of synthesized nanoparticles. The antibacterial activity of the nanoparticles was studied against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Biosynthesized AgNPs showed a strong DPPH radical and ABTS scavengers compared to the aqueous peel extract of Cavendish banana.

  20. Relative Inhibitions of 5-Lipoxygenase and Myeloperoxidase and Free-Radical Scavenging Activities of Daidzein, Dihydrodaidzein, and Equol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsen, Shin Yih; Tan, Xin Yi; Tan, Yin Mei; Yan, Bao Yi; Loke, Wai Mun

    2016-06-01

    The effects of bioavailability and metabolic transformation on the biological activities of daidzein are relatively unknown. The effects of daidzein, dihydrodaidzein, and equol at physiologically relevant concentrations on the production of leukotriene B4 and F2-isoprostanes, and myeloperoxidase enzyme activity in freshly isolated human neutrophils were examined. Equol, at physiological concentrations, inhibited leukotriene B4 production (IC50-200 nmol/L) in human neutrophils significantly more than daidzein and dihydrodaidzein (IC50 values >1000 nmol/L). Daidzein, dihydrodaidzein, and equol did not affect the enzymatic hydrolysis of leukotriene A4 to leukotriene B4, suggesting that they exerted their inhibitory effects on the 5-lipoxygenase activity. Daidzein (IC50 = 600 nmol/L) protected against free radical peroxidation of arachidonic acid significantly more than did equol and dihydrodaidzein (IC50 values >1000 nmol/L). Equol also showed significantly greater inhibition of myeloperoxidase activity (IC50 = 450 nmol/L) when compared to daidzein and dihydrodaidzein. Equol accumulated within the human neutrophils at significantly higher concentrations than daidzein and dihydrodaidzein after incubation with the three compounds at physiologically relevant concentrations. Neutrophils were able to accumulate intracellular daidzein, dihydrodaidzein, and equol up to a concentration of ∼600 nmol/L. Our results provide in vitro evidence that the biological activities of daidzein are profoundly influenced by bioavailability and metabolic transformation.

  1. Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Ethanolic Leaf Extract Reduces Amyloid-β (1-42) Aggregation and Paralysis Prevalence in Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans Independently of Free Radical Scavenging and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manalo, Rafael Vincent; Silvestre, Maries Ann; Barbosa, Aza Lea Anne; Medina, Paul Mark

    2017-04-21

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been the subject of several studies which have aimed to alleviate Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, focusing on in vitro antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. Here, we studied an underutilized and lesser-valued part of the coconut tree, specifically the leaves, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Coconut leaf extract (CLE) was screened for antioxidant and AChE inhibitory properties in vitro and therapeutic effects in two strains of transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans expressing amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ 1-42 ) in muscle cells. CLE demonstrated free radical scavenging activity with an EC 50 that is 79-fold less compared to ascorbic acid, and an AChE inhibitory activity that is 131-fold less compared to Rivastigmine. Surprisingly, in spite of its low antioxidant activity and AChE inhibition, CLE reduced Aβ deposits by 30.31% in CL2006 in a dose-independent manner, and reduced the percentage of paralyzed nematodes at the lowest concentration of CLE (159.38 μg/mL), compared to dH₂O/vehicle (control). Phytochemical analysis detected glycosides, anthocyanins, and hydrolyzable tannins in CLE, some of which are known to be anti-amyloidogenic. Taken together, these findings suggest that CLE metabolites alternatively decrease AB 1-42 aggregation and paralysis prevalence independently of free radical scavenging and AChE inhibition, and this warrants further investigation on the bioactive compounds of CLE.

  2. Scavenging of free radicals in gas-phase mainstream cigarette smoke by immobilized catalase at filter level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Hua, Zhaozhe; Du, Guocheng; Ma, Xiaolong; Cao, Jianhua; Yang, Zhanping; Chen, Jian

    2008-03-01

    Catalase is well known as capable of inducing the decomposition of H(2)O(2). In this study, a kind of immobilized catalase (entrapped in cross-linked chitosan beads) was dispersed in conventional acetate filter as an antioxidant additive. Quantitative estimation of the free radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) was performed to address the effect of this modified filter. It was found that the levels of PBN adduct and NO(*)/NO(2)(*) associated with the gas-phase mainstream cigarette smoke (GPCS) were efficiently decreased by approximately 40% through catalase filtering. Besides, the modified filter was found to lower the MCS-induced adverse biological effects including lipid peroxidation and mutagenicity. This was proved to be substantially attributed to the catalase-dependent breakdown of NO(*), which was stimulated by some of peroxides (most probably being H(2)O(2)), the dismutation products of tar particulate matters (TPM). These results highlighted a promising approach to reduce the smoking-associated health risks to passive smokers. Moreover, the mechanisms of catalase filtering may be helpful for the development of appropriate immobilized enzyme systems to be applied for reducing health risks associated with gaseous pollutants.

  3. Flavonoids function as antioxidants: By scavenging reactive oxygen species or by chelating iron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuguo, Deng; Xingwang, Fang; Jilan, Wu

    1997-09-01

    Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit strong antioxidative activity. In the present work, a systematic mechanistic study has been performed on five flavonoids (baicalin, hesperidin, naringin, quercetin and rutin) selected according to their structural characteristics. The experimental results reveal that flavonoids function as antioxidant mainly by chelating iron ions and by scavenging peroxyl radicals whereas their OH radical scavenging effect is much less important.

  4. Structure of Dihydrochalcones and Related Derivatives and Their Scavenging and Antioxidant Activity against Oxygen and Nitrogen Radical Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre L. A. Bentes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantum mechanical calculations at B3LYP/6-31G** level of theory were employed to obtain energy (E, ionization potential (IP, bond dissociation enthalpy (O-H BDE and stabilization energies (DEiso in order to infer the scavenging activity of dihydrochalcones (DHC and structurally related compounds. Spin density calculations were also performed for the proposed antioxidant activity mechanism of 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (2,4,6-THA. The unpaired electron formed by the hydrogen abstraction from the phenolic hydroxyl group of 2,4,6-THA is localized on the phenolic oxygen at 2, 6, and 4 positions, the C3 and C6 carbon atoms at ortho positions, and the C5 carbon atom at para position. The lowest phenolic oxygen contribution corresponded to the  highest scavenging activity value. It was found that antioxidant activity depends on the presence of a hydroxyl at the C2 and C4 positions and that there is a correlation between IP and O-H BDE and peroxynitrite scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation. These results identified the pharmacophore group for DHC.

  5. Effect of nitric oxide scavengers, carboxy-PTIO on endotoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    values of the cardiovascular parameters considered in this study. This indicates that carboxy-PTIO is an efficient nitric oxide scavenger chemical of trapping nitric oxide immediately after its synthesis. Therefore, based on the current result, carboxy-PTIO can be used as one possible treatment agent against septic shock.

  6. Surface free radicals detection using molecular scavenging method on black spruce wood treated with cold, atmospheric-pressure plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Jean-Michel [Centre de Recherches sur les Matériaux Renouvelables, Faculté de Foresterie, de Géographie et de Géomatique, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada); Levasseur, Olivier [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Vlad, Mirela [FPInnovations, 319 Rue Franquet, Québec, QC G1P 4R4 (Canada); Stafford, Luc [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Riedl, Bernard, E-mail: Bernard.Riedl@sbf.ulaval.ca [Centre de Recherches sur les Matériaux Renouvelables, Faculté de Foresterie, de Géographie et de Géomatique, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Black spruce wood treated with plasmas at atmospheric pressure. • Detection of surface free radicals on treated wood using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) solution. • Helium plasma treated wood surface show higher DPPH uptake compared to untreated one. • Addition of oxygen in plasma gas reduces surface free radicals on wood. • Afterglow plasma treatment shows no significant variation of DPPH uptake due to high oxygen concentration in plasma gas. - Abstract: Formation of surface free radicals on wood surfaces during plasma treatment could be an important factor when it comes to wood coating adhesion enhancement. In order to explore this aspect, freshly sanded black spruce (Picea mariana) wood samples were exposed to either plane-to-plane atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (AP-DBD) or the flowing afterglow of an AP-DBD and then dipped in a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) solution. Wood veneers (extracted to eliminate small molecules prior to each plasma treatment) showed an increase of their reaction rate toward DPPH after treatment in the AP-DBD operated in nominally pure He; a feature ascribed to the plasma-assisted formation of free radicals on the wood surface. Addition of trace amounts (0.1%) of O{sub 2} in the He plasma produced a decrease in DPPH reactivity, suggesting that oxygen–spruce interaction during plasma treatment quenches free radicals formation. Similar experiments performed using the flowing afterglow of AP-DBD operated in either N{sub 2} or N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} showed that both treatments do not generate significant amount of surface free radicals. This partially results from oxygen–wood interactions due to the open-air configuration of the afterglow reactor.

  7. Antioxidative effects of Kimchi under different fermentation stage on radical-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boh Kyung; Choi, Ji Myung; Kang, Soon Ah; Park, Kun Young; Cho, Eun Ju

    2014-12-01

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean fermented vegetable containing several ingredients. We investigated the protective activity of methanol extract of kimchi under different fermentation stages against oxidative damage. Fresh kimchi (Fresh), optimally ripened kimchi (OptR), and over ripened kimchi (OvR) were fermented until the pH reached pH 5.6, pH 4.3, and pH 3.8, respectively. The radical scavenging activity and protective activity from oxidative stress of kimchi during fermentation were investigated under in vitro and cellular systems using LLC-PK1 cells. Kimchi exhibited strong radical scavenging activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical. In addition, the free radical generators led to loss of cell viability and elevated lipid peroxidation, while treatment with kimchi resulted in significantly increased cell viability and decreased lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, the protective effect against oxidative stress was related to regulation of cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB p65, and IκB expression. In particular, OvR showed the strongest protective effect from cellular oxidative stress among other kimchi. The current study indicated that kimchi, particularly OptR and OvR, played a protective role against free radical-induced oxidative stress. These findings suggest that kimchi is a promising functional food with an antioxidative effect and fermentation of kimchi led to elevation of antioxidative activity.

  8. Predatory blue crabs induce stronger nonconsumptive effects in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica than scavenging blue crabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery E. Scherer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available By influencing critical prey traits such as foraging or habitat selection, predators can affect entire ecosystems, but the nature of cues that trigger prey reactions to predators are not well understood. Predators may scavenge to supplement their energetic needs and scavenging frequency may vary among individuals within a species due to preferences and prey availability. Yet prey reactions to consumers that are primarily scavengers versus those that are active foragers have not been investigated, even though variation in prey reactions to scavengers or predators might influence cascading nonconsumptive effects in food webs. Oysters Crassostrea virginica react to crab predators by growing stronger shells. We exposed oysters to exudates from crabs fed live oysters or fed aged oyster tissue to simulate scavenging, and to controls without crab cues. Oysters grew stronger shells when exposed to either crab exudate, but their shells were significantly stronger when crabs were fed live oysters. The stronger response to predators than scavengers could be due to inherent differences in diet cues representative of reduced risk in the presence of scavengers or to degradation of conspecific alarm cues in aged treatments, which may mask risk from potential predators subsisting by scavenging.

  9. Targeting high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis with high-resolution radical scavenging profiles - bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Penicillium namyslowskii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Nyberg, Nils; Tejesvi, Mysore V.

    2013-01-01

    The high-resolution radical scavenging profile of an extract of the endophytic fungus Penicillium namyslowskii was used to target analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, i.e., HPLC...... NMR probe designed for 1.7-mm NMR tubes. To further explore the potential of the above HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR platform for analysis of endophytic extracts, six peaks displaying no radical scavenging activity were also analyzed. This allowed unambiguous identification of six metabolites, i...

  10. Thai plants with high antioxidant levels, free radical scavenging activity, anti-tyrosinase and anti-collagenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatatikun, Moragot; Chiabchalard, Anchalee

    2017-11-09

    Ultraviolet radiation from sunlight induces overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in skin photoaging and hyperpigmentation disorders. Novel whitening and anti-wrinkle compounds from natural products have recently become of increasing interest. The purpose of this study was to find products that reduce ROS in 14 Thai plant extracts. To determine total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, anti-tyrosinase activity and anti-collagenase activity, we compared extracts of 14 Thai plants prepared using different solvents (petroleum ether, dichloromethane and ethanol). Antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH and ABTS assays. Total phenolic content of the 14 Thai plants extracts was found at the highest levels in ethanol followed by dichloromethane and petroleum ether extracts, respectively, while flavonoid content was normally found in the dichloromethane fraction. Scavenging activity ranged from 7 to 99% scavenging as assessed by DPPH and ABTS assays. The ethanol leaf extract of Ardisia elliptica Thunb. had the highest phenolic content, antioxidant activity and collagenase inhibition, while Cassia alata (L.) Roxb. extract had the richest flavonoid content. Interestingly, three plants extracts, which were the ethanolic fractions of Annona squamosa L., Ardisia elliptica Thunb. and Senna alata (L.) Roxb., had high antioxidant content and activity, and significantly inhibited both tyrosinase and collagenase. Our finding show that the ethanol fractions of Annona squamosa L., Ardisia elliptica Thunb. and Senna alata (L.) Roxb. show promise as potential ingredients for cosmetic products such as anti-wrinkle agents and skin whitening products.

  11. Effect of carboxymethylation on antioxidant properties and radical degradation of mannans and glucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machová, Eva; Čížová, Alžbeta; Bystrický, Peter

    2014-11-04

    Carboxymethyl derivatives (CM-derivatives) of α,β-mannans from yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae β-glucan and dextran (α-glucan) were found to possess strong antioxidant activities against reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH*) compared to underivatized polysaccharides. When CM-derivatives having similar DS (0.41-0.45) were compared, the antioxidant activity decreased in order CM-mannan>CM-β-glucan>CM-dextran. Moreover, the antioxidant activities against OH* increased with increasing degree of substitution (DS) of polysaccharides. The CM-mannan and CM-dextran with the highest DS (0.73 and 1.1, respectively) were the strongest antioxidants and their degradation by OH* decreased with increased carboxymethylation. The scavenging abilities of CM-polysaccharides against stable DPPH radical (DPPH) were lower than those of original underivatized ones. Also this scavenging property against DPPH was lower compared to antioxidant effect against OH*. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging active components from adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Chiang, Wenchang; Liu, Guey-Ping; Chien, Ya-Lin; Chang, Jang-Yang; Lee, Ching-Kuo; Lo, Jir-Mehng; Huang, Shou-Ling; Shih, Ming-Chih; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2002-10-09

    An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to identify the antioxidative components of adlay hulls. Hulls of adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) were extracted with methanol and then separated into water, 1-butanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane fractions. The 1-butanol-soluble fraction exhibited greater capacity to scavenge 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals when compared with fractions soluble in water, ethyl acetate, and hexane phases. The 1-butanol fraction was then subjected to separation and purification using Diaion HP-20 chromatography, silica gel chromatography, and HPLC. Six compounds showing strong antioxidant activity were identified by spectroscopic methods ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR, and MS) and by comparison with authentic samples to be coniferyl alcohol (1), syringic acid (2), ferulic acid (3), syringaresinol (4), 4-ketopinoresinol (5), and a new lignan, mayuenolide (6).

  13. Chemical Composition, and Antibacterial (against Staphylococcus aureus and Free-Radical-Scavenging Activities of the Essential Oil of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardalan Pasdaran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth. was analyzed, for the first time, by the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC-FID. A total yield of 3 mg of essential oil per100 g of plant dry mass was obtained, and 27 compounds were identified, representing 97. 7 % of total oil. The essential oil were characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes and phenolic derivatives. The main constituents were eugenol (53.8%, eugenol acetate (24.5%, b -caryophyllene (5.7%, caryophyllene oxide (6.4% and aromadendrene oxide II (2.1%. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against Staphylococcus aureus using the well diffusion method, and t he free-radical-scavenging activity was assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay.

  14. HPLC, NMR and MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Condensed Tannins from Lithocarpus glaber Leaves with Potent Free Radical Scavenging Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ming Lin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Using acid-catalyzed degradation in the presence of cysteamine, the condensed tannins from Lithocarpus glaber leaves were characterized, following thiolysis, by means of reversed-phase HPLC, 13C-NMR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS analyses. The thiolysis reaction products showed the presence of the procyanidin (PC and prodelphinidin (PD structures. The 13C-NMR spectrum revealed that the condensed tannins were comprised of PD (72.4% and PC (27.6%, and with a greater content of cis configuration rather than the trans configuration of C2–C3. The MALDI-TOF MS analysis proved the presence of PD units, and the maximum degree of polymerization (DP was an undecamer. The antioxidant activity of condensed tannins from L. glaber leaves was evaluated by using a free radical scavenging activity assay.

  15. The effect of random precipitation times on the scavenging rate for tropospheric nitric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    A model for the effective scavenging rate of a soluble species has been developed. The model takes into account the possibility of positive as well as negative correlations between departures from the mean of the scavenging rate and species concentration. The model is demonstrated for the case of late afternoon rainout of nitric acid occurring just prior to the nighttime cessation of its chemical production. The calculations give effective scavenging rates which are about a factor of 2 to 3 greater than those calculated using the models of Rodhe and Grandell (1972) and Giorgi and Chameides (1985).

  16. Chemical composition, botanical evaluation and screening of radical scavenging activity of collected pollen by the stingless bees Melipona rufiventris (Uruçu-amarela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tania M S; Camara, Celso A; Lins, Antonio C S; Agra, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Eva M S; Reis, Igor T; Freitas, Breno M

    2009-06-01

    Stingless bees in Brazil are indigenous and found all over the country. Bee pollen is used for its nutritional value in the human diet. It is made up of natural flower pollen mixed with nectar and bee secretions. In order to evaluate the chemical composition, free radical scavenging activity, and botanical origin, sample of pollen loads from stingless bee, Melipona rufiventris (Uruçu amarela) was studied. The EtOAc extract of pollen of Melipona rufiventris yielded the following compounds: p-hydroxycinnamic acid, dihydroquercetin, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin3-O-(6'-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin, and quercetin. This is the first report of the isolation of isorhamnetin3-O-(6'O-E-p-coumaroyl)beta-D-glucopyranoside from pollen. The free radicalscavenging activities of different solvent extracts of pollen were determined using DPPH assay. This activity decreases in the order: EtOAc>EtOH>Hexane extract. It appears that the EtOAc extract of the pollen is a good scavenger of active oxygen species. The botanical evaluation of pollen loads showed the composition by two pollen types, with the dominant type (97.3%) being Scopariadulcis (L.) (Scrophulariaceae) and the minor one Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae). This suggests a specific foraging behavior in Melipona rufiventris bees, even in an environment with such a rich botanical diversity as the Northeastern Brazil.

  17. Total phenols, total flvonoids contents and free radical scavenging activity of seeds crude extracts of pigeon pea traditionally used in Oman for the treatment of several chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Hamood Al-Saeedi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate total phenols, flavonoids content of methanol crude extract of pigeon pea seeds powder and its different polarities soluble fractions and evaluate their free radical scavenging activity. Methods: The powder seeds samples were used for extraction with methanol. Methanol crude extract from the seeds was defatted by water and fractioned by different polarities of solvents. The investigation of total phenols and flavonoids contents of total six crude extracts of pigeon pea were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride calorimetric methods. Antioxidant activity of six crude extracts from the seeds of pigeon pea was determined through α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl method. Results: Significant amount of total phenols content was presented in hexane crude extract among the six crude extracts of pigeon pea and the order was hexane>chloroform> methanol>ethyl acetate>butanal>water. Similarly, significant amount of total flavonoids content was presented in chloroform crude extract and the order was chloroform>methanol>ethyl acetate>butanol>water>hexane. The crude extracts displayed significant α,α-diphenyl-β- picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity with highest value in hexane extract followed by butanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and water crude extracts having value of 95.50%, 83.30%, 64.60%, 64.20%, 60.60% and 52.60%, respectively. Conclusions: The crude extracts from seeds of pigeon pea have high contents of total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. In this regards, it could be used as a medicine for the treatment of different chronic diseases.

  18. Antioxidant Composition of a Selection of Italian Red Wines and Their Corresponding Free-Radical Scavenging Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Cassino; Valentina Gianotti; Federica Bonello; Christos Tsolakis; Maria Carla Cravero; Domenico Osella

    2016-01-01

    This study correlates the antioxidant composition profiles and the overall antioxidant capacities of 36 Italian red wine samples. The samples were fully characterized by chromatographic and spectrophotometric techniques. The overall antioxidant capacity was determined by titrating a solution of the semistable free radical DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) with each wine sample followed by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and then measuring the resulting decrease in DPPH-s...

  19. Interaction of gold nanoparticles with free radicals and their role in enhancing the scavenging activity of ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaq, Humaira; Saira, Farhat; Yaqub, Azra; Qureshi, Rumana; Mumtaz, Misbah; Saleemi, Samia

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigates the interaction of citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles (12±1.5nm) (GNPs) with free radicals; 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) stable and electrochemically generated superoxide, O2(-). Different experiments were designed to understand the interaction between GNPs and DPPH by employing cyclic voltammetry, UV-vis spectroscopy and computational chemistry using 6-311G basis set. The increase in heterogeneous rate constant, ksh, of DPPH upon addition of GNPs pointed towards possible complex formation, DPPH-GNPs which were further explained by a model assuming surface adsorption of DPPH on GNPs. Further, the model was validated by studying interaction of GNPs with a biologically important free radical, O2(-). Exciting result in terms of disappearance of anodic peak after GNPs addition confirmed that gold nanoparticles interacted with stable as well as unstable free radicals. Also, the stoichiometry of the most stable complex GNP-DPPH was determined from UV-vis spectroscopy by applying Job's method. The GNP-DPPH complex was found to be active with 46.0% reduction of the IC50 value of standard antioxidant, ascorbic acid (AA), indicating its role in enhancing antioxidant activity. Hence, this study presents a simple and potential approach to enhance the efficiency of natural antioxidants without modifying their structure, or involving the complex functionalization of GNPs with antioxidants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Foliar spraying of salicylic acid induced accumulation of phenolics, increased radical scavenging activity and modified the composition of the essential oil of water stressed Thymus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Noha; Fekry, Mostafa; Bishr, Mokhtar; El-Zalabani, Soheir; Salama, Osama

    2018-02-01

    Polyphenolic compounds are considered valuable secondary plant metabolites owing to the myriad of biological activities they exert. This study aimed to investigate the effect of applying various concentrations of the plant growth regulator, salicylic acid (SA), on Thymus vulgaris L. while subjecting the plant to decreasing amounts of irrigation water. The following parameters were monitored; total polyphenolic and flavonoid content, yield and composition of the essential oil, and antioxidant activity of the alcoholic extracts. Drought alone significantly (P < 0.05) increased the polyphenolic and flavonoid content, yield of the essential oil and antioxidant activity. The total flavonoid content in control plants was 6.1 ± 0.3 mg/gm dry weight calculated in terms of rutin equivalent. However, in drought stressed plants, (irrigated at 25% of the field capacity) sprayed with 3 mM SA, the flavonoid content increased to 32.1 ± 0.1 mg/gm dry weight calculated in terms of rutin equivalent. Moreover, the total phenolic content increased from 8.5 ± 0.3 to 68.5 ± 1.2 mg/gm dry weight calculated in terms of gallic acid in the same test plants. Radical scavenging activity, using DPPH assay, was measured for the different plant treatments. A decrease from 74.4 ± 0.4 μg/ml to 36.6 ± 0.9 μg/ml of IC 50 was recorded in the drought stressed plants (25% FC) sprayed with 3 mM SA compared with the control plants. The variability in polyphenolic composition between the control plants and plants with the highest total polyphenolic content was investigated by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Rosmarinic acid was detected as the major component in samples from both treatments, with a higher percentage observed upon subjecting the plant to the test conditions (25% FC and sprayed with 3 mM SA). The highest yield of the essential oil (1 ± 0.06 %v/w) was obtained from drought stressed plants (25% FC) sprayed with 2 mM SA. GC/MS analysis of oil samples revealed that the Thymol

  1. Effect of medium treated with neutral oxygen radicals on growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Jun; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas are expected to be applied in medical and agricultural fields. We have studied the growth effect of budding yeast cells in phosphate buffered saline (PBS(-)) using an atmospheric-pressure oxygen-radical source. From a practical application perspective, we have investigated the effect of medium treated with oxygen radicals on the growth of budding yeast in the study. The cells were suspended with yeast extract peptone dextrose (YPD) medium or PBS. The suspensions were treated with neutral oxygen radicals. Oxygen radicals were generated at an O2/(O2 + Ar) gas flow ratio of 0.6%, a total flow rate of 5 slm, and an exposure distance of 10 mm. To estimate the inactivation and the growth of yeast cells, cells were counted with the colony count method using a counting chamber and a microscope. In the case of budding yeast suspended in PBS, the growth changed from promotion to inactivation with increasing the oxygen radical treatment time. But in the case of budding yeast suspended in YPD, it didn't exhibit promotion and inactivation of the growth with oxygen radical treatment. The results indicated that some substances of YPD scavenged the growth effect of oxygen radicals. This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26286072 and project for promoting Research Center in Meijo University.

  2. Role of Blepharis maderaspatensis and Ammannia baccifera plant extracts on in vitro oxygen radical scavenging, secretion of gastric fluid and gastroprotection on ulcer induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Aiyalu; Sivakumar, Vellaichamy; Darlinquine, Sabarimuthu

    2012-09-01

    Blepharis maderaspatensis L. Roth (BM) (Acanthaceae) and Ammannia baccifera L. (AB) (Lythraceae) are used in folk medicine for various stomach disorders. The chloroform and ethanol extracts of both plants were evaluated for antioxidant, gastric antisecretory, and gastroprotective properties. Antioxidant properties of the extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging assay. The gastric antisecretory properties of the extracts were assessed, at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, using aspirin-pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer models and the gastroprotective activity of the extracts was assessed, at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, using HCl-ethanol induced ulcer models in rats. Ethanol extract of BM (EBM) possessed good antioxidant property with IC₅₀ values of 37.4 and 44.1 µg/mL in DPPH and NO scavenging assays respectively, where 25-250 µg/mL concentration in DPPH assay and 30-300 µg/mL concentration in NO scavenging assay were used. Ethanol extract of AB (EAB) at a dose of 200 mg/kg reduced the free acidity to 142.66 mEq/L and total acidity to 451.22 mEq/L. It reduced the gastric secretion with increase in pH from 2.2 to 3.15. Possessing good antisecretory activity, it also reduced the ulcer by 92.2% in aspirin and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer models. EAB increased the mucus secretion and adherent mucus in the tissues with a 71.43% reduction of ulcerin HCl-ethanol induced ulcer models, at a dose of 200 mg/kg. This activity can be attributed to the various flavonoids like rutin and kaempferol-3-O-β-glucopyranoside, and the phytosterol, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-glucopyranoside, and phenolics present in the extracts. EBM possessed significant antioxidant property while EAB possessed good antisecretory and gastroprotective activity.

  3. Phytochemical profile and ABTS cation radical scavenging, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity and anticholinesterase activities of endemic Ballota nigra L. subsp. anatolica P.H. Davis from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulselam Ertaş

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the chemical compositions and biological activities of an endemic Ballota nigra L. subsp. anatolica P.H. Davis. Methods: Essential oil and fatty acid composition were determined by GC/MS analysis. ABTS cation radical decolourisation and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity assays were carried out to indicate the antioxidant activity. The anticholinesterase potential of the extracts were determined by Ellman method. Results: The major compounds in the fatty acid composition of the petroleum ether extract were identified as palmitic (36.0% and linoleic acids (14.3%. The major components of essential oil were 1-hexacosanol (26.7%, germacrene-D (9.3% and caryophyllene oxide (9.3%. The water extract indicated higher ABTS cation radical scavenging activity than α-tocopherol and BHT, at 100 µg/ mL. The acetone extract showed 71.58 and 44.71% inhibitory activity against butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase enzyme at 200 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The water and acetone extracts of Ballota nigra subsp. anatolica can be investigated in terms of both phytochemical and biological aspects to find natural active compounds.

  4. Radical-scavenging Activity of the Reaction Products of Isoeugenol with Thiol, Thiophenol, Mercaptothiazoline or Mercaptomethylimidazole Using the Induction Period Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro Fujisawa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The reaction products in the presence of Lewis acid of isoeugenol (1 with ethanethiol, thiophenol, 2-mercaptothiazoline or 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (ISO-S1 – ISO-S-4 were obtained. The radical-scavenging activity of these compounds was investigated using the induction period method for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN and benzoyl peroxide (BPO and monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. For BPO, the stoichiometric factor (number of free radicals trapped by one mole of antioxidant moiety, n declined in the order isoeugenol (1.8 > ISO-S-1 (1.6 > ISO-S-2 (1.2 > ISOS- 3 (0.9 > ISO-S-4 (0.3, whereas for AIBN, their n values were about 1, except for ISOS- 3 (0.6. The ratio of the rate constant of inhibition to that of propagation (kinh/kp for BPO declined in the order ISO-S-4 (56 > ISO-S-3 (15 > ISO-S-2 (11 >ISO-S-1 (9 > isoeugenol (8. Similarly, for AIBN the kinh/kp of the reaction products (33-57 was greater than that of isoeugenol (31. The reaction products of isoeugenol with a SH group showed greater inhibition rate constants (kinh than the parent compound isoeugenol.

  5. Effects of Reactive Nitrogen Scavengers on NK-Cell-Mediated Killing of K562 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effects of reactive nitrogen metabolites (RNMS on natural-killer- (NK- cell-mediated killing of K562 cells and the influence of RNM scavengers, such as tiopronin (TIP, glutamylcysteinylglycine (GSH, and histamine dihydrochloride (DHT, on reversing the suppressing effect of RNM. We administered exogenous and endogenous RNM in the NK + K562 culture system and then added RNM scavengers. The concentrations of RNM, TNF-β and IFN-γ, and NK-cell cytotoxicity (NCC and the percentage of living NK cells were then examined. We found that both exogenous and endogenous RNM caused the KIR to decrease (<0.01; however, RNM scavengers such as TIP and GSH rescued this phenomenon dose dependently. In conclusion, our data suggests that RNM scavengers such as TIP and GSH enhance the antineoplasmic activity of NK cells.

  6. Molecular structure, quantum mechanical calculation and radical scavenging activities of (E)-4,6-dibromo-2-[(3,5-dimethylphenylimino)methyl]-3-methoxyphenol and (E)-4,6-dibromo-2-[(2,6-dimethylphenylimino)methyl]-3-methoxyphenol compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaşalvar, Can; Soylu, Mustafa Serkan; Güder, Aytaç; Albayrak, Çiğdem; Apaydın, Gökhan; Dilek, Nefise

    2014-09-01

    In this study, (E)-4,6-dibromo-2-[(3,5-dimethylphenylimino)methyl]-3-methoxyphenol and (E)-4,6-dibromo-2-[(2,6-dimethylphenylimino)methyl]-3-methoxyphenol compounds have been synthesized and characterized by using X-ray crystallographic method, FT-IR and Density functional method. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies of the title compounds in the ground state have been calculated by using B3LYP with the 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The tautomeric form of the compounds has been demonstrated by using single crystal X-ray method, FT-IR spectrometer and DFT method. In addition, HOMO-LUMO energy gap, molecular electrostatic potential map and NBO analysis of the compounds are performed at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. It may be remarked that the free radical scavenging activities of the title compounds were assessed using DPPHrad , DMPDrad +, and ABTSrad + assays. The obtained results show that especially compound 2 has effective DPPHrad (SC50 1.52 ± 0.14 μg/mL), DMPDrad + (SC50 1.22 ± 0.21 μg/mL), and ABTSrad + (SC50 3.32 ± 0.17 μg/mL) scavenging activities compared with standards (BHA, rutin, and trolox).

  7. Determination of Free Radical Scavenging, Antioxidative DNA Damage Activities and Phytochemical Components of Active Fractions from Lansium domesticum Corr. Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klungsupya, Prapaipat; Suthepakul, Nava; Muangman, Thanchanok; Rerk-Am, Ubon; Thongdon-A, Jeerayu

    2015-01-01

    Lansium domesticum Corr. or “long-kong” is one of the most popular fruits in Thailand. Its peel (skin, SK) and seeds (SD) become waste unless recycled or applied for use. This study was undertaken to determine the bioactivity and phytochemical components of L. domesticum (LD) skin and seed extracts. Following various extraction and fractionation procedures, 12 fractions were obtained. All fractions were tested for antioxidant capacity against O2−• and OH•. It was found that the peel of L. domesticum fruits exhibited higher O2−• and OH• scavenging activity than seeds. High potential antioxidant activity was found in two fractions of 50% ethanol extract of peel followed by ethyl acetate (EA) fractionation (LDSK50-EA) and its aqueous phase (LDSK50-H2O). Therefore, these two active fractions were selected for further studies on their antioxidative activity against DNA damage by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human TK6 cells using comet assay. The comet results revealed DNA-protective activity of both LDSK50-EA and LDSK50-H2O fractions when TK6 human lymphoblast cells were pre-treated at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL for 24 h prior to H2O2 exposure. The phytochemical analysis illustrated the presence of phenolic substances, mainly scopoletin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid, in these two active fractions. This study generates new information on the biological activity of L. domesticum. It will promote and strengthen the utilization of L. domesticum by-products. PMID:26287238

  8. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) by DPPH radical scavenging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsi; Sholichah, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    Basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) contains various compounds such as flavonoid, alkaloid, phenol and essential oil, so it needs to be fractionated to find out the flavonoid compound with the greatest potential as an antioxidant. This research was aimed to know the chemical compound, antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf. The basil leaf was extracted by maceration using ethanol 70 %. The crude extract was fractionated with ethyl acetate. The ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were screened of phytochemical content including identification of flavonoids, alkaloids and polyphenolics. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were tested qualitatively with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and phosphomolybdate. Its antioxidant activity was determined quantitatively using DPPH radical scavenging method. Phytochemical screening test showed that ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf contain flavonoids, polyphenolics, and alkaloids. The qualitative analysis of antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf showed an antioxidant activity. The IC50 value of ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate fraction and quercetin were 1,374.00±6.20 389.00±1.00 2.10±0.01μg/mL, respectively. The research showed that antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate fraction more potential than the ethanol extract of the basil leaf, but less than quercetin.

  9. Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill.)-based beverages: How successive extraction influences the extract composition and its capacity to chelate iron and scavenge free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpo, Ana C; Rosa, Hemerson; Lima, Maria Eduarda; Pazzini, Camila Eliza F; de Camargo, Vanessa B; Bassante, Felipa E M; Puntel, Robson; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Mendez, Andreas; Folmer, Vanderlei

    2016-10-15

    Chimarrão or mate is a popular beverage from South America that is drank with successive infusions. Although yerba mate extracts have been widely studied, few studies have described the extract contents in beverages. Using yerba mate samples from Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay, we examined the extract chromatographic profiles, total polyphenol content and their capacities to chelate iron. In addition, we analyzed antioxidant activity by examining the ability of the extracts to scavenge DPPH and NO. Our results showed that the amount of extracted compound was highest in yerba mate extract from Uruguay, followed by Argentina, then Brazil. Herbs from all three areas had a significant capacity to inhibit DPPH and NO free radicals. The Brazilian and Uruguayan herbs had an 80% iron chelation capacity (p<0.001), while the iron chelation capacity of the Argentinean herb was lower but still significant (p⩽0.05). We conclude that the compound concentration decreases with successive extractions, while the antioxidant capacity is maintained at significant levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alteration of Gene Expression, DNA Methylation, and Histone Methylation in Free Radical Scavenging Networks in Adult Mouse Hippocampus following Fetal Alcohol Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Chater-Diehl

    Full Text Available The molecular basis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD is poorly understood; however, epigenetic and gene expression changes have been implicated. We have developed a mouse model of FASD characterized by learning and memory impairment and persistent gene expression changes. Epigenetic marks may maintain expression changes over a mouse's lifetime, an area few have explored. Here, mice were injected with saline or ethanol on postnatal days four and seven. At 70 days of age gene expression microarray, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation microarray, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 chromatin immunoprecipitation microarray were performed. Following extensive pathway analysis of the affected genes, we identified the top affected gene expression pathway as "Free radical scavenging". We confirmed six of these changes by droplet digital PCR including the caspase Casp3 and Wnt transcription factor Tcf7l2. The top pathway for all methylation-affected genes was "Peroxisome biogenesis"; we confirmed differential DNA methylation in the Acca1 thiolase promoter. Altered methylation and gene expression in oxidative stress pathways in the adult hippocampus suggests a novel interface between epigenetic and oxidative stress mechanisms in FASD.

  11. Chemical Composition, and Antibacterial and Free-Radical-Scavenging Activities of the Essential Oils of a Citronellol Producing New Chemotype of Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyajit D. Sarker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oils obtained from the flowering aerial parts of two populations of Thymus pubescens, collected from Mishov-Dagh, was determined by the GC-MS analyses. A total of 18 compounds, representing about 95% of the total oils, were identified in both samples of the essential oils. The essential oils of these two populations showed the presence of high amounts of citronellol (42.0% and 42.6%, geranyl acetate (14.0 and 14.0%, geraniol (13.0 and 13.1%, citronellyl acetate (3.9 and 3.8%, L-linalool (7.8% and 7.9%, cis-nerodiol (5.9% and 5.5% and citronellyl acetate (3.9% and 3.8%. However, in the published literature, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene were reported to be the major compounds in T. pubescens. This significant difference in the composition of the essential oils was a clear evidence of chemical polymorphism with in the T. pubescens taxon, suggesting that these two populations of T. pubescens were in deed a new chemotype of this species, and the name Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak chemotype Citronellol for this new chemotype has been proposed . The antibacterial and free-radical-scavenging properties of the essential oils of T. pubescens have also been evaluated.

  12. Influence of operatory size and nitrous oxide concentration upon scavenger effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R.J.; Primosch, R.E. (Department of Pediatric Dentistry, University of Florida College of Dentistry, J. Hillis Miller Health Center, Gainesville (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Concern regarding environmental health hazards for dental personnel chronically exposed to waste nitrous oxide (N2O) prompted this investigation. The influence on ambient N2O levels of scavenging, operatory size, and N2O concentration delivered to the patient was evaluated during treatment of 36 pediatric dental patients. The results showed that scavenging significantly reduced ambient N2O levels measured at 50-56 cm from the patient's nose. Scavenged ambient N2O levels were also observed to decrease when N2O concentrations administered to the patient were reduced from 50 to 30%. This concentration effect was not observed in the non-scavenged groups. ANOVA showed that operatory size exerted a non-significant influence on ambient N2O. The data collected during routine treatment of pediatric dental patients demonstrated that the scavenging system tested significantly reduced waste N2O in the operator's breathing zone, nearly approximating the 25-ppm recommendation established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).