WorldWideScience

Sample records for radical effects cellular

  1. Investigations of the inhibitory effects of tocopherol (vitamin E) on free radical deterioration of cellular membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D.

    1975-01-01

    The inhibitory effects are investigated of d,1-alpha-tocopherol and d,1-alpha-tocopheryl acetate on the free radical deterioration of cellular membranes. The level of toxicity of d,1-alpha-tocopherol and d,1-alpha-tocopheryl acetate in mice is determined.

  2. Isolation and characterisation of in vitro and cellular free radical scavenging peptides from corn peptide fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liying; Ding, Long; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jingbo

    2015-02-16

    Corn gluten meal, a corn processing industry by-product, is a good source for the preparation of bioactive peptides due to its special amino acid composition. In the present study, the in vitro and cellular free radical scavenging activities of corn peptide fractions (CPFs) were investigated. Results indicated that CPF1 (molecular weight less than 1 kDa) and CPF2 (molecular weight between 1 and 3 kDa) exhibited good hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Meanwhile, the in vitro radical scavenging activity of CPF1 was slightly higher than that of CPF2. Both CPF1 and CPF2 also exhibited significant cytoprotective effects and intracellular reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in Caco-2 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The amino acid composition analysis revealed that the CPF were rich in hydrophobic amino acids, which comprised of more than 45% of total amino acids. An antioxidant peptide sequence of Tyr-Phe-Cys-Leu-Thr (YFCLT) was identified from CPF1 using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS). The YFCLT exhibited excellent ABTS radical scavenging activity with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) value of 37.63 µM, which was much lower than that of Trolox. In conclusion, corn gluten meal might be a good source to prepare antioxidant peptides.

  3. Free Radical Scavenging and Cellular Antioxidant Properties of Astaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose, Janina; Matsugo, Seiichi; Yokokawa, Haruka; Koshida, Yutaro; Okazaki, Shigetoshi; Seidel, Ulrike; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Rimbach, Gerald; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba

    2016-01-14

    Astaxanthin is a coloring agent which is used as a feed additive in aquaculture nutrition. Recently, potential health benefits of astaxanthin have been discussed which may be partly related to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Our electron spin resonance (ESR) and spin trapping data suggest that synthetic astaxanthin is a potent free radical scavenger in terms of diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and galvinoxyl free radicals. Furthermore, astaxanthin dose-dependently quenched singlet oxygen as determined by photon counting. In addition to free radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching properties, astaxanthin induced the antioxidant enzyme paroxoanase-1, enhanced glutathione concentrations and prevented lipid peroxidation in cultured hepatocytes. Present results suggest that, beyond its coloring properties, synthetic astaxanthin exhibits free radical scavenging, singlet oxygen quenching, and antioxidant activities which could probably positively affect animal and human health.

  4. Scavenging capacity of medicinal plants against free radical-induced cellular damage by radiation and photoactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadkar, Shalaka [Ruia College, Mumbai (India); Mohan, H [Chemistry Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Kamat, J P [Radiation Biology and Health Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2004-01-01

    The scavenging capacity of medicinal plants. Andrographis paniculata (Ap) and Swertia chirata (Sc) was examined against cellular damage, induced by radiation and photo-activation in sub-cellular membranes. The results demonstrated significant radical scavenging capacity of the extracts. The rate constants as evaluated by deoxyribose degradation studies and the pulse radiolysis studies carried in presence of ABTS radical well supported the antioxidant properties of the extracts. (author)

  5. Environmentally persistent free radicals amplify ultrafine particle mediated cellular oxidative stress and cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishna Shrilatha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combustion generated particulate matter is deposited in the respiratory tract and pose a hazard to the lungs through their potential to cause oxidative stress and inflammation. We have previously shown that combustion of fuels and chlorinated hydrocarbons produce semiquinone-type radicals that are stabilized on particle surfaces (i.e. environmentally persistent free radicals; EPFRs. Because the composition and properties of actual combustion-generated particles are complex, heterogeneous in origin, and vary from day-to-day, we have chosen to use surrogate particle systems. In particular, we have chosen to use the radical of 2-monochlorophenol (MCP230 as the EPFR because we have previously shown that it forms a EPFR on Cu(IIO surfaces and catalyzes formation of PCDD/F. To understand the physicochemical properties responsible for the adverse pulmonary effects of combustion by-products, we have exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B to MCP230 or the CuO/silica substrate. Our general hypothesis was that the EPFR-containing particle would have greater toxicity than the substrate species. Results Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to our combustion generated particle systems significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and decreased cellular antioxidants resulting in cell death. Resveratrol treatment reversed the decline in cellular glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels for both types of combustion-generated particle systems. Conclusion The enhanced cytotoxicity upon exposure to MCP230 correlated with its ability to generate more cellular oxidative stress and concurrently reduce the antioxidant defenses of the epithelial cells (i.e. reduced GSH, SOD activity, and GPx. The EPFRs in MCP230 also seem to be of greater biological concern due to their ability to induce lipid peroxidation. These results are consistent with the oxidizing nature of the CuO/silica ultrafine

  6. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of the Production of Free Radicals during Exercise and Their Function on Skeletal Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is an integral part of human life. Among significant biological changes during physical activity are increase of metabolism and production of free radicals. Free radical can be defined as molecule or molecular fragments containing unpaired electron in the outer orbital, which react with nearby molecules to obtain stability. These highly reactive molecules have various deleterious effects, such as reduced force generation and increased muscle atrophy. There is evidence that ROS produced during exercise has positive adaptation effects. ROS production leads to increased expression of the anti-oxidants. These molecules, by neutralizing free radicals, neutralize the negative effects of ROS. In addition, exercise-induced ROS leads to the expression of PGC-1α  protein, having a significant impact on various aspects of cell metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular respiration as well as metabolism of fat and glucose. This paper provides an overview of the evidence to date on the effects of ROS on exercising muscle. These aspects include the sources of ROS, their positive and negative cellular effects,  role of antioxidants, and ROS-dependent adaptations of muscle cells in response to physical exercise

  7. Free-Radical-Scavenging, Antityrosinase, and Cellular Melanogenesis Inhibitory Activities of Synthetic Isoflavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tzy-Ming; Ko, Horng-Huey; Ng, Lean-Teik; Hsieh, Yen-Pin

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we examined the potential of synthetic isoflavones for application in cosmeceuticals. Twenty-five isoflavones were synthesized and their capacities of free-radical-scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibition, as well as their impact on cell viability of B16F10 murine melanoma cells and HaCaT human keratinocytes were evaluated. Isoflavones that showed significant mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities were further studied on reduction of cellular melanin formation and antityrosinase activities in B16F10 melanocytes in vitro. Among the isoflavones tested, 6-hydroxydaidzein (2) was the strongest scavenger of both ABTS(.+) and DPPH(.) radicals with SC50 values of 11.3 ± 0.3 and 9.4 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. Texasin (20) exhibited the most potent inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase (IC50 14.9 ± 4.5 μM), whereas retusin (17) showed the most efficient inhibition both of cellular melanin formation and antityrosinase activity in B16F10 melanocytes, respectively. In summary, both retusin (17) and texasin (20) exhibited potent free-radical-scavenging capacities as well as efficient inhibition of cellular melanogenesis, suggesting that they are valuable hit compounds with potential for advanced cosmeceutical development. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  8. Deciphering free-radical code of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volovyk, S.; Bazyka, D.; Loganovsky, K.; Bebeshko, V.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Ionizing radiation is fundamental environmental factor for life origin and evolution. Free radicals, primordial 'sea' for life conceiving and existence, induced by cosmic and terrestrial background radiation, are evolutionally archetypal, ubiquitous, and omnipotent in physiological- pathophysiological dichotomy. Classical free-radical paradigm in radiation biology and medicine, focused in essence on oxidative damage, needs new conceptualization and generalization. Methods: Suggested novel insights into free radicals dual immanent nature and functions in organism systems are based on original concepts of radicals dynamic charge transfer (CT) - redox ambivalence (interactional nucleo-, electro-, and ambiphilicity spectrum); pertinent chemical reactivity and selectivity delocalization model; physiological functional ambivalence and complementarity, and dynamic free-radical homeostasis. Results: Subtle perturbations in radicals CT spatiotemporal homeodynamics, in responsive signaling / controlling networks, concomitant alterations in genes expression, transcription, and apoptosis, redox control of mitochondrial ET chain, telomere/telomerase balance, DNA CT, circadian clock, hemispheric biochemical dominance/accentuation, including alteration of nitric oxide-superoxide complementarity, membranes permeability, neurotransmission pattern, synaptic circuitry, etc under radiation exposure have more fundamental impact on organism systems (especially CNS and CVS) deterioration than simple radicals inflicted oxidative (nitrosative) damage of cellular constituents. Conclusions: This novel conceptualization of free-radical paradigm constitutes new dimension in deciphering molecular mechanisms of radiation effects on subtle borderline norm-pathology and continuity-discontinuity dichotomy in organisms systems disorders - CT(redox)omics, which involves investigation of CT, redox, and spin states of free radicals, DNA bases

  9. Neglected Side Effects After Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm, or...

  10. Biochemical and cellular mechanisms of low-dose effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.; Booz, J.; Muehlensiepen, H.

    1988-01-01

    The question of health effects from small radiation doses remains open. Individual cells, when being hit by single elemental doses - in low-dose irradiation - react acutely and temporarily by altering control of enzyme activity, as is demonstrated for the case of thymidine kinase. This response is not constant in that it provides a temporary protection of enzyme activity against a second irradiation, by a mechanism likely to be via improved detoxification of intracellular radicals. It must be considered that in the low-dose region radiation may also exert protection against other challenges involving radicals, causing a net beneficial effect by temporarily shielding the hit cell against radicals produced by metabolism. Since molecular alterations leading to late effects are considered a consequence of the initial cellular response, late effects from small radiation doses do not necessarily adhere to a linear dose-effect relationship. The reality of the linear relationship between the risk of late effects from high doses to small doses is an assumption, for setting dose limits, but it must not be taken for predicting health detriment from low doses. (author)

  11. Antioxidant Effects of Herbal Tea Leaves from Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) on Multiple Free Radical and Reducing Power Assays, Especially on Different Superoxide Anion Radical Generation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Shintaro; Ueda, Yuto; Fukuhara, Kumiko; Kamamuta, Yuki; Matsuda, Yasushi; Murata, Tatsuro; Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Kabata, Kiyotaka; Ono, Masateru; Igoshi, Keiji; Yasuda, Shin

    2015-11-01

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), a native Andean plant, has been cultivated as a crop and locally used as a traditional folk medicine for the people suffering from diabetes and digestive/renal disorders. However, the medicinal properties of this plant and its processed foods have not been completely established. This study investigates the potent antioxidative effects of herbal tea leaves from yacon in different free radical models and a ferric reducing model. A hot-water extract exhibited the highest yield of total polyphenol and scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical among four extracts prepared with hot water, methanol, ethanol, and ethylacetate. In addition, a higher reducing power of the hot-water extract was similarly demonstrated among these extracts. Varying concentrations of the hot-water extract resulted in different scavenging activities in four synthetic free radical models: DPPH radical (EC50 28.1 μg/mL), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) cation radical (EC50 23.7 μg/mL), galvinoxyl radical (EC50 3.06 μg/mL), and chlorpromazine cation radical (EC50 475 μg/mL). The yacon tea-leaf extract further demonstrated superoxide anion (O2(-)) radical scavenging effects in the phenazine methosulfate-NADH-nitroblue tetrazolium (EC50 64.5 μg/mL) and xanthine oxidase assay systems (EC50 20.7 μg/mL). Subsequently, incubating human neutrophilic cells in the presence of the tea-leaf extract could suppress the cellular O2(-) radical generation (IC50 65.7 μg/mL) in a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-activated cell model. These results support yacon tea leaves may be a good source of natural antioxidants for preventing O2(-) radical-mediated disorders. Yacon has been considered to be a potent alternative food source for patients who require a dietary cure in regional area, while the leaf part has been provided and consumed as an herbal tea in local markets. We demonstrated here potent antioxidative effects of the tea

  12. Free-radical sensing by using naphthalimide based mesoporous silica (MCM-41) nanoparticles: A combined fluorescence and cellular imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Gaurav; Roy, Subhasis; Sahu, Prabhat Kumar; Banerjee, Somnath; Anoop, N.; Rahaman, Abdur; Sarkar, Moloy

    2018-01-01

    Keeping in mind the advantages of material-based systems over simple molecule-based systems, we have designed and developed three inorganic-organic hybrid systems by anchoring 1,8-naphthalimide derivatives to mesoporous silica nanoparticles for detection of free radicals. Prior to photophysical study, systems are characterized by spectroscopic, microscopic and thermo-gravimetric techniques. Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence studies demonstrate that the hydrazine based system is senstive towards detection of various free radicals. Cellular imaging study reveals cell permeability and toxicity study demonstrates the non-toxic nature of the material. These studies have suggested that present system has the potential to be used in various biological applications.

  13. Cellular effects and their relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    Exposure of aerated cell suspensions to intensities of c.w. ultrasound in excess of about one watt/cm 2 usually results in the production of some form of vapour/gas bubble activity commonly referred to as acoustic cavitation. Hydrodynamic shear stresses and shock waves associated with this phenomenon may disrupt cells, or at least subject them to mechanical trauma which may result in some form of 'sub-lethal' damage. Experiments on cell suspensions in vitro are found to provide an excellent model system for investigating the effects of acoustically-induced cavitation on living tissues. (C.F./Auth.)

  14. Toxicology and cellular effect of manufactured nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanqing

    2014-07-22

    The increasing use of nanotechnology in consumer products and medical applications underlies the importance of understanding its potential toxic effects to people and the environment. Herein are described methods and assays to predict and evaluate the cellular effects of nanomaterial exposure. Exposing cells to nanomaterials at cytotoxic doses induces cell cycle arrest and increases apoptosis/necrosis, activates genes involved in cellular transport, metabolism, cell cycle regulation, and stress response. Certain nanomaterials induce genes indicative of a strong immune and inflammatory response within skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, the described multiwall carbon nanoonions (MWCNOs) can be used as a therapeutic in the treatment of cancer due to its cytotoxicity.

  15. Gravitational Effects on Cellular Flame Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsky, C. M.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted of the effect of gravity on the structure of downwardly propagating, cellular premixed propane-oxygen-nitrogen flames anchored on a water-cooled porous-plug burner. The flame is subjected to microgravity conditions in the NASA Lewis 2.2-second drop tower, and flame characteristics are recorded on high-speed film. These are compared to flames at normal gravity conditions with the same equivalence ratio, dilution index, mixture flow rate, and ambient pressure. The results show that the cellular instability band, which is located in the rich mixture region, changes little under the absence of gravity. Lifted normal-gravity flames near the cellular/lifted limits, however, are observed to become cellular when gravity is reduced. Observations of a transient cell growth period following ignition point to heat loss as being an important mechanism in the overall flame stability, dominating the stabilizing effect of buoyancy for these downwardly-propagating burner-anchored flames. The pulsations that are observed in the plume and diffusion flame generated downstream of the premixed flame in the fuel rich cases disappear in microgravity, verifying that these fluctuations are gravity related.

  16. Geminate free radical processes and magnetic field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eveson, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the study of the dynamics of radical pair recombination reactions in solution by flash photolysis Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and the influence of low static external magnetic fields upon them (MFE). An outline of the concepts of ESR is presented, followed by the theories of Chemically Induced Dynamic Electron Polarisation (CIDEP) of transient radical pairs. This is then followed by a brief review of the flash photolysis ESR apparatus and application of the Bloch equations to solve the equations of time-resolved ESR. Completing the theory section is an overview of the mechanisms by which magnetic fields alter the course of a geminate radical pair reaction in solution. Experimental CIDEP observations of the radical pair produced on photolysis of 1,3-dihydroxypropanone are simulated using polarisation theory and applied to a random-walk diffusion model to find, for the first time, the geminate reaction probability in solutions of varying viscosity. CIDEP spectra of the radical pair formed on photolysis of hydroxypropanone in contrast are not accounted for by current polarisation theory. The discrepancy is due to moderately fast relaxation of the acyl radical, CH 3 CO·, which alters the relative intensities in the ST 0 RPM pattern of the counter radical. Calculations taking into account this now provide an adequate basis for simulation of the spectrum. This method also, in principle, represents a new method for the measurement of phase relaxation times. Concluding the ESR work is a CIDEP study of 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl diphenylphosphine oxide. Unusual spin polarisation phenomena are found. The time-resolved optical absorption spectroscopy technique used for detecting low magnetic field effects on neutral radical pair reactions is described. Various improvements to the experiment are discussed which result in the observation of the low field effect for a neutral radical pair produced by Norrish type II chemistry. This is followed by an

  17. HDACi: cellular effects, opportunities for restorative dentistry.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H F

    2011-12-01

    Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins alters gene expression and induces a host of cellular effects. The acetylation process is homeostatically balanced by two groups of cellular enzymes, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HAT activity relaxes the structure of the human chromatin, rendering it transcriptionally active, thereby increasing gene expression. In contrast, HDAC activity leads to gene silencing. The enzymatic balance can be \\'tipped\\' by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), leading to an accumulation of acetylated proteins, which subsequently modify cellular processes including stem cell differentiation, cell cycle, apoptosis, gene expression, and angiogenesis. There is a variety of natural and synthetic HDACi available, and their pleiotropic effects have contributed to diverse clinical applications, not only in cancer but also in non-cancer areas, such as chronic inflammatory disease, bone engineering, and neurodegenerative disease. Indeed, it appears that HDACi-modulated effects may differ between \\'normal\\' and transformed cells, particularly with regard to reactive oxygen species accumulation, apoptosis, proliferation, and cell cycle arrest. The potential beneficial effects of HDACi for health, resulting from their ability to regulate global gene expression by epigenetic modification of DNA-associated proteins, also offer potential for application within restorative dentistry, where they may promote dental tissue regeneration following pulpal damage.

  18. Free radical generation from an aniline derivative in HepG2 cells: a possible captodative effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horinouchi, Yuya; Summers, Fiona A; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Mason, Ronald P

    2015-01-01

    Xenobiotic metabolism can induce the generation of protein radicals, which are believed to play an important role in the toxicity of chemicals and drugs. It is therefore important to identify chemical structures capable of inducing macromolecular free radical formation in living cells. In this study, we evaluated the ability of four structurally related environmental chemicals, aniline, nitrosobenzene, N,N-dimethylaniline, and N,N-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline (DMNA), to induce free radicals and cellular damage in the hepatoma cell line HepG2. Cytotoxicity was assessed using lactate dehydrogenase assays, and morphological changes were observed using phase contrast microscopy. Protein free radicals were detected by immuno-spin trapping using in-cell western experiments and confocal microscopy to determine the subcellular locale of free radical generation. DMNA induced free radical generation, lactate dehydrogenase release, and morphological changes in HepG2 cells, whereas aniline, nitrosobenzene, N,N-dimethylaniline did not. Confocal microscopy showed that DMNA induced free radical generation mainly in the cytosol. Preincubation of HepG2 cells with N-acetylcysteine and 2,2'-dipyridyl significantly prevented free radical generation on subsequent incubation with DMNA, whereas preincubation with apocynin and dimethyl sulfoxide had no effect. These results suggest that DMNA is metabolized to reactive free radicals capable of generating protein radicals which may play a critical role in DMNA toxicity. We propose that the captodative effect, the combined action of the electron-releasing dimethylamine substituent, and the electron-withdrawing nitroso substituent, leads to a thermodynamically stabilized radical, facilitating enhanced protein radical formation by DMNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of curcumin against oxidation of biomolecules by hydroxyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Sai Krishna; Mahendra, Jaideep; Gurumurthy, Prema; Jayamathi; Iqbal, Shabeer S; Mahendra, Little

    2014-10-01

    Among various reactive oxygen species, hydroxyl radicals have the strongest chemical activity, which can damage a wide range of essential biomolecules such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. The objective of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of curcumin on prevention of oxidative damage of biomolecules by hydroxyl radicals generated in in vitro by a Fenton like reaction. We have incubated the serum, plasma and whole blood with H2O2/Cu2+/ Ascorbic acid system for 4 hours at 37 0C and observed the oxidation of biomolecules like albumin, lipids, proteins and DNA. Curcumin at the concentrations of 50,100 and 200 μmoles, prevented the formation of ischemia modified albumin, MDA, protein carbonyls, oxidized DNA and increased the total antioxidant levels and GSH significantly. These observations suggest the hydroxyl radical scavenging potentials of curcumin and protective actions to prevent the oxidation of biomolecules by hydroxyl radicals.

  20. The oxygen effect and cellular adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshcherikova, V.V.; Vajnson, A.A.; Yarmonenko, S.P.

    1979-01-01

    The radiomodifying effect of oxygen was shown to depend on the level of cellular oxygenation prior to irradiation. Acute hypoxia created at the time of irradiation protects previously normally oxygenated cells with DMF approximately 1.4 times larger than that of cells cultured for 24 hours under conditions of mild hypoxia. It is suggested that a decrease in the radioprotective effect of acute hypoxia on chronically hypoxic cells is correlated with an appreciable decrease in the rate of oxygen consumption by these cells, due to which the oxygen concentration near the intracellular targets in chronically hypoxic cells may be higher than in normal cells under conditions of poor oxygenation

  1. Temperature Effects on Free Radicals in Gamma-sterilized Beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, S. I.; Jahan, M. S.

    1999-11-01

    Gamma irradiation has become the method of choice for sterilizing frozen meat and their products to reduce levels of food-borne pathogens and to extend shelf life. In this report we have employed ESR technique for detection of free radicals in sterilized and non-sterilized dry beef without bone. We have also determined the heating effects on free radicals at temperatures 176^°C and 250^°C. Meat samples were dried in a food dehydrator at 60^°C and were packaged in dry N_2. They were then sterilized by γ-irradiation (2.5 MRad), ground into powder, and placed in ESR sample tubes. Non-sterilized powder samples were used as control. While all powder samples, sterilized or not, produced a broad single line in the ESR spectra with (Δ H_pp ~ 9 G) and g = 2.013, the radical concentration in the sterilized samples increased by a factor of five. Heat treatment at 176^°C produced similar radicals. But, when samples were heated 250^°C different radical species were formed which are characterized by narrow width (Δ H_pp ~ 6 G) and lower g-value (g =2.010). In contrast with previous work, where free radicals in chicken bones were reduced by heating [1], we observed an increase in concentration. Results of structural analyses of the radicals will be presented. Ref.[1]: Radiat. Phys. Chem., 49, 477-481, 1997. Work supported by Grants from the University of Memphis

  2. Evaluation of free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidative damage effect of resveratrol-nanostructured lipid carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ju; Shi, Fan; Li, Qiu-wen; Li, Pei-shan; Chen, Tong-sheng; Wang, Yi-fei; Wang, Zhi-ping

    2016-03-01

    Cellular damage induced by free-radicals like reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several diseases. 2, 2-azobis(2-amidino-propane) dihydrochloride(AAPH) generates two potent ROS capable of inducing lipid peroxidation: alkoxy radical(RO-) and peroxy radical(ROO-). These radicals are similar to those that are physiologically active and thus might initiate a cascade of intracellular toxic events leading to oxidation, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and subsequent cell death. Hence naturally anti-oxidant play a vital role in combating these conditions. In this study, resveratrol loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (Res-NLC) was prepared by hot melting and then high pressure homogenization technique. The effects of Res-NLC on free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidative damage is investigated. The particle size and zeta potential of Res-NLC were 139.3 ± 1.7 nm and -11.21 ± 0.41 mV, respectively. By free radical scavenging assays, the IC50 value of Res-NLC were 19.25, 5.29 μg/mL with DPPH, ABTS assay respectively, and 0.161 mg ferrous sulfate/1 mg Res-NLC with FRAP assay; and by AAPH-induced oxidative injury cell model assay, Res-NLC showed the strong protective effect against the human liver tumor HepG2 cell oxidative stress damage. These results indicated that the antioxidant properties of Res-NLC hold great potential used as an alternative to more toxic synthetic antioxidants as an additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations for the oxidative diseases treatment.

  3. Evaluation of Both Free Radical Scavenging Capacity and Antioxidative Damage Effect of Polydatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ju; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiuli; Chen, Tongsheng; Wang, Yifei; Wang, Zhiping

    Cellular damage such as oxidation and lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage induced by free-radicals like reactive oxygen species, has been implicated in several diseases. Radicals generated by 2,2-azobis (2-amidino-propane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) are similar to physiologically active ones. In this study we found that polydatin, a resveratrol natural precursor derived from many sources, has the capacity of free radical scavenging and antioxidative damage. Using free radical scavenging assays, the IC50 values of polydatin were 19.25 and 5.29 μg/ml with the DPPH and the ABTS assay, respectively, and 0.125 mg ferrous sulfate/1 mg polydatin with the FRAP assay. With the AAPH-induced oxidative injury cell model assay, polydatin showed a strong protective effect against the human liver tumor HepG2 cell oxidative stress damage. These results indicate that the antioxidant properties of polydatin have great potential for use as an alternative to more toxic synthetic antioxidants as an additive in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of oxidative diseases.

  4. Cellular Stress Response to Engineered Nanoparticles: Effect of Size, Surface Coating, and Cellular Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    CELLULAR STRESS RESPONSE TO ENGINEERED NANOPARTICLES: EFFECT OF SIZE, SURFACE COATING, AND CELLULAR UPTAKE RY Prasad 1, JK McGee2, MG Killius1 D Ackerman2, CF Blackman2 DM DeMarini2 , SO Simmons2 1 Student Services Contractor, US EPA, RTP, NC 2 US EPA, RTP, NC The num...

  5. Ionization versus indirect effects of ionizing radiation on cellular DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadet, Jean; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Douki, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Emphasis has been placed in the last decade on the elucidation of the main degradation pathways of isolated DNA mediated by hydroxyl radical (OH) and one-electron oxidation reactions as the result of indirect and direct effects of ionizing radiation respectively. This has led to the isolation and characterization of about 100 oxidized purine and pyrimidine nucleosides if hydroperoxide precursors and diastereomers are included. However, far less information is available on the mechanisms of radiation-induced degradation of bases in cellular DNA mostly due partly to analytical difficulties. It may be reminded that the measurement of oxidized nucleosides and bases in nuclear DNA is still a challenging issue which until recently has been hampered by the use of inappropriate methods such as the GC-MS that have led to overestimated values of the lesions by factors varying between two and three orders of magnitude. At the present, using the accurate and sensitive HPLC/MS/MS assay, 11 single modified nucleosides and bases were found to be generated in cellular DNA upon exposure to gamma rays and heavy ions. This validates several of the OH-mediated oxidation pathways of thymine, guanine and adenine that were previously inferred from model studies. The concomitant decrease in the yields of oxidized bases with the increase in the LET of heavy ions is accounted for by the preponderance of indirect effects in the damaging action of ionizing radiation on DNA. Further evidence for the major role played by .OH was provided by the results of exposure of cells to high intensity 266 nm laser pulses. Under these conditions 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine is mostly produced by biphotonic ionization of DNA nucleobases and subsequent hole migration to guanine bases. It is likely that some of the oxidized bases that have been isolated as single lesions are in fact involved in clustered damage. Interestingly it was recently shown that a single oxidation hit is capable of generating complex

  6. The effect of near-infrared MLS laser radiation on cell membrane structure and radical generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Jolanta; Pasternak, Kamila; Zavodnik, Ilya; Irzmański, Robert; Wróbel, Dominika; Bryszewska, Maria

    2014-09-01

    The therapeutic effects of low-power laser radiation of different wavelengths and light doses are well known, but the biochemical mechanism of the interaction of laser light with living cells is not fully understood. We have investigated the effect of MLS (Multiwave Locked System) laser near-infrared irradiation on cell membrane structure, functional properties, and free radical generation using human red blood cells and breast cancer MCF-4 cells. The cells were irradiated with low-intensity MLS near-infrared (simultaneously 808 nm, continuous emission and 905 nm, pulse emission, pulse-wave frequency, 1,000 or 2,000 Hz) laser light at light doses from 0 to 15 J (average power density 212.5 mW/cm(2), spot size was 3.18 cm(2)) at 22 °C, the activity membrane bound acetylcholinesterase, cell stability, anti-oxidative activity, and free radical generation were the parameters used in characterizing the structural and functional changes of the cell. Near-infrared low-intensity laser radiation changed the acetylcholinesterase activity of the red blood cell membrane in a dose-dependent manner: There was a considerable increase of maximal enzymatic rate and Michaelis constant due to changes in the membrane structure. Integral parameters such as erythrocyte stability, membrane lipid peroxidation, or methemoglobin levels remained unchanged. Anti-oxidative capacity of the red blood cells increased after MLS laser irradiation. This irradiation induced a time-dependent increase in free radical generation in MCF-4 cells. Low-intensity near-infrared MLS laser radiation induces free radical generation and changes enzymatic and anti-oxidative activities of cellular components. Free radical generation may be the mechanism of the biomodulative effect of laser radiation.

  7. Radical's view of sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: General concept in radiation biology is that free radicals are highly reactive and they can damage vital cellular molecules leading to injurious effects. However, in this talk, evidence will be presented through the techniques of electron paramagnetic resonance ( EPR ) and pulse radiolysis that free radicals can be highly selective in their reaction with the target molecules. In addition, attempts will be made to present a brief account of emerging scenario of free radical generation, identification and their involvement in radiation damage mechanisms in chemical and biological systems

  8. Modeling cellular effects of coal pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and test models for the dose and dose-rate dependence of biological effects of coal pollutants on mammalian cells in tissue culture. Particular attention is given to the interaction of pollutants with the genetic material (deoxyribonucleic acid, or NDA) in the cell. Unlike radiation, which can interact directly with chromatin, chemical pollutants undergo numerous changes before the ultimate carcinogen becomes covalently bound to the DNA. Synthetic vesicles formed from a phospholipid bilayer are being used to investigate chemical transformations that may occur during the transport of pollutants across cellular membranes. The initial damage to DNA is rapidly modified by enzymatic repair systems in most living organisms. A model has been developed for predicting the effects of excision repair on the survival of human cells exposed to chemical carcinogens. In addition to the excision system, normal human cells also have tolerance mechanisms that permit continued growth and division of cells without removal of the damage. We are investigating the biological effect of damage passed to daughter cells by these tolerance mechanisms

  9. Effects of Molecular Iodine and 4-tert-Butylcatechol Radical Inhibitor on the Radical Polymerization of Styrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Bozorg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of molecular iodine was studied in relation the molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of polystyrene, produced by radical poly merization. Radical polymerization of styrene initiated by 2,2׳-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN was performed at 70°C in the presence of molecular iodine. The synthesized polymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC and proton- nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR techniques. The results of these reactions including conversion data, number-average molecular weight and molecular weight distribution were compared with those obtained for styrene radical polymerization initiated by AIBN at the same temperature in the absence of molecular iodine. It was found that the presence of iodine had a profound effect on the molecular weight and its distribution in the produced polystyrene. This was attributed to the ability of iodine to control the polymerization of styrene initiated by AIBN via reverse iodine transfer polymerization (RITP mechanism. The polymer produced by this method had a molecular weight of 10600 g/mol with a molecular weight polydispersity index of 1.3. Due to the importance of induction period in reverse iodine transfer radical polymerization, increasing the temperature to 120°C during the induction period resulted in shorter induction periods and the produced species led to better control of the molecular weight. Also, due to the role of iodine molecules as a radical inhibitor, the presence of a secondary radical inhibitor, i.e. 4-tert-butylcatechol, along with the iodine was investigated in radical polymerization of polystyrene initiated by AIBN. It was observed that the secondary radical inhibitor prevented the consumption of the iodine molecules by the radicals produced from decomposition of the AIBN initiator; therefore, alkyl halides were not produced during the induction period.

  10. DNA damage produced by exposure of supercoiled plasmid DNA to high- and low-LET ionizing radiation: Effects of hydroxyl radical quenchers. DNA breakage, neutrons, OH radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, J.G.; Ito, T.; Peak, M.J.; Robb, F.T.

    1994-01-01

    A supercoiled plasmid of 7300 base pairs was isolated and exposed in an aqueous environment to 60 Co γ rays and JANUS 0.85 MeV fission-spectrum neutrons. Dose responses for the production of single-strand breaks (SSBs), double-strand breaks (DSBs) and alkali-labile sites (ALSs) were compared with computations made from the conversion of the supercoil to its relaxed and linear forms. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for production of SSBs and DSBs was similar to that previously measured in the cellular environment. The RBE for destruction of genetic transforming activity of M13 viral DNA followed that for DNA damage. This is in contrast to the situation for biological effects such as lethality, mutagenesis, and cellular transformation measured in mammalian cells, where the RBE values are reversed. The role of hydroxyl (OH) radical in DNA damage induction by neutrons was investigated by exposure of plasmid in the presence of known quenchers of this species. Of four quenchers tested, all were able to reduce the yields of both SSBs and DSBs. These findings are consistent with a model for SSB and DSB induction by high linear energy transfer that involves OH radical mediation

  11. MRI-derived Restriction Spectrum Imaging Cellularity Index is Associated with High Grade Prostate Cancer on Radical Prostatectomy Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Andre Liss

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We evaluate a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI technique to improve detection of aggressive prostate cancer. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of presurgical prostate MRI scans using an advanced diffusion weighted imaging technique called Restriction Spectrum Imaging (RSI, which can be presented as a normalized z-score statistic (RSI z-score. Scans were acquired prior to radical prostatectomy. Prostatectomy specimens were processed using whole mount sectioning and regions of interest (ROIs were drawn around individual prostate cancer (PCa tumors. Corresponding ROIs were drawn on the MRI imaging and paired with ROIs in regions with no pathology. RSI z-score and conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values were recorded for each ROI. Paired t-test, ANOVA and logistic regression analyses were performed.Results: We evaluated 28 patients with 64 regions of interest (28 benign and 36 PCa. The mean difference in RSI z-score (PCa ROI – Benign ROI was 2.17 (SE = 0.11; p <0.001 and in ADC was 551 mm2/sec (SE = 80 mm2/sec; paired t-test, p <0.001. The differences in the means among all groups (benign, primary Gleason 3 and primary Gleason 4 was significant for both RSI z-score (F3,64 = 97.7, p <0.001 and ADC (F3,64 = 13.9, p <0.001. A t-test was performed on only PCa tumor ROIs (n=36 to determine prostate cancer aggressiveness (Gleason 3 vs. Gleason 4 revealing that RSI z-score was still significant (p = 0.03, whereas, ADC values were no longer significant (p = 0.08. In multivariable analysis adjusting for age and race, RSI z-score was associated with PCa aggressiveness (OR 10.3, 95%CI: 1.4-78.0, p=0.02 while ADC trended to significance (p=0.07. Conclusions: The RSI derived normalized cellularity index (RSI z-score is associated with aggressive prostate cancer as determined by pathologic Gleason scores. Further utilization of RSI techniques may serve to enhance standardized reporting systems.

  12. Modeling the mechanics of cancer: effect of changes in cellular and extra-cellular mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katira, Parag; Bonnecaze, Roger T; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2013-01-01

    Malignant transformation, though primarily driven by genetic mutations in cells, is also accompanied by specific changes in cellular and extra-cellular mechanical properties such as stiffness and adhesivity. As the transformed cells grow into tumors, they interact with their surroundings via physical contacts and the application of forces. These forces can lead to changes in the mechanical regulation of cell fate based on the mechanical properties of the cells and their surrounding environment. A comprehensive understanding of cancer progression requires the study of how specific changes in mechanical properties influences collective cell behavior during tumor growth and metastasis. Here we review some key results from computational models describing the effect of changes in cellular and extra-cellular mechanical properties and identify mechanistic pathways for cancer progression that can be targeted for the prediction, treatment, and prevention of cancer.

  13. Spin polarization and magnetic effects in radical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salikhov, K.M.; Molin, Yu.N.; Sagdeev, R.Z.; Buchachenko, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the effects of chemically induced dynamic nuclear and electron polarizations (CIDNP and CIDEP), and magnetic effects in radical reactions, have given rise to a new rapidly-progressing field of chemical physics. It came into being about ten years ago and has been attracting the ever-growing attention of researchers in related areas. The present book is a fairly all-embracing review of the state of affairs in this field. The book presents the physical background (both theoretical and experimental) of CIDNP and CIDEP, of the effects of an external magnetic field and magnetic nuclear moment (magnetic isotope effects) on radical reactions in solutions. Great attention has been paid to the application of chemical spin polarization and magnetic effects to solving various problems of chemical kinetics, structural chemistry, molecular physics, magnetobiology, and radiospectroscopy. The book will be useful for physicists, chemists and biologists employing CIDNP, CIDEP and magnetic effects in their investigations, as well as for researchers in related fields of chemical physics. The book can be also recommended for postgraduates and senior undergraduate students. (Auth.)

  14. Effects of the peculiar compositions in tea plant on free radicals induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuehua; Lin Shuqi; Sun Tao; Cheng Qikun

    1994-01-01

    Effects of the peculiar compositions in tea plant on free radicals induced by radiation was investigated. Results showed that the contents of free radicals in aborescence large-leaf varieties were more than that in shrubby middle-small leaf varieties under the same irradiation dose. Dose-effect curve for free radical contents in tea varieties could be described with an exponential equation. The contents of free radical and the radiosensitivities were related to the contents of catechin, tea polyphenols, flavone glycoside and caffeine. The main factor that affected free radical content in tea plant was catechin. Results also showed that there was a quantitative effect between (-)-EGCG and free radical: (-)-EGCG could induce the increase of free radical contents in tea at low concentration but scavenge free radicals at high concentration

  15. Effects of reactive oxygen species on cellular wall disassembly of banana fruit during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guiping; Duan, Xuewu; Shi, John; Lu, Wangjin; Luo, Yunbo; Jiang, Weibo; Jiang, Yueming

    2008-07-15

    Fruit softening is generally attributed to cell wall disassembly. Experiments were conducted to investigate effects of various reactive oxygen species (ROS) on in vitro cellular wall disassembly of harvested banana fruit. The alcohol-extracted insoluble residue (AEIR) was obtained from the pulp tissues of banana fruit at various ripening stages and then used to examine the disassembly of cellular wall polysaccharides in the presence of superoxide anion (O2(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or hydroxyl radical (OH) and their scavengers. The presence of OH accelerated significantly disassembly of cellular wall polysaccharides in terms of the increase in contents of total sugars released and uronic acid, and the decrease in molecular mass of soluble polysaccharides, using gel permeation chromatography. However, the treatment with H2O2 or O2(-) showed no significant effect on the disassembly of cellular wall polysaccharides. Furthermore, the degradation of the de-esterified AEIR was more susceptible to OH attack than the esterified AEIR. In addition, the effect of OH could be inhibited in the presence of OH scavenger. This study suggests that disassembly of cellular wall polysaccharides could be initiated by OH as the solublisation of the polysaccharides increased, which, in turn, accelerated fruit softening. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. HPN-07, a free radical spin trapping agent, protects against functional, cellular and electrophysiological changes in the cochlea induced by acute acoustic trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Du, Xiaoping; Li, Wei; West, Matthew B.; Choi, Chul-Hee; Floyd, Robert; Kopke, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered a major cause of the structural and functional changes associated with auditory pathologies induced by exposure to acute acoustic trauma AAT). In the present study, we examined the otoprotective effects of 2,4-disulfophenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (HPN-07), a nitrone-based free radical trap, on the physiological and cellular changes in the auditory system of chinchilla following a six-hour exposure to 4 kHz octave band noise at 105 dB SPL. HPN-07 has been shown to suppress oxidative stress in biological models of a variety of disorders. Our results show that administration of HPN-07 beginning four hours after acoustic trauma accelerated and enhanced auditory/cochlear functional recovery, as measured by auditory brainstem responses (ABR), distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), compound action potentials (CAP), and cochlear microphonics (CM). The normally tight correlation between the endocochlear potential (EP) and evoked potentials of CAP and CM were persistently disrupted after noise trauma in untreated animals but returned to homeostatic conditions in HPN-07 treated animals. Histological analyses revealed several therapeutic advantages associated with HPN-07 treatment following AAT, including reductions in inner and outer hair cell loss; reductions in AAT-induced loss of calretinin-positive afferent nerve fibers in the spiral lamina; and reductions in fibrocyte loss within the spiral ligament. These findings support the conclusion that early intervention with HPN-07 following an AAT efficiently blocks the propagative ototoxic effects of oxidative stress, thereby preserving the homeostatic and functional integrity of the cochlea. PMID:28832600

  17. Effects of ionising radiation on isolated and cellular DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadet, J.; Artignan, X.; Berger, M.; Douki, T.; Gromova, M.; Polverelli, M.; Ravanat, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    In the present survey, emphasis has been placed on mechanistic aspects of the radiation-induced decomposition of the base moities of DNA and model compounds. An almost complete description of the radical reactions mediated by both OH radicals (indirect effects) and one-electron oxidation (direct effects) is now possible for guanine compounds in aerated aqueous solution. In addition, the results of a comparison of a targeted assay (high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical method) and a non specific method ('comet assay') for monitoring radiation-induced DNA damage within human cells are reported. (authors)

  18. Effects of oxygen radical scavengers on the inactivation of SS phi X174 DNA by the semi-quinone free radical of the antitumor agent etoposide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, M.J.; Mans, D.R.A.; Lafleur, M.V.M.; Van Schaik, M A; de Vries, J; Vermeulen, N P; Retèl, J.; Lankelma, J

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the effects of oxygen radical scavengers on the inactivation of ss phi X174 DNA by the semi-quinone free radical of the antitumor agent etoposide (VP 16-213), which was generated from the ortho-quinone of etoposide at pH greater than or equal to 7.4. A semi-quinone free radical of

  19. The Effects Radiation on Cellular Components of the Immune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubaidah-Alatas

    2001-01-01

    The immune system describes the body's ability to defend itself against various foreign intruders named as antigens by calling on an immune mechanism. Antigens penetration into body activate the body's immune system that may be humoral response, cellular response, or both. The immune response is primarily mediated by two cell types, lymphocyte and macrophage. This paper will discuss the cellular component of immune system and the radiation effects on various cells involved in system. Moreover, the effects of radiation on humoral and cellular responses and the relation among immunity, cancer and radiotherapy are also described. (author)

  20. Effect of dose rate on radical and property of gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Shengrong; Chen Yuxia; Zu Xiaoyan; Li Xin; Jiang Hongyou

    2015-01-01

    The gelatin was irradiated respectively in the range of 0-32 kGy by dose rates of 60 Gy/min 60 Co, 480 Gy/min 60 Co and 12000 Gy/min accelerator, and the relationships of the radical character and gelatin property with dose rate were investigated through electron spin resonance (ESR) and gelatin permeation chromatogram. The results show that there is weak ESR signal from unirradiated gelatin, but irradiated one presents typical double peak. The order of ESR signal intensity of gelatin with the same absorbed dosage from high to low is 60 Gy/min 60 Co, 480 Gy/min 60 Co and 12000 Gy/min accelerator. The linear relationship between ESR signal intensity from 60 Co irradiated gelatin and absorbed dose is y= 26.983x 2 +1 641.8x-205.69. The intrinsic viscosity, average relative molecular weight, gelatin strength and breaking elongation of irradiated gelatin from high to low are 480 Gy/min 60 Co, 12000 Gy/min accelerator and 60 Gy/min 60 Co. The protection mechanism of high dose rate radiation on gelatin degradation is that the production of effective long life free radicals reduces. (authors)

  1. Effect of Inhibitors on Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of MMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿; 徐冬梅; 张可达

    2005-01-01

    Effect of a series of inhibitors as additives on atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) with FeCl2/PPh3 as catalyst system was studied, including 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP), 4-methoxyphenol (4-MP), hydroquinone (HQ) and nitrobenzene (NB). It was found that TNP was the only. efficient additive for ATRP among these inhibitors. In the presence of small amounts of TNP, the polymerization proceeded rapidly after induction period to yield the polymers with controlled molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions (MWD). The initiating efficiency of the modified catalyst system with TNP was increased. The mechanism was proposed and confirmed by the end group analysis of the polymer.

  2. Radiation risk of tissue late effects, a net consequence of probabilities of various cellular responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Late effects from the exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation are hardly or not at all observed in man mainly due to the low values of risk coefficients that preclude statistical analyses of data from populations that are exposed to doses less than 0.2 Gy. In order to arrive at an assessment of potential risk from radiation exposure in the low dose range, the microdosimetry approach is essential. In the low dose range, ionizing radiation generates particle tracks, mainly electrons, which are distributed rather heterogeneously within the exposed tissue. Taking the individual cell as the elemental unit of life, observations and calculations of cellular responses to being hit by energy depositions events from low LET type are analysed. It emerges that besides the probability of a hit cell to sustain a detrimental effect with the consequense of malignant transformation there are probabilities of various adaptive responses that equipp the hit cell with a benefit. On the one hand, an improvement of cellular radical detoxification was observed in mouse bone marrow cells; another adaptive response pertaining to improved DNA repair, was reported for human lymphocytes. The improved radical detoxification in mouse bone marrow cells lasts for a period of 5-10 hours and improved DNA repair in human lymphocytes was seen for some 60 hours following acute irradiation. It is speculated that improved radical detoxification and improved DNA repair may reduce the probability of spontaneous carcinogenesis. Thus it is proposed to weigh the probability of detriment for a hit cell within a multicellular system against the probability of benefit through adaptive responses in other hit cells in the same system per radiation exposure. In doing this, the net effect of low doses of low LET radiation in tissue with individual cells being hit by energy deposition events could be zero or even beneficial. (orig./MG)

  3. Magnetic effects in cellular and molecular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Brief discussions are presented of six aspects of the phenomenon. Individual topics discussed include: (1) mechanisms of magnetic field interactions with retinal rods; (2) orientation of biological membranes and cells in magnetic fields; (3) enzyme-substrate reactions in high magnetic fields; (4) effects on cell function resulting from exposure to strong magnetic fields at 4 0 K; (5) effects of a transverse magnetic field on the dose distribution of high energy electrons and in the responses of mammalian cells in vitro to x rays; and (6) effect of magnetic fields on the drug-induced contractility of the ciliate Spirostomum

  4. Molecular and cellular effects of radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, M.J.; Peak, J.G.; Ito, A.; Roth, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    This program is concerned with the basic nature of the biological effects of mutagenic and carcinogenic environmental radiations, including those solar ultraviolet and visible radiations responsible for the most common form of human cancer: cancer of the skin. Concentrating on the damages to DNA caused by these radiations, the program attempts to delineate the basic mechanisms whereby such damage may occur. 14 refs

  5. Structures and short linear motif of disordered transcription factor regions provide clues to the interactome of the cellular hub radical-induced cell death1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Shea, Charlotte; Staby, Lasse; Bendsen, Sidsel Krogh

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDRs) lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure, but often facilitate key protein functions. Some interactions between IDRs and folded protein domains rely on short linear motifs (SLiMs). These motifs are challenging to identify, but once found can...... point to larger networks of interactions, such as with proteins that serve as hubs for essential cellular functions. The stress-associated plant protein Radical-Induced Cell Death1 (RCD1) is one such hub, interacting with many transcription factors via their flexible IDRs. To identify the SLiM bound......046 formed different structures or were fuzzy in the complexes. These findings allow us to present a model of the stress-associated RCD1-transcription factor interactome and to contribute to the emerging understanding of the interactions between folded hubs and their intrinsically disordered partners....

  6. Theory of solvent effects on the hyperfine splitting constants in ESR spectra of free radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Tero-Kubota, S.; Ikegami, Y.

    1982-01-01

    An expression for the effects of solvation and hydrogen bonding on the hyperfine splitting constants of a free radical has been derived by obtaining π-electron spin densities of the radical in solution by perturbation theory. When no hydrogen bonding occurs between the radical and a solvent molecule, the splitting constant is approximately proportional to the Block and Walker parameter of theta(epsilon/sub r/) identical with 3 epsilon/sub r/ (ln epsilon/sub r/)/(epsilon/sub r/ ln epsilon/sub r/ - epsilon/sub r/ + 1) - 6/(ln epsilon/sub r/) - 2, where epsilon/sub r/ is the relative permittivity of the solvent. The expression is successfully applied to the di-tert-butyl nitroxide radical, the 1-methyl-4-(methoxycarbonyl)pyridinyl radical, and other free radicals. The effects of hydrogen bonding are discussed

  7. Effects of treatment on free radicals in patients with pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fense against Mycobacteria, enhanced ROS generation may promote tissue injury .... time of analysis for electrolytes and free radicals. The sputum of patients .... with high level INH resistance in MTB by using real time technology PCR with 3 ...

  8. Heterogeneous substitution effects in chlorocyanomethyl radical and chlorocyanocarbene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuseynov, Dmitry; Dixon, Andrew R; Goebbert, Daniel J; Sanov, Andrei

    2013-10-17

    We report a photoelectron-imaging investigation of the chlorocyanomethyl radical (CHClCN) and the corresponding carbene (CClCN). The results are discussed in comparison with the corresponding dichloro- and dicyano-substituted species, focusing on the divergent effects of the halogen and pseudohalogen (CN) substitutions. A cooperative (captodative) interaction of the π-donor Cl and π-acceptor cyano groups favors the increased stability of the CHClCN radical, but a competition of the two substituents is observed in the singlet-triplet splitting of the carbene. The vertical detachment energy (VDE) of CHClCN(-) is determined to be 2.39 ± 0.04 eV, with the broad photoelectron band consistent with the significant geometry change predicted by theory for the detachment transition. The adiabatic electron affinity of CHClCN, EA = 1.86 ± 0.08 eV, is estimated on the basis of the experimental VDE and the computed difference between the VDE and EA values. This result allows the calculation of the bond dissociation energy of chloroacetonitrile, DH298(H-CHClCN) = 87.0 ± 2.7 kcal/mol. Photoelectron imaging of CClCN(-) reveals two main transitions, assigned to the singlet ((1)A') and triplet ((3)A″) states of the CClCN carbene. The respective VDEs are 2.76 ± 0.05 and 3.25 ± 0.05 eV. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretically predicted singlet-triplet vertical energy gap at the anion geometry, but inconclusive with regard to the adiabatic singlet-triplet splitting in CClCN. Consistent with the experimental findings, ab initio calculations using the spin-flip approach in combination with the coupled-cluster theory, indicate that the (1)A' and (3)A″ states are nearly degenerate, with the singlet state lying adiabatically only ∼0.01 eV below the triplet.

  9. Effect of Free Radicals & Antioxidants on Oxidative Stress: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Shinde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently free radicals have attracted tremendous importance in the field of medicine including dentistry and molecular biology. Free radicals can be either harmful or helpful to the body. When there is an imbalance between formation and removal of free radicals then a condition called as oxidative stress is developed in body. To counteract these free radicals body has protective antioxidant mechanisms which have abilities to lower incidence of various human morbidities and mortalities. Many research groups in the past have tried to study and confirm oxidative stress. Many authors also have studied role of antioxidants in reducing oxidative stress. They have come across with controversial results and furthermore it is not yet fully confirmed whether oxidative stress increases the need for dietary antioxidants. Recently, an association between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has received considerable attention. Various forms of antioxidants have been introduced as an approach to fight dental diseases and improve general gingival health. The implication of oxidative stress in the etiology of many chronic and degenerative diseases suggests that antioxidant therapy represents a promising avenue for treatment. This study was conducted with the objective of reviewing articles relating to this subject. A Pub Med search of all articles containing key words free radicals, oxidative stress, and antioxidants was done. A review of these articles was undertaken.

  10. Size effects in the mechanical behavior of cellular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekoglu, C; Onck, PR

    Effective mechanical properties of cellular materials depend strongly on the specimen size to the cell size ratio. Experimental studies performed on aluminium foams show that under uniaxial compression, the stiffness of these materials falls below the corresponding bulk value, when the ratio of the

  11. Free radicals in biology. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    This volume continues the treatment of topics in free radical biology and free radical pathology from Volume I. In the first chapter, pyridinyl radicals, radicals which are models for those derived from NAD, are discussed. Pyridinyl radicals can be synthesized and isolated and directly studied in a number of chemical systems. The next chapter treats the role of glutathione in the cell. It is becoming even more apparent that this vital thiol controls a large number of important cellular functions. The GSH/GSSG balance has recently been implicated as a control for cellular development; this balance also may be important in relaying the effects of oxidants from one site to another in the body. The next chapter outlines the reactions of singlet oxygen; some of these involve free radicals and some do not. This reactive intermediate appears to be important both in photochemical smog and in cellular chemistry where singlet oxygen is produced by nonphotochemical processes. The production of free radicals from dry tissues, a controversial area with conflicting claims is reviewed. The next chapter outlines the current status of the studies of photochemical smog. The next two chapters treat specific reactive materials which are present in smog. The first discusses the chemistry of nitrogen oxides and ozone. The second chapter treats the chemistry of the peroxyacyl nitrites. These compounds, although present in only small concentration, are among the most toxic components of smog. The last two chapters treat radiation damage to proteins and radiation protection and radical reactions produced by radiation in nucleic acids

  12. The effects of cellular glutathione elevation on the oxygen enhancement ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.B.; Russo, A.

    1984-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated for Chinese hamster and human A549 cells that depletion of cellular glutathione (GSH) by buthionine sulfoximine sensitizes both aerated and hypoxic cells to X-rays. While the extent of sensitization was minimal for both conditions, there was no overall reduction in the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER). The authors have investigated the effect of cellular GSH elevation on the OER by treating cells for 2 hours with 10 mM L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTZ) or face 24 hours with 0.06 mM cobalt chloride (CoCl/sub 2/) in complete medium. These treatments resulted in cellular concentrations of GSH to approximately 150-250% for OTZ and 150-300% for CoCl/sub 2/ when compared to controls. X-ray survival curves were determined following these treatments for aerated and hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia was induced by metabolic utilization of oxygen at high cell densities (10/sup 8//ml) in glass syringes. For both methods of GSH elevation, there was no protection observed for either aerated or hypoxic cells and consequently no change in the OER when compared to controls. These data are discussed in the context of the radical-scavenging hypothesis involving chemical repair following X-rays of compounds such as GSH

  13. Effect of flavoring chemicals on free radical formation in electronic cigarette aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Zachary T; Goel, Reema; Reilly, Samantha M; Elias, Ryan J; Silakov, Alexey; Foulds, Jonathan; Muscat, Joshua; Richie, John P

    2018-05-20

    Flavoring chemicals, or flavorants, have been used in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) since their inception; however, little is known about their toxicological effects. Free radicals present in e-cigarette aerosols have been shown to induce oxidative stress resulting in damage to proliferation, survival, and inflammation pathways in the cell. Aerosols generated from e-liquid solvents alone contain high levels of free radicals but few studies have looked at how these toxins are modulated by flavorants. We investigated the effects of different flavorants on free radical production in e-cigarette aerosols. Free radicals generated from 49 commercially available e-liquid flavors were captured and analyzed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The flavorant composition of each e-liquid was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS). Radical production was correlated with flavorant abundance. Ten compounds were identified and analyzed for their impact on free radical generation. Nearly half of the flavors modulated free radical generation. Flavorants with strong correlations included β-damascone, δ-tetradecalactone, γ-decalactone, citral, dipentene, ethyl maltol, ethyl vanillin, ethyl vanillin PG acetal, linalool, and piperonal. Dipentene, ethyl maltol, citral, linalool, and piperonal promoted radical formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Ethyl vanillin inhibited the radical formation in a concentration dependent manner. Free radical production was closely linked with the capacity to oxidize biologically-relevant lipids. Our results suggest that flavoring agents play an important role in either enhancing or inhibiting the production of free radicals in flavored e-cigarette aerosols. This information is important for developing regulatory strategies aimed at reducing potential harm from e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Are cellular phone blocking applications effective for novice teen drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creaser, Janet I; Edwards, Christopher J; Morris, Nichole L; Donath, Max

    2015-09-01

    Distracted driving is a significant concern for novice teen drivers. Although cellular phone bans are applied in many jurisdictions to restrict cellular phone use, teen drivers often report making calls and texts while driving. The Minnesota Teen Driver Study incorporated cellular phone blocking functions via a software application for 182 novice teen drivers in two treatment conditions. The first condition included 92 teens who ran a driver support application on a smartphone that also blocked phone usage. The second condition included 90 teens who ran the same application with phone blocking but which also reported back to parents about monitored risky behaviors (e.g., speeding). A third control group consisting of 92 novice teen drivers had the application and phone-based software installed on the phones to record cellular phone (but not block it) use while driving. The two treatment groups made significantly fewer calls and texts per mile driven compared to the control group. The control group data also demonstrated a higher propensity to text while driving rather than making calls. Software that blocks cellular phone use (except 911) while driving can be effective at mitigating calling and texting for novice teen drivers. However, subjective data indicates that some teens were motivated to find ways around the software, as well as to use another teen's phone while driving when they were unable to use theirs. Cellular phone bans for calling and texting are the first step to changing behaviors associated with texting and driving, particularly among novice teen drivers. Blocking software has the additional potential to reduce impulsive calling and texting while driving among novice teen drivers who might logically know the risks, but for whom it is difficult to ignore calling or texting while driving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of treatment on free radicals in patients with pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Formation of Malondialdehyde (MDA), a free radical, in Tuberculosis patients does occur when Tubercule bacilli induces ... All patients were screened for presence or absence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in their sputum and. HIV 1 & 2 in .... fever, Diabetes Mellitus, patients with intestinal infec- tions which ...

  16. Study of anti-oxidation and scavenging effects on free radicals of quercetin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chongdao; Qiang Yizhong; Lao Qinhua; Shao Yuan

    1999-01-01

    The effects of Quercetin on the contents of lipid peroxides (LPO) in the mice caused by γ-whole-body irradiation by method of the modified spectrophotometry of TBA, and the scavenging effects of Quercetin on the free radicals of DNA induced by radiation exposure by means of ESR technique were investigated. The results demonstrates that Quercetin has a good anti-oxidation effect and is very effective in scavenging of free radicals

  17. Anti-oxidation and scavenging effects of some extracts from Chinese medicines on free radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chongdao; Qiang Yizhong; Lao Qinhua; Cui Fengmei; Shao Yuan; Sun Cunpu

    1999-11-01

    The inhibiting effects of Chinonin, Quercetin and Tannic Acid on the lipid oxidation induced by radiation exposure were investigated by means of a modified TBA spectrophotometry. The scavenging effects on free radicals caused by γ-irradiation exposure of the three active principles were observed by technique of ESR. The results showed that anti-oxidation effects of Chinonin and Quercetin were better than that of Tannic Acid, while the scavenging effects of the three active principles on free radicals were similar

  18. Sulfate radical-based degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls: Effects of chloride ion and reaction kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Guo-Dong [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dionysiou, Dionysios D. [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0071 (United States); Wang, Yu [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Al-Abed, Souhail R. [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Zhou, Dong-Mei, E-mail: dmzhou@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A kinetic model was used to predict the radical species and their distributions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The generated radical species were identified by EPR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second-order rate constants of sulfate radical with PCBs were determined. - Abstract: Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) based on sulfate radical (SO{sub 4}{center_dot}{sup -}) have been recently used for soil and groundwater remediation. The presence of chloride ion in natural or wastewater decreases the reactivity of sulfate radical system, but explanations for this behavior were inconsistent, and the mechanisms are poorly understood. Therefore, in this paper we investigated the effect of chloride ion on the degradation of 2,4,4 Prime -CB (PCB28) and biphenyl (BP) by persulfate, based on the produced SO{sub 4}{center_dot}{sup -}. The results showed that the presence of chloride ion greatly inhibited the transformation of PCB28 and BP. Transformation intermediates of BP were monitored, suggesting that the chloride ion can react with SO{sub 4}{center_dot}{sup -} to produce chlorine radical, which reacts with BP to generate chlorinated compounds. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of these processes, a kinetic model was developed for predicting the effect of chloride ion on the types of radical species and their distributions. The results showed that chloride ion could influence the selectivity of radical species and their distribution, and increase the concentration of the sum of radical species. In addition, the second-order rate constants of sulfate radical with PCBs were determined, and quantum-chemical descriptors were introduced to predict the rate constants of other PCBs based on our experimental data.

  19. Effects of Solvent and Temperature on Free Radical Formation in Electronic Cigarette Aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Zachary T; Goel, Reema; Reilly, Samantha M; Foulds, Jonathan; Muscat, Joshua; Elias, Ryan J; Richie, John P

    2018-01-16

    The ever-evolving market of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) presents a challenge for analyzing and characterizing the harmful products they can produce. Earlier we reported that e-cigarette aerosols can deliver high levels of reactive free radicals; however, there are few data characterizing the production of these potentially harmful oxidants. Thus, we have performed a detailed analysis of the different parameters affecting the production of free radical by e-cigarettes. Using a temperature-controlled e-cigarette device and a novel mechanism for reliably simulating e-cigarette usage conditions, including coil activation and puff flow, we analyzed the effects of temperature, wattage, and e-liquid solvent composition of propylene glycol (PG) and glycerol (GLY) on radical production. Free radicals in e-cigarette aerosols were spin-trapped and analyzed using electron paramagnetic resonance. Free radical production increased in a temperature-dependent manner, showing a nearly 2-fold increase between 100 and 300 °C under constant-temperature conditions. Free radical production under constant wattage showed an even greater increase when going from 10 to 50 W due, in part, to higher coil temperatures compared to constant-temperature conditions. The e-liquid PG content also heavily influenced free radical production, showing a nearly 3-fold increase upon comparison of ratios of 0:100 (PG:GLY) and 100:0 (PG:GLY). Increases in PG content were also associated with increases in aerosol-induced oxidation of biologically relevant lipids. These results demonstrate that the production of reactive free radicals in e-cigarette aerosols is highly solvent dependent and increases with an increase in temperature. Radical production was somewhat dependent on aerosol production at higher temperatures; however, disproportionately high levels of free radicals were observed at ≥100 °C despite limited aerosol production. Overall, these findings suggest that e-cigarettes can be

  20. Numerical calculations of effective elastic properties of two cellular structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuncer, Enis

    2005-01-01

    Young's moduli of regular two-dimensional truss-like and eye-shaped structures are simulated using the finite element method. The structures are idealizations of soft polymeric materials used in ferro-electret applications. In the simulations, the length scales of the smallest representative units are varied, which changes the dimensions of the cell walls in the structures. A power-law expression with a quadratic as the exponent term is proposed for the effective Young's moduli of the systems as a function of the solid volume fraction. The data are divided into three regions with respect to the volume fraction: low, intermediate and high. The parameters of the proposed power-law expression in each region are later represented as a function of the structural parameters, the unit-cell dimensions. The expression presented can be used to predict a structure/property relationship in materials with similar cellular structures. The contribution of the cell-wall thickness to the elastic properties becomes significant at concentrations >0.15. The cell-wall thickness is the most significant factor in predicting the effective Young's modulus of regular cellular structures at high volume fractions of solid. At lower concentrations of solid, the eye-shaped structure yields a lower Young's modulus than a truss-like structure with similar anisotropy. Comparison of the numerical results with those of experimental data for poly(propylene) show good agreement regarding the influence of cell-wall thickness on elastic properties of thin cellular films

  1. Radiation-induced damage in E. coli B: The effect of superoxide radicals and molecular oxygen. Progress report, December 1, 1978--November 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuni, A.; Czapski, G.

    The roles of superoxide radicals and of molecular oxygen in the radiodamage of E. coli B suspended in dilute phosphate buffer were studied. The presence of high concentrations of polyethylene glycol in the γ-irradiated cell suspensions, had no effect on bacterial radiosensitivity. This indicates that the damage was primarily endogenous, i.e. originated intracellularly. Saturation of the cell suspensions with N 2 O doubled the radiosensitivity, thus indicating that OH radicals are responsible for the majority of the damage (indirect radiation effect). The presence of oxygen either in the absence or presence of N 2 O brought about roughly a three-fold increase in the radiosensitivity. Since in the presence of N 2 O all e - /sub aq/ are scavenged by the nitrous oxide rather than by oxygen, this shows that superoxide radicals play no role in the bacterial radiodamage. Our results substantiate the attribution of the oxygen effect to a direct interaction of O 2 with the hydroxyl-radical-damaged sites on vital biomolecules, and exclude any significant contribution of e - /sub aq/ and superoxide radicals to the cellular radiodamage

  2. Effect of free radicals and cultivation media on radiation sensitivities of escherichia coli and related bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    2000-01-01

    Effects of gamma-irradiation on some strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated in the presence of N 2 , N 2 O and O 2 and with the hydroxyl radical (OH) scavengers glycerol, polyethylene glycerol and formate. Injured cell membrane of bacteria was detected using with MacConkey agar for E. coli and S. enteritidis and 7% NaCl Triptic soy agar for St. aureus instead of Tryptic soy agar for recovery medium. From this study, addition of glycerol significantly reduced the sensitivity in all of strains, and cell membrane was not injured significantly except in radiation sensitive strain E. coli A4-1. When superoxide radicals (O 2 ) were generated during irradiation in the presence of formate, injured cell membrane increased significantly in all of strains. However, molecular oxygen (O 2 ) and OH radicals also had some effects on the damage of cell membrane. These results suggest that most radiation induced cell lethality was responsible to the cooperative effects of intracellular OH radicals and O 2 on DNA with lessor effect of damage on cell membrane by O 2 radicals, O 2 and OH radicals. On the radiation sensitive strain of E. coli, cell lethality occurred significantly by the injury of cell membrane compared with other strains. (author)

  3. Effect of heavy ion irradiation on sucrose radical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Sato, Yukio

    2004-01-01

    We investigated sucrose radicals produced by heavy-ion irradiation with various LETs (linear energy transfer) and the possibility for a sucrose ESR (electron spin resonance) dosimeter. The obtained spectral pattern was the same as that for helium (He) ions, carbon (C) ions, neon (Ne) ions, argon (Ar) ions, and iron (Fe) ions. Identical spectra were measured after one year, but the initial intensities decreased by a few percent when the samples were kept in ESR tubes with the caps at ambient temperature. The total spin concentration obtained by heavy-ion irradiation had a linear relation with the absorbed dose, and correlated logarithmically with the LET. Qualitative ESR analyses showed that the production of sucrose radicals depended on both the particle identity and the LET at the same dose. The production of spin concentration by He ions was the most sensitive to LET. Empirical relations between the LET and the spin yield for various particles imply that the LET at a certain dose can be estimated by the spin concentration. (authors)

  4. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, R; Bervoets, L; De Coen, W; Blust, R

    2004-05-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels.

  5. Effects of scavengers of reactive oxygen and radical species on cell survival following photodynamic treatment in vitro: comparison to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, B.W.; Miller, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of various scavengers of reactive oxygen and/or radical species on cell survival in vitro of EMT6 and CHO cells following photodynamic therapy (PDT) or gamma irradiation were compared. None of the agents used exhibited major direct cytotoxicity. Likewise, none interfered with cellular porphyrin uptake, and none except tryptophan altered singlet oxygen production during porphyrin illumination. The radioprotector cysteamine (MEA) was equally effective in reducing cell damage in both modalities. In part, this protection seems to have been induced by oxygen consumption in the system due to MEA autoxidation under formation of H 2 O 2 . The addition of catalase, which prevents H 2 O 2 buildup, reduced the effect of MEA to the same extent in both treatments. Whether the remaining protection was due to MEA's radical-reducing action or some remaining oxygen limitation is unclear. The protective action of MEA was not mediated by a doubling of cellular glutathione levels, since addition of buthionine sulfoximine, which prevented glutathione increase, did not diminish the observed MEA protection. The hydroxyl radical scavenger mannitol also afforded protection in both, but it was approximately twice as effective in gamma irradiation as in PDT. This is consistent with the predominant role of OH radicals in ionizing radiation damage and their presumed minor involvement in PDT damage. Superoxide dismutase, a scavenger of O 2 , acted as a radiation protector but was not significantly effective in PDT. Catalase, which scavenges H 2 O 2 , was ineffective in both modalities. Tryptophan, an efficient singlet oxygen scavenger, reduced cell death through PDT by several orders of magnitude while being totally ineffective in gamma irradiation. These data reaffirm the predominant role of 1O2 in the photodynamic cell killing but also indicate some involvement of free radical species

  6. Effect of drought and rewatering on the cellular status and antioxidant response of Medicago truncatula plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippou, Panagiota; Antoniou, Chrystalla; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2011-02-01

    Effects of water stress on plants have been well-documented. However, the combined responses to drought and rewatering and their underlying mechanisms are relatively unknown. The present study attempts to describe spatiotemporal alterations in the physiology and cellular status of Medicago truncatula tissues that result from and subsequently follow a period of moderate water deficit. Physiological processes and cellular damage levels were monitored in roots and leaves by determining lipid peroxidation levels, as well as nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide content, further supported by stomatal conductance and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements in leaves. During water stress, cells in both organs displayed increased damage levels and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species content, while leaves showed reduced stomatal conductance. Furthermore, both tissues demonstrated increased proline content. Upon rewatering, plants recovered displaying readings similar to pre-stress control conditions. Furthermore, molecular analysis of antioxidant gene expression by quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed differential spatiotemporal regulation in a number of genes examined (including catalase, cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase, copper/zinc and iron superoxide dismutase and alternative oxidase). Overall, M. truncatula plants demonstrated increased sensitivity to drought-induced oxidative damage; however, this was reversed following rewatering indicating a great elasticity in the plant's capacity to cope with free oxygen radicals

  7. Effect of solid phase on the selectivity of alkyl radical formation by gamma-irradiation of branched alkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Hitoshi; Hashino, Masatoshi; Ichikawa, Tsuneki; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    ESR and electron spin echo measurements of alkyl radicals generated by γ-irradiation of glassy and crystalline branched alkanes C 10 ∼ C 13 have been carried out to elucidate the effect of molecular structure and solid phase on the selectivity of alkyl radical formation. Alkyl radicals generated and stabilized at 77 K in the glassy alkanes are secondary penultimate radicals. Tertiary radicals and secondary radicals other than the penultimate one are not generated either by hydrogen abstraction or from ionized or excited molecules. In the crystalline alkanes, however, a small amount of secondary internal radicals are generated in addition to the predominant formation of the secondary penultimate radicals. It is concluded that the detachment of C-H hydrogen preferentially takes place at the location where the motion of carbon atoms assisting the detachment of the C-H hydrogen easily occurs. (author)

  8. Effect of metal complexation to anti-inflammatory over the action against oxidative and free radicals: ketoprofen action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manente, Francine Alessandra; Mello, Lucas Rosolen de Almeida; Vellosa, Jose Carlos Rebuglio; Khalil, Omar Arafat Kdudsi; Carvalho, Claudio Teodoro de; Bannach, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Free radicals are highly reactive species generated in living organisms for the purpose of protection. However, in some circumstances, they are responsible for the occurrence or aggravation of tissue damage. Many anti-inflammatory drugs have a direct effect on free radicals and not radical reactive species, which contributes to its actions against inflammation. Ketoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent that generates free radicals by photo irradiation and has an important hemolytic effect with that. The complexation of metals to different drugs has been used as a strategy to improve the pharmacological action of different molecules and reduce their side effects. This paper presents the results of ketoprofen and their metallic complexes action on erythrocytes and free radicals. It was observed that the cerium enhances the scavenger properties of ketoprofen on free radicals, while copper enhances its action over non-radical oxidants. Copper also reduced the hemolytic effect presented by ketoprofen meanwhile its cerium derivative maintained it. (author)

  9. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Coen, W. de; Blust, R.

    2004-01-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels. - Exposure of zebra mussels along a pollution gradient has adverse effects on the cellular energy allocation, and results can be linked with higher levels of biological organization

  10. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Coen, W. de; Blust, R

    2004-05-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels. - Exposure of zebra mussels along a pollution gradient has adverse effects on the cellular energy allocation, and results can be linked with higher levels of biological organization.

  11. THE EFFECT OF CELLULAR PHONE USE ON DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiro ISHIDA

    2001-01-01

    Many experiments using driving simulators or real roads have shown that using a cellular phone while driving may cause an accident because it delays visual information processing by the driver. In this research, we examined the influence on driving performance of cellular phone use on a course that simulated streets. Driving conditions were driving only, listening to the car radio, hands-free cellular phone use and using a cellular phone with the left hand. Driving performance measurements in...

  12. Free radical reactions of daunorubicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houee-Levin, C.

    1991-01-01

    Daunorubicin is an antitumor antibiotic activated in vivo by reduction. Its mechanism of action involves DNA and topoisomerase attack, but side effects are cytotoxicity related to free radical formation. Therefore the mechanism of the one-electron reduction of the drug and the reactions of the daunorubicin transients towards compounds of biological interest have been studied by the methods of radiolysis, in order to provide possible explanations of the drug mechanism of action. Their relative importance in cellular conditions is discussed [fr

  13. Radiation inactivation analysis of enzymes. Effect of free radical scavengers on apparent target sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, D.C.; Solomonson, L.P.; Barber, M.J.; McCreery, M.J.; Ness, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    In most cases the apparent target size obtained by radiation inactivation analysis corresponds to the subunit size or to the size of a multimeric complex. In this report, we examined whether the larger than expected target sizes of some enzymes could be due to secondary effects of free radicals. To test this proposal we carried out radiation inactivation analysis on Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I, Torula yeast glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, Chlorella vulgaris nitrate reductase, and chicken liver sulfite oxidase in the presence and absence of free radical scavengers (benzoic acid and mannitol). In the presence of free radical scavengers, inactivation curves are shifted toward higher radiation doses. Plots of scavenger concentration versus enzyme activity showed that the protective effect of benzoic acid reached a maximum at 25 mM then declined. Mannitol alone had little effect, but appeared to broaden the maximum protective range of benzoic acid relative to concentration. The apparent target size of the polymerase activity of DNA polymerase I in the presence of free radical scavengers was about 40% of that observed in the absence of these agents. This is considerably less than the minimum polypeptide size and may reflect the actual size of the polymerase functional domain. Similar effects, but of lesser magnitude, were observed for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, nitrate reductase, and sulfite oxidase. These results suggest that secondary damage due to free radicals generated in the local environment as a result of ionizing radiation can influence the apparent target size obtained by this method

  14. Jahn-Teller effect in molecular electronics: quantum cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukerblat, B.; Palii, A.; Clemente-Juan, J. M.; Coronado, E.

    2017-05-01

    The article summarizes the main results of application of the theory of the Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo JT effects to the description of molecular quantum dot cellular automata (QCA), a new paradigm of quantum computing. The following issues are discussed: 1) QCA as a new paradigm of quantum computing, principles and advantages; 2) molecular implementation of QCA; 3) role of the JT effect in charge trapping, encoding of binary information in the quantum cell and non-linear cell-cell response; 4) spin-switching in molecular QCA based on mixed-valence cell; 5) intervalence optical absorption in tetrameric molecular mixed-valence cell through the symmetry assisted approach to the multimode/multilevel JT and pseudo JT problems.

  15. Effects of edaravone, a radical scavenger, on hepatocyte transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Chihiro; Ito, Masahiro; Ito, Ryoutaro; Murakumo, Akiko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Hiramatsu, Noriko; Fox, Ira J; Horiguchi, Akihiko

    2014-12-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation (HTx) has yielded significant improvements in liver function and survival in experimentally induced acute liver failure and liver-based metabolic disease. However, transplantation is inefficient, and it is thought that transplanted hepatocytes have a shortened lifespan because of inflammation involving excess nitric oxide (NO). The present study aimed to clarify whether edaravone, a free radical scavenger used to treat ischemic stroke, could reduce ischemic changes in hepatocyte-transplanted livers. Edaravone (3 mg/kg) was administered intravenously 24 h before HTx to Nagase analbuminemic rats (NARs). Hepatocytes were isolated, and 30 × 10(6) cells were injected in a 1.0-ml volume directly into the spleens of NARs. All experimental groups studied received FK506 to control rejection. Animals in Group A received medium-only; Group B received HTx only; and Group C received HTx and edaravone. Forty-eight hours after transplantation, the hepatocytes from animals were isolated and analyzed for staining with propidium iodide- and annexin-V using flow cytometry. Liver sections were also studied by immunostaining for albumin, and TUNEL. Peripheral blood serum albumin levels were measured on post-transplant days 0, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 using ELISA. The edaravone-treated animals demonstrated an increased number of engrafted donor hepatocytes in the liver. The edaravone-treated liver sections also contained fewer TUNEL-positive cells and animals that received edaravone had higher serum albumin levels post-transplantation. Hepatocytes were also found to have increased in numbers 2 weeks following treatment with edaravone. Edaravone administration during HTx can suppress apoptosis near the transplanted cells, increasing engraftment. These studies indicate its potential usefulness for future clinical application. © 2014 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  16. Sub-millitesla magnetic field effects on the recombination reaction of flavin and ascorbic acid radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Emrys W.; Henbest, Kevin B.; Timmel, Christiane R., E-mail: christiane.timmel@chem.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: stuart.mackenzie@chem.ox.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Advanced Electron Spin Resonance, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Kattnig, Daniel R.; Hore, P. J.; Mackenzie, Stuart R., E-mail: christiane.timmel@chem.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: stuart.mackenzie@chem.ox.ac.uk [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-28

    Even though the interaction of a <1 mT magnetic field with an electron spin is less than a millionth of the thermal energy at room temperature (k{sub B}T), it still can have a profound effect on the quantum yields of radical pair reactions. We present a study of the effects of sub-millitesla magnetic fields on the photoreaction of flavin mononucleotide with ascorbic acid. Direct control of the reaction pathway is achieved by varying the rate of electron transfer from ascorbic acid to the photo-excited flavin. At pH 7.0, we verify the theoretical prediction that, apart from a sign change, the form of the magnetic field effect is independent of the initial spin configuration of the radical pair. The data agree well with model calculations based on a Green’s function approach that allows multinuclear spin systems to be treated including the diffusive motion of the radicals, their spin-selective recombination reactions, and the effects of the inter-radical exchange interaction. The protonation states of the radicals are uniquely determined from the form of the magnetic field-dependence. At pH 3.0, the effects of two chemically distinct radical pair complexes combine to produce a pronounced response to ∼500 μT magnetic fields. These findings are relevant to the magnetic responses of cryptochromes (flavin-containing proteins proposed as magnetoreceptors in birds) and may aid the evaluation of effects of weak magnetic fields on other biologically relevant electron transfer processes.

  17. Membrane cholesterol mediates the cellular effects of monolayer graphene substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitko, Kristina E; Hong, Tu; Lazarenko, Roman M; Ying, Da; Xu, Ya-Qiong; Zhang, Qi

    2018-02-23

    Graphene possesses extraordinary properties that promise great potential in biomedicine. However, fully leveraging these properties requires close contact with the cell surface, raising the concern of unexpected biological consequences. Computational models have demonstrated that graphene preferentially interacts with cholesterol, a multifunctional lipid unique to eukaryotic membranes. Here we demonstrate an interaction between graphene and cholesterol. We find that graphene increases cell membrane cholesterol and potentiates neurotransmission, which is mediated by increases in the number, release probability, and recycling rate of synaptic vesicles. In fibroblasts grown on graphene, we also find an increase in cholesterol, which promotes the activation of P2Y receptors, a family of receptor regulated by cholesterol. In both cases, direct manipulation of cholesterol levels elucidates that a graphene-induced cholesterol increase underlies the observed potentiation of each cell signaling pathway. These findings identify cholesterol as a mediator of graphene's cellular effects, providing insight into the biological impact of graphene.

  18. Water structure versus radical scavenger theories as explanations for the suppressive effects of DMSO and related compounds on radiation-induced transformation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, A.R.; Symons, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    We report here that dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO): suppresses radiation-induced transformation in vitro, even when DMSO treatments begin as late as 10 days post-irradiation (when cells are in the confluent, stationary phase of growth); inhibits the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) enhancement of radiation-induced transformation in vitro; does not affect the expression of transformed cells as foci (when surrounded by non-transformed cells); and may be affecting radiation-induced transformation through its solvent properties (i.e. the Water Structure theory), while its effects on the TPA enhancement of radiation transformation may be mediated by its free radical scavenging abilities. DMSO, dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylacetamide (DMA) are similar solvents which are all very effective in their ability to suppress radiation-induced transformation in vitro (at concentrations in the cellular media down to 0.01%). As DMSO is known to be an extremely effective OH. free-radical scavenging agent, while DMF and DMA are not as efficient at scavenging free radicals, our results suggest that properties other than free-radical scavenging ability may be important in the suppressive effects of these compounds on radiation-induced transformation in vitro. It is known that low concentrations of such basic aprotic solvents modify water structure so as to suppress the protic (H-bond donor) reactivity of water and enhance its basic (H-bond receptor) reactivity. These reactivity changes may well be responsible for the effects noted above. DMSO, DMF and DMA are also capable of suppressing the TPA enhancement of radiation transformation (at concentrations of the compounds of 0.1% or higher). For this effect, the ability of these compounds to scavenge OH. shows a general correlation with their ability to suppress the TPA enhancement of transformation, suggesting that the Radical Scavenger theory may explain the ability of DMSO to suppress promotion in vitro.

  19. Propofol Effect on Stress Response and Free Radicals in Patient during Surgery and Sedation Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Monica Rahardjo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic used worldwide as an anesthesia induction and maintenance agent. Propofol also used as sedation agent in Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Despite it’s usual anesthesia properties, propofol has an unique pharmacologic characteristic, especially as antioxidant and stress response reduction. These advantages suggested propofol has positive effects when used as an anesthesia agent in surgery or sedation in ICU in conditions when high stress and free radical level are released. CONTENT: Stress response and free radical can be elevated in various conditions including surgery or during care in ICU, especially critical ill patient. Cortisol is a major stress hormone that influences metabolism, cardiovascular and central nervous system, either in acute or chronic phase. Oxidative stress was marked by free radical elevation called Radical Oxygen Species (ROS. Combination of both elements (cortisol and ROS can worsen patient condition. Propofol with anti-stress and antioxidant properties could be used to reduce stress response and attenuate free radical level in order to improve patient condition. SUMMARY: The anti-stress and antioxidant properties of Propofol are interesting, because these benefits can be added as adjunctive therapy when propofol was used as an anesthetic agent in surgery and a sedation in ICU. KEYWORDS: propofol, stress response, antioxidant.

  20. Total free radical species and oxidation equivalent in polluted air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Jia, Shiming; Niu, Xiuli; Tian, Haoqi; Liu, Yanrong; Chen, Xuefu; Li, Lan; Zhang, Yuanhang; Shi, Gaofeng

    2017-12-31

    Free radicals are the most important chemical intermediate or agent of the atmosphere and influenced by thousands of reactants. The free radicals determine the oxidizing power of the polluted air. Various gases present in smog or haze are oxidants and induce organ and cellular damage via generation of free radical species. At present, however, the high variability of total free radicals in polluted air has prevented the detection of possible trends or distributions in the concentration of those species. The total free radicals are a kind of contaminants with colorless, tasteless characteristics, and almost imperceptible by human body. Here we present total free radical detection and distribution characteristics, and analyze the effects of total free radicals in polluted air on human health. We find that the total free radical values can be described by not only a linear dependence on ozone at higher temperature period, but also a linear delay dependence on particulate matter at lower temperature period throughout the measurement period. The total free radical species distribution is decrease from west to east in Lanzhou, which closely related to the distribution of the air pollutants. The total free radical oxidation capacity in polluted air roughly matches the effects of tobacco smoke produced by the incomplete combustion of a controlled amount of tobacco in a smoke chamber. A relatively unsophisticated chromatographic fingerprint similarity is used for indicating preliminarily the effect of total free radicals in polluted air on human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on free radical metabolism of liver in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on Free Radical Metabolism of Liver in mice during endurance exercise. Forty-eight mice were divided into the quiet group and the exercised group. And the two groups were both grouped again, including the control group and the drug-treated group.

  2. The effect of reducing monosaccharides on the atom transfer radical polymerization of butyl methacrylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Andrew; Klumperman, B.; Wet-Roos, de D.; Sanderson, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of various reducing monosaccharides on the rate of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of butyl methacrylate is reported in this study. The addition of reducing sugars affects the rate of ATRP positively with a 100% increase in the rate of polymerization in some cases. In

  3. Effects of radical scavengers on aqueous solutions exposed to heavy-ion irradiation using the liquid microjet technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shinji; Tsuchida, Hidetsugu; Furuya, Ryousuke; Miyahara, Kento; Majima, Takuya; Itoh, Akio

    2015-12-01

    The effects of the radical scavenger ascorbic acid on water radiolysis are studied by fast heavy-ion irradiation of aqueous solutions of ascorbic acid, using the liquid microjet technique under vacuum. To understand the reaction mechanisms of hydroxyl radicals in aqueous solutions, we directly measure secondary ions emitted from solutions with different ascorbic acid concentrations. The yield of hydronium secondary ions is strongly influenced by the reaction between ascorbic acid and hydroxyl radicals. From analysis using a simple model considering chemical equilibria, we determine that the upper concentration limit of ascorbic acid with a radical scavenger effect is approximately 70 μM.

  4. Effects of radical scavengers on aqueous solutions exposed to heavy-ion irradiation using the liquid microjet technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Shinji [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Tsuchida, Hidetsugu, E-mail: tsuchida@nucleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Furuya, Ryousuke; Miyahara, Kento [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Majima, Takuya; Itoh, Akio [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    The effects of the radical scavenger ascorbic acid on water radiolysis are studied by fast heavy-ion irradiation of aqueous solutions of ascorbic acid, using the liquid microjet technique under vacuum. To understand the reaction mechanisms of hydroxyl radicals in aqueous solutions, we directly measure secondary ions emitted from solutions with different ascorbic acid concentrations. The yield of hydronium secondary ions is strongly influenced by the reaction between ascorbic acid and hydroxyl radicals. From analysis using a simple model considering chemical equilibria, we determine that the upper concentration limit of ascorbic acid with a radical scavenger effect is approximately 70 μM.

  5. Effects of radical scavengers on aqueous solutions exposed to heavy-ion irradiation using the liquid microjet technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Shinji; Tsuchida, Hidetsugu; Furuya, Ryousuke; Miyahara, Kento; Majima, Takuya; Itoh, Akio

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the radical scavenger ascorbic acid on water radiolysis are studied by fast heavy-ion irradiation of aqueous solutions of ascorbic acid, using the liquid microjet technique under vacuum. To understand the reaction mechanisms of hydroxyl radicals in aqueous solutions, we directly measure secondary ions emitted from solutions with different ascorbic acid concentrations. The yield of hydronium secondary ions is strongly influenced by the reaction between ascorbic acid and hydroxyl radicals. From analysis using a simple model considering chemical equilibria, we determine that the upper concentration limit of ascorbic acid with a radical scavenger effect is approximately 70 μM.

  6. Allelopathic effect of scarlet pimpernel (anagallis arvensis) on seed germination and radical elongation of mung bean and pearl millet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, I.U.; Ahmed, M.; Ali, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    The green house based experiments were conducted in the Department of Botany FUUAST, Karachi to study the allelopathic effects of root and shoot leachates of Anagallis arvensis on the two test species viz., bajra and mungbean. The percentage of seed germination, speed of germination and radical elongation of the test species were recorded after 10 days. Both leachates have no effect on seed germination and speed of germination of the test species. Radical elongation of two test species showed different response. Mung radical growth was significantly reduced while bajra radical growth was significantly enhanced by the root leachate of weed. (author)

  7. EFFECT OF CADMIUM(II) ON FREE RADICALS IN DOPA-MELANIN TESTED BY EPR SPECTROSCOPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdybel, Magdalena; Pilawa, Barbara; Chodurek, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy may be applied to examine interactions of melanin with metal ions and drugs. In this work EPR method was used to examination of changes in free radical system of DOPA-melanin--the model eumelanin after complexing with diamagnetic cadmium(II) ions. Cadmium(II) may affect free radicals in melanin and drugs binding by this polymer, so the knowledge of modification of properties and free radical concentration in melanin is important to pharmacy. The effect of cadmium(II) in different concentrations on free radicals in DOPA-melanin was determined. EPR spectra of DOPA-melanin, and DOPA-melanin complexes with cadmium(II) were measured by an X-band (9.3 GHz) EPR spectrometer produced by Radiopan (Poznań, Poland) and the Rapid Scan Unit from Jagmar (Krak6w, Poland). The DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) to metal ions molar ratios in the reaction mixtures were 2:1, 1:1, and 1: 2. High concentrations of o-semiquinone (g ~2.0040) free radicals (~10(21)-10(22) spin/g) characterize DOPA-melanin and its complexes with cadmium(II). Formation of melanin complexes with cadmium(II) increase free radical concentration in DOPA-melanin. The highest free radical concentration was obtained for DOPA-melanin-cadmium(II) (1:1) complexes. Broad EPR lines with linewidths: 0.37-0.73 mT, were measured. Linewidths increase after binding of cadmium(II) to melanin. Changes of integral intensities and linewidths with increasing microwave power indicate the homogeneous broadening of EPR lines, independently on the metal ion concentration. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes existed in all the tested samples, their EPR lines saturated at low microwave powers. Cadmium(II) causes fastening of spin-lattice relaxation processes in DOPA-melanin. The EPR results bring to light the effect of cadmium(II) on free radicals in melanin, and probably as the consequence on drug binding to eumelanin.

  8. Cellular metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Walters, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: chromatin structure; the use of circular synthetic polydeoxynucleotides as substrates for the study of DNA repair enzymes; human cellular kinetic response following exposure to DNA-interactive compounds; histone phosphorylation and chromatin structure in cell proliferation; photoaddition products induced in chromatin by uv light; pollutants and genetic information transfer; altered RNA metabolism as a function of cadmium accumulation and intracellular distribution in cultured cells; and thymidylate chromophore destruction by water free radicals

  9. Cellular Senescence Promotes Adverse Effects of Chemotherapy and Cancer Relapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demaria, Marco; O'Leary, Monique N.; Chang, Jianhui; Shao, Lijian; Liu, Su; Alimirah, Fatouma; Koenig, Kristin; Le, Catherine; Mitin, Natalia; Deal, Allison M.; Alston, Shani; Academia, Emmeline C.; Kilmarx, Sumner; Valdovinos, Alexis; Wang, Boshi; de Bruin, Alain; Kennedy, Brian K.; Melov, Simon; Zhou, Daohong; Sharpless, Norman E.; Muss, Hyman; Campisi, Judith

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by irreversibly arresting cell proliferation. Senescent cells acquire a proinfl ammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Many genotoxic chemotherapies target proliferating cells nonspecifi cally, often with adverse reactions. In accord with prior

  10. Lipoprotein(a: Cellular Effects and Molecular Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Riches

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein(a (Lp(a is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Indeed, individuals with plasma concentrations >20 mg/dL carry a 2-fold increased risk of developing CVD, accounting for ~25% of the population. Circulating levels of Lp(a are remarkably resistant to common lipid lowering therapies, and there are currently no robust treatments available for reduction of Lp(a apart from plasma apheresis, which is costly and labour intensive. The Lp(a molecule is composed of two parts, an LDL/apoB-100 core and a unique glycoprotein, apolipoprotein(a (apo(a, both of which can interact with components of the coagulation cascade, inflammatory pathways, and cells of the blood vessel wall (smooth muscle cells (SMC and endothelial cells (EC. Therefore, it is of key importance to determine the molecular pathways by which Lp(a exerts its influence on the vascular system in order to design therapeutics to target its cellular effects. This paper will summarise the role of Lp(a in modulating cell behaviour in all aspects of the vascular system including platelets, monocytes, SMC, and EC.

  11. Effects of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae cytotoxins on generation of oxygen radicals by porcine neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Tarigan

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxins produced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App suggested to be the most important pathogenic and virulent factors for this organism. However, the mechanisms on how the cytotoxins contribute to the disease process remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the cytotoxins on the oxidative-burst metabolism of porcine neutrophils. In this study, neutrophils were firstly loaded with an oxidative probe dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFHDA then expose to cytotoxins. Cells producing oxygen radicals emitted fluorescence and its intensity was measured with a FACScan flow cytometer. All cytotoxins derived from either App serotypes producing ApxI and ApxII, App serotypes producing ApxII only, or App serotypes producing ApxII and ApxIII were capable of stimulating neutrophils for oxygen-radical generation. However, compared with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, App cytotoxins were much weaker as stimulants for oxygen radicals. In addition, Apx preparation stimulated an oxidative-burst metabolism of neutrophils at a low, narrow range of Apx doses. At higher doses, the toxins inhibit the oxidative burst metabolism. The effects of cytotoxins produced by App during infection on recruited neutrophils into the lungs are assumed to be comparable to those observed in this in vitro study. Neutrophils, and other host cells, adjacent to the bacteria become lysis due to high toxin concentration, whereas those at some distance to the bacteria produce oxygen radicals which in turn cause tissue damage or necrosis.

  12. Cell activation and cellular-cellular interactions during hemodialysis: effect of dialyzer membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirolli, V; Ballone, E; Di Stante, S; Amoroso, L; Bonomini, M

    2002-06-01

    During hemodialysis (HD), circulating blood cells can be activated and also engage in dynamic interplay. These phenomena may be important factors behind dialysis membrane bio(in)compatibility. In the present prospective cross-over study, we have used flow cytometry to evaluate the influence of different dialysis membranes on the activation of circulating blood cells (leukocytes, platelets) and their dynamic interactions (formation of circulating platelet-leukocyte and platelet-erythrocyte aggregates) during in vivo HD. Each patient (n = 10) was treated with dialyzers containing membranes of cellulose diacetate, polysulfone and ethylenevinylalcohol (EVAL) in a randomized order. Upregulation of adhesion receptor expression (CD15s, CD11b/CD18) occurred mainly with the cellulosic membrane, though an increase in CD11b/CD18 circulating on neutrophils was also found with both synthetic membranes. Circulating activated platelets (P-selectin/CD63-positive platelets) increased during HD sessions with cellulose diacetate and polysulfone. An increased formation of platelet-neutrophil aggregates was found at 15 and 30 min during dialysis with cellulose diacetate and polysulfone but not with EVAL. Platelet-erythrocyte aggregates also increased with cellulose diacetate and at 15 min with polysulfone as well. Generally in concomitance with the increase in platelet-neutrophil coaggregates, there was an increased hydrogen peroxide production by neutrophils. The results of this study indicate that cellular mechanisms can be activated during HD largely depending on the membrane material, EVAL causing less reactivity than the other two membranes. It appears that each dialysis membrane has multiple and different characteristics that may contribute to interactions with blood components. Our results also indicate that derivatizing cellulose (cellulose diacetate) may be a useful way to improve the biocompatibility of the cellulose polymer and that there may be great variability in the

  13. Cellular antioxidant effects of atorvastatin in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmann, Sven; Laufs, Ulrich; Müller, Kirsten; Konkol, Christian; Ahlbory, Katja; Bäumer, Anselm T; Linz, Wolfgang; Böhm, Michael; Nickenig, Georg

    2002-02-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) may exert direct effects on vascular cells and beneficially influence endothelial dysfunction. Because reactive oxygen species (ROS) may lead to vascular damage and dysfunction, we investigated the effect of atorvastatin on ROS production and the underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. Cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells were incubated with 10 micromol/L atorvastatin. Angiotensin II-induced and epidermal growth factor-induced ROS production were significantly reduced by atorvastatin (dichlorofluorescein fluorescence laser microscopy). Atorvastatin downregulated mRNA expression of the NAD(P)H oxidase subunit nox1, whereas p22phox mRNA expression was not significantly altered (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Northern analysis). Membrane translocation of rac1 GTPase, which is required for the activation of NAD(P)H oxidase, was inhibited by atorvastatin (Western blot). mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase isoforms and glutathione peroxidase was not modified by atorvastatin, whereas catalase expression was upregulated at mRNA and protein levels, resulting in an increased enzymatic activity. Effects of atorvastatin on ROS production and nox1, rac1, and catalase expression were inhibited by L-mevalonate but not by 25-hydroxycholesterol. In addition, spontaneously hypertensive rats were treated with atorvastatin for 30 days. ROS production in aortic segments was significantly reduced in statin-treated rats (lucigenin chemiluminescence). Treatment with atorvastatin reduced vascular mRNA expression of p22phox and nox1 and increased aortic catalase expression. mRNA expression of superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidase, and NAD(P)H oxidase subunits gp91phox, p40phox, p47phox, and p67phox remained unchanged. Translocation of rac1 from the cytosol to the cell membrane was also reduced in vivo. Thus, atorvastatin exerts cellular antioxidant effects in cultured rat

  14. Radioprotective effects of Asparagus racemosus extracts against free radical damage in rat liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boloor, K.K.; Kamat, J.P.; Devasagayam, T.P.A.; Venkatachalam, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    The possible antioxidant effect of the extracts of Asparagus racemosus against membrane damage induced by free radicals generated during γ-radiation was examined in rat liver/brain mitochondria. These extracts displayed significant antioxidant properties in mitochondria against oxidation of both lipids and proteins as assessed by lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and depletion of thiols. The inhibitory effect of the extracts, rich in polysaccharides like galactose, was more than that of the established antioxidants glutathione and ascorbic acid. (author)

  15. Influence of anoxia on the induction of mutations by phenylalanine radicals during gamma-irradiation of plasmid DNA in aqueous solution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.K.; Slotman, B.J.; Reitsma-Wijker, CA; Andel, R.J.; Poldervaart, H.A.; Lafleur, M.V.M.

    2004-01-01

    When DNA is irradiated in aqueous solution, most of the damage is inflicted by water-derived radicals. This is called the indirect effect of ionizing radiation. However in whole cells not only the primary formed water radicals play a role, because some cellular compounds form secondary radicals

  16. Reactions of clofibric acid with oxidative and reductive radicals-Products, mechanisms, efficiency and toxic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csay, Tamás; Rácz, Gergely; Salik, Ádám; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2014-09-01

    The degradation of clofibric acid induced by hydroxyl radical, hydrated electron and O2-•/HO2• reactive species was studied in aqueous solutions. Clofibric acid was decomposed more effectively by hydroxyl radical than by hydrated electron or O2-•/HO2•. Various hydroxylated, dechlorinated and fragmentation products have been identified and quantified. A new LC-MS method was developed based on 18O isotope labeling to follow the formation of hydroxylated derivatives of clofibric acid. Possible degradation pathways have been proposed. The overall degradation was monitored by determination of sum parameters like COD, TOC and AOX. It was found that the organic chlorine degrades very effectively prior to complete mineralization. After the treatment no toxic effect was found according to Vibrio fischeri tests. However, at early stages some of the reaction products were more harmful than clofibric acid.

  17. Effect of partially purified fumonisins on cellular immune response in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After 7 days, cellular immune response was evaluated by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and lymphoproliferative assays (LA) using spleen cells. Nitric oxide (NO) production by spleen cells was also evaluated. The specific LA response to Pb antigen was higher in group PB than in FB and CTR groups (p< 0.05) but not ...

  18. Lipopolysaccharide recognition, internalisation, signalling and other cellular effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diks, S. H.; van Deventer, S. J.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the importance of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in infection and inflammation, many aspects of LPS action remain poorly understood. Especially, the mechanisms by which cells recognise and react to endotoxins or endotoxin-containing particles and how cellular responses are translated

  19. Effects of Hydroxyl Radicals on Introduced Organisms of Ship's Ballast Water Based Micro-Gap Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Mindong; Zhang Zhitao; Bai Mindi; Yang Bo; Bai Xiyao

    2007-01-01

    With the physical method of micro-gap gas discharge, OH· radicals were produced by the ionization of O 2 in air and H 2 O in the gaseous state, in order to explore more effective method to treat the ship's ballast water. The surface morphology of Al 2 O 3 dielectric layer was analysed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), where the size of Al 2 O 3 particles was in the range of 2 μm to 5 μm. At the same time, the biochemical effect of hydroxyl radicals on the introduced organisms and the quality of ship's ballast water were studied. The results indicate that the main reasons of cell death are lipid peroxide and damage of the antioxidant enzyme system in Catalase (CAT), Peroxidase (POD) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, the quality of the ballast water was greatly improved

  20. The effect of the diazepam to the free radical under the brain radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hongmei; Wang Chen; Zhang Zhilin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of the diazepam on free radical under in the brain radiation injury in the early stage. Methods: A model of whole brain radiation injury in wakefulness was established in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Diazepam was given intraperitoneally 30 minutes before radiation. The brain tissue homogenate was prepared respectively while the rats were executed 6 hours, 1 day, 1 week, 1 month after irradiation. The contents of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) in the tissue homogenate were measured by chemical colorimetry. Results: Diazepam could increase the vigor of SOD and reduce the MDA contents after irradiated. Conclusions: Diazepam has certain neuroprotection effect on radiation injury and decreasing the level of the free radicals. (authors)

  1. Effects of hydroxylated benzaldehyde derivatives on radiation-induced reactions involving various organic radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksendzova, G. A.; Samovich, S. N.; Sorokin, V. L.; Shadyro, O. I.

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, the effects of hydroxylated benzaldehyde derivatives and gossypol - the known natural occurring compound - on formation of decomposition products resulting from radiolysis of ethanol and hexane in deaerated and oxygenated solutions were studied. The obtained data enabled the authors to make conclusions about the effects produced by the structure of the compounds under study on their reactivity towards oxygen- and carbon-centered radicals. It has been found that 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 4,6-di-tert-butyl-2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 4,6-di-tert-butyl-3-(1,3-dioxane-2-yl)-1,2-dihydroxybenzene are not inferior in efficiency to butylated hydroxytoluene - the industrial antioxidant - as regards suppression of the radiation-induced oxidation processes occurring in hexane. The derivatives of hydroxylated benzaldehydes were shown to have a significant influence on radiation-induced reactions involving α-hydroxyalkyl radicals.

  2. Cellular effects of halogen blue light from dental curing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosic, I.; Pavicic, I.; Jukic, S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Halogen curing lights are the most frequently used polymerization source in dental offices. Light-cured bonding systems have become increasingly popular among clinicians because they offer a number of advantages over self-cured adhesives. The effort to increase polymerization quality releases the commercially available high power light density dental curing units. Emitted visible blue light belongs to the range of nonionizing radiation. Common concern in both, patients and dentist grows with regard to the unfavorable effects on the pulp tissue. The aim of study was to evaluate the time and dose dependence effect of halogen light curing unit (Elipar TriLight, ESPE Dental AG, Germany) at the disposed condition modes in vitro. A quartz-tungsten-halogen light source emits radiation of the wavelengths between 400 and 515 nm. This halogen blue light source operates in the three illumination modes, medium (M), exponential (E) and standard (S), and five illumination times. The total irradiance or the light intensity was measured by the light intensity control area on the control panel of device and mean light intensity given by manufacturer was 800 m W/cm 2 . Continuous culture of V79 cells was illuminated in triplicate. The influence of medium mode (M), exponential (E) and standard (S) illumination during 20, 40 and 80 sec on the cell viability, colony forming ability and proliferation of V79 cell culture was investigated. Trypan blue exclusion test was used to determine cell viability, both, in the treated and control cell samples. Colony forming ability was assessed for each exposure time and mode by colony count on post-exposure day 7. Cell proliferation was determined by cell counts for each time and mode of exposure during five post-exposure days. Statistical difference were determined at p<0.05 (Statistica 7.0, StatSoft Inc., USA). Viability of cells was not affected by blue light in view of exposure time and modes. Regardless to exposure or illumination

  3. Cellular internalization, transcellular transport, and cellular effects of silver nanoparticles in polarized Caco-2 cells following apical or basolateral exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Shunji; Morishita, Yuki; Hata, Tomoyuki; Kondoh, Masuo; Yagi, Kiyohito; Gao, Jian-Qing; Nagano, Kazuya; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2017-01-01

    When considering the safety of ingested nanomaterials, it is important to quantitate their transfer across intestinal cells; however, little information exists about the effects of nanomaterial size or exposure side (apical versus basolateral epithelial surface) on nanomaterial transfer. Here, we examined cellular internalization and transcellular transport, and the effects of nanomaterials on Caco-2 monolayers after apical or basolateral exposure to Ag or Au nanoparticles with various sizes. After apical treatment, both internalization and transfer to the basolateral side of the monolayers were greater for smaller Ag nanoparticles than for larger Ag nanoparticles. In contrast, after basolateral treatment, larger Ag nanoparticles were more internalized than smaller Ag nanoparticles, but the transfer to the apical side was greater for smaller Ag nanoparticles. Au nanoparticles showed different rules of internalization and transcellular transport compared with Ag nanoparticles. Furthermore, the paracellular permeability of the Caco-2 monolayers was temporarily increased by Ag nanoparticles (5 μg/mL; diameters, ≤10 nm) following basolateral but not apical exposure. We conclude that the internalization, transfer, and effects of nanomaterials in epithelial cell monolayers depend on the size and composition of nanomaterials, and the exposure side. - Highlights: • Ag and Au nanoparticles can transfer across Caco-2 monolayers. • Cellular uptake of nanoparticles change between apical and basolateral exposure. • Basolateral Ag nanoparticle exposure increases the permeability of Caco-2 monolayers.

  4. Effectiveness of intervention with a perioperative multidisciplinary support team for radical esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Yuji; Iwaya, Takeshi; Endo, Fumitaka; Shioi, Yoshihiro; Kumagai, Motoi; Takahara, Takeshi; Otsuka, Koki; Nitta, Hiroyuki; Koeda, Keisuke; Mizuno, Masaru; Kimura, Yusuke; Suzuki, Kenji; Sasaki, Akira

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention by a perioperative multidisciplinary support team for radical esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 85 consecutive patients with esophageal cancer who underwent radical esophagectomy via right thoracotomy or thoracoscopic surgery with gastric tube reconstruction. Twenty-one patients were enrolled in the non-intervention group (group N) from May 2011 to September 2012, 31 patients in the perioperative rehabilitation group (group R) from October 2012 to April 2014, and 33 patients in the multidisciplinary support team group (group S) from May 2014 to September 2015. Morbidity rates were 38, 45.2, and 42.4% for groups N, R, and S, respectively. Although there were no significant differences in the incidence of pneumonia among the groups, the durations of fever and C-reactive protein positivity were shorter in group S. Moreover, postoperative oral intake commenced earlier [5.9 (5-8) days] and postoperative hospital stay was shorter [19.6 (13-29) days] for group S. The intervention by a perioperative multidisciplinary support team for radical esophagectomy was effective in preventing the progression and prolongation of pneumonia as well as earlier ambulation, oral feeding, and shortening of postoperative hospitalization.

  5. The Effect of Nitrogen-Doped ATO Nanotubes on Radical Multiplication of Buffer Media by Visible Light Photocatalysis Rather UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan-Hung Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of TiO2 in photodynamic therapy for the treatment of cancer has generally been studied in cultured cancer cells in serum-containing RPMI 1640 medium under visible light application rather than ultraviolet (UV light. An ordered channel array of N-doped anodic titanium dioxide (ATO has been successfully made for visible light application. ATO nanotubes in the anatase form with a length of 10 μm are more effective than nanotubes of 1.8 μm in length as a photocatalyst for radical multiplication in buffer solution by generating hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radical anions under UV-A exposure. Only the N-doped ATO is applicable to visible light photocatalysis for radical multiplication in RPMI 1640+1% FBS and acrylamide, a free radical carrier.

  6. Effects of EGTA and antioxidants on the interaction of phenothiazine free radicals with calmodulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozialeck, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    Upon irradiation with UV light or treatment with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), phenothiazines generate free radicals that bind irreversibly to calmodulin (CaM). The purpose of the present studies was to examine the effects of the Ca 2+ -chelator EGTA and various antioxidants on the binding of these phenothiazine radicals to CaM. Solutions containing 2 μM CaM, 10 μM 3 H-chlorpromazine, 10 μM CaCl 2 , and either EGTA or the antioxidants (2mM), were irradiated with UV light or treated with HRP-H 2 O 2 . Samples were dialyzed to remove free chlorpromazine and counted for radioactivity. The antioxidants (ascorbic acid, dithiothreitol and glutathione) inhibited the HRP-induced irreversible binding by 95-100% but had little effect on the UV-induced binding. EGTA inhibited the HRP-induced binding by 100% but reduced the UV-induced binding by only 70%. The inhibition of the UV-induced binding by EGTA could be prevented by incubating the samples in the presence of excess Ca 2+ . By contrast, Ca 2+ did not prevent the inhibition of the HRP-induced binding by EGTA. These findings indicate that EGTA and antioxidants inhibit the HRP-induced irreversible binding of chlorpromazine to CaM by interacting with the chlorpromazine free radical and not by modifying CaM or chelating Ca 2+ . The fact that the UV-induced binding is resistant to inhibition by the antioxidants suggests that chlorpromazine binds to the Ca 2+ -CaM complex before photoactivation causes the formation of the free radical

  7. Reaction of misonidazole with DNA radicals and its effect on the template activity of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Daiji; Kuwabara, Mikinori; Sato, Fumiaki; Yoshii, Giichi.

    1985-01-01

    After calf thymus DNA was gamma-irradiated in the solid state in vacuo and subsequently dissolved in aqueous solution containing misonidazole (3 mM) under hypoxic condition, the frequency of single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites in DNA and the amount of misonidazole bound to DNA were measured. The presence of misonidazole converted the precursor radicals, which otherwise results in single-strand breaks, to alkali-labile sites, and the amount of alkali-labile sites increased linearly with increasing radiation dose. The amount of misonidazole bound to DNA also increased linearly with increasing radiation dose. The biological meaning of the changes in the frequency of single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites by the reaction of misonidazole with DNA radicals and of binding misonidazole with DNA was examined using a model system to measure the template activity of DNA for RNA synthesis in vitro. The conversion of DNA radicals to alkali-labile sites protected the radiation-induced decrease in the template activity of DNA, while the adduct formation of misonidazole had no effect on it. (author)

  8. Effect of neutron irradiation on the cellular stage of Ni-Be alloy decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larikov, L.N.; Borimskaya, S.T.

    1981-01-01

    Effects of neutron irradiation on the cellular stage of decomposition are investigated in deformed supersaturated solid solution Ni-1.92%Be by the X-ray structural and metallographic analyses. Radiation-initiated stimulation of the recovery properties in the deformed alloy and a lower rate of the cellular decomposition in irradiated samples are discovered [ru

  9. Effect of ultraviolet irradiation on free radical scavenging activity of immunosuppressants used in lung transplantation and comparative electron paramagnetic resonance study of kinetics of their interactions with model free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanjek-Cichoracka, A; Żegleń, S; Ramos, P; Pilawa, B; Wojarski, J

    2018-06-01

    The immunosuppressive drugs used in solid organ transplantation or autoimmunological processes were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to estimate their free radical scavenging activity. The interactions of immunosuppressants with free radicals were examined by an X-band (9.3 GHz) EPR spectroscopy and a model of DPPH free radicals. The EPR spectra of DPPH and DPPH interacting with individual drugs were compared. Kinetic studies were performed, and the effect of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the free radical scavenging activity of the tested drugs was determined. The free radical scavenging activity of non-irradiated drugs decreased in the order: rapamycin > mycophenolate mofetil > ciclosporin > tacrolimus. UV irradiation increased the free radical scavenging activity of all the tested immunosuppressive drugs, and the effect was highest for tacrolimus. For the non-irradiated samples, the speed of free radical interactions decreased in the order: ciclosporin > tacrolimus > mycophenolate mofetil > rapamycin. UV irradiation only slightly affected the speed of interactions of the immunosuppressive drugs with the model DPPH free radicals. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy is useful for obtaining information on interactions of immunosuppressive drugs with free radicals. We hypothesized that the long-term immunosuppressive effects of these drugs after transplantation or during autoimmune disorders may be mediated by anti-inflammatory action in addition to the known receptor/cell cycle inhibition. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cut-off effect of radical TEMPO derivatives in olive oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez de Arbina, Amaia; Rezende, Marcos Caroli; Aliaga, Carolina

    2017-06-01

    Three oil-in-water emulsions were prepared from mixtures of olive oil and Tween 20 in water. The effectiveness of a series of radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinoxyl (TEMPO) derivatives of variable lipophilicity in reactions with antioxidant Trolox, and as pyrene-fluorescence quenchers, was compared in the three emulsions. A "cut-off" effect was observed for the pyrene quenching by the probes, but not for their reaction with Trolox. The results were rationalized in terms of the amphiphobic nature of the probes, and the different locations of probe, pyrene and Trolox in the three-phase microheterogeneous systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Test for antioxidant ability by scavenging long-lived mutagenic radicals in mammalian cells and by blood test with intentional radicals: an application of gallic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Jun; Kawaura, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Prost, Michel; Prost, Emmanuelle; Watanabe, Masami; Quetin-Leclercq, J.Joeelle

    2003-01-01

    Antioxidant ability of gallic acid (GA) are determined both by electron spin resonance measurement of long-lived radicals produced in γ-ray irradiated Syrian golden hamster embryo cells with GA and by hemolysis measurement with GA when blood cells are submitted to radicals. Scavenging properties of GA are determined by the reaction rate constant with long-lived mutagenic radicals in the cells while the blood test allows to analyze the global effects of this compound: radical scavenger+metal ion chelator+regeneration of intra- and extra-cellular antioxidant

  12. Effect of irradiation on microviscosity of the cellular nuclear membrane of tumor and liver of tumor-carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tseva, E.L.; Goloshchapov, A.N.; Pal'mina, N.P.; Burlakova, E.B.

    1982-01-01

    Changes of microviscosity of the cellular nuclear membrane of tumor and liver of tumor-carriers with developing Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) at various terms after lethal irradiation (650 R) were studied by spin probe method. Two iminoxyl radicals localized mainly in lipid bilayer and near probein layers of membrane lipids were used. The character and the degree of microviscosity changes in different zones of nuclear membranes point to different responses towards effect of radiation of cells of tumor-carrier organ and tumor both in viscosity properties, and in change of lipid-protein relations. The significant contribution of near protein lipid layers into general change of nuclear membrane microviscosity is marked. Microviscosity of nuclear membrane causes different responses of cellular nuclear membranes of liver of tumor-carriers and healthy animals as well as considerable (3 times) dilution of nuclear membrane of EAT cells after irradiation. It is shown that temperature dependence of times of rotatory correlation of both probes is more expressed in EAT cells of irradiated tumor-carriers, than in liver

  13. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of conformational effects in alkyl-substituted 2-cyclohexanonyl radicals in an adamantane matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, H.F.

    1975-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra have been obtained for radicals produced by x-irradiation of cyclohexanone and various alkyl-substituted cyclohexanones trapped in an adamantane matrix. Temperature variation of these spectra permits determination of the enthalpy and entropy of activation for interconversion between the two half-chair conformations. In those cases where the two conformations have intrinsically different energies, the enthalpy and entropy differences between conformations are determined. For 2-cyclohexanonyl radical, the enthalpy of activation is 3.90 +- 0.07 kcal/mole and the entropy of activation is -2.3 +- 0.3 e.u. Methyl substitution on C 3 or C 5 gives a radical with activation parameters similar to the parent radical, indicating moderate realignment of atoms during the conformational change. Methyl substitution on C 4 gives a radical with lower activation parameters, which are interpreted to indicate conformational change mainly be a folding along the diagonal through the radical site. Larger groups attached to C 3 influence enthalpy and entropy differences between conformations much less than when they are attached to C 5 . Very large groups attached to C 5 apparently flatten the ring; it is not known whether or not this is a matrix effect. Deuteration seems to cause a slight reduction in the activation parameters for 2-cyclohexanonyl radical

  14. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Hoçbaç, Sanem; Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Asian, Mustafa; Ergun, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum), are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. Materials and Methods: α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. Results: H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2) on α-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent α-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 μg/ml). Conclusion: Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes. PMID:25140204

  15. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Orhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus  communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum, are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. Materials and Methods: α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. Results: H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2 on α-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent α-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 μg/ml. Conclusion:Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes.

  16. Free radicals and related reactive species as mediators of tissue injury and disease: implications for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrer, James P; Klotz, Lars-Oliver

    2015-01-01

    A radical is any molecule that contains one or more unpaired electrons. Radicals are normal products of many metabolic pathways. Some exist in a controlled (caged) form as they perform essential functions. Others exist in a free form and interact with various tissue components. Such interactions can cause both acute and chronic dysfunction, but can also provide essential control of redox regulated signaling pathways. The potential roles of endogenous or xenobiotic-derived free radicals in several human pathologies have stimulated extensive research linking the toxicity of numerous xenobiotics and disease processes to a free radical mechanism. In recent years, improvements in analytical methodologies, as well as the realization that subtle effects induced by free radicals and oxidants are important in modulating cellular signaling, have greatly improved our understanding of the roles of these reactive species in toxic mechanisms and disease processes. However, because free radical-mediated changes are pervasive, and a consequence as well as a cause of injury, whether such species are a major cause of tissue injury and human disease remains unclear. This concern is supported by the fact that the bulk of antioxidant defenses are enzymatic and the findings of numerous studies showing that exogenously administered small molecule antioxidants are unable to affect the course of most toxicities and diseases purported to have a free radical mechanism. This review discusses cellular sources of various radical species and their reactions with vital cellular constituents, and provides examples of selected disease processes that may have a free radical component.

  17. Effect of modified surgical method on subcutaneous hydrops of patients with breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Li; Hua-Feng Pan; Gui-Lan Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Through prospective randomized clinical study,to observe the preventive effect of improved surgical method to subcutaneous hydrops after modified radical mastec tomy. Method: A total of 80 cases of patients who have done modified radical mastectomy were selected, and randomly divided them into study group (40 cases) and control group (40 cases), then adopted different surgical methods as followed respectively, to observe the daily drainage volume at the first 3 d after ...

  18. Bactericidal Effect of Photolysis of H2O2 in Combination with Sonolysis of Water via Hydroxyl Radical Generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sheng

    Full Text Available The bactericidal effect of hydroxyl radical (·OH generated by combination of photolysis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and sonolysis of water was examined under the condition in which the yield of ·OH increased additively when H2O2 aqueous solution was concomitantly irradiated with laser and ultrasound. The suspension of Staphylococcus aureus mixed with the different concentrations of H2O2 was irradiated simultaneously with a laser light (wavelength: 405 nm, irradiance: 46 and 91 mW/cm2 and ultrasound (power: 30 w, frequency: 1.65 MHz at 20 ± 1°C of the water bulk temperature for 2 min. The combination of laser and ultrasound irradiation significantly reduced the viable bacterial count in comparison with the laser irradiation of H2O2 alone. By contrast, the ultrasound irradiation alone exerted almost no bactericidal effect. These results suggested that the combination effect of photolysis of H2O2 and sonolysis of water on bactericidal activity was synergistic. A multi-way analysis of variance also revealed that the interaction of H2O2 concentration, laser power and ultrasound irradiation significantly affected the bactericidal activity. Since the result of oxidative DNA damage evaluation demonstrated that the combination of laser and ultrasound irradiation significantly induced oxidative damage of bacterial DNA in comparison with the laser irradiation of H2O2 alone, it was suggested that the combination effect of photolysis of H2O2 and sonolysis of water on bactericidal activity would be exerted via oxidative damage of cellular components such as DNA.

  19. Bactericidal Effect of Photolysis of H2O2 in Combination with Sonolysis of Water via Hydroxyl Radical Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Hong; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    The bactericidal effect of hydroxyl radical (·OH) generated by combination of photolysis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sonolysis of water was examined under the condition in which the yield of ·OH increased additively when H2O2 aqueous solution was concomitantly irradiated with laser and ultrasound. The suspension of Staphylococcus aureus mixed with the different concentrations of H2O2 was irradiated simultaneously with a laser light (wavelength: 405 nm, irradiance: 46 and 91 mW/cm2) and ultrasound (power: 30 w, frequency: 1.65 MHz) at 20 ± 1°C of the water bulk temperature for 2 min. The combination of laser and ultrasound irradiation significantly reduced the viable bacterial count in comparison with the laser irradiation of H2O2 alone. By contrast, the ultrasound irradiation alone exerted almost no bactericidal effect. These results suggested that the combination effect of photolysis of H2O2 and sonolysis of water on bactericidal activity was synergistic. A multi-way analysis of variance also revealed that the interaction of H2O2 concentration, laser power and ultrasound irradiation significantly affected the bactericidal activity. Since the result of oxidative DNA damage evaluation demonstrated that the combination of laser and ultrasound irradiation significantly induced oxidative damage of bacterial DNA in comparison with the laser irradiation of H2O2 alone, it was suggested that the combination effect of photolysis of H2O2 and sonolysis of water on bactericidal activity would be exerted via oxidative damage of cellular components such as DNA.

  20. Exogenous Antioxidants—Double-Edged Swords in Cellular Redox State: Health Beneficial Effects at Physiologic Doses versus Deleterious Effects at High Doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaouad Bouayed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The balance between oxidation and antioxidation is believed to be critical in maintaining healthy biological systems. Under physiological conditions, the human antioxidative defense system including e.g., superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione (GSH and others, allows the elimination of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS including, among others superoxide anions (O2.-, hydroxyl radicals (OH., alkoxyl radicals (RO. and peroxyradicals (ROO.. However, our endogenous antioxidant defense systems are incomplete without exogenous originating reducing compounds such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and polyphenols, playing an essential role in many antioxidant mechanisms in living organisms. Therefore, there is continuous demand for exogenous antioxidants in order to prevent oxidative stress, representing a disequilibrium redox state in favor of oxidation. However, high doses of isolated compounds may be toxic, owing to prooxidative effects at high concentrations or their potential to react with beneficial concentrations of ROS normally present at physiological conditions that are required for optimal cellular functioning. This review aims to examine the double-edged effects of dietary originating antioxidants with a focus on the most abundant compounds, especially polyphenols, vitamin C, vitamin E and carotenoids. Different approaches to enrich our body with exogenous antioxidants such as via synthetic antioxidants, diets rich in fruits and vegetables and taking supplements will be reviewed and experimental and epidemiological evidences discussed, highlighting that antioxidants at physiological doses are generally safe, exhibiting interesting health beneficial effects.

  1. Effects of magnitude, depth, and time on cellular seismology forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Steven Wolf

    This study finds that, in most cases analyzed to date, past seismicity tends to delineate zones where future earthquakes are likely to occur. Network seismicity catalogs for the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ), Australia (AUS), California (CA), and Alaska (AK) are analyzed using modified versions of the Cellular Seismology (CS) method of Kafka (2002, 2007). The percentage of later occurring earthquakes located near earlier occurring earthquakes typically exceeds the expected percentage for randomly distributed later occurring earthquakes, and the specific percentage is influenced by several variables, including magnitude, depth, time, and tectonic setting. At 33% map area coverage, hit percents are typically 85-95% in the NMSZ, 50-60% in AUS, 75-85% in CA, and 75-85% in AK. Statistical significance testing is performed on trials analyzing the same variables so that the overall regions can be compared, although some tests are inconclusive due to the small number of earthquake sample sizes. These results offer useful insights into understanding the capabilities and limits of CS studies, which can provide guidance for improving the seismicity-based components of seismic hazard assessments.

  2. Misonidazole in patients receiving radical radiotherapy: pharmacokinetic effects of phenytoin tumor response and neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.L.; Biol, F.I.; Patterson, I.C.M.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.; Henk, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    In 1978, a pilot study began of 29 patients with advanced tumors of the head and neck. The study showed an initial peripheral neuropathy rate of 55%, despite a dose limitation of 12 g/m 2 of misonidazole. Tumor response at 9 months was most encouraging. We are now able to examine tumor response and persistence of neuropathy in these patients 2 1/2 years after radical radiotherapy. The results are comparable with those obtained with hyperbaric oxygen in a clinical trial at this center during the 1970's. Neuropathy was a serious side effect but the drug phenytoin has been shown to shorten the half-life of misonidazole. We have examined the effect of phenytoin on the pharmacokinetics of misonidazole in 13 patients who received radical radiotherapy for advanced head and neck tumors or oesophageal tumors. Misonidazole was given in multiple doses, i.e. daily or weekly as it would be used in conventional therapy. Phenytoin was given either daily throughout treatment, or it was withdrawn during treatment. There were dramatic changes in the half-life of misonidazole, but the concentration at the time of irradiation was little affected. The significant changes in the half-life of misonidazole and the increased concentration of the metabolite desmethylmisonidazole are discussed

  3. Proton flux effects and prediction on the free radicals behavior of polyimide in vacuum using EPR measurements in ambient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Chengyue [Physics Department, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); National Key Lab of Materials Behaviors and Evaluation Technology in Space Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wu, Yiyong, E-mail: wuyiyong@hit.edu.cn [National Key Lab of Materials Behaviors and Evaluation Technology in Space Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Xiao, Jingdong [National Key Lab of Materials Behaviors and Evaluation Technology in Space Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yu, Sui [Physics Department, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yi, Zhong; Shen, Zicai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Li [Qian Xuesen Laboratory of Space Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Yi [Lanzhou Institute of Physics, CAST, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Irradiation flux is an important parameter to the material irradiation damage investigation, for space material irradiation damage evaluation and the accelerated ground-based test, the irradiation flux effects cannot be ignored. In this paper, the polyimide was set as the research object, the irradiation flux effect and mechanism are investigated by the means of electron paramagnetic resonance test, and based on the free radical dynamic analysis, the dynamics mode of free radical population in vacumm can be established as a function of irradiation time (or proton irradiation flux). The results show that the free radical anneal process in vacuum follows the exponential mode, and the characteristic time constant τ{sub radical-vacuum} is about 1.9 h. Furthermore, a simplified method is proposed with the investigation of the free radical behavior of the irradiated surface modification polyimide (TiO{sub 2}/PI), and the characteristic time constant τ{sub bulk} is 1.9 h, which is almost the same to the value of τ{sub radical-vacuum}.

  4. Effect of asynchronous updating on the stability of cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baetens, J.M.; Van der Weeën, P.; De Baets, B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An upper bound on the Lyapunov exponent of asynchronously updated CA is established. ► The employed update method has repercussions on the stability of CAs. ► A decision on the employed update method should be taken with care. ► Substantial discrepancies arise between synchronously and asynchronously updated CA. ► Discrepancies between different asynchronous update schemes are less pronounced. - Abstract: Although cellular automata (CAs) were conceptualized as utter discrete mathematical models in which the states of all their spatial entities are updated simultaneously at every consecutive time step, i.e. synchronously, various CA-based models that rely on so-called asynchronous update methods have been constructed in order to overcome the limitations that are tied up with the classical way of evolving CAs. So far, only a few researchers have addressed the consequences of this way of updating on the evolved spatio-temporal patterns, and the reachable stationary states. In this paper, we exploit Lyapunov exponents to determine to what extent the stability of the rules within a family of totalistic CAs is affected by the underlying update method. For that purpose, we derive an upper bound on the maximum Lyapunov exponent of asynchronously iterated CAs, and show its validity, after which we present a comparative study between the Lyapunov exponents obtained for five different update methods, namely one synchronous method and four well-established asynchronous methods. It is found that the stability of CAs is seriously affected if one of the latter methods is employed, whereas the discrepancies arising between the different asynchronous methods are far less pronounced and, finally, we discuss the repercussions of our findings on the development of CA-based models.

  5. Effect of Picibanil (OK 432) on the Scavenging Effect of Free Radicals Produced during Liver Regeneration in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Ko; Hamazaki, Keisuke; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Orita, Kunzo; Mori, Akitane

    1995-01-01

    We administered a biological response modifier Picibanil (OK-432), attenuated Streptococcus pyogenes, via the dorsal vein of the penis after 70% hepatectomy in rats, and clarified the scavenging effect of Picibanil on free radicals generated in the regenerating liver. A group of 5 rats was intravenously administered with 25 KE/kg of OK-432 after hepatectomy, while the control group was given saline after hepatectomy. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and ...

  6. Cellular and tissue effects of hyperthermia and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the idea that hyperthermia is likely to be most effective in poorly perfused regions, which is where radiotherapy and chemotherapy are least effective. The author suggests that a therapeutic gain might, therefore, be obtained by combined treatments

  7. Size effects in ductile cellular solids. Part I : modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onck, P.R.; Andrews, E.W.; Gibson, L.J.

    2001-01-01

    In the mechanical testing of metallic foams, an important issue is the effect of the specimen size, relative to the cell size, on the measured properties. Here we analyze size effects for the modulus and strength of regular, hexagonal honeycombs under uniaxial and shear loadings. Size effects for

  8. Effects of chemical structure on the thermodynamic efficiency of radical chain carriers for organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching Yeh; Peh, Jessie; Coote, Michelle L

    2011-03-18

    The chain carrier index (CCI), defined as the ratio of the bond dissociation free energies (BDFE) of corresponding chain carrier halides and hydrides, is proposed as a measure of the thermodynamic efficiency of chain carriers for radical dehalogenation. The larger this value is relative to the corresponding value of the organic substrate, the more thermodynamically efficient the process. The chloride and bromide CCIs were evaluated at the G3(MP2)-RAD(+) level of theory for 120 different R-groups, covering a broad range of carbon-centered and noncarbon-centered species; the effects of solvent and temperature have also been studied. The broad finding from this work is that successful chain carriers generally maximize the strength of their halide (versus hydride bonds) through charge-shift bonding. As a result, the thermodynamic efficiency of a chain carrier tends to increase down the periodic table, and also with the inclusion of stronger electron donating substituents. The CCIs of carbon-centered species fall into a relatively narrow range so that, even when the CCI is maximized through inclusion of lone pair donor OMe or NMe(2) groups, the thermodynamic driving force for dehalogenation of other organic substrates is modest at best, and the process is likely to be kinetically hampered. Among the noncarbon-centered species studied, bismuth- and borane-centered compounds have some of the highest CCI values and, although their kinetics requires further optimization, these classes of compounds would be worth further investigation as tin-free radical reducing agents.

  9. Reverse effect of Balkan radical Islamists' engagement in the armed conflict in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevčić Stevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an apparent tendency to increase activism among Balkan Muslims (mostly Sunni denomination within Islam and their desire to participate in solving the problems of Muslims globally. As a result of this trend, the involvement of individuals from the ranks of radical Islamist groups in the armed conflict in Syria is not surprising. What characterizes these individuals is going through the complex process of radicalization at the individual level within which strong motivation is formed for taking part in such an extreme form of social conflict such as a civil war. Due to the strong indoctrination, they perceive the participation in this conflict as their duty to the whole community of believers, accepting even the possibility of their own death which they see as martyrdom. The connection of these individuals with the global Islamistic terrorist network may affect the Balkan countries' security. After the end of the Syria conflict or earlier, a number of these individuals will be directed to other crisis areas, while some of them will return to their home countries. Additionally indoctrinated with acquired combat experience and military expertise, these people can play a key role in planning, preparation or commission of terrorist acts in the Balkans and Europe as a whole. Taking adequate and timely measures is a necessary condition for an effective opposition to this kind of religious based terrorism.

  10. Bactericidal effect of colistin on planktonic Pseudomonas aeruginosa is independent of hydroxyl radical formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brochmann, Rikke Prejh; Toft, Anders; Ciofu, Oana

    2014-01-01

    The bactericidal effect of several major types of antibiotics has recently been demonstrated to be dependent on the formation of toxic amounts of hydroxyl radicals (OH·) resulting from oxidative stress in metabolically active cells. Since killing by the antimicrobial peptide colistin does...... not require bacterial metabolic activity, we tested whether the bactericidal effect of colistin depends on the formation of OH·. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures, OH-mediated killing by ciprofloxacin was demonstrated by decreased bacterial survival and induction of 3'-(p-hydroxyphenyl) fluorescein (HPF......) fluorescence. OH·-mediated killing by ciprofloxacin was further confirmed by rescue of cells and reduction of HPF fluorescence due to prevention of OH· accumulation by scavenging with thiourea, by chelating with dipyridyl, by decreasing metabolism as well as by anoxic growth. In contrast, no formation of OH...

  11. Effects of the components in rice flour on thermal radical generation under microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lufen; Huang, Luelue; Fan, Daming; Hu, Bo; Gao, Yishu; Lian, Huizhang; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-12-01

    The relationships between radical generation under microwave irradiation and the components of various types of rice flour were investigated. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the radicals found in rice flour samples. The EPR spectra revealed that several types of radical (carbon-centered, tyrosyl and semiquinone) were localized in the starch and protein fractions of the rice flour. The signal intensity of the free radicals was observed to increase exponentially with increasing microwave power and residence time. The rice bran samples exhibited the greatest free radical signal intensity, followed by the brown rice samples and the white rice samples. This finding was consistent for both the native and the microwaved samples. The ratio of rice starch to rice protein also played an important role in the generation of radicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wan-Loy; Lim, Yen-Wei; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty; Lim, Phaik-Eem

    2010-09-21

    Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3) cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control) at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls). Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL). The extract reduced significantly (p assay, the radical scavenging activity of the extract was higher than phycocyanin and was at least 50% of vitamin C and vitamin E. Based on the ABTS assay, the antioxidant activity of the extract at 50 μmug/mL was as good as vitamin C and vitamin E. The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.

  13. AFM studies of environmental effects on nanomechanical properties and cellular structure of human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Chen, Nianhuan

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of cellular structure and physical and mechanical properties of hair are essential to develop better cosmetic products and advance biological and cosmetic science. Although the morphology of the cellular structure of human hair has been traditionally investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, these techniques provide limited capability to in situ study of the physical and mechanical properties of human hair in various environments. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) overcomes these problems and can be used for characterization in ambient conditions without requiring specific sample preparations and surface treatment. In this study, film thickness, adhesive forces and effective Young's modulus of various hair surfaces were measured at different environments (humidity and temperature) using force calibration plot technique with an AFM. Torsional resonance mode phase contrast images were also taken in order to characterize the morphology and cellular structure changes of human hair at different humidity. The correlation between the nanomechanical properties and the cellular structure of hair is discussed

  14. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Ammu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. Methods The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3 cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls. Results Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL. The extract reduced significantly (p Conclusions The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.

  15. Oncologic effectiveness of nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditto, Antonino; Bogani, Giorgio; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Martinelli, Fabio; Chiappa, Valentina; Lopez, Carlos; Perotto, Stefania; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2018-05-01

    Nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy (NSRH) was introduced with the aim to reduce pelvic dysfunctions related to conventional radical hysterectomy (RH). Here, we sought to assess the effectiveness and safety of NSRH in a relatively large number of the patients of cervical cancer (CC) patients undergoing either primary surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by surgery. Outcomes of consecutive patients undergoing NSRH and of a historical cohort of patients undergoing conventional RH were retrospectively reviewed. This study included 325 (49.8%) and 327 (50.2%) undergoing NSRH and RH, respectively. Via a multivariable model, nodal status was the only factor predicting for DFS (hazard ratio [HR]=2.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.17-3.73; p=0.01). A trend towards high risk of recurrence was observed for patients affected by locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) undergoing NACT followed by surgery (HR=2.57; 95% CI=0.95-6.96; p=0.06). Type of surgical procedures (NSRH vs. RH) did not influence risk of recurrence (p=0.47). Similarly, we observed that the execution of NSRH rather than RH had not a detrimental effect on OS (HR=1.19; 95% CI=0.16-9.01; p=0.87). Via multivariable model, no factor directly correlated with OS. No difference in early complication rates was observed between the study groups. Conversely, a significant higher number of late complications was reported in RH versus NSRH groups (p=0.02). Our data suggested that NSRH upholds effectiveness of conventional RH, without increasing recurrence and complication rates but improving pelvic dysfunction rates. Copyright © 2018. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

  16. In vitro effects of platinum compounds on renal cellular respiration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarzooqi, Saeeda-S; Alfazari, Ali-S; Abdul-Kader, Hidaya-M; Saraswathiamma, Dhanya; Albawardi, Alia-S; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are structurally-related compounds, which are commonly used in cancer therapy. Cisplatin (Platinol(®)) has Boxed Warning stating: "Cumulative renal toxicity associated with PLATINOL is severe", while carboplatin and oxaliplatin are less nephrotoxic. These drugs form platinum adducts with cellular DNA. Their bindings to cellular thiols (e.g., glutathione and metallothionein) are known to contribute to drug resistance while thiol depletion augments platinum toxicity. Using phosphorescence oxygen analyzer, this study investigated the effects of platinum drugs on renal cellular respiration (mitochondrial O2 consumption) in the presence and absence of the thiol blocking agent N-ethylmaleimide (used here as a model for thiol depletion). Renal cellular ATP was also determined. Kidney fragments from C57BL/6 mice were incubated at 37 °C in Krebs-Henseleit buffer (gassed with 95% O2:5% CO2) with and without 100 μM platinum drug in the presence and absence of 100 μM N-ethylmaleimide for ≤ 6 h. Platinum drugs alone had no effects on cellular respiration (P ≥ 0.143) or ATP (P ≥ 0.161). N-ethylmaleimide lowered cellular respiration (P ≤ 0.114) and ATP (P = 0.008). The combination of platinum drug and N-ethylmaleimide significantly lowered both cellular respiration (P ≤ 0.006) and ATP (P ≤ 0.003). Incubations with N-ethylmaleimide alone were associated with moderate-to-severe tubular necrosis. Incubations with cisplatin+N-ethylmaleimide vs. cisplatin alone produced similar severities of tubular necrosis. Tubular derangements were more prominent in carboplatin+N-ethylmaleimide vs. carboplatin alone and in oxaliplatin+N-ethylmaleimide vs. oxaliplatin alone. These results demonstrate the adverse events of thiol depletion on platinum-induced nephrotoxicities. The results suggest cellular bioenergetics is a useful surrogate biomarker for assessing drug-induced nephrotoxicities.

  17. Photoprotective effect of vitamins A and E on polyamine and oxygenated free radical metabolism in hairless mouse epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khettab, N; Amory, M C; Briand, G; Bousquet, B; Combre, A; Forlot, P; Barey, M

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to confirm the photoprotective effect on skin of vitamins A and E, due to inhibition of polyamine synthesis and production of free radicals. These variables were measured in the lumbar epidermis of the female hairless mouse subjected to UVA + B irradiation. Polyamines were assayed in epidermal homogenate by HPLC, and production of oxygenated free radicals was determined by spectrofluorometric assay of malonyl dialdehyde. It was determined that butyl-hydroxy-toluene and vitamin E inhibited production of free radicals (56% and 60%, respectively) and caused a significant reduction in polyamine biosynthesis (P less than 0.01), whereas the inhibitory effect of malonyl dialdehyde induced by vitamin A (30%) had no associated effect on polyamine metabolism.

  18. Size effects in ductile cellular solids. Part II : experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrews, E.W.; Gioux, G.; Onck, P.; Gibson, L.J.

    2001-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of metallic foams in a variety of applications, including lightweight structural sandwich panels and energy absorption devices. In such applications, the mechanical response of the foams is of critical importance. In this study, we have investigated the effect

  19. THE EFFECT OF CELLULAR PHONE USE ON DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiro ISHIDA

    2001-01-01

    In this experiment, it was confirmed that use of a hands-free set is effective to some extent, but driving performance was poorer than with driving only. Even though different forms of in-vehicle information apparatus were used, a delay in information processing was consistently found.

  20. Effect of organoelemental compounds of group 3 elements on radical polymerization of vinyl monomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, D.F.; Mojkin, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    When alkyl, alkyl alkoxy, and alkyl halide derivatives of boron and aluminium are introduced into the system in amounts that are comparable to the concentration of initiator, they coordinate to the growing macroradicals, thus changing their reactivity, and exert regulating effect on the rate of polymerization of vinyl monomers and the molecular mass of the resulting polymers. The said organoelemental compounds accelerate the polymerization of butyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, acrylonitrile, vinyl acetate, and vinylidene chloride, reduce the molecular mass of acrylic polymers, and virtually do not affect the polymerization of styrene. The specific features of vinyl polymerization are associated with participation of organoelemental additives at the stages of chain growth and chain termination and can be explained within the framework of the mechanism of radical-coordination polymerization. 32 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Isotope substitution effects on preferred conformations of some hydrocarbon radical cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunell, S.; Eriksson, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    The stability of different conformational isomers of partially deuterated radical cations of ethane, butane, and cyclopropane is studied at the HF/6-31G** and MP2/6-31G** levels. It is shown that the superposition patterns of spectra corresponding to different isomers, observed in ESR spectroscopy, are accurately reproduced by Boltzmann statistics based on differences in vibrational zero-point energies (ZPE), provided that the temperature is high enough to overcome existing barriers toward internal pseudorotation in the cations. For the ethane and butane cations, the most stable conformations are, as expected, those which are deuterated in the short CH bonds, while this is found not to be the case for the cyclopropane cation. The latter result is explained by shifts in the low-frequency bending modes, which counteract the anticipated isotope effect on the C H stretching modes

  2. Effects of ionizing radiation and the molecular and cellular mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This symposium with its 60 contributions presents a survey of the current state of the art in molecular radiation biophysics and radiobiology in the FRG. Many contributions show the trend of applying findings in these fields to cancer research. The various sessions have been devoted to: 1) Radiation chemistry of biomolecules; 2) DNA damage and repair; 3) Repair of DNA damage; 4) Cell proliferation and cell inactivation; 5) Cancerogenesis, mutation and chromosomal damage; 6) Effects of heavy ions. (AJ) [de

  3. Oxidative damage to fibronectin. 2. The effect of H2O2 and the hydroxyl radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissers, M.C.; Winterbourn, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of H2O2 and the hydroxyl radical (.OH) on fibronectin was investigated. .OH was generated in three ways: (1) by radiolysis with 60Co under N2O, or by the Fenton system using either (2) equimolar Fe(2+)-EDTA and H2O2 or (3) H2O2 and catalytic amounts of Fe(2+)-EDTA recycled with ascorbate. Each system had a different effect. H2O2 alone caused no changes, even at an 800-fold molar excess. Radiolytic .OH caused a rapid loss of tryptophan fluorescence, an increase in bityrosine fluorescence, and extensive crosslinking. The Fenton system using Fe-EDTA, H2O2, and ascorbate caused a loss in tryptophan fluorescence, a smaller increase in bityrosine than was seen with radiolytic .OH, and a threefold increase in carbonyl groups. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis fragmentation of fibronectin was seen. In contrast, when .OH was generated with equimolar Fe-EDTA and H2O2, the only change was a small increase in bityrosine fluorescence at the highest dose of oxidant. None of the systems used affected cysteine. All the changes except the loss of tryptophan by radiolytic .OH were completely inhibited with mannitol. The differences seen with radiolytic .OH and the Fe-EDTA, H2O2, ascorbate system were not solely due to O2 in the latter system since similar results were obtained under N2. The differences between radiolytic .OH and the Fenton systems could be partly due to the components of the latter systems reacting with .OH and thus competing with fibronectin. The authors results demonstrate that the extent and type of fibronectin damage by .OH is dependent on the mode of radical generation

  4. Radiation-induced damage in T4 bacteriophage: the effect of superoxid radicals and molecular oxygen. Progress report, December 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuni, A.; Chevion, M.; Halpern, Y.S.; Ilan, Y.A.; Czapski, G.

    1978-01-01

    The sensitivity of T4 bacteriophage towards γ irradiation has been studied in phosphate buffer suspensions. The spectrum of the water radicals was controlled by a careful choice of the appropriate saturating gas and the addition of radical scavengers. Thus, it was possible to distinguish between the effects of molecular oxygen and the superoxide radicals formed through its reactions. About 90 percent of the damage was caused by the water radicals formed in the bulk suspensions. These probably affected the phage proteins; only the remainder of the damage involved the viral DNA. The oxygen enhancement ratio observed was not connected in any way with the formation of the superoxide radicals. The results confirmed that the OH radicals are the reactive species, while e - /sub aq/ as well as the superoxide radical do not contribute to the radiodamage

  5. Cellular and molecular effects of electromagnetic radiation and sonic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Froes Meyer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic radiation (in the form of pulsed magnetic fields, radiofrequency and intense pulsed light and mechanical agents (such as sonic waves have been used in physical therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of low-intensity magnetic fields, sonic and radiofrequency waves, and intense pulsed light on the survival of Escherichia coli cultures and on the electrophoretic mobility of plasmid DNA. Exponentially growing E. coli AB1157 cultures and plasmid DNA samples were exposed to these physical agents and 0.9% NaCl (negative control and SnCl2 (positive control solutions. Aliquots of the cultures were diluted and spread onto a solidified rich medium. The colony-forming units were counted after overnight incubation and the survival fraction was calculated. Agarose gel electrophoresis was performed to visualise and quantify the plasmid topological forms. The results suggest that these agents do not alter the survival of E. coli cells or plasmid DNA electrophoresis mobility. Moreover, they do not protect against the lesive action of SnCl2. These physical agents therefore had no cytotoxic or genotoxic effects under the conditions studied.

  6. Effects of Biofeedback in Preventing Urinary Incontinence and Erectile Dysfunction after Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana S. B. Perez

    2018-02-01

    verified that the anal pressure after surgery was significantly higher (p < 0.0001. The results strongly suggest that the preoperative biofeedback procedure was effective in decreasing urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy. As future work, we intend to extend this analysis for larger samples and considering a broader age range.

  7. Radical perineal prostatectomy: cost efficient, outcome effective, minimally invasive prostate cancer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael J

    2003-09-01

    invasive nature of this procedure contribute to a short recovery and low overall cost of therapy. The anatomic radical perineal prostatectomy is a cost-efficient, outcome effective minimally invasive method of treating men with localized prostate cancer.

  8. Effects of natural water constituents on the photo-decomposition of methylmercury and the role of hydroxyl radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon-Kyung; Zoh, Kyung-Duk, E-mail: zohkd@snu.ac.kr

    2013-04-01

    Photo-decomposition of methylmercury (MeHg) in surface water is thought to be an important process that reduces the bioavailability of mercury (Hg) to aquatic organisms. In this study, photo-initiated decomposition of MeHg was investigated under UVA irradiation in the presence of natural water constituents including NO{sub 3}{sup −}, Fe{sup 3+}, and HCO{sub 3}{sup −} ions, and dissolved organic matter such as humic and fulvic acid. MeHg degradation followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics; the rate constant increased with increasing UVA intensity (0.3 to 3.0 mW cm{sup −2}). In the presence of NO{sub 3}{sup −}, Fe{sup 3+}, and fulvic acid, the decomposition rate of MeHg increased significantly due to photosensitization by reactive species such as hydroxyl radical. The presence of humic acid and HCO{sub 3}{sup −} ions lowered the degradation rate through a radical scavenging effect. Increasing the pH of the solution increased the degradation rate constant by enhancing the generation of hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals play an important role in the photo-decomposition of MeHg in water, and natural constituents in water can affect the photo-decomposition of MeHg by changing radical production and inhibition. - Highlights: ► The abiotic photodecomposition of methylmercury (MeHg) in water was examined. ► UVA light is a primary factor inducing MeHg photodecomposition in water. ► Fulvic acid, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, and Fe{sup 3+} ion increased MeHg photo-decomposition rate significantly. ► Humic acid and HCO{sub 3}{sup −} ions inhibited photodecomposition through radical scavenging. ► OH radical is an important compound affecting photodecomposition of MeHg in water.

  9. Cellular mechanisms of the radiomodifying effect of hypothermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmukhanov, S.B.; Karakulov, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    The irradiation of experimental tumors with a dose of 2000 to 2500 rad (20 to 25 J/kg) under hypothermia promoted an inhibition of the growth to a greater degree than the irradiation under normal conditions. In Guerin's tumor the inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis was more expressed after the irradiation under hypothermic conditions than under the irradiation, and/or hypothermia alone. After the irradiation of the Guerin's tumor under hypothermia the cells were synchronized during the presynthetic phase of the cycle (block G 1 to S), and the effect of synchronization was more expressed in the tumor than in the normal tissue. The irradiation under hypothermia decreased the proliferative pool to a greater degree than the irradiation and/or hypothermia alone. (author)

  10. On the effect of memory in a quantum prisoner's dilemma cellular automaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Revuelta, Fabio

    2018-03-01

    The disrupting effect of quantum memory on the dynamics of a spatial quantum formulation of the iterated prisoner's dilemma game with variable entangling is studied. The game is played within a cellular automata framework, i.e., with local and synchronous interactions. The main findings of this work refer to the shrinking effect of memory on the disruption induced by noise.

  11. Boundary effects on car accidents in a cellular automaton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xianqing; Ma Yuqiang; Zhao Yuemin

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we numerically study the probability P ac of occurrence of car accidents in the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) model with open boundary condition. In the deterministic NS model, numerical results show that there exists a critical value of extinction rate β above which no car accidents occur, and below which the probability P ac is independent of the speed limit v max and the injection rate α, but only determined by the extinction rate β. In the non-deterministic NS model, the probability P ac is a non-monotonic function of β in the region of low β value, while it is independent of β in the region of high β value. The stochastic braking not only reduces the occurrence of car accidents, but splits degenerate effects of v max on the probability P ac . Theoretical analyses give an agreement with numerical results in the deterministic NS model and in the non-deterministic NS model with v max = 1 in the case of low β value region. Qualitative differences between open and periodic systems in the relations of P ac to the bulk density ρ imply that various correlations may exist between the two systems

  12. Effect of water and ethanol radicals on the protein part of human hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szweda-Lewandowska, Z.; Puchala, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper studies the changes in the tryptophan fluorescence in human hemoglobin induced by ·OH, e aq - , H atoms and ethanol radicals. Measurements of irradiated hemoglobin performed in phosphate buffer, pH 7, indicate that the processes of unfolding a protein are induced with the highest efficiency by the ·OH radicals. A destructive action of e aq - is more evident in the absence of the ·OH radicals. Fluorescence measurements carried out after incubation of irradiated hemoglobin in Gdn·HCl solution reveal the tryptophan residues destruction, which is relatively small (at 2.5 kGy maximum fluorescence decrease was about 23%) and caused by the ·OH radicals. Within the dose range, the participation of the e aq - , H atoms and ethanol radicals in hemoglobin tryptophan residue destruction can be neglected. (author)

  13. Effect of free radical scavenger, edaravone, for patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Fujisawa, Yutaka; Onodera, Makoto; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Sasaki, Makoto; Ehara, Shigeru; Sakai, Akio; Endo, Shigeatsu

    2015-12-01

    Chronic neurological symptoms after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are caused by various biological processes in the damaged brain, with free radicals playing roles as mediators in establishing pathological processes leading to chronic neurological symptoms under CO poisoning. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a free radical scavenger, edaravone, in patients with CO poisoning. We retrospectively compared two groups comprising patients treated with hyperbaric oxygenation alone (Group A, n=25) or edaravone in addition to hyperbaric oxygenation (Group B, n=25). Edaravone was administrated intravenously at 30 mg every 12h for 7 days. Patient characteristics, general conditions on admission, and frequency of chronic neurological symptoms were compared between groups. Among patients showing chronic neurological symptoms, cognitive function and daily activity were also compared between groups. No significant differences in characteristics or general conditions on admission were identified between groups. In Group B, no patients presented with marked complications caused by edaravone. Although chronic persisting symptoms were less frequent in Group B (n=1, 0.04%) than in Group A (n=5, 20%), this difference was not significant. In the 11 patients showing chronic symptoms, scores for cognitive function and daily activity in the chronic phase were better in Group B than in Group A, but no significant differences were apparent. The present results suggest that edaravone represents a tolerable and feasible treatment for CO-poisoned patients. Further studies are needed to clarify whether edaravone can favorably influence chronic neurological symptoms caused by CO poisoning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigating the solvent and temperature effects on the cyclohexadienyl radical in an ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Becky; Cormier, P.J.; Lauzon, J.M.; Ghandi, Khashayar

    2009-01-01

    The cyclohexadienyl radical was studied in a novel green solvent; tetradecyl (trihexyl) phosphonium chloride ionic liquid (IL 101). Both the solvent effects and how the hyperfine coupling changes with respect to temperature have been examined and compared to literature. This was done through experimental muon techniques at the TRIUMF National Laboratory in Canada as well as through ab initio calculations. The ionic liquid solvent effects were found to be consistent with other solvents, when assuming ionic liquids to be a combination of ion pairs. In ionic liquid the hyperfine coupling constants of the proton and reduced muon decreased linearly with increasing temperature. The analysis showed that the majority of this relationship is due to a vibrational effect, although the solvent density plays a role too. The temperature effect on the entropy of the system was determined to be negligible. The temperature coefficient of the reduced muon hyperfine coupling was larger than that of the proton in IL 101 due to the effects of nearby ionic liquid molecules.

  15. Investigating the solvent and temperature effects on the cyclohexadienyl radical in an ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Becky; Cormier, P.J.; Lauzon, J.M. [Department of Chemistry, Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick, E4L 1G3 (Canada); Ghandi, Khashayar, E-mail: kghandi@mta.c [Department of Chemistry, Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick, E4L 1G3 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    The cyclohexadienyl radical was studied in a novel green solvent; tetradecyl (trihexyl) phosphonium chloride ionic liquid (IL 101). Both the solvent effects and how the hyperfine coupling changes with respect to temperature have been examined and compared to literature. This was done through experimental muon techniques at the TRIUMF National Laboratory in Canada as well as through ab initio calculations. The ionic liquid solvent effects were found to be consistent with other solvents, when assuming ionic liquids to be a combination of ion pairs. In ionic liquid the hyperfine coupling constants of the proton and reduced muon decreased linearly with increasing temperature. The analysis showed that the majority of this relationship is due to a vibrational effect, although the solvent density plays a role too. The temperature effect on the entropy of the system was determined to be negligible. The temperature coefficient of the reduced muon hyperfine coupling was larger than that of the proton in IL 101 due to the effects of nearby ionic liquid molecules.

  16. Effect of radiation sterilization on free radicals content in dry beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayati, Nur; Sudiro, Sutjipto; Maha, Munsiah

    1998-01-01

    This study was done to determine free radicals content in several dry beverages, namely instant coffee, milk powder, cane sugar, nutrisari, tea, and cacao powder after radiation-sterilization at 25 kGy and stored at room (24 o C) and freezing (-13 o C) temperatures. Each sample was vacuum-packed in Al foil laminate pouches, then irradiated at 25 kGy in dry ice temperature. Free radicals contents in some samples after being dissolved or soaked in hot water (73 o C) then freeze-dried were also measured. The free radicals content was measured using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy and expressed in spectrum area/g in arbitrary unit. The results showed that free radicals content increased after irradiation, but it decreased immediately after storage especially at room temperature. After about 5 months storage either at room or freezing temperature, free radicals contents of irradiated coffee, milk, powder and cacao powder were similar to those of the unirradiated control, while in tea sample stored at freezing temperature, the free radicals content was still a little bit higher than that stored at room temperature which was already similar to the control. Free radicals content of irradiated sugar as well as nutrisari was higher than the other samples, and the radicals were relatively stable either at room or freezing temperatures. However, after dissolving or soaking the samples in water, the ESR spectra or free radicals contents of the irradiated samples were found to be identical to the control. This indicates that free radicals formed by irradiation in the samples disappear because termination. (authors)

  17. Radioprotective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide in golden hamster embryo cells exposed to gamma rays at 77 K. I. Radical formation as studied by electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, T.; Hayakawa, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, M.; Watanabe, M.

    1990-01-01

    Formation of free radicals in golden hamster embryo (GHE) cells in the frozen living state by gamma irradiation has been studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy at 4.2 and 77 K. The relative yields of H atoms, OH radicals, and organic radicals trapped in the irradiated GHE cells are 12, 72, and 16%, respectively, of total radical yields. When dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is added to GHE cells at 77 K, a large quantity of CH2SOCH3 radicals (DMSO radicals) are formed after gamma irradiation. The yields of OH radicals are not affected by the addition of DMSO. When the GHE cell-DMSO mixtures are irradiated with gamma rays at 77 K and then warmed to 111 K, the OH radicals decay, whereas the DMSO radicals do not increase complementarily. Moreover, the decay rates of the OH radicals at 111 K do not depend upon the concentration of DMSO. Thus OH radicals do not react with DMSO during warming of the irradiated sample. When H atoms are produced by gamma irradiation of acid ice at 60 K, the decay rates of the H atoms at 77 K increase with increasing DMSO concentration, indicating that DMSO reacts with H atoms (CH3SOCH3 + H----.CH2SOCH3 + H2) at 77 K by quantum-mechanical tunneling. When the GHE cell-DMSO mixture is irradiated with gamma rays at 77 or 4.2 K in the dark, DMSO ions are produced in addition to DMSO radicals. Therefore it is concluded that DMSO does not scavenge OH radicals, but does capture H atoms, holes and/or electrons in the gamma-irradiated cells, resulting in the remarkable formation of DMSO radicals. This scavenger effect of DMSO may be related to the radioprotection of DMSO against cell killing

  18. Effect of tocopherol treatment on deterioration of edible oil quality (acid value, carbonyl value, free fatty acid and radical activity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Yuko; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2014-01-01

    In this study, waste edible oil was prepared by both heat and aeration treatment, and the increasing inhibitive effect of tocopherol treatment on the acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) of the oil was investigated. The AV and CV of waste edible oil treated with tocopherol were 0.1-1.0% lower than those of the nontreated oil, indicating that tocopherol exerted a radical-scavenging activity. The concentration of tocopherol decreased with time, while that of the remaining 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals increased. These results suggest that the addition of tocopherol proved to be useful for preventing the deterioration of waste edible oil.

  19. Monotherapy of androgen deprivation therapy versus radical prostatectomy among veterans with localized prostate cancer: comparative effectiveness analysis of retrospective cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jinan Liu1,2, Lizheng Shi1,2,3, Oliver Sartor31Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 2Southeast Louisiana Veterans Health Care System, Tulane University, 3School of Medicine and Tulane Cancer Center, New Orleans, LA, USABackground: This retrospective cohort study aimed to examine the comparative effectiveness of monotherapy of primary androgen deprivation therapy or radical prostatectomy.Methods: Male patients with localized prostate cancer (T1-T2, N0, M0 were identified in the Veterans Affairs Veterans Integrated Service Network 16 data warehouse (January 2003 to June 2006, with one-year baseline and at least three-year follow-up data (until June 2009. Patients were required to be 18–75 years old and without other recorded cancer history. The initiation of primary androgen deprivation therapy or monotherapy of radical prostatectomy within six months after the first diagnosis of prostate cancer was used as the index date. Primary androgen deprivation therapy patients were matched to the radical prostatectomy patients via propensity score, which was predicted from a logistic regression of treatment selection (primary androgen deprivation therapy versus radical prostatectomy on age, race, marital status, insurance type, cancer stage, Charlson comorbidity index, and alcohol and tobacco use. The overall survival from initiation of index treatment was then analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards model.Results: The two cohorts were well matched at baseline (all P > 0.05. During a median follow-up of 4.3 years, the cumulative incidence of death was 13 (10.57% among 123 primary androgen deprivation therapy patients and four (3.25% among 123 radical prostatectomy patients (P < 0.05. The overall three-year survival rate was 92.68% for primary androgen deprivation therapy and 98.37% for radical prostatectomy (P < 0.05. Patients who received primary androgen deprivation therapy had almost three times as

  20. Physiology of free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals imply that every atom, molecule, ion, group of atoms, or molecules with one or several non-paired electrons in outer orbital. Among these are: nitrogenoxide (NO•, superoxide-anion-radical (O2•-, hydroxyl radical (OH•, peroxyl radical (ROO•, alcoxyl radical (RO• and hydroperoxyl radical (HO2•. However, reactive oxygen species also include components without non-paired electrons in outer orbital (so-called reactive non-radical agents, such as: singlet oxygen (1O2, peroxynitrite (ONOO-, hydrogen-peroxide (H2O2, hypochloric acid (eg. HOCl and ozone (O3. High concentrations of free radicals lead to the development of oxidative stress which is a precondition for numerous pathological effects. However, low and moderate concentrations of these matter, which occur quite normally during cell metabolic activity, play multiple significant roles in many reactions. Some of these are: regulation of signal pathways within the cell and between cells, the role of chemoattractors and leukocyte activators, the role in phagocytosis, participation in maintaining, changes in the position and shape of the cell, assisting the cell during adaption and recovery from damage (e.g.caused by physical effort, the role in normal cell growth, programmed cell death (apoptosis and cell ageing, in the synthesis of essential biological compounds and energy production, as well as the contribution to the regulation of the vascular tone, actually, tissue vascularization.

  1. Evaluation of antitumor, immunomodulatory and free radical scavenging effects of a new herbal prescription seaweed complex preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Shao, Changlun; Kong, Wenwen; Fang, Yuchun; Wang, Changyun

    2013-09-01

    Seaweed Complex Preparation (SCP) is a clinical traditional Chinese medicine preparation which is composed of seven traditional Chinese herbs, and it has been used for treatment of lung cancer, liver cancer and digestive cancer. However, little information is available about the pharmacodynamic basis. The antitumor, immunomodulatory and free radical scavenging effects of SCP were evaluated in this study. Transplanted tumor in vivo method was used to determine the antitumor effect. The effects on splenocyte proliferation and phagocytosis of macrophages in tumor-bearing mice were measured by the MTT method and the phagocytizing cock red blood cell (CRBC) method respectively. The scavenging activities of SCP on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in vitro were investigated. It was found that the medium-dose and high-dose of SCP could significantly inhibit the growth of transplanted hepatic tumor of murine hepatocarcinoma cell line H22, and promote proliferation of splenocytes and phagocytosis of macrophages. SCP possessed noticeable scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The antitumor effects of SCP might be achieved by improving immune system and scavenging free radicals, which is in accordance with the viewpoint of traditional Chinese medicine in promoting the body resistance and eliminating pathogenic factors for cancer treatment.

  2. Free radicals in chemical carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, M R

    1991-12-15

    During the past decade, remarkable progress has been made in our understanding of cancer-causing agents, mechanisms of cancer formation and the behavior of cancer cells. Cancer is characterized primarily by an increase in the number of abnormal cells derived from a given normal tissue, invasion of adjacent tissues by these abnormal cells, and lymphatic or blood-borne spread of malignant cells to regional lymph nodes and to distant sites (metastasis). It has been estimated that about 75-80% of all human cancers are environmentally induced, 30-40% of them by diet. Only a small minority, possibly no more than 2% of all cases, result purely from inherent genetic changes. Several lines of evidence confirm that the fundamental molecular event or events that cause a cell to become malignant occur at the level of the DNA and a variety of studies indicate that the critical molecular event in chemical carcinogenesis is the interaction of the chemical agent with DNA. The demonstration that DNA isolated from tumor cells can transfect normal cells and render them neoplastic provides direct proof that an alteration of the DNA is responsible for cancer. The transforming genes, or oncogenes, have been identified by restriction endonuclease mapping. One of the characteristics of tumor cells generated by transformation with viruses, chemicals, or radiation is their reduced requirement for serum growth factors. A critical significance of electrophilic metabolites of carcinogenes in chemical carcinogenesis has been demonstrated. A number of "proximate" and "ultimate" metabolites, especially those of aromatic amines, were described. The "ultimate" forms of carcinogens actually interact with cellular constituents to cause neoplastic transformation and are the final metabolic products in most pathways. Recent evidence indicates that free radical derivatives of chemical carcinogens may be produced both metabolically and nonenzymatically during their metabolism. Free radicals carry no

  3. Effects of radiographic contrast media on cellular electrophysiology in the beating heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolpers, H.G.; Baller, D.; Ensink, F.B.M.; Hoeft, A.; Korb, H.; Hellige, G.

    1982-01-01

    Electrophysiological effects of intracoronarily administered contrast media have been documented in 12 thoracotomized dogs at the cellular level by use of a modified microelectrode technique. Injections (n = 63) of 4 different contrast media uniformly led to a temporary cellular hyperpolarisation of the resting potential and prolongation of the action potential. Additional experiments with intracoronary injections of several electrolyte concentrations, mainly by a local deficiency of potassium ions and an excess of sodium ions. The significance of the findings for mechanisms underlying ECG-changes and ventricular arrhythmia by radiographic contrasts media will be discussed.

  4. Chemotaxis in the cellular slime molds : I. The effect of temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijn, Theo M.

    1965-01-01

    The effect of temperature on chemotaxis in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum has been studied by incubating small populations of washed myxamoebae at different temperatures. Droplets containing a cell suspension of known density were deposited on a hydrophobic agar surface. The

  5. Effects of cellular structure and cell wall components on water holding capacity of mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Ekaraj; Boom, Remko M.; Haaren, van Els; Siccama, Joanne; Sman, van der Ruud G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In a sequel of papers we have investigated effects of different physical contributions to the water holding capacity of foods by considering the common white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). In the current paper of our sequel, we consider individual contributions of the cellular phase to

  6. Low-temperature matrix effects on orientational motion of Methyl radical trapped in gas solids: Angular tunneling vs. libration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Yurij A.; Zelenetckii, Ilia A.; Benetis, Nikolas P.

    2018-05-01

    EPR investigation of the lineshape of matrix -isolated methyl radical, CH3, spectra recorded in solid N2O and CO2 was carried out. Reversible temperature-dependent line width anisotropy was observed in both matrices. This effect is a fingerprint of the extra-slow radical rotation about the in-plane C2 axes. The rotation was found to be anisotropic and closely correlated to the orientational dynamics of the matrix molecules. It was suggested that a recently discovered "hoping precession" effect of matrix molecules in solid CO2 is a common feature of matrices of the linear molecules CO, N2O, and CO2. A new low-temperature matrix effect, referred to as "libration trap", was proposed which accounts for the changing CH3 reorientational motion about the radical C3-axis from rotation to libration. Temperature dependence of the intensity of the EPR satellites produced by these nonrotating-but librating methyls was presented. This allowed for a rough estimation of the rotation hindering potential due to correlation mismatch between the radical and the nearest matrix molecules' librations.

  7. Effect of primary and secondary radicals on chain breaks in ribosomal RNA in E. coli ribosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.; Bishop, J.

    1984-01-01

    It has been shown previously that, in dilute aerated solutions, ribosomes are inactivated by OH radicals and by secondary radicals produced from added alcohols (Singh and Vadasz 1983 a). In de-aerated solutions, both radicalH and e - sub(aq) also inactivate ribosomes (Singh and Vadasz 1983 b). The results of these studies and other on different systems (Adams et al. 1973, Aldrich and Cundall 1969, Dewey and Stein 1970, Masuda et al. 1971, Nabben et al. 1982, 1983, Samuni et al. 1980, Singh and Singh 1982) have shown that damage to biological systems occurs by diverse mechanisms. One of these mechanisms involves chain breaks in RNA (Pollard and Weller 1967). The purpose of this study was to determine which of the primary and secondary radicals cause chain breaks in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) within the ribosomes. (author)

  8. Prevalence and Predicting Factors for Commonly Neglected Sexual Side Effects to Radical Prostatectomies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders; Sønksen, Jens; Jakobsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered perception of orgasm, orgasm-associated pain, penile sensory changes, urinary incontinence (UI) during sexual activity, penile shortening (PS), and penile deformity following radical prostatectomy (RP) have received increasing attention from researchers. AIM: The aim...

  9. Free radical transfer in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonntag, C. von; Bothe, E.; Ulanski, P.

    1998-01-01

    For the present study of free-radical transfer in polymers pulse radiolysis and product studies have been carried out in aqueous solutions using thus far only the water-soluble polymers polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid and polyvinyl alcohol. When OH radicals, generated in the radiolysis of N 2 O-saturated aqueous solutions, react with polymers the lifetime of the polymer radical thus created very much depends on the number of radicals per polymer chain. When there are a large number of radicals per chain their bimolecular decay may be faster than the corresponding (diffusion controlled) decay of monomeric radicals, but when the macromolecule contains only few or even just one radical their lifetime is considerably prolonged. Highly charged polymers such as polyacrylic acid at high pH attain a rod-like conformation which again favors a long lifetime of the radicals. Under such conditions, radical transfer reactions can occur. For example, in polyacrylic acid OH radicals generate two kinds of radicals side by side. The radical in β-position to the carboxylate group converts into the thermodynamically more stable α-radicals by an H-transfer reaction as can be followed by spectrophotometry. Besides radical transfer reactions β-fragmentation reactions occur causing chain scission. Such reactions can be followed in a pulse radiolysis experiment by conductometry, because counter ions are released upon chain scission. Such a process is especially effective in the case of polymethacrylic acid, where it results in a chain depolymerization. An intramolecular H-abstraction is also observed in the γ-radiolysis of polyacrylic acid with the corresponding peroxyl radicals. This causes a chain reaction to occur. The resulting hydroperoxides are unstable and decarboxylate given rise to acetylacetone-like products. In polyvinyl alcohol the peroxyl radicals in α-position to the alcohol function undergo HO 2 -elimination. This prevents a scission of the polymer chain in the

  10. Effect of crumb cellular structure characterized by image analysis on cake softness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaest, Marine; Villemejane, Cindy; Berland, Sophie; Neron, Stéphane; Clement, Jérôme; Verel, Aliette; Michon, Camille

    2017-10-04

    Sponge cake is a cereal product characterized by an aerated crumb and appreciated for its softness. When formulating such product, it is interesting to be able to characterize the crumb structure using image analysis and to bring knowledge about the effects of the crumb cellular structure on its mechanical properties which contribute to softness. An image analysis method based on mathematical morphology was adapted from the one developed for bread crumb. In order to evaluate its ability to discriminate cellular structures, series of cakes were prepared using two rather similar emulsifiers but also using flours with different aging times before use. The mechanical properties of the crumbs of these different cakes were also characterized. It allowed a cell structure classification taking into account cell size and homogeneity, but also cell wall thickness and the number of holes in the walls. Interestingly, the cellular structure differences had a larger impact on the aerated crumb Young modulus than the wall firmness. Increasing the aging time of flour before use leads to the production of firmer crumbs due to coarser and inhomogeneous cellular structures. Changing the composition of the emulsifier may change the cellular structure and, depending on the type of the structural changes, have an impact on the firmness of the crumb. Cellular structure rather than cell wall firmness was found to impact cake crumb firmness. The new fast and automated tool for cake crumb structure analysis allows detecting quickly any change in cell size or homogeneity but also cell wall thickness and number of holes in the walls (openness degree). To obtain a softer crumb, it seems that options are to decrease the cell size and the cell wall thickness and/or to increase the openness degree. It is then possible to easily evaluate the effects of ingredients (flour composition, emulsifier …) or change in the process on the crumb structure and thus its softness. Moreover, this image

  11. The Radical Flank Effect and Cross-occupational Collaboration for Technology Development during a Power Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelove, Emily; Kellogg, Katherine C.

    2016-01-01

    This 12-month ethnographic study of an early entrant into the U.S. car-sharing industry demonstrates that when an organization shifts its focus from developing radical new technology to incrementally improving this technology, the shift may spark an internal power struggle between the dominant engineering group and a challenger occupational group such as the marketing group. Analyzing 42 projects in two time periods that required collaboration between engineering and marketing during such a shift, we show how cross-occupational collaboration under these conditions can be facilitated by a radical flank threat, through which the bargaining power of moderates is strengthened by the presence of a more-radical group. In the face of a strong threat by radical members of a challenger occupational group, moderate members of the dominant engineering group may change their perceptions of their power to resist challengers’ demands and begin to distinguish between the goals of radical versus more-moderate challengers. To maintain as much power as possible and prevent the more-dramatic change in engineering occupational goals demanded by radical challengers, moderate engineers may build a coalition with moderate challengers and collaborate for incremental technology development. PMID:28424533

  12. The Radical Flank Effect and Cross-occupational Collaboration for Technology Development during a Power Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelove, Emily; Kellogg, Katherine C

    2016-12-01

    This 12-month ethnographic study of an early entrant into the U.S. car-sharing industry demonstrates that when an organization shifts its focus from developing radical new technology to incrementally improving this technology, the shift may spark an internal power struggle between the dominant engineering group and a challenger occupational group such as the marketing group. Analyzing 42 projects in two time periods that required collaboration between engineering and marketing during such a shift, we show how cross-occupational collaboration under these conditions can be facilitated by a radical flank threat, through which the bargaining power of moderates is strengthened by the presence of a more-radical group. In the face of a strong threat by radical members of a challenger occupational group, moderate members of the dominant engineering group may change their perceptions of their power to resist challengers' demands and begin to distinguish between the goals of radical versus more-moderate challengers. To maintain as much power as possible and prevent the more-dramatic change in engineering occupational goals demanded by radical challengers, moderate engineers may build a coalition with moderate challengers and collaborate for incremental technology development.

  13. Effect of shear stress and free radicals induced by ultrasound on erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, T.; Fukushima, Y.; Kon, H.; Riesz, P.

    1989-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of hemolysis induced by ultrasound. Ar or N2O gas was used to distinguish between cavitation with or without free radical formation (hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms). Free radical formation was examined by the method of spin trapping combined with ESR. After sonication of erythrocyte suspensions, several structural and functional parameters of the erythrocyte membrane--hemolysis, membrane fluidity, membrane permeability, and membrane deformability--were examined. Although free radical formation was observed in the erythrocyte suspensions sonicated in the presence of Ar, no free radical formation was observed in the presence of N2O. However, the hemolysis behavior induced by ultrasound was similar in the presence of Ar or N2O. The membrane fluidity, permeability, and deformability of the remaining unlysed erythrocytes after sonication in the presence of Ar or N2O were unchanged and identical to those of the control cells. On the other hand, after gamma irradiation (700 Gy), the hemolysis behavior was quite different from that after sonication, and the membrane properties were significantly changed. These results suggest that hemolysis induced by sonication was due to mechanical shearing stress arising from cavitation, and that the membrane integrity of the remaining erythrocytes after sonication was the same as that of control cells without sonication. The triatomic gas, N2O, may be useful for ultrasonically disrupting cells without accompanying free radical formation

  14. Electrolyte effects on the surface chemistry and cellular response of anodized titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsu, Naofumi; Kozuka, Taro; Hirano, Mitsuhiro; Arai, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ti samples were anodized using various electrolytes. • Anodization decreased carbon adsorption, improving hydrophilicity. • Improved hydrophilicity led to improved cellular attachment. • Only one electrolyte showed any heteroatom incorporation into the TiO 2 layer. • Choice of electrolyte played no role on the effects of anodization. - Abstract: Anodic oxidation of titanium (Ti) material is used to enhance biocompatibility, yet the effects of various electrolytes on surface characteristics and cellular behavior have not been completely elucidated. To investigate this topic, oxide layers were produced on Ti substrates by anodizing them in aqueous electrolytes of (NH 4 ) 2 O·5B 2 O 3 , (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , or (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 , after which their surface characteristics and cellular responses were examined. Overall, no surface differences between the electrolytes were visually observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the anodized surfaces are composed of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), while incorporation from electrolyte was only observed for (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 . Surface adsorption of carbon contaminants during sterilization was suppressed by anodization, leading to lower water contact angles. The attachment of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells was also improved by anodization, as evidenced by visibly enlarged pseudopods. This improved attachment performance is likely due to TiO 2 formation. Overall, electrolyte selection showed no effect on either surface chemistry or cellular response of Ti materials

  15. A study of the biological effects of rare earth elements at cellular level using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhihui; Wang Xi; Zhang Sunxi; An Lizhi; Zhang Jingxia; Yao Huiying

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the biological effects and the effecting mechanisms of rare earth elements La, Gd and Ce on cultured rat cells. Methods: The biological effects of La 3+ on cultured rat cells and the subcellular distribution of La and Gd and Ce, and the inflow of 45 Ca 2+ into the cells and total cellular calcium were measured by isotopic tracing, Proton Induced X Ray Emission Analysis (PIXE) and the techniques of biochemistry and cellular biology. Results: La 3+ at the concentration of 10- 10( or 10 -9 ) - 10 -6 mol/L significantly increased quantity of incorporation of 3 H-TdR into DNA, total cellular protein and the activity of succinic dehydrogenase of mitochondria. The cell cycle analysis showed that the proportions of cells in S phase were accordingly increased acted by La 3+ at above range of concentration. But these values were significantly decreased when concentration of La 3+ raised to 10 -4 - 10 -3 mol/L. It was further discovered that La, Gd and Ce distributed mostly in the nuclei, and then in membranes. Gd and Ce also promoted the inflow of 45 Ca 2+ into the cells and increased the total calcium content in cells. Conclusions: 1) La 3+ at a wide concentration range of 10 -10 ( or 10 -9 ) - 10 -6 mol/L promotes proliferation of cultured rat cells, but at even higher concentration (10 -4 - 10 -3 mol/L) shows cellular toxicity, and there is a striking dose-effect relationship. 2) La, Gd and Ce can enter the cells and mainly distribute in the nuclei. 3) Gd and Ce can promote the inflow of extracellular Ca 2+ into the cells and increase total cellular calcium

  16. Effect of preoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy during and after radical operation for esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamichi, Sonoko; Fujino, Yuji; Taenaka, Nobuyuki; Yoshiya, Ikuto; Murata, Atsuo [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Hospital

    1997-10-01

    The effect of preoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CR therapy) on peri- and postoperative circulatory and respiratory status was studied retrospectively. Forty-two patients of esophageal cancer who had radical operation were included in this study. Twelve patients had CR therapy before operation (group CR) and 30 patients without CR (group N). During the operation there was more bleeding in group CR than in group N, necessitating more intraoperative blood transfusion in group CR. Body weight of group CR increased more than that of group N from the 1st to the 4th postoperative day. AaDo{sub 2} also increased in group CR on the 1st postoperative day, which was thought to reflect an increase in water in the lungs. Diuretics required during the postoperative period did not show difference between both groups. Plasma IL-6 level was lower in group CR than in group N, although there was no statistical significance. No patients died in both groups. In conclusion, postoperative body weight and AaDo{sub 2} in group CR increased more than those in group N. (author)

  17. Effect of ionizing radiation on humoral and cellular immunity in pigs vaccinated against Aujeszky's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoszcze, M.; Roszkowski, J.

    1991-01-01

    An effect of ionizing radiation on the immune response in pigs of both sexes weighing 35 kg vaccinated with an attenuated Aujeszky's disease virus was investigated. Ionizing radiation in a dose of 200 or 400 r reduced the number of IgM and IgG antibodies produced in vaccinated pigs. Additionally, the 400 r dose delyed the cellular immune response. No effect of the radiation on a clinical course of postvaccinal reaction was found

  18. The Effect of Tumor-Prostate Ratio on Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Yong Cho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Prostate tumor volume calculated after surgery using pathologic tissue has been shown to be an independent risk factor for biochemical recurrence. Nonetheless, prostate size varies among individuals, regardless of the presence or absence of cancer. We assumed to be lower margin positive rate in the surgical operation, when the prostate volume is larger and the tumor lesion is same. Thus, we defined the tumor-prostate ratio in the ratio of tumor volume to prostate volume. In order to compensate the prostate tumor volume, the effect of tumor-prostate ratio on biochemical recurrence was examined. Materials and Methods: This study included 251 patients who underwent open retropubic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer in a single hospital. We analyzed the effects of tumor volume and tumor-prostate ratio, as well as the effects of known risk factors for biochemical recurrence, on the duration of disease-free survival. Results: In the univariate analysis, the risk factors that significantly impacted disease-free survival time were found to be a prostate-specific antigen level ≥10 ng/mL, a tumor volume ≥5 mL, tumor-prostate ratio ≥10%, tumor capsular invasion, lymph node invasion, positive surgical margins, and seminal vesicle invasion. In the multivariate analysis performed to evaluate the risk factors found to be significant in the univariate analysis, positive surgical margins (hazard ratio=3.066 and a tumor density ≥10% (hazard ratio=1.991 were shown to be significant risk factors for biochemical recurrence. Conclusions: Tumor-prostate ratio, rather than tumor volume, should be regarded as a significant risk factor for biochemical recurrence.

  19. Initial events in the cellular effects of ionizing radiations: clustered damage in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodhead, D.T.

    1994-01-01

    Ionizing radiations produce many hundreds of different simple chemical products in DNA and also multitudes of possible clustered combinations. The simple products, including single-strand breaks, tend to correlate poorly with biological effectiveness. Even for initial double-strand breaks, as a broad class, there is apparently little or no increase in yield with increasing ionization density, in contrast with the large rise in relative biological effectiveness for cellular effects. Track structure analysis has revealed that clustered DNA damage of severity greater than simple double-strand breaks is likely to occur at biologically relevant frequencies with all ionizing radiations. Studies are in progress to describe in more detail the chemical nature of these clustered lesions and to consider the implications for cellular repair. (author)

  20. [Effects of sub-micro emulsion composition on cellular disposition of incorporated lipophilic drug].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Yi; Xiang, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Shuo; Lv, Yuan-Yuan; Liang, Wen-Quan

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effects of sub-micro emulsion composition on cellular uptake and disposition of incorporated lipophilic drug. Sub-micro emulsions containing 10 % oil, 1.2 % lecithin and 2.25 % glycerol were prepared, and the fluorescent agent coumarin 6 was used as a model drug. The effects of oil types, co-surfactants and cationic lipid on uptake and elimination kinetics of 6-coumarin in HeLa cells were studied. The uptake mechanism of sub-micro emulsions was further investigated. Oil type and Tweens had no influence on the cellular uptake. Modifications of surfactants with Span series increased the cellular influx, among which Span 20 with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value of 8.6 was the best enhancer. The intracellular drug level reached up to (46.09 ± 1.98)ng/μg protein which had significant difference with control group [(38.54 ± 0.34)ng/μg protein]. The positively charged emulsions significantly increased the uptake rate constant and elimination rate constant which were 4 times and 1.5 times of those in anionic groups, respectively. The uptake enhancement was also observed in cationic emulsions, cellular concentrations at plateau were (42.73 ± 0.84)ng/μg protein, which was about 3 times of that in anionic emulsions [(15.71 ± 0.74)ng/μg protein], when extracellular drug concentration kept at 100 ng/ml. Cationic emulsions delivered the payload mainly by direct drug transfer to contacted cells, while the negative ones depended on both drug passive diffusion and clathrin-mediated endocytosis of drug containing oil droplets which accounted for 20% of the intracellular drug. Interfacial characteristic of sub-micro emulsions such as co-surfactants HLB as well as zeta potentials can influence lipophilic drug both in cellular uptake and elimination.

  1. The effect of cellular aging on the dynamics of spiral waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Min-Yi; Chen Xi-Qiong; Tang Guo-Ning

    2014-01-01

    Cellular aging can result in deterioration of electrical coupling, the extension of the action potential duration, and lower excitability of the cell. Those factors are introduced into the Greenberg—Hastings cellular automaton model and the effects of the cellular aging on the dynamics of spiral waves are studied. The numerical results show that a 50% reduction of the coupling strength of aging cells has a little influence on spiral waves. If the coupling strength of aging cells equals zero, the ability for the medium to maintain spiral waves will be reduced by approximately 50% when the aging cell ratio increases from 0 to 0.5, where the reduction of cell excitability plays a major role in inducing disappearance of spiral waves. When the relevant parameters are properly chosen, the cellular aging can lead to the meandering of spiral waves, the emergence of the binary spiral waves, and even the disappearance of spiral waves via the stopping rotation or shrinkage of wave. Physical mechanisms of the above phenomena are analyzed briefly. (general)

  2. Inhibitory effects of OK-432 (Picibanil) on cellular proliferation and adhesive capacity of breast carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Yoshio; Iino, Yuichi; Maemura, Michio; Horiguchi, Jun; Morishita, Yasuo

    2005-02-01

    We investigated the potent inhibitory effects of OK-432 (Picibanil) on both cellular adhesion and cell proliferation of estrogen-dependent (MCF-7) or estrogen-independent (MDA-MB-231) breast carcinoma cells. Cellular proliferation of both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells was markedly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, when the carcinoma cells were exposed to OK-432. Cell attachment assay demonstrated that incubation with OK-432 for 24 h reduced integrin-mediated cellular adhesion of both cell types. However, fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis revealed that incubation with OK-432 for 24 h did not decrease the cell surface expressions of any integrins. These results suggest that the binding avidity of integrins is reduced by OK-432 without alteration of the integrin expression. We conclude that OK-432 inhibits integrin-mediated cellular adhesion as well as cell proliferation of breast carcinoma cells regardless of estrogen-dependence, and that these actions of OK-432 contribute to prevention or inhibition of breast carcinoma invasion and metastasis.

  3. ESR studies of radiation induced radical products from linoleic acid and linolenic acid and the radioprotective effect by α-tocopherol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Younan; Tu Tiecheng; Dong Jirong; Zhang Jiashan; Li Nianyun

    1993-01-01

    Primary radicals from the γ-radiolysis of air-saturated linoleic acid and linolenic acid at 77 K, and the subsequent secondary radicals appeared during the course of variable temperature elevation were investigated by ESR. The ESR spectrum from samples irradiated and observed at 77 K shows the presence of the radical anion doublet arise from the electron adducts of the carboxy groups and the poorly resolved broad singlet results from some carbon-centered radicals. Annealing to approximately 125 K which allows for molecular oxygen migration results in the formation of peroxyl radicals. At 247 K, the ESR spectrum is a multi-line pattern which is attributable to structure of the α-carbon radical superimposed on the pentadienyl radicals. The ESR spectra from linoleic acid-α-tocopherol and linolenic acid-α-tocopherol binary systems irradiated at 77 K and recorded at 140 K or 215 K revealed the characteristic similarity to that from α-tocopherol alone, no trace of ESR signal from either peroxyl or the composite pattern from superposition of pentadienyl radical and α-carbon radicals can be found out. Therefore α-tocopherol has exerted radioprotection effect on peroxidation of linoleic acid and linolenic acid

  4. Abstraction of iodine from aromatic iodides by alkyl radicals: steric and electronic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Darko; Plesnicar, Bozo

    2006-10-13

    Abstraction of the iodine atom from aryl iodides by alkyl radicals takes place in some cases very efficiently despite the unfavorable difference in bond dissociation energies of C-I bonds in alkyl and aryl iodides. The abstraction is most efficient in iodobenzenes, ortho-substituted with bulky groups. The ease of abstraction can be explained by the release of steric strain during the elimination of the iodine atom. The rate of abstraction correlates fairly well with the strain energy, calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock (HF) methods as a difference in the total energy of ortho and para isomers. However, besides the steric bulk, the presence of some other functional groups in an ortho substituent also influences the rate. The stabilization of the transition state, resembling a 9-I-2 iodanyl radical, by electron-withdrawing groups seems to explain a positive sign of the Hammett rho value in the radical abstraction of halogen atoms.

  5. Radical Evil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manrique

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an aporia in Kant’s analysis of evil: he defines radical evilas an invisible disposition of the will, but he also demands an inferential connection between visible evil actions and this invisible disposition. This inference,however, undermines the radical invisibility of radical evil according to Kant’s own definition of the latter. Noting how this invisibility of moral worth is a distinctive feature of Kant’s approach to the moral problem, the paper then asks why, in the Groundwork, he nonetheless forecloses a question about evil that seems to be consistent with this approach. It is argued that to account for this aporia and this foreclosure, one has to interrogate the way in which the category of religion orients Kant’s incipient philosophy of history in Die Religion.

  6. Solvent polarity effects on hyperfine couplings of cyclohexadienyl-type radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujosevic', D.; Scheuermann, R.; Dilger, H.; Tucker, I.M.; Martyniak, A.; McKenzie, I.; Roduner, E.

    2006-01-01

    In this study muon-spin rotation (μSR) serves as a tool for sensitive monitoring of the environment of muoniated radicals in isotropic liquids. A systematic investigation of the behaviour of the hyperfine coupling constants of cyclohexadienyl-type radicals is performed, and it is found that they are in linear dependence on solvent polarity, with certain deviations. These deviations are discussed in detail. It is found that with increasing length of the hydroxyalkyl substituent group the perturbation of the phenyl ring becomes smaller

  7. Solvent polarity effects on hyperfine couplings of cyclohexadienyl-type radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vujosevic' , D. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Scheuermann, R. [Laboratory for Muon Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Dilger, H. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Tucker, I.M. [Unilever Research and Development, Port Sunlight, Wirral CH63 3JW (United Kingdom); Martyniak, A. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); McKenzie, I. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Roduner, E. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: e.rodunder@ipc.uni-stuttgart.de

    2006-03-31

    In this study muon-spin rotation ({mu}SR) serves as a tool for sensitive monitoring of the environment of muoniated radicals in isotropic liquids. A systematic investigation of the behaviour of the hyperfine coupling constants of cyclohexadienyl-type radicals is performed, and it is found that they are in linear dependence on solvent polarity, with certain deviations. These deviations are discussed in detail. It is found that with increasing length of the hydroxyalkyl substituent group the perturbation of the phenyl ring becomes smaller.

  8. New approach to modulate retinal cellular toxic effects of high glucose using marine epa and dha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagon Roxane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids against cellular damages of high glucose were studied on retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE cells. Methods Retinal epithelial cells were incubated with omega-3 marine oils rich in EPA and DHA and then with high glucose (25 mM for 48 hours. Cellular responses were compared to normal glucose (5 mM: intracellular redox status, reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial succinate deshydrogenase activity, inflammatory cytokines release and caveolin-1 expression were evaluated using microplate cytometry, ELISA and flow cytometry techniques. Fatty acids incorporation in retinal cell membranes was analysed using chromatography. Results Preincubation of the cells with fish oil decreased ROS overproduction, mitochondrial alterations and TNFα release. These protective effects could be attributed to an increase in caveolin-1 expression induced by marine oil. Conclusion Marine formulations rich in omega-3 fatty acids represent a promising therapeutic approach for diabetic retinopathy.

  9. [In vitro study over statins effects on cellular growth curves and its reversibility with mevalonate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan Núñez-Cortés, Jesús; Alvarez Rodriguez, Ysmael; Alvarez Novés, Granada; Recarte Garcia-Andrade, Carlos; Alvarez-Sala Walther, Luis

    2014-01-01

    HMG-CoA-Reductase inhibitors, also known as statins, are currently the most powerful cholesterol-lowering drugs available on the market. Clinical trials and experimental evidence suggest that statins have heavy anti-atherosclerotic effects. These are in part consequence of lipid lowering but also result from pleiotropic actions of the drugs. These so-called pleiotropic properties affect various aspects of cell function, inflammation, coagulation, and vasomotor activity. These effects are mediated either indirectly through LDL-c reduction or via a direct effect on cellular functions. Although many of the pleiotropic properties of statins may be a class effect, some may be unique to certain agents and account for differences in their pharmacological activity. So, although statins typically have similar effects on LDL-c levels, differences in chemical structure and pharmacokinetic profile can lead to variations in pleiotropic effects. In this paper we analize the in vitro effects of different statins over different cell lines from cells implicated in atherosclerotic process: endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and vascular muscular cells. In relation with our results we can proof that the effects of different dosis of different statins provides singular effects over growth curves of different cellular lines, a despite of a class-dependent effects. So, pleiotropic effects and its reversibility with mevalonate are different according with the molecule and the dosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of motexafin gadolinium on tumor oxygenation and cellular oxygen consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, E.T.; Liu, Y.; Rockwell, S.; Magda, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Recent work in our laboratory showed that motexafin gadolinium (MGd, Xcytrin), a drug currently in Phase III clinical trials as an adjuvant to radiation therapy, modulates the oxygen tensions in EMT6 tumors. The median pO 2 increased from the control value of 1.5±0.4 mmHg to 7.4 ± 3.8 mmHg six hours after treatment with 40 μmol/kg MGd and the percentage of severely hypoxic readings in the tumors ( 7 plateau phase EMT6 cells in 3 mL Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium supplemented with 10% dialyzed fetal bovine serum, which contains no ascorbic acid. In the absence of ascorbic acid, 100 μM MGd did not alter the cellular oxygen consumption rate for EMT6 cells significantly. Marked inhibition of cellular oxygen consumption was observed when cells were incubated with 100 μM MGd in medium supplemented with equimolar ascorbic acid (a 31.5% decrease in consumption was observed after 6 hours of treatment). The 5% mannitol vehicle solution with equimolar ascorbic acid had no discernible effect on cellular oxygen consumption. Ascorbic acid may facilitate cellular uptake of MGd via the intermediate formation of a MGd-oxalate complex. These studies suggest that changes in cellular oxygen consumption could contribute to the changes in tumor oxygenation seen after administration of MGd. These experiments were supported by Pharmacyclics and training grant T32CA09085 from the NIH (E.T.D.). We thank Dr. Raymond Russell for allowing us to use his oxygen electrode apparatus

  11. Benefits and adverse effects of post-operative radiation therapy after radical cystectomy for patients with advanced bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabusaki, Noboru; Komatsu, Hideki; Tanabe, Nobuaki; Tago, Kiichiro; Ueno, Akira

    1995-01-01

    The benefits and adverse effects of post-operative irradiation for advanced bladder cancer patients were investigated. Ten patients with pT3b, pT4 or pN+ bladder cancer who underwent radical cystectomy at Yamanashi Medical University Hospital during 7 years and 3 months from October 1983 to December 1991 received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Group 1). During the same period, six patients with recurrent tumor after radical cystectomy were treated by radiotherapy (Group II). Stages of the primary tumors were PT2 in 1, pT3a in 2, pT3b in 6 and pT4 in 7 cases. In addition, 10 of 16 patients (63%) had positive nodes. During the follow-up period, seven patients died of cancer, and one died of other cause. As a result eight patients (5 in Group I, 3 in Group II) are alive. The cumulative 5-year survival rate is 50%. However, nine of the 16 patients (56%) suffered from the small bowel obstruction as an adverse effect of irradiation. Six patients required resection of the small bowel or bypass surgery. Radiation after radical cystectomy seemed to be effective for the local control of the tumor, but the adverse effect to the digestive system was very severe and common. (author)

  12. Effects of gamma-ray-induced free radicals on the metal content and amino acid composition of human metallothionein-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goossens, Lieven

    2011-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs), a low-mass class of metalloproteins, are characterized by a high thiolate sulphur and metal content. MTs are involved in metal homeostasis and heavy metal detoxification, and are efficient scavengers of free radicals. This article describes zinc release from human MT-1 and modification of its amino acid composition when subjected to free radicals generated during gamma ray radiolysis. The effect of gamma ray radiolysis of untreated and metal-depleted human MT-1 was tested under multiple aerobic and anaerobic conditions at increasing irradiation doses. Under all conditions, a rapid increase of serine in the early stages of irradiation was observed. Irradiation for longer times led to cysteic acid formation, except under argon atmosphere. Several other amino acid concentrations gradually decreased. Formation of limited amounts of hydroxyproline, hydroxylysine and ornithine as well as some less common derivatives such as cystathionine occurred as side-effects. (author)

  13. Effect of One versus Two Drain Insertion on Postoperative Seroma Formation after Modified Radical Mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farzaneh ebrahimifard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modified radical mastectomy (MRM is still one of globally accepted surgical techniques for breast cancer and in some selected patient is the gold standard type of surgery. The most frequent complication of this procedure is seroma under skin flaps or in the axilla as reported as much as 30% in some studies. The use of closed suction drainage system to reduce the incidence of this complication has been routinely accepted by surgeons; however, length of catheter stay and the number of catheters inserted in the wound are still controversial. The present study compares the results of single versus double drain insertion in patients undergoing MRM for breast cancer.Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 women with breast cancer who were candidate for MRM surgery during 2007-2010 referred to Modarres hospital, Tehran, Iran as a randomized group matched controlled trial.Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, BMI, and tumor weight (P=0.406 (Table 1. Similarly, the difference between the two groups was insignificant in tumor size (T and number of lymph nodes involved (P=0.145. There was no significant difference between the two groups in timing of axillary drain removal (P=0.064. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in mean aspirated fluid (P=0.071 and mean aspirated sera (P=0.484 after removal of drains.Conclusion: This study revealed one drain insertion in MRM surgery is as effective as two drain and probably less morbidity and cost.

  14. [Effects of silicon on the ultrastructures of wheat radical cells under copper stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dai-Jing; Ma, Jian-Hui; Yang, Shu-Fang; Chen, Hui-Ting; Liu, Pei; Wang, Wen-Fei; Li, Chun-Xi

    2014-08-01

    To explore the alleviation effect of silicon on wheat growth under copper stress, cultivar Aikang 58 was chosen as the experimental material. The growth, root activities and root tip ultrastructures of wheat seedlings, which were cultured in Hoagland nutrient solution with five different treatments (control, 15 mg x L(-1) Cu2+, 30 mg x L(-1) Cu2+, 15 mg x L(-1) Cu2+ and 50 mg x L(-1) silicon, 30 mg x L(-1) Cu2+ and 50 mg x L(-1) silicon), were fully analyzed. The results showed that root length, plant height and root activities of wheat seedlings were significantly restrained under the copper treatments compared with the control (P effects were alleviated after adding silicon to copper-stress Hoagland nutrient solution. Under copper stress, the cell wall and cell membrane of wheat seedling root tips suffered to varying degrees of destruction, which caused the increase of intercellular space and the disappearance of some organelles. After adding silicon, the cell structure was maintained intact, although some cells and organelles were still slightly deformed compared with the control. In conclusion, exogenous silicon could alleviate the copper stress damages on wheat seedlings and cellular components to some extent.

  15. Exploiting the Capture Effect to Enhance RACH Performance in Cellular-Based M2M Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghun Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellular-based machine-to-machine (M2M communication is expected to facilitate services for the Internet of Things (IoT. However, because cellular networks are designed for human users, they have some limitations. Random access channel (RACH congestion caused by massive access from M2M devices is one of the biggest factors hindering cellular-based M2M services because the RACH congestion causes random access (RA throughput degradation and connection failures to the devices. In this paper, we show the possibility exploiting the capture effects, which have been known to have a positive impact on the wireless network system, on RA procedure for improving the RA performance of M2M devices. For this purpose, we analyze an RA procedure using a capture model. Through this analysis, we examine the effects of capture on RA performance and propose an Msg3 power-ramping (Msg3 PR scheme to increase the capture probability (thereby increasing the RA success probability even when severe RACH congestion problem occurs. The proposed analysis models are validated using simulations. The results show that the proposed scheme, with proper parameters, further improves the RA throughput and reduces the connection failure probability, by slightly increasing the energy consumption. Finally, we demonstrate the effects of coexistence with other RA-related schemes through simulation results.

  16. Effects of Edaravone, a Free Radical Scavenger, on Photochemically Induced Cerebral Infarction in a Rat Hemiplegic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Satoshi; Harada, Katsuhiro; Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Kamikawa, Yurie

    2013-01-01

    Edaravone is a free radical scavenger that protects the adjacent cortex during cerebral infarction. We created a hemiparetic model of cerebral thrombosis from a photochemically induced infarction with the photosensitive dye, rose bengal, in rats. We examined the effects of edaravone on recovery in the model. A total of 36 adult Wistar rats were used. The right sensorimotor area was irradiated with green light with a wavelength of 533?nm (10?mm diameter), and the rose bengal was injected intra...

  17. New model system for testing effects of flavonoids on doxorubicin-related formation of hydroxyl radicals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Souček, P.; Kondrová, E.; Heřmánek, J.; Stopka, Pavel; Boumendjel, A.; Ueng, YF.; Gut, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2011), s. 176-184 ISSN 0959-4973 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : doxorubicin * electron spin resonance * flavonoids hydroxyl radicals Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 2.407, year: 2011

  18. Effect of radiation quality on radical formation in ion-irradiated solid alanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Hitoshi; Ichikawa, Tsuneki; Yoshida, Hiroshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Namba, Hideki; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Kojima, Takuji

    1997-03-01

    Radical formation in solid alanine irradiated with H{sup +} and He{sup +} ions of 0.5-3.0 MeV and with heavy ions of hundreds of MeV was examined by the ESR method. Radical yield is constant below a critical fluence, and the yield decreases above the fluence. The critical fluence for the H{sup +} and He{sup +} ions is about 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup -2}, while the critical fluence for the heavy ions is 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} ions cm{sup -2}. G-value of the radical formation (radicals per 100 eV absorbed dose) is obtained from the constant yield at the low fluences. The G-value depends on the radiation quality. This dependence is ascribed to the difference of local dose in the ion tracks. The fluence-yield curves were simulated with a model assuming cylindrical shape of ion tracks and dose-yield relationship for {gamma}-irradiation. This model well explains the fluence-yield curves for the ion irradiations. (author)

  19. Radicalizing electoral system effects on support for nationalist hardliners in Serbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates electoral outcomes produced by the two-round majority system in ethnically divided societies. Earlier studies, focused mainly on the Southern American states, have revealed that in ethnically mixed environments, com- petitors with radical positions on ethnic issues perform...

  20. Effect of intratympanic dexamethasone, memantine and piracetam on cellular apoptosis due to cisplatin ototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topdag, M; Iseri, M; Gelenli, E; Yardimoglu, M; Yazir, Y; Ulubil, S A; Topdag, D O; Ustundag, E

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to contribute to the literature on the prevention and treatment of ototoxicity due to various drugs and chemicals. This study compared the histological effects of intratympanic dexamethasone, memantine and piracetam on cellular apoptosis due to cisplatin ototoxicity, in 36 rats. Dexamethasone and memantine had significant effects on the stria vascularis, organ of Corti and spiral ganglion (p piracetam decreased the apoptosis rate, this effect was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Dexamethasone and memantine were found superior to piracetam in reducing apoptosis due to cisplatin ototoxicity. Further studies of this subject are needed, incorporating electron microscopy and auditory brainstem response testing.

  1. Effects of diluents on cellular instabilities in outwardly propagating spherical syngas-air premixed flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Tran Manh; Park, Jeong; Kwon, Oh Boong; Bae, Dae Seok [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pukyong National University, San 100, Yongdang-dong, Nam-gu, Busan 608-739 (Korea); Yun, Jin Han; Keel, Sang In [Environment and Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea)

    2010-04-15

    Experiments were conducted in a constant pressure combustion chamber using schlieren system to investigate the effects of carbon dioxide-nitrogen-helium diluents on cellular instabilities of syngas-air premixed flames at room temperature and elevated pressures. The cellular instabilities for the diluted syngas-air flames were interpreted and evaluated in the viewpoint of the hydrodynamic and diffusional-thermal instabilities. Laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths were calculated by analyzing high-speed schlieren images at various diluent concentrations and equivalence ratios. The measured unstretched laminar burning velocities were compared with the predicted results computed using the PREMIX code with the kinetic mechanism developed by Sun et al. Also, experimentally measured Peclet numbers were compared with the predicted results for fuel-lean flames. Experimental results showed substantial reduction of the laminar burning velocities and of the Markstein lengths with the diluent additions in the fuel blends. Effective Lewis numbers of helium-diluted syngas-air flames increased but those of carbon dioxide- and nitrogen-diluted syngas-air flames decreased in increase of diluents in the reactant mixtures. With helium diluent, the propensity for cells formation was significantly diminished, whereas the cellular instabilities for carbon dioxide- and nitrogen-diluted syngas-air flames were not suppressed. (author)

  2. Effect of liniment levamisole on cellular immune functions of patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Xia; Zhang, Li-Hua; Peng, Jiang-Long; Liang, Yong; Wang, Xue-Feng; Zhi, Hui; Wang, Xiang-Xia; Geng, Huan-Xiong

    2005-12-07

    To explore the effects of liniment levamisole on cellular immune functions of patients with chronic hepatitis B. The levels of T lymphocyte subsets and mIL-2R in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured by biotin-streptavidin (BSA) technique in patients with chronic hepatitis B before and after the treatment with liniment levamisole. After one course of treatment with liniment levamisole, the levels of CD3(+), CD4(+), and the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) increased as compared to those before the treatment but the level of CD8(+) decreased. The total expression level of mIL-2R in PBMCs increased before and after the treatment with liniment levamisole. Liniment levamisole may reinforce cellular immune functions of patients with chronic hepatitis B.

  3. Effects of melanin-induced free radicals on the isolated rat peritoneal mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranadive, N.S.; Shirwadkar, S.; Persad, S.; Menon, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    Pheomelanin from human red hair (RHM) produces considerably more cellular damage in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells when subjected to radiations of wavelength 320-700 nm than eumelanin from black hair (BHM). Irradiation of RHM generated large amounts of superoxide while BHM did not produce detectable amounts of superoxide. The present investigations describe the effects of irradiation of mast cells in the presence of various natural and synthetic melanins. Irradiation of mast cells in the presence of RHM and red hair melanoprotein released large amounts of histamine while BHM and synthetic melanins prepared from dopa, cysteinyldopa, or a mixture of dopa and cysteinyldopa did not release histamine. The release of histamine at lower concentrations of RHM was not accompanied by the release of 51 Cr from chromium-loaded cells, suggesting that this release was of noncytotoxic nature. On the other hand, the release of histamine at higher concentrations of RHM was due to cell lysis since both histamine and cytoplasmic marker 51 Cr were released to the same extent. The release evoked by large concentration RHM was not inhibited by superoxide dismutase or catalase. This suggests that the cell lysis under these conditions was not due to H 2 O 2 or O-2. The finding that mast cells release histamine when irradiated in the presence of RHM suggests that the immediate and late-phase reactions seen in sunburn may in part be due to the release of mediators from these cells

  4. Effects of melanin-induced free radicals on the isolated rat peritoneal mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranadive, N.S.; Shirwadkar, S.; Persad, S.; Menon, I.A.

    1986-03-01

    Pheomelanin from human red hair (RHM) produces considerably more cellular damage in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells when subjected to radiations of wavelength 320-700 nm than eumelanin from black hair (BHM). Irradiation of RHM generated large amounts of superoxide while BHM did not produce detectable amounts of superoxide. The present investigations describe the effects of irradiation of mast cells in the presence of various natural and synthetic melanins. Irradiation of mast cells in the presence of RHM and red hair melanoprotein released large amounts of histamine while BHM and synthetic melanins prepared from dopa, cysteinyldopa, or a mixture of dopa and cysteinyldopa did not release histamine. The release of histamine at lower concentrations of RHM was not accompanied by the release of /sup 51/Cr from chromium-loaded cells, suggesting that this release was of noncytotoxic nature. On the other hand, the release of histamine at higher concentrations of RHM was due to cell lysis since both histamine and cytoplasmic marker /sup 51/Cr were released to the same extent. The release evoked by large concentration RHM was not inhibited by superoxide dismutase or catalase. This suggests that the cell lysis under these conditions was not due to H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ or O-2. The finding that mast cells release histamine when irradiated in the presence of RHM suggests that the immediate and late-phase reactions seen in sunburn may in part be due to the release of mediators from these cells.

  5. Production of perhydroxy radical (HO2) and oxygen in the radiolysis of aqueous solution and the LET effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Masashi

    1987-01-01

    This article aims to review the results concerning the production of perhydroxy radical (HO 2 ) and oxygen from irradiated aqueous solutions and the LET effects on these products, beginning with a brief introduction to the elementary primary processes in radiolysis of aqueous solution. Oxygen, if produced in the radiolysis of aqueous solution, may be considered responsible for the decreased oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) in biological systems exposed to high LET radiation. A Harwell's group has determined oxygen generated from aqueous ferrous solutions irradiated with heavy ions and concluded that the oxygen is a precursor of perhydroxy radicals. The LET-dependent yields for perhydroxy radical have been determined by LaVerne and Schuler; the analysis of their results sheds light into the reactions taking place in high-LET track cores. In conjunction with these results, the possible contributions to the LET effects are pointed out and discussed of the energetic secondary electrons ejected from the track core by knock-on collision with heavy ions and of the variation in the track core size with energy of the heavy particles. (author)

  6. Radical Nephrectomy for Primary Retroperitoneal Liposarcoma Near the Kidney has a Beneficial Effect on Disease-Free Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhu, Jinsoo; Cho, Chan Woo; Lee, Kyo Won; Park, Hyojun; Park, Jae Berm; Choi, Yoon-La; Kim, Sung Joo

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the clinical impact of radical nephrectomy on retroperitoneal liposarcoma near the kidney. Data of patients who underwent surgery for unilateral primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma near the kidney were retrospectively collected. Patients were divided into four groups according to whether they underwent nephrectomy and combined resection of other organs. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate disease-free survival and overall survival. Multivariable Cox analysis was used to analyze factors related to disease-free survival and overall survival. Nephrectomy (HR = 0.260, CI = 0.078-0.873, p = 0.029) had a beneficial effect on disease-free survival, while interaction model of nephrectomy*other organ resection (HR = 4.655, CI = 1.767-12.263, p = 0.002) showed poor disease-free survival. Other organ resection was not related to disease-free survival (HR = 1.543, CI = 0.146-16.251, p = 0.718). Operation method (p = 0.007) and FNCLCC grade (p free survival. While combined organ resection without nephrectomy group (HR = 1.604, CI = 0.167-15.370, p = 0.682) and radical nephrectomy with combined organ resection group (HR = 1.309, CI = 0.448-3.825, p = 0.622) did not show significant difference in disease-free survival from the mass excision only group, radical nephrectomy without combined organ resection group (HR = 0.279, CI = 0.078-0.991, p = 0.048) showed superior disease-free survival. Radical nephrectomy of unilateral primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma near the kidney has a beneficial effect on disease-free survival.

  7. Radioprotection effects of TMG to radical scavenger effect of the mice in radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yeunhwa; Hasegawa, Takeo; Oshima, Masami

    2002-01-01

    Now there is many it, and the radiotherapy that is one of cancer therapy is used by single or anticancer drug and combination. A chemical material has been used as radioprotector, but the use is limited conventionally by a serious side effect. Vitamin E derivative[TMG 2- (α - D-Glucopyranosyl) Methyl-2,5,7,8-Teramethyl -chorman-6-OL] which we are water-soluble, And is the nature material as well for the fetal teratogenicity that I use ICR mouse used for a malformed experiment frequently in this study, and sensibility for radiation is the highest, we studied radiation protection effect of TMG. As a result, as for the fetal malformed incidence, it was admitted that it fell in shifts and changes by administering TMG before radiation exposure. Decrease depression of degradation of a skeletal malformation rate in particular and fetal weight was recognized, and an individual level made radiation protection indication of TMG clear. In addition, that there was radioprotection effect for embryonic death by radiation was made clear by premedication doing TMG equally, and that there was protection effect for radiation exposure in a cell level same as an individual level was proved, and TMG showed the potency that it was it in radioprotector promising in the future. Furthermore, by what we reviewed about congenital defect for radiation, effect for skeletal malformation incidence and sensibility of embryonic cell level in organogenesis, we analyzed mechanism of protection effect of TMG for fetal teratogenicity by radiation experimentally

  8. Radioprotection effects of TMG to radical scavenger effect of the mice in radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yeunhwa; Hasegawa, Takeo; Oshima, Masami [Suzuka Univ. of Medical Science, Suzuka (Japan)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    Now there is many it, and the radiotherapy that is one of cancer therapy is used by single or anticancer drug and combination. A chemical material has been used as radioprotector, but the use is limited conventionally by a serious side effect. Vitamin E derivative[TMG 2- ({alpha} - D-Glucopyranosyl) Methyl-2,5,7,8-Teramethyl -chorman-6-OL] which we are water-soluble, And is the nature material as well for the fetal teratogenicity that I use ICR mouse used for a malformed experiment frequently in this study, and sensibility for radiation is the highest, we studied radiation protection effect of TMG. As a result, as for the fetal malformed incidence, it was admitted that it fell in shifts and changes by administering TMG before radiation exposure. Decrease depression of degradation of a skeletal malformation rate in particular and fetal weight was recognized, and an individual level made radiation protection indication of TMG clear. In addition, that there was radioprotection effect for embryonic death by radiation was made clear by premedication doing TMG equally, and that there was protection effect for radiation exposure in a cell level same as an individual level was proved, and TMG showed the potency that it was it in radioprotector promising in the future. Furthermore, by what we reviewed about congenital defect for radiation, effect for skeletal malformation incidence and sensibility of embryonic cell level in organogenesis, we analyzed mechanism of protection effect of TMG for fetal teratogenicity by radiation experimentally.

  9. Neuroprotection by Radical Avoidance: Search for Suitable Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Hardeland

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration is frequently associated with damage by free radicals. However, increases in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which may ultimately lead to neuronal cell death, do not necessarily reflect its primary cause, but can be a consequence of otherwise induced cellular dysfunction. Detrimental processes which promote free radical formation are initiated, e.g., by disturbances in calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial malfunction, and an age-related decline in the circadian oscillator system. Free radicals generated at high rates under pathophysiological conditions are insufficiently detoxified by scavengers. Interventions at the primary causes of dysfunction, which avoid secondary rises in radical formation, may be more efficient. The aim of such approaches should be to prevent calcium overload, to reduce mitochondrial electron dissipation, to support electron transport capacity, and to avoid circadian perturbations. l-Theanine and several amphiphilic nitrones are capable of counteracting excitotoxicity and/or mitochondrial radical formation. Resveratrol seems to promote mitochondrial biogenesis. Mitochondrial effects of leptin include attenuation of electron leakage. Melatonin combines all the requirements mentioned, additionally regulates anti- and pro-oxidant enzymes and is, with few exceptions, very well tolerated. In this review, the perspectives, problems and limits of drugs are compared which may be suitable for reducing the formation of free radicals.

  10. Differential sensitivity of cellular membranes to peroxidative processes. An electronmicroscopic, histochemical and cytochemical study of the effects of vitamin E deficiency and X-irradiation on the liver of the Pekin duckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huijbers, W A.R.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a morphological and cytochemical investigation into the effects of both vitamin E deficiency and x irradiation on the ultrastructure and enzyme activities of several cellular membranes, particularly the plasma membrane and the membranes of lysosomes, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. In the vitamin E deficient situation, the radicals and peroxides only originate near mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, so that these membrane systems suffer from changes. After irradiation of the liver of both the control duckling and the deficient duckling, radicals originate in all parts of the cell. Due to their high content of lipids and cholesterols, peroxides will occur mainly in plasma membranes and lysosomal membranes. Moreover, in these membranes there is hardly any protection by vitamin E.

  11. A study for bank effect on ship traffic in narrow water channels using cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhuo; Cong, Shuang; Pan, Junnan; Zheng, Jianfeng

    2017-12-01

    In narrow water channels, bank might affect nearby ships due to hydrodynamic forces (bank effect). To avoid accidents, different sailing rules (i.e., lane-changing, speed control) are required. In this paper, a two-lane cellular automata model is proposed to evaluate such phenomena. Numerical experiments show that ships will form a “slow-moving chunk” in the bank area, which will significantly block the flux. As further study demonstrated to alleviate bank effect, ship speed and bank length should be controlled.

  12. The FPGA realization of the general cellular automata based cryptographic hash functions: Performance and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Klyucharev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author considers hardware implementation of the GRACE-H family general cellular automata based cryptographic hash functions. VHDL is used as a language and Altera FPGA as a platform for hardware implementation. Performance and effectiveness of the FPGA implementations of GRACE-H hash functions were compared with Keccak (SHA-3, SHA-256, BLAKE, Groestl, JH, Skein hash functions. According to the performed tests, performance of the hardware implementation of GRACE-H family hash functions significantly (up to 12 times exceeded performance of the hardware implementation of previously known hash functions, and effectiveness of that hardware implementation was also better (up to 4 times.

  13. Effect of cyclosporine, tacrolimus and sirolimus on cellular senescence in renal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelstaetter, Christian; Kern, Georg; Leierer, Gisela; Mair, Sabine Maria; Mayer, Gert; Leierer, Johannes

    2018-04-01

    In transplantation medicine calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) still represent the backbone of immunosuppressive therapy. The nephrotoxic potential of the CNI Cyclosporine A (CsA) and Tacrolimus (FK506) is well recognized and CNI not only have been linked with toxicity, but also with cellular senescence which hinders parenchymal tissue regeneration and thus may prime kidneys for subsequent insults. To minimize pathological effects on kidney grafts, alternative immunosuppressive agents like mTOR inhibitors or the T-cell co-stimulation blocker Belatacept have been introduced. We compared the effects of CsA, FK506 and Sirolimus on the process of cellular senescence in different human renal tubule cell types (HK2, RPTEC). Telomere length (by real time PCR), DNA synthesis (by BrdU incorporation), cell viability (by Resazurin conversion), gene expression (by RT-PCR), protein (by western blotting), Immuncytochemistry and H 2 O 2 production (by Amplex Red® conversion) were evaluated. DNA synthesis was significantly reduced when cells were treated with cyclosporine but not with tacrolimus and sirolimus. Resazurin conversion was not altered by all three immunosuppressive agents. The gene expression as well as protein production of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A) but not p16 (CDKN2A) was significantly induced by cyclosporine compared to the other two immunosuppressive agents when determined by western blotting an immuncytochemistry. Relative telomere length was reduced and hydrogen peroxide production increased after treatment with CsA but not with FK506 or sirolimus. In summary, renal tubule cells exposed to CsA show clear signs of cellular senescence where on the contrary the second calcineurin inhibitor FK506 and the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus are not involved in such mechanisms. Chronic renal allograft dysfunction could be in part triggered by cellular senescence induced by immunosuppressive medication and the choice of drug could therefore influence long term outcome

  14. Protein Corona Analysis of Silver Nanoparticles Links to Their Cellular Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juling, Sabine; Niedzwiecka, Alicia; Böhmert, Linda; Lichtenstein, Dajana; Selve, Sören; Braeuning, Albert; Thünemann, Andreas F; Krause, Eberhard; Lampen, Alfonso

    2017-11-03

    The breadth of applications of nanoparticles and the access to food-associated consumer products containing nanosized materials lead to oral human exposure to such particles. In biological fluids nanoparticles dynamically interact with biomolecules and form a protein corona. Knowledge about the protein corona is of great interest for understanding the molecular effects of particles as well as their fate inside the human body. We used a mass spectrometry-based toxicoproteomics approach to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity of silver nanoparticles and to comprehensively characterize the protein corona formed around silver nanoparticles in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. Results were compared with respect to the cellular function of proteins either affected by exposure to nanoparticles or present in the protein corona. A transcriptomic data set was included in the analyses in order to obtain a combined multiomics view of nanoparticle-affected cellular processes. A relationship between corona proteins and the proteomic or transcriptomic responses was revealed, showing that differentially regulated proteins or transcripts were engaged in the same cellular signaling pathways. Protein corona analyses of nanoparticles in cells might therefore help in obtaining information about the molecular consequences of nanoparticle treatment.

  15. Effect of hydrocarbon radical length of fatty acid collectors on flotation separation process of thorium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrylev, L.D.; Perlova, O.V.; Sazonova, V.F.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown experimentally that the degree of flotation separation of thorium ions collected by their means increases firstly (potassium laurate), then decreases (potassium tridecanate) and after that increases again (potassium palminate) when increasing the length of the hydrocarbon radical of potassium soaps of saturated fatty acids. The first increase of the collector efficiency is due to the decrease of solubility of thorium-containing sublates, and drop and further increase is due to the change in colloidchemical properties of sublates

  16. Solvent, isotope, and magnetic field effects in the geminate recombination of radical ion pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, H.; Staerk, H.; Weller, A.

    1978-01-01

    The magnetic field dependence of the geminate recombination triplet yield of radical ion pairs generated via photoinduced electron transfer in polar solvents is investigated for the systems pyrene/N,N-dimethylaniline (Py/DMA), pyrene/3,5-dimethoxy-N,N-dimethylaniline (Py/DMDMA), and the perdeuterated system Py-d 10 /DMA-d 11 . The magnetic field dependence characterized through its B/sub 1/2/ value is found to be dependent on the sum of the hyperfine coupling constants in the radical pair in agreement with previous theoretical predictions. A drastic reduction of the B/sub 1/2/ value is observed with the perdeuterated system. By means of measurements of the radical ion and triplet absorption signals with nanosecond time resolution, the influence of the solvent on the geminate singlet and triplet recombination yields is investigated. Complementary measurements of exciplex lifetimes and quantum yields are carried out in a series of solvents with different polarities in order to determine the rate constants of fluorescence emission and intersystem crossing in the exciplexes

  17. Antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging effect of polyphenol rich Mallotus philippenensis fruit extract on human erythrocytes: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Mayank; Gautam, Manish Kumar; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Tripathi, Yamini B; Goel, R K; Nath, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Mallotus philippinensis is an important source of molecules with strong antioxidant activity widely used medicinal plant. Previous studies have highlighted their anticestodal, antibacterial, wound healing activities, and so forth. So, present investigation was designed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity and radical scavenging effect of 50% ethanol fruit glandular hair extract (MPE) and its role on Human Erythrocytes. MPE was tested for phytochemical test followed by its HPLC analysis. Standard antioxidant assays like DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide radical, nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation assay were determined along with total phenolic and flavonoids content. Results showed that MPE contains the presence of various phytochemicals, with high total phenolic and flavonoid content. HPLC analysis showed the presence of rottlerin, a polyphenolic compound in a very rich quantity. MPE exhibits significant strong scavenging activity on DPPH and ABTS assay. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration absorption compared to standard, Quercetin. Superoxide, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide assay showed a comparable scavenging activity compared to its standard. Our finding further provides evidence that Mallotus fruit extract is a potential natural source of antioxidants which have a protective role on human Erythrocytes exhibiting minimum hemolytic activity and this justified its uses in folklore medicines.

  18. Effect of early rehabilitation training on oxygen free radical generation and nerve injury in patients with cerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Shu Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of early rehabilitation training combined with edaravone on oxygen free radical generation and nerve injury in patients with cerebral hemorrhage. Methods: A total of 56 patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage who were treated in Zigong Third People’s Hospital between July 2014 and March 2017 were selected and randomly divided into early rehabilitation group and routine rehabilitation group, the early rehabilitation group began the rehabilitation training 2 d after cerebral hemorrhage condition was stabilized, and routine rehabilitation group began the rehabilitation training 14 d after cerebral hemorrhage. Serum contents of oxygen free radicals, nerve injury markers and neurotrophic molecules were detected 28 d and 56 d after cerebral hemorrhage. Results: 28 d and 56 d after cerebral hemorrhage, serum MDA, AOPP, 8-OHdG, GFAP, NSE, Tf, Ft and S100B levels of early rehabilitation group were significantly lower than those of routine rehabilitation group while BDNF, NGF, NTF-α and IGF-I levels were significantly higher than those of routine rehabilitation group. Conclusion: Early rehabilitation training combined with edaravone for cerebral hemorrhage can inhibit the oxygen free radical generation, reduce the degree of nerve injury and improve the neurotrophic state.

  19. Differential Cellular and Molecular Effects of Butyrate and Trichostatin A on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Ranganna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors, butyrate and trichostatin A (TSA, are epigenetic histone modifiers and proliferation inhibitors by downregulating cyclin D1, a positive cell cycle regulator, and upregulating p21Cip1 and INK family of proteins, negative cell cycle regulators. Our recent study indicated cyclin D1 upregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC that are proliferation-arrested by butyrate. Here we investigate whether cyclin D1 upregulation is a unique response of VSMC to butyrate or a general response to HDAC inhibitors (HDACi by evaluating the effects of butyrate and TSA on VSMC. While butyrate and TSA inhibit VSMC proliferation via cytostatic and cytotoxic effects, respectively, they downregulate cdk4, cdk6, and cdk2, and upregulate cyclin D3, p21Cip1 and p15INK4B, and cause similar effects on key histone H3 posttranslational modifications. Conversely, cyclin D1 is upregulated by butyrate and inhibited by TSA. Assessment of glycogen synthase 3-dependent phosphorylation, subcellular localization and transcription of cyclin D1 indicates that differential effects of butyrate and TSA on cyclin D1 levels are linked to disparity in cyclin D1 gene expression. Disparity in butyrate- and TSA-induced cyclin D1 may influence transcriptional regulation of genes that are associated with changes in cellular morphology/cellular effects that these HDACi confer on VSMC, as a transcriptional modulator.

  20. Health effects of low-dose radiation: Molecular, cellular, and biosystem response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollycove, M.; Paperiello, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Since the fifties, the prime concern of radiation protection has been protecting DNA from damage. UNSCEAR initiated a focus on biosystem response to damage with its 1994 report, ''Adaptive Responses to Radiation of Cells and Organisms''. The DNA damage-control biosystem is physiologically operative on both metabolic and radiation induced damage, both effected predominantly by free radicals. These adaptive responses are suppressed by high-dose and stimulated by low dose radiation. Increased biosystem efficiently reduces the number of mutations that accumulate during a lifetime and decrease DNA damage-control with resultant aging and malignancy. Several statistically significant epidemiologic studies have shown risk decrements of cancer mortality and mortality from all causes in populations exposed to low-dose radiation. Further biologic and epidemiologic research is needed to establish a valid threshold below which risk decrements occur. (author)

  1. A short-term cost-effectiveness study comparing robot-assisted laparoscopic and open retropubic radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwü, Lena; Borre, Michael; Ehlers, Lars

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cost effectiveness and cost utility comparing robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) versus retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP). METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study a total of 231 men between the age of 50 and 69 years and with clinically localised prostate....... An economic evaluation was made to estimate direct costs of the first postoperative year and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per successful surgical treatment and per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). A successful RP was defined as: no residual cancer (PSA ... high volume urology centres and utilise the full potential of each robot....

  2. Isotope effects and the temperature dependences of the hyperfine coupling constants of muoniated sec-butyl radicals in condensed phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Donald G; Bridges, Michael D; Arseneau, Donald J; Chen, Ya Kun; Wang, Yan Alexander

    2011-04-07

    Reported here is the first μSR study of the muon (A(μ)) and proton (A(p)) β-hyperfine coupling constants (Hfcc) of muoniated sec-butyl radicals, formed by muonium (Mu) addition to 1-butene and to cis- and trans-2-butene. The data are compared with in vacuo spin-unrestricted MP2 and hybrid DFT/B3YLP calculations reported in the previous paper (I), which played an important part in the interpretation of the data. The T-dependences of both the (reduced) muon, A(μ)′(T), and proton, A(p)(T), Hfcc are surprisingly well explained by a simple model, in which the calculated Hfcc from paper I at energy minima of 0 and near ±120° are thermally averaged, assuming an energy dependence given by a basic 2-fold torsional potential. Fitted torsional barriers to A(μ)′(T) from this model are similar (~3 kJ/mol) for all muoniated butyl radicals, suggesting that these are dominated by ZPE effects arising from the C−Mu bond, but for A(p)(T) exhibit wide variations depending on environment. For the cis- and trans-2-butyl radicals formed from 2-butene, A(μ)′(T) exhibits clear discontinuities at bulk butene melting points, evidence for molecular interactions enhancing these muon Hfcc in the environment of the solid state, similar to that found in earlier reports for muoniated tert-butyl. In contrast, for Mu−sec-butyl formed from 1-butene, there is no such discontinuity. The muon hfcc for the trans-2-butyl radical are seemingly very well predicted by B3LYP calculations in the solid phase, but for sec-butyl from 1-butene, showing the absence of further interactions, much better agreement is found with the MP2 calculations across the whole temperature range. Examples of large proton Hfcc near 0 K are also reported, due to eclipsed C−H bonds, in like manner to C−Mu, which then also exhibit clear discontinuities in A(p)(T) at bulk melting points. The data suggest that the good agreement found between theory and experiment from the B3LYP calculations for eclipsed bonds in

  3. Effects of exogenous oxygen derived free radicals on myocardial capillary permeability, vascular tone, and incidence of ventricular arrhythmias in the canine heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Bjerrum, P J

    1992-01-01

    The aim was to examine the effects of exogenous oxygen derived free radicals on myocardial capillary permeability for a small hydrophilic indicator, postischaemic vascular tone, and the occurrence of arrhythmias in the canine heart in vivo.......The aim was to examine the effects of exogenous oxygen derived free radicals on myocardial capillary permeability for a small hydrophilic indicator, postischaemic vascular tone, and the occurrence of arrhythmias in the canine heart in vivo....

  4. Advanced in study of cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation effects on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Tu Yu; Wang Lili

    2008-01-01

    Along with radiation treatment extensively applied, radiation injury also is valued gradually. The effect of radiation to the cellular and molecular of central nervous system (CNS) is a complicated and moderately advanced process and the mechanism is remains incompletely clear yet. Inquiring into the possible mechanism of the CNS including the injury and the restoration of neuron, neuroglia cells, endotheliocyte cell and blood-brain barrier and the molecular level of change induced by radiation, so as to provide beneficial thought for preventing and curing radiation injury clinically. Some neuroprotective strategies are also addressed in the review. (authors)

  5. Effect of gamma radiation on starch content and cellular morphology of chlorella pyrenoidose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Martin Moreno, C.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of five doses of gamma radiation (10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy) on starch content and fine structure of Chlorella pyrenoidose has been studied. Results show the accumulation of large amounts of starch on Chlorella cells after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy doses. The starch which is stored in the cytoplasm in form of great grains produces a disorganization of the chloroplast structure, observed by electron microscopy techniques. The microphotographs presented also show a significant increase in the cellular size after irradiation up to 500 Gy. (author)

  6. Effect of Water Flows on Ship Traffic in Narrow Water Channels Based on Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Hongtao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In narrow water channels, ship traffic may be affected by water flows and ship interactions. Studying their effects can help maritime authorities to establish appropriate management strategies. In this study, a two-lane cellular automation model is proposed. Further, the behavior of ship traffic is analyzed by setting different water flow velocities and considering ship interactions. Numerical experiment results show that the ship traffic density-flux relation is significantly different from the results obtained by classical models. Furthermore, due to ship interactions, the ship lane-change rate is influenced by the water flow to a certain degree.

  7. Effect of gamma radiation on starch content and cellular morphology of Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Moreno, C.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of five doses of gamma radiation (10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy) on starch content and fine structure of Chlorella pyrenoidosa has been studied. Results show the accumulation of large amounts of starch on Chlorella cells after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy doses. The starch which is stored in the cytoplasm in form of great grains produces a de organization of the chloroplast structure, observed by electron microscopy techniques. The microphotographs presented also show a significant increase in the cellular size after irradiation up to 500 Gy. (Author) 29 refs

  8. The Effect of Spatial Interference Correlation and Jamming on Secrecy in Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.

    2017-06-02

    Recent studies on secure wireless communication have shed light on a scenario where interference has a desirable impact on network performance. Particularly, assuming independent interference-power fluctuations at the eavesdropper and the receiver, opportunistic secure-information transfer can occur on the legitimate-link. However, interference is spatially correlated due to the common set of interfering sources, which may diminish the opportunistic-secure-spectrum-access (OSSA) probability. We study and quantify the effect of spatial interference correlation on OSSA in cellular-networks and investigate the potential of full-duplex jamming (FDJ) solutions. The results highlight the scenarios where FDJ improves OSSA performance.

  9. The Effect of Spatial Interference Correlation and Jamming on Secrecy in Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.; Elsawy, Hesham; Haenggi, Martin; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies on secure wireless communication have shed light on a scenario where interference has a desirable impact on network performance. Particularly, assuming independent interference-power fluctuations at the eavesdropper and the receiver, opportunistic secure-information transfer can occur on the legitimate-link. However, interference is spatially correlated due to the common set of interfering sources, which may diminish the opportunistic-secure-spectrum-access (OSSA) probability. We study and quantify the effect of spatial interference correlation on OSSA in cellular-networks and investigate the potential of full-duplex jamming (FDJ) solutions. The results highlight the scenarios where FDJ improves OSSA performance.

  10. Operational and biological effects zones from base stations of cellular telephony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geronikolou, St. A., E-mail: sgeronik@bioacademy.gr [Biomedical Research Foundation Academy of Athens, Athens (Greece); Zimeras, S., E-mail: zimste@aegean.gr [University of the Aegean, Karlovassi, Samos (Greece); Tsitomeneas, S. Th., E-mail: stsit@teipir.gr [Piraeus University of Applied Sciences, Aigaleo (Greece)

    2016-03-25

    The possible environmental impacts of cellular base stations are operational and biological. The operational effects comprise Εlectro-Μagnetic Interference (EMI), lightning alterations and aesthetic degradation. Both thermal and non-thermal biological effects depend on the absorption of UHF radiofrequencies used. We measured, calculated and estimated the impact zones. The results are: (a) The lightning lethal zone equal to the antenna height, (b) the EMI impact in a zone up to 40m and (c) the ICNIRP’s limits exceed to a zone of 8∼20m into the antenna’s radiation pattern (for 2G GSM and 3G UMTS station). Finally we conclude the adverse effects must not expected in a zone of more than 150m from the radiated antenna, whereas, there is possibility of stochastic effects in intermediate distances (20/40-150m).

  11. Effect of propolis on mitotic and cellular proliferation indices in human blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M.; Villaescusa, J. [Valencia Hospital Univ. la Fe, Servicio de Proteccion Radiologica (Spain); Barquinero, J. [Barcelona Univ. Autonom, Servicio de Dosimetria Biologica, Unidad de Antropologia, Dept. de Biologia Animal, Vegetal y Ecologia, barcelona (Spain); Barrios, L. [Barcelona Univ. Autonoma, Dept. de Biologia Celular y Fisiologia. Unidad de Biologia Celular (Spain); Verdu, G. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear (Spain); Perez, J. [Hospital la Fe, Seccion de Radiofisica, Servicio de Radioterapia, valencia (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The study of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations per cell is the tool used in Biological dosimetry studies. Using dose-effect calibration curve obtained in our laboratory, we can evaluate the radioprotector effect of the EEP (ethanolic extract of propolis) in cultures in vitro. Propolis is the generic name for resinous substance collected by honeybees. The results showed a reduction in chromosomal aberrations's frequency of up to 50 %. The following study consisted of analyzing human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to 2 Gy {gamma} rays, in presence and absence of EEP, the change in the frequency of chromosome aberrations was analysed with biological dosimetry. The protection against the formation of dicentric and ring was dose-dependent, but there seemed to be a maximum protection, i.e. a further increase in the concentration of EEP does not show additional protection. This work studies the effect of the EEP of the cellular cycle using the mitotic and cellular proliferation index, as an alternative for the screening cytostatic activity. The results indicate that the lymphocytes which were cultures in presence of EEP exhibited a significant and dependent-concentration decrease in mitotic index and proliferation kinetics. The possible mechanisms involved in the radioprotective influence of EEP are discussed. (authors)

  12. Effect of propolis on mitotic and cellular proliferation indices in human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M.; Villaescusa, J.; Barquinero, J.; Barrios, L.; Verdu, G.; Perez, J.

    2006-01-01

    The study of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations per cell is the tool used in Biological dosimetry studies. Using dose-effect calibration curve obtained in our laboratory, we can evaluate the radioprotector effect of the EEP (ethanolic extract of propolis) in cultures in vitro. Propolis is the generic name for resinous substance collected by honeybees. The results showed a reduction in chromosomal aberrations's frequency of up to 50 %. The following study consisted of analyzing human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to 2 Gy γ rays, in presence and absence of EEP, the change in the frequency of chromosome aberrations was analysed with biological dosimetry. The protection against the formation of dicentric and ring was dose-dependent, but there seemed to be a maximum protection, i.e. a further increase in the concentration of EEP does not show additional protection. This work studies the effect of the EEP of the cellular cycle using the mitotic and cellular proliferation index, as an alternative for the screening cytostatic activity. The results indicate that the lymphocytes which were cultures in presence of EEP exhibited a significant and dependent-concentration decrease in mitotic index and proliferation kinetics. The possible mechanisms involved in the radioprotective influence of EEP are discussed. (authors)

  13. [Effect of electroacupuncture on cellular structure of hippocampus in splenic asthenia pedo-rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhuo-xin; Zhuo, Yuan-yuan; Yu, Hai-bo; Wang, Ning

    2010-02-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on hippocampal structure in splenic asthenia pedo-rats. A total of 15 SD male rats were randomly assigned to normal control group (n=5), model group (n=5) and EA group (n=5). Splenic asthenic syndrome model was established by intragastric administration of rhubarb and intraperitoneal injection of Reserpine for 14 d. EA (1 mA, 3 Hz/iS Hz) was applied to bilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) for 20 mm, once a day for 14 days. The cellular structure of hippocampus was observed by light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Optical microscopic observation showed that in normal control group, the cellular nucleus was distinct, and the granular cell layer well-arranged and tight. In model group, the intracellular space was widened, and the granular cell layer was out of order in the arrangement. In EA group, the celluldr nucleus and the granular cell layer were nearly normal. Results of the electronic microscope showed that cells in model group had a karyopyknosis with irregular appearance and clear incisure, and some of them presented dissolving and necrotic phenomena; and those in EA group were milder in injury, had nearly-normal nucleus with visible nucleoli and relatively-intact nuclear membrane. Regarding the cellular plasma, in comparison with rich normal organelles of control group, the mitochondria in model group were swelling, with vague, dissolved and broken cristae, while in EA group, majority of the organelles were well-kept, and slightly dissolved mitochondrial cristae found. In regard to the synaptic structure, in comparison with control group, synaptic apomorphosis and swelling mitochondria were found in model group While in EA group, milder swelling and hydropic degeneration were seen. Different from the distinct pre- and post-synaptic membrane and synaptic vesicles of control group, while those in EA group were nearly-normal. electroacupunture can effectively relieve splenasthenic

  14. The metallic state in neutral radical conductors: dimensionality, pressure and multiple orbital effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Di; Winter, Stephen M; Mailman, Aaron; Wong, Joanne W L; Yong, Wenjun; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Jia, Yating; Tse, John S; Desgreniers, Serge; Secco, Richard A; Julian, Stephen R; Jin, Changqing; Mito, Masaki; Ohishi, Yasuo; Oakley, Richard T

    2015-11-11

    Pressure-induced changes in the solid-state structures and transport properties of three oxobenzene-bridged bisdithiazolyl radicals 2 (R = H, F, Ph) over the range 0-15 GPa are described. All three materials experience compression of their π-stacked architecture, be it (i) 1D ABABAB π-stack (R = Ph), (ii) quasi-1D slipped π-stack (R = H), or (iii) 2D brick-wall π-stack (R = F). While R = H undergoes two structural phase transitions, neither of R = F, Ph display any phase change. All three radicals order as spin-canted antiferromagnets, but spin-canted ordering is lost at pressures pressure, and the thermal activation energy for conduction Eact is eliminated at pressures ranging from ∼3 GPa for R = F to ∼12 GPa for R = Ph, heralding formation of a highly correlated (or bad) metallic state. For R = F, H the pressure-induced Mott insulator to metal conversion has been tracked by measurements of optical conductivity at ambient temperature and electrical resistivity at low temperature. For R = F compression to 6.2 GPa leads to a quasiquadratic temperature dependence of the resistivity over the range 5-300 K, consistent with formation of a 2D Fermi liquid state. DFT band structure calculations suggest that the ease of metallization of these radicals can be ascribed to their multiorbital character. Mixing and overlap of SOMO- and LUMO-based bands affords an increased kinetic energy stabilization of the metallic state relative to a single SOMO-based band system.

  15. The late effect of radical radiotherapy for lung cancer on pulmonary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    At the Peter MacCallum Hospital it is the policy to treat patients with non-small cell carcinoma of the lung with radical intent if there are no adverse prognostic factors. Spirometric testing was carried out before and at least three months after the completion of radiotherapy in 25 patients who were so treated. The results indicate that high dose radiotherapy (50-60 Gy) to the primary site and mediastinum is well tolerated; although 64% of patients experienced a decrease in vital capacity, this was usually of acceptable degree and in the remaining 36% the vital capacity actually increased

  16. Moessbauer effect study of iron(III)-inidazolidine nitroxyl-free radical ligand complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulaba, A. [Technikon Witwatersrand, Metallurgy Department (South Africa); Kiremire, E. [University of the Witwatersrand, Chemistry Department (South Africa); Pollak, H. [University of the Witwatersrand, Physics Department (South Africa); Boeyens, J. [University of the Witwatersrand, Chemistry Department (South Africa)

    1999-09-15

    A new complex, [Fe(acac)L{sub 2}], bearing inidazolidine nitroxyl-free radical ligand (L{sup -}) was recently synthesised for biological studies. It proved to be biologically active against African sleeping sickness, plasmodium falciparum (malaria), leishmaniasis and chaga disease causative agents. Three ESR well resolved peaks indicated the presence of a free (unpaired) and chemically active electron in the complex. The structural complex ferric iron was found at the centre of two electric gradient whose the biggest is suggested to be initiated by the unpaired charge. No distinction between different cis isomers could be made.

  17. Psychological effects of breast conserving therapy in comparison with radical mastectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelink, H.; van Dam, F.; van Dongen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Psychosocial sequelae of breast conserving therapy (BCT) and radical mastectomy (RM) have been compared. Also, in the BCT group, the cosmetic results were judged by the patients themselves and two plastic surgeons. Body image in the BCT group (n = 114) was significantly more positive than in the RM group (n = 58). Patients treated with BCT had even less fear of recurrence of the cancer and would, if necessary, choose the same treatment again. Cosmetic results were good to excellent in 75% of the cases as judged by the two plastic surgeons. Most of the patients with a bad grading by the surgeons were happy with the results

  18. Moessbauer effect study of iron(III)-inidazolidine nitroxyl-free radical ligand complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulaba, A.; Kiremire, E.; Pollak, H.; Boeyens, J.

    1999-01-01

    A new complex, [Fe(acac)L 2 ], bearing inidazolidine nitroxyl-free radical ligand (L - ) was recently synthesised for biological studies. It proved to be biologically active against African sleeping sickness, plasmodium falciparum (malaria), leishmaniasis and chaga disease causative agents. Three ESR well resolved peaks indicated the presence of a free (unpaired) and chemically active electron in the complex. The structural complex ferric iron was found at the centre of two electric gradient whose the biggest is suggested to be initiated by the unpaired charge. No distinction between different cis isomers could be made

  19. Different cellular effects of four anti-inflammatory eye drops on human corneal epithelial cells: independent in active components

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Mingli; Wang, Yao; Yang, Lingling; Zhou, Qingjun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate and compare the cellular effects of four commercially available anti-inflammatory eye drops and their active components on human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) in vitro. Methods The cellular effects of four eye drops (Bromfenac Sodium Hydrate Eye Drops, Pranoprofen Eye Drops, Diclofenac Sodium Eye Drops, and Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops) and their corresponding active components were evaluated in an HCEC line with five in vitro assays. Cell proliferation and migration were...

  20. Cellular effects of curcumin on Plasmodium falciparum include disruption of microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimi Chakrabarti

    Full Text Available Curcumin has been widely investigated for its myriad cellular effects resulting in reduced proliferation of various eukaryotic cells including cancer cells and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Studies with human cancer cell lines HT-29, Caco-2, and MCF-7 suggest that curcumin can bind to tubulin and induce alterations in microtubule structure. Based on this finding, we investigated whether curcumin has any effect on P. falciparum microtubules, considering that mammalian and parasite tubulin are 83% identical. IC50 of curcumin was found to be 5 µM as compared to 20 µM reported before. Immunofluorescence images of parasites treated with 5 or 20 µM curcumin showed a concentration-dependent effect on parasite microtubules resulting in diffuse staining contrasting with the discrete hemispindles and subpellicular microtubules observed in untreated parasites. The effect on P. falciparum microtubules was evident only in the second cycle for both concentrations tested. This diffuse pattern of tubulin fluorescence in curcumin treated parasites was similar to the effect of a microtubule destabilizing drug vinblastine on P. falciparum. Molecular docking predicted the binding site of curcumin at the interface of alpha and beta tubulin, similar to another destabilizing drug colchicine. Data from predicted drug binding is supported by results from drug combination assays showing antagonistic interactions between curcumin and colchicine, sharing a similar binding site, and additive/synergistic interactions of curcumin with paclitaxel and vinblastine, having different binding sites. This evidence suggests that cellular effects of curcumin are at least, in part, due to its perturbing effect on P. falciparum microtubules. The action of curcumin, both direct and indirect, on P. falciparum microtubules is discussed.

  1. Radical fashion and radical fashion innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, D.; Benedetto, Di A.C.

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of the related concepts of radical fashion and radical fashion innovation. Radical fashions are defined here as those that may never enter the market at all, and exist primarily on runway shows, in exhibitions and in publicity; by contrast, radical fashion innovations may be very

  2. [Evaluation of Cellular Effects Caused by Lunar Regolith Simulant Including Fine Particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Miki, Takeo; Honma, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Shigeru; Morimoto, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has announced a plan to establish a manned colony on the surface of the moon, and our country, Japan, has declared its participation. The surface of the moon is covered with soil called lunar regolith, which includes fine particles. It is possible that humans will inhale lunar regolith if it is brought into the spaceship. Therefore, an evaluation of the pulmonary effects caused by lunar regolith is important for exploration of the moon. In the present study, we examine the cellular effects of lunar regolith simulant, whose components are similar to those of lunar regolith. We focused on the chemical component and particle size in particular. The regolith simulant was fractionated to lunar regolith simulant such as cell membrane damage, induction of oxidative stress and proinflammatory effect.

  3. Effects of hydroxyl radical scavengers KCN and CO on ultraviolet light-induced activation of crude soluble guanylate cyclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, J.O.; Axelsson, K.L.; Andersson, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The crude soluble guanylate cyclase (GC) from bovine mesenteric artery was stimulated by ultraviolet (UV) light (366 nm). Addition of free radical scavengers, dimethylsulfoxide or superoxide dismutase and/or catalase to the GC assay did not abolish the stimulatory effect of UV light. On the contrary, the UV light-induced activation was enhanced in the presence of these scavengers. KCN (1 mM) did not affect the UV light-induced activation, while 0.1 mM of CO potentiated the activation. These results may indicate that UV light is operating through a direct interaction with the ferrous form of the GC-heme

  4. The elevation effect on water-soluble polysaccharides and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of Ganoderma lucidum K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsih, C.; Apriyana, W.; Nur Hayati, S.; Taufika Rosyida, V.; Hernawan; Dewi Poeloengasih, C.

    2017-02-01

    Water soluble polysaccharide is one of the important phytochemical in Ganoderma lucidum K. Phytochemicals in the plants, microorganisms, and plants were affected by internal and external factors. The objective of the research was to evaluate the effect of elevation on the water-soluble polysaccharides and its DPPH radical scavenging activity. We found that the water-polysaccharides in mushroom from Godean (elevation Ganoderma lucidum K from Godean (IC50 11.5 ± 0.29 mg/mL) higher than Kaliurang (IC50 14.4 ± 0.27%).

  5. Distinct salt-dependent effects impair Fremyella diplosiphon pigmentation and cellular shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shailendra P; Montgomery, Beronda L

    2013-07-01

    Salt impairs cellular morphology and photosynthetic pigment accumulation in the cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon. Recent findings indicated that the impact of salt on cellular morphology was attributable to salt-associated effects on osmotic regulation, as the impact on morphology was reversible when cells were treated with an osmoticum in the presence of salt. The impact of salt on photosynthetic pigment accumulation was associated with ionic effects of salt on the cells, as pigment levels remained low when salt-treated cells were incubated together with an osmoticum or an antioxidant, the latter to mitigate the impact of a salt-associated accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Here, we provide evidence that the transcripts for genes encoding the phycobiliproteins are not reduced in the presence of salt. These results suggest that the negative impact of salt-mediated changes on pigment accumulation occurs post-transcriptionally. A greater understanding of the mechanisms which impact growth of strains such as F. diplosiphon, which harbor pigments that allow low-light and shade-tolerated growth, may facilitate the development or adaptation of such strains as useful for remediation of salt-impacted soils or biofuel production.

  6. Effect of processing on phenolic acids composition and radical scavenging capacity of barley pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paula, Rosanna; Rabalski, Iwona; Messia, Maria Cristina; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Marconi, Emanuele

    2017-12-01

    Phenolic acids, total phenolics content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity in raw ingredients, fresh and dried spaghetti, and in uncooked and cooked spaghetti were evaluated and compared with semolina spaghetti as a reference. Ferulic acid was the major phenolic acid found in the free and bound phenolic extracts in all the investigated pasta samples. The addition of barley flour into pasta at incorporation levels of 30, 50 and 100% increased phenolic acids and total phenolics content. Pasta processing did not significantly affect the total phenolics content and free radical scavenging capacity, but a significant reduction in total phenolic acids measured by HPLC was found. Drying process differently affected individual phenolic compounds in the free and bound fractions, and thus, the total phenolic acids content. Free vanillic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids did not significantly change, while p-hydroxybenzoic and ferulic acids of the free extracts showed higher values compared to the corresponding fresh pasta. Cooking did not greatly affect total phenolic acids, more leading to conserving free and bound phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preservation of kombucha tea-effect of temperature on tea components and free radical scavenging properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, Rasu; Marimuthu, Subbaiya; Thangaraj, Periyasamy; Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy; Binupriya, Arthur Raj; Swaminathan, Krishnaswami; Yun, Sei Eok

    2008-10-08

    Kombucha tea is sugared black tea fermented with a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts (tea fungus) for 14 days. The tea tastes slightly sweet and acidic. The formation of tea fungal biofilms during storage is a big problem when kombucha tea is being stored and commercialized. Various thermal treatments have been tried for long-term storage of kombucha tea. The present study revealed the influence of heat on the biochemical constituents and the free radical scavenging properties of kombucha tea. Heat treatment at 60, 65, and 68 degrees C for 1 min controlled biofilm formation in kombucha tea without changing its clarity, taste, and flavor. However, tea polyphenols and black tea quality parameters showed varying stability during the storage period. A decrease in free radical scavenging properties was also found during the storage period. Because the biological activities of kombucha tea depended on the biochemical constituents, it was concluded that heat treatment was not a suitable method for kombucha tea preservation.

  8. Effect of Particulate Matter Mineral Composition on Environmentally Persistent Free Radical (EPFR) Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld-Cook, Elisabeth E; Bovenkamp-Langlois, Lisa; Lomnicki, Slawo M

    2017-09-19

    Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFRs) are newly discovered, long-lived surface bound radicals that form on particulate matter and combustion borne particulates, such as fly ash. Human exposure to such particulates lead to translocation into the lungs and heart resulting in cardio-vascular and respiratory disease through the production of reactive oxygen species. Analysis of some waste incinerator fly ashes revealed a significant difference between their EPFR contents. Although EPFR formation occurs on the metal domains, these differences were correlated with the altering concentration of calcium and sulfur. To analyze these phenomena, surrogate fly ashes were synthesized to mimic the presence of their major mineral components, including metal oxides, calcium, and sulfur. The results of this study led to the conclusion that the presence of sulfates limits formation of EPFRs due to inhibition or poisoning of the transition metal active sites necessary for their formation. These findings provide a pathway toward understanding differences in EPFR presence on particulate matter and uncover the possibility of remediating EPFRs from incineration and hazardous waste sites.

  9. Lipoxygenase-mediated pro-radical effect of melatonin via stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radogna, F.; Sestili, P.; Martinelli, C.; Paolillo, M.; Paternoster, L.; Albertini, M.C.; Accorsi, A.; Gualandi, G.; Ghibelli, L.

    2009-01-01

    We have shown that melatonin immediately and transiently stimulates intracellular free radical production on a set of leukocytes, possibly as a consequence of calmodulin binding. We show here that melatonin-induced ROS are produced by lipoxygenase (LOX), since they are prevented by a set of LOX inhibitors, and are accompanied by increase of the 5-LOX product 5-HETE. LOX activation is accompanied by strong liberation of AA; inhibition of Ca 2+ -independent, but not Ca 2+ -dependent, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), prevents both melatonin-induced arachidonic acid and ROS production, whereas LOX inhibition only prevents ROS, indicating that PLA2 is upstream with respect to LOX, as occurs in many signaling pathways. Chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of melatonin-calmodulin interaction, inhibits both ROS and arachidonic acid production, thus possibly placing calmodulin at the origin of a melatonin-induced pro-radical pathway. Interestingly, it is known that Ca 2+ -independent PLA2 binds to calmodulin: our results are compatible with PLA2 being liberated by melatonin from a steady-state calmodulin sequestration, thus initiating an arachidonate signal transduction. These results delineate a novel molecular pathway through which melatonin may participate to the inflammatory response.

  10. Inhibition of HIV by Legalon-SIL is independent of its effect on cellular metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, Janela [Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Margineantu, Daciana H. [Department of Clinical Research, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Sweet, Ian R. [Department of Medicine (Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition), University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Polyak, Stephen J., E-mail: polyak@uw.edu [Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-01-20

    In this report, we further characterized the effects of silibinin (SbN), derived from milk thistle extract, and Legalon-SIL (SIL), a water-soluble derivative of SbN, on T cell metabolism and HIV infection. We assessed the effects of SbN and SIL on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and CEM-T4 cells in terms of cellular growth, ATP content, metabolism, and HIV infection. SIL and SbN caused a rapid and reversible (upon removal) decrease in cellular ATP levels, which was associated with suppression of mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. SbN, but not SIL inhibited glucose uptake. Exposure of T cells to SIL (but not SbN or metabolic inhibitors) during virus adsorption blocked HIV infection. Thus, both SbN and SIL rapidly perturb T cell metabolism in vitro, which may account for its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects that arise with prolonged exposure of cells. However, the metabolic effects are not involved in SIL's unique ability to block HIV entry. - Highlights: • Silibinin (SbN) and Legalon-SIL (SIL) are cytoprotective mixtures of natural products. • SbN and SIL reduce T cell oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in vitro. • SIL but not SbN blocks entry of multiple HIV isolates into T cells in vitro. • SIL's suppression of HIV appears independent of its effects on T cell metabolism. • Metabolic effects of SIL and SbN may be relevant in inflammatory diseases.

  11. Inhibition of HIV by Legalon-SIL is independent of its effect on cellular metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, Janela; Margineantu, Daciana H.; Sweet, Ian R.; Polyak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we further characterized the effects of silibinin (SbN), derived from milk thistle extract, and Legalon-SIL (SIL), a water-soluble derivative of SbN, on T cell metabolism and HIV infection. We assessed the effects of SbN and SIL on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and CEM-T4 cells in terms of cellular growth, ATP content, metabolism, and HIV infection. SIL and SbN caused a rapid and reversible (upon removal) decrease in cellular ATP levels, which was associated with suppression of mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. SbN, but not SIL inhibited glucose uptake. Exposure of T cells to SIL (but not SbN or metabolic inhibitors) during virus adsorption blocked HIV infection. Thus, both SbN and SIL rapidly perturb T cell metabolism in vitro, which may account for its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects that arise with prolonged exposure of cells. However, the metabolic effects are not involved in SIL's unique ability to block HIV entry. - Highlights: • Silibinin (SbN) and Legalon-SIL (SIL) are cytoprotective mixtures of natural products. • SbN and SIL reduce T cell oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in vitro. • SIL but not SbN blocks entry of multiple HIV isolates into T cells in vitro. • SIL's suppression of HIV appears independent of its effects on T cell metabolism. • Metabolic effects of SIL and SbN may be relevant in inflammatory diseases

  12. Cellular effect of styrene substituted biscoumarin caused cellular apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Sankarapandian, Karuppasamy; Kandaswamy, Narendran; Balusamy, Sri Renukadevi; Periyathambi, Dhaiveegan; Raveendiran, Nanthini

    2017-11-01

    Coumarins occurs naturally across plant kingdoms exhibits significant pharmacological properties and pharmacokinetic activity. The conventional, therapeutic agents are often associated with poor stability, absorption and increased side effects. Therefore, identification of a drug that has little or no-side effect on humans is consequential. Here, we investigated the antiproliferative activity of styrene substituted biscoumarin against various human breast cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7, (ER-) MDA-MB-231 and (AR+) MDA-MB-453. Styrene substituted biscoumarin induced cell death by apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cell line was analyzed. Antiproliferative activity of Styrene substituted biscoumarin was performed by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Styrene substituted biscoumarin induced apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst staining, Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (Annexin V-FITC/PI) staining and flow cytometric analysis. Migratory and proliferating characteristic of breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was also analyzed by wound healing and colony formation assay. Furthermore, mRNA expression of BAX and BCL-2 were quantified using qRT-PCR and protein expression level analyzed by Western blot. The inhibition concentration (IC 50 ) of styrene substituted biscoumarin was assayed against three breast cancer cell lines. The inhibition concentration (IC 50 ) value of styrene substituted biscoumarin toward MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453 and MCF-7 cell lines was 5.63, 7.30 and 10.84μg/ml respectively. Styrene substituted biscoumarin induced apoptosis was detected by Hoechst staining, DAPI/PI analysis and flow-cytometric analysis. The migration and proliferative efficiency of MDA-MB-231 cells were completely arrested upon styrene substituted biscoumarin treatment. Also, mRNA gene expression and protein expression of pro-apoptotic (BAX) and anti-apoptotic (BCL-2) genes were analyzed by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis upon

  13. On the effects of geometry, defects, and material asymmetry on the mechanical response of shape memory alloy cellular lattice structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravari, M R Karamooz; Kadkhodaei, M; Ghaei, A; Esfahani, S Nasr; Andani, M Taheri; Elahinia, M; Karaca, H

    2016-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (such as NiTi) cellular lattice structures are a new class of advanced materials with many potential applications. The cost of fabrication of these structures however is high. It is therefore necessary to develop modeling methods to predict the functional behavior of these alloys before fabrication. The main aim of the present study is to assess the effects of geometry, microstructural imperfections and material asymmetric response of dense shape memory alloys on the mechanical response of cellular structures. To this end, several cellular and dense NiTi samples are fabricated using a selective laser melting process. Both cellular and dense specimens were tested in compression in order to obtain their stress–strain response. For modeling purposes, a three -dimensional (3D) constitutive model based on microplane theory which is able to describe the material asymmetry was employed. Five finite element models based on unit cell and multi-cell methods were generated to predict the mechanical response of cellular lattices. The results show the considerable effects of the microstructural imperfections on the mechanical response of the cellular lattice structures. The asymmetric material response of the bulk material also affects the mechanical response of the corresponding cellular structure. (paper)

  14. Fluorophore-based sensor for oxygen radicals in processing plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, Faraz A.; Shohet, J. Leon; Sabat, Grzegorz; Sussman, Michael R.; Nishi, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    A high concentration of radicals is present in many processing plasmas, which affects the processing conditions and the properties of materials exposed to the plasma. Determining the types and concentrations of free radicals present in the plasma is critical in order to determine their effects on the materials being processed. Current methods for detecting free radicals in a plasma require multiple expensive and bulky instruments, complex setups, and often, modifications to the plasma reactor. This work presents a simple technique that detects reactive-oxygen radicals incident on a surface from a plasma. The measurements are made using a fluorophore dye that is commonly used in biological and cellular systems for assay labeling in liquids. Using fluorometric analysis, it was found that the fluorophore reacts with oxygen radicals incident from the plasma, which is indicated by degradation of its fluorescence. As plasma power was increased, the quenching of the fluorescence significantly increased. Both immobilized and nonimmobilized fluorophore dyes were used and the results indicate that both states function effectively under vacuum conditions. The reaction mechanism is very similar to that of the liquid dye

  15. Fluorophore-based sensor for oxygen radicals in processing plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Faraz A.; Shohet, J. Leon, E-mail: shohet@engr.wisc.edu [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Sabat, Grzegorz; Sussman, Michael R. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Nishi, Yoshio [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    A high concentration of radicals is present in many processing plasmas, which affects the processing conditions and the properties of materials exposed to the plasma. Determining the types and concentrations of free radicals present in the plasma is critical in order to determine their effects on the materials being processed. Current methods for detecting free radicals in a plasma require multiple expensive and bulky instruments, complex setups, and often, modifications to the plasma reactor. This work presents a simple technique that detects reactive-oxygen radicals incident on a surface from a plasma. The measurements are made using a fluorophore dye that is commonly used in biological and cellular systems for assay labeling in liquids. Using fluorometric analysis, it was found that the fluorophore reacts with oxygen radicals incident from the plasma, which is indicated by degradation of its fluorescence. As plasma power was increased, the quenching of the fluorescence significantly increased. Both immobilized and nonimmobilized fluorophore dyes were used and the results indicate that both states function effectively under vacuum conditions. The reaction mechanism is very similar to that of the liquid dye.

  16. Temperature dependence of carbon kinetic isotope effect for the oxidation reaction of ethane by OH radicals under atmospherically relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piansawan, Tammarat; Saccon, Marina; Laumer, Werner; Gensch, Iulia; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid

    2015-04-01

    Modeling of the global distribution of atmospheric ethane sources and sinks by using the 13C isotopic composition requires accurate knowledge of the carbon kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of its atmospheric removal reactions. The quantum mechanical prediction implies the necessity to elucidate the temperature dependence of KIE within atmospherically relevant temperature range by experiment. In this study, the KIE and its temperature dependence for ethane oxidation by OH radicals was investigated at ambient pressure in a temperature range of 243 K to 303 K. The chemical reactions were carried out in a 15 L PFE reaction chamber, suspended in a thermally controlled oven. The isotope ratios of the gas phase components during the course of the reactions were measured by Thermal Desorption -- Gas Chromatography -- Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC-IRMS). For each temperature, the KIE was derived from the temporal evolution of the concentration and stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of ethane using a method adapted from the relative reaction rate concept. The room temperature KIE of the ethane reaction with OH radicals was found to be 6.85 ± 0.32 ‰. This value is in agreement with the previously reported value of 8.57 ± 1.95 ‰ [Anderson et al. 2004] but has a substantially lower uncertainty. The experimental results will be discussed with the KIE temperature dependence predicted by quantum mechanical calculations. Reference: Rebecca S. Anderson, Lin Huang, Richard Iannone, Alexandra E. Thompson, and Jochen Rudolph (2004), Carbon Kinetic Isotope Effects in the Gas Phase Reactions of Light Alkanes and Ethene with the OH Radical at 296 ± 4 K, J. Phys. Chem. A, 108, 11537--11544

  17. Independent cellular effects of cold ischemia and reperfusion: experimental molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledó-García, E; Humanes-Sánchez, B; Mojena-Sánchez, M; Rodrígez, J C J; Hernández-Fernández, C; Tejedor-Jorge, A; Fernández, A L

    2013-04-01

    There is less information available on cell cultures on the exclusive effects of either duration of cold ischemia (CI) or rewarming-reperfusion in the kidney subjected to initial warm ischemia (WI). Therefore, the goals of our work were: (1) to evaluate the consequences on tubular cellular viability of different durations of CI on a kidney after an initial period of WI, and (2) to analyze the additional effect on tubular cell viability of rewarming of the same kidney. Sixteen mini-pig were used. All the animals were performed a right nephrectomy after 45-minute occlusion of the vascular pedicle. The kidneys were then divided into 2 groups (phase 1): cold storage in university of wisconsin (UW) solution for 3 hours (group A, n = 8) at 4°C, or cold storage in UW for 12 hours (group B, n = 8) at 4°C. Four organs of group A and four organs of group B were autotrasplanted (AT) and reperfused for 1 hour (phase 2). Nephrectomy was finally done. Biopsies were taken from all groups to perform cultures of proximal tubule epithelium cells. The biopsies were subjected to studies of cellular morphological viability (contrast phase microscopy [CPM]) and quantitative (confluence cell [CC]) parameters. Phase of pure CI effects (phase 1): Both CC rate and CPM parameters were significantly lower in group B compared with group A, where cell activity reached almost normal results. Phase of CI + AT (phase 2): At produced additional harmful effects in cell cultures compared with those obtained in phase 1, more evident in group B cells. The presence of cold storage followed by rewarming-reperfusion induces independent and cumulative detrimental effects in viability of renal proximal tubule cells. CI periods ≤ 3 hours may ameliorate the injuries secondary to reperfusion in comparison with longer CI periods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydroxyl radical reactivity with diethylhydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorse, R.A. Jr.; Lii, R.R.; Saunders, B.B.

    1977-01-01

    Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) reacts with gas-phase hydroxyl radicals on every third collision, whereas the corresponding reaction in aqueous solution is considerably slower. The high gas-phase reactivity explains the predicted inhibitory effect of DEHA in atmospheric smog processes. Results from the studies in the aqueous phase are helpful in predicting the mechanism of the reaction of DEHA with hydroxyl radicals

  19. Influence of anoxia on the induction of mutations by phenylalanine radicals during gamma-irradiation of plasmid DNA in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Gitta K; Slotman, Ben J; Reitsma-Wijker, Carola A; van Andel, Rob J; Poldervaart, Hester A; Lafleur, M Vincent M

    2004-12-21

    When DNA is irradiated in aqueous solution, most of the damage is inflicted by water-derived radicals. This is called the indirect effect of ionizing radiation. However in whole cells not only the primary formed water radicals play a role, because some cellular compounds form secondary radicals which can also damage DNA. It is known that the amino acid phenylalanine is able to react with water radicals, resulting in the production of secondary phenylalanine radicals which can damage and inactivate DNA. In a previous study the influence of the presence of phenylalanine during gamma-irradiation of DNA in aqueous solution under oxic conditions was studied. Under anoxic irradiation conditions different amounts and types of reactive water-derived radicals are formed compared to oxic conditions and also different phenylalanine radicals are formed. Therefore, this study examines the influence of the presence of phenylalanine under anoxic conditions on the gamma-radiation-induced mutation spectrum. The results indicate that phenylalanine radicals are damaging to DNA, but less effective compared to primary water radicals. On the mutational level, in the presence of phenylalanine radicals under anoxic conditions, the amount of mutations on G:C base pairs was significantly decreased as compared to oxic conditions. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that nucleotide excision repair is involved in repair of both inactivating and mutagenic damage induced by phenylalanine radicals under anoxic conditions.

  20. Non-linear effects in the radiolysis-optically detected ESR of radical-ion pairs in liquid and glassy solutions. Reactions and motion of organic radicals as studied by ESR and OD ESR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antzutkin, O.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two sections. The first part covers an introduction to the Optically Detected Electron Spin Resonance (OD ESR) spectroscopy and a short description of the OD ESR spectrometer built in Linkoeping University in 1991. In the second section the following topics are discussed: Non-linear effects in OD ESR spectroscopy and Reactions and motion of organic radicals trapped in freon matrices. (19 refs.)

  1. Effect of cellular therapy in progression of Becker’s muscular dystrophy: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD is an inherited disorder due to deletions of the dystrophin gene that leads to muscle weakness. Effects of bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMNC transplantation in Muscular Dystrophy have shown to be safe and beneficial. We treated a 20-year-old male suffering from BMD with autologous BMMNC transplantation followed by multidisciplinary rehabilitation. He presented with muscle weakness and had difficulty in performing his activities. The BMMNCs were transplanted via intrathecal and intramuscular routes. The effects were measured on clinical and functional changes. Over 9 months, gradual improvement was noticed in muscle strength, respiratory functions and North Star Ambulatory Assessment Scale. Functional Independence Measure, Berg Balance Score, Brooke and Vignos Scale remained stable indicating halting of the progression. The case report suggests that cellular therapy combined with rehabilitation may have possibility of repairing and regenerating muscle fibers and decreasing the rate of progression of BMD.

  2. Effects of Matrix Alignment and Mechanical Constraints on Cellular Behavior in 3D Engineered Microtissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Prasenjit; Eyckmans, Jeroen; Chen, Christopher; Reich, Daniel

    The adhesion of cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a crucial role in a variety of cellular functions. The main building blocks of the ECM are 3D networks of fibrous proteins whose structure and alignments varies with tissue type. However, the impact of ECM alignment on cellular behaviors such as cell adhesion, spreading, extension and mechanics remains poorly understood. We present results on the development of a microtissue-based system that enables control of the structure, orientation, and degree of fibrillar alignment in 3D fibroblast-populated collagen gels. The tissues self-assemble from cell-laden collagen gels placed in micro-fabricated wells containing sets of elastic pillars. The contractile action of the cells leads to controlled alignment of the fibrous collagen, depending on the number and location of the pillars in each well. The pillars are elastic, and are utilized to measure the contractile forces of the microtissues, and by incorporating magnetic material in selected pillars, time-varying forces can be applied to the tissues for dynamic stimulation and measurement of mechanical properties. Results on the effects of varying pillar shape, spacing, location, and stiffness on microtissue organization and contractility will be presented. This work is supported by NSF CMMI-1463011.

  3. Effects of Lysine deficiency and Lys-Lys dipeptide on cellular apoptosis and amino acids metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Li, Yuying; Han, Hui; Zheng, Jie; Wang, Lijian; Ren, Wenkai; Chen, Shuai; Wu, Fei; Fang, Rejun; Huang, Xingguo; Li, Chunyong; Tan, Bie; Xiong, Xia; Zhang, Yuzhe; Liu, Gang; Yao, Jiming; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2017-09-01

    Lysine (Lys) is a common limiting amino acids (AA) for humans and animals and plays an important role in cell proliferation and metabolism, while metabolism of Lys deficiency and its dipeptide is still obscure. Thus, this study mainly investigated the effects of Lys deficiency and Lys-Lys dipeptide on apoptosis and AA metabolism in vitro and in vivo models. Lys deficiency induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis and upregulated Lys transporters in vitro and in vivo. SLC7A11, a cystine-glutamate antiporter, was markedly upregulated by Lys deficiency and then further mediated cystine uptake and glutamate release, which was negatively regulated by cystine and glutamate transporters. Meanwhile, Lys deprivation upregulated pept1 expression, which might improve Lys-Lys dipeptide absorption to compensate for the reduced Lys availability. Lys-Lys dipeptide alleviated Lys deficiency induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis and influenced AA metabolism. Furthermore, the mammalian target of rapamycin signal might be involved in sensing cellular Lys starvation and Lys-Lys dipeptide. Altogether, these studies suggest that Lys deficiency impairs AA metabolism and causes apoptosis. Lys-Lys dipeptide serves as a Lys source and alleviates Lys deficiency induced cellular imbalance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Multi-objective group scheduling with learning effect in the cellular manufacturing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Taghavi-fard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Group scheduling problem in cellular manufacturing systems consists of two major steps. Sequence of parts in each part-family and the sequence of part-family to enter the cell to be processed. This paper presents a new method for group scheduling problems in flow shop systems where it minimizes makespan (Cmax and total tardiness. In this paper, a position-based learning model in cellular manufacturing system is utilized where processing time for each part-family depends on the entrance sequence of that part. The problem of group scheduling is modeled by minimizing two objectives of position-based learning effect as well as the assumption of setup time depending on the sequence of parts-family. Since the proposed problem is NP-hard, two meta heuristic algorithms are presented based on genetic algorithm, namely: Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II and non-dominated rank genetic algorithm (NRGA. The algorithms are tested using randomly generated problems. The results include a set of Pareto solutions and three different evaluation criteria are used to compare the results. The results indicate that the proposed algorithms are quite efficient to solve the problem in a short computational time.

  5. The Effect of Calcusol™ to the Plasma Free Radical and Serum Creatinin in Mus Musculus Nephrolithiasis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A’liyatur Rosyidah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Calcusol™ is a traditional medicine (jamu made from Tempuyung (Sonchus arvensis extract and is usually used for cure kidney stone disease. However, there has not been any studies which investigate the its mechanism. The aim of this study is to know the effect of Calcusol™ to the plasma free radical and serum creatinin of Mus musculus model for renal calcium-oxalate accumulation. This study is carried out by administration of Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri tuber flour for 3 months with the doses 6 mg/100g BW to induce renal calcium oxalate accumulation and Calcusol™ treatment for 7 days with the doses of 3.3mg/g BW. Group I was used as a control group. Group II was only given porang every day for 3 months. Group III was only given Calcusol™ for 7 days. Group IV were given porang for 3 months then given Calcusol™ for 7 days. Group V were given porang and Calcusol™ simultaneously for 3 months. Porang and CalcusolTM is administrated orally. Blood was collected from the tail of the animal for serum creatinin test and plasma free radical test using TBARS method. The data was analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD to compare the means employing SPSS 16.0 for windows. The result of the research shows that the treatment Calcusol™ on mice model for renal calcium oxalate accumulation. The content of MDA at group I, group II, group III, group IV and group V, respectivelyis 0.81±0.5 mg/ml; 2.63±0.8 mg/ml; 0.56±0.5 mg/ml; 2.09±0.9 mg/ml and 0.17±0.17 mg/ml. The content of serum creatinine are 0.15±0.04 mg/dL; 0.13±0.03 mg/dL; 0.12±0.08 mg/dL; 0.11±0.016 mg/dL and 0.14±0.015 mg/dL at group I, group II, group III, Group IV, and group V respectively. This indicates that Calcusol™ decreases plasma free radical production during renal stone formation, while serum creatinin reduced but not significantly changed. Calcusol™ has an effect to decrease free radical during renalstone formation inmice model for calcium oxalate accumulation

  6. Effects of HIV-1 protease on cellular functions and their potential applications in antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hailiu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs are the most potent class of drugs in antiretroviral therapies. However, viral drug resistance to PIs could emerge rapidly thus reducing the effectiveness of those drugs. Of note, all current FDA-approved PIs are competitive inhibitors, i.e., inhibitors that compete with substrates for the active enzymatic site. This common inhibitory approach increases the likelihood of developing drug resistant HIV-1 strains that are resistant to many or all current PIs. Hence, new PIs that move away from the current target of the active enzymatic site are needed. Specifically, allosteric inhibitors, inhibitors that prohibit PR enzymatic activities through non-competitive binding to PR, should be sought. Another common feature of current PIs is they were all developed based on the structure-based design. Drugs derived from a structure-based strategy may generate target specific and potent inhibitors. However, this type of drug design can only target one site at a time and drugs discovered by this method are often associated with strong side effects such as cellular toxicity, limiting its number of target choices, efficacy, and applicability. In contrast, a cell-based system may provide a useful alternative strategy that can overcome many of the inherited shortcomings associated with structure-based drug designs. For example, allosteric PIs can be sought using a cell-based system without considering the site or mechanism of inhibition. In addition, a cell-based system can eliminate those PIs that have strong cytotoxic effect. Most importantly, a simple, economical, and easy-to-maintained eukaryotic cellular system such as yeast will allow us to search for potential PIs in a large-scaled high throughput screening (HTS system, thus increasing the chances of success. Based on our many years of experience in using fission yeast as a model system to study HIV-1 Vpr, we propose the use of

  7. [Effects of Electroacupuncture Intervention on Oxygen Free Radicals and Expression of Apoptosis-related Proteins in Rats with Ischemic Learning and Memory Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhi-tao; Sun, Zhong-ren; Liu, Song-tao; Xiong, Sheng-biao; Liu, Yi-tian; Han, Xiao-xia; Sun, Hong-fang; Han, Yu-sheng; Yin, Hong-na; Xu, Jin-qiao; Li, Dong-dong

    2015-12-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) therapy on levels of oxygen free radicals (OFR) and hippocampal apoptosis-related protein expression in ischemic learning-memory disorder rats so as to investigate its mechanisms underlying improvement of ischemic learning-memory impairment. A total of 60 SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation (sham), model, medication, and EA groups, with 15 rats in each group. The learning-memory disorder model was made by occlusion of bilateral carotid arteries. EA (2- 3 Hz, 2 mA) was applied to "Zhi San Zhen" ["Shenting" (GV 24) and bilateral "Benshen" (GB 13)] for 30 min, once a day for 3 weeks. The rats of the medication group were treated by lavage of Aricept (0.03 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1)), once daily for 3 weeks. The rats' learning-memory ability was detected by Morris water maze tests and the state of hippocampal apoptosis cells was observed by light microscope after TUNEL staining and the expression of hippocampal Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 proteins was detected by immunohistochemistry. Serum and hippocampal superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were detected by chemical colorimetric analysis. Compared with the sham group, the escape latencies (place-navigation) after modeling were evidently prolonged, and the times of target-platform crossing in 90 sec (spatial probe test) considerably reduced in the model group (Plearning-memory ability. After the treatment for 21 d, the increased escape latency and the reduced target-platform crossing time in both EA and medication groups were reversed in comparison with the model group (Pmemory ability, and the effect of the EA group was significantly superior to that of the medication group (Plearning-memory ability in ischemic learning-memory disorder rats which may be associated with its effects in reducing blood and hippocampal OFR contents and hippocampal cellular apoptosis.

  8. Effects of frequency and a radical scavenger on ultrasonic degradation of water-soluble polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Shinobu; Taguchi, Kimihiko; Futamura, Kazunori

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic degradation of methyl cellulose, pullulan, dextran and poly(ethylene oxide) in aqueous solutions was investigated at the frequencies of 20 and 500 kHz, where the ultrasonic power delivered into solutions was kept constant (22 W). The number average molecular mass and the polydispersity were obtained as a function of sonication time. The degradation under sonication at the 500 kHz frequency proceeded faster in comparison with the 20 kHz sonication for four polymers. The addition of a radical scavenger, t-BuOH, resulted in suppression of degradation of water-soluble polymers. The degradation rate constants were estimated from the plot of molecular weight against sonication time. The degradation rate of methyl cellulose was the largest one among the investigated polymers. The difference in the degradation rates was discussed in terms of the flexibility and the hydrodynamic radius of polymer chains in aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Retinal Diseases Associated with Oxidative Stress and the Effects of a Free Radical Scavenger (Edaravone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Masuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in developing and accelerating retinal diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR, and retinal vein occlusion (RVO. An excess amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS can lead to functional and morphological impairments in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, endothelial cells, and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. Here we demonstrate that edaravone, a free radical scavenger, decreased apoptotic cell death, oxidative damage to DNA and lipids, and angiogenesis through inhibiting JNK and p38 MAPK pathways in AMD, glaucoma, DR, and RVO animal models. These data suggest that the therapeutic strategy for targeting oxidative stress may be important for the treatment of these ocular diseases, and edaravone may be useful for treating retinal diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  10. Retinal Diseases Associated with Oxidative Stress and the Effects of a Free Radical Scavenger (Edaravone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in developing and accelerating retinal diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). An excess amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to functional and morphological impairments in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), endothelial cells, and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here we demonstrate that edaravone, a free radical scavenger, decreased apoptotic cell death, oxidative damage to DNA and lipids, and angiogenesis through inhibiting JNK and p38 MAPK pathways in AMD, glaucoma, DR, and RVO animal models. These data suggest that the therapeutic strategy for targeting oxidative stress may be important for the treatment of these ocular diseases, and edaravone may be useful for treating retinal diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:28194256

  11. Effect of Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy on Urinary Continence in Patients With Preoperative Erectile Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hyun Park

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We aimed to assess whether nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (nsRP is associated with improved recovery of urinary continence compared to non–nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (nnsRP in patients with localized prostate cancer and preoperative erectile dysfunction. Methods: A total of 360 patients with organ-confined prostate cancer and an International Index of Erectile Function score of less than 17 were treated with nsRP or nnsRP in Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital. Patients who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy or had a history of prostate-related surgery were excluded. Recovery of urinary continence was assessed at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Postoperative recovery of continence was defined as zero pad usage. The association between nerve-sparing status and urinary continence was assessed by using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses after controlling for known predictive factors. Results: Urinary continence recovered in 279 patients (77.5% within the mean follow-up period of 22.5 months (range, 6–123 months. Recovery of urinary continence was reported in 74.6% and 86.4% of patients after nnsRP and nsRP, respectively, at 12 months (P=0.022. All groups had comparable perioperative criteria and had no significant preoperative morbidities. Age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and nerve-sparing status were significantly associated with recovery of urinary continence on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.254; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.002–1.478; P=0.026 and nerve-sparing status (HR, 0.713; 95% CI, 0.548–0.929; P=0.012 were independently associated with recovery of urinary continence. Conclusions: nsRP, as compared to nnsRP, improves recovery rates of urinary incontinence and decreases surgical morbidity without compromising pathologic outcomes.

  12. The effect of bicarbonate on menadione-induced redox cycling and cytotoxicity: potential involvement of the carbonate radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljuhani, Naif; Michail, Karim; Karapetyan, Zubeida; Siraki, Arno G

    2013-10-01

    We have investigated the effect of NaHCO3 on menadione redox cycling and cytotoxicity. A cell-free system utilized menadione and ascorbic acid to catalyze a redox cycle, and we utilized murine hepatoma (Hepa 1c1c7) cells for in vitro experiments. Experiments were performed using low (2 mmol/L) and physiological (25 mmol/L) levels of NaHCO3 in buffer equilibrated to physiological pH. Using oximetry, ascorbic acid oxidation, and ascorbyl radical detection, we found that menadione redox cycling was enhanced by NaHCO3. Furthermore, Hepa 1c1c7 cells treated with menadione demonstrated cytotoxicity that was significantly increased with physiological concentrations of NaHCO3 in the media, compared with low levels of NaHCO3. Interestingly, the inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) with 2 different metal chelators was associated with a protective effect against menadione cytotoxicity. Using isolated protein, we found a significant increase in protein carbonyls with menadione-ascorbate-SOD with physiological NaHCO3 levels; low NaHCO3 or SOD-free reactions produced lower levels of protein carbonyls. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the hydrogen peroxide generated by menadione redox cycling together with NaHCO3-CO2 are potential substrates for SOD peroxidase activity that can lead to carbonate-radical-enhanced cytotoxicity. These findings demonstrate the importance of NaHCO3 in menadione redox cycling and cytotoxicity.

  13. Effect of metal complexation to anti-inflammatory over the action against oxidative and free radicals: ketoprofen action; Efeito da complexacao de metais aos antiinflamatorios na acao contra agentes oxidativos e radicais livres: acao do cetoprofeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manente, Francine Alessandra; Mello, Lucas Rosolen de Almeida; Vellosa, Jose Carlos Rebuglio [UEPG, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Departamento de Analises Clinicas eToxicologicas, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Khalil, Omar Arafat Kdudsi [IFG, Instituto Federal de Goias, Campus de Formosa, Formosa - GO (Brazil); Carvalho, Claudio Teodoro de [UFGD, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Faculdade de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologias, Dourados-MS (Brazil); Bannach, Gilbert [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Faculdade de Ciencias de Bauru, Bauru, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Free radicals are highly reactive species generated in living organisms for the purpose of protection. However, in some circumstances, they are responsible for the occurrence or aggravation of tissue damage. Many anti-inflammatory drugs have a direct effect on free radicals and not radical reactive species, which contributes to its actions against inflammation. Ketoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent that generates free radicals by photo irradiation and has an important hemolytic effect with that. The complexation of metals to different drugs has been used as a strategy to improve the pharmacological action of different molecules and reduce their side effects. This paper presents the results of ketoprofen and their metallic complexes action on erythrocytes and free radicals. It was observed that the cerium enhances the scavenger properties of ketoprofen on free radicals, while copper enhances its action over non-radical oxidants. Copper also reduced the hemolytic effect presented by ketoprofen meanwhile its cerium derivative maintained it. (author)

  14. MECHANISMS OF DAMAGING EFFECT OF MANGENESE IN TOXIC CONCENTRATIONS ON CELLULAR AND SUBCELLULAR LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharenko A. V.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Influence of subtoxic concentration of manganese chloride in dose equal to LD 50 on condition of plasmatic membranes (model: erythrocytes and functional activity of cell power (model: the isolated liver mitochondrion of rats was studied. It was established that manganese chloride in fixed concentration caused authentic augmentation of sorption capacity of erythrocytes towards alcian blue, influenced increasing of their spontaneous haemolysis and activation of peroxide oxidation of lipids. In experiment on the isolated mitochondrion it was proved that manganese chloride caused dissociation of an oxidizing phosphorusling and complete inhibition of respiration in concentrations of 3 and 4,5mM. These dependences testify that subtoxic concentration of manganese can damage the cell energy. Thus, this pilot research indicated damaging effect of manganese on cellular (erythrocytes and subcellular (mitochondrion levels which are realized through external functioning of membrane structures and deprived them from restoration.

  15. Effects of Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas on Isolated and Cellular DNA—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Priya Arjunan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (APP is being used widely in a variety of biomedical applications. Extensive research in the field of plasma medicine has shown the induction of DNA damage by APP in a dose-dependent manner in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Recent evidence suggests that APP-induced DNA damage shows potential benefits in many applications, such as sterilization and cancer therapy. However, in several other applications, such as wound healing and dentistry, DNA damage can be detrimental. This review reports on the extensive investigations devoted to APP interactions with DNA, with an emphasis on the critical role of reactive species in plasma-induced damage to DNA. The review consists of three main sections dedicated to fundamental knowledge of the interactions of reactive oxygen species (ROS/reactive nitrogen species (RNS with DNA and its components, as well as the effects of APP on isolated and cellular DNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

  16. The effect of diamide on potassium transport and cellular morphology in mouse L-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szekely, J.G.; Sargent, M.D.; Copps, T.P.; Lobreau, A.U.

    1982-06-01

    The effects of diamide (diazenedicarboxylic acid bis (N,N'-dimethylamide)) on the transport of potassium in mouse L-cells have been investigated using 86 Rb + as a tracer. Active, ouabain-sensitive uptake is reduced after 0.4 to 0.6 mol/L diamide treatment. The size of reduction depends on the temperature and the presence of glucose in the medium. These results suggest that the elimination of reduced glutathione by diamide is the major factor controlling the level of K + transport in treated L-cells. In addition to decreasing active transport, diamide produces dramatic changes in cellular ultrastructure, probably through altered Na + /K + balance and its action on tubulin. Clear organelle-free regions appear surrounded by vacuoles and swollen mitkchondria regions. The clear areas of cytoplasm eventually pinch off from the cell

  17. [Effects of different trophic modes on growth characteristics, metabolism and cellular components of Chlorella vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weibao; Wang, Yang; Yang, Hong; Xi, Yuqin; Han, Rui; Niu, Shiquan

    2015-03-04

    We studied the effects of trophic modes related to glucose and light (photoautotrophy, mixotrophy and heterotrophy) on growth, cellular components and carbon metabolic pathway of Chlorella vulgaris. The parameters about growth of algal cells were investigated by using spectroscopy and chromatography techniques. When trophic mode changed from photoautotrophy to mixotrophy and to heterotrophy successively, the concentrations of soluble sugar, lipid and saturated C16/C18 fatty acids in C. vulgaris increased, whereas the concentrations of unsaturated C16, C18 fatty acids, proteins, photosynthetic pigments and 18 relative amino acids decreased. Light and glucose affect the growth, metabolism and the biochemical components biosynthesis of C. vulgaris. Addition of glucose can promote algal biomass accumulation, stimulate the synthesis of carbonaceous components, but inhibit nitrogenous components. Under illumination cultivation, concentration and consumption level of glucose decided the main trophic modes of C. vulgaris. Mixotrophic and heterotrophic cultivation could promote the growth of algal cells.

  18. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  19. Effects of Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas on Isolated and Cellular DNA—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Krishna Priya; Sharma, Virender K.; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (APP) is being used widely in a variety of biomedical applications. Extensive research in the field of plasma medicine has shown the induction of DNA damage by APP in a dose-dependent manner in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Recent evidence suggests that APP-induced DNA damage shows potential benefits in many applications, such as sterilization and cancer therapy. However, in several other applications, such as wound healing and dentistry, DNA damage can be detrimental. This review reports on the extensive investigations devoted to APP interactions with DNA, with an emphasis on the critical role of reactive species in plasma-induced damage to DNA. The review consists of three main sections dedicated to fundamental knowledge of the interactions of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) with DNA and its components, as well as the effects of APP on isolated and cellular DNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. PMID:25642755

  20. Effects of atmospheric pressure plasmas on isolated and cellular DNA-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Krishna Priya; Sharma, Virender K; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2015-01-29

    Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (APP) is being used widely in a variety of biomedical applications. Extensive research in the field of plasma medicine has shown the induction of DNA damage by APP in a dose-dependent manner in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Recent evidence suggests that APP-induced DNA damage shows potential benefits in many applications, such as sterilization and cancer therapy. However, in several other applications, such as wound healing and dentistry, DNA damage can be detrimental. This review reports on the extensive investigations devoted to APP interactions with DNA, with an emphasis on the critical role of reactive species in plasma-induced damage to DNA. The review consists of three main sections dedicated to fundamental knowledge of the interactions of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) with DNA and its components, as well as the effects of APP on isolated and cellular DNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

  1. Radiation effects on the species-specific cell sorting-out of the cellular slime molds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Takashi

    1976-01-01

    The effects of gamma-rays irradiation on the development and the species-specific cell sorting-out of the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum, were investigated. The interphase amoebae of the organism showed extremely resistant to 60 Co gamma-rays. The percentage of non-stained cells estimated by dye staining method was more than 90% at the dose of 270 kR. The amoebae irradiated at 270 kR performed the development similar in the most respects to that of the un-irradiated amoebae except that a little portion of the fruiting bodies were abnormal and that the appearance of aggregates and slugs delayed 3 hrs. The ability of the species-specific cell sorting-out was not affected by gamma-rays irradiation at 270 kR. (auth.)

  2. The effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation instruction: animation versus dispatcher through a cellular phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choa, Minhong; Park, Incheol; Chung, Hyun Soo; Yoo, Sun K; Shim, Hoshik; Kim, Seungho

    2008-04-01

    We developed a cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction programme using motion capture animation integrated into cellular phones. We compared the effectiveness of animation-assisted CPR instruction with dispatcher-assisted instruction in participants with no previous CPR training. This study was a single blind cluster randomized trial. Participants were allocated to either animation-assisted CPR (AA-CPR; 8 clusters, 44 participants) group or dispatcher-assisted CPR (DA-CPR; 8 clusters, 41 participants). The overall performance and time of each step of CPR cycle were recorded on a checklist by 3 assessors. The objective performances were evaluated using the Resusci Anne SkillReporter Manikin. Differences between the groups were compared using an independent t-test adjusted for the effect of clustering. The AA-CPR group had a significantly better checklist score (pCPR cycle (pCPR group. In an objective assessment of psychomotor skill, the AA-CPR group demonstrated more accurate hand positioning (68.8+/-3.6%, p=0.033) and compression rate (72.4+/-3.7%, p=0.015) than DA-CPR group. However, the accuracy of compression depth (p=0.400), ventilation volume (p=0.977) and flow rate (p=0.627) were below 30% in both groups. Audiovisual animated CPR instruction through a cellular phone resulted in better scores in checklist assessment and time interval compliance in participants without CPR skill compared to those who received CPR instructions from a dispatcher; however, the accuracy of important psychomotor skill measures was unsatisfactory in both groups.

  3. [Effect of phenolic ketones on ethanol fermentation and cellular lipid composition of Pichia stipitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinlong; Cheng, Yichao; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Junjun; Chen, Tingting; Xu, Yong; Yong, Qiang; Yu, Shiyuan

    2016-02-01

    Lignin degradation products are toxic to microorganisms, which is one of the bottlenecks for fuel ethanol production. We studied the effects of phenolic ketones (4-hydroxyacetophenone, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-acetophenone and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-acetophenone) derived from lignin degradation on ethanol fermentation of xylose and cellular lipid composition of Pichia stipitis NLP31. Ethanol and the cellular fatty acid of yeast were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results indicate that phenolic ketones negatively affected ethanol fermentation of yeast and the lower molecular weight phenolic ketone compound was more toxic. When the concentration of 4-hydroxyacetophenone was 1.5 g/L, at fermentation of 24 h, the xylose utilization ratio, ethanol yield and ethanol concentration decreased by 42.47%, 5.30% and 9.76 g/L, respectively, compared to the control. When phenolic ketones were in the medium, the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA) of yeast cells was improved. When 1.5 g/L of three aforementioned phenolic ketones was added to the fermentation medium, the UFA/SFA ratio of yeast cells increased to 3.03, 3.06 and 3.61, respectively, compared to 2.58 of the control, which increased cell membrane fluidity and instability. Therefore, phenolic ketones can reduce the yeast growth, increase the UFA/SFA ratio of yeast and lower ethanol productivity. Effectively reduce or remove the content of lignin degradation products is the key to improve lignocellulose biorefinery.

  4. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Learning, Memory and Formation System of Free Radicals in Brain Tissues of Vascular Dementia Model Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王黎; 唐纯志; 赖新生

    2004-01-01

    In order to observe the regulative effect of electro-acupuncture on the formation system of free radicals in the brain tissues and learning and memory in vascular dementia (VD) model rats, the Morris's water labyrinth was used for testing the learning ability and memory in VD model rats made by 4-vessel occlusion method, and the activities or contents of nitric oxide (NO), NO synthase (NOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were determined. Results showed that the mean escape latency in the electro-acupuncture group was markedly reduced in place test, and the times swam the place of the plate-form in the original plate-form quadrant were significantly more than those in the rest three quadrants in spatia1 probe test as compared with the model group. In the electro-acupuncture group and the nimodipine group the contents of NO and MDA and the activity of NOS were decreased, while the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were increased. It is indicated that electro-acupuncture can modulate the production and clearance of free radicals, and improve the ability of learning and memory of the VD model rats.

  5. Effects of microsolvation on uracil and its radical anion: Uracil.(H2O)n (n=1-5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghwan; Schaefer, Henry F.

    2006-10-01

    Microsolvation effects on the stabilities of uracil and its anion have been investigated by explicitly considering the structures of complexes of uracil with up to five water molecules at the B3LYP /DZP++ level of theory. For all five systems, the global minimum of the neutral cluster has a different equilibrium geometry from that of the radical anion. Both the vertical detachment energy (VDE) and adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) of uracil are predicted to increase gradually with the number of hydrating molecules, qualitatively consistent with experimental results from a photodetachment-photoelectron spectroscopy study [J. Schiedt et al., Chem. Phys. 239, 511 (1998)]. The trend in the AEAs implies that while the conventional valence radical anion of uracil is only marginally bound in the gas phase, it will form a stable anion in aqueous solution. The gas-phase AEA of uracil (0.24eV) was higher than that of thymine by 0.04eV and this gap was not significantly affected by microsolvation. The largest AEA is that predicted for uracil•(H2O)5, namely, 0.96eV. The VDEs range from 0.76to1.78eV.

  6. Effect of serum testosterone and percent tumor volume on extra-prostatic extension and biochemical recurrence after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eu Chang Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have revealed that the preoperative serum testosterone and percent tumor volume (PTV predict extra-prostatic extension (EPE and biochemical recurrence (BCR after radical prostatectomy. This study investigated the prognostic significance of serum testosterone and PTV in relation to EPE and BCR after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP. We reviewed 520 patients who underwent LRP between 2004 and 2012. PTV was determined as the sum of all visually estimated tumor foci in every section. BCR was defined as two consecutive increases in the postoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA >0.2 ng ml−1 . The threshold for serum total testosterone was 3.0 ng ml−1 . Multivariate logistic regression was used to define the effect of variables on the risk of EPE and BCR. A low serum testosterone (<3.0 ng ml−1 was associated with a high serum PSA, Gleason score, positive core percentage of the prostate biopsy, PTV, and all pathological variables. On multivariate analysis, similar to previous studies, the serum PSA, biopsy positive core percentage, Gleason score, and pathological variables predicted EPE and BCR. In addition, low serum testosterone (<3.0 ng ml−1 , adjusted OR, 8.52; 95% CI, 5.04-14.4, P= 0.001 predicted EPE and PTV (adjusted OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05, P= 0.046 predicted BCR. In addition to previous predictors of EPE and BCR, low serum testosterone and PTV are valuable predictors of EPE and BCR after LRP.

  7. UV-generated free radicals (FR) in skin: Their prevention by sunscreens and their induction by self-tanning agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, K.; Seifert, M.; Herrling, Th.; Fuchs, J.

    2008-05-01

    In the past few years, the cellular effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induced in skin have become increasingly recognized. Indeed, it is now well known that UV irradiation induces structural and cellular changes in all the compartments of skin tissue. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the first and immediate consequence of UV exposure and therefore the quantitative determination of free radical reactions in the skin during UV radiation is of primary importance for the understanding of dermatological photodamage. The RSF method (radical sun protection factor) herein presented, based on electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR), enables the measurement of free radical reactions in skin biopsies directly during UV radiation. The amount of free radicals varies with UV doses and can be standardized by varying UV irradiance or exposure time. The RSF method allows the determination of the protective effect of UV filters and sunscreens as well as the radical induction capacity of self-tanning agents as dihydroxyacetone (DHA). The reaction of the reducing sugars used in self-tanning products and amino acids in the skin layer (Maillard reaction) leads to the formation of Amadori products that generate free radicals during UV irradiation. Using the RSF method three different self-tanning agents were analyzed and it was found, that in DHA-treated skin more than 180% additional radicals were generated during sun exposure with respect to untreated skin. For this reason the exposure duration in the sun must be shortened when self-tanners are used and photoaging processes are accelerated.

  8. Intermolecular effects on the radiogenic formation of electron-capture phosphorus-centered radicals. A single-crystal ESR study of diastereoisomeric precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, O.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.; de Waal, B.F.M.; Buck, H.M. (Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

    1990-01-31

    ESR experiments on X-irradiated single crystals of the 2R,4S,5R and 2S,4S,5R diastereoisomers of 2-chloro-3,4-dimethyl-5-phenyl-1,3,2-oxazaphospholidine 2-sulfide reveal that the yield of radiogenic electron-capture reactions in the solid state strongly depends on intermolecular interactions in the crystal. In the present case a high yield of P-Cl three-electron-bond phosphoranyl radical anions is found in crystals of the 2R,4S,5R isomer, whereas no radical formation can be detected for the 2S,4S,5R isomer. An analysis of nonbonded interactions with neighboring molecules reveals that the geometry relaxation necessary for the radical stabilization is easily accommodated in crystals of the 2R,4S,SR isomer but not in the 2S,4S,5R isomer, explaining the observed difference in electron-capture efficiency. Experiments on radical formation in a MeTHF host matrix give further insight into the importance of the environment on radiogenic radical formation. The possible concurrent effect of the matrix on the electronic configuration and spin density distribution of the resulting phosphoranyl radical is discussed.

  9. Intermolecular effects on the radiogenic formation of electron-capture phosphorus-centered radicals. A single-crystal ESR study of diastereoisomeric precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aagaard, O.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.; de Waal, B.F.M.; Buck, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    ESR experiments on X-irradiated single crystals of the 2R,4S,5R and 2S,4S,5R diastereoisomers of 2-chloro-3,4-dimethyl-5-phenyl-1,3,2-oxazaphospholidine 2-sulfide reveal that the yield of radiogenic electron-capture reactions in the solid state strongly depends on intermolecular interactions in the crystal. In the present case a high yield of P-Cl three-electron-bond phosphoranyl radical anions is found in crystals of the 2R,4S,5R isomer, whereas no radical formation can be detected for the 2S,4S,5R isomer. An analysis of nonbonded interactions with neighboring molecules reveals that the geometry relaxation necessary for the radical stabilization is easily accommodated in crystals of the 2R,4S,SR isomer but not in the 2S,4S,5R isomer, explaining the observed difference in electron-capture efficiency. Experiments on radical formation in a MeTHF host matrix give further insight into the importance of the environment on radiogenic radical formation. The possible concurrent effect of the matrix on the electronic configuration and spin density distribution of the resulting phosphoranyl radical is discussed

  10. Free radical scavenging capacity, anticandicidal effect of bioactive compounds from Sida cordifolia L., in combination with nystatin and clotrimazole and their effect on specific immune response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Maurice; Konaté, Kiessoun; Lepengué, Alexis Nicaise; Souza, Alain; M'Batchi, Bertrand; Sawadogo, Laya L

    2012-12-26

    Infectious diseases caused by fungi are still a major threat to public health, despite numerous efforts by researchers. Use of ethnopharmacological knowledge is one attractive way to reduce empiricism and enhance the probability of success in new drug-finding efforts. In this work, the total alkaloid compounds (AC) from Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) have been investigated for their free radical scavenging capacity, antifungal and immunostimulatory properties. The antifungal activity was investigated against five candida strains using the microplate dilution method and the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) of compounds was evaluated. The antioxidant activity of the samples was evaluate using three separate methods, at last, the immunostimulatory effect on immunosuppressed wistar rats was performed. As for the antifungal activity, result varied according to microorganism. The results obtained in this antifungal activity were interesting and indicated a synergistic effect between alkaloid compounds and the antifungal references such as Nystatin and Clotrimazole. Antioxidant capacity noticed that the reduction capacity of DPPH radicals obtained the best result comparatively to the others methods of free radical scavenging. Our results showed a low immunostimulatory effect and this result could be explained by the lack of biologically active antioxidants such as polyphenol compounds lowly contained in the alkaloid compounds. The results of this study showed that alkaloid compounds in combination with antifungal references (Nystatin and Clotrimazole) exhibited antimicrobial effects against candida strains tested. The results supported the utilization of these plants in infectious diseases particularly in treatment of candida infections.

  11. Free radical scavenging capacity, anticandicidal effect of bioactive compounds from Sida Cordifolia L., in combination with nystatin and clotrimazole and their effect on specific immune response in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouédraogo Maurice

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious diseases caused by fungi are still a major threat to public health, despite numerous efforts by researchers. Use of ethnopharmacological knowledge is one attractive way to reduce empiricism and enhance the probability of success in new drug-finding efforts. In this work, the total alkaloid compounds (AC from Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae have been investigated for their free radical scavenging capacity, antifungal and immunostimulatory properties. Method The antifungal activity was investigated against five candida strains using the microplate dilution method and the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI of compounds was evaluated. The antioxidant activity of the samples was evaluate using three separate methods, at last, the immunostimulatory effect on immunosuppressed wistar rats was performed. Results As for the antifungal activity, result varied according to microorganism. The results obtained in this antifungal activity were interesting and indicated a synergistic effect between alkaloid compounds and the antifungal references such as Nystatin and Clotrimazole. Antioxidant capacity noticed that the reduction capacity of DPPH radicals obtained the best result comparatively to the others methods of free radical scavenging. Our results showed a low immunostimulatory effect and this result could be explained by the lack of biologically active antioxidants such as polyphenol compounds lowly contained in the alkaloid compounds. Conclusion The results of this study showed that alkaloid compounds in combination with antifungal references (Nystatin and Clotrimazole exhibited antimicrobial effects against candida strains tested. The results supported the utilization of these plants in infectious diseases particularly in treatment of candida infections.

  12. Watson-Crick Base Pair Radical Cation as a Model for Oxidative Damage in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feketeová, Linda; Chan, Bun; Khairallah, George N; Steinmetz, Vincent; Maitre, Philippe; Radom, Leo; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2017-07-06

    The deleterious cellular effects of ionizing radiation are well-known, but the mechanisms causing DNA damage are poorly understood. The accepted molecular events involve initial oxidation and deprotonation at guanine sites, triggering hydrogen atom abstraction reactions from the sugar moieties, causing DNA strand breaks. Probing the chemistry of the initially formed radical cation has been challenging. Here, we generate, spectroscopically characterize, and examine the reactivity of the Watson-Crick nucleobase pair radical cation in the gas phase. We observe rich chemistry, including proton transfer between the bases and propagation of the radical site in deoxyguanosine from the base to the sugar, thus rupturing the sugar. This first example of a gas-phase model system providing molecular-level details on the chemistry of an ionized DNA base pair paves the way toward a more complete understanding of molecular processes induced by radiation. It also highlights the role of radical propagation in chemistry, biology, and nanotechnology.

  13. Effects of hydroxyl radical induced-Injury in atrial versus ventricular myocardium of dog and rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitisha Hiranandani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Despite the widespread use of ventricular tissue in the investigation involving hydroxyl-radical (OH* injury, one of the most potent mediators in ischemia-reperfusion injury, little is known about the impact on atrial myocardium. In this study we thus compared the OH*-induced injury response between atrial and right ventricular muscles from both rabbits and dogs under identical experimental conditions. Methods: Small, contracting ventricular and atrial rabbit and dog trabeculae were directly exposed to OH*, and contractile properties were examined and quantified. Results: A brief OH* exposure led to transient rigor like contracture with marked elevation of diastolic tension and depression of developed force. Although the injury response showed similarities between atrial and ventricular myocardium, there were significant differences as well. In rabbit atrial muscles, the development of the contracture and its peak was much faster as compared to ventricular muscles. Also, at the peak of contracture, both rabbit and dog atrial muscles show a lesser degree of contractile dysfunction. Conclusion: These results indicate that both atrial and ventricular muscles develop a rigor like contracture after acute OH*-induced injury, and atrial muscles showed a lesser degree of contractile dysfunction. Comparison of dog versus rabbit tissue shows that the response was similar in magnitude, but slower to develop in dog tissue.

  14. Landscaping the structures of GAVI country vaccine supply chains and testing the effects of radical redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Norman, Bryan A; Rajgopal, Jayant; Cakouros, Brigid E; Chen, Sheng-I; Claypool, Erin G; Haidari, Leila A; Karir, Veena; Leonard, Jim; Mueller, Leslie E; Paul, Proma; Schmitz, Michelle M; Welling, Joel S; Weng, Yu-Ting; Brown, Shawn T

    2015-08-26

    Many of the world's vaccine supply chains do not adequately provide vaccines, prompting several questions: how are vaccine supply chains currently structured, are these structures closely tailored to individual countries, and should these supply chains be radically redesigned? We segmented the 57 GAVI-eligible countries' vaccine supply chains based on their structure/morphology, analyzed whether these segments correlated with differences in country characteristics, and then utilized HERMES to develop a detailed simulation model of three sample countries' supply chains and explore the cost and impact of various alternative structures. The majority of supply chains (34 of 57) consist of four levels, despite serving a wide diversity of geographical areas and population sizes. These four-level supply chains loosely fall into three clusters [(1) 18 countries relatively more bottom-heavy, i.e., many more storage locations lower in the supply chain, (2) seven with relatively more storage locations in both top and lower levels, and (3) nine comparatively more top-heavy] which do not correlate closely with any of the country characteristics considered. For all three cluster types, our HERMES modeling found that simplified systems (a central location shipping directly to immunization locations with a limited number of Hubs in between) resulted in lower operating costs. A standard four-tier design template may have been followed for most countries and raises the possibility that simpler and more tailored designs may be warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of hydrogen pressure on free radicals in direct coal liquefaction/coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seehra, M.S.; Ibrahim, M.M. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study was to investigate the coprocessing of coal with waste tires and commingled plastics and to characterize the relevant catalysts, using high pressure/high temperature in-situ ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) spectroscopy. The recent results from high pressure ESR spectroscopy are emphasized. During this period, considerable progress was made in developing the high pressure capabilities in in-situ ESR spectroscopy and new results carried out in 1000 psi of H{sub 2}gas are presented. In these experiments, sapphire tubes were used to contain the high pressures at temperatures up to 500{degrees}C. Results of the experiments carried out under 1000 psi of H{sub 2} are compared with those under 1000 psi of non-interacting argon and with the earlier experiments in flowing H{sub 2} gas where the volatiles are removed by the flowing gas. In these experiments, the free radical density N of the Blind Canyon coal was measured at each temperature and pressure by double integration of the ESR signal and calibrating it against a standard. The details of the experimental apparatus and procedures have been described in earlier publications.

  16. Inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production and free radical scavenging activity of Thai medicinal plants in osteoarthritic knee treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuthakoengkun, Areeya; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-08-01

    Thai medicine plants used for Osteoarthritis of knee (OA) treatment consist of twelve plants such as Crinumn asiaticum, Cleome viscosa, Drypetes roxburghii, Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Plumbago indica, Alpinia galanga, Curcuma aromatica, Globba malaccensis, Zingiber montanum, Zingiber officinale andZingiberzerumbet. They showedhighfrequency in OA formula. To investigate inhibitory effect on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) release from RAW264. 7 cell and free radical scavenging activity usingDPPH assay of these ethanolic plant extracts. Plant materials were extracted by maceration in 95% ethanol. Anti-inflammatory activity were tested on LPS-induced NO production. Free radical scavenging activity was performed by DPPH assay. All of ethanolic extracts exhibited potent inhibitory effect on NO release. The ethanolic extract of Z. zerumbet exhibited the highest inhibitory effect followed by Z. montanum and G. malaccensis, respectively. Except A. galanga and C. viscosa, all extracts possessed more influential than indomethacin (IC50 = 20.32±3.23 μLg/ml), a positive control. The investigation on antioxidant activity suggested that the ethanolic extracts of D. roxburghii, Z. officinale, Z. montanum, C. aromatic, A. galanga, P indica, G malaccensis, P nigrum exhibited antioxidant activity. By means ofD. roxburghii had the highest electron donating activity,followed by Z. officinale. Moreover both extracts were more effective than BHT apositive control (EC50 = 14.04±1.95 μg/ml). Thai medicinal plants had anti-inflammatory activity and could inhibit destruction of articular cartilage that corresponded to the traditional medicine and supported using these medicinal plants for OA treatment.

  17. Evaluation of the dispersion effect in through movement bicycles at signalized intersection via cellular automata simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hang; Ma, Yongjian; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Guozhou; Wang, Dongwei

    2018-05-01

    At signalized intersection areas, bicycle traffic presents a dispersion feature which may influence the movements of vehicles during peak period. The primary objective of this study is to simulate the dispersion effect in through-movement bicycle traffic at intersection areas and evaluate its influence on through-movement traffic. A cellular automata (CA) model is developed and validated to simulate the operations of through-movement bicycle traffic departing from two types of intersection approaches. Simulation results show that bicycles benefit from the dispersion effect when they depart from the approach with an exclusive right-turn vehicle lane. But when bicycles travel from the approach with a shared right-turn and through vehicle lane, the dispersion effect will result in friction interference and block interference on through-movement vehicles. Bicycle interferences reduce the vehicle speed and increase the delay of through-movement vehicles. The policy implications in regard to the dispersion effect from two types of approaches are discussed to improve the performance of through-movement traffic operations at signalized intersections.

  18. Cation radicals of xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinato, Mary Grace I; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz; Deal, Cailin; Birge, Robert R; Frank, Harry A

    2007-10-01

    Carotenes and xanthophylls are well known to act as electron donors in redox processes. This ability is thought to be associated with the inhibition of oxidative reactions in reaction centers and light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes of photosystem II (PSII). In this work, cation radicals of neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, beta-carotene, and lycopene were generated in solution using ferric chloride as an oxidant and then studied by absorption spectroscopy. The investigation provides a view toward understanding the molecular features that determine the spectral properties of cation radicals of carotenoids. The absorption spectral data reveal a shift to longer wavelength with increasing pi-chain length. However, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin exhibit cation radical spectra blue-shifted compared to that of beta-carotene, despite all of these molecules having 11 conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds. CIS molecular orbital theory quantum computations interpret this effect as due to the hydroxyl groups in the terminal rings selectively stabilizing the highest occupied molecular orbitals of preferentially populated s-trans-isomers. The data are expected to be useful in the analysis of spectral results from PSII pigment-protein complexes seeking to understand the role of carotene and xanthophyll cation radicals in regulating excited state energy flow, in protecting PSII reaction centers against photoinhibition, and in dissipating excess light energy absorbed by photosynthetic organisms but not used for photosynthesis.

  19. Effect of Cellular Location of Human Carboxylesterase 2 on CPT-11 Hydrolysis and Anticancer Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ting Hsieh

    Full Text Available CPT-11 is an anticancer prodrug that is clinically used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Hydrolysis of CPT-11 by human carboxylesterase 2 (CE2 generates SN-38, a topoisomerase I inhibitor that is the active anti-tumor agent. Expression of CE2 in cancer cells is under investigation for the tumor-localized activation of CPT-11. CE2 is normally expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells but can be engineered to direct expression of active enzyme on the plasma membrane or as a secreted form. Although previous studies have investigated different locations of CE2 expression in cancer cells, it remains unclear if CE2 cellular location affects CPT-11 anticancer activity. In the present study, we directly compared the influence of CE2 cellular location on substrate hydrolysis and CPT-11 cytotoxicity. We linked expression of CE2 and enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP via a foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A (F2A peptide to facilitate fluorescence-activated cell sorting to achieve similar expression levels of ER-located, secreted or membrane-anchored CE2. Soluble CE2 was detected in the medium of cells that expressed secreted and membrane-anchored CE2, but not in cells that expressed ER-retained CE2. Cancer cells that expressed all three forms of CE2 were more sensitive to CPT-11 as compared to unmodified cancer cells, but the membrane-anchored and ER-retained forms of CE2 were consistently more effective than secreted CE2. We conclude that expression of CE2 in the ER or on the membrane of cancer cells is suitable for enhancing CPT-11 anticancer activity.

  20. Effects of sphingosine and sphingosine analogues on the free radical production by stimulated neutrophils: ESR and chemiluminescence studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mouithys-Mickalad

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids inhibit the activation of the neutrophil (PMN NADPH oxidase by protein kinase C pathway. By electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR and chemiluminescence (CL, we studied the effects of sphingosine (SPN and ceramide analogues on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 5 × 10-7M stimulated PMN (6 × 106 cells. By ESR with spin trapping (100 mM DMPO: 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-Noxide, we showed that SPN (5 to 8 × 10-6M, C2-ceramide (N-acetyl SPN and C6-ceramide (N-hexanoyl SPN at the final concentration of 2 × 10-5 and 2 × 10-4M inhibit the production of free radicals by stimulated PMN. The ESR spectrum of stimulated PMN was that of DMPO-superoxide anion spin adduct. Inhibition by 5 × 10-6M SPN was equivalent to that of 30 U/ml SOD. SPN (5 to 8 × 10-6M has no effect on in vitro systems generating superoxide anion (xanthine 50 mM/xanthine oxidase 110 mU/ml or hydroxyl radical (Fenton reaction: 88 mM H2O2, 0.01 mM Fe2+ and 0.01 mM EDTA. SPN and N-acetyl SPN also inhibited the CL of PMA stimulated PMN in a dose dependent manner (from 2 × 10-6 to 10-5M, but N-hexanoyl SPN was less active (from 2 × 10-5 to 2 × 10-4M. These effects were compared with those of known PMN inhibitors, superoxide dismutase, catalase and azide. SPN was a better inhibitor compared with these agents. The complete inhibition by SPN of ESR signal and CL of stimulated PMN confirms that this compound or one of its metabolites act at the level of NADPH-oxidase, the key enzyme responsible for production of oxygen-derived free radicals.

  1. Comparison of thermal and radical effects of EGR gases on combustion process in dual fuel engines at part loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Khoshbakhti Saray, R.; Sohrabi, A.; Niaei, A.

    2007-01-01

    Dual fuel engines at part load inevitably suffer from lower thermal efficiency and higher emission of carbon monoxide and unburned fuel. This work is conducted to investigate the combustion characteristics of a dual fuel (Diesel-gas) engine at part loads using a single zone combustion model with detailed chemical kinetics for combustion of natural gas fuel. In this home made software, the presence of the pilot fuel is considered as a heat source that is deriving form two superposed Wiebe's combustion functions to account for its contribution to ignition of the gaseous fuel and the rest of the total released energy. The chemical kinetics mechanism consists of 112 reactions with 34 species. This combustion model is able to establish the development of the combustion process with time and the associated important operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, heat release rate (HRR) and species concentration. Therefore, this work is an attempt to investigate the combustion phenomenon at part load and using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to improve the above mentioned problems. Also, the results of this work show that each of the different cases of EGR (thermal, chemical and radical cases) has an important role on the combustion process in dual fuel engines at part loads. It is found that all the different cases of EGR have positive effects on the performance and emission parameters of dual fuel engines at part loads despite the negative effect of some diluent gases in the chemical case, which moderates too much the positive effects of the thermal and radical cases of EGR. Predicted values show good agreement with corresponding experimental values over the whole range of engine operating conditions. Implications will be discussed in detail

  2. A natural language processing program effectively extracts key pathologic findings from radical prostatectomy reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brian J; Merchant, Madhur; Zheng, Chengyi; Thomas, Anil A; Contreras, Richard; Jacobsen, Steven J; Chien, Gary W

    2014-12-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) software programs have been widely developed to transform complex free text into simplified organized data. Potential applications in the field of medicine include automated report summaries, physician alerts, patient repositories, electronic medical record (EMR) billing, and quality metric reports. Despite these prospects and the recent widespread adoption of EMR, NLP has been relatively underutilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of an internally developed NLP program in extracting select pathologic findings from radical prostatectomy specimen reports in the EMR. An NLP program was generated by a software engineer to extract key variables from prostatectomy reports in the EMR within our healthcare system, which included the TNM stage, Gleason grade, presence of a tertiary Gleason pattern, histologic subtype, size of dominant tumor nodule, seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), perineural invasion (PNI), angiolymphatic invasion (ALI), extracapsular extension (ECE), and surgical margin status (SMS). The program was validated by comparing NLP results to a gold standard compiled by two blinded manual reviewers for 100 random pathology reports. NLP demonstrated 100% accuracy for identifying the Gleason grade, presence of a tertiary Gleason pattern, SVI, ALI, and ECE. It also demonstrated near-perfect accuracy for extracting histologic subtype (99.0%), PNI (98.9%), TNM stage (98.0%), SMS (97.0%), and dominant tumor size (95.7%). The overall accuracy of NLP was 98.7%. NLP generated a result in report. This novel program demonstrated high accuracy and efficiency identifying key pathologic details from the prostatectomy report within an EMR system. NLP has the potential to assist urologists by summarizing and highlighting relevant information from verbose pathology reports. It may also facilitate future urologic research through the rapid and automated creation of large databases.

  3. Different cellular effects of four anti-inflammatory eye drops on human corneal epithelial cells: independent in active components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mingli; Wang, Yao; Yang, Lingling; Zhou, Qingjun

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the cellular effects of four commercially available anti-inflammatory eye drops and their active components on human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) in vitro. The cellular effects of four eye drops (Bromfenac Sodium Hydrate Eye Drops, Pranoprofen Eye Drops, Diclofenac Sodium Eye Drops, and Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops) and their corresponding active components were evaluated in an HCEC line with five in vitro assays. Cell proliferation and migration were measured using 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3 5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay and transwell migration assay. Cell damage was determined with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Cell viability and median lethal time (LT₅₀) were measured by 7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD) staining and flow cytometry analysis. Cellular effects after exposure of HCECs to the four anti-inflammatory eye drops were concentration dependent. The differences of cellular toxicity on cell proliferation became significant at lower concentrations (Eye Drops showed significant increasing effects on cell damage and viability when compared with the other three solutions. Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops inhibited the migration of HCECs significantly. Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops showed the quickest effect on cell viability: the LT₅₀ was 3.28, 9.23, 10.38, and 23.80 min for Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops, Diclofenac Sodium Eye Drops, Pranoprofen Eye Drops, and Bromfenac Sodium Hydrate Eye Drops, respectively. However, the comparisons of cellular toxicity revealed significant differences between the eye drops and their active components under the same concentration. The corneal epithelial toxicity differences among the active components of the four eye drops became significant as higher concentration (>0.020%). The four anti-inflammatory eye drops showed different cellular effects on HCECs, and the toxicity was not related with their active components, which provides new reference for the clinical application and drug

  4. Preliminary results of the study about predictors of rectal side effects in radical radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, L; Barrios, E; Kasdorf, P; Valdagni, R; Paolini, G

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze quantitatively and qualitatively the rectal side effect of radical radiotherapy applied to prostate cancer in patients treated at the National Cancer Institute (INCA) with three-dimensional external radiotherapy which the purposes is to determine predictions of this. Materials and Methods: From July 2008 to July 2010 98 patients were recruited, 63 of whom were followed up for 6 months. The gastrointestinal secondary effects occurred in different times of monitoring patients with RTOG / EORTC classifications (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group / European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer) and SOMA / LENT, is also used a questionnaire specifically constructed and validated by the cooperative Italian group . The results were correlated with clinical parameters (PSA, Gleason score, clinical T, risk class, hypertension and diabetes) and dosimetry (treatment volume, rectal volume, Total Dose, Dose Maximum rectum, mean dose to the rectum) to assess the correlation between them and the appearance of gastrointestinal secondary effects. Results: 27% and 28% patients experienced grade 1 and 2 RTOG rectal secondary effect at 1 and 3 months and 6 months the SOMA / LENT classification determined by 25%. Qualitatively altered intestinal transit is the most affected in these patients, it is having also found some relationship between the probability of occurrence of abnormal intestinal transit, and the tracking time passed. Conclusions: The rectal secondary effects is one of the major side effects both acute an chronic of the prostate radiotherapy, identify the determinants effects of the INCA patient population implies a substantial improvement in the quality of prostate cancer patients. Patients treated with radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer often have long survivals and consequently may suffer chronic effects of radiation therapy. We have verified the existence of secondary effects in the intestine but the results are very preliminary

  5. An attempt of modelling debris flows characterised by strong inertial effects through Cellular Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovine, G.; D'Ambrosio, D.

    2003-04-01

    Cellular Automata models do represent a valid method for the simulation of complex phenomena, when these latter can be described in "a-centric" terms - i.e. through local interactions within a discrete time-space. In particular, flow-type landslides (such as debris flows) can be viewed as a-centric dynamical system. SCIDDICA S4b, the last release of a family of two-dimensional hexagonal Cellular Automata models, has recently been developed for simulating debris flows characterised by strong inertial effects. It has been derived by progressively enriching an initial simplified CA model, originally derived for simulating very simple cases of slow-moving flow-type landslides. In S4b, by applying an empirical strategy, the inertial characters of the flowing mass have been translated into CA terms. In the transition function of the model, the distribution of landslide debris among the cells is computed by considering the momentum of the debris which move among the cells of the neighbourhood, and privileging the flow direction. By properly setting the value of one of the global parameters of the model (the "inertial factor"), the mechanism of distribution of the landslide debris among the cells can be influenced in order to emphasise the inertial effects, according to the energy of the flowing mass. Moreover, the high complexity of both the model and of the phenomena to be simulated (e.g. debris flows characterised by severe erosion along their path, and by strong inertial effects) suggested to employ an automated technique of evaluation, for the determination of the best set of global parameters. Accordingly, the calibration of the model has been performed through Genetic Algorithms, by considering several real cases of study: these latter have been selected among the population of landslides triggered in Campania (Southern Italy) in May 1998 and December 1999. Obtained results are satisfying: errors computed by comparing the simulations with the map of the real

  6. Effects of ionic radius of redox-inactive bio-related metal ions on the radical-scavenging activity of flavonoids evaluated using photometric titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waki, Tsukasa; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Nakanishi, Ikuo

    2013-10-28

    Mg(2+) enhanced the scavenging activity of (+)-catechin and quercetin against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH˙), while Al(3+) decreased their activity. Such effects of Mg(2+) and Al(3+) were not observed for kaempferol. Na(+) and Ca(2+) with large ionic radii showed little effect on the DPPH˙-scavenging activity of these three flavonoids.

  7. [Effect of melaxen on free radical processes intensity and some antioxidant enzymes activity in rats liver and blood serum under type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verevkin, A N; Popova, T N; Agarkov, A A; Semenikhina, A V

    2015-01-01

    The effect of melaxen on free radical processes and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been investigated. It was established that melaxen administration to diabetic rats caused a decrease of the intensity of free radical processes as evidenced a decrease of the lipid peroxidation primary products content and biochemiluminescence parameters. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes changed towards normal values. These effects were probably induced by the correction of the melatonin level at the result of the melaxen action.

  8. CH{sub 3} and CD{sub 3} radicals isolated in argon: high resolution ESR spectra and analysis by three-dimensional quantum rotor model. A case study of low temperature quantum effects on radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiotani, Masaru; Yamada, Tomoya; Komaguchi, Kenji [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Benetis, N.P.; Lund, A.; Soernes, A.R.

    1998-10-01

    The present study deals with high resolution isotropic ESR spectra of the CH{sub 3} and CD{sub 3} radicals isolated in solid argon matrix at low temperature from 4 K to 40 K. Argon gases mixed with methane (Ar/methane {approx_equal} 500 mole ratio) were condensed at the end of Suprasile ESR tube at 4.2 K. Methyl radicals were generated by X-ray irradiation at 4 K and subjected to an ESR study. The 6.0 K ESR spectrum of the CH{sub 4}/Ar system is shown in Fig. 1. For CH{sub 3} radical the {sup 1}H hyperfine (hf) quartet was observed with an equal intensity (A-lines). The E-lines were absent at 4 K, but became visible at m{sub F} = {+-}1/2 positions above 12 K increased with temperature. The CD{sub 3} gave a peculiar spectrum at 4 K with an abnormally strong central singlet superimposed on a much weaker seven line spectrum of a freely rotating CD{sub 3}. The temperature dependent spectra showed clear quantum effects due to three-dimensional spin-rotation couplings. The spectra were analyzed with the following assumptions: (a) a planar D{sub 3} geometry, (b) a free and three-dimensional quantum rotation and (c) a thermally isolated radical. Application of the Pauli principle in combination to the D{sub 3} point group resulted in interesting selections for ESR-transitions for both the CH{sub 3} and CD{sub 3} spectra. That is, the {sup 1}H hf quartet of CH{sub 3} radical (A-lines) was attributed to the rotational ground state, J=0, with totally symmetric A{sub 1} nuclear states. The central strong singlet of CD{sub 3} was attributed to one spin-rotation state with A{sub 2} antisymmetric nuclear states at the lowest rotational level of J=0. (author)

  9. Effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted by cellular telephones on the cognitive functions of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyahu, Ilan; Luria, Roy; Hareuveny, Ronen; Margaliot, Menachem; Meiran, Nachshon; Shani, Gad

    2006-02-01

    The present study examined the effects of exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation emitted by a standard GSM phone at 890 MHz on human cognitive functions. This study attempted to establish a connection between the exposure of a specific area of the brain and the cognitive functions associated with that area. A total of 36 healthy right-handed male subjects performed four distinct cognitive tasks: spatial item recognition, verbal item recognition, and two spatial compatibility tasks. Tasks were chosen according to the brain side they are assumed to activate. All subjects performed the tasks under three exposure conditions: right side, left side, and sham exposure. The phones were controlled by a base station simulator and operated at their full power. We have recorded the reaction times (RTs) and accuracy of the responses. The experiments consisted of two sections, of 1 h each, with a 5 min break in between. The tasks and the exposure regimes were counterbalanced. The results indicated that the exposure of the left side of the brain slows down the left-hand response time, in the second-later-part of the experiment. This effect was apparent in three of the four tasks, and was highly significant in only one of the tests. The exposure intensity and its duration exceeded the common exposure of cellular phone users.

  10. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Cellular Structures, Induced Instability, and Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resat, Marianne S.; Arthurs, Benjamin J.; Estes, Brian J.; Morgan, william F.

    2006-01-01

    According to the American Cancer Society, the United States can expect 1,368,030 new cases of cancer in 2004 [1]. Among the many carcinogens Americans are exposed to, ionizing radiation will contribute to this statistic. Humans live in a radiation environment. Ionizing radiation is in the air we breathe, the earth we live on, and the food we eat. Man-made radiation adds to this naturally occurring radiation level thereby increasing the chance for human exposure. For many decades the scientific community, governmental regulatory bodies, and concerned citizens have struggled to estimate health risks associated with radiation exposures, particularly at low doses. While cancer induction is the primary concern and the most important somatic effect of exposure to ionizing radiation, potential health risks do not involve neoplastic diseases exclusively but also include somatic mutations that might contribute to birth defects and ocular maladies, and heritable mutations that might impact on disease risks in future generations. Consequently it is important we understand the effect of ionizing radiation on cellular structures and the subsequent long-term health risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation

  11. Effects of Mechanical Properties on Tumor Invasion: Insights from a Cellular Model

    KAUST Repository

    Li, YZ

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the regulating mechanism of tumor invasion is of crucial importance for both fundamental cancer research and clinical applications. Previous in vivo experiments have shown that invasive cancer cells dissociate from the primary tumor and invade into the stroma, forming an irregular invasive morphology. Although cell movements involved in tumor invasion are ultimately driven by mechanical forces of cell-cell interactions and tumor-host interactions, how these mechanical properties affect tumor invasion is still poorly understood. In this study, we use a recently developed two-dimensional cellular model to study the effects of mechanical properties on tumor invasion. We study the effects of cell-cell adhesions as well as the degree of degradation and stiffness of extracellular matrix (ECM). Our simulation results show that cell-cell adhesion relationship must be satisfied for tumor invasion. Increased adhesion to ECM and decreased adhesion among tumor cells result in invasive tumor behaviors. When this invasive behavior occurs, ECM plays an important role for both tumor morphology and the shape of invasive cancer cells. Increased stiffness and stronger degree of degradation of ECM promote tumor invasion, generating more aggressive tumor invasive morphologies. It can also generate irregular shape of invasive cancer cells, protruding towards ECM. The capability of our model suggests it a useful tool to study tumor invasion and might be used to propose optimal treatment in clinical applications.

  12. Effect of lycopene and β-carotene on peroxynitrite-mediated cellular modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzandu, Kaampwe; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q.; Shaban, Zein; El Bohi, Khlood; Kazusaka, Akio; Fujita, Shoichi

    2006-01-01

    Peroxynitrite formed by the reaction of superoxide and nitric oxide is a highly reactive species with a role in various pathological processes such as cancer, chronic inflammation, and cardiovascular and neurological diseases. In the present study, the effect of the carotenoids, lycopene and β-carotene, on peroxynitrite-mediated modifications in plasmid DNA as well as cellular DNA and proteins were investigated. In pUC18 plasmid DNA, these carotenoids strongly inhibited DNA strand breaks caused by peroxynitrite generated from 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1). SIN-1 was also used to determine effects on DNA damage and protein tyrosine nitration in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts. SIN-1 dose-dependently increased nitration of proteins in cells above basal levels as determined by Western blotting. This nitration was inhibited in the presence of the uric acid as well as lycopene. Physiological concentrations (0.31-10 μM) of lycopene and β-carotene also had protective effects on DNA damage, as measured by the comet assay. Lycopene significantly reduced DNA damage particularly, in the median range of concentrations (2.5 μM). The protective effects of lycopene and β-carotene could be due to their scavenging of reactive oxygen (ROS) and/or nitrogen species (RNS) as they reduce the amount of intracellular ROS/RNS produced following treatment with SIN-1 by as much as 47.5% and 42.4%, respectively. The results obtained in this study suggest that carotenoids may alleviate some of the deleterious effects of peroxynitrite and possibly other reactive nitrogen species as well in vivo

  13. Product study of 1-adamantyl and 1-bicyclo[2.2.2]octyl radicals in hydrocarbon solvents. An unusually large hydrogen isotope effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, P.S.; Chae, W.K.; Baughman, S.A.; Marschke, G.E.; Lewis, E.S.; Timberlake, J.W.; Luedtke, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    1-Adamantyl (ada.) and 1-bicyclo[2.2.2]octyl (bo.) radicals have been generated by photolysis of the corresponding azoalkanes in various hydrocarbon solvents. Both radicals abstract hydrogen readily from saturated hydrocarbons and they add to aromatic rings much faster than tert-butyl. does. Despite its reactivity, ada. is remarkably selective in hydrogen atom abstraction, preferring a benzylic hydrogen 25:1 over a cyclohexane hydrogen. The effect of solvent viscosity indicates that formation of the radical dimers biada and bibo occurs in the solvent cage. The most striking result of this work is a deuterium isotope effect of 25 for hydrogen transfer from cyclohexane to ada. at 65 0 C. Steric compression in the transition state is postulated to cause an unusually large tunnel correction and hence a large k/sub H//k/sub D/. 6 tables

  14. Downregulation of microRNA-498 in colorectal cancers and its cellular effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalan, Vinod; Smith, Robert A.; Lam, Alfred K.-Y., E-mail: a.lam@griffith.edu.au

    2015-01-15

    miR-498 is a non-coding RNA located intergenically in 19q13.41. Due to its predicted targeting of several genes involved in control of cellular growth, we examined the expression of miR-498 in colon cancer cell lines and a large cohort of patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Two colon cancer cancer cell lines (SW480 and SW48) and one normal colonic epithelial cell line (FHC) were recruited. The expression of miR-498 was tested in these cell lines by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Tissues from 80 patients with surgical resection of colorectum (60 adenocarcinomas and 20 non-neoplastic tissues) were tested for miR-498 expression by qRT-PCR. In addition, an exogenous miR-498 (mimic) was used to detect the miRNA's effects on cell proliferation and cell cycle events in SW480 using MTT calorimetric assay and flow cytometry respectively. The colon cancer cell lines showed reduced expression of miR-498 compared to a normal colonic epithelial cell line. Mimic driven over expression of miR-498 in the SW480 cell line resulted in reduced cell proliferation and increased proportions of G2-M phase cells. In tissues, miR-498 expression was too low to be detected in all colorectal adenocarcinoma compared to non-neoplastic tissues. This suggests that the down regulation of miR-498 in colorectal cancer tissues and the direct suppressive cellular effect noted in cancer cell lines implies that miR-498 has some direct or indirect role in the pathogenesis of colorectal adenocarcinomas. - Highlights: • miR-498 is a non-coding RNA located in 19q13.41. • Colon cancer cell lines showed reduced expression of miR-498. • Mimic driven over expression of miR-498 in colon cancer cells resulted in lower cell proliferation. • miR-498 expression was down regulated in all colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues.

  15. Effects of temperature and cellular interactions on the mechanics and morphology of human cancer cells investigated by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Liu, LianQing; Xi, Ning; Wang, YueChao; Xiao, XiuBin; Zhang, WeiJing

    2015-09-01

    Cell mechanics plays an important role in cellular physiological activities. Recent studies have shown that cellular mechanical properties are novel biomarkers for indicating the cell states. In this article, temperature-controllable atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied to quantitatively investigate the effects of temperature and cellular interactions on the mechanics and morphology of human cancer cells. First, AFM indenting experiments were performed on six types of human cells to investigate the changes of cellular Young's modulus at different temperatures and the results showed that the mechanical responses to the changes of temperature were variable for different types of cancer cells. Second, AFM imaging experiments were performed to observe the morphological changes in living cells at different temperatures and the results showed the significant changes of cell morphology caused by the alterations of temperature. Finally, by co-culturing human cancer cells with human immune cells, the mechanical and morphological changes in cancer cells were investigated. The results showed that the co-culture of cancer cells and immune cells could cause the distinct mechanical changes in cancer cells, but no significant morphological differences were observed. The experimental results improved our understanding of the effects of temperature and cellular interactions on the mechanics and morphology of cancer cells.

  16. Effect of verapamil on cellular uptake of Tc-99m MIBI and tetrofosmin on several cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Yoo, Jung Ah; Bae, Jin Ho; Jeong, Shin Young; Suh, Myung Rang; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Kyu Bo; Lee, Jae Tae

    2004-01-01

    Cellular uptake of 99 mTc-sestamibi (MIBI) and 99 mTc-tetrofosmin (TF) is low in cancer cells expressing multidrug resistance(MDR) by p-glycoprotein(Pgp) or multidrug related protein(MRP). Verapamil is known to increase cellular uptake of MIBI in MDR cancer cells, but is recently reported to have different effects on tracer uptake in certain cancer cells. This study was prepared to evaluate effects of verapamil on cellular uptake of MIBI and TF in several cancer cells. Cellular uptakes of Tc-99m MIBI and TF were measured in erythroleukemia K562 cell, breast cancer MCF7 cell, and human ovarian cancer SK-OV-3 cells, and data were compared with those of doxorubicin-resistant K562(Ad) cells. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis were used for the detection of mdr1 mRNA and Pgp expression, and to observe changes in isotypes of PKC enzyme. Effects of verapamil on MIBI and TF uptake were evaluated at different concentrations upto 200 μM at 1*10 6 cells/ m l at 37.deg.C. Radioactivity in supernatant and pellet was measured with gamma counter to calculate cellular uptake ratio. Toxicity of verapamil was measured with MTT assay. Cellular uptakes of MIBI and TF were increased by time in four cancer cells studied. Co-incubation with verapamil resulted in an increase in uptake of MIBI and TF in K562(Adr) cell at a concentration of 100 μM and the maximal increase at 50 μM was 10-times to baseline. In contrast, uptakes of MIBI and TF in K562, MCF7m SK-OV3 cells were decreased with verapamil treatment at a concentration over 1 μM. With a concentration of 200 μM verapamil, respectively. Cellular uptakes of MIBI and TF in MCF7 and SK-OV-3 cells were not changed with 10μM, but were also decreased with verapamil higher than 10μM, resulting 40% and 5% of baseline at 50 μM. MTT assay of four cells revealed that K562, MCF7, SK-OV3 were not damaged with verapamil at 200 μM. Although verapamil increases uptake of MIBI and TF in MDR cancer cells, cellular uptakes were further decreased

  17. Pharmacokinetics and Plasma Cellular Antioxidative Effects of Flavanols After Oral Intake of Green Tea Formulated with Vitamin C and Xylitol in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Yu-Ra; Park, Tae-Sik; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to test whether green tea formulated with vitamin C and xylitol (GTVX) could improve absorption of flavanols and total antioxidant activity (TAC) of plasma compared with green tea only (GT) in healthy subjects. The total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter method was used to measure the TAC of plasma. Cmax, Tmax, and area under the curve (AUC) of flavanols in plasma after consumption of GTVX were 5980.58 μg/mL, 2.14 h, and 18,915.56 h·μg/mL, respectively, indicating that GTVX showed significantly higher AUC than GT (13,855.43 μg/mL). The peak TACs occurred at 3 and 0.5 h after intake of GT and GTVX, respectively. The TAC of plasma was found to be significantly higher in GTVX than in GT at each time point. This study suggests that formulating green tea with vitamin C and xylitol could increase the absorption of flavanols in green tea, enhancing cellular antioxidative effects.

  18. Effects of calcium antagonist and free radical scavengers on ischemic and reperfused myocardium due to acute occlusion of coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsuzu, Fumitaka; Sakata, Nobuhiro; Yanagida, Shigeki

    1988-01-01

    The Langendorff perfused rat heart was used to investigate whether ischemic and reperfused injury could be protected by anti-free radical intervention alone or combined treatment with calcium antagonist. Hearts were subjected to 10 min. of aerobic perfusion with Krebs-Henseleit solution (K-H) and then randomized into three groups (GP): Control group received only K-H, FRS group K-H with superoxide dismutase (24 IU/ml) and catalase (22 IU/ml) and Combined group the same solution of FRS group with verapamil (10'-'7M) for 10 min; and three groups were subjected to 20 min. of global ischemia; and each group was reperfused by the prior perfusate for 20 min. LV developed pressure (DP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by an intraventricular baloon. Phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy allowed continuous monitoring of myocardial phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and β-ATP content. Each group consisted of 5 experiments. PCr in Combined group was significantly higher than that of Control group with significantly higher values of DP and DPxHR compared to Combined group in the early phase of ischemia. By the middle phase of reperfusion, significant reduction in Pi was found only in Combined group with the reduction of HR. However, no significant difference of β-ATP was found between Control group and Combined group through ischemia and reperfusion. These results suggest that free radical scavengers alone could not protect ischemic and reperfused myocardium from injury, but that the reduction of oxygen consumption by verapamil might be predominantly effective in preventing myocardial damage partially from ischemia and reperfusion. (author)

  19. The effect of oral consumption of shark cartilage on the cellular immune responses of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    somaye Shahrokhi

    2006-11-01

    Conclusion: It seems that shark cartilage could help strengthen cellular immunity which is important in tumor regression in breast cancer patients. So we suppose that it could be a good candidate for cancer treatment along with conventional medicine.

  20. Ozone effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle): morphological and cellular damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanassious, R.; Klyne, M.A.; Phan, C.T.

    1978-01-01

    Morphological symptoms of ozone damage were related to cellular alterations. The different degrees of damage reflected by the severity of plasmolysis, membrane destruction and coagulation were shown at different levels of microscopy.

  1. Investigating the effects of ABC transporter-based acquired drug resistance mechanisms at the cellular and tissue scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Krishnan, J; Xu, Xiao Yun

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we systematically investigate the effects of acquired drug resistance at the cellular and tissue scale, with a specific focus on ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-based mechanisms and contrast this with other representative intracellular resistance mechanisms. This is done by developing in silico models wherein the drug resistance mechanism is overlaid on a coarse-grained description of apoptosis; these cellular models are coupled with interstitial drug transport, allowing for a transparent examination of the effect of acquired drug resistances at the tissue level. While ABC transporter-mediated resistance mechanisms counteract drug effect at the cellular level, its tissue-level effect is more complicated, revealing unexpected trends in tissue response as drug stimuli are systematically varied. Qualitatively different behaviour is observed in other drug resistance mechanisms. Overall the paper (i) provides insight into the tissue level functioning of a particular resistance mechanism, (ii) shows that this is very different from other resistance mechanisms of an apparently similar type, and (iii) demonstrates a concrete instance of how the functioning of a negative feedback based cellular adaptive mechanism can have unexpected higher scale effects.

  2. A study on the effects of relativistic heavy charged particles on the cellular microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, Sylvain Vincent

    This study was done under the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) effort to assess the effect of cosmic radiation on astronauts during a 3 year mission to Mars. Carcinogenesis is known to be induced more efficiently by cosmic radiation. Our attention was turned towards one of the most efficient cosmic particles in inducing cancer, relativistic Fe, and focused in assessing its effect on the cellular microenvironment (ECM). Previous observations on mammary glands were showing irregularities in the immunoreactivity of the ECM protein laminin one hour after whole body irradiation with 1GeV/amu Fe ions for a dose of 0.8 Gy. This effect was not observed after 5 Gy γ-rays exposure. The rapidity of such a change suggested that the effect might be due to a physical event specific to relativistic charged particles (HZE), rather than a biological event. Our study showed that this effect is actually a complex and rapid response of the microenvironment to highly ionizing radiation. It involves a fast disruption of the basement membrane of the ECM induced by the highly localized ionization and reactive oxygen formation around the track of the Fe ion. This disruption triggers further chemical and biological responses involved in the remodeling of the laminin network in the basement membrane. A metalloproteinase is suspected to be the intermediate protease affecting laminin. The HZE effect on the microenvironment was seen in both mouse mammary glands and skin, but the laminin isoforms sensitive to Fe ions were different for each organ, with a clear disruption of laminin-1 network in skin and of laminin-5 in mammary glands. In addition, the laminin receptor integrins seem to be involved in this mechanism, but its contribution is unclear at this point. Finally, such studies suggest a shift from the concept of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) used in classical radiation biology since the effect is only seen with HZE at viable whole body doses. In addition, this

  3. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of muscle aging and sarcopenia and effects of electrical stimulation in seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Barberi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The prolongation of skeletal muscle strength in aging and neuromuscular disease has been the objective of numerous studies employing a variety of approaches. It is generally accepted that cumulative failure to repair damage related to an overall decrease in anabolic processes is a primary cause of functional impairment in muscle. The functional performance of skeletal muscle tissues declines during post- natal life and it is compromised in different diseases, due to an alteration in muscle fiber composition and an overall decrease in muscle integrity as fibrotic invasions replace functional contractile tissue. Characteristics of skeletal muscle aging and diseases include a conspicuous reduction in myofiber plasticity (due to the progressive loss of muscle mass and in particular of the most powerful fast fibers, alteration in muscle-specific transcriptional mechanisms, and muscle atrophy. An early decrease in protein synthetic rates is followed by a later increase in protein degradation, to affect biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters of muscle fibers during the aging process. Alterations in regenerative pathways also compromise the functionality of muscle tissues. In this review we will give an overview of the work on molecular and cellular mechanisms of aging and sarcopenia and the effects of electrical stimulation in seniors.

  4. Analysis of effect on microdose of 10B nonuniform distribution in cellular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Qin; Geng Changran; Tang Xiaobin; Chen Da

    2012-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is one of the effective way to treat malignant melanoma and head-neck cancer. The intercellular nonuniform distributions of 10 B in tumor cell impact the estimates of inactivation dose. The α-Li Version l.0 code was developed based on Monte-Carlo method to calculate the S values of cell induced by α and 7 Li particle which are the products of 10 B (n,a) 7 Li. The calculation included two types of cell size, eight kinds of energy of a particle and three kinds of source distributions. Differences between results of this code and an analytical algorithm of MIRD committee were within 1%. On this basis, a total of 3420 cases were calculated and analyzed with different kinds of nucleus radius, cell radius, and source launch position combination. Finally, cellular S values of 10 B (n,a) 7 Li calculated in this paper can be used to compute the excellent precision dose under 10 B compound nonuniform distribution in intercellular scale. (authors)

  5. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum on cellular immunocompetence in gamma-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WangChi, Chen; DouMong, Hau [Institute of Radiation Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    1995-07-01

    We have investigated the effects on mice treated with Ganoderma lucidum (Gl) when the whole body was exposed to 400 rad gamma-irradiation. The mice were divided into five groups. Group A was the normal control; group B, the experimental control, was treated with GI; group C was the radiation control (RT); group D was treated with RT and Gl; group E was treated with Gl, RT and Gl. The results revealed that the relative spleen weight had increased significantly in groups B and E on day 7 and increased in all experimental groups on day, 28 after irradiation. The leukocyte counts decreased obviously in groups C, D and E on day 7, and recovered in groups D and E was faster than that in group C on day 28. The blastogenic response of splenocytes to LPS, Con A and PHA in groups administered GI were higher than that in group C on days 7and 28. Therefore, Gl seemed to assist the recovery of cellular immunocompetence in gamma-irradiated mice. (author)

  6. Impact of photocatalysis on fungal cells: depiction of cellular and molecular effects on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Sana; Simonet, France; Lemaire, Marc; Guillard, Chantal; Cotton, Pascale

    2014-12-01

    We have investigated the antimicrobial effects of photocatalysis on the yeast model Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To accurately study the antimicrobial mechanisms of the photocatalytic process, we focused our investigations on two questions: the entry of the nanoparticles in treated cells and the fate of the intracellular environment. Transmission electronic microscopy did not reveal any entry of nanoparticles within the cells, even for long exposure times, despite degradation of the cell wall space and deconstruction of cellular compartments. In contrast to proteins located at the periphery of the cells, intracellular proteins did not disappear uniformly. Disappearance or persistence of proteins from the pool of oxidized intracellular isoforms was not correlated to their functions. Altogether, our data suggested that photocatalysis induces the establishment of an intracellular oxidative environment. This hypothesis was sustained by the detection of an increased level of superoxide ions (O2°(-)) in treated cells and by greater cell cultivability for cells expressing oxidant stress response genes during photocatalytic exposure. The increase in intracellular ROS, which was not connected to the entry of nanoparticles within the cells or to a direct contact with the plasma membrane, could be the result of an imbalance in redox status amplified by chain reactions. Moreover, we expanded our study to other yeast and filamentous fungi and pointed out that, in contrast to the laboratory model S. cerevisiae, some environmental strains are very resistant to photocatalysis. This could be related to the cell wall composition and structure. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Effects of storage methods on time-related changes of titanium surface properties and cellular response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Haibin; Zhou Lei; Wan Lei; Li Shaobing; Rong Mingdeng; Guo Zehong

    2012-01-01

    Titanium implants are sold in the market as storable medical devices. All the implants have a certain shelf life during which they maintain their sterility, but variations of the surface properties through this duration have not been subject to a comprehensive assessment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of storage methods on time-related changes of titanium surface properties. Acid-etched titanium discs (Sa = 0.82 µm) were placed in a sealed container (tradition method) or submerged in the ddH 2 O/NaCl solution (0.15 mol L −1 )/CaCl 2 solution (0.15 mol L −1 ), and new titanium discs were used as a control group. SEM and optical profiler showed that surface morphology and roughness did not change within different groups, but the XPS analysis confirmed that the surface chemistry altered by different storage protocols as the storage duration increased, and the contact angle also varied with storage methods. The storage method also affected the protein adsorption capacity and cellular response on the titanium surface. All titanium discs stored in the solution maintained their excellent bioactivity even after four weeks storage time, but titanium discs stored in a traditional manner decreased substantially in an age-dependent manner. Much effort is needed to improve the storage methods in order to maintain the bioactivity of a titanium dental implant. (paper)

  8. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum on cellular immunocompetence in gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen WangChi; Hau DouMong

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the effects on mice treated with Ganoderma lucidum (Gl) when the whole body was exposed to 400 rad gamma-irradiation. The mice were divided into five groups. Group A was the normal control; group B, the experimental control, was treated with GI; group C was the radiation control (RT); group D was treated with RT and Gl; group E was treated with Gl, RT and Gl. The results revealed that the relative spleen weight had increased significantly in groups B and E on day 7 and increased in all experimental groups on day, 28 after irradiation. The leukocyte counts decreased obviously in groups C, D and E on day 7, and recovered in groups D and E was faster than that in group C on day 28. The blastogenic response of splenocytes to LPS, Con A and PHA in groups administered GI were higher than that in group C on days 7and 28. Therefore, Gl seemed to assist the recovery of cellular immunocompetence in gamma-irradiated mice. (author)

  9. Effects of delayed NSAID administration after experimental eccentric contraction injury - A cellular and proteomics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Bryant

    Full Text Available Acute muscle injuries are exceedingly common and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are widely consumed to reduce the associated inflammation, swelling and pain that peak 1-2 days post-injury. While prophylactic use or early administration of NSAIDs has been shown to delay muscle regeneration and contribute to loss of muscle strength after healing, little is known about the effects of delayed NSAID use. Further, NSAID use following non-penetrating injury has been associated with increased risk and severity of infection, including that due to group A streptococcus, though the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of delayed NSAID administration on muscle repair and sought mechanisms supporting an injury/NSAID/infection axis.A murine model of eccentric contraction (EC-induced injury of the tibialis anterior muscle was used to profile the cellular and molecular changes induced by ketorolac tromethamine administered 47 hr post injury.NSAID administration inhibited several important muscle regeneration processes and down-regulated multiple cytoprotective proteins known to inhibit the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death. These activities were associated with increased caspase activity in injured muscles but were independent of any NSAID effect on macrophage influx or phenotype switching.These findings provide new molecular evidence supporting the notion that NSAIDs have a direct negative influence on muscle repair after acute strain injury in mice and thus add to renewed concern about the safety and benefits of NSAIDS in both children and adults, in those with progressive loss of muscle mass such as the elderly or patients with cancer or AIDS, and those at risk of secondary infection after trauma or surgery.

  10. Persistent effects of chronic clozapine on the cellular and behavioral responses to LSD in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, José L.; Holloway, Terrell; Umali, Adrienne; Rayannavar, Vinayak; Sealfon, Stuart C.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale In schizophrenia patients, optimal treatment with antipsychotics requires weeks to months of sustained drug therapy. However, single administration of antipsychotic drugs can reverse schizophrenia-like behavioral alterations in rodent models of psychosis. This raises questions about the physiological relevance of such antipsychotic-like activity. Objective This study evaluates the effects of chronic treatment with clozapine on the cellular and behavioral responses induced by the hallucinogenic serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) as a mouse model of psychosis. Method Mice were treated chronically (21 days) with 25 mg/kg/day clozapine. Experiments were conducted 1, 7, 14, and 21 days after the last clozapine administration. [3H]Ketanserin binding and 5-HT2A mRNA expression were determined in mouse somatosensory cortex. Head-twitch behavior, expression of c-fos, which is induced by all 5-HT2A agonists, and expression of egr-1 and egr-2, which are LSD-like specific, were assayed. Results Head-twitch response was decreased and [3H]ketanserin binding was downregulated in 1, 7, and 14 days after chronic clozapine. 5-HT2A mRNA was reduced 1 day after chronic clozapine. Induction of c-fos, but not egr-1 and egr-2, was rescued 7 days after chronic clozapine. These effects were not observed after short treatment (2 days) with clozapine or chronic haloperidol (1 mg/kg/day). Conclusion Our findings provide a murine model of chronic atypical antipsychotic drug action and suggest downregulation of the 5-HT2A receptor as a potential mechanism involved in these persistent therapeutic-like effects. PMID:22842765

  11. Effects of fexofenadine and hydroxyzine on brake reaction time during car-driving with cellular phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Manabu; Horikawa, Etsuo; Mochizuki, Hideki; Sakurada, Yumiko; Kato, Motohisa; Inokuchi, Takatoshi; Ridout, Fran; Hindmarch, Ian; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2005-10-01

    Antihistamines are a mainstay treatment for allergic rhinitis; however, many older agents cause adverse events, including sedation and central nervous system (CNS) impairment. Research has shown sedating effects of antihistamines on driving; currently, no known study has examined whether cellular phone usage while driving further compounds impairment in individuals administered antihistamines. The aim of this study was to examine this endpoint. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way crossover study, healthy volunteers received fexofenadine HCl 120 mg, hydroxyzine HCl 30 mg and placebo. Brake reaction time (BRT) was used to examine driving performance across four conditions: driving only; driving while completing simple calculations; complex calculations; and conversing on a cellular phone. Subjective sedation assessments were also conducted. Brake reaction time with and without cellular phone usage in fexofenadine-treated subjects did not differ significantly from placebo in any condition. In contrast, hydroxyzine-treated subjects were significantly more sedated and had slower BRTs, suggesting slower hazard recognition and brake application, compared with the fexofenadine and placebo groups in all conditions. Importantly, cellular phone operation was an additive factor, increasing BRTs in hydroxyzine-treated volunteers. Fexofenadine did not impair CNS function in subjects involved in a divided attention task of driving and cellular phone operation. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Effect of Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia cretica linn, and Tinospora cordifolia on free radical generation and lipid peroxidation during oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat hippocampal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawal, Avinash; Muddeshwar, Manohar; Biswas, Saibal

    2004-01-01

    The major damaging factor during and after the ischemic/hypoxic insult is the generation of free radicals, which leads to apoptosis, necrosis, and ultimately cell death. Rubia cordifolia (RC), Fagonia cretica linn (FC), and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) have been reported to contain a wide variety of antioxidants and have been in use in the eastern system of medicine for various disorders. Hippocampal slices were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and divided into three groups, control, OGD, and OGD+drug treated. Cytosolic reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide [NO, measured as nitrite (NO 2 )]. EPR was used to establish the antioxidant effect of RC, FC, and TC with respect to superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radicals (OH), nitric oxide (NO) radical, and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO - ) generated from pyrogallol, menadione, DETA-NO, and Sin-1, respectively. RT-PCR was performed for the three herbs to assess their effect on the expression of γ-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCLC), iNOS, and GAPDH gene expression. All the three herbs were effective in elevating the GSH levels and expression of the GCLC. The herbs also exhibited strong free radical scavenging properties against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, diminishing the expression of iNOS gene. RC, FC, and TC therefore attenuate oxidative stress mediated cell injury during OGD and exert the above effects at both the cytosolic as well as at gene expression levels and may be effective therapeutic tool against ischemic brain damage

  13. Effects of Mushroom and Herb Polysaccharides on Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses of Eimeria tenella-Infected Chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.C.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Williams, B.A.; Parmentier, H.K.; Li, W.K.; Yang, Z.Q.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of polysaccharide extracts from 2 mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and an herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE), on cellular and humoral immune responses of Eimeria tenella-infected chickens. A total of 150 broiler chicks were assigned to 5

  14. Cellular gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Gruau; J.T. Tromp (John)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of establishing gravity in cellular automata. In particular, when cellular automata states can be partitioned into empty, particle, and wall types, with the latter enclosing rectangular areas, we desire rules that will make the particles fall down and pile up on

  15. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among cultivated ginseng, and cultivated wild ginseng extracts -Using the measurement of superoxide and hydroxy radical scavenging activities-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Jin, Rhim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among cultivated wild ginseng and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts. Results : 1. In the superoxide radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 0.25 and 0.50㎎/㎖. 2. In the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0㎎/㎖. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had higher antioxidant activities to cultivated ginseng.

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Ruta graveolens L. extract on inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH radicals and the effects of some external factors on plant extract's potency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammadi- Motamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of Ruta graveolens L. were evaluated by two different methods; free radical scavenging using DPPH and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the ferric thiocyanate method. The IC50 value of the methanol extract in DPPH inhibition was 200.5 μg/mL which was acceptable in comparison with BHT (41.8 μg/mL. In thiocyanate method, the plant extract demonstrated activity as much as BHT in prevention of lipid peroxidation. Increasing the temperature during extraction, significantly decreased the extract power in inhibition of DPPH radicals. The storage time and temperature had no effect on lipid peroxidation inhibition.

  17. Reactions of organic free radicals at colloidal silver in aqueous solution. Electron pool effect and water decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henglein, A.

    1979-01-01

    Organic free radicals of high negative redox potential such as α-alcohol radicals were found to transfer electrons to colloidal silver particles stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate in aqueous solution. The colloidal particles thus became a pool of stored electrons that could reduce water to form hydrogen or react with suitable acceptors in solution. The organic radicals were produced by irradiation, using suitable scavengers for the primary radicals from the radiolysis of the aqueous solvent. The solutions initially contained silver ions at 1 x 10 -4 - 2 x 10 -3 M. At doses below 10 5 rd, the silver ions were completely reduced to form the colloidal catalyst. In this dose range, the corresponding hydrogen yield amounted to 1 molecule per 100 eV. It increased steeply at higher doses up to 3 molecules per 100 eV. The H 2 yield decreased with increasing dose rate and with increasing pH in alkaline solutions. It was highest at a concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate of 1 x 10 -3 M, i.e., far below the critical micelle concentration of this surfactant. Changes in the absorption spectrum of the colloid are attributed to changes in the size of the silver particles upon charging up with electrons. The competition of radical-colloid reactions with radical-radical deactivation in the bulk of solution or at the surface of the colloidal particles is also discussed. 11 figures

  18. Radical Change by Entrepreneurial Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Nancy C

    1998-01-01

    .... How radical change in public policy has occurred in the past is then documented. We find examples of radical change by chance, radical change by consensus, radical change by learning, and radical change by entrepreneurial design...

  19. Evaluation of cellular effects of pulsed and continuous wave radiofrequency radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicic, Ivan; Trosic, Ivancica

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In less than twenty years, the mobile telephone has gone from being rare, expensive equipment of the business elite to a pervasive, low-cost personal item. Since the introduction of mobile phones, concerns have been raised about the potential detrimental impacts on living beings from regular use. The first 'modern' network technology on second generation cellular technology was launched in 1991 in Finland on the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) standard. This study evaluates cellular effects of, both, continuous (CW) and pulsed GSM modulated waves (PW). Continuous cell culture of Chinese hamster lung cells, line V79, was used in this study. Cell growth and colony forming ability (CFA) was analyzed after 1, 2 and 3 hours of exposure to the both frequency fields, 935 MHz CW and 915 MHz PW. Selected frequency fields were generated inside gigahertz transversal electromagnetic mode cell (GTEM) equipped with the signal generators. Hewlett Packard HP8657A signal generator was used to generate CW 935 MHz frequency field. Anritzu MS2711B spectrum analyzer with tracking generator and Micro devices RF 3146 power amplifier module generated PW radiofrequency field of 915 MHz. Averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) belonging to the CW 935 MHz frequency field was calculated to be 0.12 W/kg, and for GSM modulated 915 MHz field was 0.23 W/kg. Cell samples were irradiated in triplicate. The sham exposed control cell samples were included in the study. The temperature inside the exposure set-up was recorded in ten-minute intervals through the irradiation treatment. Both, sham-exposed and exposed cell samples were kept in the same condition, except in the time of irradiation for experimental samples when signal generator was switched on. To determine cell growth, V79 samples were plated in concentration of 1x10 4 cells/mL. Cells were maintained in the standard laboratory conditions, which are humidified atmosphere, 37 C degrees, and 5% CO 2 . Cell

  20. Investigation of the cellular effects of Low Intensity Laser Irradiation (LILI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esfandiary, H.

    1998-07-01

    Low Intensity Laser Irradiation (LILI) has become a therapeutic modality for the treatment of various conditions including acceleration of wound healing. Despite extensive experimental cellular research, the biological mechanisms underlying the success of this phenomenon remain unknown. This, in combination with the conflicting reported clinical results of LILI have prevented universal acceptance of this modality by health care professions. The aim of this thesis was to investigate further, in a systematic and well-controlled manner, the biological effects of LILI on two human leukaemic cell lines HL-60 and U937 in vitro. The laser diode used was a Gallium Aluminium Arsenide (GaAlAs) laser with a wavelength of 660nm, output power of 12mW and a chosen therapeutic energy density of 11.5J/cm 2 . Initially, intracellular thermal effects were examined following LILI by monitoring levels of several heat shock protein (hsp) family members over a 24h period. Levels of hsp70, 60, 90 and 27 were unaffected at the chosen LILI energy density of 11.5J/cm 2 . The effect of LILI on the cell cycle was also investigated at the molecular level by probing for protein and mRNA of a number of cell cycle regulatory factors. Levels of p53, c-fos, c-myc hsp70, bcl-2, TNF-α and several others was unaffected by LILI. Finally, the differential display method was used to detect any LILI-induced transcriptional changes in mRNA i.e. altered gene expression and again results were negative with LILI having no effect on gene expression. In conclusion, these results suggest that the biological effects of GaAlAs lasers at an E.D. of 11.5/cm 2 on two human leukaemic cell lines in vitro do not involve a stress response as measured by hsps, do not modulate levels of prominent cell cycle factors and do not induce changes in gene expression at the transcriptional level. These results seriously question the effectiveness of low energy lasers as 'real' therapeutic devices due to lack of any LILI

  1. Fluoxetine effects on molecular, cellular and behavioral endophenotypes of depression are driven by the living environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alboni, S; van Dijk, R M; Poggini, S; Milior, G; Perrotta, M; Drenth, T; Brunello, N; Wolfer, D P; Limatola, C; Amrein, I; Cirulli, F; Maggi, L; Branchi, I

    2017-04-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) represent the most common treatment for major depression. However, their efficacy is variable and incomplete. In order to elucidate the cause of such incomplete efficacy, we explored the hypothesis positing that SSRIs may not affect mood per se but, by enhancing neural plasticity, render the individual more susceptible to the influence of the environment. Consequently, SSRI administration in a favorable environment promotes a reduction of symptoms, whereas in a stressful environment leads to a worse prognosis. To test such hypothesis, we exposed C57BL/6 mice to chronic stress in order to induce a depression-like phenotype and, subsequently, to fluoxetine treatment (21 days), while being exposed to either an enriched or a stressful condition. We measured the most commonly investigated molecular, cellular and behavioral endophenotypes of depression and SSRI outcome, including depression-like behavior, neurogenesis, brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and long-term potentiation. Results showed that, in line with our hypothesis, the endophenotypes investigated were affected by the treatment according to the quality of the living environment. In particular, mice treated with fluoxetine in an enriched condition overall improved their depression-like phenotype compared with controls, whereas those treated in a stressful condition showed a distinct worsening. Our findings suggest that the effects of SSRI on the depression- like phenotype is not determined by the drug per se but is induced by the drug and driven by the environment. These findings may be helpful to explain variable effects of SSRI found in clinical practice and to device strategies aimed at enhancing their efficacy by means of controlling environmental conditions.

  2. Effects of copper on CHO cells: cellular requirements and product quality considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Inn H; Russell, Stephen; Tang, Yun; Hsu, Wei-Ting; Mauger, Jacob B; Aulakh, Rigzen P S; Luo, Jun; Gawlitzek, Martin; Joly, John C

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports highlight the impact of copper on lactate metabolism: CHO cell cultures with higher initial copper levels shift to net lactate consumption and yield lower final lactate and higher titers. These studies investigated the effects of copper on metabolite and transcript profiles, but did not measure in detail the dependences of cell culture performance and product quality on copper concentrations. To more thoroughly map these dependences, we explored the effects of various copper treatments on four recombinant CHO cell lines. In the first cell line, when extracellular copper remained above the limit of detection (LOD), cultures shifted to net lactate consumption and yielded comparable performances irrespective of the differences in copper levels; when extracellular copper dropped below LOD (∼13 nM), cultures failed to shift to net lactate consumption, and yielded significantly lower product titers. Across the four cell lines, the ability to grow and consume lactate seemed to depend on the presence of a minimum level of copper, beyond which there were no further gains in culture performance. Although this minimum cellular copper requirement could not be directly quantified, we estimated its probable range for the first cell line by applying several assumptions. Even when different copper concentrations did not affect cell culture performance, they affected product quality profiles: higher initial copper concentrations increased the basic variants in the recombinant IgG1 products. Therefore, in optimizing chemically defined media, it is important to select a copper concentration that is adequate and achieves desired product quality attributes. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Radical prostatectomy. Results and indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacqmin, D.

    1997-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy is the surgical curative treatment of localized prostate cancer. The survival is good in young patients (<70) with T2 N0M0 tumors and more than 10 year's life expectancy. Side-effects are urinary incontinence, impotence and anastomosis stricture. Quality of life should be considered as an important factor for the choice of the patient between radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy and follow-up. (author)

  4. Radical production in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Akabani, G.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes our effort to develop a metric for radiation exposure that is more fundamental than adsorbed dose and upon which a metric for exposure to chemicals could be based. This metric is based on the production of radicals by the two agents. Radicals produced by radiation in biological systems commonly assumed to be the same as those produced in water despite the presence of a variety of complex molecules. This may explain why the extensive efforts to describe the relationship between energy deposition (track structure) and molecular damage to DNA, based on the spectrum of radicals produced, have not been successful in explaining simple biological effects such as cell killing. Current models assume that DNA and its basic elements are immersed in water-like media and only model the production and diffusion of water-based radicals and their interaction with DNA structures; these models lack the cross sections associated with each macro-component of DNA and only treat water-based radicals. It has been found that such models are not realistic because DNA is not immersed in pure water. A computer code capable of simulating electron tracks, low-energy electrons, energy deposition in small molecules, and radical production and diffusion in water like media has been developed. This code is still in at a primitive stage and development is continuing. It is being used to study radical production by radiation, and radical diffusion and interactions in simple molecular systems following their production. We are extending the code to radical production by chemicals to complement our PBPK modeling efforts. It therefore has been developed primarily for use with radionuclides that are in biological materials, and not for radiation fields

  5. 'Water Structure' versus 'Radical Scavenger' theories as explanations for the suppressive effects of DMSO and related compounds on radiation-induced transformation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, A.R.; Symons, M.C.R.

    1987-01-01

    We report here that dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO): (i) suppresses radiation-induced transformation in vitro, even when DMSO treatments begin as late as 10 days post-irradiation; (ii) inhibits the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) enhancement of radiation-induced transformation in vitro; (iii) does not affect the expression of transformed cells as foci (when surrounded by non-transformed cells); and (iv) may be affecting radiation-induced transformation through its solvent properties (i.e. the 'Water Structure' theory), while its effects on the TPA enhancement of radiation transformation may be mediated by its free radical scavenging abilities. DMSO, dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylacetamide (DMA) are similar solvents which are all very effective in their ability to suppress radiation-induced transformation in vitro. As DMSO is known to be an extremely effective OH free-radical scavenging agent, while DMF and DMA are not as efficient at scavenging free radicals, our results suggest that properties other than free-radical scavenging ability may be important in the suppressive effects of these compounds on radiation-induced transformation in vitro. (author)

  6. Theoretical Treatment of Degenerate Electron Exchange and Dimerization in Spin Dynamics of Radical Ion Pairs as Observed by Magnetic Field Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, K.L.; Stass, D.V.; Kalneus, E.V.; Kaptein, R.; Lukzen, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have compared manifestations of degenerate electron exchange (DEE) and dimerization reactions in MARY (magnetically affected reaction yield) spectroscopy and time-resolved magnetic field effects (TR-MFE) of radical ion pairs (RIPs). It is shown that dimerization results in phase and

  7. Cholecystokinin receptor-1 mediates the inhibitory effects of exogenous cholecystokinin octapeptide on cellular morphine dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Di

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8, the most potent endogenous anti-opioid peptide, has been shown to regulate the processes of morphine dependence. In our previous study, we found that exogenous CCK-8 attenuated naloxone induced withdrawal symptoms. To investigate the precise effect of exogenous CCK-8 and the role of cholecystokinin (CCK 1 and/or 2 receptors in morphine dependence, a SH-SY5Y cell model was employed, in which the μ-opioid receptor, CCK1/2 receptors, and endogenous CCK are co-expressed. Results Forty-eight hours after treating SH-SY5Y cells with morphine (10 μM, naloxone (10 μM induced a cAMP overshoot, indicating that cellular morphine dependence had been induced. The CCK receptor and endogenous CCK were up-regulated after chronic morphine exposure. The CCK2 receptor antagonist (LY-288,513 at 1–10 μM inhibited the naloxone-precipitated cAMP overshoot, but the CCK1 receptor antagonist (L-364,718 did not. Interestingly, CCK-8 (0.1-1 μM, a strong CCK receptor agonist, dose-dependently inhibited the naloxone-precipitated cAMP overshoot in SH-SY5Y cells when co-pretreated with morphine. The L-364,718 significantly blocked the inhibitory effect of exogenous CCK-8 on the cAMP overshoot at 1–10 μM, while the LY-288,513 did not. Therefore, the CCK2 receptor appears to be necessary for low concentrations of endogenous CCK to potentiate morphine dependence in SH-SY5Y cells. An additional inhibitory effect of CCK-8 at higher concentrations appears to involve the CCK1 receptor. Conclusions This study reveals the difference between exogenous CCK-8 and endogenous CCK effects on the development of morphine dependence, and provides the first evidence for the participation of the CCK1 receptor in the inhibitory effects of exogenous CCK-8 on morphine dependence.

  8. Use of a cocktail of spin traps for fingerprinting large range of free radicals in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Valérie; Charlier, Nicolas; Verrax, Julien; Buc-Calderon, Pedro; Levêque, Philippe; Gallez, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that the formation of radical species centered on various atoms is involved in the mechanism leading to the development of several diseases or to the appearance of deleterious effects of toxic molecules. The detection of free radical is possible using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and the spin trapping technique. The classical EPR spin-trapping technique can be considered as a "hypothesis-driven" approach because it requires an a priori assumption regarding the nature of the free radical in order to select the most appropriate spin-trap. We here describe a "data-driven" approach using EPR and a cocktail of spin-traps. The rationale for using this cocktail was that it would cover a wide range of biologically relevant free radicals and have a large range of hydrophilicity and lipophilicity in order to trap free radicals produced in different cellular compartments. As a proof-of-concept, we validated the ability of the system to measure a large variety of free radicals (O-, N-, C-, or S- centered) in well characterized conditions, and we illustrated the ability of the technique to unambiguously detect free radical production in cells exposed to chemicals known to be radical-mediated toxic agents.

  9. One-electron oxidation reactions of purine and pyrimidine bases in cellular DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadet, Jean; Wagner, J Richard; Shafirovich, Vladimir; Geacintov, Nicholas E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this survey is to critically review the available information on one-electron oxidation reactions of nucleobases in cellular DNA with emphasis on damage induced through the transient generation of purine and pyrimidine radical cations. Since the indirect effect of ionizing radiation mediated by hydroxyl radical is predominant in cells, efforts have been made to selectively ionize bases using suitable one-electron oxidants that consist among others of high intensity UVC laser pulses. Thus, the main oxidation product in cellular DNA was found to be 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine as a result of direct bi-photonic ionization of guanine bases and indirect formation of guanine radical cations through hole transfer reactions from other base radical cations. The formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine and other purine and pyrimidine degradation products was rationalized in terms of the initial generation of related radical cations followed by either hydration or deprotonation reactions in agreement with mechanistic pathways inferred from detailed mechanistic studies. The guanine radical cation has been shown to be implicated in three other nucleophilic additions that give rise to DNA-protein and DNA-DNA cross-links in model systems. Evidence was recently provided for the occurrence of these three reactions in cellular DNA. There is growing evidence that one-electron oxidation reactions of nucleobases whose mechanisms have been characterized in model studies involving aqueous solutions take place in a similar way in cells. It may also be pointed out that the above cross-linked lesions are only produced from the guanine radical cation and may be considered as diagnostic products of the direct effect of ionizing radiation.

  10. Cellular delivery and antisense effects of peptide nucleic acid conjugated to polyethyleneimine via disulfide linkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Peter R; Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is potentially an attractive antisense and antigene agent for which more efficient cellular delivery systems are still warranted. The cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) is commonly used for cellular transfection of DNA and RNA complexes, but is not readily applicable...... moiety) and further reacted this with a cysteine PNA. The level of modification was determined spectrophotometrically with high accuracy, and the PNA transfection efficiency of the conjugates was evaluated in an antisense luciferase splice-correction assay using HeLa pLuc705 cells. We find that PEI...... is an efficient vector for PNA delivery yielding significantly higher (up to 10-fold) antisense activity than an analogous PNA-octaarginine conjugate, even in the presence of chloroquine, which only slightly enhances the PEI-PNA activity. The PEI-PEG conjugates are preferred due to lower acute cellular toxicity...

  11. Effect of hydrodynamic cavitation on the rate of OH-radical formation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseev, D. G.; Batoeva, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    It is shown experimentally that hydrogen peroxide is the source of OH-radicals at low-pressure hydrodynamic cavitation. Major preconditions for the intensification of oxidative destruction processes in organic pollutants with an added cavitation stimulus are determined.

  12. Effects of radical initiators, polymerization inhibitors, and other agents on the sonochemical unzipping of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumori, Minoru; Hara, Shinnosuke; Ogawa, Takuji; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2018-03-01

    The mechanism of graphene nanoribbon synthesis by the sonication-assisted unzipping of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated utilizing 4-methoxyphenol and 1,4-dimethoxybenzene as moieties of poly[(m-phenylenevinylene)-co-(2,5-dioctoxy-p-phenylenevinylene)]. The obtained results revealed that unzipping was promoted by 4-methoxyphenol owing to the facile abstraction of its phenolic hydrogen by sonication-generated radicals on CNTs, whereas 1,4-dimethoxybenzene did not facilitate unzipping, since its methoxy hydrogens were hardly abstracted. Moreover, unzipping was also facilitated by trans-stilbene, the double bond of which reacts with CNT radicals. Furthermore, we succeeded in using a general radical initiator, namely, 2,2‧-azobis[2-(2-imidazolin-2-yl)propane]dihydrochloride to promote unzipping, confirming that it is promoted by radical donors/trapping agents.

  13. Effect of fibronectin adsorption on osteoblastic cellular responses to hydroxyapatite and alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashita, Masakazu, E-mail: m-kawa@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Hasegawa, Maki [Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kudo, Tada-aki; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu [Graduate School of Dentistry, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Miyazaki, Toshiki [Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu 808-0196 (Japan); Hashimoto, Masami [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    Initial cellular responses following implantation are important for inducing osteoconduction. We investigated cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation and differentiation of mouse MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells on untreated or fibronectin (Fn)-coated discs of hydroxyapatite (HAp) or alpha-type alumina (α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Fn coating significantly enhanced adhesion and spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells on HAp, but did not affect MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and differentiation on HAp or α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Fn-coated HAp likely does not stimulate pre-osteoblast cells to initiate the process of osteoconduction; however, Fn adsorption might affect the response of inflammatory cells to the implanted material or, in conjunction with other serum proteins, stimulate pre-osteoblast cell proliferation and differentiation. Further studies on the effect of serum proteins in cell culture and the efficacy of Fn-coated HAp and α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}in vivo are warranted. - Highlights: • We studied osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cell responses on fibronectin (Fn)-coated discs (HAp/α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). • Fn adsorption enhanced adhesion and spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells on HAp but not on α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Fn adsorption hardly affected proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells on HAp and α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Fn adsorption might stimulate osteoconduction on HAp along with other serum proteins.

  14. Effect of inhomogeneous activity distributions and airway geometry on cellular doses in radon lung dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoke, Istvan; Balashazy, Imre; Farkas, Arpad; Hofmann, Werner

    2007-01-01

    The human tracheobronchial system has a very complex structure including cylindrical airway ducts connected by airway bifurcation units. The deposition of the inhaled aerosols within the airways exhibits a very inhomogeneous pattern. The formation of deposition hot spots near the carinal ridge has been confirmed by experimental and computational fluid and particle dynamics (CFPD) methods. In spite of these observations, current radon lung dosimetry models apply infinitely long cylinders as models of the airway system and assume uniform deposition of the inhaled radon progenies along the airway walls. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of airway geometry and non-uniform activity distributions within bronchial bifurcations on cellular dose distributions. In order to answer these questions, the nuclear doses of the bronchial epithelium were calculated in three different irradiation situations. (1) First, CFPD methods were applied to calculate the distribution of the deposited alpha-emitting nuclides in a numerically constructed idealized airway bifurcation. (2) Second, the deposited radionuclides were randomly distributed along the surface of the above-mentioned geometry. (3) Finally, calculations were made in cylindrical geometries corresponding to the parent and daughter branches of the bifurcation geometry assuming random nuclide activity distribution. In all three models, the same 218 Po and 214 Po surface activities per tissue volumes were assumed. Two conclusions can be drawn from this analysis: (i) average nuclear doses are very similar in all three cases (minor differences can be attributed to differences in the linear energy transfer (LET) spectra) and (ii) dose distributions are significantly different in all three cases, with the highest doses at the carinal ridge in case 3. (authors)

  15. Molecular and Cellular Effects Induced in Mytilus galloprovincialis Treated with Oxytetracycline at Different Temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Banni

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the interactive effects of temperature (16°C and 24°C and a 4-day treatment with the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC at 1 and 100 μg/L on cellular and molecular parameters in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Lysosomal membrane stability (LMS, a sensitive biomarker of impaired health status in this organism, was assessed in the digestive glands. In addition, oxidative stress markers and the expression of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in antioxidant defense (catalase (cat and glutathione-S-transferase (gst and the heat shock response (hsp90, hsp70, and hsp27 were evaluated in the gills, the target tissue of soluble chemicals. Finally, cAMP levels, which represent an important cell signaling pathway related to oxidative stress and the response to temperature challenges, were also determined in the gills. Exposure to heat stress as well as to OTC rendered a decrease in LMS and an increase in malonedialdehyde accumulation (MDA. CAT activity was not significantly modified, whereas GST activity decreased at 24°C. Cat and gst expression levels were reduced in animals kept at 24°C compared to 16°C in the presence or absence of OTC. At 16°C, treatment with OTC caused a significant increase in cat and gst transcript levels. Hsp27 mRNA was significantly up-regulated at all conditions compared to controls at 16°C. cAMP levels were increased at 24°C independent of the presence of OTC. PCA analysis showed that 37.21% and 25.89% of the total variance was explained by temperature and OTC treatment, respectively. Interestingly, a clear interaction was observed in animals exposed to both stressors increasing LMS and MDA accumulation and reducing hsp27 gene expression regulation. These interactions may suggest a risk for the organisms due to temperature increases in contaminated seawaters.

  16. Dietary administration of scallion extract effectively inhibits colorectal tumor growth: cellular and molecular mechanisms in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Arulselvan

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is a common malignancy and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Diet is known to play an important role in the etiology of colon cancer and dietary chemoprevention is receiving increasing attention for prevention and/or alternative treatment of colon cancers. Allium fistulosum L., commonly known as scallion, is popularly used as a spice or vegetable worldwide, and as a traditional medicine in Asian cultures for treating a variety of diseases. In this study we evaluated the possible beneficial effects of dietary scallion on chemoprevention of colon cancer using a mouse model of colon carcinoma (CT-26 cells subcutaneously inoculated into BALB/c mice. Tumor lysates were subjected to western blotting for analysis of key inflammatory markers, ELISA for analysis of cytokines, and immunohistochemistry for analysis of inflammatory markers. Metabolite profiles of scallion extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Scallion extracts, particularly hot-water extract, orally fed to mice at 50 mg (dry weight/kg body weight resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth and enhanced the survival rate of test mice. At the molecular level, scallion extracts inhibited the key inflammatory markers COX-2 and iNOS, and suppressed the expression of various cellular markers known to be involved in tumor apoptosis (apoptosis index, proliferation (cyclin D1 and c-Myc, angiogenesis (VEGF and HIF-1α, and tumor invasion (MMP-9 and ICAM-1 when compared with vehicle control-treated mice. Our findings may warrant further investigation of the use of common scallion as a chemopreventive dietary agent to lower the risk of colon cancer.

  17. NQO1-dependent redox cycling of idebenone: effects on cellular redox potential and energy levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman H Haefeli

    Full Text Available Short-chain quinones are described as potent antioxidants and in the case of idebenone have already been under clinical investigation for the treatment of neuromuscular disorders. Due to their analogy to coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, a long-chain quinone, they are widely regarded as a substitute for CoQ10. However, apart from their antioxidant function, this provides no clear rationale for their use in disorders with normal CoQ10 levels. Using recombinant NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO enzymes, we observed that contrary to CoQ10 short-chain quinones such as idebenone are good substrates for both NQO1 and NQO2. Furthermore, the reduction of short-chain quinones by NQOs enabled an antimycin A-sensitive transfer of electrons from cytosolic NAD(PH to the mitochondrial respiratory chain in both human hepatoma cells (HepG2 and freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes. Consistent with the substrate selectivity of NQOs, both idebenone and CoQ1, but not CoQ10, partially restored cellular ATP levels under conditions of impaired complex I function. The observed cytosolic-mitochondrial shuttling of idebenone and CoQ1 was also associated with reduced lactate production by cybrid cells from mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS patients. Thus, the observed activities separate the effectiveness of short-chain quinones from the related long-chain CoQ10 and provide the rationale for the use of short-chain quinones such as idebenone for the treatment of mitochondrial disorders.

  18. Molecular and Cellular Effects Induced in Mytilus galloprovincialis Treated with Oxytetracycline at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banni, Mohamed; Sforzini, Susanna; Franzellitti, Silvia; Oliveri, Caterina; Viarengo, Aldo; Fabbri, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluatedthe interactive effects of temperature (16°C and 24°C) and a 4-day treatment with the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) at 1 and 100μg/L on cellular and molecular parameters in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), a sensitive biomarker of impaired health status in this organism, was assessed in the digestive glands. In addition, oxidative stress markers and the expression of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in antioxidant defense (catalase (cat) and glutathione-S-transferase (gst)) and the heat shock response (hsp90, hsp70, and hsp27) were evaluated in the gills, the target tissue of soluble chemicals. Finally, cAMP levels, which represent an important cell signaling pathway related to oxidative stress and the response to temperature challenges, were also determined in the gills. Exposure to heat stress as well as to OTC rendered a decrease in LMS and an increase in malonedialdehyde accumulation (MDA). CAT activity was not significantly modified, whereas GST activity decreased at 24°C. Cat and gst expression levels were reduced in animals kept at 24°C compared to 16°C in the presence or absence of OTC. At 16°C, treatment with OTC caused a significant increase in cat and gst transcript levels. Hsp27 mRNA was significantly up-regulated at all conditions compared to controls at 16°C. cAMP levels were increased at 24°C independent of the presence of OTC. PCA analysis showed that 37.21% and 25.89% of the total variance was explained by temperature and OTC treatment, respectively. Interestingly, a clear interaction was observed in animals exposed to both stressors increasing LMS and MDA accumulation and reducing hsp27 gene expression regulation. These interactions may suggest a risk for the organisms due to temperature increases in contaminated seawaters. PMID:26067465

  19. Effect of fibronectin adsorption on osteoblastic cellular responses to hydroxyapatite and alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashita, Masakazu; Hasegawa, Maki; Kudo, Tada-aki; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Hashimoto, Masami

    2016-01-01

    Initial cellular responses following implantation are important for inducing osteoconduction. We investigated cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation and differentiation of mouse MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells on untreated or fibronectin (Fn)-coated discs of hydroxyapatite (HAp) or alpha-type alumina (α-Al 2 O 3 ). Fn coating significantly enhanced adhesion and spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells on HAp, but did not affect MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and differentiation on HAp or α-Al 2 O 3 . Fn-coated HAp likely does not stimulate pre-osteoblast cells to initiate the process of osteoconduction; however, Fn adsorption might affect the response of inflammatory cells to the implanted material or, in conjunction with other serum proteins, stimulate pre-osteoblast cell proliferation and differentiation. Further studies on the effect of serum proteins in cell culture and the efficacy of Fn-coated HAp and α-Al 2 O 3 in vivo are warranted. - Highlights: • We studied osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cell responses on fibronectin (Fn)-coated discs (HAp/α-Al 2 O 3 ). • Fn adsorption enhanced adhesion and spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells on HAp but not on α-Al 2 O 3 . • Fn adsorption hardly affected proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells on HAp and α-Al 2 O 3 . • Fn adsorption might stimulate osteoconduction on HAp along with other serum proteins.

  20. Morphine Produces Immunosuppressive Effects in Non-human Primates at the Proteomic and Cellular Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Joseph N.; Ortiz, Gabriel M.; Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Chan, Eric Y.; Purdy, David E.; Murnane, Robert D.; Larsen, Kay; Palermo, Robert E.; Shukla, Anil K.; Clauss, Therese RW; Katze, Michael G.; McCune, Joseph M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-05-11

    Morphine has long been known to have immunosuppressive properties in vivo, but the molecular and immunologic changes induced by it are incompletely understood. As a prelude to understanding how these changes might interact with lentiviral infection in vivo, animals from two non-human primate (NHP) species [African green monkey (AGMs) and pigtailed macaque (PTs)] were provided morphine and studied using a systems biology approach. Biological specimens were obtained from multiple sources (e.g., lymph node, colon, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and peripheral blood) before and after the administration of morphine (titrated up to a maximum dose of 5 mg/kg over a period of 20 days). Cellular immune, plasma cytokine, and proteome changes were measured and morphine-induced changes in these parameters were assessed on an inter-organ, inter-individual, and inter-species basis. In both species, morphine was associated with decreased levels of (Ki-67+) T cell activation but with only minimal changes in overall T cell counts, neutrophil counts, and NK cells counts. While changes in T cell maturation were observed, these varied across the various tissue/fluid compartments studied. Proteomic analysis revealed a morphine-induced suppressive effect in the lymph node, with decreased abundance of protein mediators involved in the functional categories of energy metabolism, signaling, and maintenance of cell structure. These findings have relevance for understanding the impact of heroin addiction and the opioids used to treat addiction as well as on the interplay between opioid abuse and the response to infection with agents such as the human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV).

  1. Effect of postoperative brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy on functional outcomes of immediate facial nerve repair after radical parotidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Qiu, Shan-Shan; Marré, Diego

    2014-01-01

    There is much controversy regarding the effect of radiotherapy on facial nerve regeneration. However, the effect of brachytherapy has not been studied. Fifty-three patients underwent total parotidectomy of which 13 were radical with immediate facial nerve repair with sural nerve grafts. Six patients (group 1) did not receive adjuvant treatment whereas 7 patients (group 2) received postoperative brachytherapy plus radiotherapy. Functional outcomes were compared using Facial Clima. Mean percentage of blink recovery was 92.6 ± 4.2 for group 1 and 90.7 ± 5.2 for group 2 (p = .37). Mean percentage of commissural excursion restoration was 78.1 ± 3.5 for group 1 and 74.9 ± 5.9 for group 2 (p = .17). Mean time from surgery to first movement was 5.7 ± 0.9 months for group 1 and 6.3 ± 0.5 months for group 2 (p = .15). Brachytherapy plus radiotherapy does not affect the functional outcomes of immediate facial nerve repair with nerve grafts. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effects of Edaravone, a Free Radical Scavenger, on Photochemically Induced Cerebral Infarction in a Rat Hemiplegic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ikeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Edaravone is a free radical scavenger that protects the adjacent cortex during cerebral infarction. We created a hemiparetic model of cerebral thrombosis from a photochemically induced infarction with the photosensitive dye, rose bengal, in rats. We examined the effects of edaravone on recovery in the model. A total of 36 adult Wistar rats were used. The right sensorimotor area was irradiated with green light with a wavelength of 533 nm (10 mm diameter, and the rose bengal was injected intravenously to create an infarction. The edaravone group was injected intraperitoneally with edaravone (3 mg/kg, and the control group was injected with saline. The recovery process of the hemiplegia was evaluated with the 7-step scale of Fenny. The infarcted areas were measured after fixation. The recovery of the paralysis in the edaravone-treated group was significantly earlier than that in the untreated group. Seven days later, both groups were mostly recovered and had scores of 7, and the infarction region was significantly smaller in the edaravone-treated group. Edaravone reduced the infarction area and promoted the functional recovery of hemiparesis from cerebral thrombosis in a rat model. These findings suggest that edaravone treatment would be effective in clinical patients recovering from cerebral infarction.

  3. Effects of edaravone, a free radical scavenger, on photochemically induced cerebral infarction in a rat hemiplegic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Satoshi; Harada, Katsuhiro; Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Kamikawa, Yurie

    2013-01-01

    Edaravone is a free radical scavenger that protects the adjacent cortex during cerebral infarction. We created a hemiparetic model of cerebral thrombosis from a photochemically induced infarction with the photosensitive dye, rose bengal, in rats. We examined the effects of edaravone on recovery in the model. A total of 36 adult Wistar rats were used. The right sensorimotor area was irradiated with green light with a wavelength of 533 nm (10 mm diameter), and the rose bengal was injected intravenously to create an infarction. The edaravone group was injected intraperitoneally with edaravone (3 mg/kg), and the control group was injected with saline. The recovery process of the hemiplegia was evaluated with the 7-step scale of Fenny. The infarcted areas were measured after fixation. The recovery of the paralysis in the edaravone-treated group was significantly earlier than that in the untreated group. Seven days later, both groups were mostly recovered and had scores of 7, and the infarction region was significantly smaller in the edaravone-treated group. Edaravone reduced the infarction area and promoted the functional recovery of hemiparesis from cerebral thrombosis in a rat model. These findings suggest that edaravone treatment would be effective in clinical patients recovering from cerebral infarction.

  4. Effect of overall treatment time on local control in radical radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajanti, Mikael; Kaleta, Remigiusz; Kankaanranta, Leena; Muhonen, Timo; Holsti, Lars

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of overall treatment time on local control in radical radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus. Methods and Materials: Three hundred and fifty-three patients with inoperable esophageal cancer (tumor length ≤ 10 cm in all cases) treated during 1963-1988 by radical radiotherapy alone either as continuous or split-course therapy. The overall treatment time varied from 35 to 55 days and the total dosage from 50 to 71 Gy in the continuous therapy group (n = 138), and in the split-course group (n = 215) with a planned 3-week rest interval in the middle of the treatment from 56 to 70 days and from 55 to 70 Gy, respectively. The logit method of the linear-quadratic formula for local control at 1 year was used to examine the effect of treatment time on local control. All patients were pooled to obtain a wide range of overall treatment times. Results: The 1-, 2-, and 5-year actuarial survival rates according to the T-stage in the continuous therapy group from the first day of the radiotherapy were: 57%, 32%, and 10% for the T1 tumors and 23%, 8%, and 5% for the T2 tumors. The corresponding figures for the split-course group were: 50%, 19%, and 4% for the T1 tumors and 17%, 6%, and 3% for the T2 tumors. The 1-year local control rate was 56% for the T1 tumors and 15% for the T2 tumors in the continuous therapy group and 48% for the T1 tumors and 10% for the T2 tumors in the split-course group. The results of the logit method did not fit well with the T1 tumors. For the T2 tumors, they showed Dprolif to be about 0.24 Gy/day for local control at 1 year. As a consequence, protraction of overall time by 1 week should be compensated by increasing the total dose by 1.8 Gy for 1 year local control. Conclusions: More attention should be focused on repopulation. Shortening of overall treatment time might be beneficial for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus

  5. Effect of carbonyl group on the lifetimes of pentafluoroacetophenone and pentafluorobenzaldehyde radical anions in aqueous solution: a pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoute, L.C.T.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrated electrons react with pentafluoroacetophenone (PFA) to form radical anion. Evidence for the formation of the radical anion was obtained from observation of intermolecular electron transfer from PFA .- to p-benzoquinone (Q) and methyl viologen (MV 2+ ) to form Q .- and MV .+ . The radical anion lose fluoride with a rate constant of 5x10 4 s -1 . The radical anion has a pK a =7.5. Radical anion of pentafluorobenzaldehyde (PFB) was observed on reduction PFB with hydrated electron. It has a pK a =7.2. It loses fluoride with a rate constant of 1.2x10 5 s -1 . The studies show that substitution of a carbonyl group in the aromatic ring of a perfluorinated compound led to dramatic increase in the lifetime of the radical anion formed on electron addition due to decrease in the rate of fluoride elimination. This led to the possibility of observing their reactions with other solute present in the solution. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  6. Relation between track structure and LET effect on free radical formation for ion beam-irradiated alanine dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krushev, V.V.; Koizumi, Hitoshi; Ichikawa, Tsuneki; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Shibata, Hiromi; Tagawa, Seiichi; Yoshida, Yoichi

    1994-01-01

    The yield and local concentration of free radicals generated from alanine (α-aminopropionic acid) by irradiation with 3 MeV H + and He + ions were examined by means of electron spin resonance (ESR) and ESR power saturation methods at room temperature. The G-value of the radical formation showed a marked dependence on linear energy transfer (LET) of the ions. The G-value for the H + ion (average LET: 28 eV/nm) was almost the same as that for γ-irradiation and it was smaller by a factor of 1/4.7 for the He + ion (average LET: 225eV/nm). Combining the local concentration of the free radicals along the ion tracks with the G-values and the reported ion range, the radius of a track filled with free radicals was estimated to be 4 ∼ 5 nm by assuming a simple rod-shaped track with a constant radius and homogeneous distribution of the free radicals in it. The track radius scarcely depends on the LET within the range examined. The radiation energy deposited in the core region of the ion track was concluded to spread over the rod to generate free radicals. (author)

  7. Biphasic effect of oxygen radicals on prostaglandin production by rat mesangial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.; Stahl, R.A.K.; Baker, P.J.; Chen, Y.P.; Pritzl, P.M.; Couser, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    Cultured rat mesangial cells were exposed to a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating system (xanthine plus xanthine oxidase) to explore the effect of ROS on their metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA). Cell viability, as assessed by 51 Cr release, was not affected by the concentrations of xanthine plus xanthine oxidase used. Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) production following exposure to increasing quantities of xanthine plus xanthine oxidase was significantly decreased when cells were stimulated with the calcium ionophore A23187 or AA. Maximum suppression of production was seen within 10 min of ROS exposure. Thromboxane B 2 production was similarly decreased. This effect was reversed by addition of catalase to the ROS generating system but not by superoxide dismutase or mannitol, which suggested that H 2 O 2 was the responsible metabolite. High levels of H 2 O 2 suppressed PGE 2 production. Lower levels of H 2 O 2 resulted in significant stimulation of base-line PGE 2 production. Analysis of release of 3 H]AA-labeled metabolites from A23187-stimulated cells showed no effect of H 2 O 2 on phospholipase activity. Thus ROS can stimulate or inhibitor AA metabolism in the glomerular mesangium, which may have important effects on glomerular hemodynamics during glomerular injury

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF SALVAGE SELECTIVE AND MODIFIED RADICAL NECK DISSECTION FOR REGIONAL PATHOLOGIC LYMPHADENOPATHY AFTER CHEMORADIATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, Lisa; van den Broek, Guido B.; de Bree, Remco; van den Brekel, Michiel W. M.; Balm, Alfons J. M.; Hoebers, Frank J. P.; Doornaert, Patricia; Leemans, C. René; Rasch, Coen R. N.

    2009-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of our careful observational strategy and neck dissections and the accuracy of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology, and to determine the prognostic factors for outcome and regional control after

  9. Effects of in vitro Brevetoxin Exposure on Apoptosis and Cellular Metabolism in a Leukemic T Cell Line (Jurkat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Sleasman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms (HABs of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, produce red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Significant health effects associated with red tide toxin exposure have been reported in sea life and in humans, with brevetoxins documented within immune cells from many species. The objective of this research was to investigate potential immunotoxic effects of brevetoxins using a leukemic T cell line (Jurkat as an in vitro model system. Viability, cell proliferation, and apoptosis assays were conducted using brevetoxin congeners PbTx-2, PbTx-3, and PbTx-6. The effects of in vitro brevetoxin exposure on cell viability and cellular metabolism or proliferation were determined using trypan blue and MTT (1-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-3,5- diphenylformazan, respectively. Using MTT, cellular metabolic activity was decreased in Jurkat cells exposed to 5 - 10 μg/ml PbTx-2 or PbTx-6. After 3 h, no significant effects on cell viability were observed with any toxin congener in concentrations up to 10 μg/ml. Viability decreased dramatically after 24 h in cells treated with PbTx-2 or -6. Apoptosis, as measured by caspase-3 activity, was significantly increased in cells exposed to PbTx-2 or PbTx-6. In summary, brevetoxin congeners varied in effects on Jurkat cells, with PbTx-2 and PbTx-6 eliciting greater cellular effects compared to PbTx-3.

  10. Impact of electromagnetic radiation emitted by monitors on changes in the cellular membrane structure and protective antioxidant effect of vitamin A - In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicka, Małgorzata; Henrykowska, Gabriela; Zawadzka, Magdalena; Rutkowski, Maciej; Pacholski, Krzysztof; Buczyński, Andrzej

    2017-07-14

    The increasing number of devices emitting electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in people's everyday life attracted the attention of researchers because of possible adverse effects of this factor on living organisms. One of the EMR effect may be peroxidation of lipid membranes formed as a result of free radical process. The article presents the results of in vitro studies aimed at identifying changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration - a marker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant role of vitamin A during the exposure of blood platelets to electromagnetic radiation generated by liquid-crystal-display (LCD) monitors. Electromagnetic radiation emitted by LCD monitors is characterized by parameters: 1 kHz frequency and 220 V/m intensity (15 cm from display screen). The time of exposure was 30 and 60 min. The study was conducted on porcine blood platelets. The samples were divided into 6 groups: unexposed to radiation, unexposed + vitamin A, exposed for 30 min, exposed for 30 min + vitamin A, exposed for 60 min, exposed for 60 min + vitamin A. The MDA concentration in blood platelets increases significantly as compared to control values after 60 min of exposure to EMR. A significant decrease in MDA concentration after the addition of vitamin A was noticed. In the blood samples exposed to EMR for 30 and 60 min the MDA concentration was significantly increased by addition of vitamin A. The results show the possibly negative effect of electromagnetic radiation on the cellular membrane structure manifested by changes in malondialdehyde concentration and indicate a possible protective role of vitamin A in this process. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):695-703. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  11. Effects of gas-flow structures on radical and etch-product density distributions on wafers in magnetomicrowave plasma etching reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegawa, Masato; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi; Fukuyama, Ryoji

    2001-01-01

    To achieve high etch rate, uniformity, good selectivity, and etch profile control across large diameter wafers, the distributions of ions, radicals, and etch products in magnetomicrowave high-etch-rate plasma etching reactors must be accurately controlled. In this work the effects of chamber heights, a focus ring around the wafer, and gas supply structures (or gas flow structures) on the radicals and etch products flux distribution onto the wafer were examined using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method and used to determine the optimal reactor geometry. The pressure uniformity on the wafer was less than ±1% when the chamber height was taller than 60 mm. The focus ring around the wafer produced uniform radical and etch-product fluxes but increased the etch-product flux on the wafer. A downward-flow gas-supply structure (type II) produced a more uniform radical distribution than that produced by a radial gas-supply structure (type I). The impact flow of the type II structure removed etch products from the wafer effectively and produced a uniform etch-product distribution even without the focus ring. Thus the downward-flow gas-supply structure (type II) was adopted in the design for the second-generation of a magnetomicrowave plasma etching reactor with a higher etching rate

  12. Evaluation of effectiveness of irradiation of scar after radical mastectomy in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, E; Krajewska, B [Akademia Medyczna, Gdansk (Poland)

    1975-01-01

    The authors report the results of an analysis of recurrences in postoperative scar in patients with breast cancer for evaluation of the effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy. In a group of 423 cases recurrences in scar were observed in 51 (12.1%). In the group of patients who had been given postoperative radiotherapy to the scar the frequency of recurrences was lower (8.1%) as compared with the group treated only surgically (16.5%), in the group treated by preoperative radiotherapy it was high (17.1%) and in the group with postoperative radiotherapy given only to regional lymph nodes it was even higher (18.0%). The results of analysis indicate the effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy to the scar.

  13. The cellular uptake and transport of zein nanoparticles: Effect of sodium caseinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellular evaluation of zein nanoparticles has not been studied systematically due to their poor redispersibility. Caseinate (CAS) stabilized zein nanoparticles have been recently developed with better redispersibility in salt solutions. In this study, zein-CAS nanoparticles were prepared with differ...

  14. Effect of modified surgical method on subcutaneous hydrops of patients with breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Through prospective randomized clinical study,to observe the preventive effect of improved surgical method to subcutaneous hydrops after modified radical mastec tomy. Method: A total of 80 cases of patients who have done modified radical mastectomy were selected, and randomly divided them into study group (40 cases and control group (40 cases, then adopted different surgical methods as followed respectively, to observe the daily drainage volume at the first 3 d after surgery; when the drainage volume ≤ 20 mL, 24 h after surgery, removed the drainage tubes, to record the drainage days, total cases who occured subcutaneous hydrops and all adverse events after surgery. Results: Study group: the first 3 d of daily drainage volume declined quickly, and were accordingly less than that in control group; and ≤ 50 mL/24 h on the third day. Drainage total days median (4 d were less than that in control group (7 d; subcutaneous hydrops occurrence rate was only 2%, which wasgreatly lower than that in control group (14%, statistics difference had significance. Through the comparison between study group and control group, this surgical method improvement will not bring any surgical safety problems, such as hematoma, wound infection, skin flap necrosis and upper limb LOM etc. Only extended the surgical time slightly. While in control group, drainage tubes fell into the dead space or were blocked frequently, then induced hydrops; but in study group, due to the suture of latissimus dorsi leading edge and chestwall, dead space disappeared at this spot, drainage tube were not blocked any more. Conclusion: In mastectomy and axillary lymph dissection, due to axillary dissection, ligation might lead to open lymphatic tissue, added that suture fixed latissimus dorsi leading edge and skin flap leading to disappeared dead space, compared with traditional surgical method, this improved surgical method could obviously reduce the occurrence rate of hydrops

  15. A radical approach to radical innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Deichmann (Dirk); J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInnovation pays. Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google – nearly every one of today’s most successful companies has a talent for developing radical new ideas. But how best to encourage radical initiative taking from employees, and does their previous success or failure at it play a role?

  16. Strong resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus seeds for ionizing radiation as studied by ESR, ENDOR, ESE spectroscopy and germination measurement: Effect of long-lived and super-long-lived radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Jun E-mail: kumagai@apchem.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Katoh, Hiromi; Kumada, Takayuki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Tano, Shigemitsu; Miyazaki, Tetsuo

    2000-01-01

    Resistance of seeds for ionizing radiation effects on Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus seeds were investigated by ESR, ENDOR, ESE spectroscopy and germination measurement. Two types of free radicals, such as long-lived (LL) and super-long-lived (SL) radicals, were produced by the {gamma}-irradiation in the seeds. More than 90% of the 1 kGy-irradiated-seeds can germinate probably by decreasing the LL radicals by absorbing water. 10 kGy-irradiated-seeds cannot germinate at all probably due to the existence of significant amounts of the SL radicals even after absorbing water. (author)

  17. Effect of phosphatidylserine on free radical susceptibility in human diploid fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorraca, S; Piersanti, P; Tesco, G; Piacentini, S; Amaducci, L; Sorbi, S

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of phosphatidylserine (PdtSER) on oxygen metabolite toxicity in skin fibroblast cell lines from apparently normal subjects. Fibroblast damage was produced by the generation of oxygen metabolites during the enzymatic oxidation of acetaldehyde by xanthine-oxidase (Xo). In order to quantify cell damage, we measured lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in culture medium and cell viability in fibroblast cultures, with and without preincubation for 4 days with PdtSER 13 microM, after Xo incubation. We found a significant increase of LDH activity in culture medium of cells without preincubation with PdtSER. No significant increase of LDH activity was observed in the same cell lines after preincubation with PdtSER.

  18. Effect of preoperative intravenous steroids on seroma formation after modified radical mastectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    With the steep increase in breast cancer incidence globally and regionally, there has been a trend toward reducing patient morbidity by meticulous surgical techniques to obviate complications like seroma formation; use to pre-operative steroids seems to be convenient, cost effective and shows promising results in trials. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted at Surgical Department of Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, from January 2012 to April 2014 on 65 patients randomly allocated to Group A and Group B using lottery method. Group A underwent MRM+AD in the conventional manner while Group B received a 120 mg of injection Depomedrol intravenously 1 hour before the surgery. The two were compared in terms of total drainage, days of drainage, wound complications and incidence of seroma. Data was entered and analysed using statistical program SPSS-21. Results: The mean age in group A was 34.2+-10.1 years and B was 32.3+-9.1 years. The mean drainage in intervention group was significantly reduced as compared to control group (755.4+-65ml vs 928.3+-102.5). Total drainage days were reduced (6.5+-1.6 days vs 10.2+-2.2 days) and incidence of seroma was also reduced (A=18.75% vs B=6.06%). However, three patients in group B had wound infection. Conclusions: Seroma formation is the most common complication of Mastectomy and among the methods used to reduce its incidence, steroid administration seems to be the most cost effective and shows promising results. (author)

  19. Protective effect of gallic acid and Syzygium cumini extract against oxidative stress-induced cellular injury in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bona, Karine Santos; Bonfanti, Gabriela; Bitencourt, Paula Eliete Rodrigues; da Silva, Thainan Paz; Borges, Raphaela Maleski; Boligon, Aline; Pigatto, Aline; Athayde, Margareth Lynde; Moretto, Maria Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) presents antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and antibacterial effects; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action in the immune system are not yet completely elucidated. This study evaluates the in vitro effect of gallic acid and aqueous S. cumini leaf extract (ASc) on adenosine deaminase (ADA) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) activities, cell viability and oxidative stress parameters in lymphocytes exposed to 2, 2'-azobis-2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH). Lymphocytes were incubated with ASc (100 and 500 µg/ml) and gallic acid (50 and 200 µM) at 37 °C for 30 min followed by incubation with AAPH (1 mM) at 37 °C for 2 h. After the incubation time, the lymphocytes were used for determinations of ADA, DPP-IV and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, lipid peroxidation, protein thiol (P-SH) group levels and cellular viability by colorimetric methods. (i) HPLC fingerprinting of ASc revealed the presence of catechin, epicatechin, rutin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol and chlorogenic, caffeic, gallic and ellagic acids; (ii) for the first time, ASc reduced the AAPH-induced increase in ADA activity, but no effect was observed on DPP-IV activity; (iii) ASc increased P-SH groups and cellular viability and decreased LDH activity, but was not able to reduce the AAPH-induced lipid peroxidation; (iv) gallic acid showed less protective effects than ASc. ASc affects the purinergic system and may modulate adenosine levels, indicating that the extract of this plant exhibits immunomodulatory properties. ASc also may potentially prevent the cellular injury induced by oxidative stress, highlighting its cytoprotective effects.

  20. Cellular dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, J.L.; Chin, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation dose is a useful predictive parameter for describing radiation toxicity in conventional radiotherapy. Traditionally, in vitro radiation biology dose-effect relations are expressed in the form of cell survival curves, a semilog plot of cell survival versus dose. However, the characteristic linear or linear quadratic survival curve shape, for high- and low-LET radiations respectively, is only strictly valid when the radiation dose is uniform across the entire target population. With an external beam of 60 Co gamma rays or x-rays, a uniform field may be readily achievable. When radionuclides are incorporated into a cell milieu, several new problems emerge which can result in a departure from uniformity in energy deposition throughout a cell population. This nonuniformity can have very important consequences for the shape of the survival curve. Cases in which perturbations of source uniformity may arise include: 1. Elemental sources may equilibrate in the cell medium with partition coefficients between the extracellular, cytosol, and nuclear compartments. The effect of preferential cell internalization or binding to cell membrane of some radionuclides can increase or decrease the slope of the survival curve. 2. Radionuclides bound to antibodies, hormones, metabolite precursors, etc., may result in a source localization pattern characteristic of the carrier agent, i.e., the sources may bind to cell surface receptors or antigens, be internalized, bind to secreted antigen concentrated around a fraction of the cell population, or become directly incorporated into the cell DNA. We propose to relate the distribution of energy deposition in cell nuclei to biological correlates of cellular inactivation. The probability of each cell's survival is weighted by its individual radiation burden, and the summation of these probabilities for the cell population can be used to predict the number or fraction of cell survivors

  1. Effects of levamisole hydrochloride on cellular immune response and flock performance of commercial broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OA Oladele

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Levamisole hydrochloride (Lev.HCl has been acclaimed to boost immune response particularly in immunocompromised state. Its routine use as an immunomodulator in poultry production is yet to be well embraced, thus its effects of on cellular immunity and flock performance of commercial broilers were evaluated. One hundred and fifty Anak broiler chicks were separated into two groups of 75 each. Broilers in group 1 were sensitized with 150µg of Staphylococcus aureus antigen each at 4 and 5 weeks, while those in group 2 were not sensitized. Each group was further divided into subgroups A, B, and C. Levamisole hydrochloride (40 mg/kg was administered orally to 1A and 2A at 45 and 46 days of age and to 1B and 2B at 47 and 48 days of age, while 1C and 2C were not treated. At 47 days of age, 12 broilers from all subgroups were challenged with 75µg of S. aureus antigen each at the right wattle. Wattle thickness was measured till 72 hours post challenge (pc and delayed wattle reaction (DWR was determined. Tissues were harvested at 72 hours pc for histopathology. Morbidity, mortality and live weights at 8 weeks of age were recorded. DWR peaked at 4 hours pc in 1A (2.22 ± 0.21 mm and 1B (2.96 ± 0.21 mm and 24 hours pc in 1C (3.39 ± 0.34 mm, the difference being significant (p<0.05. Inflammatory lesions were observed in wattles of sensitized subgroups and were more severe in 1C. Mortality rates were 4.17% and 29.17% in 1A and 1C respectively. Mean live weights in A and B i.e. 1.57± 0.06 kg and 1.56 ± 0.06 kg respectively, were significantly higher (p<0.0 than 1.43 ± 0.08 kg in C. Levamisole enhanced DTH via an early response, improved broiler liveability, and its anti-inflammatory property was confirmed.

  2. Effects of P25 TiO2 Nanoparticles on the Free Radical-Scavenging Ability of Antioxidants upon Their Exposure to Simulated Sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Chong, Yu; Fu, Peter P; Xia, Qingsu; Croley, Timothy R; Lo, Y Martin; Yin, Jun-Jie

    2017-11-15

    Although nanosized ingredients, including TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs), can be found in a wide range of consumer products, little is known about the effects these particles have on other active compounds in product matrices. These NPs can interact with reactive oxygen species (ROS), potentially disrupting or canceling the benefits expected from antioxidants. We used electron spin resonance spectrometry to assess changes in the antioxidant capacities of six dietary antioxidants (ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, glutathione, cysteine, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate) during exposure to P25 TiO 2 and/or simulated sunlight. Specifically, we determined the ability of these antioxidants to scavenge 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical, superoxide radical, and hydroxyl radical. Exposure to simulated sunlight alone did not lead to noticeable changes in radical-scavenging abilities; however, in combination with P25 TiO 2 NPs, the scavenging abilities of most antioxidants were weakened. We found glutathione to be the most resistant to treatment with sunlight and NPs among these six antioxidants.

  3. Tobacco Smoke: Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species and Stable Free Radicals in Mechanisms of Oxidative Damage, Carcinogenesis and Synergistic Effects with Other Respirable Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Fiotakis

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains many toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic chemicals, as well as stable and unstable free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS in the particulate and the gas phase with the potential for biological oxidative damage. Epidemiological evidence established that smoking is one of the most important extrinsic factor of premature morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to investigate oxidative and carcinogenic mechanisms of tobacco and synergistic action with other respirable particles in the respiratory system of smokers. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR and spin- trapping techniques were used to study stable free radicals in the cigarette tar, and unstable superoxide anion (O2·- and hydroxyl (HO· radicals in the smoke Results showed that the semiquinone radical system has the potential for redox recycling and oxidative action. Further, results proved that aqueous cigarette tar (ACT solutions can generate adducts with DNA nucleobases, particularly the mutagenic 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (a biomarker for carcinogenesis.Also, we observed synergistic effects in the generation of HO·, through the Fenton reaction, with environmental respirable particles (asbestos fibres, coal dust, etc. and ambient particulate matter (PM, such as PM10, PM2.5 and diesel exhaust particles (DEP. The highest synergistic effects was observed with the asbestos fibres (freshly grounded, PM2.5 and DEP. Finally, we discuss results from our previous study of conventional cellulose acetate filters and “bio-filters” with hemoglobin impregnated activated carbon, which showed that these filters do not substantially alter the free radical content of smoke in the particulate and in the gaseous phase.

  4. Tobacco Smoke: Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species and Stable Free Radicals in Mechanisms of Oxidative Damage, Carcinogenesis and Synergistic Effects with Other Respirable Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Vlachogianni, Thomais; Fiotakis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains many toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic chemicals, as well as stable and unstable free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the particulate and the gas phase with the potential for biological oxidative damage. Epidemiological evidence established that smoking is one of the most important extrinsic factor of premature morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to investigate oxidative and carcinogenic mechanisms of tobacco and synergistic action with other respirable particles in the respiratory system of smokers. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and spin-trapping techniques were used to study stable free radicals in the cigarette tar, and unstable superoxide anion (O2•−) and hydroxyl (HO•) radicals in the smoke Results showed that the semiquinone radical system has the potential for redox recycling and oxidative action. Further, results proved that aqueous cigarette tar (ACT) solutions can generate adducts with DNA nucleobases, particularly the mutagenic 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (a biomarker for carcinogenesis). Also, we observed synergistic effects in the generation of HO•, through the Fenton reaction, with environmental respirable particles (asbestos fibres, coal dust, etc.) and ambient particulate matter (PM), such as PM10, PM2.5 and diesel exhaust particles (DEP). The highest synergistic effects was observed with the asbestos fibres (freshly grounded), PM2.5 and DEP. Finally, we discuss results from our previous study of conventional cellulose acetate filters and “bio-filters” with hemoglobin impregnated activated carbon, which showed that these filters do not substantially alter the free radical content of smoke in the particulate and in the gaseous phase. PMID:19440393

  5. Ultrasound-induced radical polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, M.W.A.; Kemmere, M.F.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2004-01-01

    Sonochemistry comprises all chemical effects that are induced by ultrasound. Most of these effects are caused by cavitations, ie, the collapse of microscopic bubbles in a liquid. The chemical effects of ultrasound include the formation of radicals and the enhancement of reaction rates at ambient

  6. Combination of Polymer Technology and Carbon Nanotube Array for the Development of an Effective Drug Delivery System at Cellular Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggio Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, a carbon nanotube (CNT array-based system combined with a polymer thin film is proposed as an effective drug release device directly at cellular level. The polymeric film embedded in the CNT array is described and characterized in terms of release kinetics, while in vitro assays on PC12 cell line have been performed in order to assess the efficiency and functionality of the entrapped agent (neural growth factor, NGF. PC12 cell differentiation, following incubation on the CNT array embedding the alginate delivery film, demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The achieved results indicate that polymeric technology could be efficiently embedded in CNT array acting as drug delivery system at cellular level. The implication of this study opens several perspectives in particular in the field of neurointerfaces, combining several functions into a single platform.

  7. Effects of age and the use of hands-free cellular phones on driving behavior and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yung-Ching; Ou, Yang-Kun

    2011-12-01

    This study used a driving simulator to investigate the effect of using a Bluetooth hands-free cellular phone earpiece on the driving behavior of two age groups. Forty-eight participants (24 aged 20-26 and 24 aged 65-73) were examined to assess their performance on the following divided-attention tasks under 2 driving load conditions (high and low): (1) attempting to maintain the speed limit and (2) using a cellular phone while driving. The length of the call conversation (long vs. short) and the conversational content (complex vs. simple) were manipulated as within-subject independent variables. The driving behavior of the participants, their task reaction times and accuracy, and subjective ratings were collected as dependent variables. The results indicate that under low driving loads, short talk times, and simple conversational content, the driving behavior of the participants showed low variance in the vehicle's mean speed. In contrast, complex conversation had a significantly negative impact on driving behavior. Notably, under a low driving load, motorists' driving behaviors, measured in lateral acceleration, caused significantly smaller variance in complex conversations compared to no call and simple conversations. The use of a hands-free cellular phone affected the performance (acceleration, lane deviation, reaction time, and accuracy) of older drivers significantly more than younger drivers. While performing divided attention tasks, the accuracy of the older drivers was 66.3 percent and that of the younger drivers was 96.3 percent. Although this study did not find a clear impact of cellular phone use on the driving behavior of younger drivers, their divided-attention task reaction times and accuracy were better under no-call than calling conditions. This study indicates that the use of hands-free cellular phones could significantly affect the safety of driving among the older and present risks, although lesser, for younger drivers.

  8. Free radical inactivation of trypsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudina, Ivana; Jovanovic, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    Reactivities of free radical oxidants, radical OH, Br2-anion radical and Cl 3 COO radical and a reductant, CO2-anion radical, with trypsin and reactive protein components were determined by pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions at pH 7, 20 0 C. Highly reactive free radicals, radical OH, Br2-anion radical and CO2-anion radical, react with trypsin at diffusion controlled rates. Moderately reactive trichloroperoxy radical, k(Cl 3 COO radical + trypsin) preferentially oxidizes histidine residues. The efficiency of inactivation of trypsin by free radicals is inversely proportional to their reactivity. The yields of inactivation of trypsin by radical OH, Br2-anion radical and CO2-anion radical are low, G(inactivation) = 0.6-0.8, which corresponds to ∼ 10% of the initially produced radicals. In contrast, Cl 3 COO radical inactivates trypsin with ∼ 50% efficiency, i.e. G(inactivation) = 3.2. (author)

  9. The effect of cellular carotenoid levels in micrococcus luteus on resistance to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Wandawi, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, a biological system was developed to link the cellular carotenoid levels to Gamma radiation resistance in bacteria for the frst time. thus, in a non-photosynrhetic bacterium, in Micrococcus Luteus an inverse relationship was found between the increase in diphenylamine (DPA) concentration (5.25 μg/ml culture) and the polar cellular carotenoid pigments (C-45 and C-50 carotenoids and their glucosides). It was also found that irradiation of cells with different carotenoid concentrations with doses of γ-radiation in the range of (0.2500 gray) under oxic, air and hypoxic conditions showed that carotenoid pigments offer no significant protection as they usually do in case of visible light. (author).15 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Cellular interface morphologies in directional solidification. III - The effects of heat transfer and solid diffusivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Lyle H.; Bennett, Mark J.; Brown, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    The shape and stability of two-dimensional finite-amplitude cellular interfaces arising during directional solidification are compared for several solidification models that account differently for latent heat released at the interface, unequal thermal conductivities of melt and solid, and solute diffusivity in the solid. Finite-element analysis and computer-implemented perturbation methods are used to analyze the families of steadily growing cellular forms that evolve from the planar state. In all models a secondary bifurcation between different families of finite-amplitude cells exists that halves the spatial wavelength of the stable interface. The quantitative location of this transition is very dependent on the details of the model. Large amounts of solute diffusion in the solid retard the growth of large-amplitude cells.

  11. The effect of cellular organic matter produced by cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa on water purification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Martin; Pivokonská, Lenka; Bäumeltová, Jitka; Bubáková, Petra

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2009), s. 121-129 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/07/0295 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : AOM (Algal Organic Matter) * COM (Cellular Organic Matter) * Destabilisation * Aggregation * Reaction conditions * Water treatment Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009 http://versita.metapress.com/content/808770041t311071/fulltext.pdf

  12. Microstructural effects in drug release by solid and cellular polymeric dosage forms: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaesi, Aron H; Saka, Nannaji

    2017-11-01

    In recent studies, we have introduced melt-processed polymeric cellular dosage forms to achieve both immediate drug release and predictable manufacture. Dosage forms ranging from minimally-porous solids to highly porous, open-cell and thin-walled structures were prepared, and the drug release characteristics investigated as the volume fraction of cells and the excipient molecular weight were varied. In the present study, both minimally-porous solid and cellular dosage forms consisting of various weight fractions of Acetaminophen drug and polyethylene glycol (PEG) excipient are prepared and analyzed. Microstructures of the solid forms and the cell walls range from single-phase solid solutions of the excipient and a small amount of drug molecules to two-phase composites of the excipient and tightly packed drug particles. Results of dissolution experiments show that the minimally-porous solid forms disintegrate and release drug by slow surface erosion. The erosion rate decreases as the drug weight fraction is increased. By contrast, the open-cell structures disintegrate rapidly by viscous exfoliation, and the disintegration time is independent of drug weight fraction. Drug release models suggest that the solid forms erode by convective mass transfer of the faster-eroding excipient if the drug volume fraction is small. At larger drug volume fractions, however, the slower-eroding drug particles hinder access of the free-flowing fluid to the excipient, thus slowing down erosion of the composite. Conversely, the disintegration rate of the cellular forms is limited by diffusion of the dissolution fluid into the excipient phase of the thin cell walls. Because the wall thickness is of the order of the drug particle size, and the particles are enveloped by the excipient during melt-processing, the drug particles cannot hinder diffusion through the excipient across the walls. Thus the disintegration time of the cellular forms is mostly unaffected by the volume fraction of drug

  13. Ebola virion attachment and entry into human macrophages profoundly effects early cellular gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Wahl-Jensen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV infections are associated with high lethality in primates. ZEBOV primarily targets mononuclear phagocytes, which are activated upon infection and secrete mediators believed to trigger initial stages of pathogenesis. The characterization of the responses of target cells to ZEBOV infection may therefore not only further understanding of pathogenesis but also suggest possible points of therapeutic intervention. Gene expression profiles of primary human macrophages exposed to ZEBOV were determined using DNA microarrays and quantitative PCR to gain insight into the cellular response immediately after cell entry. Significant changes in mRNA concentrations encoding for 88 cellular proteins were observed. Most of these proteins have not yet been implicated in ZEBOV infection. Some, however, are inflammatory mediators known to be elevated during the acute phase of disease in the blood of ZEBOV-infected humans. Interestingly, the cellular response occurred within the first hour of Ebola virion exposure, i.e. prior to virus gene expression. This observation supports the hypothesis that virion binding or entry mediated by the spike glycoprotein (GP(1,2 is the primary stimulus for an initial response. Indeed, ZEBOV virions, LPS, and virus-like particles consisting of only the ZEBOV matrix protein VP40 and GP(1,2 (VLP(VP40-GP triggered comparable responses in macrophages, including pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic signals. In contrast, VLP(VP40 (particles lacking GP(1,2 caused an aberrant response. This suggests that GP(1,2 binding to macrophages plays an important role in the immediate cellular response.

  14. Effect of ceruloplasmin on some cellular and humoral immunity indices in irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdyins'kikh, N.K.; Savtsova, Z.D.; Yindik, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    The ceruloplasmin (CD) in animals being permanently under combined external and internal low-intensity ionizing irradiation is shown to increase the level of cellular immunity reactions, including antiviral ones, and of natural resistance reactions, to decrease probability of derangement of biosynthetic processes during the development of immune response, and to increase resistance of animals to influenza infection. The influence of C P on humoral antiviral immunity was not observed

  15. The Effects of Chronological Age on the Cellular Mechanics of Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z.; Hung, V.; Kambhampati, S.; Ge, S. R.; Rafailovich, M.; Ghosh, K.; Clark, R.; Liu, Y. J.; Nakamura, T.; Shu, X. Z.; Prestwich, G.

    2006-03-01

    It is often observed that older people display diminished wound healing abilities. Understanding of this phenomenon is important for many in vivo applications of tissue engineering. In this study, the cell mechanics of dermal fibroblasts from 25, 40 and 84 years old female subjects were compared. These cells were cultured on functionalized hyaluronic acid hydrogel substrates which emulated physiological conditions in dermal tissue. The deformation of the substrate caused by cellular traction forces was detected by tracing the displacement of fluorescent beads embedded in the substrate using Digital Image Speckle Correlation. Then cellular traction forces were quantitatively determined by Finite Element Method in a linear elastic model with a high spatial resolution. These results were correlated with auxiliary measurements of substrate modulus, cell modulus and migration. We found that with increasing age, the magnitude of the cellular traction forces diminished. Similarly, the ability of the cells to adapt to changes in the mechanical properties of their environment and migrate was also impaired. The interrelationship between these factors and wound healing will be discussed. This work is supported by NSF- MRSEC program.

  16. Effects of Initial Symmetry on the Global Symmetry of One-Dimensional Legal Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuko Tanaka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To examine the development of pattern formation from the viewpoint of symmetry, we applied a two-dimensional discrete Walsh analysis to a one-dimensional cellular automata model under two types of regular initial conditions. The amount of symmetropy of cellular automata (CA models under regular and random initial conditions corresponds to three Wolfram’s classes of CAs, identified as Classes II, III, and IV. Regular initial conditions occur in two groups. One group that makes a broken, regular pattern formation has four types of symmetry, whereas the other group that makes a higher hierarchy pattern formation has only two types. Additionally, both final pattern formations show an increased amount of symmetropy as time passes. Moreover, the final pattern formations are affected by iterations of base rules of CA models of chaos dynamical systems. The growth design formations limit possibilities: the ratio of developing final pattern formations under a regular initial condition decreases in the order of Classes III, II, and IV. This might be related to the difference in degree in reference to surrounding conditions. These findings suggest that calculations of symmetries of the structures of one-dimensional cellular automata models are useful for revealing rules of pattern generation for animal bodies.

  17. Effects of type I collagen coating on titanium osseointegration: histomorphometric, cellular and molecular analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sverzut, Alexander Tadeu; Crippa, Grasiele Edilaine; Tambasco de Oliveira, Paulo; Beloti, Marcio Mateus; Rosa, Adalberto Luiz; Morra, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of titanium (Ti) surface modifications aiming to increase implant osseointegration is one of the most active research areas in dental implantology. This study was carried out to evaluate the benefits of coating Ti with type I collagen on the osseointegration of dental implants. Acid etched Ti implants (AETi), either untreated or coated with type I collagen (ColTi), were placed in dog mandibles for three and eight weeks for histomorphometric, cellular and molecular evaluations of bone tissue response. While the histological aspects were essentially the same with both implants being surrounded by lamellar bone trabeculae, histomorphometric analysis showed more abundant bone formation in ColTi, mainly at three weeks. Cellular evaluation showed that cells harvested from bone fragments in close contact with ColTi display lower proliferative capacity and higher alkaline phosphatase activity, phenotypic features associated with more differentiated osteoblasts. Confirming these findings, molecular analyses showed that ColTi implants up-regulates the expression of a panel of genes well known as osteoblast markers. Our results present a set of evidences that coating AETi with collagen fastens the osseointegration by stimulating bone formation at the cellular and molecular levels, making this combination of morphological and biochemical modification a promising approach to treat Ti surfaces. (paper)

  18. Immunomodulatory effects of total intravenous and balanced inhalation anesthesia in patients with bladder cancer undergoing elective radical Cystectomy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofra Maria

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although surgery and anesthesia induce immunesuppression, remains largely unknown whether various anesthetic techniques have different immunosuppressive effects on cancer patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of total intravenous anesthesia with target-controlled infusion (TIVA-TCI and balanced inhalation anesthesia (BAL on the peri-operative levels of inflammatory cytokines and regulatory T cells (Tregs in patients with bladder cancer undergoing surgery. Methods Twenty eight consecutive patients with bladder cancer who underwent radical cystectomy were prospectively randomized into two groups to receive TIVA-TCI (n = 14 or BAL (n = 14. Before the induction of anesthesia (T0, 6–8 hours (T1 post-surgery, and 5 days post-surgery (T2, Tregs and serum levels of interleukin -1beta (IL-1β, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin −2 (IL-2, interleukin −6 (IL-6, and interleukin −10 (IL-10 were measured. Results In the peri-operative period all cancer patients showed a marked and significant increase in IL-6. Moreover, TIVA-TCI patients also showed a higher increase in IFN-γ, whereas in BAL patients Tregs were reduced by approximately 30% during surgery. The incidence of infections, metastases, and death was similar in both groups. Conclusions The increase in the Th1 response in the TIVA-TCI group and the reduction in Tregs in the BAL group seem to balance the immunosuppressive effect induced by IL-6. Therefore TIVA-TCI and BAL can be both used in major surgery in patients with bladder cancer without worsening the outcome.

  19. Effect of concentration and molecular weight of chitosan and its derivative on the free radical scavenging ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huili; Xu, Qing; Chen, Yun; Wan, Ajun

    2014-03-01

    Chitosan is a biodegradable and biocompatible natural scaffold material, which has numerous applications in biomedical sciences. In this study, the in vitro antioxidant activity of chitosan scaffold material was investigated by the chemiluminescence signal generated from the hydroxyl radical (•OH) scavenging assay. The scavenging mechanism was also discussed. The results indicated that the free radical scavenging ability of chitosan scaffold material significantly depends on the chitosan concentration and shows interesting kinetic change. Within the experimental concentration range, the optimal concentration of chitosan was 0.2 mg/mL. The molecular weight of chitosan also attributed to the free radical scavenging ability. Comparison between chitosan and its derivative found that carboxymethyl chitosan possessed higher scavenging ability. Copyright © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  20. Micrococcus radiodurans surface exonuclease. Dimer to monomer conversion by ionizing radiation-generated aqueous free radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchel, R E.J.

    1980-01-01

    Micrococcus radiodurans possesses an exonuclease firmly bound to a middle cell wall membrane layer. Aqueous OH/sup -/ radicals generated chemically or by ionizing radiation cause the immediate release of this enzyme into the surrounding medium. The enzyme is located in a hydrophobic site and can also be released by aqueous n-butanol. When extracted by this solvent it is a non-covalently linked dimer and has a molecular weight of 260,000 as determined by gel filtration. When released by radiation generated OH/sup -/ radicals, the enzyme initially appears in solution as the dimer but is rapidly split by further aqueous radical attack into two 130,000 molecular weight subunits. Hydroxyl radicals are most effective but reducing radicals are also able to monomerize the enzyme. Only the released dimer enzyme is subject to free radical monomerization. Bound dimer enzyme is not split prior to release. No detectable loss of activity or change in catalytic properties accompanies the free radical cleavage of the enzyme. Both subunits of the dimer enzyme possess a tightly bound metal ion (probably Ca/sup 2 +/) required for activity. The monomer but not the dimer enzyme will bind to an anion exchanger. The monomer is susceptible to loss of its metal ion, and consequent inactivation, when exposed to the exchanger in the absence of Ca/sup 2 +/. Besides providing information on some of the immediate non-lethal effects of ionizing radiation, the behavior of this enzyme system demonstrates a potential cellular mechanism by which internally or externally generated free radicals could be utilized by the cell to control various enzymic reactions.

  1. Concerted effects in the reaction of ·OH radicals with aromatics: radiolytic oxidation of salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albarran, G.; Schuler, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Liquid chromatographic and capillary electrophoretic studies have been used to resolve the products produced in the radiolytic oxidation of salicylic acid in aqueous solution. These studies have shown that, as in the case of phenol, · OH radicals preferentially add to the positions ortho and para to the OH substituent. However, in contrast to its reaction with phenol, addition at the ortho position is favored over addition at the para position. Because · OH radical is a strong electrophile this difference suggests that the electron population at the ortho position in the salicylate anion is enhanced as a result of the hydrogen bonding in salicylic acid

  2. The effect of feedback on attitudes toward cellular phone use while driving: a comparison between novice and experienced drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Reimer, Bryan; Lavallière, Martin; Lesch, Mary F; Horrey, William J; Wu, Su

    2010-10-01

    To assess and compare the effectiveness of a simulation-based approach to change drivers' attitudes toward cellular phone use while driving for younger novice and older experienced drivers. Thirty young novice drivers were tested on a driving simulator in this study. Their performance in dealing with driving tasks was measured for a single task and dual tasks (driving while using a cellular phone) and compared to 30 older experienced drivers tested previously in another study. Half of the younger drivers received video-based feedback regarding their performance in the two conditions, with an emphasis on the contribution of dual-tasking to degraded performance. The other half did not receive any performance feedback. Drivers' perceptions and attitudes toward cellular phone use while driving were investigated by a questionnaire before, immediately after, and again one month following the simulation-based testing for both groups of drivers (feedback; no feedback). All drivers (including the novice and experienced) reported willingness to engage in driving and talking on a cellular phone in some situations. The simulated driving test showed that a secondary cellular phone task significantly degraded driving performance for both the novice and the experienced drivers. The feedback treatment group (both the novice and the experienced) showed significant attitude change toward cellular phone use while driving (toward being less favorable), whereas the control group had no attitude change. At the one-month follow-up, the benefit of feedback was sustained more so in the experienced driver group than the novice driver group, although both groups still benefited relative to the control conditions. Simulation-based feedback training is promising for short-term education in novice drivers but may be more effective in the long-term for drivers with higher levels of experience. Drivers with more experience appear to have a greater, more sustained benefit from the training than

  3. The effect of adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists on hydroxyl radical, dopamine, and glutamate in the striatum of rats with altered function of VMAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Dziubina, Anna

    2012-08-01

    It has been shown that a decreased vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) function and the disruption of dopamine (DA) storage is an early contributor to oxidative damage of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). In our previous study, we demonstrated that adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists suppressed oxidative stress in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats suggesting that this effect may account for neuroprotective properties of drugs. In the present study, rats were injected with reserpine (10 mg/kg sc) and 18 h later the effect of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine (CSC) and 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385) on extracellular DA, glutamate and hydroxyl radical formation was studied in the rat striatum using in vivo microdialysis. By disrupting VMAT2 function, reserpine depleted DA stores, and increased glutamate and hydroxyl radical levels in the rat striatum. CSC (1 mg/kg) but not ZM 241385 (3 mg/kg) increased extracellular DA level and production of hydroxyl radical in reserpinised rats. Both antagonists decreased the reserpine-induced increase in extracellular glutamate. L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) (25 mg/kg) significantly enhanced extracellular DA, had no effect on reserpine-induced hydroxyl radical production and decreased extracellular glutamate concentration. CSC but not ZM 241385 given jointly with L-DOPA increased the effect of L-DOPA on extracellular DA and augmented the reserpine-induced hydroxyl radical production. CSC and ZM 241385 did not influence extracellular glutamate level, which was decreased by L-DOPA. It seems that by decreasing the MAO-dependent DA metabolism rate, CSC raised cytosolic DA and by DA autoxidation, it induced hydroxyl radical overproduction. Thus, the methylxanthine A(2A) receptor antagonists bearing properties of MAO-B inhibitor, like CSC, may cause a risk of oxidative stress resulting from dysfunctional DA storage

  4. The effect of ranitidine on cellular immunity in patients with multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, H; Moesgaard, F

    1990-01-01

    .19-2.25 nmol/min) (P less than 0.005 between groups). Among ranitidine-treated patients spontaneous NK cell activity was unchanged, while in vitro interleukin-2- and interferon-alpha-stimulated NK cell activity decreased (P less than 0.03, respectively). As production of oxygen radicals constitutes...... after previous cytotoxic therapy were in a stable phase of their disease. All were without clinical signs of infections and at that time had not been treated with other immunomodulating agents. The patients were randomized to oral ranitidine 300 mg twice a day for 21 days or placebo, and several...... immunological parameters related to multiple myeloma were studied. The blood monocyte chemotactic response was improved in patients treated with ranitidine, and superoxide anion production increased from 2.02 nmol/min to 3.86 nmol/min (median values), while it was unchanged in patients given placebo (2...

  5. Bioaccessibility, Cellular Uptake, and Transport of Astaxanthin Isomers and their Antioxidative Effects in Human Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Ronghua; Zhu, Honghui; Zhang, Lianfu; Tsao, Rong

    2017-11-29

    The bioaccessibility, bioavailability, and antioxidative activities of three astaxanthin geometric isomers were investigated using an in vitro digestion model and human intestinal Caco-2 cells. This study demonstrated that the trans-cis isomerization of all-E-astaxanthin and the cis-trans isomerization of Z-astaxanthins could happen both during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and cellular uptake processes. 13Z-Astaxanthin showed higher bioaccessibility than 9Z- and all-E-astaxanthins during in vitro digestion, and 9Z-astaxanthin exhibited higher transport efficiency than all-E- and 13Z-astaxanthins. These might explain why 13Z- and 9Z-astaxanthins are found at higher concentrations in human plasma than all-E-astaxanthin in reported studies. All three astaxanthin isomers were effective in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis as seen in the antioxidant enzyme (CAT, SOD) activities ; 9Z- and 13Z- astaxanthins exhibited a higher protective effect than all-E-astaxanthin against oxidative stress as demonstrated by the lower cellular uptake of Z-astaxanthins and lower secretion and gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 in Caco-2 cells treated with H 2 O 2 . We conclude, for the first time, that Z-astaxanthin isomers may play a more important role in preventing oxidative stress induced intestinal diseases.

  6. First cellular approach of the effects of global warming on groundwater organisms: a study of the HSP70 gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson-Proch, Céline; Morales, Anne; Hervant, Frédéric; Konecny, Lara; Moulin, Colette; Douady, Christophe J

    2010-05-01

    Whereas the consequences of global warming at population or community levels are well documented, studies at the cellular level are still scarce. The study of the physiological or metabolic effects of such small increases in temperature (between +2 degrees C and +6 degrees C) is difficult because they are below the amplitude of the daily or seasonal thermal variations occurring in most environments. In contrast, subterranean biotopes are highly thermally buffered (+/-1 degrees C within a year), and underground water organisms could thus be particularly well suited to characterise cellular responses of global warming. To this purpose, we studied genes encoding chaperone proteins of the HSP70 family in amphipod crustaceans belonging to the ubiquitous subterranean genus Niphargus. An HSP70 sequence was identified in eight populations of two complexes of species of the Niphargus genus (Niphargus rhenorhodanensis and Niphargus virei complexes). Expression profiles were determined for one of these by reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, confirming the inducible nature of this gene. An increase in temperature of 2 degrees C seemed to be without effect on N. rhenorhodanensis physiology, whereas a heat shock of +6 degrees C represented an important thermal stress for these individuals. Thus, this study shows that although Niphargus individuals do not undergo any daily or seasonal thermal variations in underground water, they display an inducible HSP70 heat shock response. This controlled laboratory-based physiological experiment constitutes a first step towards field investigations of the cellular consequences of global warming on subterranean organisms.

  7. Anesthesiologic Effects of Transperitoneal Versus Extraperitoneal Approach During Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy: Results of a Prospective Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Dal Moro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjectives:To compare the effects of CO2 insufflation on hemodynamics and oxygen levels and on acid-base level during Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy (RARP with transperitoneal (TP versus extra-peritoneal (EP accesses.Materials and Methods:Sixty-two patients were randomly assigned to TP (32 and EP (30 to RARP. Pre-operation data were collected for all patients. Hemodynamic, respiratory and blood acid-base parameters were measured at the moment of induction of anesthesia (T0, after starting CO2 insuffation (T1, and at 60 (T2 and 120 minutes (T3 after insufflation. In all cases, the abdominal pressure was set at 15 mmHg. Complications were reported according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Student's two–t-test, with a significance level set at pResults:The demographic characteristics of the patients in both groups were statistically comparable. Analysis of intra-operative anesthesiologic parameters showed that partial CO2 pressure during EP was significantly higher than during TP, with a consequent decrease in arterial pH. Other parameters analysed were similar in the two groups. Postoperative complications were comparable between groups. The most important limitations of this study were the small size of the patient groups and the impossibility of maintaining standard abdominal pressure throughout the operational phases, despite attempts to regulate it.Conclusions:This prospective randomized study demonstrates that, from the anesthesiologic viewpoint, during RARP the TP approach is preferable to EP, because of lower CO2 reabsorption and risk of acidosis.

  8. Radical prostatectomy vs high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Health-related quality-of-life effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Yoshimasa; Fujisawa, Masato

    2004-01-01

    A screening comparison was made of health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) outcomes between two primary treatment modalities for localized prostate cancer: radical prostatectomy (RP) and iridium-192 (Ir-192) high-dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) followed by external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The subjects were 182 patients diagnosed with T1c to T3bN0M0 prostate cancer between October 1997 through August 2002 who underwent RP (n=89) or HDR-BT with 36.8 Gy of EBRT (n=93) and follow-up for at least 6 months. A postal survey was sent, in which HRQOL was assessed using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and disease-specific QOL using the University of California Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA-PCI). We obtained responses to questionnaires from 151 out of 182 patients (83.0%; RP, 78.7%, HDR-BT, 87.1%). No significant difference was observed in SF-36 scale scores between RP and HDR-BT. In the UCLA-PCI, the HDR-BT group had better urinary function (UF, p<0.001) and sexual function (SF, p=0.0272), whereas the RP group had better bowel bother (BB, p=0.0425). In patients with at least 2 years of follow-up, UF (p<0.001) and sexual bother (SB, p=0.0286) were better for the HDR-BT group than for the RP group. HDR-BT patients had significantly better UF (p=0.009) and SB (p=0.0134) than even patients with uni-lateral nerve-sparing RP (n=30). When planning treatment, QOL concerns including mental health issues associated with prostate cancer need to be addressed with the patients, as well as the potential side effects. (author)

  9. Cellular effects of the microtubule-targeting agent peloruside A in hypoxia-conditioned colorectal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řehulka, Jiří; Annadurai, Narendran; Frydrych, Ivo; Znojek, Pawel; Džubák, Petr; Northcote, Peter; Miller, John H; Hajdúch, Marián; Das, Viswanath

    2017-07-01

    Hypoxia is a prominent feature of solid tumors, dramatically remodeling microtubule structures and cellular pathways and contributing to paclitaxel resistance. Peloruside A (PLA), a microtubule-targeting agent, has shown promising anti-tumor effects in preclinical studies. Although it has a similar mode of action to paclitaxel, it binds to a distinct site on β-tubulin that differs from the classical taxane site. In this study, we examined the unexplored effects of PLA in hypoxia-conditioned colorectal HCT116 cancer cells. Cytotoxicity of PLA was determined by cell proliferation assay. The effects of a pre-exposure to hypoxia on PLA-induced cell cycle alterations and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry, time-lapse imaging, and western blot analysis of selected markers. The hypoxia effect on stabilization of microtubules by PLA was monitored by an intracellular tubulin polymerization assay. Our findings show that the cytotoxicity of PLA is not altered in hypoxia-conditioned cells compared to paclitaxel and vincristine. Furthermore, hypoxia does not alter PLA-induced microtubule stabilization nor the multinucleation of cells. PLA causes cyclin B1 and G2/M accumulation followed by apoptosis. The cellular and molecular effects of PLA have been determined in normoxic conditions, but there are no reports of PLA effects in hypoxic cells. Our findings reveal that hypoxia preconditioning does not alter the sensitivity of HCT116 to PLA. These data report on the cellular and molecular effects of PLA in hypoxia-conditioned cells for the first time, and will encourage further exploration of PLA as a promising anti-tumor agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Gram-negative Bacteria, E.coli and Cold Exposure on Free Radicals Production, Lactate Dehydrogenase and Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in the Lungs of Rats, Rattus norvigicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSaid, A Haffor

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of LPS-gram negative bacteria and low ambient temperature on free radicals (FR) production, the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the lungs of rats, Rattus norvigisu. Twenty four male rats, matched with age and weigh, were divided randomly into four groups namely control (C), Bacteria (B), cold temperature (T), and bacteria plus cold (BT). The T group was exposed to 10-12degree C ambient temperature for 3 days. Animals of the BT was injected LPS bacteria (IP, 500 micron g/kg) during the last five hour of cold exposure to 10-12 degree C for 3 days. In comparison with C group FR increased significantly (p<0.05) in the experimental groups, indicating high rate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. The activity of LDH increased significantly (p<0.05) in the T and BT groups, which demonstrated that bacteria and exposure to cold are causes for cellular injury in the lungs. The synergetic effect of both bacteria and cold on LDH was more intense, as compared with the single effect. The activity of GPx increased significantly (p<0.05) in the B and BT, as compared with the C group. The results of the present study is the first worldwide report to demonstrate that both cold exposure and bacteria infection are mediated by elevation in FR generation. (author)

  11. The ESR signals in silk fibroin and wool keratin under both the effect of UV-irradiation and without any external effects and the formation of free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, Sh V; Aktas, B; Cantürk, M; Aksakal, B; Alekperov, V; Bülbül, F; Yilgin, R; Aslanov, R B

    2002-08-01

    ESR studies have been done on natural and UV-irradiated silk fibroins and wool keratins at the temperature range of -196 degrees C to 20 C. The intensities of ESR signals obtained from the irradiated samples at -196 C remarkably increase with respect to those of natural samples. While the signals mainly consist of triplet peaks at -196 C. a doublet arises around the room temperatures. For the first time, at room temperature without any external effect the complicated ESR spectra of fibrous proteins (wool keratin and silk fibroin) whose components are as follows have been observed: (1) (for white wool keratin) a central doublet with deltaHm = 1.1 mT and g = 2.0075; deltaHm = 5mT and g = 2.1911; (2) a wide peak with deltaHm approximately 66 mT and g approximately 2.1575; (3) the 'sulfur' peak given in the literature with deltaHm = 2.2 mT and g = 2.0218; (4) the signal with deltaHm = 0.6 mT and g = 2.0065, and for silk fibroin, (a) a very wide signal with deltaHm approximately 70 mT and g approximately 2.084; (b) a very sharp signal with deltaHm approximately 1.1 mT and g approximately 2.01; and (c) relatively narrower signal with deltaHm approximately 5 mT and g approximately 2.336. It has been shown by recombination kinetic method that 30-50% of the free radicals formed by UV-irradiation do not undergo recombination up to 220 degrees C and 15 degrees C for silk libroin and wool keratin, respectively, even they keep their concentration constant for long period of time (weeks, months, even longer). In this article, considering above-mentioned results, the mechanism of signals observed in natural wool keratin and silk fibroin without any external effects is examined. We can briefly explain the role of the subject of the article, by considering fibrous proteins and some applications of the reactions by free radical occurring in these proteins tinder the effects of different factors in medicine and biology and the important role of oxidation and the other kinds of

  12. On the effectiveness of single and multiple base station sleep modes in cellular networks

    OpenAIRE

    Marsan, Marco Ajmone; Chiaraviglio, Luca; Ciullo, Delia; Meo, Michela

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study base station sleep modes that, by reducing power consumption in periods of low traffic, improve the energy efficiency of cellular access networks. We assume that when some base stations enter sleep mode, radio coverage and service provisioning are provided by the base stations that remain active, so as to guarantee that service is available over the whole area at all times. This may be an optimistic assumption in the case of the sparse base station layouts typical of ru...

  13. Effect of perfluorohexane on the expression of cellular adhesion molecules and surfactant protein A in human mesothelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Dirk; Dahmen, Klaus G; Tiebel, Oliver; Hübler, Matthias; Koch, Thea

    2011-08-01

    The intraperitoneal instillation of perfluorocarbons augmented systemic oxygenation and was protective in mesenteric ischemia-reperfusion and experimental lung injury. To study biocompatibility and potential anti-inflammatory effects of intraperitoneal perfluorocarbons, we evaluated the influence of perfluorohexane and/or inflammatory stimuli on human mesothelial cells in vitro. Perfluorohexane exposure neither impaired cell viability nor induced cellular activation. TNFα enhanced ICAM-1 expression, which was not attenuated by simultaneous perfluorohexane treatment. Concentration of intracellular surfactant protein A tended to be higher in perfluorohexane treated cells compared to controls. Our in vitro data add further evidence that intraperitoneal perfluorocarbon application is feasible without adverse local effects.

  14. Formation and reactivity of free radicals in 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde--the effect on isoprenaline photostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustugun, Jørgen; Tønnesen, Hanne H; Edge, Ruth; Navaratnam, Suppiah

    2005-05-13

    Solutions of glucose are used as diluents for drugs in various drug infusions. When sterilized by heat small amounts of the substance 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) is produced from glucose. At a hospital ward such infusions may be exposed to irradiation; including UV-light. The photoreactivity of the furaldehyde is investigated. It is shown to photodestabilize the catecholamine isoprenaline. It is shown to be a producer, but also a consumer, of singlet oxygen. The excited triplet, cation and anion radical have been produced by pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis and their absorbance characteristics have been determined. The triplet absorption spectrum showed absorption bands at 320 and 430 nm with molar absorption coefficients of 4700 and 2600 M-1 cm-1, respectively. The anion radical showed absorption bands at 330 and 420 nm with molar absorption coefficients of 2000 and 300 M-1 cm-1, respectively. The cation radical had an absorption band at 320 nm with a molar absorption coefficient of 5000 M-1 cm-1. The quantum yield for the production of singlet oxygen, sensitized by the 5-HMF triplet, was determined to be 0.6, whilst the quantum yield for the triplet formation was 1.0. Aqueous solutions of 5-HMF were found to photoionize to yield the hydrated electron and the cation radical of 5-HMF in a biphotonic process. The influences of pH, buffer and glucose on the formation of transients were evaluated. The reactions between 5-HMF and the solvated electron, the hydroxyl radical and the superoxide were also studied.

  15. Effect of radical species density and ion bombardment during ashing of extreme ultralow-κ interlevel dielectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worsley, M. A.; Bent, S. F.; Fuller, N. C. M.; Tai, T. L.; Doyle, J.; Rothwell, M.; Dalton, T.

    2007-01-01

    The significance of ion impact and radical species density on ash-induced modification of an extreme ultralow-κ interlevel dielectric (ILD) material (κ 2 and Ar/N 2 dual frequency capacitive discharges is determined by combining plasma diagnostics, modeling of the ion angular distribution function, and material characterization such as angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Radical species density was determined by optical emission actinometry under the same conditions and in the same reactor in a previous study by the present authors. ILD modification is observed and correlated with changes in the plasma for a range of pressures (5-60 mTorr), bias powers (0-350 W), and percent Ar in the source gas (0%, 85%). For the Ar/O 2 discharge, extensive modification of the ILD sidewall was observed for significant ion scattering conditions, whereas minimal modification of the ILD sidewall was observed under conditions of minimal or no ion scattering. Further, for an identical increase in the O-radical density (∼ an order of magnitude), a different degree of modification was induced at the ILD trench bottom surface depending on whether pressure or percent Ar was used to increase the radical density. The different degrees of modification seemingly correlated with the relative changes in the ion current for increasing pressure or percent Ar. For the Ar/N 2 discharge, reduced damage of the ILD sidewall and trench bottom surfaces was observed for increasing pressure (increasing N-radical density) and decreasing ion current to both surfaces. It is, thus, proposed that the mechanism for modification of the porous ILD is dominated by the creation of reactive sites by ion impact under the present conditions. A detailed discussion of the results which support this proposal is presented

  16. Cellular uptake and transport of zein nanoparticles: effects of sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yangchao; Teng, Zi; Wang, Thomas T Y; Wang, Qin

    2013-08-07

    Cellular evaluation of zein nanoparticles has not been studied systematically due to their poor redispersibility. Caseinate (CAS)-stabilized zein nanoparticles have been recently developed with better redispersibility in salt solutions. In this study, zein-CAS nanoparticles were prepared with different zein/CAS mass ratios. The prepared nanoparticles demonstrated good stabilities to maintain particle size (120-140 nm) in cell culture medium and HBSS buffer at 37 °C. The nanoparticles showed no cytotoxicity for Caco-2 cells for 72 h. CAS not only significantly enhanced cell uptake of zein nanoparticles in a concentration- and time-dependent manner but also remarkably improved epithelial transport through Caco-2 cell monolayer. The cell uptake of zein-CAS nanoparticles indicated an energy-dependent endocytosis process as evidenced by cell uptake under blocking conditions, that is, 4 °C, sodium azide, and colchicine. Fluorescent microscopy clearly showed the internalization of zein-CAS nanoparticles. This study may shed some light on the cellular evaluations of hydrophobic protein nanoparticles.

  17. The effect of particle shape on cellular interaction and drug delivery applications of micro- and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Anil B

    2017-10-30

    Encapsulation of therapeutic agents in nanoparticles offers several benefits including improved bioavailability, site specific delivery, reduced toxicity and in vivo stability of proteins and nucleotides over conventional delivery options. These benefits are consequence of distinct in vivo pharmacokinetic and biodistribution profile of nanoparticles, which is dictated by the complex interplay of size, surface charge and surface hydrophobicity. Recently, particle shape has been identified as a new physical parameter which has exerted tremendous impact on cellular uptake and biodistribution, thereby in vivo performance of nanoparticles. Improved therapeutic efficacy of anticancer agents using non-spherical particles is the recent development in the field. Additionally, immunological response of nanoparticles was also altered when antigens were loaded in non-spherical nanovehicles. The apparent impact of particle shape inspired the new research in the field of drug delivery. The present review therefore details the research in this field. The review focuses on methods of fabrication of particles of non-spherical geometries and impact of particle shape on cellular uptake, biodistribution, tumor targeting and production of immunological responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of nitrogen on cellular production and release of the neurotoxin anatoxin-a in a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis eGagnon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anatoxin-a (ANTX is a neurotoxin produced by several freshwater cyanobacteria and implicated in lethal poisonings of domesticated animals and wildlife. The factors leading to its production in nature and in culture are not well understood. Resource availability may influence its cellular production as suggested by the carbon-nutrient hypothesis, which links the amount of secondary metabolites produced by plants or microbes to the relative abundance of nutrients. We tested the effects of nitrogen supply on ANTX production and release in a toxic strain of the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi (Nostocales. We hypothesized that nitrogen deficiency might constrain the production of ANTX. However, the total concentration and more significantly the cellular content of anatoxin-a peaked (max. 146 µg/L and 1683 µg•g-1 dry weight at intermediate levels of nitrogen supply when N-deficiency was evident based on phycocyanin to chlorophyll a and carbon to nitrogen ratios. The results suggest that the cellular production of anatoxin-a may be stimulated by moderate nutrient stress as described recently for another cyanotoxin (microcystin.

  19. Modeling cellular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matthäus, Franziska; Pahle, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume comprises research articles and reviews on topics connected to the mathematical modeling of cellular systems. These contributions cover signaling pathways, stochastic effects, cell motility and mechanics, pattern formation processes, as well as multi-scale approaches. All authors attended the workshop on "Modeling Cellular Systems" which took place in Heidelberg in October 2014. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  20. Cell damage from radiation-induced bystander effects for different cell densities simulated by a mathematical model via cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meireles, Sincler P. de; Santos, Adriano M.; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein, E-mail: spm@cdtn.b, E-mail: amsantos@cdtn.b, E-mail: seg@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nunes, Maria Eugenia S., E-mail: mariaeugenia@iceb.ufop.b [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    During recent years, there has been a shift from an approach focused entirely on DNA as the main target of ionizing radiation to a vision that considers complex signaling pathways in cells and among cells within tissues. Several newly recognized responses were classified as the so-called non-target responses in which the biological effects are not directly related to the amount of energy deposited in the DNA of cells that were traversed by radiation. In 1992 the bystander effect was described referring to a series of responses such as death, chromosomal instability or other abnormalities that occur in non-irradiated cells that came into contact with irradiated cells or medium from irradiated cells. In this work, we have developed a mathematical model via cellular automata, to quantify cell death induced by the bystander effect. The model is based on experiments with irradiated cells conditioned medium which suggests that irradiated cells secrete molecules in the medium that are capable of damaging other cells. The computational model consists of two-dimensional cellular automata which is able to simulate the transmission of bystander signals via extrinsic route and via Gap junctions. The model has been validated by experimental results in the literature. The time evolution of the effect and the dose-response curves were obtained in good accordance to them. Simulations were conducted for different values of bystander and irradiated cell densities with constant dose. From this work, we have obtained a relationship between cell density and effect. (author)

  1. Cell damage from radiation-induced bystander effects for different cell densities simulated by a mathematical model via cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meireles, Sincler P. de; Santos, Adriano M.; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein; Nunes, Maria Eugenia S.

    2011-01-01

    During recent years, there has been a shift from an approach focused entirely on DNA as the main target of ionizing radiation to a vision that considers complex signaling pathways in cells and among cells within tissues. Several newly recognized responses were classified as the so-called non-target responses in which the biological effects are not directly related to the amount of energy deposited in the DNA of cells that were traversed by radiation. In 1992 the bystander effect was described referring to a series of responses such as death, chromosomal instability or other abnormalities that occur in non-irradiated cells that came into contact with irradiated cells or medium from irradiated cells. In this work, we have developed a mathematical model via cellular automata, to quantify cell death induced by the bystander effect. The model is based on experiments with irradiated cells conditioned medium which suggests that irradiated cells secrete molecules in the medium that are capable of damaging other cells. The computational model consists of two-dimensional cellular automata which is able to simulate the transmission of bystander signals via extrinsic route and via Gap junctions. The model has been validated by experimental results in the literature. The time evolution of the effect and the dose-response curves were obtained in good accordance to them. Simulations were conducted for different values of bystander and irradiated cell densities with constant dose. From this work, we have obtained a relationship between cell density and effect. (author)

  2. Epoxy-functionalized mesostructured cellular foams as effective support for covalent immobilization of penicillin G acylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ping; Xu, Fang; Xu, Lidong

    2008-12-01

    The epoxy-functionalized mesoporous cellular foams (G-MCFs) with high specific surface area (˜400 m 2/g) and large-size mesopores (˜17 nm) were obtained by condensation of 3-glycidoxypropyltriethoxysilane (GPTS) and the surface silanol groups of mesoporous cellular foams (MCFs) and used as the support for immobilization of penicillin G acylase (PGA). The structural properties of G-MCF were characterized by FT-IR, N 2 adsorption, TG-DTA and 29Si MAS NMR. The studies indicated that the glycidoxypropyl groups were chemically bonded to the silicon atoms on the surface of MCF. The epoxy-functionalized mesoporous cellular foams can provide the microenvironments suitable for the immobilization of PGA, and the enzyme molecules could be immobilized covalently onto the G-MCF under mild conditions by reaction between the amino groups of the enzyme molecules and the epoxy groups on the surface of G-MCF. The PGA immobilized on G-MCF (PGA/G-MCF) exhibited the apparent activity of 1782 IU/g and 46.6% of activity recovery for hydrolyzing penicillin G potassium to produce 6-aminopenicillanic acid at 37 °C which were higher than that of PGA on pure silica MCF (1521 IU/g and 39.8%, respectively). The kinetic study also indicated that PGA immobilized on G-MCF has a Km of 2.1 × 10 -2 mol/L lower than that of PGA immobilized on the pure silica MCF (5.0 × 10 -2 mol/L). These may be attributed to the enhanced surface affinity between G-MCF support and the substrate molecules. Due to the covalent immobilization of PGA molecules on the surface of G-MCF, the immobilized PGA with considerable operational stability was achieved. The activity of PGA/G-MCF is still about 91.4% of its initial activity at the 10th cycle reuse while that of PGA/MCF only remains 41.5% of its initial activity at the same reuse numbers. In addition, the investigation results show the thermal stability and durability on acid or basic medium of PGA immobilized on G-MCF were improved remarkably.

  3. Epoxy-functionalized mesostructured cellular foams as effective support for covalent immobilization of penicillin G acylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Ping; Xu Fang; Xu Lidong

    2008-01-01

    The epoxy-functionalized mesoporous cellular foams (G-MCFs) with high specific surface area (∼400 m 2 /g) and large-size mesopores (∼17 nm) were obtained by condensation of 3-glycidoxypropyltriethoxysilane (GPTS) and the surface silanol groups of mesoporous cellular foams (MCFs) and used as the support for immobilization of penicillin G acylase (PGA). The structural properties of G-MCF were characterized by FT-IR, N 2 adsorption, TG-DTA and 29 Si MAS NMR. The studies indicated that the glycidoxypropyl groups were chemically bonded to the silicon atoms on the surface of MCF. The epoxy-functionalized mesoporous cellular foams can provide the microenvironments suitable for the immobilization of PGA, and the enzyme molecules could be immobilized covalently onto the G-MCF under mild conditions by reaction between the amino groups of the enzyme molecules and the epoxy groups on the surface of G-MCF. The PGA immobilized on G-MCF (PGA/G-MCF) exhibited the apparent activity of 1782 IU/g and 46.6% of activity recovery for hydrolyzing penicillin G potassium to produce 6-aminopenicillanic acid at 37 o C which were higher than that of PGA on pure silica MCF (1521 IU/g and 39.8%, respectively). The kinetic study also indicated that PGA immobilized on G-MCF has a K m of 2.1 x 10 -2 mol/L lower than that of PGA immobilized on the pure silica MCF (5.0 x 10 -2 mol/L). These may be attributed to the enhanced surface affinity between G-MCF support and the substrate molecules. Due to the covalent immobilization of PGA molecules on the surface of G-MCF, the immobilized PGA with considerable operational stability was achieved. The activity of PGA/G-MCF is still about 91.4% of its initial activity at the 10th cycle reuse while that of PGA/MCF only remains 41.5% of its initial activity at the same reuse numbers. In addition, the investigation results show the thermal stability and durability on acid or basic medium of PGA immobilized on G-MCF were improved remarkably.

  4. Epoxy-functionalized mesostructured cellular foams as effective support for covalent immobilization of penicillin G acylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue Ping [Key Laboratory of Energy Resources and Chemical Engineering, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021 (China)], E-mail: Ping@nxu.edu.cn; Xu Fang [Department of Molecule Biology, Ningxia Medical College, Yinchuan 750021 (China); Xu Lidong [Key Laboratory of Energy Resources and Chemical Engineering, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021 (China)

    2008-12-30

    The epoxy-functionalized mesoporous cellular foams (G-MCFs) with high specific surface area ({approx}400 m{sup 2}/g) and large-size mesopores ({approx}17 nm) were obtained by condensation of 3-glycidoxypropyltriethoxysilane (GPTS) and the surface silanol groups of mesoporous cellular foams (MCFs) and used as the support for immobilization of penicillin G acylase (PGA). The structural properties of G-MCF were characterized by FT-IR, N{sub 2} adsorption, TG-DTA and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR. The studies indicated that the glycidoxypropyl groups were chemically bonded to the silicon atoms on the surface of MCF. The epoxy-functionalized mesoporous cellular foams can provide the microenvironments suitable for the immobilization of PGA, and the enzyme molecules could be immobilized covalently onto the G-MCF under mild conditions by reaction between the amino groups of the enzyme molecules and the epoxy groups on the surface of G-MCF. The PGA immobilized on G-MCF (PGA/G-MCF) exhibited the apparent activity of 1782 IU/g and 46.6% of activity recovery for hydrolyzing penicillin G potassium to produce 6-aminopenicillanic acid at 37 {sup o}C which were higher than that of PGA on pure silica MCF (1521 IU/g and 39.8%, respectively). The kinetic study also indicated that PGA immobilized on G-MCF has a K{sub m} of 2.1 x 10{sup -2} mol/L lower than that of PGA immobilized on the pure silica MCF (5.0 x 10{sup -2} mol/L). These may be attributed to the enhanced surface affinity between G-MCF support and the substrate molecules. Due to the covalent immobilization of PGA molecules on the surface of G-MCF, the immobilized PGA with considerable operational stability was achieved. The activity of PGA/G-MCF is still about 91.4% of its initial activity at the 10th cycle reuse while that of PGA/MCF only remains 41.5% of its initial activity at the same reuse numbers. In addition, the investigation results show the thermal stability and durability on acid or basic medium of PGA immobilized on G

  5. Free-radical coupling, cleavage, and redox reactions in 60Co γ radiolysis of aqueous methyl acetate. Effects of additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernath, T.; Parsons, G.H. Jr.; Cohen, S.G.

    1975-01-01

    Reaction of methyl acetate with e - /sub aq/ may lead to CH 3 C(O )OCH 3 (I - ), CH 3 C(OH)OCH 3 (II), and CH 3 CO (IIA), and with .OH and H. to .CH 2 CO 2 CH 3 (III), and to CH 3 CO 2 CH 2 . (IV). Methyl acetate is consumed, G = --3.5, and the loss is decreased by formate which scavenges .H and .OH, and increased by N 2 O which converts e - /sub aq/ to .OH. Hydrogen is formed, G = 1.1, and this is decreased by scavengers for H., and increased by H + which converts e - /sub aq/ to H.. In radiolysis of 0.027 M methyl acetate, 1.5 x 10 22 ev/l., radical combination products are: ethylene diacetate (CH 3 CO 2 CH 2 CH 2 OCOCH 3 ) (EDA), G = 0.48, from IV + IV; methyl β-acetoxypropionate (CH 3 CO 2 CH 2 CH 2 CO 2 CH 3 ) (MAP), G = 0.28, from IV + III; dimethyl succinate (DMS), G = 0.05, from III + III; and a mixture of methyl acetoacetate and acetonyl acetate (MAA and AA), (MAS and AA), G = 0.07. Biacetyl is not observed. β-Mercaptopropionic acid, 0.0005 M, prevents formation of coupling products, as it reduces radicals III and IV, and thiyl radical oxidizes radical II back to methyl acetate. Other sources of .OH, Fenton's reagent and H 2 O 2 -uv, lead to EDA, MAP, and DMS with a high IV/III ratio. H. preferentially attacks acyl C--H; .OH preferentially attacks alkoxyl C--H. Yields of radicals involved in formation of coupling products and acetic acid are estimated: G(II and IIA) = 1.2; G(III) = 1.4; G(IV) = 1.7. Part of the radicals, G approximately 1.6, regenerate methyl acetate by self-repair reduction of IV and III by II. Deuterium is introduced into methyl acetate during radiolysis in D 2 O. (U.S.)

  6. Radical-Mediated Enzymatic Polymerizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavada, Scott R.; Battsengel, Tsatsral; Scott, Timothy F.

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization reactions are commonly effected by exposing monomer formulations to some initiation stimulus such as elevated temperature, light, or a chemical reactant. Increasingly, these polymerization reactions are mediated by enzymes―catalytic proteins―owing to their reaction efficiency under mild conditions as well as their environmental friendliness. The utilization of enzymes, particularly oxidases and peroxidases, for generating radicals via reduction-oxidation mechanisms is especially common for initiating radical-mediated polymerization reactions, including vinyl chain-growth polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization, thiol–ene step-growth polymerization, and polymerization via oxidative coupling. While enzyme-mediated polymerization is useful for the production of materials intended for subsequent use, it is especially well-suited for in situ polymerizations, where the polymer is formed in the place where it will be utilized. Such polymerizations are especially useful for biomedical adhesives and for sensing applications. PMID:26848652

  7. Computational studies of free radical-scavenging properties of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alov, Petko; Tsakovska, Ivanka; Pajeva, Ilza

    2015-01-01

    For more than half a century free radical-induced alterations at cellular and organ levels have been investigated as a probable underlying mechanism of a number of adverse health conditions. Consequently, significant research efforts have been spent for discovering more effective and potent antioxidants / free radical scavengers for treatment of these adverse conditions. Being by far the most used antioxidants among natural and synthetic compounds, mono- and polyphenols have been the focus of both experimental and computational research on mechanisms of free radical scavenging. Quantum chemical studies have provided a significant amount of data on mechanisms of reactions between phenolic compounds and free radicals outlining a number of properties with a key role for the radical scavenging activity and capacity of phenolics. The obtained quantum chemical parameters together with other molecular descriptors have been used in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses for the design of new more effective phenolic antioxidants and for identification of the most useful natural antioxidant phenolics. This review aims at presenting the state of the art in quantum chemical and QSAR studies of phenolic antioxidants and at analysing the trends observed in the field in the last decade.

  8. Modelling land-use effects of future urbanization using cellular automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Morten; Münier, B.; Hansen, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    project PASHMINA (Paradigm Shift modelling and innovative approaches), three storylines of future transportation paradigm shifts towards 2040 are created. These storylines are translated into spatial planning strategies and modelled using the cellular automata model LUCIA. For the modelling, an Eastern......The modelling of land use change is a way to analyse future scenarios by modelling different pathways. Application of spatial data of different scales coupled with socio-economic data makes it possible to explore and test the understanding of land use change relations. In the EU-FP7 research...... Danish case area was selected, comprising of the Copenhagen metropolitan area and its hinterland. The different scenarios are described using a range of different descriptive GIS datasets. These include mapping of accessibility based on public and private transportation, urban density and structure...

  9. Cellular automaton simulation examining progenitor hierarchy structure effects on mammary ductal carcinoma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankhead, Armand; Magnuson, Nancy S; Heckendorn, Robert B

    2007-06-07

    A computer simulation is used to model ductal carcinoma in situ, a form of non-invasive breast cancer. The simulation uses known histological morphology, cell types, and stochastic cell proliferation to evolve tumorous growth within a duct. The ductal simulation is based on a hybrid cellular automaton design using genetic rules to determine each cell's behavior. The genetic rules are a mutable abstraction that demonstrate genetic heterogeneity in a population. Our goal was to examine the role (if any) that recently discovered mammary stem cell hierarchies play in genetic heterogeneity, DCIS initiation and aggressiveness. Results show that simpler progenitor hierarchies result in greater genetic heterogeneity and evolve DCIS significantly faster. However, the more complex progenitor hierarchy structure was able to sustain the rapid reproduction of a cancer cell population for longer periods of time.

  10. Transmission of Free Radicals through and Damage to Freestanding Single and Multilayer Dielectric Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Faraz Anwar

    A high concentration of free radicals is present in many processing plasmas, which affects the processing conditions and the properties of materials exposed to the plasma. Measuring the types and concentrations of free radicals present in the plasma is critical in order to determine their effects on the materials being processed. Current methods for detecting free radicals in a plasma require multiple expensive and bulky instruments, complex setups and often modifications to the plasma reactor. In this work, we present a simple technique that detects reactive-oxygen radicals incident on a surface from a plasma. The measurements are made using a fluorophore dye that is commonly used in biological and cellular systems for assay labeling in liquids. Using fluorometric analysis, it was found that the fluorophore reacts with oxygen radicals incident from the plasma, which is indicated by degradation of its fluorescence. As plasma power was increased, the quenching of the fluorescence significantly increased. Both immobilized and non-immobilized fluorophore dyes were used and the results indicate that both states function effectively under vacuum conditions. Using radical-sensitive dyes and free-standing films, the transmission of oxygen radicals through silicon nitride and silicon dioxide dielectric films is measured and their absorption lengths are determined. The absorption lengths were found to be 33, 37 and 40 nm for 15, 30 and 45-minute oxygen plasma exposures respectively. FTIR and XRR measurements show that a silicon oxynitride-like layer forms on the surface of the film which has a lower density than silicon nitride. The increase in absorption length with plasma-exposure time is attributed to the formation of the surface layer. In silicon dioxide films, the absorption length of oxygen radicals was found to be 70 nm after 20 minutes of plasma exposure. After 30 minutes of plasma exposure under the same conditions, the absorption length was reduced to 66 nm. XRR

  11. High Severity Wildfire Effect On Rainfall Infiltration And Runoff: A Cellular Automata Based Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Blanco, J. E.; Leboeuf-Pasquier, J.; Benavides-Solorio, J. D. D.

    2017-12-01

    A simulation software that reproduces rainfall infiltration and runoff for a storm event in a particular forest area is presented. A cellular automaton is utilized to represent space and time. On the time scale, the simulation is composed by a sequence of discrete time steps. On the space scale, the simulation is composed of forest surface cells. The software takes into consideration rain intensity and length, individual forest cell soil absorption capacity evolution, and surface angle of inclination. The software is developed with the C++ programming language. The simulation is executed on a 100 ha area within La Primavera Forest in Jalisco, Mexico. Real soil texture for unburned terrain and high severity wildfire affected terrain is employed to recreate the specific infiltration profile. Historical rainfall data of a 92 minute event is used. The Horton infiltration equation is utilized for infiltration capacity calculation. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is employed to reproduce the surface topography. The DEM is displayed with a 3D mesh graph where individual surface cells can be observed. The plot colouring renders water content development at the cell level throughout the storm event. The simulation shows that the cumulative infiltration and runoff which take place at the surface cell level depend on the specific storm intensity, fluctuation and length, overall terrain topography, cell slope, and soil texture. Rainfall cumulative infiltration for unburned and high severity wildfire terrain are compared: unburned terrain exhibits a significantly higher amount of rainfall infiltration.It is concluded that a cellular automaton can be utilized with a C++ program to reproduce rainfall infiltration and runoff under diverse soil texture, topographic and rainfall conditions in a forest setting. This simulation is geared for an optimization program to pinpoint the locations of a series of forest land remediation efforts to support reforestation or to minimize runoff.

  12. Static magnetic field exposure reproduces cellular effects of the Parkinson's disease drug candidate ZM241385.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyun Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was inspired by coalescing evidence that magnetic therapy may be a viable treatment option for certain diseases. This premise is based on the ability of moderate strength fields (i.e., 0.1 to 1 Tesla to alter the biophysical properties of lipid bilayers and in turn modulate cellular signaling pathways. In particular, previous results from our laboratory (Wang et al., BMC Genomics, 10, 356 (2009 established that moderate strength static magnetic field (SMF exposure altered cellular endpoints associated with neuronal function and differentiation. Building on this background, the current paper investigated SMF by focusing on the adenosine A(2A receptor (A(2AR in the PC12 rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cell line that displays metabolic features of Parkinson's disease (PD.SMF reproduced several responses elicited by ZM241385, a selective A(2AR antagonist, in PC12 cells including altered calcium flux, increased ATP levels, reduced cAMP levels, reduced nitric oxide production, reduced p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation, inhibited proliferation, and reduced iron uptake. SMF also counteracted several PD-relevant endpoints exacerbated by A(2AR agonist CGS21680 in a manner similar to ZM241385; these include reduction of increased expression of A(2AR, reversal of altered calcium efflux, dampening of increased adenosine production, reduction of enhanced proliferation and associated p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation, and inhibition of neurite outgrowth.When measured against multiple endpoints, SMF elicited qualitatively similar responses as ZM241385, a PD drug candidate. Provided that the in vitro results presented in this paper apply in vivo, SMF holds promise as an intriguing non-invasive approach to treat PD and potentially other neurological disorders.

  13. Static Magnetic Field Exposure Reproduces Cellular Effects of the Parkinson's Disease Drug Candidate ZM241385

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyun; Che, Pao-Lin; Du, Jian; Ha, Barbara; Yarema, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    Background This study was inspired by coalescing evidence that magnetic therapy may be a viable treatment option for certain diseases. This premise is based on the ability of moderate strength fields (i.e., 0.1 to 1 Tesla) to alter the biophysical properties of lipid bilayers and in turn modulate cellular signaling pathways. In particular, previous results from our laboratory (Wang et al., BMC Genomics, 10, 356 (2009)) established that moderate strength static magnetic field (SMF) exposure altered cellular endpoints associated with neuronal function and differentiation. Building on this background, the current paper investigated SMF by focusing on the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) in the PC12 rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cell line that displays metabolic features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Methodology and Principal Findings SMF reproduced several responses elicited by ZM241385, a selective A2AR antagonist, in PC12 cells including altered calcium flux, increased ATP levels, reduced cAMP levels, reduced nitric oxide production, reduced p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation, inhibited proliferation, and reduced iron uptake. SMF also counteracted several PD-relevant endpoints exacerbated by A2AR agonist CGS21680 in a manner similar to ZM241385; these include reduction of increased expression of A2AR, reversal of altered calcium efflux, dampening of increased adenosine production, reduction of enhanced proliferation and associated p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation, and inhibition of neurite outgrowth. Conclusions and Significance When measured against multiple endpoints, SMF elicited qualitatively similar responses as ZM241385, a PD drug candidate. Provided that the in vitro results presented in this paper apply in vivo, SMF holds promise as an intriguing non-invasive approach to treat PD and potentially other neurological disorders. PMID:21079735

  14. Correlation of the radioprotective effect of the methyl gallate on the ruptures induction in DNA and it effect in the capture of free radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales R, P.; Cabral P, A.; Cruz V, V.L.; Gonzalez B, F.; Zarco M, A.

    2007-01-01

    It is shown in alive, the capacity of the methyl gallate to reduce the induced ruptures in the DNA for γ radiation. As well as to capture free radicals in a system in vitro. This suggests that the methyl gallate can be a radioprotector that acts capturing free radicals. (Author)

  15. Differential sensitivity of cellular membranes to peroxidative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijbers, W.A.R.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a morphological and cytochemical investigation into the effects of both vitamin E deficiency and X-irradiation on the ultrastructure and enzyme activities of several cellular membranes, particularly the plasma membrane and the membranes of lysosomes, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. In the vitamin E deficient situation, the radicals and peroxides only originate near mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, so that these membrane systems suffer from changes. After irradiation of the liver of both the control duckling and the deficient duckling, radicals originate in all parts of the cell. Due to their high content of lipids and cholesterols, peroxides will occur mainly in plasma membranes and lysosomal membranes. Moreover, in these membranes there is hardly any protection by vitamin E

  16. The "halo effect" in Korea: change in practice patterns since the introduction of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ee-Rah; Jeong, Wooju; Park, Sung Yul; Ham, Won Sik; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon; Rha, Koon Ho

    2009-03-01

    Acquisition of the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, USA) has enabled robot-assisted surgery to become an acceptable alternative to open radical prostatectomy (ORP). Implementation of robotics at a single institution in Korea induced a gradual increase in the number of performances of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) to surgically treat localized prostate cancer. We analyzed the impact of robotic instrumentation on practice patterns among urologists and explain the change in value in ORP and RALP-the standard treatment and the new approach or innovation of robotic technology. The overall number of prostatectomies has increased over time because the number of RALPs has grown drastically whereas the number of OPRs did not decrease during the period of evaluation. Our experience emphasizes the potential of RALP to become the gold standard in the treatment of localized prostate cancer in various parts of the world.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of routine packed red blood cell transfusion in anemic cervix cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, Karin S.; Poschauko, Johann; Geyer, Edith; Berghold, Andrea; Oechs, Astrid C.; Petru, Edgar; Lahousen, Manfred; Kapp, Daniel S.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: It is well established that anemia predicts diminished radiocurability in cervix cancer. However, the therapeutic benefit of measures to correct the anemia remains controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of routine transfusion in patients with hemoglobin level (hb-l) ≤11 g/dl. Methods and Materials: Since 1985, it has been departmental policy to attempt to correct hb-l ≤11 g/dl before and/or during radiotherapy by red blood cell transfusion (RBCT) in patients undergoing radical radiotherapy for primary cervix cancer. To assess the benefit of RBCT, the charts of 204 patients (FIGO: IB-IV) treated until 1997 were reviewed. Parameters analyzed for their impact on disease-specific survival (DSS), pelvic control (PC), and metastases-free survival (MFS) included pretreatment hb-l, treatment hb-l, stage, tumor size, and lymph node status. To determine any differences in outcome according to type of anemia, a separate analysis was performed, grouping patients by cause of anemia (tumor vs. other medical illness related). Results: Each of the parameters tested was significantly correlated with the end points studied in univariate analysis. Patients whose hb-l were corrected (18.5%) had an outcome that did not differ significantly from that of nontransfused patients, whereas DSS, PC, and MFS (all: p<0.001) were significantly decreased in nonresponders to RBCT. Subgroup analysis showed no impact of hb-l in patients with other medical illness-related anemia (n=12). In multivariate analysis treatment, but not pretreatment, hb-l remained predictive for DSS, PC, and MFS. Persistent anemia was associated with a significantly increased risk of death (relative risk: 2.1) and pelvic failure (relative risk: 2.4) compared with nontransfused patients. If only patients with tumor anemia were considered, the respective risks increased (2.7; 3.6). None of the patients with other causes of anemia recurred, whether or not their hb-l was maintained

  18. Effect of Azadirachta indica leaves extract on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats:Role of antioxidants, free radicals and myeloperoxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghatule RR

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the healing effects of extract of dried leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Neem tree is known as ‘arishtha ’ in Sanskrit, meaning ‘reliever of sicknesses ’. Methods: 50% ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves was administered orally, once daily for 14 days in rats after the induction of colitis with acetic acid and 500 mg/kg dose of extract was found to have an optimal effect against acetic acid-induced colonic damage score, weight and adhesions (Macroscopic. Effect of Azadirachta indica extract was then further studied on various physical (mucous/blood in stool, food and water intake and body weight changes, colonic mucosal damage and inflammation (microscopic, antibacterial and biochemical parameters viz. i antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione and ii free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase (acute inflammatory marker activities in acetic acid-induced colitis. Results: Azadirachta indica extract decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation (macroscopic and microscopic, mucous/bloody diarrhea, fecal frequency and increased body weight. Azadirachta indica extract showed intestinal antibacterial activity and enhanced the antioxidants but decreased free radicals and myeloperoxidase activities. Acute toxicity study indicated no mortality or other ANS or CNS related adverse effects even with 5.0 g/kg dose (10 times of effective dose indicating its safety. Conclusions: Azadirachta indica seemed to be safe and effective in colitis by its predominant effect on promoting antioxidant status and decreasing intestinal bacterial load, free radicals and myeloperoxidase responsible for tissue damage and delayed healing.

  19. Microstructural descriptors and cellular automata simulation of the effects of non-random nuclei location on recrystallization in two dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rangel Rios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of non-random nuclei location and the efficiency of microstructural descriptors in assessing such a situation are studied. Cellular automata simulation of recrystallization in two dimensions is carried out to simulate microstrutural evolution for nuclei distribution ranging from a periodic arrangement to clusters of nuclei. The simulation results are compared in detail with microstrutural descriptors normally used to follow transformation evolution. It is shown that the contiguity is particularly relevant to detect microstructural deviations from randomness. This work focuses on recrystallization but its results are applicable to any nucleation and growth transformation.

  20. Impulsive effect on global exponential stability of BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks with time-varying delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kelin

    2010-02-01

    In this article, a class of impulsive bidirectional associative memory (BAM) fuzzy cellular neural networks (FCNNs) with time-varying delays is formulated and investigated. By employing delay differential inequality and M-matrix theory, some sufficient conditions ensuring the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium point for impulsive BAM FCNNs with time-varying delays are obtained. In particular, a precise estimate of the exponential convergence rate is also provided, which depends on system parameters and impulsive perturbation intention. It is believed that these results are significant and useful for the design and applications of BAM FCNNs. An example is given to show the effectiveness of the results obtained here.

  1. Effect of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the expression of malignant molecules in colon cancer tissue and the degree of trauma caused by radical operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Cheng Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the expression of malignant molecules in colon cancer tissue and the degree of trauma caused by radical operation. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with colon cancer in Fengrun People’s Hospital between March 2014 and February 2017 were selected and randomly divided into the XELOX group who accepted XELOX neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with radical operation for colon cancer and the control group who accepted radical operation for colon cancer alone. Surgically removed colon cancer tissue was collected to test the expression of proliferation, apoptosis and invasion genes, and serum was collected to detect the contents of liver and kidney function indicators as well as inflammatory factors. Results: Rac1, PLD2, CHD1L, Snail, Vimentin and N-cadherin mRNA expression levels in surgically removed colon cancer lesions of XELOX group were significantly lower than those of control group while MS4A12 and ASPP2 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher than those of control group; serum ALT, AST, β2-MG, Cys-C, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sTM and sE-selectin contents were not significantly different between the two groups of patients 1 day and 3 days after surgery. Conclusion: Preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy can inhibit the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion gene expression in colon cancer tissues without increasing the trauma of operation.

  2. Effect of preoperative consumption of high carbohydrate drink (Pre-Op) on postoperative metabolic stress reaction in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbay, Özgür; Adar, Serdar; Karagöz, Ayşe Heves; Çelebi, Nalan; Bilen, Cenk Yücel

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the effects of oral carbohydrate solution consumed until 2 h before the surgery in the patients that would undergo open radical retropubic prostatectomy on postoperative metabolic stress, patient anxiety, and comfort. A total of 50 adult patients, who were in ASA I-II group and would undergo open radical retropubic prostatectomy, were included in the study. While Group 1 = CH (n = 25) received oral glucose solution, Group 2 = FAM (n = 25) was famished starting from 24:00 h. Blood glucose, insulin, and procalcitonin levels of the patients were recorded, and the patients completed state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) test, which reflects the anxiety level of the patients, both before surgery and on the postoperative 24th hour. In order to evaluate patient comfort, senses of hunger, thirst, nausea, and cold were assessed in the morning prior to the surgery. No difference was observed between the two groups in terms of demographic data and insulin resistance levels (p > 0.05). Comparing with the preoperative levels, insulin resistance showed statistically significant elevation in both groups (p 0.05). With regard to preoperative patient comfort, sense of hunger was present in lesser number of subjects and at lower level in Group 1 (p hunger and thirst in the preoperative period in open radical retropubic prostatectomies.

  3. Total aerobic destruction of azo contaminants with nanoscale zero-valent copper at neutral pH: promotion effect of in-situ generated carbon center radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guohui; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2014-12-01

    In this study, nanoscale zero-valent copper (nZVC) was synthesized with a facile solvothermal method and used for the aerobic removal of azo contaminants at neutral pH for the first time. We found that both Cu(I) and OH generated during the nZVC induced molecular oxygen activation process accounted for the rapid total destruction of azo contaminants in the nZVC/Air system, where nZVC could activate molecular oxygen to produce H2O2, and also release Cu(I) to break the -NN- bond of azo contaminants via the sandmeyer reaction for the generation of carbon center radicals. The in-situ generated carbon center radicals would then react with OH produced by the Cu(I) catalyzed decomposition of H2O2, resulting in the generation of low molecular weight organic acids and their subsequent mineralization. The indispensible role of Cu(I) catalyzed sandmeyer reaction and the promotion effect of in-situ generated carbon center radicals on the rapid total destruction of azo contaminants in the nZVC/Air system were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. This study can deepen our understanding on the degradation of organic pollutant with molecular oxygen activated by zero valent metal, and also provide a new method to remove azo contaminants at neutral pH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Pathologic Stage on the Learning Curve for Radical Prostatectomy: Evidence That Recurrence in Organ-Confined Cancer Is Largely Related to Inadequate Surgical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J.; Bianco, Fernando J.; Gonen, Mithat; Cronin, Angel M.; Eastham, James A.; Schrag, Deborah; Klein, Eric A.; Reuther, Alwyn M.; Kattan, Michael W.; Pontes, J. Edson; Scardino, Peter T.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We previously demonstrated that there is a learning curve for open radical prostatectomy. We sought to determine whether the effects of the learning curve are modified by pathologic stage. Methods The study included 7765 eligible prostate cancer patients treated with open radical prostatectomy by one of 72 surgeons. Surgeon experience was coded as the total number of radical prostatectomies conducted by the surgeon prior to a patient’s surgery. Multivariable regression models of survival time were used to evaluate the association between surgeon experience and biochemical recurrence, with adjustment for PSA, stage, and grade. Analyses were conducted separately for patients with organ-confined and locally advanced disease. Results Five-year recurrence-free probability for patients with organ-confined disease approached 100% for the most experienced surgeons. Conversely, the learning curve for patients with locally advanced disease reached a plateau at approximately 70%, suggesting that about a third of these patients cannot be cured by surgery alone. Conclusions Excellent rates of cancer control for patients with organ-confined disease treated by the most experienced surgeons suggest that the primary reason such patients recur is inadequate surgical technique. PMID:18207316

  5. Distinct effects of rotenone, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and 6-hydroxydopamine on cellular bioenergetics and cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Giordano

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration and is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The bioenergetic susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to toxins which induce Parkinson's like syndromes in animal models is then of particular interest. For example, rotenone, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP and its active metabolite 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+, and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, have been shown to induce dopaminergic cell death in vivo and in vitro. Exposure of animals to these compounds induce a range of responses characteristics of Parkinson's disease, including dopaminergic cell death, and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS production. Here we test the hypothesis that cellular bioenergetic dysfunction caused by these compounds correlates with induction of cell death in differentiated dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. At increasing doses, rotenone induced significant cell death accompanied with caspase 3 activation. At these concentrations, rotenone had an immediate inhibition of mitochondrial basal oxygen consumption rate (OCR concomitant with a decrease of ATP-linked OCR and reserve capacity, as well as a stimulation of glycolysis. MPP(+ exhibited a different behavior with less pronounced cell death at doses that nearly eliminated basal and ATP-linked OCR. Interestingly, MPP(+, unlike rotenone, stimulated bioenergetic reserve capacity. The effects of 6-OHDA on bioenergetic function was markedly less than the effects of rotenone or MPP(+ at cytotoxic doses, suggesting a mechanism largely independent of bioenergetic dysfunction. These studies suggest that these dopaminergic neurotoxins induce cell death through distinct mechanisms and differential effects on cellular bioenergetics.

  6. Isoflurane preconditions myocardium against infarction via release of free radicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müllenheim, Jost; Ebel, Dirk; Frässdorf, Jan; Preckel, Benedikt; Thämer, Volker; Schlack, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Isoflurane exerts cardioprotective effects that mimic the ischemic preconditioning phenomenon. Generation of free radicals is implicated in ischemic preconditioning. The authors investigated whether isoflurane-induced preconditioning may involve release of free radicals. METHODS:

  7. Effects of cellular telephone manipulation on driver`s performance; Jidosha untenchu no keitai denwa shiyo sosa ni kanrensuru mondai no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, R; Ozawa, M; Hagiwara, T [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Takagi, H; Shimojo, A [Civil Engineering Research Institute of Hokkaido, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The present evaluates effects of cellular telephone manipulation on driver`s performance. The major independent variables were the reaction time and the mental workload. Hart et al. proposed the concept of the subjective mental workload. Experiments were conduced using a driving simulator without motion. Findings showed that the hands free system may provide less effect than the cellular telephone on the passenger seat on driver`s reaction time and mental workload. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. N-terminal modifications of cellular proteins: The enzymes involved, their substrate specificities and biological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varland, Sylvia; Osberg, Camilla; Arnesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of eukaryotic proteins are N-terminally modified by one or more processing enzymes. Enzymes acting on the very first amino acid of a polypeptide include different peptidases, transferases, and ligases. Methionine aminopeptidases excise the initiator methionine leaving the nascent polypeptide with a newly exposed amino acid that may be further modified. N-terminal acetyl-, methyl-, myristoyl-, and palmitoyltransferases may attach an acetyl, methyl, myristoyl, or palmitoyl group, respectively, to the α-amino group of the target protein N-terminus. With the action of ubiquitin ligases, one or several ubiquitin molecules are transferred, and hence, constitute the N-terminal modification. Modifications at protein N-termini represent an important contribution to proteomic diversity and complexity, and are essential for protein regulation and cellular signaling. Consequently, dysregulation of the N-terminal modifying enzymes is implicated in human diseases. We here review the different protein N-terminal modifications occurring co- or post-translationally with emphasis on the responsible enzymes and their substrate specificities. PMID:25914051

  9. Use of Computational Modeling to Evaluate Hypotheses About the Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Bystander Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuchao; Conolly, Rory B; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2006-11-21

    This report describes the development of a computational systems biology approach to evaluate the hypotheses of molecular and cellular mechanisms of adaptive response to low dose ionizing radiation. Our concept is that computational models of signaling pathways can be developed and linked to biologically based dose response models to evaluate the underlying molecular mechanisms which lead to adaptive response. For development of quantitatively accurate, predictive models, it will be necessary to describe tissues consisting of multiple cell types where the different types each contribute in their own way to the overall function of the tissue. Such a model will probably need to incorporate not only cell type-specific data but also spatial information on the architecture of the tissue and on intercellular signaling. The scope of the current model was more limited. Data obtained in a number of different biological systems were synthesized to describe a chimeric, “average” population cell. Biochemical signaling pathways involved in sensing of DNA damage and in the activation of cell cycle checkpoint controls and the apoptotic path were also included. As with any computational modeling effort, it was necessary to develop these simplified initial descriptions (models) that can be iteratively refined. This preliminary model is a starting point which, with time, can evolve to a level of refinement where large amounts of detailed biological information are synthesized and a capability for robust predictions of dose- and time-response behaviors is obtained.

  10. Effects of high frequency electromagnetic field emitted from digital cellular telephones on electronic pocket dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizuhiko, Deji; Kunihide, Nishizawa

    2002-01-01

    High frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from digital cellular telephones (cell phones) occasionally cause abnormally high values (wrong dosages) on electronic pocket dosimeters (EPD). Electric field strength distribution around the cell phone transmitting 1.5GHz band with a maximum power of 0.8 W was analyzed by using an isotropic probe with tri-axial dipole antennas. Five kinds of EPDs were exposed to the fields for 50s under four kinds of configurations relative to the cell phone. The electric field distribution expanded around the antenna and had a maximum strength level of 36.5 ± 0.30 V/m. The cell phone gave rise to a wrong dosage of four EPDs out of five. The electromagnetic susceptibility of the EPD was higher in the section where the semiconductor detector or electric circuit boards were implanted. The maximum value of wrong dosage was 1283μ Sv. The distance preventing electromagnetic interference differed in each EPD and ranged from 2.0cm to 21.0cm. The electromagnetic immunity levels of the EPDs were distributed from 9.2V/m to a value greater than 35V/m. The EPDs displayed wrong dosage during exposure, while they recovered their normal performance after the cell phone ceased transmitting. The electromagnetic immunity levels of the EPDs were either equal to or greater than the IEC-standard. The immunity levels should be enhanced greater than the IEC-standard from the standpoint of radiation protection

  11. Effects of multiple enzyme–substrate interactions in basic units of cellular signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaton, D D; Krishnan, J

    2012-01-01

    Covalent modification cycles are a ubiquitous feature of cellular signalling networks. In these systems, the interaction of an active enzyme with the unmodified form of its substrate is essential for signalling to occur. However, this interaction is not necessarily the only enzyme–substrate interaction possible. In this paper, we analyse the behaviour of a basic model of signalling in which additional, non-essential enzyme–substrate interactions are possible. These interactions include those between the inactive form of an enzyme and its substrate, and between the active form of an enzyme and its product. We find that these additional interactions can result in increased sensitivity and biphasic responses, respectively. The dynamics of the responses are also significantly altered by the presence of additional interactions. Finally, we evaluate the consequences of these interactions in two variations of our basic model, involving double modification of substrate and scaffold-mediated signalling, respectively. We conclude that the molecular details of protein–protein interactions are important in determining the signalling properties of enzymatic signalling pathways. (paper)

  12. Effects of high frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from digital cellular telephones on electronic pocket dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deji, Shizuhiko; Nishizawa, Kunihide

    2003-01-01

    Electric field strength distribution around the digital cellular telephone (cell phone) transmitting 1.5GHz band was analyzed by using an isotropic probe. Five types of electronic pocket dosimeters (EPDs) were exposed to the fields for 50sec under four kinds of configurations relative to the cell phone. The field distribution expanded around the antenna and had a maximum strength level of 36.5±0.3V/m. The cell phone caused abnormally high values (wrong dosages) to four EPDs out of five due to electromagnetic interference. Three out of the four EPDs exceeded the upper limits of dose range depending on the configurations, and the maximum value of wrong dosage among the EPDs was 1,283 μSv. The minimum distance preventing electromagnetic interference (protection distance) differed with each EPD and ranged from 2.0cm to 21.0cm. The electromagnetic immunity levels of EPD-1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were 13.3, ≥35, ≥32, 9.2 and ≥35 V/m, respectively. Although the immunity levels were either equal to or greater than the IEC-standard level, those of the EPDs should be enhanced greater than the IEC-standard from the standpoint of radiation protection. (author)

  13. Dewaterability of thermophilically digested biosolids: effects of temperature and cellular polymeric substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J.; Mavinic, D.S.; Kelly, H.G.; Ramey, W.D.

    2002-01-01

    Thermophilic processes digest sludge at high temperatures to produce Class A biosolids.Recent research work revealed that digestion temperature is the predominant factor affecting dewaterability of thermophilic biosolids. This paper presents findings of a laboratory study that investigated how various digestion temperatures affect dewaterability of digested biosolids, studied the phase partition of the substances affecting dewaterability in digested biosolids, and tested the role of cellular polymeric substances in affecting dewaterability.Secondary sludges were digested at 40-70 o C or 22 o C for up to 12 days. Centrate from thermophilically digested biosolids were treated with protease and boiling. This study found that, during the first few hours of digestion, higher temperatures resulted in more rapid and more significant deterioration in dewaterability than lower digestion temperatures. Continued digestion resulted in either improved (60 o C or 70 o C), or unchanged (40 o C or 50 o C), or gradually deteriorated dewaterability (22 o C). The substances affecting dewaterability were primarily located in the liquid phase of thermophilically digested biosolids. Boiling treatment did not result in significant changes in dewaterability. Protease treatment of the liquid phase of thermophilic biosolids improved dewaterability by 13-19%. Such an improvement confirmed the role of proteins in affecting dewaterability. (author)

  14. Effects of high frequency electromagnetic field emitted from digital cellular telephones on electronic pocket dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizuhiko, Deji; Kunihide, Nishizawa [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    High frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from digital cellular telephones (cell phones) occasionally cause abnormally high values (wrong dosages) on electronic pocket dosimeters (EPD). Electric field strength distribution around the cell phone transmitting 1.5GHz band with a maximum power of 0.8 W was analyzed by using an isotropic probe with tri-axial dipole antennas. Five kinds of EPDs were exposed to the fields for 50s under four kinds of configurations relative to the cell phone. The electric field distribution expanded around the antenna and had a maximum strength level of 36.5 {+-} 0.30 V/m. The cell phone gave rise to a wrong dosage of four EPDs out of five. The electromagnetic susceptibility of the EPD was higher in the section where the semiconductor detector or electric circuit boards were implanted. The maximum value of wrong dosage was 1283{mu} Sv. The distance preventing electromagnetic interference differed in each EPD and ranged from 2.0cm to 21.0cm. The electromagnetic immunity levels of the EPDs were distributed from 9.2V/m to a value greater than 35V/m. The EPDs displayed wrong dosage during exposure, while they recovered their normal performance after the cell phone ceased transmitting. The electromagnetic immunity levels of the EPDs were either equal to or greater than the IEC-standard. The immunity levels should be enhanced greater than the IEC-standard from the standpoint of radiation protection.

  15. Effects of nicotine on cellular proliferation, cell cycle phase distribution, and macromolecular synthesis in human promyelocytic HL-60 leukaemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, S.; Wu, J.M.; Chiao, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Addition of nicotine causes a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell growth in the human promyelocytic HL-60 leukemia cells, with 4 mM nicotine resulting in a 50% inhibition of cellular proliferation after 48-50h. Accompanying the anticellular effect of nicotine is a significant change in the cell cycle distribution of HL-60 cells. For example, treatment with 4 mM nicotine for 20h causes an increase in the proportion of G1-phase cells (from 49% to 57%) and a significant decrease in the proportion of S-phase cells (from 41% to 32%). These results suggest that nicotine causes partial cell arrest in the G-1 phase which may in part account for its effects on cell growth. To determine whether nicotine changes the cellular uptake/transport to macromolecular precursors, HL-60 cells were treated with 216 mM nicotine for 30h, at the end of which time cells were labelled with ( 3 H)thymidine, ( 3 H)uridine, ( 14 C)lysine and( 35 S)methionine, the trichloroacetic acid soluble and insoluble radioactivities from each of the labelling conditions were determined. These studies show that nicotine mainly affects the ''de novo synthesis'' of proteins. (author)

  16. The effect of ionizing radiation with different ionizing density on the uni-cellular Alga Micrasterias denticulate Breb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reubel, B.

    1982-01-01

    The uni-cellular green alga Micrasterias denticulata Breb is very suitable for cytological, ultrastructural investigations as well as for growth studies of cell populations because of its size and its specific cellular pattern. Therefore these cells were investigated for their cell-cycle-dependent reaction to different types of radiation, dose-rates and cumulated doses and compared with results from the literature on radiobiological effects on single cells. Different types of ionizing radiation were used such as gamma rays ( 60 Co, 241 Am), alpha rays ( 241 Am) neutrons ( 252 Cf and 14 MeV-neutrons from a particle-accelerator) and protons (20-MeV-protons from a particle-accelerator). Irradiation with low doses (gamma-, neutron irradiation) did not show any statistically significant results. No effects could be observed after alpha irradiation because of the alpha particles could not penetrate the mucus cover. Irradiation with gamma rays and protons showed statistically significant reversible and irreversible effects. The reversible effect appeared in a dose-dependent division-delay of the populations. The results from literature, cell-cycle observations and ultra-structural investigations point to a block in the G 2 -phase and prolongation of the S-phase. Irreversible irradiation damage is caused by neutron- and proton irradiation. In the first case the length of division delay shows no dose-dependence. In the second case the following cell-cycles are retarded. The dose-effect-curves of proton-irradiations with different dose-rates show a plateau at high doses, which seems to be effected by the turn-on of an additional repair-mechanism. (Author)

  17. IRON AND FREE RADICAL OXIDATIONS IN CELL MEMBRANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Freya Q.; Yue Qian, Steven; Buettner, Garry R.

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue being rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, is very susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Iron is well known to be an important initiator of free radical oxidations. We propose that the principal route to iron-mediated lipid peroxidations is via iron-oxygen complexes rather than the reaction of iron with hydrogen peroxide, the Fenton reaction. To test this hypothesis, we enriched leukemia cells (K-562 and L1210 cells) with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a model for brain tissue, increasing the amount of DHA from approximately 3 mole % to 32 mole %. These cells were then subjected to ferrous iron and dioxygen to initiate lipid peroxidation in the presence or absence of hydrogen peroxide. Lipid-derived radicals were detected using EPR spin trapping with α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-t-butylnitrone (POBN). As expected, lipid-derived radical formation increases with increasing cellular lipid unsaturation. Experiments with Desferal demonstrate that iron is required for the formation of lipid radicals from these cells. Addition of iron to DHA-enriched L1210 cells resulted in significant amounts of radical formation; radical formation increased with increasing amount of iron. However, the exposure of cells to hydrogen peroxide before the addition of ferrous iron did not increase cellular radical formation, but actually decreased spin adduct formation. These data suggest that iron-oxygen complexes are the primary route to the initiation of biological free radical oxidations. This model proposes a mechanism to explain how catalytic iron in brain tissue can be so destructive. PMID:10872752

  18. Orgasm after radical prostatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, M; VanDriel, MF; Schultz, WCMW; Mensink, HJA

    Objective To evaluate the ability to obtain and the quality of orgasm after radical prostatectomy, Patients and methods The orgasms experienced after undergoing radical prostatectomy were evaluated in 20 men (median age 65 years, range 56-76) using a semi-structured interview and a self-administered

  19. Radicals in arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Palenstijn (Willem Jan)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractLet K be a field. A radical is an element of the algebraic closure of K of which a power is contained in K. In this thesis we develop a method for determining what we call entanglement. This describes unexpected additive relations between radicals, and is encoded in an entanglement

  20. Radicals in arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palenstijn, Willem Jan

    2014-01-01

    Let K be a field. A radical is an element of the algebraic closure of K of which a power is contained in K. In this thesis we develop a method for determining what we call entanglement. This describes unexpected additive relations between radicals, and is encoded in an entanglement group. We give

  1. Nuclear reaction of 10 B (n, α) 7 Li and grain size effects on the production of free radicals in alanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurita Petatan, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    In general, it is important to know the physical and chemical properties of any material that is exposed to ionizing radiation. In particular, in dosimetric work, the amount of the absorbed doses by these materials is of much interest, in such a way that several methods have been developed in the past. An important and quantitatively accessible radiation effect in organic substances is the production of free radicals that can be easily measured by 'ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (EPR)'. Numerous studies have been now been made on pure D L-Alanine irradiated with different radiation sources. Examination of the irradiated samples reveals the production of a stable free radical (CH 3 - CH. -COOH). In particular, gamma and electron irradiated D L-Alanine has received wide attention in the high doses interval (10 - 10 5 Gy). In contrast, there are very few EPR studies on thermal neutron radiation induced free radicals in pure D L-alanine. This may be due to the weak EPR signals observed in the irradiated samples. The objective of this work is to study for the first time the increase of the radical yield produced in neutron irradiated borated alanine by the EPR technique. For this purpose alanine has been mixed with borax in different stoichiometric proportions and grain sizes. When the mixture is neutron irradiated, the boron of the borax may experience a neutron capture reaction, 10 B (n, α) 7 Li. With this nuclear reaction it is supposed that the α particles will may impinge on the alanine molecules, producing in this way extra free radicals. Samples were irradiated in the thermal column of a Triga Mark III nuclear reactor with a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10 7 n/Cm 2 -s. A signal enhancement of up to 1260 % is observed when samples of alanine-borax were intimately mixed in a stoichiometric ratio of 1:1. We also studied dosimetric characteristics of the mixed samples such as: a) Sensibility. b) Accuracy. c) Traceability. d) Stability. e)Fading. f

  2. Binge Ethanol and MDMA Combination Exacerbates Toxic Cardiac Effects by Inducing Cellular Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Navarro-Zaragoza

    Full Text Available Binge drinking is a common pattern of ethanol consumption among young people. Binge drinkers are especially susceptible to brain damage when other substances are co-administered, in particular 3,4 methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA. The aim of the present work was to study the mechanisms implicated in the adaptive changes observed after administration of these drugs of abuse. So, we have evaluated the cardiac sympathetic activity and the expression and activation of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27, after voluntary binge ethanol consumption, alone and in combination with MDMA. Both parameters are markers of stressful situations and they could be modified inducing several alterations in different systems. Adolescent mice received MDMA, ethanol or both (ethanol plus MDMA. Drinking in the dark (DID procedure was used as a model of binge. Noradrenaline (NA turnover, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, TH phosphorylated at serine 31 and HSP27 expression and its phosphorylation at serine 82 were evaluated in adolescent mice 48 h, 72 h, and 7 days after treatments in the left ventricle. NA and normetanephrine (NMN were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; TH and HSP27 expression and phosphorylation were measured by quantitative blot immunollabeling using specific antibodies. Ethanol and MDMA co-administration increased NA turnover and TH expression and phosphorylation versus the consumption of each one of these drugs. In parallel with the described modifications in the cardiac sympathetic activity, our results showed that binge ethanol+MDMA exposure is associated with an increase in HSP27 expression and phosphorylation in the left ventricle, supporting the idea that the combination of both drugs exacerbates the cellular stress induced by ethanol or MDMA alone.

  3. Phytoplankton calcification as an effective mechanism to alleviate cellular calcium poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M. N.; Ramos, J. Barcelos e.; Schulz, K. G.; Riebesell, U.; Kaźmierczak, J.; Gallo, F.; Mackinder, L.; Li, Y.; Nesterenko, P. N.; Trull, T. W.; Hallegraeff, G. M.

    2015-11-01

    Marine phytoplankton have developed the remarkable ability to tightly regulate the concentration of free calcium ions in the intracellular cytosol at a level of ~ 0.1 μmol L-1 in the presence of seawater Ca2+ concentrations of 10 mmol L-1. The low cytosolic calcium ion concentration is of utmost importance for proper cell signalling function. While the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the tight control of intracellular Ca2+ concentration are not completely understood, phytoplankton taxonomic groups appear to have evolved different strategies, which may affect their ability to cope with changes in seawater Ca2+ concentrations in their environment on geological timescales. For example, the Cretaceous (145 to 66 Ma), an era known for the high abundance of coccolithophores and the production of enormous calcium carbonate deposits, exhibited seawater calcium concentrations up to 4 times present-day levels. We show that calcifying coccolithophore species (Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Coccolithus braarudii) are able to maintain their relative fitness (in terms of growth rate and photosynthesis) at simulated Cretaceous seawater calcium concentrations, whereas these rates are severely reduced under these conditions in some non-calcareous phytoplankton species (Chaetoceros sp., Ceratoneis closterium and Heterosigma akashiwo). Most notably, this also applies to a non-calcifying strain of E. huxleyi which displays a calcium sensitivity similar to the non-calcareous species. We hypothesize that the process of calcification in coccolithophores provides an efficient mechanism to alleviate cellular calcium poisoning and thereby offered a potential key evolutionary advantage, responsible for the proliferation of coccolithophores during times of high seawater calcium concentrations. The exact function of calcification and the reason behind the highly ornate physical structures of coccoliths remain elusive.

  4. Phytoplankton calcification as an effective mechanism to prevent cellular calcium poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M. N.; Ramos, J. Barcelos e.; Schulz, K. G.; Riebesell, U.; Kaźmierczak, J.; Gallo, F.; Mackinder, L.; Li, Y.; Nesterenko, P. N.; Trull, T. W.; Hallegraeff, G. M.

    2015-08-01

    Marine phytoplankton has developed the remarkable ability to tightly regulate the concentration of free calcium ions in the intracellular cytosol at a level of ~ 0.1 μmol L-1 in the presence of seawater Ca2+ concentrations of 10 mmol L-1. The low cytosolic calcium ion concentration is of utmost importance for proper cell signalling function. While the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the tight control of intracellular Ca2+ concentration are not completely understood, phytoplankton taxonomic groups appear to have evolved different strategies, which may affect their ability to cope with changes in seawater Ca2+ concentrations in their environment on geological time scales. For example, the Cretaceous (145 to 66 Ma ago), an era known for the high abundance of coccolithophores and the production of enormous calcium carbonate deposits, exhibited seawater calcium concentrations up to four times present-day levels. We show that calcifying coccolithophore species (Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Coccolithus braarudii) are able to maintain their relative fitness (in terms of growth rate and photosynthesis) at simulated Cretaceous seawater calcium concentrations, whereas these rates are severely reduced under these conditions in some non-calcareous phytoplankton species (Chaetoceros sp., Ceratoneis closterium and Heterosigma akashiwo). Most notably, this also applies to a non-calcifying strain of E. huxleyi which displays a calcium-sensitivity similar to the non-calcareous species. We hypothesize that the process of calcification in coccolithophores provides an efficient mechanism to prevent cellular calcium poisoning and thereby offered a potential key evolutionary advantage, responsible for the proliferation of coccolithophores during times of high seawater calcium concentrations.

  5. Binge Ethanol and MDMA Combination Exacerbates Toxic Cardiac Effects by Inducing Cellular Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Ros-Simó, Clara; Milanés, María-Victoria; Valverde, Olga; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Binge drinking is a common pattern of ethanol consumption among young people. Binge drinkers are especially susceptible to brain damage when other substances are co-administered, in particular 3,4 methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The aim of the present work was to study the mechanisms implicated in the adaptive changes observed after administration of these drugs of abuse. So, we have evaluated the cardiac sympathetic activity and the expression and activation of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), after voluntary binge ethanol consumption, alone and in combination with MDMA. Both parameters are markers of stressful situations and they could be modified inducing several alterations in different systems. Adolescent mice received MDMA, ethanol or both (ethanol plus MDMA). Drinking in the dark (DID) procedure was used as a model of binge. Noradrenaline (NA) turnover, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), TH phosphorylated at serine 31 and HSP27 expression and its phosphorylation at serine 82 were evaluated in adolescent mice 48 h, 72 h, and 7 days after treatments in the left ventricle. NA and normetanephrine (NMN) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); TH and HSP27 expression and phosphorylation were measured by quantitative blot immunollabeling using specific antibodies. Ethanol and MDMA co-administration increased NA turnover and TH expression and phosphorylation versus the consumption of each one of these drugs. In parallel with the described modifications in the cardiac sympathetic activity, our results showed that binge ethanol+MDMA exposure is associated with an increase in HSP27 expression and phosphorylation in the left ventricle, supporting the idea that the combination of both drugs exacerbates the cellular stress induced by ethanol or MDMA alone. PMID:26509576

  6. Effects of Cellular Pathway Disturbances on Misfolded Superoxide Dismutase-1 in Fibroblasts Derived from ALS Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Keskin

    Full Text Available Mutations in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1 are a common known cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. The neurotoxicity of mutant SOD1s is most likely caused by misfolded molecular species, but disease pathogenesis is still not understood. Proposed mechanisms include impaired mitochondrial function, induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress, reduction in the activities of the proteasome and autophagy, and the formation of neurotoxic aggregates. Here we examined whether perturbations in these cellular pathways in turn influence levels of misfolded SOD1 species, potentially amplifying neurotoxicity. For the study we used fibroblasts, which express SOD1 at physiological levels under regulation of the native promoter. The cells were derived from ALS patients expressing 9 different SOD1 mutants of widely variable molecular characteristics, as well as from patients carrying the GGGGCC-repeat-expansion in C9orf72 and from non-disease controls. A specific ELISA was used to quantify soluble, misfolded SOD1, and aggregated SOD1 was analysed by western blotting. Misfolded SOD1 was detected in all lines. Levels were found to be much lower in non-disease control and the non-SOD1 C9orf72 ALS lines. This enabled us to validate patient fibroblasts for use in subsequent perturbation studies. Mitochondrial inhibition, endoplasmic reticulum stress or autophagy inhibition did not affect soluble misfolded SOD1 and in most cases, detergent-resistant SOD1 aggregates were not detected. However, proteasome inhibition led to uniformly large increases in misfolded SOD1 levels in all cell lines and an increase in SOD1 aggregation in some. Thus the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is a principal determinant of misfolded SOD1 levels in cells derived both from patients and controls and a decline in activity with aging could be one of the factors behind the mid-to late-life onset of inherited ALS.

  7. Simulation of land use change and effect on potential deforestation using Markov Chain - Cellular Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujiono, Indra, T. L.; Harmantyo, D.; Rukmana, I. P.; Nadia, Z.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to simulate land use change in 1996-2016 and its prediction in 2035 as well as its potential to deforestation. Both of these purposes were obtained through modeling analysis using Markov Chain Cellular Automata. This modeling method was considered important for understanding the causes and impacts. Based on the analysis, the land use change between 1996 to 2007 has caused forest loss (the region and non-region) covering an area of 62,012 ha. While in the period of 2007 to 2016, the change has lead to the east side of the slope grade of 0-15 percent and an altitude between 500-1000 meters above sea level. In this period, plantation area has increased by 50,822 ha, while the forest area has reduced from 80,038 ha. In a period of 20 years, North Bengkulu Regency has lost the forest area of 80,038 ha. The amount of intervention against forest suggested the potential for deforestation in this area. Simulation of land use change in 2035 did not indicate significant deforestation due to the limited land on physical factors such as slope and elevation. However, it should be noted that, in 2035, the area of conservation forest was reduced by 16,793 ha (29 %), while the areas of protected and production forest were reduced by 4,933 ha (19 %) and 2,114 ha (3 %), respectively. Land use change is a serious threat of deforestation, especially in forest areas in North Bengkulu Regency, where any decline in forest area means the addition of plantation area.

  8. Neuroprotective effect of novel cognitive enhancer noopept on AD-related cellular model involves the attenuation of apoptosis and tau hyperphosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskaya, Rita U; Vakhitova, Yulia V; Kuzmina, Uliyana Sh; Salimgareeva, Milyausha Kh; Zainullina, Liana F; Gudasheva, Tatiana A; Vakhitov, Vener A; Seredenin, Sergey B

    2014-08-06

    Noopept (N-phenyl-acetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) was constructed as a dipeptide analog of the standard cognition enhancer, piracetam. Our previous experiments have demonstrated the cognition restoring effect of noopept in several animal models of Alzheimer disease (AD). Noopept was also shown to prevent ionic disbalance, excitotoxicity, free radicals and pro-inflammatory cytokines accumulation, and neurotrophine deficit typical for different kinds of brain damages, including AD. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective action of noopept on cellular model of AD, Aβ 25-35-induced toxicity in PC12 cells and revealed the underlying mechanisms. The neuroprotective effect of noopept (added to the medium at 10 μM concentration, 72 hours before Аβ 25-35) was studied on Аβ 25-35-induced injury (5 μM for 24 h) in PC12 cells. The ability of drug to protect the impairments of cell viability, calcium homeostasis, ROS level, mitochondrial function, tau phosphorylation and neurite outgrowth caused by Аβ 25-35 were evaluated. Following the exposure of PC12 cells to Аβ 25-35 an increase of the level of ROS, intracellular calcium, and tau phosphorylation at Ser396 were observed; these changes were accompanied by a decrease in cell viability and an increase of apoptosis. Noopept treatment before the amyloid-beta exposure improved PC12 cells viability, reduced the number of early and late apoptotic cells, the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and calcium and enhanced the mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, pretreatment of PC12 cell with noopept significantly attenuated tau hyperphosphorylation at Ser396 and ameliorated the alterations of neurite outgrowth evoked by Аβ25-35. Taken together, these data provide evidence that novel cognitive enhancer noopept protects PC12 cell against deleterious actions of Aβ through inhibiting the oxidative damage and calcium overload as well as suppressing the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

  9. Inhibitory Effects of Adlay Extract on Melanin Production and Cellular Oxygen Stress in B16F10 Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Chun Huang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of adlay extract on melanin production and the antioxidant characteristics of the extract. The seeds were extracted by the supercritical fluid CO2 extraction (SFE method. The effect of adlay extract on melanin production was evaluated using mushroom tyrosinase activity assay, intracellular tyrosinase activity, antioxidant properties and melanin content. Those assays were performed spectrophotometrically. In addition, the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins was determined by western blotting. The results revealed that the adlay extract suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreased the amount of melanin in B16F10 cells. The adlay extract decreased the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF, tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1 and tyrosinase related protein-2 (TRP-2. The extract also exhibited antioxidant characteristics such as free radical scavenging capacity and reducing power. It effectively decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in B16F10 cells. We concluded that the adlay extract inhibits melanin production by down-regulation of MITF, tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2. The antioxidant properties of the extract may also contribute to the inhibition of melanogenesis. The adlay extract can therefore be applied as an inhibitor of melanogenesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant in skin care products.

  10. Muonium and muonic radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, P.; Fischer, H.; Roduner, E.; Strub, W.; Geeson, D.; Symons, M.C.R.

    1985-01-01

    An energetic positive muon which is injected in a liquid sample of substrate molecules (S) creates an ionization track consisting of substrate cations (S + ) and electrons. Near the end of this track the muon may combine with an electron to form muonium (Mu) which is observable in inert liquids, but which reacts by addition to form a radical. Alternatively, the electron can add to S to form S - , which then combines with the muon to form the radical. Furthermore, instead of ending up in Mu or in a radical the muon may stay in a diamagnetic environment as a solvated muon, or as a muon substituting a proton in a molecule. Of interest in these schemes are the mechanisms and rates of formation of muonated radicals and in particular the rate constants for their reactions to products. Investigations are based on the observation of Mu and the radical by means of the μSR technique in transverse magnetic fields. (Auth.)

  11. Pentacene appended to a TEMPO stable free radical: the effect of magnetic exchange coupling on photoexcited pentacene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernick, Erin T; Casillas, Rubén; Zirzlmeier, Johannes; Gardner, Daniel M; Gruber, Marco; Kropp, Henning; Meyer, Karsten; Wasielewski, Michael R; Guldi, Dirk M; Tykwinski, Rik R

    2015-01-21

    Understanding the fundamental spin dynamics of photoexcited pentacene derivatives is important in order to maximize their potential for optoelectronic applications. Herein, we report on the synthesis of two pentacene derivatives that are functionalized with the [(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxy] (TEMPO) stable free radical. The presence of TEMPO does not quench the pentacene singlet excited state, but does quench the photoexcited triplet excited state as a function of TEMPO-to-pentacene distance. Time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance experiments confirm that triplet quenching is accompanied by electron spin polarization transfer from the pentacene excited state to the TEMPO doublet state in the weak coupling regime.

  12. Differential effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on cellular drug transporters and their implications for using epigenetic modifiers in combination chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Benigno C; Li, Yang; Murray, David; Brammer, Jonathan E; Liu, Yan; Hosing, Chitra; Nieto, Yago; Champlin, Richard E; Andersson, Borje S

    2016-09-27

    HDAC inhibitors, DNA alkylators and nucleoside analogs are effective components of combination chemotherapy. To determine a possible mechanism of their synergism, we analyzed the effects of HDAC inhibitors on the expression of drug transporters which export DNA alkylators. Exposure of PEER lymphoma T-cells to 15 nM romidepsin (Rom) resulted in 40%-50% reduction in mRNA for the drug transporter MRP1 and up to ~500-fold increase in the MDR1 mRNA within 32-48 hrs. MRP1 protein levels concomitantly decreased while MDR1 increased. Other HDAC inhibitors - panobinostat, belinostat and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) - had similar effects on these transporters. The protein level of MRP1 correlated with cellular resistance to busulfan and chlorambucil, and Rom exposure sensitized cells to these DNA alkylators. The decrease in MRP1 correlated with decreased cellular drug export activity, and increased level of MDR1 correlated with increased export of daunorubicin. A similar decrease in the level of MRP1 protein, and increase in MDR1, were observed when mononuclear cells derived from patients with T-cell malignancies were exposed to Rom. Decreased MRP1 and increased MDR1 expressions were also observed in blood mononuclear cells from lymphoma patients who received SAHA-containing chemotherapy in a clinical trial. This inhibitory effect of HDAC inhibitors on the expression of MRP1 suggests that their synergism with DNA alkylating agents is partly due to decreased efflux of these alkylators. Our results further imply the possibility of antagonistic effects when HDAC inhibitors are combined with anthracyclines and other MDR1 drug ligands in chemotherapy.

  13. Effect of Heat Stress on Reproduction in Dairy Cows: Insights into the Cellular and Molecular Responses of the Oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Zvi

    2017-02-08

    Among the components of the female reproductive tract, the ovarian pool of follicles and their enclosed oocytes are highly sensitive to hyperthermia. Heat-induced alterations in small antral follicles can be expressed later as compromised maturation and developmental capacity of the ovulating oocyte. This review summarizes the most up-to-date information on the effects of heat stress on the oocyte with an emphasis on unclear points and open questions, some of which might involve new research directions, for instance, whether preantral follicles are heat resistant. The review focuses on the follicle-enclosed oocytes, provides new insights into the cellular and molecular responses of the oocyte to elevated temperature, points out the role of the follicle microenvironment, and discusses some mechanisms that might underlie oocyte impairment. Mechanisms include nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, mitochondrial function, apoptotic pathways, and oxidative stress. Understanding the mechanism by which heat stress compromises fertility might enable development of new strategies to mitigate its effects.

  14. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makpol, Suzana; Yeoh, Thong Wei; Ruslam, Farah Adilah Che; Arifin, Khaizurin Tajul; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2013-08-16

    Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA β-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs.

  15. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Methods Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA β-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. Results In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. Conclusion P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs. PMID:23948056

  16. Free radicals, oxygen and radiosensitizing drugs: a very brief introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, R.

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of the historical aspects of the search for radiation sensitizing drugs. Metronidazole, Flagyl and misonidazole are undergoing clincial trials as the result of basic free radical and cellular research. Studies at the molecular, biochemical and cellular levels are described. From the information obtained it now appears that several processes may be involved in sensitization: interference with charge recombination due to a sensitizer having a high electron affinity; an increase in the yield of oxidizing hydroxyl radicals by electron sequestration; interference with radical combination reactions due to a sensitizer having a high one electron oxidation potential; oxidation or organic radicals so fixing them; formation of products which are toxic; and changes in the biochemistry of the cell. 106 references, 4 figures

  17. The relationships between body mass index and television viewing, internet use and cellular phone use: the moderating effects of socio-demographic characteristics and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Hsiao, Ray C; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Huang, Chi-Fen; Liu, Shu-Chun; Wang, Shing-Yaw

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and television viewing, Internet use and cellular phone use and the moderators for these relationships in adolescents. The relationship between BMI and the time spent on three kinds of sedentary activities and the moderators for these relationships were analyzed among 9,278 Taiwanese adolescents. The different relationships between BMI and various Internet and cellular phone-related activities were analyzed. High television viewing and high Internet use were associated with increased BMI in adolescents. Exercising had a moderating effect on the relationship between BMI and television viewing. Several Internet and cellular phone-related activities were associated with increased BMI. The results support the relationships between adolescent BMI and television viewing and Internet use. The moderating effect of exercise and various Internet and cellular phone-related activities should be considered when developing intervention strategies for overweight adolescents. © 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effect of solid distribution on elastic properties of open-cell cellular solids using numerical and experimental methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargarian, A; Esfahanian, M; Kadkhodapour, J; Ziaei-Rad, S

    2014-09-01

    Effect of solid distribution between edges and vertices of three-dimensional cellular solid with an open-cell structure was investigated both numerically and experimentally. Finite element analysis (FEA) with continuum elements and appropriate periodic boundary condition was employed to calculate the elastic properties of cellular solids using tetrakaidecahedral (Kelvin) unit cell. Relative densities between 0.01 and 0.1 and various values of solid fractions were considered. In order to validate the numerical model, three scaffolds with the relative density of 0.08, but different amounts of solid in vertices, were fabricated via 3-D printing technique. Good agreement was observed between numerical simulation and experimental results. Results of numerical simulation showed that, at low relative densities (solid fraction in vertices. By fitting a curve to the data obtained from the numerical simulation and considering the relative density and solid fraction in vertices, empirical relations were derived for Young׳s modulus and Poisson׳s ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced Medial Collateral Ligament Healing using Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Dosage Effects on Cellular Response and Cytokine Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saether, Erin E.; Chamberlain, Connie S.; Leiferman, Ellen M.; Kondratko-Mittnacht, Jaclyn R.; Li, Wan Ju; Brickson, Stacey L.; Vanderby, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have potential therapeutic applications for musculoskeletal injuries due to their ability to differentiate into several tissue cell types and modulate immune and inflammatory responses. These immune-modulatory properties were examined in vivo during early stage rat medial collateral ligament healing. Two different cell doses (low dose 1×106 or high dose 4×106 MSCs) were administered at the time of injury and compared with normal ligament healing at days 5 and 14 post-injury. At both times, the high dose MSC group demonstrated a significant decrease in M2 macrophages compared to controls. At day 14, fewer M1 macrophages were detected in the low dose group compared to the high dose group. These results, along with significant changes in procollagen I, proliferating cells, and endothelialization suggest that MSCs can alter the cellular response during healing in a dose-dependent manner. The higher dose ligaments also had increased expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines at day 5 (IL-1β, IFNγ, IL-2) and increased expression of IL-12 at day 14. Mechanical testing at day 14 revealed increased failure strength and stiffness in low dose ligaments compared to controls. Based on these improved mechanical properties, MSCs enhanced functional healing when applied at a lower dose. Different doses of MSCs uniquely affected the cellular response and cytokine expression in healing ligaments. Interestingly, the lower dose of cells proved to be most effective in improving functional properties. PMID:24174129

  20. Alterations in cellular energy metabolism associated with the antiproliferative effects of the ATM inhibitor KU-55933 and with metformin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvash Zakikhani

    Full Text Available KU-55933 is a specific inhibitor of the kinase activity of the protein encoded by Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM, an important tumor suppressor gene with key roles in DNA repair. Unexpectedly for an inhibitor of a tumor suppressor gene, KU-55933 reduces proliferation. In view of prior preliminary evidence suggesting defective mitochondrial function in cells of patients with Ataxia Telangiectasia (AT, we examined energy metabolism of cells treated with KU-55933. The compound increased AMPK activation, glucose uptake and lactate production while reducing mitochondrial membrane potential and coupled respiration. The stimulation of glycolysis by KU-55933 did not fully compensate for the reduction in mitochondrial functions, leading to decreased cellular ATP levels and energy stress. These actions are similar to those previously described for the biguanide metformin, a partial inhibitor of respiratory complex I. Both compounds decreased mitochondrial coupled respiration and reduced cellular concentrations of fumarate, malate, citrate, and alpha-ketogluterate. Succinate levels were increased by KU-55933 levels and decreased by metformin, indicating that the effects of ATM inhibition and metformin are not identical. These observations suggest a role for ATM in mitochondrial function and show that both KU-55933 and metformin perturb the TCA cycle as well as oxidative phosphorylation.

  1. Research of an effect of radiostarvation on the cellular cycle time of the thermophilic cyanophyte, (Synechococcus sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, J.-C.; Gilet, Roland.

    1980-12-01

    An effect of radiostarvation (lowering of the background dose-rate of irradiation-in the experiments described here, lowering by a factor 5) was tried out on the gro