WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiator inspection device

  1. Fuel assembly inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaginuma, Yoshitaka

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device suitable to inspect appearance of fuel assemblies by photographing the appearance of fuel assemblies. Namely, the inspection device of the present invention measures bowing of fuel assembly or each of fuel rods or both of them based on the partially photographed images of fuel assembly. In this case, there is disposed a means which flashily projects images in the form of horizontal line from a direction intersecting obliquely relative to a horizontal cross section of the fuel assembly. A first image processing means separates the projected image pictures including projected images and calculates bowing. A second image processing means replaces the projected image pictures of the projected images based on projected images just before and after the photographing. Then, images for the measurement of bowing and images for inspection can be obtained simultaneously. As a result, the time required for the photographing can be shortened, the time for inspection can be shortened and an effect of preventing deterioration of photographing means by radiation rays can be provided. (I.S.)

  2. Inspection device in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Etsuo.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides an inspection device in PWR reactor core in which inspection operations are made efficient by stabilizing a posture of the device in front-to-back, vertical and left-to-right directions by a simple structure. When the device conducts inspection while running in liquid, the front and the back directions of the device main body are inspected using a visual device while changing the posture by operating a front-to-back direction propulsion device and a right-to-left direction propulsion device, and a vertical direction propulsion device against to rolling, pitching and yawing of the device main body. In this case, a spherical magnet moves freely in the gravitational direction in a vibration-damping fluid in a non-magnetic spherical shell following the change of the posture of the device main body, in which the vibrations due to the movement of the spherical magnet is settled by the vibration-damping fluid thereby stabilizing the posture of the device main body. At a typical inspection posture, the settling effect is enhanced by the attraction force between the spherical magnets in the spherical shell and each of magnetic force-attracted magnetic members disposed to the outer circumference of the shell, and the posture of the device main body can be confirmed in front-to-back, right-to-left and vertical directions by each of the posture confirming magnetic sensors. (N.H.)

  3. Nuclear fuel shipping inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Hada, Koji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an nuclear fuel shipping inspection device having a high detection sensitivity and capable of obtaining highly reliable inspection results. Constitution: The present invention concerns a device for distinguishing a fuel assembly having failed fuel rods in LMFBR type reactors. Coolants in a fuel assembly to be inspected are collected by a sampling pipeway and transferred to a filter device. In the filter device, granular radioactive corrosion products (CP) in the coolants are captured, to reduce the background. The coolants, after being passed through the filter device, are transferred to an FP catching device and gamma-rays of iodine and cesium nuclides are measured in FP radiation measuring device. Subsequently, the coolants transferred to a degasing device to separate rare gas FP in the coolants from the liquid phase. In a case if rare gas fission products are detected by the radiation detector, it means that there is a failed fuel rod in the fuel assembly to be inspected. Since the CP and the soluble FP are separated and extracted for the radioactivity measurement, the reliability can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Fuel inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Tadashi.

    1990-01-01

    The fuel inspection device of the present invention has a feature of obtaining an optimum illumination upon fuel rod interval inspection operation in a fuel pool. That is, an illumination main body used underwater is connected to a cable which is led out on a floor. A light control device is attached to the other end of the cable and an electric power cable is connected to the light control device. A light source (for example, incandescent lamp) is incorporated in the casing of the illumination main body, and a diffusion plate is disposed at the front to provide a plane light source. The light control device has a light control knob capable of remote-controlling the brightness of the light of the illumination main body. In the fuel inspection device thus constituted, halation is scarcely caused on the image screen upon inspection of fuels by a submerged type television camera to facilitate control upon inspection. Accordingly, efficiency of the fuel inspection can be improved to shorten the operation time. (I.S.)

  5. Plant abnormality inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a plant abnormality inspection device for conducting remote or automatic patrolling inspection in a plant and, more particularly, relates to such a device as capable of detecting abnormal odors. That is, the device comprises a moving device for moving to a predetermined position in the plant, a plurality of gas sensors for different kind of gases to be inspected mounted thereon, a comparator for comparing the concentration of a gas detected by the gas sensor with the normal gas concentration at the predetermined position and a judging means for judging the absence or presence of abnormality depending on the combination of the result of the comparison and deliverying a signal if the state is abnormal. As a result, a slight amount of gas responsible to odors released upon abnormality of the plant can be detected by a plurality of gas sensors for different kinds gases to rapidly and easily find abnormal portions in the plant. (I.S.)

  6. Incore inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogisu, Tatsuki; Taguchi, Kosei.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention can inspect surfaces of equipments in reactor water in a nuclear reactor in a state of atmospheric air. Namely, an inspection device is movable forwardly and backwardly in a water-proof vessel. An annular sucker with pleats is disposed to the outer side of a lid of the water-proof vessel. A television camera for an under water monitoring is disposed to the inner side of the lid of the water-proof vessel by way of a partitioning wall with lid. Transferring screws are disposed at the back and on the side of the water-proof vessel. In the device having such a constitution, (1) the inside of the water-proof vessel is at first made water-tight by closing the partitioning wall with lid, (2) the back and the side screws are operated by the guide of the underwater monitoring television camera, to transfer the water-proof vessel to the surface of the reactor core to be inspected, (3) the annular sucker with pleats is urged on the surface to be inspected by the back screw, to fix the water-proof vessel, (4) reactor water in a space of the annular sucker with pleats is discharged and replaced with air, and (5) the lid of the partition wall with lid is opened and the inspection device is disposed at a position of the underwater monitoring television camera, to inspect the surface to be inspected in a state of atmospheric air. (I.S.)

  7. Monitor inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueshima, Yoshinobu.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention reliably conducts monitoring by radiation monitors in a nuclear power plant thereby contributing to save the number of radiation operators and reduction of radiation exposure. Namely, radiation monitors continuously measure a plurality of γ-ray levels. A branched simultaneously counting circuit receives these signals. The output of the branched simultaneously counting circuit is inputted to a differentiation means. The differentiation means calculates a variation coefficient for each of the radiation monitoring values, namely, equivalent dose rates, and records and monitors change with time of the equivalent dose rates. With such procedures, the results of the monitoring of γ-ray levels can be judged objectively corresponding to the increase of the equivalent dose rates. As a result, the number of radiation operators can be saves and radiation exposure of the radiation operators can be reduced. (I.S.)

  8. Radiation emitting devices act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Act, entitled the Radiation Emitting Devices Act, is concerned with the sale and importation of radiation emitting devices. Laws relating to the sale, lease or import, labelling, advertising, packaging, safety standards and inspection of these devices are listed as well as penalties for any person who is convicted of breaking these laws

  9. Incore inspection and repairing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Arata; Kimura, Motohiko

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for inspecting and repairing the inside of a reactor container even if it is narrow, with no trouble by using a swimming-type operation robot. Namely, the device of the present invention conducts inspection and repairing operations for the inside of the reactor by introducing a swimming type operation robot into the reactor container. The swimming-type operation robot comprises a robot main body having a propeller, a balancer operably disposed to the robot main body and an inspection and repairing unit attached detachable to the balancer. In the device of the present invention, since the inspection and preparing unit is attached detachably to the swimming robot, a robot which transports tools is formed as a standard product. As a result, the production cost can be reduced, and the reliability of products can be improved. Appropriate operations can be conducted by using best tools. (I.S.)

  10. Acoustic inspection device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Burghard, Brion J.; Skorpik, James R.; Pappas, Richard A.; Mullen, O. Dennis; Samuel, Todd J.; Reid, Larry D.; Harris, Joe C.; Valencia, Juan D.; Smalley, Jonathan T.; Shepard, Chester L.; Taylor, Theodore T.

    2005-09-06

    An ultrasound inspection apparatus particularly adapted to examine containers (sealed or unsealed) containing a liquid or solid bulk material. The apparatus has an overall configuration of a hand held pistol with a front transducer contact surface that is positioned against a front wall of the container. An ultrasound pulse is transmitted from the apparatus to be reflected from a back wall of a container being investigated. The received echo pulse is converted to a digital waveform. The waveform is analyzed relative to temperature, travel distance of the pulse(s), and time of travel to ascertain characteristics of the liquid or other materials and to provide identification of the same.

  11. Radiation emitting devices regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations are the regulations referred to in the Radiation Emitting Devices Act and relate to the operation of devices. They include standards of design and construction, standards of functioning, warning symbol specifications in addition to information relating to the seizure and detention of machines failing to comply with the regulations. The radiation emitting devices consist of the following: television receivers, extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, microwave ovens, baggage inspection x-ray devices, demonstration--type gas discharge devices, photofluorographic x-ray equipment, laser scanners, demonstration lasers, low energy electron microscopes, high intensity mercury vapour discharge lamps, sunlamps, diagnostic x-ray equipment, ultrasound therapy devices, x-ray diffraction equipment, cabinet x-ray equipment and therapeutic x-ray equipment

  12. Internal inspection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In order to evaluate the possibilities and limits of using specific endoscopes, the design and performance of rigid and flexible endoscopes are studied. The results show on the one hand the physical conditions setting a limit to the applicability of a certain device, and on the other indicate possible ways of improving and modifying given devices so as to adapt them to the special requirements of current testing standards. Based on theoretical and practical experience, proposals for improvements are made. For rigid endoscopes, e.g., additional equipment has been developed and is described in detail, allowing hitherto existing problems to be solved, thus enlarging the range of employment and enhancing and improving the information to be gained by testing using endoscopes. (orig./RW) [de

  13. Track type ultrasonic inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiyama, Shigeru; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Takahisa, Kazuo.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns an improvement of a scanning device disposed near an object to be inspected such as a nuclear pressure vessel and having an ultrasonic probe, mounted thereon that travel along a running track. Specifically, one of wheel supports on both sides is attached being secured to the scanning device. The other of the supports is capable of fixing and releasing, as well as providing and releasing pressure to and from wheels upon mounting and detachment. This enables to provide a structure capable of pressing the wheels of the running device to the plane of the track and release thereof. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the running performance, reduce the size and weight and shorten the time for mounting and detachment of the running inspection device. (I.S.)

  14. Fuel element box inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortmayer, R.M.; Pick, W.

    1985-01-01

    The invention concerns a device for inspecting the outer geometry of a long fuel element box by measuring the surface contours over its longitudinal crossection and along its length by sensors. These are kept in a sledge which can be moved along the fuel element guide in a slot guide. The measurement signals reach an evaluation device outside the longitudinal box. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Sampling inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Keiichi.

    1996-01-01

    A holder is inserted to a holder guide, and is stopped at a position where one end of a hook disposed to the holder is not in contact with the holder guide (a position where hooks do not work). A cap incorporated with wiping paper is pushed up into a holder by a device rod with the wiping paper situated downwardly. The hooks of the holder are engaged to the grooves of the cap to secure the cap. The holder is moved to a predetermined place to wipe off the deposited materials on the surface of a vessel which contains radioactive wastes. Then, the holder is inserted to the holder guide, and is stopped at a position where the one end of the holder is raised. The securement of the gap is released, the cap is forced into a recovering cover by a discharging rod. The hooks of the recovering cover are caught by the grooves of the cap to secure the cap. Then, the cap is transported to a radioactivity measuring chamber. (I.N.)

  16. Inspection device for buried equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawa, Jun.

    1994-01-01

    In an inspection device for a buried equipment, a rail is suspended at the upper portion of a vessel of a pit-vessel type pump buried in a plant building floor, and a truck movable vertical in the vessel along the rail, and an ultrasonic wave probe contained in the truck and urged to the vessel by an electromagnet are disposed. In addition, an elevator moving vertically along a shaft is disposed, and an arm having the ultrasonic probe disposed at the end portion and driven by a piston are disposed to the elevator. The ultrasonic wave probe moves vertically together with the truck along the rail in the vessel while being urged to the vessel by the electromagnet to inspect and measure the state at the inner and outer surfaces of the vessel. Further, the length of the arm is controlled so as to set a predetermined distance between the ultrasonic wave probe and the vessel. Subsequently, the elevator is moved vertically along a shaft passing through a shaft hole of a mount, and the shaft is rotated thereby enabling to inspect and measure the state of the inner and outer surfaces of the vessel. (N.H.)

  17. A probe for Eddy current inspection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a surface probe for Eddy current inspection devices. According to the invention, said probe comprises two magnetic core windings, with their axes in parallel relationship and at right angles to the surface of the part to be inspected. This can be applied to the nondestructive inspection of reactor components [fr

  18. Task of radiation hygiene inspection at NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevts, J.; Kunz, Eh.

    1983-01-01

    The task and functions of the radiation-hygiene inspection in Czechoslovakia are presented. The radiation safety related information amounts that are to be presented to the hygiene inspection institutions are determined. The hygiene inspection content and forms at the stages of NPP designing, construction and operation are discussed. The hygiene inspection place is determined within the general radiation safety system [ru

  19. Radiation control in the nondestructive inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariya, Yukihiro

    1982-01-01

    In the early days of radiation nondestructive inspection about ten years ago, the loss of radiation sources and careless radiation exposure gave the impression of radiography inspection being immediately slipshod management. In this problem, the peculiar nature of the business in this field is involved. In Nondestructive Inspection Co., Ltd., besides the safety management of radioisotopes, the radiation exposure control of personnel in the regular inspection of nuclear power plants has become increasingly important. The following matters are described: radiation utilization in nondestructive inspection (X- and #betta#-ray radiography, #betta#-ray leak test on shield), radiation control problems in nondestructive inspection business (the peculiar aspects of the business, the analysis of the incidents related with nondestructive inspection), and the practice of radiation control in nondestructive inspection in Nondestructive Inspection Co., Ltd. (Mori, K.)

  20. Travelling type monitoring and inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takao; Maruki, Hideaki.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention sufficiently ensures video output images even if lenses of a television camera of a monitoring means are degraded to reduce the quantity of transmission light. That is, a light amount control mechanism capable of controlling the quantity of illumination light irradiated from an illumination device at an output level of a sensor of an inspection device main body. A test chart for measuring a luminance which is an output level of the sensor is disposed. During plant operation, the lenses of the television camera undergo influences of radioactivity and are degraded to reduce the quantity of transmission light on every periodical monitoring and inspection using a travelling type monitoring inspection device. In this case, the test chart disposed near the equipment to be monitored and inspected is caught by the television camera to measure a sensor output luminance. Then, the light amount control mechanism of the illumination device is controlled so as to provide a luminance which has been set at an initial stage of the plant inspection. With such procedures, video data of the objective equipment to be monitored and inspected can be obtained at a constant luminance during inspection. (I.S.)

  1. ALS insertion device block measurement and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Carrieri, J.; Cook, C.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Hoyer, E.; Plate, D.

    1991-05-01

    The performance specifications for ALS insertion devices require detailed knowledge and strict control of the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet blocks incorporated in these devices. This paper describes the measurement and inspection apparatus and the procedures designed to qualify and characterize these blocks. A detailed description of a new, automated Helmholtz coil facility for measurement of the three components of magnetic moment is included. Physical block inspection and magnetic moment measurement procedures are described. Together they provide a basis for qualifying blocks and for specifying placement of blocks within an insertion devices' magnetic structures. 1 ref., 4 figs

  2. Method of inspecting the function of reactor noise monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Hirohito.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to inspect the function of a reactor noise monitoring device used for monitoring the operation abnormality in coolant circuits during reactor operation. Constitution: A cylinder incorporating a steel ball moved laterally by a pneumatic pressure is disposed to the main body of a reactor coolant circuit. A three-way solenoid valve disposed to a central control room outside to a radiation controlled area is connected with the cylinder by way of pneumatic pipeways. The three-way solenoid valve is operated for a certain period of time by a timer in the central control room to thereby impinge the steel ball in the cylinder against the main body of the coolant circuit and it is inspected as to whether the reactor noise monitoring system can detect the impinging energy or not. Accordingly, the remote control is possible from out of the radiation controlled area and the inspection work can be simplified. (Seki, T.)

  3. Radiation flux measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, E.; Maitra, P.

    1977-01-01

    A radiation flux measuring device is described which employs a differential pair of transistors, the output of which is maintained constant, connected to a radiation detector. Means connected to the differential pair produce a signal representing the log of the a-c component of the radiation detector, thereby providing a signal representing the true root mean square logarithmic output. 3 claims, 2 figures

  4. Counterbalanced radiation detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platz, W.

    1986-01-01

    A counterbalanced radiation detection device is described which consists of: (a) a base; (b) a radiation detector having a known weight; (c) means connected with the radiation detector and the base for positioning the radiation detector in different heights with respect to the base; (d) electronic component means movably mounted on the base for counterbalancing the weight of the radiation detector; (e) means connected with the electronic component means and the radiation detector positioning means for positioning the electronic component means in different heights with respect to the base opposite to the heights of the radiation detector; (f) means connected with the radiation detector and the base for shifting the radiation detector horizontally with respect to the base; and (g) means connected with the electronic component means and the radiation detector shifting means for shifting the electronic component means horizontally with respect to the base in opposite direction to shifting of the radiation detector

  5. An image scanning device using radiating energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    Said invention relates to an image scanning device using radiating energy. More particularly, it relates to a device for generating a scanning beam of rectangular cross section from a γ or X-ray source. Said invention can be applied to radiographic units of the 'microdose' type used by airline staffs and others for the fast efficient inspection of luggage and parcels in view of detecting hidden things [fr

  6. SOR/72-43 Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    These Regulations of 10 February 1972, supplemented by SOR/77-895, lay down the classes of radiation emitting devices for the purposes of the Radiation Emitting Devices Act. They lay down their standards of design and construction and warning sign specifications and provide for the procedure to be followed by inspectors of such devices. The devices include inter alia extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, baggage inspection x-ray devices, laser scanners, television receivers. (NEA)

  7. Radiation ray measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Tatsuyuki; Ida, Masaki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a chained-radiation ray monitoring system which can be applied to an actual monitoring system of a nuclear power plant or the like. Namely, this device comprises a plurality of scintillation detectors. Each of the detectors has two light take-out ports for emitting light corresponding to radiation rays irradiated from the object of the measurement to optical fibers. In addition, incident light from the optical fiber by way of one of the light take-out optical ports is transmitted to the other of the ports and sent from the other optical port to the fibers. Plurality sets of measuring systems are provided in which each of the detectors are disposed corresponding to a plurality of objects to be measured. A signal processing device is (1) connected with optical fibers of plurality sets of measuring systems in conjunction, (2) detects the optical pulses inputted from the optical fibers to identify the detector from which the optical pulses are sent and (3) measures the amount of radiation rays detected by the identified detector. As a result, the device of the present invention can form a measuring system with redundancy. (I.S.)

  8. Radiation effects in optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.

    1977-03-01

    A summary is given of studies on radiation effects in light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, detectors, optical isolators and optical fibers. It is shown that the study of radiation damage in these devices can provide valuable information concerning the nature of the devices themselves, as well as methods of hardening these devices for applications in radiation environments

  9. Underwater inspection training in intense radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Ryoichi

    2017-01-01

    Osaka Prefecture University has a large dose cobalt 60 gamma ray source of about 2 PBq, and is engaged in technological training and human resource development. It is assumed that the decommissioning underwater operation of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station would be the focus. The university aims at acquisition of the basic of underwater inspection work under radiation environment that is useful for the above purpose, radiation measurement under water, basic training in image measurement, and aims as well to evaluate the damage of imaging equipment due to radiation, and master practical knowledge for the use of inspection equipment under a large dose. In particular, it is valuable to train in the observation of Cherenkov light emitted from a large dose cobalt radiation source in water using a high sensitivity camera. The measurement of radiation dose distribution in water had difficulty in remote measurement due to water shielding effect. Although it took much time before, the method using high sensitivity camera is easy to sequentially perform two-dimensional measurement, and its utility value is large. Its effect on the dose distribution measurement of irregularly shaped sources is great. The contents of training includes the following: radiation source imaging in water, use of a laser rangefinder in water, dose distribution measurement in water and Cherenkov light measurement, judgment of equipment damage due to irradiation, weak radiation measurement, and measurement and decontamination of surface contamination. (A.O.)

  10. Radiation monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshifumi.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention concerns a reactor start-up region monitor of a nuclear power plant. In an existent start-up region monitor, bias voltage is limited, if the reactor moves to a power region, in order to prevent degradation of radiation detectors. Accordingly, since the power is lower than an actual reactor power, the reactor power can not be monitored. The device of the present invention comprises a memory means for previously storing a Plateau's characteristic of the radiation detectors and a correction processing means for obtaining a correction coefficient in accordance with the Plateau's characteristic to correct and calculate the reactor power when the bias voltage is limited. With such a constitution, when the reactor power exceeds a predetermined value and the bias voltage is limited, the correction coefficient can be obtained by the memory means and the correction processing means. Corrected reactor power can also be obtained from the start-up region monitor by the correction coefficient. As a result, monitoring of the reactor power can be continued while preventing degradation of the radiation detector even if the bias voltage is limited. (I.S.)

  11. Radiation detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschmann, Kristian.

    1982-01-01

    A radiation detector suitable for use in computer tomography device has an ionization chamber which comprises a high voltage electrode, a collector electrode, a high voltage source having two terminals, one connected to the high voltage electrode, current measuring means having two terminals, one connected to the high voltage source and the other to the collector electrode, and an auxilliary electrode near and parallel to the entrance window of the device, having one adjacent to the high voltage electrode and the other adjacent but not connected to the collector electrode. The auxilliary electrode is connected to the high voltage source. In this way the electric field between the high voltage and collector electrodes is made homogeneous in the vicinity of the auxilliary electrode, improving the measuring speed of the detector

  12. Manipulator arm for a nuclear reactor vessel inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A manipulator arm for a reactor vessel in-service inspection apparatus is adapted to transport a transducer array for ultrasonic examination of welds at any point in the vessel. The removal of the inspection device from the reactor vessel in an emergency presents a problem where a relatively long manipulator arm is used. This invention provides an improved arm with means for changing the normal orientation of the arm to a shorter one to permit safe removal of the inspection device from the reactor vessel. (author)

  13. Development of wall ranging radiation inspection robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B. J.; Yoon, J. S.; Park, Y. S.; Hong, D. H.; Oh, S. C.; Jung, J. H.; Chae, K. S.

    1999-03-01

    With the aging of nation's nuclear facilities, the target of this project is to develop an under water wall ranging robotic vehicle which inspects the contamination level of the research reactor (TRIGA MARK III) as a preliminary process to dismantling. The developed vehicle is driven by five thrusters and consists of small sized control boards, and absolute position detector, and a radiation detector. Also, the algorithm for autonomous navigation is developed and its performance is tested through under water experiments. Also, the test result at the research reactor shows that the vehicle firmly attached the wall while measuring the contamination level of the wall

  14. Development of wall ranging radiation inspection robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B. J.; Yoon, J. S.; Park, Y. S.; Hong, D. H.; Oh, S. C.; Jung, J. H.; Chae, K. S

    1999-03-01

    With the aging of nation's nuclear facilities, the target of this project is to develop an under water wall ranging robotic vehicle which inspects the contamination level of the research reactor (TRIGA MARK III) as a preliminary process to dismantling. The developed vehicle is driven by five thrusters and consists of small sized control boards, and absolute position detector, and a radiation detector. Also, the algorithm for autonomous navigation is developed and its performance is tested through under water experiments. Also, the test result at the research reactor shows that the vehicle firmly attached the wall while measuring the contamination level of the wall.

  15. Underwater radiation measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for measuring, under water, radiation from spent fuels (long members to be detected) of nuclear power plants and reprocessing facilities. Namely, a detecting insertion tube (insertion tube) is disposed so as to be in parallel with axial direction of the long member to be detected stored underwater. A γ-ray detector is inserted to the inside of the insertion tube. A driving mechanism is disposed for moving the γ-ray detector in axial direction inside of the insertion tube. The driving mechanism preferably has a system that it moves the γ-ray detector by winding a detection signal cable around a driving drum. The driving mechanism is formed by inserting and securing a driving tube having screws formed on the side surface and inserting it into the insertion tube. It may have a system of moving the γ-ray detector together with the driving tube while engaging the teeth of a driving transfer mechanism with the screws of the driving tube. (I.S.)

  16. Radiation leaking protection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunami, Yoshio; Mitsumori, Kojiro

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent radioactivity from leaking outside of a reactor container by way of pipeways passing therethrough, by supplying pressurized fluid between each of a plurality of valves for separating the pipeways. Constitution: Pressurized fluid is supplied between each of a plurality of valves for separating pipeways. For instance, water in a purified water tank is pressurized by a pressure pump and the pressure of the pressurized water is controlled by a differential pressure detector, a pressure controller and a pressure control valve. In the case if a main steam pipe is ruptured outside of the reactor container or to be repaired, the separation valves are wholly closed and then the pressurizing device is actuated to supply pressurized water containing no radioactivity from the purified water tank to the position between the valves. The pressure in the pressurized water is controlled such that it is always higher by a predetermined level than the pressure in the reactor. This prevents the radioacitivity in the reactor core from leaking outside of the container passing through the valves, whereby radiation exposure in the working can be reduced and the circumferential contamination upon accident of pipeway rupture can be decreased. (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. Radiation effects in optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.; Wiczer, J.J.

    1984-05-01

    Purpose of this report is to provide not only a summary of radiation damage studies at Sandia National Laboratories, but also of those in the literature on the components of optoelectronic systems: light emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, optical fibers, and optical isolators. This review of radiation damage in optoelectronic components is structured according to device type. In each section, a brief discussion of those device properties relevant to radiation effects is given

  18. Radiation sterilization of medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluska, I.; Stuglik, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Overview of sterilization methods of medical devices has been given, with the special stress put on radiation sterilization. A typical validation program for radiation sterilization has been shown and also a comparison of European and ISO standards concerning radiation sterilization has been discussed. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. Inspection surveys of x-ray inspection systems: results of five years and implications on future management of radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharaj, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    Until the mid-1980s, federal inspectors performed radiation surveys annually on individual x-ray inspection systems which were operated for security screening purposes in federal facilities nationwide, and problems identified were corrected. The surveys were undertaken because of perceived high radiation risks and a need to ensure worker and public external exposures were minimized. The x-ray inspection systems are federally regulated under the Radiation Emitting Devices (RED) Act and, initially they were assessed by model type against the design, construction and performance criteria specified in the applicable RED regulations (Schedule II, Part IV) and were found compliant. A subsequent study not only demonstrated a much lower radiation risk attributed to a combination of technological advances in x-ray system design with narrow primary beams, high efficiency detectors and image processing capability, but also stressed the need for proper equipment maintenance and continued education of operators and maintenance personnel. Survey frequency was thus reduced to once every 2-3 years in accordance with a 1993 federal operational standard (Safety Code 29). The radiation protection principles in Safety Code 29 are similar to those of the 1996 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Basic Safety Standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and the safety of radiation sources. The purpose of this study was to assess inspection-survey data from 1993 through 1997 to elicit guidance toward the future management of radiation risks associated with the operation of such x-ray systems. (author)

  20. Tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device includes at least one elongated structure at least partially fabricated from one or more semiconductor materials exhibiting a bandgap characteristic including one or more energy transitions whose energies correspond to photon energies of light

  1. Apparatus for locating inspection device in a nuclear reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method for accurately locating an inspection device with a PWR or BWR pressure vessel uses a plurity of guide members and an internal location element, the exact position of which is known. Used for defining the size, orientation and position of a flow. (U.K.)

  2. Radiation shielding device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Takahiro; Yamagami, Makoto.

    1996-01-01

    A fixed shielding member made of a radiation shielding material is constituted in perpendicular to an opening formed on radiation shielding walls. The fixed shielding member has one side opened and has other side, the upper portion and the lower portion disposed in close contact with the radiation shielding walls. Movable shielding members made of a radiation shielding material are each disposed openably on both side of the fixed shielding member. The movable shielding member has a shaft as a fulcrum on one side thereof for connecting it to the radiation shielding walls. The other side has a handle attached for opening/closing the movable shielding member. Upon access of an operator, when each one of the movable shielding members is opened/closed on every time, leakage of linear or scattered radiation can be prevented. Even when both of the movable shielding members are opened simultaneously, the fixed shielding member and the movable shielding members form labyrinth to prevent leakage of linear radioactivity. (I.N.)

  3. Device for inspecting the inside of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Masuo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To apply illumination concentrically to a particular place and enable rapid and accurate inspection for the detailed portions by making such that the viewing direction of a television camera disposed in water and the direction of illumination of a submerged illumination tool can be varied optionally by remote control. Constitution: In the conventional inspection equipments for the inside of the reactor, a submerged illumination tool has merely been suspended by a cable and it has been difficult to effectively control the relative position with the television camera disposed in water. In this invention, the television camera disposed in water and a submerged illumination tool are rotatably disposed by way of a clamp to an inspection device main body. Then, the clamp can be rotated by the remote control and, further, the inspection device is suspended by way of a rope from a winding device disposed above the pressure vessel. In such a constitution, the submerged illumination tool can be adjusted to an optimal position to the television camera disposed in water. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. GRI testing facility available for pipeline inspection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    As part of a program to help improve detection and characterization of defects that may occur in pipelines, the Gas Research Institute has announced the completion of the first phase of a testing facility for the evaluation of new and existing pipeline inspection technologies. GRI is a private, not-for-profit membership organization based in Chicago. The first phase of the facility consists of a pull rig which includes four 300-foot lengths of pipe with diameters of 12, 24, 30, and 36 inches. NDE inspection devices can be pulled through these pipe segments by a winch at speeds up to 25 miles per hour

  5. Operation control device under radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kiichi; Murakami, Toichi.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention performs smooth progress of operation by remote control for a plurality of operations in periodical inspections in controlled areas of a nuclear power plant, thereby reducing the operator's exposure dose. Namely, the device monitors the progressing state of the operation by displaying the progress of operation on a CRT of a centralized control device present in a low dose area remote from an operation field through an ITV camera disposed in the vicinity of the operation field. Further, operation sequence and operation instruction procedures previously inputted in the device are indicated to the operation field through an operation instruction outputting device (field CRT) in accordance with the progress of the operation steps. On the other hand, the operation progress can be aided by inputting information from the operation field such as start or completion of the operation steps. Further, the device of the present invention can monitor the change of operation circumstances and exposure dose of operators based on the information from a radiation dose measuring device disposed in the operation circumstance and to individual operators. (I.S.)

  6. Radiation dose rate measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorber, R.

    1987-01-01

    A portable device is described for in-field usage for measuring the dose rate of an ambient beta radiation field, comprising: a housing, substantially impervious to beta radiation, defining an ionization chamber and having an opening into the ionization chamber; beta radiation pervious electrically-conductive window means covering the opening and entrapping, within the ionization chamber, a quantity of gaseous molecules adapted to ionize upon impact with beta radiation particles; electrode means disposed within the ionization chamber and having a generally shallow concave surface terminating in a generally annular rim disposed at a substantially close spacing to the window means. It is configured to substantially conform to the window means to define a known beta radiation sensitive volume generally between the window means and the concave surface of the electrode means. The concave surface is effective to substantially fully expose the beta radiation sensitive volume to the radiation field over substantially the full ambient area faced by the window means

  7. Device for remote inspection and testing of a structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, B.; Boudou, J.; Castaing, A.; Clasquin, J.; Gallet, B.; Saglio, R.; Samoel, A.

    1976-01-01

    A self-propelled carriage for inspecting the primary vessel of a fast reactor is capable of displacement within the interspace between the primary vessel and the containment vessel in order to inspect and test any predetermined zone of the primary vessel, the carriage being associated with a drive mechanism and applied against the oppositely facing wall of the containment vessel. The carriage is suspended from a composite cable actuated by a handling apparatus for introducing the carriage into the interspace and withdrawing it therefrom. The composite cable supplies electric power as well as the different fluids required for positioning and operation of the inspection devices which are mounted on the carriage. 9 claims, 6 drawing figures

  8. Non fuel bearing component(NFBC) inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Hideyuki; Kosaka, Tatsuya.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention continuously inspects the length and abrasion/corrosion states for a plurality of non-fuel bearing components (NFBC) under water in a pit. That is, the device comprises the following components. Two sets of frames are planted vertically on a pit wall. A support stand capable of opening and closing is disposed at the upper portion of the frame to sustain each control rods of the NFBC. An abrasion/corrosion measuring tool is disposed vertically movably on the frame at the lower portion of the support stand for detecting abrasion/corrosion states on the surface of each of the fuel rods. A lifting device is disposed outside of the pit for lifting the abrasion/corrosion measuring tools. The measuring tool is disposed vertically movably at a lower portion of the frame for measuring the length of each of the control rods. Then NFBCs are inserted and positioned reliably underwater in the pit, the length of the NFBCs and the abrasion/corrosion states on the surface of the control rod can be observed, the inspecting tools can be exchanged easily since the support stand is capable of opening and closing, and the inspection can be made continuously because of the dual structure according to the present invention. (I.S.)

  9. Radiation sensitive solid state devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, J.M.; Ralph, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    A solid state radiation sensitive device is described employing JFETs as the sensitive elements. Two terminal construction is achieved by using a common conductor to capacitively couple to the JFET gate and to one of the source and drain connections. (auth)

  10. Radiation area monitor device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vencelj, Matjaz; Stowe, Ashley C.; Petrovic, Toni; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Kosicek, Andrej

    2018-01-30

    A radiation area monitor device/method, utilizing: a radiation sensor; a rotating radiation shield disposed about the radiation sensor, wherein the rotating radiation shield defines one or more ports that are transparent to radiation; and a processor operable for analyzing and storing a radiation fingerprint acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated about the radiation sensor. Optionally, the radiation sensor includes a gamma and/or neutron radiation sensor. The device/method selectively operates in: a first supervised mode during which a baseline radiation fingerprint is acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated about the radiation sensor; and a second unsupervised mode during which a subsequent radiation fingerprint is acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated about the radiation sensor, wherein the subsequent radiation fingerprint is compared to the baseline radiation fingerprint and, if a predetermined difference threshold is exceeded, an alert is issued.

  11. Radiation detector device for measuring ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brake, D. von der.

    1983-01-01

    The device contains a compensating filter circuit, which guarantees measurement of the radiation dose independent of the energy or independent of the energy and direction. The compensating filter circuit contains a carrier tube of a slightly absorbing metal with an order number not higher than 35, which surrounds a tubular detector and which carries several annular filter parts on its surface. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Operation aid device upon periodical inspection of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukusaka, Ryoji.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an operation aid device upon periodical inspection of a nuclear power plant, capable of controlling a plurality of control rods safely at good operation efficiency while maintaining subcritical state. Namely, a fuel exchange computer controls an operation for exchanging fuel assemblies upon periodical inspection. An operation aiding computer aids the exchanging operation of fuel assemblies. A control rod position monitoring device allows withdrawal of one control rod under the condition of establishment of entire control rod insertion signal upon operation of exchanging fuel assemblies. Whether all of the four fuel assemblies around one control rod have been entirely taken out or not is judged based on information on the fuel assembly exchanging operation. When conditions for the judgement for operation aiding computer are established, the all insertion signals for the entire control rods as the condition for the withdrawal of the control rods are bypassed, and operation enable signals for plurality control rods are outputted to a control rod manual operation device. (I.S.)

  13. Implantation of inspection and radiation protection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, J.L.R. da

    1988-01-01

    Methods, means and procedures adopted by Petrobras engineering service to survey safety radiation protection of the companies that carry out radiographic services of PETROBRAS are showed. The systematic used in certification of personel, procedures, audits and field survey concerning radiation protection, are described. (C.M.) [pt

  14. Bill C-5, an act to amend the radiation emitting devices act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Act, entitled Bill C-5, allows for a series of amendments to the Radiation Emitting Devices Act. The amendments relate to regulations concerned with the sale, lease or import, labelling, advertising, packaging, safety standards and inspection of radiation emitting devices

  15. Realistic modeling of radiation transmission inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sale, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    We have applied Monte Carlo particle transport methods to assess a proposed neutron transmission inspection system for checked luggage. The geometry of the system and the time, energy and angle dependence of the source have been modeled in detail. A pulsed deuteron beam incident on a thick Be target generates a neutron pulse with a very broad energy spectrum which is detected after passage through the luggage item by a plastic scintillator detector operating in current mode (as opposed to pulse counting mode). The neutron transmission as a function of time information is used to infer the densities of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen in the volume sampled. The measured elemental densities can be compared to signatures for explosives or other contraband. By using such computational modeling it is possible to optimize many aspects of the design of an inspection system without costly and time consuming prototyping experiments or to determine that a proposed scheme will not work. The methods applied here can be used to evaluate neutron or photon schemes based on transmission, scattering or reaction techniques

  16. Development of Yb-169 radiation source for new nondestructive inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamabayashi, Hisamichi

    1994-01-01

    As the nondestructive inspection method for large structures, there has been radiography, and X-ray and γ-ray have been used as the radiation. The transmissivity of radiation through materials changes by the energy of the radiation and the density and thickness of the materials. At present about 880 γ-ray radiography apparatuses are used in Japanese private enterprises, and about 70% of them use 192 Ir γ-ray sources, and about 30% use 60 Co or 137 Cs sources. Recently the defect inspection for the worlded parts of thin wall small tubes and so on have become to be regarded as important, and the 169 Yb source that emits lower energy γ-ray is suitable to the purpose. There are many reports that 169 Yb radiography was applied successfully. As the 169 Yb radiation source, pellets and balls are on the market. 169 Yb is made by the neutron irradiation of 168 Yb in nuclear reactors. The characteristics of 169 Yb, the manufacture of 169 Yb radiation sources and the applicability of 169 Yb radiation sources to nondestructive inspection are reported. Also in Japan, many basic experiments on 169 Yb radiation sources have been carried out, and the irradiation apparatuses are small and light, and the control area can be set small. (K.I.)

  17. Assessment of patient radiation protection in external radiotherapy departments after inspections performed by the ASN 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchi, Vincent; Marchal, Carole

    2009-10-01

    This report proposes an assessment of patient radiation protection in external radiotherapy. It is based on inter-regional syntheses of inspections performed by the ASN in external radiotherapy departments during 2008. It addresses 6 main themes related to patient radiation protection: human and material resources, organisation of medical physics, training in patient radiation protection, mastering of equipment (maintenance, internal quality controls of medical devices), safety and care quality management (formalization of the patient care process and definition of responsibilities, patient identity control, treatment preparation, and treatment execution), and risk management (a priori risk analysis, declaration, recording and internal processing of dysfunctions, improvements of care quality and safety management system)

  18. 9 CFR 312.3 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed equine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspected and passed equine products. 312.3 Section 312.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... § 312.3 Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed equine products. (a) The official... § 317.2 of this subchapter to identify inspected and passed mule and other (nonhorse) equine carcasses...

  19. Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2010-06-08

    Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

  20. Development of the radiation inspection system for food materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Sujung; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Myungjin; Lee, Unjang [ORIONENC Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Radioactive contamination of processed foodstuffs, livestock, marine products, farm products imported from Japan and fishes caught in coastal waters of Korea has become an important social issue. Recently, there are also needs of inspection system for monitoring of public meals such like school feedings of kindergarten, elementary school, middle school, high school and university. Radioactivity inspections of those foods are executed manually with portable measuring instruments or at labs using their samples. But, radioactivity inspections of those foods should execute field survey in real time. In consequence, there are some problem of time delay and low reliability. To protect the health of citizens from radioactivity contained in Japanese marine products imported to Korea, a system to inspect radioactivity in real time is developed. The system is to measure the radioactivity level of farm and marine products and public meals continuously and automatically at inspection sites of an agency checking radiation of imported foodstuffs to determine radioactive contamination. Performance was identified through the performance test (Cs-137 30, 50, 300, 900Bq/kg) at Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS). NaI(Tl) detector was satisfied the performance for measurement.

  1. Development of the radiation inspection system for food materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Sujung; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Myungjin; Lee, Unjang

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of processed foodstuffs, livestock, marine products, farm products imported from Japan and fishes caught in coastal waters of Korea has become an important social issue. Recently, there are also needs of inspection system for monitoring of public meals such like school feedings of kindergarten, elementary school, middle school, high school and university. Radioactivity inspections of those foods are executed manually with portable measuring instruments or at labs using their samples. But, radioactivity inspections of those foods should execute field survey in real time. In consequence, there are some problem of time delay and low reliability. To protect the health of citizens from radioactivity contained in Japanese marine products imported to Korea, a system to inspect radioactivity in real time is developed. The system is to measure the radioactivity level of farm and marine products and public meals continuously and automatically at inspection sites of an agency checking radiation of imported foodstuffs to determine radioactive contamination. Performance was identified through the performance test (Cs-137 30, 50, 300, 900Bq/kg) at Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS). NaI(Tl) detector was satisfied the performance for measurement

  2. Silicon solid state devices and radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Claude

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the fundamental principles of interaction between radiation and matter, the principles of working and the operation of particle detectors based on silicon solid state devices. It covers a broad scope with respect to the fields of application of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices from low to high energy physics experiments including in outer space and in the medical environment. This book covers stateof- the-art detection techniques in the use of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices and their readout electronics, including the latest developments on pixelated silicon radiation detector and their application.

  3. Safety assessment plans for authorization and inspection of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this TECDOC is to enhance the efficacy, quality and efficiency of the whole regulatory process. It provides advice on good practice administrative procedures for the regulatory process for preparation of applications, granting of authorizations, inspection, and enforcement. It also provides information on the development and use of standard safety assessment plans for authorization and inspection. The plans are intended to be used in conjunction with more detailed advice related to specific practices. In this sense, this TECDOC provides advice on a systematic approach to evaluations of protection and safety while other IAEA Safety Guides assist the user to distinguish between the acceptable and the unacceptable. This TECDOC covers administrative advice to facilitate the regulatory process governing authorization and inspection. It also covers the use of standard assessment and inspection plans and provides simplified plans for the more common, well established uses of radiation sources in medicine and industry, i.e. sources for irradiation facilities, industrial radiography, well logging, industrial gauging, unsealed sources in industry, X ray diagnosis, nuclear medicine, teletherapy and brachytherapy

  4. Safety assessment plans for authorization and inspection of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this TECDOC is to enhance the efficacy, quality and efficiency of the whole regulatory process. It provides advice on good practice administrative procedures for the regulatory process for preparation of applications, granting of authorizations, inspection, and enforcement. It also provides information on the development and use of standard safety assessment plans for authorization and inspection. The plans are intended to be used in conjunction with more detailed advice related to specific practices. In this sense, this TECDOC provides advice on a systematic approach to evaluations of protection and safety while other IAEA Safety Guides assist the user to distinguish between the acceptable and the unacceptable. This TECDOC covers administrative advice to facilitate the regulatory process governing authorization and inspection. It also covers the use of standard assessment and inspection plans and provides simplified plans for the more common, well established uses of radiation sources in medicine and industry, i.e. sources for irradiation facilities, industrial radiography, well logging, industrial gauging, unsealed sources in industry, X ray diagnosis, nuclear medicine, teletherapy and brachytherapy

  5. Regulatory inspections in nuclear plants in the field of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hort, M.; Fuchsova, D.

    2014-01-01

    State Office for Nuclear Safety executes state administration and performs inspections at peaceful use of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety. Inspections on radiation protection at nuclear power plants are secured by inspectors of the Department of Radiation Protection in Fuel Cycle, who work at the Regional centre Brno and Ceske Budejovice. (authors)

  6. Promoting radiation protection and safety for X-ray inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharaj, Harri P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to present a regulatory perspective on radiation protection and safety relevant to facilities utilizing baggage X-ray inspection systems. Over the past several years there has been rapid growth in the acquisition and utilization of X-ray tube based inspection systems for security screening purposes worldwide. In addition to ensuring compliance with prescribed standards applicable to such X-ray systems, facilities subject to federal jurisdiction in Canada are required to comply with established codes of practice, which, not only are in accordance with occupational health and safety legislation but also are consistent with international guidance. Overall, these measures are aimed at reducing radiation risks and adverse health effects. Data, acquired in the past several years in a number of facilities through various instruments, namely, monitoring and surveillance, radiation safety audits, onsite evaluations, device registration processes and information developed, were considered in conjunction with detrimental traits. Changes are necessary to reduce radiation and safety risks from both an ALARA point of view and an accountability perspective. Establishing, developing, implementing and following a radiation protection program is warranted and advocated. Minimally, such a program shall be managed by a radiation safety officer. It shall promote and sustain a radiation safety culture in the workplace; shall ensure properly qualified individuals operate and service the X-ray systems in accordance with established and authorized procedures; and shall incorporate data recording and life cycle management principles. Such a program should be the norm for a facility that utilizes baggage X-ray inspection systems for security purposes, and it shall be subject to continuous regulatory oversight. (author)

  7. Radiation hardening of MOS devices by boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchenko, V.

    1975-01-01

    A novel technique is disclosed for radiation hardening of MOS devices and specifically for stabilizing the gate threshold potential at room temperature of a radiation subjected MOS field-effect device of the type having a semiconductor substrate, an insulating layer of oxide on the substrate, and a gate electrode disposed on the insulating layer. In the preferred embodiment, the novel inventive technique contemplates the introduction of boron into the insulating oxide, the boron being introduced within a layer of the oxide of about 100A to 300A thickness immediately adjacent the semiconductor-insulator interface. The concentration of boron in the oxide layer is preferably maintained on the order of 10 atoms/ cm 3 . The novel technique serves to reduce and substantially annihilate radiation induced positive gate charge accumulations, which accumulations, if not eliminated, would cause shifting of the gate threshold potential of a radiation subjected MOS device, and thus render the device unstable and/or inoperative. (auth)

  8. Application of neutron radiation inspection at the Pantex Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    A neutron radiographic capability has been established at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, which is operated for the Department of Energy by Mason and Hanger-Silas Mason Co. A 3 MeV Van de Graaf accelerator is employed as the neutron source. Neutron radiation inspection techniques have been developed to detect and observe discontinuities in explosive materials encased in aluminum, lead, steel and combinations of these casement materials. These data demonstrate that the capability exists for obtaining satisfactory neutron radiographs of many explosive-loaded components. Additional work will be performed in order to further determine applicable capabilities of the 3 MeV Van de Graaf accelerator. (Auth.)

  9. Application of ICT in the non-destructive inspection of explosive device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhe; Li Tiantuo; Liu Zhiqiang; Pei Zhihua; Wang Zhiping

    2003-01-01

    The inspection of explosive device is an important task in the store of the weapons. The technique of non-destructive examination with radial, especially the ICT, is an effective method. The paper mainly introduces the design and the theories on the inspection system and software system of the application of industrial ICT in the non-destructive examination of explosive device, and gives a reference to the work in such fields

  10. Method and device for controlling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    A device which will control radiation emanating from colour television sets is described. It consists of two transparent plates the same size as a television screen, with a thin layer of transparent mineral oil sealed between them. The device may be installed by the manufacturer or bought separately and installed by the user. (LL)

  11. Semiconductor radiation detectors. Device physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, G.

    2007-01-01

    Starting from basic principles, the author, whose own contributions to these developments have been significant, describes the rapidly growing field of modern semiconductor detectors used for energy and position measurement radiation. This development was stimulated by requirements in elementary particle physics where it has led to important scientific discoveries. It has now spread to many other fields of science and technology. The book is written in a didactic way and includes an introduction to semiconductor physics. The working principles of semiconductor radiation detectors are explained in an intuitive way, followed by formal quantitative analysis. Broad coverage is also given to electronic signal readout and to the subject of radiation damage. The book is the first to comprehensively cover the semiconductor radiation detectors currently in use. It is useful as a teaching guide and as a reference work for research and applications. (orig.)

  12. Radiation detection device and a radiation detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, A.

    1975-01-01

    A radiation detection device is described including at least one scintillator in the path of radiation emissions from a distributed radiation source; a plurality of photodetectors for viewing each scintillator; a signal processing means, a storage means, and a data processing means that are interconnected with one another and connected to said photodetectors; and display means connected to the data processing means to locate a plurality of radiation sources in said distributed radiation source and to provide an image of the distributed radiation sources. The storage means includes radiation emission response data and location data from a plurality of known locations for use by the data processing means to derive a more accurate image by comparison of radiation responses from known locations with radiation responses from unknown locations. (auth)

  13. Device for detecting ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anatychuk, L.I.; Kharitonov, J.P.; Kusniruk, V.F.; Meir, V.A.; Melnik, A.P.; Ponomarev, V.S.; Skakodub, V.A.; Sokolov, A.D.; Subbotin, V.G.; Zhukovsky, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention relates to ionizing radiation sensors, and , more particularly, to semiconductor spectrometers with thermoelectric cooling, and can most advantageously be used in mineral raw material exploration and evaluation under field conditions. The spectrometer comprises a vacuum chamber with an entrance window for passing the radiation therethrough. The vacuum chamber accommodates a thermoelectric cooler formed by a set of peltier elements. A heat conducting plate is mounted on the cold side of the thermoelectric cooler, and its hot side is provided with a radiator. Mounted on the heat conducting plate are sets of peltier elements, integral with the thermoelectric cooler and independent of one another. The peltier elements of these sets are stacked so as to develop the minimum temperature conditions on one set carrying a semiconductor detector and to provide the maximum refrigeration capacity conditions on the other set provided with the field-effect transistor mounted thereon

  14. Development of automated ultrasonic device for in-service inspection of ABWR pressure vessel bottom head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Y.; Matsuyama, A.

    1995-01-01

    An automated device and its controller have been developed for the bottom head weld examination of pressure vessel of Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The internal pump casings and the housings of control rod prevent a conventional ultrasonic device from scanning the required inspection zone. With this reason, it is required to develop a new device to examine the bottom head area of ABWR. The developed device is characterized by the following features. (1) Composed of a mother vehicle and a compact inspection vehicle. They are connected only by an electric wire without using the conventional arm mechanism. (2) The mother vehicle travels on a track and lift up the inspection vehicle to the vessel. (3) The mother vehicle can automatically attach the inspection vehicle to the bottom head, and detach the inspection vehicle from it. (4) Collision avoidance control function with a touch sensor is installed at the front of the inspection vehicle. The device was successfully demonstrated using a mock-up of reactor pressure vessel

  15. Devices for obtaining information about radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosswill, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    The invention provides a sensitive, fast high-resolution device for obtaining information about the distribution of gamma and X-radiation sources and provides a radiation detector useful in such a device. It comprises a slit collimator with a multiplicity of slits each with slit-defining walls of material and thickness to absorb beam components impinging on them. The slits extend further in one direction than the other. The detector for separately detecting beam components passing through the slits also provides data output signals. It comprises a plurality of radiation transducing portions which are not photoconductor elements each at the end of a slit. A positioner operates to change the transverse position of the slits and radiation transducing portions relative to the source, wherein each radiation transducing element is positioned within its respective slit between the slit defining walls. Full details and preferred embodiments are given. (U.K.)

  16. Radiation effects in charge coupled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.; Nelson, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    Charge coupled devices (CCD s) exhibit a number of advantages (low cost, low power, high bit density) in their several applications (serial memories, imagers, digital filters); however, fairly elementary theoretical considerations indicate that they will be very vulnerable to permanent radiation damage, by both neutrons and ionizing radiation, and to transient upset by pulsed ionizing radiation. Although studies of permanent ionizing-radiation damage in CCD's have been reported, little information has been published concerning their overall nuclear radiation vulnerability. This paper presents a fairly comprehensive experimental study of radiation effects in a 256-cell surface-channel, CCD shift-register. A limited amount of similar work is also presented for a 128-cell surface-channel device and a 130 cell peristaltic CCD shift register. The radiation effects phenomena discussed herein, include transient-ionizing-radiation responses, permanent ionizing- radiation damage to transfer efficiency, charge-carrying capacity and input transfer gate bias, and neutron damage to storage time--determined from dark current and charge-up time measurements

  17. Prospects of radiation sterilization of medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosobuchi, Kazunari

    1992-01-01

    Since radiation sterilization was first introduced in the United States in 1956 in the field of disposable medical devices, it has become an indispensable technique for sterilization because of the following reasons: (1) introduction into dialyzers, (2) introduction in medical device makers, (3) development of disposable medical devices associated with developing both high molecular chemistry and cool sterilization, (4) rationality of sterilization process, and (5) problems of sterilization with ethylene oxide gas. To promote the further development of radiation sterilization, the following items are considered necessary: (1) an increase in the number of facilities for radiation sterilization, (2) recommendation of the international standardization of sterilization method, (3) decrease in radiation doses associated with sterilization, (4) development of electron accelerators and bremsstrahlung equipments for radiation sources, and (5) simplification of sterilization process management. Factors precluding the development of radiation sterilization are: (1) development of other methods than radiation sterilization, (2) development of technique for sterile products, (3) high facility cost, (4) high irradiation cost, (5) benefits and limits of sterilization markets, and (6) influences of materials. (N.K.)

  18. Radiation safety for baggage x-ray inspection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    This book is an outgrowth of a course on radiation safety aimed at technicians responsible for conducting maintenance on baggage x-ray inspection systems used in federally operated facilities. The need for a single reference book became apparent to the instructor in 1984. In an effort to provide a cohesive development of the subject, a set of lecture notes was prepared and revised annually since 1984, from which this book has evolved. This book is intended to present concepts necessary for an elementary but comprehensive knowledge of radiation safety. While some material coverage may appear somewhat detailed, it is a deliberate attempt to strengthen areas of demonstrated weaknesses observed in course attenders and to provide guidance on the numerous questions about man-made radiation asked by course attenders over the years. Numerical examples are included in most chapters for clarity and ease of understanding. The problems given at the end of most chapters provide the reader with the opportunity of applying the material presented in the chapters to situations of practical interest. It is important that these problems be considered an integral part of the course and students attempt to solve them. 36 refs., 9 tabs., 17 figs.

  19. Radiation safety for baggage x-ray inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This book is an outgrowth of a course on radiation safety aimed at technicians responsible for conducting maintenance on baggage x-ray inspection systems used in federally operated facilities. The need for a single reference book became apparent to the instructor in 1984. In an effort to provide a cohesive development of the subject, a set of lecture notes was prepared and revised annually since 1984, from which this book has evolved. This book is intended to present concepts necessary for an elementary but comprehensive knowledge of radiation safety. While some material coverage may appear somewhat detailed, it is a deliberate attempt to strengthen areas of demonstrated weaknesses observed in course attenders and to provide guidance on the numerous questions about man-made radiation asked by course attenders over the years. Numerical examples are included in most chapters for clarity and ease of understanding. The problems given at the end of most chapters provide the reader with the opportunity of applying the material presented in the chapters to situations of practical interest. It is important that these problems be considered an integral part of the course and students attempt to solve them. 36 refs., 9 tabs., 17 figs

  20. Devices for obtaining information about radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosswill, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    The invention provides a sensitive, fast, high-resolution device for obtaining information about the distribution of gamma and X-radiation sources and provides a radiation detector useful in such a device. It comprises a slit collimator with a multiplicity of slits each with slit-defining walls of material and thickness to absorb beam components impinging on them. The slits extend further in one transverse direction than the other. The detector for separately detecting beam components passing through the slits also provides data output signals. It comprises a plurality of radiation transducing portions, each at the end of a slit. A positioner changes the transverse position of the slits and radiation transducer (a photoconductor) relative to the source. Applications are in nuclear medicine and industry. Full details and preferred embodiments are given. (U.K.)

  1. Advanced Small Animal Conformal Radiation Therapy Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil; Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Przybyla, Beata; Webber, Jessica; Boerma, Marjan; Clarkson, Richard; Moros, Eduardo G; Corry, Peter M; Griffin, Robert J

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a small animal conformal radiation therapy device that provides a degree of geometrical/anatomical targeting comparable to what is achievable in a commercial animal irradiator. small animal conformal radiation therapy device is capable of producing precise and accurate conformal delivery of radiation to target as well as for imaging small animals. The small animal conformal radiation therapy device uses an X-ray tube, a robotic animal position system, and a digital imager. The system is in a steel enclosure with adequate lead shielding following National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements 49 guidelines and verified with Geiger-Mueller survey meter. The X-ray source is calibrated following AAPM TG-61 specifications and mounted at 101.6 cm from the floor, which is a primary barrier. The X-ray tube is mounted on a custom-made "gantry" and has a special collimating assembly system that allows field size between 0.5 mm and 20 cm at isocenter. Three-dimensional imaging can be performed to aid target localization using the same X-ray source at custom settings and an in-house reconstruction software. The small animal conformal radiation therapy device thus provides an excellent integrated system to promote translational research in radiation oncology in an academic laboratory. The purpose of this article is to review shielding and dosimetric measurement and highlight a few successful studies that have been performed to date with our system. In addition, an example of new data from an in vivo rat model of breast cancer is presented in which spatially fractionated radiation alone and in combination with thermal ablation was applied and the therapeutic benefit examined.

  2. Process and device for remote inspection of parts of a nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalfuss, H.

    1987-01-01

    The process is suitable for remote position inspection of the parts of the plant in a large hot cell, for example of a reprocessing plant. A device with a TV camera was selected as the inspection system, where pictures obtained by photography are compared (photogrammetry). The possible resolution is considerably increased by using two spatially movable separate picture systems with the associated drawing media. (DG) [de

  3. Midinfrared radiation energy harvesting device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong-Ren; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2017-07-01

    The International Energy Agency reports a 17.6% annual growth rate in sustainable energy production. However, sustainable power generation based on environmental conditions (wind and solar) requires an infrastructure that can handle intermittent power generation. An electromagnetic thermoelectric (EMTE) device to overcome the intermittency problems of current sustainable energy technologies, providing the continuous supply unachievable by photovoltaic cells with portability impossible for traditional thermoelectric (TE) generators, is proposed. The EMTE converts environmental electromagnetic waves to a voltage output without requiring additional input. A single cell of this TE-inspired broadband EMTE can generate a 19.50 nV output within a 7.2-μm2 area, with a verified linear scalability of the output voltage through cell addition. This idea leads to a challenge: the electrical polarity of each row of cells is the same but may require additional routing to combine output from each row. An innovative layout is proposed to overcome this issue through switching the electrical polarity every other row. In this scheme, the EM wave absorption spectrum is not altered, and a simple series connection can be implemented to boost the total voltage output by 1 order within a limited area.

  4. EMERGENCY RADIATION SURVEY DEVICE ONBOARD THE UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bogatov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiation survey device (RSD on the base of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV was developed as an equipment of rescue forces for radiation situation reconnaissance in case of emergency. RSD is multi range radiometer with spectrometer functions capable to work within gamma ray fields of dose rate 10–7 – 10–1 Sievert per hour. UAV md4-1000 (Microdrones GmbH, Germany was selected as the RSD carrier as a reliable vehicle with appropriate properties. Short description of RSD, UAV and developed software features as well as sensitivity assessments for different radiation sources are presented.

  5. Medical device for applying therapeutic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokita, K.M.; Haller, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    A device is described for applying therapeutic radiation from a preselected radiation source to a predetermined portion of a body comprising, in combination: a body member having: an external peripheral surface; a first end surface; and a second end surface spaced from the first end surface; the body member further comprising: at least first internal walls defining a first radiation source receiving channel means spaced a preselected distance from the peripheral surface, and having: a first portion extending from the second end surface to regions adjacent the first end surface; and a second portion extending from the first portion at the first end surface to the second end surface; and, the channel means communicating with regions external the body member at the second surface whereby the radiation source of a preselected intensity inserted at least along a preselected portion of the channel means is applied to the predetermined area of the body requiring therapeutic radiation treatment

  6. Conveying equipment for various inspection devices through remote control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihara, Shizo; Ibe, Tomoyoshi.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly and accurately convey a flaw detector by means of remote control to a member to be inspected, which is not accessible by an operator, for example, such as a suitable desired wall surface within a reactor. Constitution: Guide tracks are fixedly mounted along the wall surface of the structure by support members. A TV camera mounted on a sliding truck catches an image reflected from a concave reflecting mirror within the flaw detector to obtain information by which a driving mechanism of the self-travelling truck and winch mechanisms of the self-travelling truck and sliding truck may be driven to move the flaw detector to the desired position. In this case, the automatic connecting mechanism is disconnected, and a cable is suitably expanded by a group of travelling trucks and an expansion adjusting mechanism. (Yoshino, Y.)

  7. Synchronized control of spiral CT scan for security inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jue; Jiang Zenghui; Wang Fuquan

    2008-01-01

    In security inspection system of spiral CT, the synchronization between removing and rotating, and the scan synchronization between rotating and sampling influence quality of image reconstruction, so it is difficulty and important that how to realize synchronized scan. According to the controlling demand of multi-slice Spiral CT, the method to realize synchronized scan is given. a synchronized control system is designed, in which we use a industrial PC as the control computer, use magnetic grids as position detectors, use alternating current servo motor and roller motor as drivers respectively drive moving axis and rotating axis. This method can solve the problem of synchronized scan, and has a feasibility and value of use. (authors)

  8. Radiation sensitive area detection device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Hecht, Diana L. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A radiation sensitive area detection device for use in conjunction with an X ray, ultraviolet or other radiation source is provided which comprises a phosphor containing film which releases a stored diffraction pattern image in response to incoming light or other electromagnetic wave. A light source such as a helium-neon laser, an optical fiber capable of directing light from the laser source onto the phosphor film and also capable of channelling the fluoresced light from the phosphor film to an integrating sphere which directs the light to a signal processing means including a light receiving means such as a photomultiplier tube. The signal processing means allows translation of the fluoresced light in order to detect the original pattern caused by the diffraction of the radiation by the original sample. The optical fiber is retained directly in front of the phosphor screen by a thin metal holder which moves up and down across the phosphor screen and which features a replaceable pinhole which allows easy adjustment of the resolution of the light projected onto the phosphor film. The device produces near real time images with high spatial resolution and without the distortion that accompanies prior art devices employing photomultiplier tubes. A method is also provided for carrying out radiation area detection using the device of the invention.

  9. Measuring ionizing radiation with a mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsburg, Matthias; Fehrenbach, Thomas; Puente León, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    In cases of nuclear disasters it is desirable to know one's personal exposure to radioactivity and the related health risk. Usually, Geiger-Mueller tubes are used to assess the situation. Equipping everyone with such a device in a short period of time is very expensive. We propose a method to detect ionizing radiation using the integrated camera of a mobile consumer device, e.g., a cell phone. In emergency cases, millions of existing mobile devices could then be used to monitor the exposure of its owners. In combination with internet access and GPS, measured data can be collected by a central server to get an overview of the situation. During a measurement, the CMOS sensor of a mobile device is shielded from surrounding light by an attachment in front of the lens or an internal shutter. The high-energy radiation produces free electrons on the sensor chip resulting in an image signal. By image analysis by means of the mobile device, signal components due to incident ionizing radiation are separated from the sensor noise. With radioactive sources present significant increases in detected pixels can be seen. Furthermore, the cell phone application can make a preliminary estimate on the collected dose of an individual and the associated health risks.

  10. Modern equipment of radiation intrascopie for inspection of welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnin, F.R.

    1976-01-01

    The systems are described of radiation intrascopy of controlled objects studied by x-raying and the effective transformation of the shadow x-ray image into light-shadow one. In order to increase the range of controlled thicknesses and to improve the flaw detector sensitivity of the control, the electron-optical devices and telesivion technology are applied. So it becomes possible, through the amplification of the image, to use the high resolving power of the eye. Four types of modern equipment with amplification of the image have been defined, depending on x-rays and light converters. The main technical characteristics of some devices are given. The motion mechanisms of the controlled objects are considered. All kinds of radiation intrascopy systems developed up to the present time have the sensitivity of control of steel welded objects with thickness 5-50 mm which is 2 to 4 times greater than the sensitivity of the radiographic control method. The x-ray-television control is 2 to 4 times more efficient than radiographic one and is preferable from the safety point of view

  11. Study of radiation effects on semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuboyama, Satoshi; Shindou, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Naomi; Iwata, Yoshiyuki; Murakami, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    Fine structure of the recent semiconductor devices has made them more sensitive to the space radiation environment with trapped high-energy protons and heavy ions. A new failure mode caused by bulk damage had been reported on such devices with small structure, and its effect on commercial synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAMs) was analyzed from the irradiation test results performed at Heavy ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). Single event upset (SEU) data of static random access memory (SRAMs) were also collected to establish the method of estimating the proton-induced SEU rate from the results of heavy ion irradiation tests. (authors)

  12. Radiation effects in LDD MOS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, R.L.; Adams, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the response of lightly doped drain (LDD) n-channel transistors to ionizing radiation. Transistors were fabricated with conventional (non-LDD) and lightly doped drain (LDD) structures using both standard (non-hardened) and radiation hardened gate oxides. Characterization of the transistors began with a correlation of the total-dose effects due to 10 keV x-rays with Co-60 gamma rays. The authors find that for the gate oxides and transistor structures investigated in this work, 10 keV x-rays produce more fixed-charge guild-up in the gate oxide, and more interface charge than do Co-60 gamma rays. They determined that the radiation response of LDD transistors is similar to that of conventional (non-LDD) transistors. In addition, both standard and radiation-hardened transistors subjected to hot carrier stress before irradiation show a similar radiation response. After exposure to 1.0 x 10 6 rads(Si), non-hardened transistors show increased susceptibility to hot-carrier graduation, while the radiation-hardened transistors exhibit similar hot-carrier degradation to non-irradiated devices. The authors have demonstrated a fully-integrated radiation hardened process tht is solid to 1.0 x 10 6 rads(Si), and shows promise for achieving 1.0 x 10 7 rad(Si) total-dose capability

  13. Guiding device for a manipulator mast for internal inspection of a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, W.; Schlueter, H.

    1977-01-01

    A remote-controlled supporting device centering a manipulator mast is described which is mounted and operated above a reactor pressure vessel under water in such a way that rotations and vertical movements necessary for the internal inspection of the pressure vessel remain possible. (RW) [de

  14. 10 CFR 34.31 - Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 34.31 Section 34.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.31 Inspection and... maintenance program must include procedures to assure that Type B packages are shipped and maintained in...

  15. Analysis of Radiation Accident of Non-destructive Inspection and Rational Preparing Bills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Junwoo; Yoo, Donghan; Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2013-01-01

    After 2006, according to enactment of Non-destructive Inspection Promotion Act, the number of non-destructive inspection companies and corresponding accident is increased sharply. In this research, it includes characteristic analysis of field of the non-destructive inspection. And from the result of analysis, the purpose of this research is discovering reason for 'Why there is higher accident ratio in non-destructive inspection field, relatively' and preparing effective bill for reducing radiation accidents. The number of worker for non-destructive inspect is increased steadily and non-destructive inspect worker take highest dose. Corresponding to these, it must be needed to prepare bills to protect non-destructive inspect workers. By analysis of accident case, there are many case of carelessness that tools are too heavy to carry it everywhere workers go. And there are some cases caused by deficiency of education that less understanding of radiation and poor operation by less understanding of structure of tools. Also, there is no data specialized to non-destructive inspect field. So, it has to take information from statistical data. Because of this, it is hard to analyze nondestructive inspect field accurately. So, it is required to; preparing rational bills to protect non-destructive inspect workers nondestructive inspect instrument lightening and easy manual which can understandable for low education background people accurate survey data from real worker. To accomplish these, we needs to do; analyze and comprehend the present law about non-destructive inspect worker understand non-destructive inspect instruments accurately and conduct research for developing material developing rational survey to measuring real condition for non-destructive inspect workers

  16. Radiation effects on custom MOS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.

    1999-05-01

    This Thesis consists of four chapters: The first is primarily for background information on the effects of radiation on MOS devices and the theory of wafer bonding; the second gives a full discussion of all practical work carried out for manufacture of Field Effect test Capacitors, the third discusses manufacture of vacuum insulator Field Effect Transistors (FET's) and the fourth discusses the testing of these devices. Using a thermally bonded field effect capacitor structure, a vacuum dielectric was studied for use in high radiation environments with a view to manufacturing a CMOS compatible, micro machined transistor. Results are given in the form of high frequency C-V curves before and after a 120 kGy(Si), 12 MRad(Si), dose from a Co 60 source showing a 1 Volt shift. The work is then extended to the design and manufacture of a micro machined, under-etch technique, Field Effect Transistor for use in high radiation areas. Results are shown for Threshold, Subthreshold and Transfer characteristics before and after irradiation up to a total dose of 100kGy or 10MRad. The conclusion from this work is that it should be possible to commercially manufacture practical vacuum dielectric field effect transistors which are radiation hard to at least 120 kGy(Si). (author)

  17. Effects of radiation on MOS structures and silicon devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeunig, D.; Fahrner, W.

    1983-02-01

    A comprehensive view of radiation effects on MOS structures and silicon devices is given. In the introduction, the interaction of radiation with semiconductor material is presented. In the next section, the electrical degradation of semiconductor devices due to this interaction is discussed. The commonly used hardening techniques are shown. The last section deals with testing of radiation hardness of devices. (orig.) [de

  18. Inspection device for external examination of pressure vessels, preferably for ultrasonic testing of reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figlhuber, D.; Gallwas, J.; Weber, R.; Weber, J.

    1978-01-01

    The inspection device is placed in the annular gap between pressure vessel and biological shield of the BWR. In the annulus there is arranged at least one longitudinal rail which has got vertical guideways. Along it there can be moved on testing paths a manipulator with the ultrasonic search unit. The manipulator drive is outside of the inspection annulus. It is coupled to the manipulator by means of a tension member being guided over a reversing unit mounted at the upper end of the longitudinal rail. As a tension member there may be used a drag chain; the drive and the reversing unit are provided with corresponding chain wheels. (DG) [de

  19. MIR: an in-service inspection device for Superphenix 1 vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asty, M.; Ceccato, S.; Lerat, B.; Viard, J.

    1986-06-01

    The main and safety vessels of SUPERPHENIX 1 were designed to allow in-service inspections. The remote controlled inspection device MIR was developed for this purpose. It allows both visual and ultrasonic examinations to be performed. Basically, MIR consists of a tetrahedral structure provided with four steering and traction wheels, two for each vessel. A computer assisted control system enables it to be driven to any position on either the main or safety vessels. Operating conditions are briefly reviewed and the main features of MIR presented

  20. Effectiveness of X-ray grating interferometry for non-destructive inspection of packaged devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Masato; Yashiro, Wataru; Momose, Atsushi

    2013-10-01

    It is difficult to inspect packaged devices such as IC packages and power modules because the devices contain various components, such as semiconductors, metals, ceramics, and resin. In this paper, we demonstrated the effectiveness of X-ray grating interferometry (XGI) using a laboratory X-ray tube for the industrial inspection of packaged devices. The obtained conventional absorption image showed heavy-elemental components such as metal wires and electrodes, but the image did not reveal the defects in the light-elemental components. On the other hand, the differential phase-contrast image obtained by XGI revealed microvoids and scars in the encapsulant of the samples. The visibility contrast image also obtained by XGI showed some cracks in the ceramic insulator of power module sample. In addition, the image showed the silicon plate surrounded by the encapsulant having the same X-ray absorption coefficient. While these defects and components are invisible in the conventional industrial X-ray imaging, XGI thus has an attractive potential for the industrial inspection of the packaged devices.

  1. Radiation protection and safety guide no. GRPB-G-4: inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schandorf, C.; Darko, O.; Yeboah, J.; Osei, E.K.; Asiamah, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation and radiation sources in Ghana is on the increase due to national developmental efforts in Health Care, Food and Agriculture, Industry, Science and Technology. This regulatory Guide has been developed to assist both the Regulatory Body (Radiation Protection Board) and operating organizations to perform systematic inspections commensurate with the level of hazard associated with the application of radiation sources and radioactive materials. The present Guide applies to the Radiation Protection and Safety inspection and/or audit conducted by the Radiation Protection Board or Radiation Safety Officer. The present Guide is applicable in Ghana and to foreign suppliers of radiation sources. The present Guide applies to notifying person, licensee, or registrant and unauthorized practice

  2. Detection device of dangerous radiation for the living beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, F.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is about a portable device able to measure dose rates or doses of gamma, ultraviolet and X radiation or charged particles. This device is composed of a radiation detector, a calculator of the accumulate dose and a memory to store the data. This device has a credit card format

  3. 40 CFR 63.7927 - What are my inspection and monitoring requirements for closed vent systems and control devices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are my inspection and monitoring... Pollutants: Site Remediation Closed Vent Systems and Control Devices § 63.7927 What are my inspection and... temperature at the inlet of the catalyst bed, the hourly average temperature at the outlet of the catalyst bed...

  4. Medical Devices; General Hospital and Personal Use Devices; Classification of the Ultraviolet Radiation Chamber Disinfection Device. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is classifying the ultraviolet (UV) radiation chamber disinfection device into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the UV radiation chamber disinfection device classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  5. International Standards for Radiation Sterilization of Medical Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    2007-01-01

    For a terminally sterilized medical device to be designated '' STERILE '', probability of finding the viable micro-organisms in the device shall be equal to or less than 1 x 10 -6 (EN 556-1:2001: Sterilization of medical devices - Requirements for medical devices to be designated '' STERILE '' - Part 1: Requirements for terminally sterilized medical devices). Author presents the main legal aspects of the international standards for radiation sterilization of medical devices

  6. National system of notification, authorization and inspection for the control of radiation sources in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schandorf, C.; Darko, E.O.; Yeboah, J.; Asiamah, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Board (RPB) was established in 1993 in Ghana as the regulatory authority for radiation protection and safety of radiation sources; its functions are prescribed in the 1993 national radiation protection regulation. The report describes how the country's radiation protection and safety infrastructure have been established, including the RPB's organizational structure, with reference in particular to the main activities carried out by both the Regulatory Control Department and the Radiation and Waste Safety Department. It also briefly mentions the existing RPB human resources; the national system of notification, authorization and inspection of radiation sources; the inventory of radiation sources; and the management of disused radiation sources. Finally, the report identifies the two main problem areas regarding the regulatory control of radiation sources in the country. (author)

  7. Development of the module inspection system for new standardized radiation monitoring modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Masami; Shimizu, Kazuaki; Hiruta, Toshihito; Mizugaki, Toshio; Ohi, Yoshihiro; Chida, Tooru.

    1994-10-01

    This report mentions about the module inspection system which does the maintenance check of the monitoring modules adapted the new monitoring standard, as well as the result of the verification of the modules. The module inspection system is the automatic measurement system with the computer. The system can perform the functional and the characteristic examination of the monitoring modules, the calibration with radiation source and inspection report. In the verification of the monitoring module, three major items were tested, the adaptability for the new monitoring standard, the module functions and each characteristics. All items met the new monitoring standard. (author)

  8. Tm2+ luminescent materials for solar radiation conversion devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Kolk, E.

    2015-01-01

    A solar radiation conversion device is described that comprises a luminescent Tm 2+ inorganic material for converting solar radiation of at least part of the UV and/or visible and/or infra red solar spectrum into infrared solar radiation, preferably said infrared solar radiation having a wavelength

  9. Probabilistic safety analysis about the radiation risk for the driver in a fast-scan container/vehicle inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junli; Zhu Guoping; Ming Shenjin; Cao Yanfeng

    2008-01-01

    A new Container/Vehicle Inspection System called fast-scan inspection system has been developed and used in some countries, which has a special advantage in scanning efficiency of 200 - 400 containers per hour. However, for its unique scanning mode, the fast-scan inspection system causes some worries about the radiation risk for the truck drivers, who will drive the container truck to pass through the scanning tunnel and might be exposed by the radiation beam in accidents. A PSA analysis, which has been widely used to evaluate the safety of nuclear power plant in the past, is presented here to estimate the probability of accidental exposure to the driver and evaluate the health risk. The fault tree and event tree analysis show that the probability of accidental exposure to the driver is pretty low and the main failure contributions are human errors and scanning control devices failures, which provides some recommendations for the further improvement about this product. Furthermore, on the basic of ICRP No.60 and 76 reports, the health risk to the truck driver is only about 4.0x10 -14 /a. Compared with the exempt level of 5x10 -7 /a, it can be concluded that the fast-scan system is safe enough for the truck driver. (author)

  10. Radiation Damage in Electronic Memory Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Fetahović, Irfan; Pejović, Milić; Vujisić, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the behavior of semiconductor memories exposed to radiation in order to establish their applicability in a radiation environment. The experimental procedure has been used to test radiation hardness of commercial semiconductor memories. Different types of memory chips have been exposed to indirect ionizing radiation by changing radiation dose intensity. The effect of direct ionizing radiation on semiconductor memory behavior has been analyzed by using Monte Carlo simula...

  11. Status of radiation protection in interventional radiology. Assessment of inspections in 2009 by the ASN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first describes the organization of inspections performed in health institutions, indicates the inspected establishments, the types of fixed installations in interventional radiology, the use of imagery in the operating theatre, and discusses the regulatory arrangements applicable to interventional radiology (in the Public Health Code, in the Labour Code). Then, the report discusses the results of inspections regarding radiation protection in interventional radiology: application of public health code arrangements (justification, patient training in radiation protection, radiological procedures and protocols, patient dosimetry monitoring), application of Labour Code arrangements (designation of the person with expertise in radiation protection, risk assessment and delimitation of monitored and controlled areas, workstation analysis, workers' training in radiation protection, individual protection equipment, workers' dosimetric monitoring, workers' medical monitoring, radiation protection technical controls), significant events, radiation protection in operating theatre. Propositions are stated regarding the differences noticed within or between the health establishments, the methodological and organisational difficulties faced by persons with expertise in radiation protection (PCR), the need of an interdisciplinary team

  12. Conducted and radiated noise in detection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisa, D.

    2001-01-01

    Conducted and radiated noise is an external noise which affects the quality of the signals of the detectors. An external noise can be reduced, usually, by shielding. This was the situation with 'older fashion' devices which uses boxes and coaxial cables. As the devices becomes more complex, the shielding of the detectors is more and more difficult and the transmission lines evolves from coaxial cables to twisted pair cables which are no more shielded. In such situation, the conducted and radiated noise (C and R noise) becomes important. Due to complexity of a real detector, the main work is based on experiments with components and simulations of some specific problems, associated with CDC detector. The first experiment was done to understand how the C and R noise is propagated. The emission device was a set of coils (between 3 and 5 turns with diameter from 10 to 50 mm) feed by an 74S140 driver. A pulse of about 8 ns width was generated. A coil of reception of about the same physical characteristics was used to see the emitted pulse. When the two coils are separated by about 80 cm, the receiver generated no signal. But, if along the two coils, a conductive material is introduced (a wire for instance), the receiver senses a signal. This signal is not changed too much if the wire is or not connected to ground. The explanation is simple: the pulse in the emitting coil produces an EM pulse which spreads in space. If a conductive material is around, the EM energy is received by that conductor and it is propagated at tens of meters with small attenuation. When this energy reaches the end of the conductor, it is radiated in space. If some other conductors are around, the energy is received and propagated by that conductors. This experiment was done for about 20 kinds of conductors (different coax cables, twisted-pair ribbons, power cables, metallic bars) and with many coils (different diameters and numbers of turns). It was measured the pk-to-pk level, decay constant and

  13. Radiation Damage in Electronic Memory Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Fetahović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behavior of semiconductor memories exposed to radiation in order to establish their applicability in a radiation environment. The experimental procedure has been used to test radiation hardness of commercial semiconductor memories. Different types of memory chips have been exposed to indirect ionizing radiation by changing radiation dose intensity. The effect of direct ionizing radiation on semiconductor memory behavior has been analyzed by using Monte Carlo simulation method. Obtained results show that gamma radiation causes decrease in threshold voltage, being proportional to the absorbed dose of radiation. Monte Carlo simulations of radiation interaction with material proved to be significant and can be a good estimation tool in probing semiconductor memory behavior in radiation environment.

  14. Inspection and repairing method and device for inside of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Shin; Yuguchi, Yasuhiro; Sato, Katsuhiko

    1996-01-01

    A swimming robot handling device is disposed on a floor of a reactor pit floor or a reactor floor. A swimming robot is connected to a winding device of a composite cable incorporating optical fibers. The swimming robot comprises a robot propulsion device for propelling the robot itself, a laser beam irradiating optical device for irradiating pulsative laser beams introduced by an optical fiber and an antenna mechanism having ultrasonic probe in an antenna-like shape. The swimming robot is lowered in a reactor filled with water and caused to swim to a portion to be welded, and pulsative laser beams are irradiated to the portion to be welded in a state where the antenna mechanism is brought into contact with the portion to be welded to improve the state of stresses on the surface. Further, the ultrasonic oscillations generated upon irradiation of the laser beams are measured using the ultrasonic probe to perform physical inspection. The surface of the portion to be welded can be modified or repaired stably and efficiently by remote control. (N.H.)

  15. The effects of cosmic radiation on implantable medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, P.

    1996-01-01

    Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuits, with the benefits of low power consumption, represent the state of the art technology for implantable medical devices. Three significant sources of radiation are classified as having the ability to damage or alter the behavior of implantable electronics; Secondary neutron cosmic radiation, alpha particle radiation from the device packaging and therapeutic doses(up to 70 Gγ) of high energy radiation used in radiation oncology. The effects of alpha particle radiation from the packaging may be eliminated by the use of polyimide or silicone rubber die coatings. The relatively low incidence of therapeutic radiation incident on an implantable device and the use of die coating leaves cosmic radiation induced secondary neutron single event upset (SEU) as the main pervasive ionising radiation threat to the reliability of implantable devices. A theoretical model which predicts the susceptibility of a RAM cell to secondary neutron cosmic radiation induced SEU is presented. The model correlates well within the statistical uncertainty associated with both the theoretical and field estimate. The predicted Soft Error Rate (SER) is 4.8 x l0 -12 upsets/(bit hr) compared to an observed upset rate of 8.5 x 10 -12 upsets/(bit hr) from 20 upsets collected over a total of 284672 device days. The predicted upset rate may increase by up to 20% when consideration is given to patients flying in aircraft The upset rate is also consistent with the expected geographical variations of the secondary cosmic ray neutron flux, although insufficient upsets precluded a statistically significant test. This is the first clinical data set obtained indicating the effects of cosmic radiation on implantable devices. Importantly, it may be used to predict the susceptibility of future to the implantable device designs to the effects of cosmic radiation

  16. Radiological protection requirements applicable to non-invasive inspection of charges with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, S.C.; Palmieri, J.A.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    The US twin towers attack in 2001 raised concerns about terrorism, illicit trafficking of materials and the possible use of a 'dirty bomb' (DDR), affecting the control of entry and exit of products. Thus, the use of ionizing radiation scanning systems of containers at ports and borders was started to investigate possible entries of illegal material. Brazil, adhering to this concern and due to the holding of major events such as RIO + 20, World Cup, Olympics, etc., increased safety in the movement of goods using non-invasive inspection. Linear electron accelerators, which produce high energy X-rays in the range of 1.5 to 9 MeV, are used to inspect the containers. Since in Brazil there is no specific technical regulation for the operation of non-invasive inspection equipment with X-rays and linear accelerators, ten main technical requirements are presented. It is essential that a technical regulation is drawn up by placing the system of non-invasive inspection of cargo with ionizing radiation in the international radiation protection standard

  17. Terrestrial radiation effects in ULSI devices and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ibe, Eishi H

    2014-01-01

    A practical guide on how mathematical approaches can be used to analyze and control radiation effects in semiconductor devices within various environments Covers faults in ULSI devices to failures in electronic systems caused by a wide variety of radiation fields, including electrons, alpha -rays, muons, gamma rays, neutrons and heavy ions. Readers will learn the environmental radiation features at the ground or avionics altitude. Readers will also learn how to make numerical models from physical insight and what kind of mathematical approaches should be implemented to analyze the radiation effects. A wide variety of mitigation techniques against soft-errors are reviewed and discussed. The author shows how to model sophisticated radiation effects in condensed matter in order to quantify and control them. The book provides the reader with the knowledge on a wide variety of radiation fields and their effects on the electronic devices and systems. It explains how electronic systems including servers and rout...

  18. Evaluation of an enclosed ultraviolet-C radiation device for decontamination of mobile handheld devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, J Itty; Cadnum, Jennifer L; Sankar, Thriveen; Jencson, Annette L; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Donskey, Curtis J

    2016-06-01

    Mobile handheld devices used in health care settings may become contaminated with health care-associated pathogens. We demonstrated that an enclosed ultraviolet-C radiation device was effective in rapidly reducing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and with longer exposure times, Clostridium difficile spores, on glass slides and reducing contamination on in-use mobile handheld devices. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Stereo imaging and random array stratified imaging for cargo radiation inspecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingjin; Zeng Yu

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a Stereo Imaging and Random Array Stratified Imaging for cargo container radiation Inspecting. By using dual-line vertical detector array scan, a stereo image of inspected cargo can be obtained and watched with virtual reality view. The random detector array has only one-row of detectors but distributed in a certain horizontal dimension randomly. To scan a cargo container with this random array detector, a 'defocused' image is obtained. By using 'anti-random focusing', one layer of the image can be focused on the background of all defocused images from other layers. A stratified X-ray image of overlapped bike wheels is presented

  20. The transient radiation effects and hardness of programmed device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Chuanhua; Xu Xianguo; Zhao Hailin

    2014-01-01

    A review and summary of research and development in the investigation of transient ionizing radiation effects in device and cirviut is presented. The transient ionizing radiation effects in two type of programmed device, that's 32 bit Microcontroller and antifuse FPGA, were studied. The expeiment test data indicate: The transient ionizing radiation effects of 32 bit Microcontroller manifested self-motion restart and Latchup, the Latchup threshold was 5 × 10"7 Gy (Si)/s. The transient ionizing radiation effects of FPGA was reset, no Latchup. The relationship of circuit effects to physical mechanisms was analized. A new method of hardness in circiut design was put forward. (authors)

  1. Rail for inspection/maintenance device in TOKAMAK type container of a thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kenji.

    1996-01-01

    A circular rail divided into four arcuate parts for an inspection/maintenance device which runs in a TOKAMAK type container is disposed. Each of the divided rails is supported at the center of the outer surface rotatably by extendable rail supporting shafts. Each of the divided rail is constituted such that it can be contained between limiters disposed at the outer side of the TOKAMAK container when each of the rail support shafts is contracted. With such a constitution, each of the rail support shafts and arcuate rail is contracted and rotated from the outside of the TOKAMAK type container by an actuator. In order to form a circular rail, each of the rail support shafts is extended toward the center of the TOKAMAK type container, and then each of the arcuate rails is rotated into a horizontal state. Then, the joint portions of each of the arcuate rails are connected by using remote controllable locking rods. (I.S.)

  2. Radiation dose distributions due to sudden ejection of cobalt device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2016-09-01

    The evaluation of the radiation dose during accident in a nuclear reactor is of great concern from the viewpoint of safety. One of important accident must be analyzed and may be occurred in open pool type reactor is the rejection of cobalt device. The study is evaluating the dose rate levels resulting from upset withdrawal of co device especially the radiation dose received by the operator in the control room. Study of indirect radiation exposure to the environment due to skyshine effect is also taken into consideration in order to evaluate the radiation dose levels around the reactor during the ejection trip. Microshield, SHLDUTIL, and MCSky codes were used in this study to calculate the radiation dose profiles during cobalt device ejection trip inside and outside the reactor building. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiation detection and measurement concepts, methods and devices

    CERN Document Server

    McGregor, Douglas

    2019-01-01

    This text on radiation detection and measurement is a response to numerous requests expressed by students at various universities, in which the most popularly used books do not provide adequate background material, nor explain matters in understandable terms. This work provides a modern overview of radiation detection devices and radiation measurement methods. The topics selected in the book have been selected on the basis of the author’s many years of experience designing radiation detectors and teaching radiation detection and measurement in a classroom environment.

  4. Adjustable radiation protection device of the fluoroscope DG 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoermann, D.

    1980-01-01

    In cooperation with the 'VEB Transformatoren- und Roentgenwerk Hermann Matern', Dresden, an adjustable radiation protection device has been developed. This supplementary equipment for fluoroscopes ensures a sufficient protection of the gonads against undesirable X radiation, can be handled easily and does not annoy patients, esp. children

  5. Radiation protection measuring device SSM-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Product information from the producer on a universal measuring instrument for alpha, beta and gamma radiation designed for stationary and field use by military, police and fire brigades. 4 figs. (qui)

  6. Improvement of a device for region radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poltinnikov, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The electromechnanical device based on coding the turning angle of an automobile wheel by the number of electric pulses controlling the step motor of a film gate of gamma radiometer is proposed. The device is intended for automatizing recordings of gamma-radiation levels depending on a certain distance in a given terrain. The device has been tested at car speeds from 10 to 80 km/hr

  7. Performance of a written radiation protection inspection of nonstationary gamma radiography users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehne, M.

    1986-01-01

    A questionare has been developed for controlling users of nonstationary gamma radiography devices. It is aimed at obtaining information about the weak points according to radiation protection and to give guidance in performing such controls by the respective radiation protection officers. The questionare is included

  8. In-situ inspection of grooves in reactor tube sheet using a remotely operated cast impression taking device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, S.; Ramakumar, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Utmost importance is given to the in-service inspection of critical components of a reactor to ensure its reliable performance during the reactor operation. This paper describes a cast taking device using cold setting resin to take impression of the grooves being made in the tube sheet for sparger tube installation in pressurised heavy water reactor. (author)

  9. Transient radiation effects in GaAs semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.Y.; Stauber, M.; Ezzeddine, A.; Howard, J.W.; Constantine, A.G.; Becker, M.; Block, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing program to identify the response of GaAs devices to intense pulses of ionizing radiation. The program consists of experimental measurements at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's RPI electron linear accelerator (Linac) on generic GaAs devices built by Grumman Tachonics Corporation and the analysis of these results through computer simulation with the circuit model code SPICE (including radiation effects incorporated in the variations TRISPICE and TRIGSPICE and the device model code PISCES IIB). The objective of this program is the observation of the basic response phenomena and the development of accurate simulation tools so that results of Linac irradiations tests can be understood and predicted

  10. Radiation-Tolerance Assessment of a Redundant Wireless Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q.; Jiang, J.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a method to evaluate radiation-tolerance without physical tests for a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)-based monitoring device for high level radiation fields, such as those found in post-accident conditions in a nuclear power plant (NPP). This paper specifically describes the analysis of radiation environment in a severe accident, radiation damages in electronics, and the redundant solution used to prolong the life of the system, as well as the evaluation method for radiation protection and the analysis method of system reliability. As a case study, a wireless monitoring device with redundant and diversified channels is evaluated by using the developed method. The study results and system assessment data show that, under the given radiation condition, performance of the redundant device is more reliable and more robust than those non-redundant devices. The developed redundant wireless monitoring device is therefore able to apply in those conditions (up to 10 M Rad (Si)) during a severe accident in a NPP.

  11. Using a Commercial Ethernet PHY Device in a Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Jeremy; Arani, Michael; Arroyo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This work involved placing a commercial Ethernet PHY on its own power boundary, with limited current supply, and providing detection methods to determine when the device is not operating and when it needs either a reset or power-cycle. The device must be radiation-tested and free of destructive latchup errors. The commercial Ethernet PHY's own power boundary must be supplied by a current-limited power regulator that must have an enable (for power cycling), and its maximum power output must not exceed the PHY's input requirements, thus preventing damage to the device. A regulator with configurable output limits and short-circuit protection (such as the RHFL4913, rad hard positive voltage regulator family) is ideal. This will prevent a catastrophic failure due to radiation (such as a short between the commercial device's power and ground) from taking down the board's main power. Logic provided on the board will detect errors in the PHY. An FPGA (field-programmable gate array) with embedded Ethernet MAC (Media Access Control) will work well. The error detection includes monitoring the PHY's interrupt line, and the status of the Ethernet's switched power. When the PHY is determined to be non-functional, the logic device resets the PHY, which will often clear radiation induced errors. If this doesn't work, the logic device power-cycles the FPGA by toggling the regulator's enable input. This should clear almost all radiation induced errors provided the device is not latched up.

  12. BAKNET - Communication network for radiation monitoring devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Y.; Wengrowicz, U.; Tirosh, D.; Barak, D.

    1997-01-01

    A system, based on a new concept of controlling and monitoring distributed radiation monitors, has been developed and approved at the NRCN. The system, named B AKNET Network , consists of a series of communication adapters connected to a main PC via an RS-485 communication network (see Fig. 1). The network's maximal length is 1200 meters and it enables connection of up to 128 adapters. The BAKNET adapters are designed to interface output signals of different types of stationary radiation monitors to a main PC. The BAKNET adapters' interface type includes: digital, analog, RS-232, and mixed output signals. This allows versatile interfacing of different stationary radiation monitors to the main computer. The connection to the main computer is via an RS-485 network, utilizing an identical communication protocol. The PC software, written in C ++ under MS-Windows, consists of two main programs. The first is the data collection program and the second is the Human Machine Interface (HMI). (authors)

  13. A fluence device for precise radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, R.G.T.; Peak, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    An instrument is described which has been designed to ensure precise positioning of samples and sensing devices in three dimensions at all times during irradiation procedures. The system, which is both robust and sensitive, overcomes difficulties experienced when slight variations in the positioning of a sample under irradiation results in large changes in fluence. (UK)

  14. Device for converting electromagnetic radiation energy into electrical energy and method of manufacturing such a device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Device (10) for converting electromagnetic radiation energy into electrical energy, comprising at least a photovoltaic element (11) with a radiation-sensitive surface, wherein a covering layer (12) of a material comprising a silicon compound, to which a rare earth element has been added, is present

  15. Radiation dose distributions due to sudden ejection of cobalt device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the radiation dose during accident in a nuclear reactor is of great concern from the viewpoint of safety. One of important accident must be analyzed and may be occurred in open pool type reactor is the rejection of cobalt device. The study is evaluating the dose rate levels resulting from upset withdrawal of co device especially the radiation dose received by the operator in the control room. Study of indirect radiation exposure to the environment due to skyshine effect is also taken into consideration in order to evaluate the radiation dose levels around the reactor during the ejection trip. Microshield, SHLDUTIL, and MCSky codes were used in this study to calculate the radiation dose profiles during cobalt device ejection trip inside and outside the reactor building. - Highlights: • This study aims to calculate the dose rate profiles after cobalt device ejection from open-pool-type reactor core. • MicroShield code was used to evaluate the dose rates inside the reactor control room. • McSKY code was used to evaluate the dose rates outside the reactor building. • The calculated dose rates for workers are higher than the permissible limits after 18 s from device ejection.

  16. Design and application of radiation apparatus for sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train on-line inspection system

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zhi Fang; Zhang Yuai

    2002-01-01

    Based on the special requirement for radiation apparatus of sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train on-line inspection system, a radiation apparatus including two-level shutter, working container, storing container and electromagnetism are designed. The makeup, working mode and functional realization of the radiation apparatus are introduced. The system is used in Manzhouli customs cargo train on-line inspection system. The practice shows that the radiation apparatus is reliable to work steadily and the operating speed of the main shutter can reach 0.1 s open and 0.15 s close

  17. Decontamination method and device for radiation contaminated product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Kenji; Ohinata, Hiroshi; Omata, Kazuo; Sato, Toshihiko; Nakajima, Yoshihiko; Ichikawa, Seigo.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, radiation contaminated products generated during shot peening are decontaminated by a chelating agent, and the chelating agent is removed from the radiation contaminated products. Then the temperature of the radiation contaminated products is elevated by hot blowing at a temperature higher than a boiling point of the solvent. Then, a solvent is added to the radiation contaminated products and the solvent is evaporated abruptly. The solution of the chelating agent remained while being deposited thereto is removed by evaporation to remove it from the radiation contaminated products together with the solvent. With such procedures, all of the decontamination steps can be completed in one device without requiring a large space or not moving the radiation contaminated products on every step. (T.M.)

  18. Radiation damage assessment of Nb tunnel junction devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.E.; Magno, R.; Maisch, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the radiation hardness of a new technology using Josephson junctions that was explored by an irradiation using a fluence of 7.6 x 10 14 protons/cm 2 at an energy of 63 MeV from the U.C. Davis cyclotron. In what the authors believe is the first radiation assessment of Nb/Al 2 O 3 /Nb devices, the permanent damage in these devices was investigated. No permanent changes in the I-V characteristics of the junctions were observed indicating no significant level of material defects have occurred at this level of irradiation

  19. The research of nuclear experiment radiation environment wireless alarm device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoqiong; Wang Pan; Fang Fang

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces based on monolithic integrated circuit's nuclear experiment radiation environment wireless alarm device's software and hardware design. The system by G-M tube, high-pressured module, signal conditioning circuit, power source module, monolithic integrated circuit and wireless transmission module is composed. The device has low power consumption, high performance, high accuracy detection, easy maintenance, small size, simple operation, and other features, and has a broad application prospects. (authors)

  20. Inspection of radiation sources and regulatory enforcement (supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-08-01

    The achievement and maintenance of a high level of safety in the use of radiation sources depends on there being a sound legal and governmental infrastructure, including a national regulatory body with well-defined responsibilities and functions. These responsibilities and functions include establishing and implementing a system for carrying out regulatory inspections, and taking necessary enforcement actions. The Safety Requirements publication entitled Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety establishes the requirements for legal and governmental infrastructure. The term 'infrastructure' refers to the underlying structure of systems and organizations. This includes requirements concerning the establishment of a regulatory body for radiation sources and the responsibilities and functions assigned to it. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards or the BSS) establish basic requirements for protection against risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. The application of the BSS is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities to for radiation protection and safety. This TECDOC provides practical guidance on the processes for carrying out regulatory inspections and taking enforcement actions. It includes information on the development and use of procedures and standard review plans (i.e. checklists) for inspection. Specific procedures for inspection of radiation practices and sources are provided in the Appendices

  1. Inspection of radiation sources and regulatory enforcement (supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    The achievement and maintenance of a high level of safety in the use of radiation sources depends on there being a sound legal and governmental infrastructure, including a national regulatory body with well-defined responsibilities and functions. These responsibilities and functions include establishing and implementing a system for carrying out regulatory inspections, and taking necessary enforcement actions. The Safety Requirements publication entitled Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety establishes the requirements for legal and governmental infrastructure. The term 'infrastructure' refers to the underlying structure of systems and organizations. This includes requirements concerning the establishment of a regulatory body for radiation sources and the responsibilities and functions assigned to it. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards or the BSS) establish basic requirements for protection against risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. The application of the BSS is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities to for radiation protection and safety. This TECDOC provides practical guidance on the processes for carrying out regulatory inspections and taking enforcement actions. It includes information on the development and use of procedures and standard review plans (i.e. checklists) for inspection. Specific procedures for inspection of radiation practices and sources are provided in the Appendices

  2. Evaluation of radiation leaks from an installation of baggage inspection using X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAZAFINDRAMIANDRA, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    This work wase done in the framework of the collaboration between the Madagascar-INSTN and the Civil Aviation of Madagascar (ACM). Due to the importance of the use of the scanner with X-rays for detection of baggages at the International Airport of Ivato, the protection of the workers using these HI-SCAN scanners has to be studied. The work deals with evaluating the dose rate emitted by the detector of baggages (HI SCAN 6040i and HI-SCAN 100100V) with dose rate meters (Graetz and Radiagem). These dosimeters were calibrated at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of Madagascar-INSTN before carrying out the inspection. By applying the calibration factor of the dosimeters used during the inspection, it is noted that the evaluated doses during the radiation exposure with the measuring instrument are very variable for low dose, and less than the dose limit according to the regulation on radiation protection in Madagascar. The radiations emitted by the machine with x-rays can involve dangerous effects for health, in order to protect itself, the effectiveness of the means of protection must be kept or taken into account by respecting strictly the time, the distance, and the screen. [fr

  3. Optimum power of radiation dose in X ray television systems of flaw inspection in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denbnovetskii, S.V.; Troitskii, V.A.; Belyi, N.G.; Grom, V.S.; Kuz'micheva, N.V.; Leshchishin, A.V.; Mikhailov, V.N.; Shutenko, O.V.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present the experimental dose characteristics of a x ray television system based on x ray vidicons with the diameter of the working field of 900 mm which operate in the continuous and pulsed conditions with the longer time of cumulation of radiation images on the target of the x ray vidicon. For each type of the inspected material, its thickness, and cumulation time, the dose characteristics were used to determine the optimum power of the exposure dose ensuring the maximum signal/noise ratio and detectability of the defects at the output of the system. (author)

  4. Device for the integral measurement of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micheron, Francois.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to devices for the integral determination of ionizing radiations, particularly to the construction of a portable dosemeter. Portable measuring instruments have been suggested in the past, particularly dosemeters in which the discharge of a capacitor under the action of ionizing radiations is measured. Since the charge of a capacitor is not stable owing to dielectric imperfections, these measuring instruments have to be recalibrated at frequent intervals. To overcome this drawback, the invention suggests using the discharge of an electret, electrically charged to a pre-set initial value, under the action of ionizing radiations, as the transducer means of a dosemeter used in conjunction with display or warning systems [fr

  5. Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Dale K

    2014-12-02

    Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

  6. Advanced devices and systems for radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, G.F.; Wehe, D.K.; He, Z.; Barrett, C.; Miyamoto, J.

    1996-06-01

    The authors' most recent work continues their long-standing efforts to develop semiconductor detectors based on the collection of only a single type of charge carrier. Their best results are an extension of the principle of coplanar electrodes first described by Paul Luke of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 18 months ago. This technique, described in past progress reports, has the effect of deriving an output signal from detectors that depends only on the motion of carriers close to one surface. Since nearly all of these carriers are of one type (electrons) that are attracted to that electrode, the net effect is to nearly eliminate the influence of hole motion on the properties of the output signal. The result is that the much better mobility of electrons in compound semiconductors materials such as CZT can now be exploited without the concurrent penalty of poor hole collection. They have also developed new techniques in conjunction with the coplanar electrode principle that extends the technique into a new dimension. By proper processing of signals from the opposite electrode (the cathode) from the coplanar surface, they are able to derive a signal that is a good indication of the depth of interaction at which the charge carriers were initially formed. They have been the first group to demonstrate this technique, and examples of separate pulse height spectra recorded at a variety of different depths of interaction are shown in several of the figures that follow. Obtaining depth information is one step in the direction of obtaining volumetric point-of-interaction information from the detector. If one could known the coordinates of each specific interaction, then corrections could be applied to account for the inhomogeneities that currently plague many room-temperature devices

  7. Reading device of a radiation image contained in a radioluminescent screen and tomography device containing it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allemand, R.; Cuzin, M.; Parot, P.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is aimed at improving the random access time to a stimulable radioluminescent screen point (and consequently the reading time of the screen image); it is noticeably useful for longitudinal tomography. The reading device contains a source emitting a stimulation radiation beam towards the stimulable radioluminescent screen, a control mean of the stimulation radiation beam and a deflection mean which allows the beam to scan the screen surface. The device is characterized by the use of a very fast acousto-optical type deflection mean [fr

  8. Control device intended for a gamma radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns a monitoring device for a gamma radiation measuring instrument or radiation meter, in which the radiation to be measured brings about, inter alia, the ionisation of a gas and the generation of current pulses. The dial of this meter is generally calibrated in roentgens per hour, i.e. in radiation rate units. This instrument of very simple design is remarkable for its operating reliability. Preferably placed at the inlet to a radioactive area, it enables every user of a ratemeter to check, over the entire measuring range of this instrument, its proper operation prior to entering the area. To this effect, the monitoring device in question has a thick wall lead castle, having an internal cavity in which is mounted a radioactive source delivering a gamma radiation with given constant characteristics, through a measurement window closed by a calibrated plug. Lead doors articulated on the castle can be superimposed on this window to bring about a given attenuation of the radiation coming from the source and delivered to the exterior of the castle [fr

  9. Signal Processing Device (SPD) for networked radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmapurikar, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Sawhney, A.; Patil, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    A networked radiation and parameter monitoring system with three tier architecture is being developed. Signal Processing Device (SPD) is a second level sub-system node in the network. SPD is an embedded system which has multiple input channels and output communication interfaces. It acquires and processes data from first level parametric sensor devices, and sends to third level devices in response to request commands received from host. It also performs scheduled diagnostic operations and passes on the information to host. It supports inputs in the form of differential digital signals and analog voltage signals. SPD communicates with higher level devices over RS232/RS422/USB channels. The system has been designed with main requirements of minimal power consumption and harsh environment in radioactive plants. This paper discusses the hardware and software design details of SPD. (author)

  10. Evaluation of stray radiofrequency radiation emitted by electrosurgical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marco, M; Maggi, S

    2006-01-01

    Electrosurgery refers to the passage of a high-frequency, high-voltage electrical current through the body to achieve the desired surgical effects. At the same time, these procedures are accompanied by a general increase of the electromagnetic field in an operating room that may expose both patients and personnel to relatively high levels of radiofrequency radiation. In the first part of this study, we have taken into account the radiation emitted by different monopolar electrosurgical devices, evaluating the electromagnetic field strength delivered by an electrosurgical handle and straying from units and other electrosurgical accessories. As a summary, in the worst case a surgeon's hands are exposed to a continuous and pulsed RF wave whose magnetic field strength is 0.75 A m -1 (E-field 400 V m -1 ). Occasionally stray radiation may exceed ICNIRP's occupational exposure guidelines, especially close to the patient return plate. In the second part of this paper, we have analysed areas of particular concern to prevent electromagnetic interference with some life-support devices (ventilators and electrocardiographic devices), which have failed to operate correctly. Most clinically relevant interference occurred when an electrosurgery device was used within 0.3 m of medical equipment. In the appendix, we suggest some practical recommendations intended to minimize the potential for electromagnetic hazards due to therapeutic application of RF energy

  11. Development of Reactor Vessel Bottom Mount Instrumentation Nozzle Routine Inspection Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaled, Atya Ahmed Abdallah; Ihn, Namgung [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The primary coolant water of pressurized water reactors has created cracks in j-weld of penetrations with Alloy 600 through a process called primary water stress corrosion cracking. On October 6, 2013, BMI nozzle number 3 at Palo Verde Unit 3 (PVNGS-3) exhibited small white de-posits around the annulus. Nozzle attachment to the RV lower head is by J-groove weld to the inside penetration of the nozzle and the weld material is of Alloy 600 material. Above two cases clearly show the necessity of routine inspection of RV lower head penetration during refueling outage. Nondestructive inspection is generally performed to detect fine cracks or defects that may develop during operation. Defects usually occur at weld regions, hence most non-destructive inspection is to scan and check any defects or crack in the weld region. BMI nozzles at the bottom head of a nuclear reactor vessel (RV) are one of such area for inspection. But BMI nozzles have not been inspected during regular refuel outage due to the relative small size of BMI nozzle and limited impact of the consequences of BMI leak. However, there is growing concern since there have been leaks at nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as recent operating experience. In this study, we propose a system that is conveniently used for nondestructive inspection of BMI nozzles during regular refueling outage without removing all the reactor internals. A 3D model of the inspection system was also developed along with the RV and internals which permits a virtual 3D simulation to check the design concept and usability of the system.

  12. Apparatus for minimizing radiation exposure and improving resolution in radiation imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashe, J.B.; Williams, G.H.; Sypal, K.L.

    1978-01-01

    A collimator is disclosed for minimizing radiation exposure and improving resolution in radiation imaging devices. The collimator provides a penetrating beam of radiation from a source thereof, which beam is substantially non-diverging in at least one direction. In the preferred embodiment, the collimator comprises an elongated sandwich assembly of a plurality of layers of material exhibiting relatively high radiation attenuation characteristics, which attenuating layers are spaced apart and separated from one another by interleaved layers of material exhibiting relatively low radiation attenuation characteristics. The sandwich assembly is adapted for lengthwise disposition and orientation between a radiation source and a target or receiver such that the attenuating layers are parallel to the desired direction of the beam with the interleaved spacing layers providing direct paths for the radiation

  13. Energy harvesting devices for harvesting energy from terahertz electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Steven D.; Kotter, Dale K.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2012-10-09

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  14. Dosimetric studies for gamma radiation validation of medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, Y.S.; Beshir, W.B.; Abdel-Fattah, A.A.; Abdel-Rehim, F.

    2013-01-01

    The delivery and validation of a specified dose to medical devices are key concerns to operators of gamma radiation facilities. The objective of the present study was to characterize the industrial gamma radiation facility and map the dose distribution inside the product-loading pattern during the validation and routine control of the sterilization process using radiochromic films. Cardboard phantoms were designed to achieve the homogeneity of absorbed doses. The uncertainty of the dose delivered during validation of the sterilization process was assessed. - Highlights: ► Using γ-rays for sterilization of hollow fiber dialyzers and blood tubing sets according to ISO 11137, 2006. ► Dosimetry studies of validations of γ-irradiation facility and sterilized medical devices. ► Places of D min and D max have been determined using FWT-60 films. ► Determining the target minimum doses required to meet the desired SAL of 10 −6 for the two products.

  15. The radiation protective devices for interventional procedures using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Hiroji; Chabatake, Mitsuhiro; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Tamura, Sakio

    2002-01-01

    A scattered dose and a surface dose from phantom measurements during interventional procedures with computed tomography (IVR-CT) were evaluated. To reduce the personnel exposure in IVR-CT, the new protective devices were developed and its effect evaluated. Two radiation protection devices were experimentally made using a lead vinyl sheet with lead equivalent 0.125 mmPb. The first device is a lead curtain which shields the space of CT-gantry and phantom for the CT examination. The second device is a lead drape which shields on the phantom surface adjacent to the scanning plane for the CT-fluoroscopy. Scattered dose and phantom surface dose were measured with an abdominal phantom during Cine-CT (130 kV, 150 mA, 5 seconds, 10 mm section thickness). They were measured by using ionization chamber dosimeter. They were measured with and without a lead curtain and a lead drape. Scattered dose rate was measured at distance of 50-150 cm from the scanning plane. And, surface dose was measured at distance of 4-21 cm from the scanning plane on the phantom. On operator's standing position, scattered dose rates were from 8.4 to 11.6 μGy/sec at CT examination. The lead curtain and the lead drape reduced scattered dose rate at distance of 50 cm from the scanning plane by 66% and 58.3% respectively. Surface dose rate were 118 μGy/sec at distance of 5 cm from the scanning plane at CT-fluoroscopy. The lead drape reduced the surface dose by 60.5%. High scattered exposure to personnel may occur during interventional procedures using CT. They were considerably reduced during CT-arteriography by attaching the lead curtain in CT equipment. And they were substantially reduced during CT-fluoroscopy by placing the lead drape adjacent to the scanning plane, in addition, operator's hand would be protected from unnecessary radiation scattered by phantom. It was suggested that the scattered exposure to personnel could be sufficiently reduced by using radiation protection devices in IVR-CT. The

  16. Development of inspection equipment for fuel bundles of CANDU-PHWR using R981 underwater radiation tolerant camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Dae-Seo; Cho, Moon-Sung; Jo, Chang-Keun; Jun, Ji-Su; Jung, Jong Yeob; Park, Kwang-June; Suk, Ho-Chun

    2005-03-15

    The inspection equipment of fuel bundles was developed, which could perform visual inspection and dimensional measurement on fuel bundles of CANDU-PHWR, to evaluate, analyze the defective behavior of fuel bundles and inner surface of pressure tubes of inherent two-phase flow over 24kg/s in CANDU-6. The R981 radiation tolerant camera system with pan and tilt function was ordered and manufactured, which was waterproof, shielding radiation in underwater 10m in depth. The performance test, of the system ,due to camera-object distance was carried out in air/underwater atmosphere. The results of performance test of R981 radiation tolerant camera system are good. The inspection equipment of fuel bundles using R981 radiation tolerant camera system and underwater-radiation tolerant LVDT sensor(D5/200AW) was fabricated, which could perform visual inspection and dimensional measurement on fuel bundles of CANDU-PHWR with measurement accuracy 10{mu}m. This equipment will be utilizable integrity evaluation of fuel bundles which are irradiated in pressure tube of CANDU-PHWR.

  17. Motion correction for passive radiation imaging of small vessels in ship-to-ship inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, K.P., E-mail: ziockk@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boehnen, C.B.; Ernst, J.M.; Fabris, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hayward, J.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Karnowski, T.P.; Paquit, V.C.; Patlolla, D.R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trombino, D.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Passive radiation detection remains one of the most acceptable means of ascertaining the presence of illicit nuclear materials. In maritime applications it is most effective against small to moderately sized vessels, where attenuation in the target vessel is of less concern. Unfortunately, imaging methods that can remove source confusion, localize a source, and avoid other systematic detection issues cannot be easily applied in ship-to-ship inspections because relative motion of the vessels blurs the results over many pixels, significantly reducing system sensitivity. This is particularly true for the smaller watercraft, where passive inspections are most valuable. We have developed a combined gamma-ray, stereo visible-light imaging system that addresses this problem. Data from the stereo imager are used to track the relative location and orientation of the target vessel in the field of view of a coded-aperture gamma-ray imager. Using this information, short-exposure gamma-ray images are projected onto the target vessel using simple tomographic back-projection techniques, revealing the location of any sources within the target. The complex autonomous tracking and image reconstruction system runs in real time on a 48-core workstation that deploys with the system.

  18. Regulation and inspection support radiation protection in nuclear and other installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.K.; Potter, C.; Harbison, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Over the past fifty years, radiation protection legislation in the UK has developed from a narrow industry-specific base to a comprehensive package of regulations and supporting Approved Code of Practice, with additional provisions for nuclear installations. Development of this legislation mirrors progress in international understanding about the risks from exposure to ionising radiation. The current Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 largely implement the Euratom 1980 Basic Safety Standards Directive and place particular emphasis on the need to keep exposure as low as reasonably practicable. The regulations have been underpinned by the development of the concept of the Tolerability of Risk and the application of the ALARP/ALARA principle, particularly at nuclear installations. Analysis of dose data on HSE's Central Index of Dose Information has shown the general success of this approach in the UK; the data have also allowed targeting of inspection effort. Currently, the Health and Safety Commission and Executive are developing plans for implementing the revised EU Basic Safety Standards Directive. (author)

  19. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen [Pinole, CA

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  20. Applications of the energy differentiation type radiation line sensor to such as inspection for the plumbing corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Yasuhiro; Shirayanagi, Yuji; Matsui, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The authors have engaged in development of the next-generation radiation detectors that can give information on energy such as X-rays and γ-rays, and commercialized an energy discrimination type radiation line sensor capable of discriminating the energy of photons using a CdTe radiation detector element. This paper introduces the structure and principles of this energy discrimination type radiation line sensor. As the basic application, it also introduces the material identification, energy discrimination type X-ray CT imaging, and the quantitative determination of iron plate thickness using X-ray. In addition, it introduces the radiation line sensor we have developed for inspecting the reduced amount of wall thickness of piping with insulation materials. This radiation line sensor for pipe thinning inspection combined with radiation sources (X-rays, γ-rays) and a transport system is capable of accurately and efficiently inspecting reduced wall thickness, while moving the censor on the covered pipe with heat insulating materials through remote control, without removing piping insulation materials and without stopping the use of piping. (A.O.)

  1. Radioactivity concentration measuring device for radiation waste containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tetsuo.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention can precisely and accurately measure a radioactive concentration of radioactive wastes irrespective of the radioactivity concentration distribution. Namely, a Ge detector having a collimator and a plurality of radiation detectors are placed at the outside of the radioactive waste containing vessel in such a way that it can rotate and move vertically relative to the vessel. The plurality of radiation detectors detect radiation coefficient signals at an assumed segment unit of a predetermined length in vertical direction and for every predetermined angle unit in the rotational direction. A weight measuring device determines the weight of the vessel. A computer calculates an average density of radioactivity for the region filled with radioactivity based on the determined net weight and radiation coefficient signals assuming that the volume of the radioactivity is constant. In addition, the computer calculates the amount of radioactivity in the assumed segment by conducting γ -ray absorption compensation calculation for the material in the vessel. Each of the amount of radioactivity is integrated to determine the amount of radioactivity in the vessel. (I.S.)

  2. Radiation damage and rate limitations in tracking devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilchriese, M.G.D.

    1984-01-01

    In this note the author briefly discusses radiation damage to wire chambers and silicon strip devices and the electronics that may be associated with each of these. Scintillating fibers and CCD's are not discussed although the former appears to be a potentially radiation-resistant detector. In order to calculate radiation levels and rates the author assumed the following: an inelastic cross section of 100 mb at the SSC - six charged particles per unit of rapidity - photons and neutrons do not contribute to the background (photon conversions are negligible with a thin Be beam pipe) - beam gas interactions and beam losses (except during injection when I assume that the detector is ''off'') are negligible. This is discussed in a later section. - 1 Rad = 3.5 x 10 7 minimum ionizing particlescm 2

  3. 26 CFR 48.4082-3 - Diesel fuel and kerosene; visual inspection devices. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Diesel fuel and kerosene; visual inspection... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Taxable Fuel § 48.4082-3 Diesel fuel and kerosene...

  4. Inspection device for fuel rod restraint by support lattice of fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Isao; Senga, Masatoshi; Kada, Mitoshi.

    1991-01-01

    An inspection operation section for disposing fuel assembly vertically at predetermined positions, a control section wired therewith, a moving operation section movable in the direction of X, Y and Z axes by a driving signal sent from the control section are disposed to an inspection section main body. A downward bore scope and a upward bore scope, each of such a size as can be inserted to the gaps between the fuel rods, are disposed while opposing to each other for observing the inside of each of cells from above and below in support lattices of fuel assemblies. High performance television cameras are disposed to each of bore scopes to supply images to monitoring televisions in the control section. Thus, a displacing operation section of the inspection operation section is automatically controlled three-dimensionally, the downward bore scope and the upward bore scope are integrally intruded to the inside of the gaps between the predetermined fuel rods from a required height and stopped at a predetermined position, mounted automatically to a required cell of the support lattice to efficiently observe and inspect the fuel rod restraint. (N.H.)

  5. RADIATION PERFORMANCE OF GAN AND INAS/GAAS QUANTUM DOT BASED DEVICES SUBJECTED TO NEUTRON RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiyauddin Ahmad Fauzi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their useful optoelectronics functions, gallium nitride (GaN and quantum dots (QDs based structures are also known for their radiation hardness properties. With demands on such semiconductor material structures, it is important to investigate the differences in reliability and radiation hardness properties of these two devices. For this purpose, three sets of GaN light-emitting diode (LED and InAs/GaAs dot-in-a well (DWELL samples were irradiated with thermal neutron of fluence ranging from 3×1013 to 6×1014 neutron/cm2 in PUSPATI TRIGA research reactor. The radiation performances for each device were evaluated based on the current-voltage (I-V and capacitance-voltage (C-V electrical characterisation method. Results suggested that the GaN based sample is less susceptible to electrical changes due to the thermal neutron radiation effects compared to the QD based sample.

  6. Problematic radiation protective devices for X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, A.; Nanko, N.; Bruggmoser, G.; Eble, M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report experimental test results of radiation safety glasses with a lead equivalence of 0.5 mm Pb. The glasses were tested on a phantom, with various radiation projections, for their shielding effect with regard to the eye lens. The protective effect at AP projection was 90%, which corresponds to the data given by the manufacturer. But in most cases of interventional radiology, the examiner's eyes are exposed to lateral radiation, due to the positioning of the monitor. In these cases, reflected radiation at the side of the glasses facing the eye may induce a dose to the lens that can be fourfold the dose received without wearing the glasses, so that wearing these glasses may enhance the hazard. Another protective device tested was lead-coated gloves. The manufacturer promises a protective effect of 50% at 100 kV. The experimental test data, obtained by taking into account technical characteristics of angiographic components, confirm a radiation shielding of about 20%. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Development and Testing of an Acoustoultrasonic Inspection Device for Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGugan, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the wind energy industry has grown rapidly (23% per annum) to the stage where a modern turbine blade exceeds the wing span of an Airbus A380, where offshore wind farms of 300MW are a reality, and where an 800MW total level of European power production 15 years ago has become...... for this dynamic new industry. There is a need to understand the effect(s) of more advanced designs and manufacturing approaches, the prevalence and significance of production defects in material and structure, and the optimization of maintenance/inspection effort through monitoring. Described in this paper......-layered structure must meet the requirements of greater size and quality demanded by the industry, whilst matching the harsher environments of offshore placement, and providing improvements in reliability and an upgraded life-cycle maintenance approach. Non-destructive inspection technology is an important topic...

  8. Development of Quantum Devices and Algorithms for Radiation Detection and Radiation Signal Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Tokhy, M.E.S.M.E.S.

    2012-01-01

    The main functions of spectroscopy system are signal detection, filtering and amplification, pileup detection and recovery, dead time correction, amplitude analysis and energy spectrum analysis. Safeguards isotopic measurements require the best spectrometer systems with excellent resolution, stability, efficiency and throughput. However, the resolution and throughput, which depend mainly on the detector, amplifier and the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), can still be improved. These modules have been in continuous development and improvement. For this reason we are interested with both the development of quantum detectors and efficient algorithms of the digital processing measurement. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis is concentrated on both 1. Study quantum dot (QD) devices behaviors under gamma radiation 2. Development of efficient algorithms for handling problems of gamma-ray spectroscopy For gamma radiation detection, a detailed study of nanotechnology QD sources and infrared photodetectors (QDIP) for gamma radiation detection is introduced. There are two different types of quantum scintillator detectors, which dominate the area of ionizing radiation measurements. These detectors are QD scintillator detectors and QDIP scintillator detectors. By comparison with traditional systems, quantum systems have less mass, require less volume, and consume less power. These factors are increasing the need for efficient detector for gamma-ray applications such as gamma-ray spectroscopy. Consequently, the nanocomposite materials based on semiconductor quantum dots has potential for radiation detection via scintillation was demonstrated in the literature. Therefore, this thesis presents a theoretical analysis for the characteristics of QD sources and infrared photodetectors (QDIPs). A model of QD sources under incident gamma radiation detection is developed. A novel methodology is introduced to characterize the effect of gamma radiation on QD devices. The rate

  9. Radiation Characterization of Commercial GaN Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Richard D.; Scheick, Leif Z.; Hoffman, James P.; Thrivikraman, Tushar; Jenabi, Masud; Gim, Yonggyu; Miyahira, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Radiative feedback from primordial protostars and final mass of the first star Commercially available devices fabricated from GaN are beginning to appear from a number of different suppliers. Based on previous materials and prototype device studies, it is expected that these commercial devices will be quite tolerant to the types of radiation encountered in space. This expectation needs to be verified and the study described herein was undertaken for that purpose. All of the parts discussed in this report are readily available commercially. The parts chosen for study are all targeted for RF applications. Three different studies were performed: 1) a preliminary DDD/TID test of a variety of part types was performed by irradiating with 50 MeV protons, 2) a detailed DDD/TID study of one particular part type was performed by irradiating with 50 MeV protons, and 3) a SEB/SEGR test was performed on a variety of part types by irradiating with heavy ions. No significant degradation was observed in the tests performed in this study.

  10. Electromagnetic Radiation Efficiency of Body-Implanted Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolayev, Denys; Zhadobov, Maxim; Karban, Pavel; Sauleau, Ronan

    2018-02-01

    Autonomous wireless body-implanted devices for biotelemetry, telemedicine, and neural interfacing constitute an emerging technology providing powerful capabilities for medicine and clinical research. We study the through-tissue electromagnetic propagation mechanisms, derive the optimal frequency range, and obtain the maximum achievable efficiency for radiative energy transfer from inside a body to free space. We analyze how polarization affects the efficiency by exciting TM and TE modes using a magnetic dipole and a magnetic current source, respectively. Four problem formulations are considered with increasing complexity and realism of anatomy. The results indicate that the optimal operating frequency f for deep implantation (with a depth d ≳3 cm ) lies in the (108- 109 )-Hz range and can be approximated as f =2.2 ×107/d . For a subcutaneous case (d ≲3 cm ), the surface-wave-induced interference is significant: within the range of peak radiation efficiency (about 2 ×108 to 3 ×109 Hz ), the max-to-min ratio can reach a value of 6.5. For the studied frequency range, 80%-99% of radiation efficiency is lost due to the tissue-air wave-impedance mismatch. Parallel polarization reduces the losses by a few percent; this effect is inversely proportional to the frequency and depth. Considering the implantation depth, the operating frequency, the polarization, and the directivity, we show that about an order-of-magnitude efficiency improvement is achievable compared to existing devices.

  11. In-service inspection of electronics components, circuits and nuclear radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbhe, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is a complex process plant. Like a nuclear power plant, the research reactors also employ various nuclear and process systems, the scope and number of such systems being plant-specific. In-service inspection of these systems is an important requirement and is applied at various levels of their constituent units such as detectors, electronics components, circuits and integrated systems. The sensors used cover a wide range such as neutronic, radiation, process (pressure, temperature, flow, level) and many others. The present discussion is limited to neutronic and radiation detectors. The electronic components used normally consist of passive components like resistors, capacitors, semiconductor components like diodes, transistors, analog integrated circuits and digital integrated circuits and electromagnetic relays, to name a few. In order to have a comprehensive surveillance and ISI plan, over the entire plant life, it is necessary to understand various mechanisms, which degrade the performance of these systems. These are discussed initially and later various ISI methods that are used on component-circuit or system level, to ensure optimum system performance, are discussed. The computerised systems, because of hardware and software considerations, have to be given special attention, and the same are discussed briefly

  12. A study of radiation vulnerability of ferroelectric material and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiec, Y.M.; Musseau, O.; Leray, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation effects on ferroelectric material and devices are presented, based on commercially available samples. After recalling the background, effects in ferroelectric PZT capacitors are presented, concerning dose, neutrons and fatigue associated with dose effects. Physical implications and interpretations are sketched. In a second stage, effects are studied at the complete non-volatile RAM device level. Vulnerability in dose, dose rate and neutron fluence of commercial 4 kbit ferroelectric RAM is addressed. 64 kbit results are mentioned in dose rate. These results are compared to previously published data from other manufacturers or laboratories and supplement them. In the appendix, equivalence between rad(Si) and rad (PZT) is discussed in the case of low energy ''10 keV Aracor'' x-rays and 60 Co gamma rays

  13. A study of radiation vulnerability of ferroelectric material and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coic, Y M; Musseau, O; Leray, J L [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    1994-12-31

    The radiation effects on ferroelectric material and devices are presented, based on commercially available samples. After recalling the background, effects in ferroelectric PZT capacitors are presented, concerning dose, neutrons and fatigue associated with dose effects. Physical implications and interpretations are sketched. In a second stage, effects are studied at the complete non-volatile RAM device level. Vulnerability in dose, dose rate and neutron fluence of commercial 4 kbit ferroelectric RAM is addressed. 64 kbit results are mentioned in dose rate. These results are compared to previously published data from other manufacturers or laboratories and supplement them. In the appendix, equivalence between rad (Si) and rad (PZT) is discussed in the case of low energy ``10 keV Aracor`` s-rays and {sup 60}Co gamma rays. (author). 24 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. A study of radiation vulnerability of ferroelectric material and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coic, Y.M.; Musseau, O.; Leray, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation effects on ferroelectric material and devices are presented, based on commercially available samples. After recalling the background, effects in ferroelectric PZT capacitors are presented, concerning dose, neutrons and fatigue associated with dose effects. Physical implications and interpretations are sketched. In a second stage, effects are studied at the complete non-volatile RAM device level. Vulnerability in dose, dose rate and neutron fluence of commercial 4 kbit ferroelectric RAM is addressed. 64 kbit results are mentioned in dose rate. These results are compared to previously published data from other manufacturers or laboratories and supplement them. In the appendix, equivalence between rad (Si) and rad (PZT) is discussed in the case of low energy ''10 keV Aracor'' s-rays and 60 Co gamma rays. (author). 24 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Research on dose setting for radiation sterilization of medical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tongcheng; Liu Qingfang; Zhong Hongliang; Mi Zhisu; Wang Chunlei; Jiang Jianping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To establish the radiation sterilization dose for medical devices using data of bioburden on the medical device. Methods: Firstly determination of recovery ratio and correction coefficient of the microbiological test method was used according to ISO11737 standard, then determination of bioburden on the products, finally the dose setting was completed based on the Method 1 in ISO11137 standard. Results: Fifteen kinds of medical devices were tested. Bioburden range was from 8.6-97271.2 CFU/device, recovery ration range 54.6%-100%, correction co-efficiency range 1.00-1.83, D 10 distribution from 1.40 to 2.82 kGy, verification dose (dose at SAL = 10 -2 ) range 5.1-17.6 kGy and sterilization dose (dose at SAL 10 -6 ) range 17.5-32.5 kGy. Conclusion: One hundred samples of each kind of product were exposed to the pre-determined verification dose and then the sterility test was performed. Each sterility test showed positive number was not greater than two. This indicated that the sterilization dose established for each kind of product was statistically acceptable

  16. Electromagnetic radiation screening of semiconductor devices for long life applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, T. C.; Brammer, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    A review is presented of the mechanism of interaction of electromagnetic radiation in various spectral ranges, with various semiconductor device defects. Previous work conducted in this area was analyzed as to its pertinence to the current problem. The task was studied of implementing electromagnetic screening methods in the wavelength region determined to be most effective. Both scanning and flooding type stimulation techniques are discussed. While the scanning technique offers a considerably higher yield of useful information, a preliminary investigation utilizing the flooding approach is first recommended because of the ease of implementation, lower cost and ability to provide go-no-go information in semiconductor screening.

  17. Theoretic simulation for CMOS device on total dose radiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Baoping; Zhou Heqin; Guo Hongxia; He Chaohui; Zhou Hui; Luo Yinhong; Zhang Fengqi

    2006-01-01

    Total dose effect is simulated for C4007B, CC4007RH and CC4011 devices at different absorbed dose rate by using linear system theory. When irradiation response and dose are linear, total dose radiation and post-irradiation annealing at room temperature are determined for one random by choosing absorbed dose rate, and total dose effect at other absorbed dose rate can be predicted by using linear system theory. The simulating results agree with the experimental results at different absorbed dose rate. (authors)

  18. Risks of carcinogenesis from electromagnetic radiation of mobile telephony devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakymenko, I; Sidorik, E

    2010-07-01

    Intensive implementation of mobile telephony technology in everyday human life during last two decades has given a possibility for epidemiological estimation of long-term effects of chronic exposure of human organism to low-intensive microwave (MW) radiation. Latest epidemiological data reveal a significant increase in risk of development of some types of tumors in chronic (over 10 years) users of mobile phone. It was detected a significant increase in incidence of brain tumors (glioma, acoustic neuroma, meningioma), parotid gland tumor, seminoma in long-term users of mobile phone, especially in cases of ipsilateral use (case-control odds ratios from 1.3 up to 6.1). Two epidemiological studies have indicated a significant increase of cancer incidence in people living close to the mobile telephony base station as compared with the population from distant area. These data raise a question of adequacy of modern safety limits of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure for humans. For today the limits were based solely on the conception of thermal mechanism of biological effects of RF/MW radiation. Meantime the latest experimental data indicate the significant metabolic changes in living cell under the low-intensive (non-thermal) EMR exposure. Among reproducible biological effects of low-intensive MWs are reactive oxygen species overproduction, heat shock proteins expression, DNA damages, apoptosis. The lack of generally accepted mechanism of biological effects of low-intensive non-ionizing radiation doesn't permit to disregard the obvious epidemiological and experimental data of its biological activity. Practical steps must be done for reasonable limitation of excessive EMR exposure, along with the implementation of new safety limits of mobile telephony devices radiation, and new technological decisions, which would take out the source of radiation from human brain.

  19. Organic materials and devices for detecting ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, F Patrick [Livermore, CA; Chinn, Douglas A [Livermore, CA

    2007-03-06

    A .pi.-conjugated organic material for detecting ionizing radiation, and particularly for detecting low energy fission neutrons. The .pi.-conjugated materials comprise a class of organic materials whose members are intrinsic semiconducting materials. Included in this class are .pi.-conjugated polymers, polyaromatic hydrocarbon molecules, and quinolates. Because of their high resistivities (.gtoreq.10.sup.9 ohmcm), these .pi.-conjugated organic materials exhibit very low leakage currents. A device for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation can be made by applying an electric field to a layer of the .pi.-conjugated polymer material to measure electron/hole pair formation. A layer of the .pi.-conjugated polymer material can be made by conventional polymer fabrication methods and can be cast into sheets capable of covering large areas. These sheets of polymer radiation detector material can be deposited between flexible electrodes and rolled up to form a radiation detector occupying a small volume but having a large surface area. The semiconducting polymer material can be easily fabricated in layers about 10 .mu.m to 100 .mu.m thick. These thin polymer layers and their associated electrodes can be stacked to form unique multi-layer detector arrangements that occupy small volume.

  20. Device for inspecting pieces of luggage by means of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, C.; Dennhoven, M.

    1977-01-01

    Luggage inspection facility using X-rays, the piece of luggage appearing as a shadow image on a luminous screen. The shielded casing contains a control compartment holding the piece of luggage. During radioscopy the control compartment is closed by means of a shielding tunnel. As during mechanism for the shielding tunnel there is used a so-called linear motor with a moving magnetic field, operating a bar connected with the shielding tunnel through a flexible coupling. The motor is turned off in its terminal positions by means of a magnet and protective gas contacts. (HP) 891 HP [de

  1. Chalcogenide Glass Radiation Sensor; Materials Development, Design and Device Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitkova, Maria; Butt, Darryl; Kozicki, Michael; Barnaby, Hugo

    2013-04-30

    For many decades, various radiation detecting material have been extensively researched, to find a better material or mechanism for radiation sensing. Recently, there is a growing need for a smaller and effective material or device that can perform similar functions of bulkier Geiger counters and other measurement options, which fail the requirement for easy, cheap and accurate radiation dose measurement. Here arises the use of thin film chalcogenide glass, which has unique properties of high thermal stability along with high sensitivity towards short wavelength radiation. The unique properties of chalcogenide glasses are attributed to the lone pair p-shell electrons, which provide some distinctive optical properties when compared to crystalline material. These qualities are derived from the energy band diagram and the presence of localized states in the band gap. Chalcogenide glasses have band tail states and localized states, along with the two band states. These extra states are primarily due to the lone pair electrons as well as the amorphous structure of the glasses. The localized states between the conductance band (CB) and valence band (VB) are primarily due to the presence of the lone pair electrons, while the band tail states are attributed to the Van der Waal's forces between layers of atoms [1]. Localized states are trap locations within the band gap where electrons from the valence band can hop into, in their path towards the conduction band. Tail states on the other hand are locations near the band gap edges and are known as Urbach tail states (Eu). These states are occupied with many electrons that can participate in the various transformations due to interaction with photons. According to Y. Utsugi et. al.[2], the electron-phonon interactions are responsible for the generation of the Urbach tails. These states are responsible for setting the absorption edge for these glasses and photons with energy near the band gap affect these states. We have

  2. Linear devices in combined high-level radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Vonno, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    The design of precision analog integrated circuits for use in combined high-level radiation environments has traditionally been on a full-custom basis. The use of semicustom design methods has become prevalent in digital devices, with standard cell libraries and gate arrays readily available from multiple vendors. This paper addresses the application of semicustom design techniques to analog parts. In all cases the emphasis is on bipolar technology, since this provides an optimal combination of precision and radiation hardness. A mixed mode analog/digital (A/D) cell family for implementing semicustom designs is described, together with the fabrication process used. Specific processing and design methods are used to provide circuit hardness against neutron, total gamma dose, and transient gamma environments. Semicustom mixed analog/digital design is seen as an appropriate methodology for implementation of medium-performance mixed mode functions for radiation-hardened applications. This leads to trade-offs in process complexity and performance. Full custom design remains necessary for demanding applications such as high-speed A/D conversion and associated sample/hold functions. An A/D cell family optimized for hardness is described, together with the bipolar process used to implement it

  3. High ionization radiation field remote visualization device - shielding requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Antonio P. Rodrigues; Omi, Nelson M.; Silveira, Carlos Gaia da; Calvo, Wilson A. Pajero

    2011-01-01

    The high activity sources manipulation hot-cells use special and very thick leaded glass windows. This window provides a single sight of what is being manipulated inside the hot-cell. The use of surveillance cameras would replace the leaded glass window, provide other sights and show more details of the manipulated pieces, using the zoom capacity. Online distant manipulation may be implemented, too. The limitation is their low ionizing radiation resistance. This low resistance also limited the useful time of robots made to explore or even fix problematic nuclear reactor core, industrial gamma irradiators and high radioactive leaks. This work is a part of the development of a high gamma field remote visualization device using commercial surveillance cameras. These cameras are cheap enough to be discarded after the use for some hours of use in an emergency application, some days or some months in routine applications. A radiation shield can be used but it cannot block the camera sight which is the shield weakness. Estimates of the camera and its electronics resistance may be made knowing each component behavior. This knowledge is also used to determine the optical sensor type and the lens material, too. A better approach will be obtained with the commercial cameras working inside a high gamma field, like the one inside of the IPEN Multipurpose Irradiator. The goal of this work is to establish the radiation shielding needed to extend the camera's useful time to hours, days or months, depending on the application needs. (author)

  4. Response of Caenorhabditis elegans to wireless devices radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasseas, Michael K; Fragopoulou, Adamantia F; Manta, Areti K; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini; Vekrellis, Konstantinos; Margaritis, Lukas H; Syntichaki, Popi

    2015-03-01

    To examine the impact of electromagnetic radiation, produced by GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) mobile phones, Wi-Fi (Wireless-Fidelity) routers and wireless DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) phones, on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We exposed synchronized populations, of different developmental stages, to these wireless devices at E-field levels below ICNIRP's (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) guidelines for various lengths of time. WT (wild-type) and aging- or stress-sensitive mutant worms were examined for changes in growth, fertility, lifespan, chemotaxis, short-term memory, increased ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) production and apoptosis by using fluorescent marker genes or qRT-PCR (quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction). No statistically significant differences were found between the exposed and the sham/control animals in any of the experiments concerning lifespan, fertility, growth, memory, ROS, apoptosis or gene expression. The worm appears to be robust to this form of (pulsed) radiation, at least under the exposure conditions used.

  5. Device for inspection and/or repair of a pipe of a steam raising unit of a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermaat, H.P.

    1986-01-01

    Eddy current sensors are introduced into the pipe from the steam raising unit chamber. The two-part device on the supporting pillar is used to support the sensors and to position them, and so is an arm connected to it via a clutch. It is accommodated inside the steam raising chamber, but can be operated remotely from outside the steam raising chamber. This reduces the radiation loading of the operating staff. (DG) [de

  6. Modernization of a programmable scanning device used to develop remote inspection procedures related to the nondestructive examination of nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Donizete A.; Silva Junior, Silverio F.; Viana, Sadraque S.; Alves, Michel R.C.; Horta, Thamyris C.R.

    2011-01-01

    At CDTN's nondestructive test laboratory there is an electromechanical probe scanning device. That equipment is an important tool used in the development of procedures to be applied in remote inspections of nuclear equipment and components. In order to adequate its functionality an update was planned and executed. Keeping its excellent existing mechanical parts and DC motors, the original electronic power supply and the control unit was replaced by a new one. Furthermore, trajectory control and data processing algorithms were implemented by means of National Instruments LabVIEW 8.6 programming tool. So, both trajectory control and data acquisition/plotting systems were integrated as PC executable software. This paper presents details of the whole process, including the updated hardware, some screen shots showing the trajectory control program and a typical data presentation window. (author)

  7. Modernization of a programmable scanning device used to develop remote inspection procedures related to the nondestructive examination of nuclear components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alencar, Donizete A.; Silva Junior, Silverio F., E-mail: daa@cdtn.b, E-mail: silvasf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Viana, Sadraque S.; Alves, Michel R.C.; Horta, Thamyris C.R. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletronica

    2011-07-01

    At CDTN's nondestructive test laboratory there is an electromechanical probe scanning device. That equipment is an important tool used in the development of procedures to be applied in remote inspections of nuclear equipment and components. In order to adequate its functionality an update was planned and executed. Keeping its excellent existing mechanical parts and DC motors, the original electronic power supply and the control unit was replaced by a new one. Furthermore, trajectory control and data processing algorithms were implemented by means of National Instruments LabVIEW 8.6 programming tool. So, both trajectory control and data acquisition/plotting systems were integrated as PC executable software. This paper presents details of the whole process, including the updated hardware, some screen shots showing the trajectory control program and a typical data presentation window. (author)

  8. Development of a power-assisted lifting device for construction and periodic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayatsu, M.; Yamada, M.; Takasu, H.; Tagawa, Y.; Kajiwara, K.

    2001-01-01

    This study focuses on the control system design and control performance of a power-assisted lifting device. The device consists of several electric chain-blocks, each controlled by force sensors and a CPU. The mechanism is as follows: (1) Force sensors detect any chain tension changes (by human force), (2) The CPU calculates the required output, (3) Electric chain-blocks move the object in the intended direction. The feature of this device is that it does not require any information related to the suspension points of the electric chain-blocks. The controller was designed using the H method, which considers disturbances and aims to provide robust stability under the operation conditions of construction verified through experiments using a 700 kg steel dummy mass (control object) suspended by four electric chain-blocks. In the experiments, the controller, which was designed using the H method, was compared to the PI controller method, and the effectiveness of the H controller was proven. A control object could be moved, translated, and rotated by human force (of less than 10 kg). Positioning performance errors were suppressed to less than 0.5 mm, and operation time was reduced by about 50%. This device will improve working efficiency and rationalize lifting operations in nuclear power plants. (author)

  9. Development of a power-assisted lifting device for construction and periodic inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayatsu, M.; Yamada, M.; Takasu, H. [Hitachi Plant Engineering and Construction, Chiba-ken (Japan); Tagawa, Y. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology (Japan); Kajiwara, K. [National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    This study focuses on the control system design and control performance of a power-assisted lifting device. The device consists of several electric chain-blocks, each controlled by force sensors and a CPU. The mechanism is as follows: (1) Force sensors detect any chain tension changes (by human force), (2) The CPU calculates the required output, (3) Electric chain-blocks move the object in the intended direction. The feature of this device is that it does not require any information related to the suspension points of the electric chain-blocks. The controller was designed using the H method, which considers disturbances and aims to provide robust stability under the operation conditions of construction verified through experiments using a 700 kg steel dummy mass (control object) suspended by four electric chain-blocks. In the experiments, the controller, which was designed using the H method, was compared to the PI controller method, and the effectiveness of the H controller was proven. A control object could be moved, translated, and rotated by human force (of less than 10 kg). Positioning performance errors were suppressed to less than 0.5 mm, and operation time was reduced by about 50%. This device will improve working efficiency and rationalize lifting operations in nuclear power plants. (author)

  10. The use of ionising radiation screening devices in airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, T.

    2010-01-01

    Although the NEA generally focuses on radiological protection at nuclear power plants and related facilities, it also addresses other areas of radiological protection of interest to member countries. A particular subject of recent importance concerns the use of ionising radiation screening devices as part of airport security efforts. Modern body scanners can produce human images that can be used to detect weapons that may be hidden beneath a person's clothing. Heightened concerns over terrorist threats to airline flights have prompted many countries to consider the use, or expanded use of body scanners. The use of such devices raises a wide series of questions, some of which concern the radiological protection of those who might be scanned. As such, the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety (IACRS), an expert body in which the NEA works together with several other international organisations addressing radiological protection issues, recently developed a joint information paper laying out the key radiological protection and other issues that should be or have been considered when making decisions as to whether ionising radiation body scanners should be deployed in airports. This article provides an overview of the information paper. In assessing the possible use of X-ray body scanners, there are two significant radiological protection issues that may be of relevance with regard to the government decision whether their use is justified. First, although the individual exposures are very low, the exposure experienced by the scanned population as a whole will depend on whether all passengers are systematically scanned, or alternatively whether passengers are selected for scanning randomly or on the basis of specific criteria. The manner in which passengers would be selected would need to be known in order to appropriately assess the full radiological protection impact of scanner use. Second, the use of X-ray body scanners on sensitive groups, such as pregnant

  11. NASDA technician test real-time radiation monitoring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A technician from the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) tests the real-time radiation monitoring device on SPACEHAB at Kennedy Space Center in preparation for the STS-89 mission, slated to be the first Shuttle launch of 1998. STS-89 will be the eighth of nine scheduled Mir dockings and will include a double module of SPACEHAB, used mainly as a large pressurized cargo container for science, logistical equipment and supplies to be exchanged between the orbiter Endeavour and the Russian Space Station Mir. The nine-day flight of STS-89 also is scheduled to include the transfer of the seventh American to live and work aboard the Russian orbiting outpost. Liftoff of Endeavour and its seven-member crew is targeted for Jan. 15, 1998, at 1:03 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  12. Sipping test update device for fuel elements cladding inspections in IPR-r1 TRIGA reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R.R.; Mesquita, A.Z.; Andrade, E.P.D.; Gual, Maritza R., E-mail: rrr@cdtn.br, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br, E-mail: edson@cdtn.br, E-mail: maritzargual@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    It is in progress at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN (Nuclear Technology Development Center), a research project that aims to investigate possible leaks in the fuel elements of the TRIGA reactor, located in this research center. This paper presents the final form of sipping test device for TRIGA reactor, and results of the first experiments setup. Mechanical support strength tests were made by knotting device on the crane, charged with water from the conventional water supply, and tests outside the reactor pool with the use of new non-irradiated fuel elements encapsulated in stainless steel, and available safe stored in this unit. It is expected that tests with graphite elements from reactor pool are done soon after and also the test experiment with the first fuel elements in service positioned in the B ring (central ring) of the reactor core in the coming months. (author)

  13. Sipping test update device for fuel elements cladding inspections in IPR-r1 TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.R.; Mesquita, A.Z.; Andrade, E.P.D.; Gual, Maritza R.

    2015-01-01

    It is in progress at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN (Nuclear Technology Development Center), a research project that aims to investigate possible leaks in the fuel elements of the TRIGA reactor, located in this research center. This paper presents the final form of sipping test device for TRIGA reactor, and results of the first experiments setup. Mechanical support strength tests were made by knotting device on the crane, charged with water from the conventional water supply, and tests outside the reactor pool with the use of new non-irradiated fuel elements encapsulated in stainless steel, and available safe stored in this unit. It is expected that tests with graphite elements from reactor pool are done soon after and also the test experiment with the first fuel elements in service positioned in the B ring (central ring) of the reactor core in the coming months. (author)

  14. A dye penetration inspection device for a peripheral annular zone of of a body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebel, A.; Gemma, A.

    1996-01-01

    The device is composed of: a transverse annular rail track that is attached to the peripheral surface of the body, a guided cart moving on the track, and various equipment mounted on the cart including nozzles for spraying the dye liquid, a dye cleaning liquid and a developer product, and drying means and remote viewing means. Remote control means are also used to control cart motion and spraying, cleaning and drying sequences

  15. Inspection of commercial optical devices for data storage using a three Gaussian beam microscope interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, J. Mauricio; Cywiak, Moises; Servin, Manuel; Juarez P, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Recently, an interferometric profilometer based on the heterodyning of three Gaussian beams has been reported. This microscope interferometer, called a three Gaussian beam interferometer, has been used to profile high quality optical surfaces that exhibit constant reflectivity with high vertical resolution and lateral resolution near λ. We report the use of this interferometer to measure the profiles of two commercially available optical surfaces for data storage, namely, the compact disk (CD-R) and the digital versatile disk (DVD-R). We include experimental results from a one-dimensional radial scan of these devices without data marks. The measurements are taken by placing the devices with the polycarbonate surface facing the probe beam of the interferometer. This microscope interferometer is unique when compared with other optical measuring instruments because it uses narrowband detection, filters out undesirable noisy signals, and because the amplitude of the output voltage signal is basically proportional to the local vertical height of the surface under test, thus detecting with high sensitivity. We show that the resulting profiles, measured with this interferometer across the polycarbonate layer, provide valuable information about the track profiles, making this interferometer a suitable tool for quality control of surface storage devices

  16. Ecological inspection as methodology of an estimation radiating is brave during conversion of military objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanova, Yi.V.; Lisenko, O.Yi.; Chumachenko, S.M.; Molozhanova, O.G.

    2005-01-01

    The methods of military object ecological inspection are proposed and the scheme of interaction between state structures, systems and objects in general system of national ecological safety is developed. The necessity of conducting ecological inspections during solving ecological problems including the problem of radioactive security of military objects of Ukraine is emphasized

  17. Sensor device for X-ray beam to evaluate the radiation focal spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Lara H.E. dos; Schiabel, Homero; Silva, Aderbal A.B. da; Marques, Paulo M.A.; Campos, Marcelo; Slaets, Annie F.F.

    1996-01-01

    A new electronic device to determine the position of the central ray of the radiation beam is proposed. The device aims to provide a perfect alignment of test objects used for evaluating focal spots with this reference axis

  18. Charge-coupled devices as positron sensitive detectors of x-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, G.S.; Zazhivikhin, V.V.; Zajtsev, V.I.; Mishevskij, V.O.

    1996-01-01

    Results of theoretical and experimental studies on the sensitivity and spatial resolution of devices with a charge link (CLD) within the X-radiation energy range are described. The areas of the device application are considered

  19. Cecil gives in-bundle access for inspection and lancing [steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trovato, S.A.; Ruggieri, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    Cecil (Consolidated Edison Combined Inspection and Lancing System) is a robotic device which makes it possible to take inspection and sludge lancing equipment deep inside steam generator tube bundles. Cecil is teleoperated to perform tube bundle inspections, sludge sampling and sludge lancing. The first field test of Cecil at Indian Point 2 reactor, successfully demonstrated its capability for high quality inspection, and its potential for improved sludge removal, both with reduced personnel radiation exposure. (U.K.)

  20. Thermal and radiation losses in a linear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenau, P.; Degani, D.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the electron temperature in a linear device which includes the effect of thermal conduction, heat flux limit, radiation, and end plugs. It is found that the thermal conduction and the heat flux limit are dominant in the initial phase of cooling, while the later phase is almost completely controlled by radiation that spatially homogenizes the temperature distribution. In the case of bremsstrahlung, within the frame of the present model, the temperature decays to zero in a finite time. This process takes the form of a cooling wave that moves from the ends of the column to the center. Impurities cause a milder, exponential decay, which is still much faster than the algebraic conduction decay. The thermal effectiveness of the end plugs is described by a convective transfer coefficient h/sub p/. Its scaling law (in terms of the coupled plamsa-plug system) reveals that a very high plug-plasma density ratio provides a simple way to significantly retard the cooling

  1. Proposal of inspection method of radiation protection applied to nuclear medicine establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Leopoldino da Cruz Gouveia

    2003-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to implement a method of an impartial and efficient inspection, due to a correct and secure dose of ionizing radiation in the field of Nuclear Medicine. The Radiological Protection Model was tested in 113 Nuclear Medicine Services all over the country, according to a biannual analysis frequency (1996, 1998, 2000 and 2002). The data sheet comprised general information about the structure of the NMS and a technical approach. In the analytical process, a methodology of inputting different importance levels to each of the 82 features was adopted, based on the risk factors stated in the CNEN NE's and in the IAEA recommendations, as well. From this point of view, as a feature does not fit one of the rules above, it will correspond to a radioprotection fault and be imparted a grade. The sum of those grades, classified the NMS in one of the three different ranges, as follows: - operating without restriction - 100 points and below- operating with restriction - between 100 and 300 points - temporary shutdown - above and equal to 300 points. The allowance of the second group to carry on operating should be attached to a defined and restricted period of time (six to twelve months), supposed large enough to the NMS solving the problems being new evaluation proceeded then. The NMS's classified in the third group are supposed to go back into operation only when fit all the pending radioprotection requirements. Until the next regular evaluation, meanwhile a multiplication factor 2 n was applied to the recalcitrant NMS s where n is the number of unwilling occurrences. The previous establishment of those items of radioprotection, with its respective grade, excluded subjective and personal values in the judgement and technical evaluation of the institutions. (author)

  2. In-Line Acoustic Device Inspection of Leakage in Water Distribution Pipes Based on Wavelet and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally permanent acoustic sensors leak detection techniques have been proven to be very effective in water distribution pipes. However, these methods need long distance deployment and proper position of sensors and cannot be implemented on underground pipelines. An inline-inspection acoustic device is developed which consists of acoustic sensors. The device will travel by the flow of water through the pipes which record all noise events and detect small leaks. However, it records all the noise events regarding background noises, but the time domain noisy acoustic signal cannot manifest complete features such as the leak flow rate which does not distinguish the leak signal and environmental disturbance. This paper presents an algorithm structure with the modularity of wavelet and neural network, which combines the capability of wavelet transform analyzing leakage signals and classification capability of artificial neural networks. This study validates that the time domain is not evident to the complete features regarding noisy leak signals and significance of selection of mother wavelet to extract the noise event features in water distribution pipes. The simulation consequences have shown that an appropriate mother wavelet has been selected and localized to extract the features of the signal with leak noise and background noise, and by neural network implementation, the method improves the classification performance of extracted features.

  3. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...

  4. Reference neutron radiations. Part 2: Calibration fundamentals of radiation protection devices related to the basic quantities characterizing the radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    ISO 8529 consists of the following parts, under the general title Reference neutron radiations: Part 1: Characteristics and methods of production; Part 2: Calibration fundamentals of radiation protection devices related to the basic quantities characterizing the radiation field; Part 3: Calibration of area and personal dosimeters and determination of response as a function of energy and angle of incidence. This Part 2. of ISO 8529 takes as its starting point the neutron sources described in ISO 8529-1. It specifies the procedures to be used for realizing the calibration conditions of radiation protection devices in neutron fields produced by these calibration sources, with particular emphasis on the corrections for extraneous effects (e.g., the neutrons scattered from the walls of the calibration room). In this part of ISO 8529, particular emphasis is placed on calibrations using radionuclide sources (clauses 4 to 6) due to their widespread application, with less details given on the use of accelerator and reactor sources (8.2 and 8.3). This part of ISO 8529 then leads to ISO 8529-3 which gives conversion coefficients and the general rules and procedures for calibration

  5. Resistive Memory Devices for Radiation Resistant Non-Volatile Memory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ionizing radiation in space can damage electronic equipment, corrupting data and even disabling computers. Radiation resistant (rad hard) strategies must be employed...

  6. Radiation transmission type pipe wall thinning detection device and measuring instruments utilizing ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuhiko

    2009-01-01

    We developed the device to detect thinning of pipe thorough heat insulation in Power Plant, etc, even while the plant is under operation. It is necessary to test many parts of many pipes for pipe wall thinning management, but it is difficult within a limited time of the routine test. This device consists of detector and radiation source, which can detect the pipe (less than 500 mm in external diameter, less than 50 mm in thickness) with 1.6%-reproducibility (in a few-minutes measurement), based on the attenuation rate. Operation is easy and effective without removing the heat insulation. We will expand this thinning detection system, and contribute the safety of the Plant. (author)

  7. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title I Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-03-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) in 2013 at 19 uranium mill tailings disposal sites established under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978.1 These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title I disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE operates 18 UMTRCA Title I sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.27 (10 CFR 40.27). As required under the general license, a long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for each site was prepared by DOE and accepted by NRC. The Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site, one of the 19 Title I sites, will not be included under the general license until the open, operating portion of the cell is closed. The open portion will be closed either when it is filled or in 2023. This site is inspected in accordance with an interim LTSP. Long-term surveillance and maintenance services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective actions; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder relations, and other regulatory stewardship functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific LTSPs and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up or contingency inspections, or corrective action in accordance with the LTSP. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available on the Internet at http://www.lm.doe.gov/.

  8. Developments of radiation safety requirements for the management of radiation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Seock; Choi, Jin Ho; Cheong, Yuon Young

    2002-03-01

    The approach of the risk-informed regulatory options was studied to develop the radiation safety requirements for the managements for radiation devices. The task analysis, exposure, accident scenario development, risk analysis, and systematic approach for regulatory options was considered in full, based on the NRC report, 'NUREG/CR-6642', and the translation of its core part was conducted for ongoing research. In this methodology, the diamond tree that includes human factors, etc, additionally with normal event tree, was used. According to the analysis results of this approach, the risk analysis and the development of regulatory options were applied for the electron linear accelerators and the qualitative results were obtained. Because the field user groups were participated in this study could contribute to the basis establishment of the risk-informed regulation policy through securing consensus and inducing particle interests. It will make an important role of establishing the detail plan of ongoing research

  9. Developments of radiation safety requirements for the management of radiation devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Seock [Pohang Accelerator Lab, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin Ho [Gachun University of Medicine and science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Yuon Young [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2002-03-15

    The approach of the risk-informed regulatory options was studied to develop the radiation safety requirements for the managements for radiation devices. The task analysis, exposure, accident scenario development, risk analysis, and systematic approach for regulatory options was considered in full, based on the NRC report, 'NUREG/CR-6642', and the translation of its core part was conducted for ongoing research. In this methodology, the diamond tree that includes human factors, etc, additionally with normal event tree, was used. According to the analysis results of this approach, the risk analysis and the development of regulatory options were applied for the electron linear accelerators and the qualitative results were obtained. Because the field user groups were participated in this study could contribute to the basis establishment of the risk-informed regulation policy through securing consensus and inducing particle interests. It will make an important role of establishing the detail plan of ongoing research.

  10. Superconducting (radiation hardened) magnets for mirror fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Dalder, E.N.C.; Miller, J.R.; Perkins, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Superconducting magnets for mirror fusion have evolved considerably since the Baseball II magnet in 1970. Recently, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) yin-yang has been tested to a full field of 7.7 T with radial dimensions representative of a full scale reactor. Now the emphasis has turned to the manufacture of very high field solenoids (choke coils) that are placed between the tandem mirror central cell and the yin-yang anchor-plug set. For MFTF-B the choke coil field reaches 12 T, while in future devices like the MFTF-Upgrade, Fusion Power Demonstration and Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) reactor the fields are doubled. Besides developing high fields, the magnets must be radiation hardened. Otherwise, thick neutron shields increase the magnet size to an unacceptable weight and cost. Neutron fluences in superconducting magnets must be increased by an order of magnitude or more. Insulators must withstand 10 10 to 10 11 rads, while magnet stability must be retained after the copper has been exposed to fluence above 10 19 neutrons/cm 2

  11. Development of the mobile manipulator for inspection and maintenance in nuclear power plants and application of the modul devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmichi, Takeo; Hosaka, Shigetaka; Nishihara, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Junji; Sato, Masatoshi

    1986-01-01

    In nuclear power stations, remote operation devices have been positively developed and applied, thus largely contributed to the reduction of the radiation exposure of workers. However, when requirements are diversified, the number of devices increases, and their management becomes complicated. The largest obstacle to the adaption of versatile robots in nuclear power stations is the environmental condition, and the small size for narrow space and the capability to withstand severe temperature, humidity and radiation must be ensured with high reliability. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. carried out the development of the manipulator for light works, which takes early counter-measures to the abnormality during operation, for five years as the subsidized project by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. This robot is composed of a slave robot working in vessels and the central control system. The slave robot comprises a modular manipulator arm, the slave controller, a running carriage and the three-dimensional visual system. The components of the central control system are connected with optical fibers. The features and function and applicability of this manipulator are described. (Kako, I.)

  12. Array-type miniature interferometer as the core optical microsystem of an optical coherence tomography device for tissue inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passilly, Nicolas; Perrin, Stéphane; Lullin, Justine; Albero, Jorge; Bargiel, Sylwester; Froehly, Luc; Gorecki, Christophe; Krauter, Johann; Osten, Wolfgang; Wang, Wei-Shan; Wiemer, Maik

    2016-04-01

    Some of the critical limitations for widespread use in medical applications of optical devices, such as confocal or optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems, are related to their cost and large size. Indeed, although quite efficient systems are available on the market, e.g. in dermatology, they equip only a few hospitals and hence, are far from being used as an early detection tool, for instance in screening of patients for early detection of cancers. In this framework, the VIAMOS project aims at proposing a concept of miniaturized, batch-fabricated and lower-cost, OCT system dedicated to non-invasive skin inspection. In order to image a large skin area, the system is based on a full-field approach. Moreover, since it relies on micro-fabricated devices whose fields of view are limited, 16 small interferometers are arranged in a dense array to perform multi-channel simultaneous imaging. Gaps between each channel are then filled by scanning of the system followed by stitching. This approach allows imaging a large area without the need of large optics. It also avoids the use of very fast and often expensive laser sources, since instead of a single point detector, almost 250 thousands pixels are used simultaneously. The architecture is then based on an array of Mirau interferometers which are interesting for their vertical arrangement compatible with vertical assembly at the wafer-level. Each array is consequently a local part of a stack of seven wafers. This stack includes a glass lens doublet, an out-of-plane actuated micro-mirror for phase shifting, a spacer and a planar beam-splitter. Consequently, different materials, such as silicon and glass, are bonded together and well-aligned thanks to lithographic-based fabrication processes.

  13. Evolution in the design and development of the in-service inspection device for the Indian 500 MWe Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ashutosh Pratap; Rajagopalan, C.; Rakesh, V.; Rajendran, S.; Venugopal, S.; Kasiviswanathan, K.V.; Jayakumar, T.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Conceptual study on the configuration of an ISI device for FBR interspace environment has been carried out. → Prototyping of the concept has been experimentally validated in a mock up. → High temperature version of the ISI device has been made and tested in mock-up. Further experimentation is underway. → Simulation of different configurations of the device has been carried out with respect to reduced gap between main vessel and safety vessel for future FBRs. → Studies on wheel lining for the device have been carried out at 150 o C for better traction and payload capability. - Abstract: In-service inspection (ISI) plays a major role in monitoring the condition of nuclear power plant structures and components. Based on the information gathered during inspection and the studies carried out, it is possible to assess the extent of damage and take corrective measures to keep effects of ageing under control. In nuclear power plants comprehensive ISI is dictated by issues of increased safety to personnel and equipment, and efficiently enhances the plant life. A special emphasis has been laid on the development of robotic devices for the ISI of the indigenous Indian 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) components. This paper traces the experiments and simulations in the key developments of a robotic device, for the ISI of main vessel and safety vessel of FBRs, carried out at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, India.

  14. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management in 2013 at six uranium mill tailings disposal sites reclaimed under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title II disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE manages six UMTRCA Title II disposal sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established at Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.28. Reclamation and site transition activities continue at other sites, and DOE ultimately expects to manage approximately 27 Title II disposal sites. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities and services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective action; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder services, and other regulatory functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSPs) and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up inspections, or corrective action. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available online at http://www.lm.doe.gov

  15. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-11-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management in 2013 at six uranium mill tailings disposal sites reclaimed under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title II disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE manages six UMTRCA Title II disposal sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established at Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.28. Reclamation and site transition activities continue at other sites, and DOE ultimately expects to manage approximately 27 Title II disposal sites. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities and services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective action; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder services, and other regulatory functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSPs) and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up inspections, or corrective action. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available online at http://www.lm.doe.gov

  16. Device for imaging an object by means of masks of spatially modulable electromagnetic radiation or corpuscular radiation of high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The radiogram of the thyroid is produced by means of a detector device operating similar to a scintillation camera. Between thyroid and detector device there is placed a mask having modulating areas, permeable and impermeable to radiation succeeding each other with decreasing extension. The scanning signal has got the shape of a radar signal with chirp modulation. The filtering unit used for it is a pulse compression filter. The image of the radiation energy distribution on the recording surface of the detector device is thus decoded and compressed to a number of image points giving the picture of the thyroid. (RW) [de

  17. To a scientific substantiation of a practical method of inspection of radiating conditions on territories, polluted with atmospheric fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmistrov, V.R; Makarenko, N.G.; Karimova, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In the report a question on necessity of practical development of a method of inspection of radiating fields, adapted to a nature of pollution is put. 50-year study of radionuclides pollution, dropping out from atmosphere after nuclear tests or failures, have shown non-perspective of traditional techniques of inspection of a radiating conditions on large territories. The detailed measurements covering surface without gaps are very expensive, and use of a unloaded grid requires interpolation irregular mosaic structure. Detection Fractal structure at the analysis Chernobyl losses and pollution of fragments of Semipalatinsk test nuclear site specify necessity of the account of self-similar properties of pollution in philosophy of measurement. For realization of potential opportunities Fractal field the special circuit of measurements, distinguished from, is required standard. Fractal approach requires shooting with system of crossed vicinities on chosen detailed platforms, making a rather small part of surveyed territory. These data will allow to reveal scale laws, which are universal in a significant range of scales. Using scaling of small platforms, it is possible to receive correct estimation of structure of pollution of large territories. The stated above reasons are based on our experiments on fractal approach to the analysis of continuous shooting (aero-scale shooting of scale 1:5000) in a zone of Semipalatinsk test site on three platforms by the sizes on 1000x400 m 2 . Our results specify necessity revision almost of all conclusions, received earlier on the basis of traditional techniques

  18. Hardening device, by inserts, of electronic component against radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Val, C.

    1987-01-01

    The hardening device includes at least two materials, one with high atomic number with respect to the other. One of these materials is set as inserts in a layer of the other material. The hardening device is then made by stacking of such layers, the insert density varying from one layer to the other, making thus vary the atomic number resulting from the hardening device along its thickness, following a predefined law [fr

  19. Device for contamination monitoring against radiation contamination of people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rische, U.W.; Gerlach, R.

    1986-01-01

    The monitor has detector devices at an angle to each other made as a rigid component which can be rotated around a vertical axis in the angle between the joined detector devices. A reset drive which can be tensioned is provided at the axis of rotation. If it is in its rest position, a platform is situated as floor plate with a foot detector between the vertical detector devices. (orig./HP) [de

  20. New small devices for radiation detection: the Wee Pocket Chirper and the Portable Multichannel Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1980-08-01

    Recent events have demonstrated the need for improved capability to monitor the exposure of workers to radiation and, in general, to identify and measure the many forms of radioactive materials found throughout the nuclear industry. Two radiation monitoring devices have been developed that are much smaller than existing instruments, yet exhibit superior performance and a longer battery life. The first instrument, the Wee Pocket Chirper, is a tiny, battery-powered warning device that chirps when exposed to radiation. The second instrument is a portable battery-powered, computer-based, multichannel analyzer that allows the user to examine radiation fields and to identify the types and amounts of radioactive materials present

  1. Radiation as a microbiological contamination control of drugs, cosmetics and medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizeki, Chuichi

    1985-01-01

    This paper deals with current status of radiation sterilization or disinfection of drugs, cosmetics, their materials, and medical devices, and with quality control as a tool for securing microbiological safety, especially current status of sterilization tests. Ointment containing tetracyclin, steroid hormones, gelatin, and enzymes are presented as drug samples to be irradiated, and explanations for radiation sterilization of these drugs are provided. An outline of the application of radiation in cosmetics and medical devices is given. Issues are also provided from the viewpoint of safey and effectiveness of radiation sterilization. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. SINGLE-FACED GRAYQB{trademark} - A RADIATION MAPPING DEVICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.; Farfan, E.; Immel, D.; Phillips, M.; Bobbitt, J.; Plummer, J.

    2013-12-12

    GrayQb{trademark} is a novel technology that has the potential to characterize radioactively contaminated areas such as hot cells, gloveboxes, small and large rooms, hallways, and waste tanks. The goal of GrayQb{trademark} is to speed the process of decontaminating these areas, which reduces worker exposures and promotes ALARA considerations. The device employs Phosphorous Storage Plate (PSP) technology as its primary detector material. PSPs, commonly used for medical applications and non-destructive testing, can be read using a commercially available scanner. The goal of GrayQb{trademark} technology is to locate, quantify, and identify the sources of contamination. The purpose of the work documented in this report was to better characterize the performance of GrayQb{trademark} in its ability to present overlay images of the PSP image and the associated visual image of the location being surveyed. The results presented in this report are overlay images identifying the location of hot spots in both controlled and field environments. The GrayQb{trademark} technology has been mainly tested in a controlled environment with known distances and source characteristics such as specific known radionuclides, dose rates, and strength. The original concept for the GrayQb{trademark} device involved utilizing the six faces of a cube configuration and was designed to be positioned in the center of a contaminated area for 3D mapping. A smaller single-faced GrayQb{trademark}, dubbed GrayQb SF, was designed for the purpose of conducting the characterization testing documented in this report. This lighter 2D version is ideal for applications where entry ports are too small for a deployment of the original GrayQb™ version or where only a single surface is of interest. The shape, size, and weight of these two designs have been carefully modeled to account for most limitations encountered in hot cells, gloveboxes, and contaminated areas. GrayQb{trademark} and GrayQb{trademark} SF

  3. Basic mechanisms of radiation effects on electronic materials and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winokur, P.S.

    1989-01-01

    Many defense and nuclear reactor systems require complementary metal-oxide semiconductor integrated circuits that are tolerant to high levels of radiation. This radiation can result from space, hostile environments or nuclear reactor and accelerator beam environments. In addition, many techniques used to fabricate today's complex very-large-scale integration circuits expose the circuits to ionizing radiation during the process sequence. Whatever its origin, radiation can cause significant damage to integrated-circuit materials. This damage can lead to circuit performance degradation, logic upset, and even catastrophic circuit failure. This paper provides a brief overview of the basic mechanisms for radiation damage to silicon-based integrated circuits. Primary emphasis is on the effects of total-dose ionizing radiation on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures

  4. Particle interaction and displacement damage in silicon devices operated in radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Claude; Rancoita, Pier-Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    Silicon is used in radiation detectors and electronic devices. Nowadays, these devices achieving submicron technology are parts of integrated circuits of large to very large scale integration (VLSI). Silicon and silicon-based devices are commonly operated in many fields including particle physics experiments, nuclear medicine and space. Some of these fields present adverse radiation environments that may affect the operation of the devices. The particle energy deposition mechanisms by ionization and non-ionization processes are reviewed as well as the radiation-induced damage and its effect on device parameters evolution, depending on particle type, energy and fluence. The temporary or permanent damage inflicted by a single particle (single event effect) to electronic devices or integrated circuits is treated separately from the total ionizing dose (TID) effect for which the accumulated fluence causes degradation and from the displacement damage induced by the non-ionizing energy-loss (NIEL) deposition. Understanding of radiation effects on silicon devices has an impact on their design and allows the prediction of a specific device behaviour when exposed to a radiation field of interest

  5. Disposal regulations and techniques applicable to devices using ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    L'office de Protection contre les rayonnement ionisants, being a government body under the supervision of Ministry of Health and Labour, among other different missions controls the compliance of radiation protection laws with the aim to guarantee the safe operation of equipment using ionising radiation sources. These regulations concerning competence of personnel, especially in the field of medicine or application of ionising radiation on humans, are restricted only to medical doctors (or dentists in their domain) by technical constraints dealing with design of equipment and its exploitation. At the same time regulations define conditions of permanent control in order to verify compliance of radiation protection laws

  6. Inspecting the medical use of radiation at five large hospitals in 2004 - to new radiation protection regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmark, Anders; Bjerke, Hans; Unhjem, Jan Frede; Friberg, Eva; Hult, Elin Agathe; Boerretzen, Ingelin; Olerud, Hilde

    2005-01-01

    An audit has been performed in five health enterprises. The audit was carried out in relation to new radiation protection legislation and comprised all use of medical radiation at the enterprises. This report summarizes some of the findings and also gives an evaluation on the level of implementation of the legislation and what challenges that are left for the enterprises. (Author)

  7. Response of asymmetric carbon nanotube network devices to sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayduchenko, I.; Kardakova, A.; Voronov, B.; Finkel, M.; Fedorov, G.; Jiménez, D.; Morozov, S.; Presniakov, M.; Goltsman, G.

    2015-01-01

    Demand for efficient terahertz radiation detectors resulted in intensive study of the asymmetric carbon nanostructures as a possible solution for that problem. It was maintained that photothermoelectric effect under certain conditions results in strong response of such devices to terahertz radiation even at room temperature. In this work, we investigate different mechanisms underlying the response of asymmetric carbon nanotube (CNT) based devices to sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation. Our structures are formed with CNT networks instead of individual CNTs so that effects probed are more generic and not caused by peculiarities of an individual nanoscale object. We conclude that the DC voltage response observed in our structures is not only thermal in origin. So called diode-type response caused by asymmetry of the device IV characteristic turns out to be dominant at room temperature. Quantitative analysis provides further routes for the optimization of the device configuration, which may result in appearance of novel terahertz radiation detectors

  8. A survey of synchrotron radiation devices producing circular or variable polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the properties and operating principles of the new types of synchrotron radiation devices that produce circular polarization, or polarization that can be modulated in arbitrary fashion

  9. New device for the radiation protection of the eye lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csobaly, S.; Zarand, P.

    1980-01-01

    Lenses of 50 mm diameter and 2 mm width were ground from lead glass, equivalent to 2 mm of lead. In the case of X-radiations of different intensity and different filtering the finished glasses are equivalent to 0.73-0.78 mm of lead and they decrease the radiation exposition of the eye lens 15-fold. (L.E.)

  10. Studies on the radiation resistances of bioburden for medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Tabei, Masae

    1997-01-01

    Radiation resistances of reference bacteria strains and the bioburden obtained from hypodermic needles were estimated with gamma- and electron- irradiators calibrated with NPL (National Physics Laboratory) alanine dosimeter. Radiation resistances of the TSB-bacteria suspension samples dried on glass test tubes showed about two times higher than those of the water-bacteria suspension dried on glass fiber paper or paper filter. Radiation resistances of the dried TSB-bacteria suspension samples irradiated by both gamma rays and electron beams were fluctuated. The overall increase ratio of radiation resistance was estimated by dividing D-values of TSB-bacteria suspension samples by that of water-bacteria suspension samples for individual bacteria. Then, the survival curve of hypodermic needle bioburden revised by the increase ratio was obtained, and which compared with that of standard distribution of radiation resistances of ISO(SDR). (author)

  11. Dose inspection and risk assessment on radiation safety for the use of non-medical X-ray machines in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fang-Yuh; Hsu, Shih-Ming; Chao, Jiunn-Hsing

    2017-11-01

    The subject of this study is the on-site visits and inspections of facilities commissioned by the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) in Taiwan. This research was conducted to evaluate the possible dose and dose rate of cabinet-type X-ray equipment with nominal voltages of 30-150 kV and open-beam (portable or handheld) equipment, taking both normal operation and possibly abnormal operation conditions into account. Doses and dose rates were measured using a plastic scintillation survey meter and an electronic personal dosimeter. In total, 401 X-ray machines were inspected, including 139 units with nominal voltages of 30-50 kV X-ray equipment, 140 units with nominal voltages of 50-150 kV, and 122 open-beam (portable or handheld) X-ray equipment. The investigated doses for radiation workers and non-radiation workers operating cabinet-type X-ray equipment under normal safety conditions were all at the background dose level. Several investigated dose rates at the position of 10 cm away from the surface of open-beam (portable or handheld) X-ray equipment were very high, such X-ray machines are used by aeronautical police for the detection of suspected explosives, radiation workers are far away (at least 10 m away) from the X-ray machine during its operation. The doses per operation in X-ray equipment with a 30-50 kV nominal voltage were less than 1 mSv in all cases of abnormal use. Some doses were higher than 1 mSv per operation for X-ray equipment of 50-150 kV nominal voltage X-ray. The maximum dose rates at the beam exit have a very wide range, mostly less than 100 μSv/s and the largest value is about 3.92 mSv/s for open-beam (portable or handheld) X-ray devices. The risk induced by operating X-ray devices with nominal voltages of 30-50 kV is extremely low. The 11.5 mSv dose due to one operation at nominal voltage of 50-150 kV X-ray device is equivalent to the exposure of taking 575 chest X-rays. In the abnormal use of open-beam (portable or handheld) X-ray equipment, the

  12. Effect on the insulation material of a MOSFET device submitted to a standard diagnostic radiation beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Magalhaes, C M S; Dos Santos, L A P; Souza, D do N; Maia, A F

    2010-01-01

    MOSFET electronic devices have been used for dosimetry in radiology and radiotherapy. Several communications show that due to the radiation exposure defects appear on the semiconductor crystal lattice. Actually, the structure of a MOSFET consists of three materials: a semiconductor, a metal and an insulator between them. The MOSFET is a quadripolar device with a common terminal: gate-source is the input; drain-source is the output. The gate controls the electrical current passing through semiconductor medium by the field effect because the silicon oxide acts as insulating material. The proposal of this work is to show some radiation effects on the insulator of a MOSFET device. A 6430 Keithley sub-femtoamp SourceMeter was used to verify how the insulating material layer in the structure of the device varies with the radiation exposure. We have used the IEC 61267 standard radiation X-ray beams generated from a Pantak industrial unit in the radiation energy range of computed tomography. This range was chosen because we are using the MOSFET device as radiation detector for dosimetry in computed tomography. The results showed that the behaviour of the electrical current of the device is different in the insulator and semiconductor structures.

  13. An analysis of radiation effects on electronics and soi-mos devices as an alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikraiam, F. A.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of radiation on semiconductors and electronic components are analyzed. The performance of such circuitry depends upon the reliability of electronic devices where electronic components will be unavoidably exposed to radiation. This exposure can be detrimental or even fatal to the expected function of the devices. Single event effects (SEE), in particular, which lead to sudden device or system failure and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of electronic devices in such systems are discussed. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology is introduced as an alternative for radiation-hardened devices. I-V Characteristics Curves for SOI-MOS devices subjected to a different total radiation doses are illustrated. In addition, properties of some semiconductor materials such as diamond, diamond-like carbon films, SiC, GaP, and AlGaN/GaN are compared with those of SOI devices. The recognition of the potential usefulness of SOI-MOS semiconductor materials for harsh environments is discussed. A summary of radiation effects, impacts and mitigation techniques is also presented. (authors)

  14. Radiation from ingested wireless devices in bio-medical telemetry bands

    OpenAIRE

    Chirwa, L.C.; Roy, S.; Cumming, D.R.S.

    2003-01-01

    The performance of wireless devices, using electrically small antennae, in the human intestine is investigated using the finite difference time domain method in recommended biomedical device telemetry bands. The radiation field intensity was found to depend on position but more strongly on frequency, with a transmission peak at 650 MHz.

  15. Inspection method for solidification product of radioactive waste and method of preparing solidification product of radiation waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumida, Tatsuo; Tamada, Shin; Matsuda, Masami; Kamata, Shoji; Kikuchi, Makoto.

    1993-01-01

    A powerful X-ray generation device using an electron-ray accelerator is used for inspecting presence or absence of inner voids in solidification products of radioactive wastes during or after solidification. By installing the X-ray CT system and the radioactive waste solidifying facility together, CT imaging for solidification products is conducted in a not-yet cured state of solidifying materials during or just after the injection. If a defect that deteriorates the durability of the solidification products should be detected, the solidification products are repaired, for example, by applying vibrations to the not-yet cured solidification products. Thus, since voids or cracks in the radioactive wastes solidification products, which were difficult to be measured so far, can be measured in a short period of time accurately thereby enabling to judge adaptability to the disposal standards, inspection cost for the radioactive waste solidification product can be saved remarkably. Further, the inside of the radioactive waste solidification products can be evaluated correctly and visually, so that safety in the ground disposal storage of the radioactive solidification products can be improved remarkably. (N.H.)

  16. Characterization of Radiation Hardened Bipolar Linear Devices for High Total Dose Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Steven S.; Harris, Richard D.; Rax, Bernard G.; Thorbourn, Dennis O.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation hardened linear devices are characterized for performance in combined total dose and displacement damage environments for a mission scenario with a high radiation level. Performance at low and high dose rate for both biased and unbiased conditions is compared and the impact to hardness assurance methodology is discussed.

  17. Recommendations to designers aimed at minimizing radiation dose incurred in operation, maintenance, inspection and repair of light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In the framework of the exchange of experience between nuclear power plant operators organized by the services of the Commission of the European Communities an ad-hoc working party elaborated recommendations particularly directed to those concerned with design of light water reactor plants. The necessary design measures which should be followed to minimize radiation dose incurred in operation, maintenance, inspection and repair of such reactors are listed. The recommendations are based on recent views expressed by operating utilities within the Community. It is intended to revise these recommendations at suitable intervals in order to make use of the most recent experience and to keep the report up to date with the actual state of art in nuclear technology

  18. Risk evaluation of medical and industrial radiation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.D.; Cunningham, R.E.; Rathbun, P.A.

    1994-03-01

    In 1991, the NRC, Division of Industrial and Medical Nuclear Safety, began a program to evaluate the use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in regulating medical devices. This program represents an initial step in an overall plant to evaluate the use of PRA in regulating the use of nuclear by-product materials. The NRC envisioned that the use of risk analysis techniques could assist staff in ensuring that the regulatory approach was standardized, understandable, and effective. Traditional methods of assessing risk in nuclear power plants may be inappropriate to use in assessing the use of by-product devices. The approaches used in assessing nuclear reactor risks are equipment-oriented. Secondary attention is paid to the human component, for the most part after critical system failure events have been identified. This paper describes the risk methodology developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), initially intended to assess risks associated with the use of the Gamma Knife, a gamma stereotactic radiosurgical device. For relatively new medical devices such as the Gamma Knife, the challenge is to perform a risk analysis with very little quantitative data but with an important human factor component. The method described below provides a basic approach for identifying the most likely risk contributors and evaluating their relative importance. The risk analysis approach developed for the Gamma Knife and described in this paper should be applicable to a broader class of devices in which the human interaction with the device is a prominent factor. In this sense, the method could be a prototypical model of nuclear medical or industrial device risk analysis

  19. Radiation effects and soft errors in integrated circuits and electronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fleetwood, D M

    2004-01-01

    This book provides a detailed treatment of radiation effects in electronic devices, including effects at the material, device, and circuit levels. The emphasis is on transient effects caused by single ionizing particles (single-event effects and soft errors) and effects produced by the cumulative energy deposited by the radiation (total ionizing dose effects). Bipolar (Si and SiGe), metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS), and compound semiconductor technologies are discussed. In addition to considering the specific issues associated with high-performance devices and technologies, the book includes th

  20. Radiation Testing, Characterization and Qualification Challenges for Modern Microelectronics and Photonics Devices and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2008-01-01

    At GOMAC 2007, we discussed a selection of the challenges for radiation testing of modern semiconductor devices focusing on state-of-the-art memory technologies. This included FLASH non-volatile memories (NVMs) and synchronous dynamic random access memories (SDRAMs). In this presentation, we extend this discussion in device packaging and complexity as well as single event upset (SEU) mechanisms using several technology areas as examples including: system-on-a-chip (SOC) devices and photonic or fiber optic systems. The underlying goal is intended to provoke thought for understanding the limitations and interpretation of radiation testing results.

  1. Transient photoconductive gain in a-Si:H devices and its applications in radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.K.; Suh, T.S.; Choe, B.Y.; Shinn, K.S.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1997-01-01

    Using the transient behavior of the photoconductive-gain mechanism, a signal gain in radiation detection with a-Si:H devices may be possible. The photoconductive gain mechanism in two types of hydrogenated amorphous silicon devices, p-i-n and n-i-n configurations, was investigated in connection with applications to radiation detection. Photoconductive gain was measured in two time scales: one for short pulses of visible light ( 2 . Various gain results are discussed in terms of the device structure, applied bias and dark-current density. (orig.)

  2. Emergency response activities and collecting damaged radiation devices from a war affected area in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subasic, Damir; Schaller, Antum

    1997-01-01

    A number of various devices containing ionizing radiation sources were in use in the area affected by the recent war in Croatia. In destruction caused by the war operations, a number of these devices were damaged, destroyed or even missed/lost. The actions undertaken to (re)collect these radiation sources, experience gained and lessons learned are reviewed. The importance of a well-organized national regulatory system is highlighted as a precondition for the efficient identification and safe collection of radiation sources which were under ruins. Experience from this event could be well applicable to similar situations caused by disasters and particularly for regulatory authorities who design emergency preparedness plans. (author)

  3. Exploring graphene field effect transistor devices to improve spectral resolution of semiconductor radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Richard Karl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Jeffrey B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hamilton, Allister B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Graphene, a planar, atomically thin form of carbon, has unique electrical and material properties that could enable new high performance semiconductor devices. Graphene could be of specific interest in the development of room-temperature, high-resolution semiconductor radiation spectrometers. Incorporating graphene into a field-effect transistor architecture could provide an extremely high sensitivity readout mechanism for sensing charge carriers in a semiconductor detector, thus enabling the fabrication of a sensitive radiation sensor. In addition, the field effect transistor architecture allows us to sense only a single charge carrier type, such as electrons. This is an advantage for room-temperature semiconductor radiation detectors, which often suffer from significant hole trapping. Here we report on initial efforts towards device fabrication and proof-of-concept testing. This work investigates the use of graphene transferred onto silicon and silicon carbide, and the response of these fabricated graphene field effect transistor devices to stimuli such as light and alpha radiation.

  4. 60Co gamma radiation effect on AlGaN//AlN/GaN HEMT devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanping; Luo Yinhong; Wang Wei; Zhang Keying; Guo Hongxia; Guo Xiaoqiang; Wang Yuanming

    2013-01-01

    The testing techniques and experimental methods of the 60 Co gamma irradiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are established. The degradation of the electrical properties of the device under the actual radiation environment are analyzed theoretically, and studies of the total dose effects of gamma radiation on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at three different radiation bias conditions are carried out. The degradation patterns of the main parameters of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at different doses are then investigated, and the device parameters that were sensitive to the gamma radiation induced damage and the total dose level induced device damage are obtained. (authors)

  5. Design and testing of an innovative solar radiation measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badran, Omar; Al-Salaymeh, Ahmed; El-Tous, Yousif; Abdala, Wasfi

    2010-01-01

    After review of studies conducted on the solar radiation measuring systems, a new innovative instrument that would help in measuring the accurate solar radiation on horizontal surfaces has been designed and tested. An advanced instrument with ease of use and high precision that would enable the user to take the readings in terms of solar intensity (W/m 2 ) has been tested. Also, the innovative instrument can record instantaneous readings of the solar intensities as well as the averages value of the solar radiation flux during certain periods of time. The instrument based in its design on being programmed by programmable interfacing controller (PIC). Furthermore, the power supply circuit is fed by the solar energy cells and does not need an external power source.

  6. The Pocketable Electronic Devices in Radiation Oncology (PEDRO) Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bari, Berardino; Franco, P.; Niyazi, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    ) members of the national radiation or clinical oncology associations of the countries involved in the study. The 15 items investigated diffusion of MEDs (smartphones and/or tablets), their impact on daily clinical activity, and the differences perceived by participants along time. Results: A total of 386...... in young professionals working in radiation oncology. Looking at these data, it is important to verify the consistency of information found within apps, in order to avoid potential errors eventually detrimental for patients. “Quality assurance” criteria should be specifically developed for medical apps...

  7. Radiation-resistant requirements analysis of device and control component for advanced spent fuel management process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Tai Gil; Park, G. Y.; Kim, S. Y.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Yoon, J. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    It is known that high levels of radiation can cause significant damage by altering the properties of materials. A practical understanding of the effects of radiation - how radiation affects various types of materials and components - is required to design equipment to operate reliably in a gamma radiation environment. When designing equipment to operate in a high gamma radiation environment, such as will be present in a nuclear spent fuel handling facility, several important steps should be followed. In order to active test of the advanced spent fuel management process, the radiation-resistant analysis of the device and control component for active test which is concerned about the radiation environment is conducted. Also the system design process is analysis and reviewed. In the foreign literature, 'threshold' values are generally reported. the threshold values are normally the dose required to begin degradation in a particular material property. The radiation effect analysis for the device of vol-oxidation and metalization, which are main device for the advanced spent fuel management process, is performed by the SCALE 4.4 code. 5 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  8. Radiation and detectors introduction to the physics of radiation and detection devices

    CERN Document Server

    Cerrito, Lucio

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to radiation, the principles of interaction between radiation and matter, and the exploitation of those principles in the design of modern radiation detectors. Both radiation and detectors are given equal attention and their interplay is carefully laid out with few assumptions made about the prior knowledge of the student. Part I is dedicated to radiation, broadly interpreted in terms of energy and type, starting with an overview of particles and forces, an extended review of common natural and man-made sources of radiation, and an introduction to particle accelerators. Particular attention is paid to real life examples, which place the types of radiation and their energy in context. Dosimetry is presented from a modern, user-led point of view, and relativistic kinematics is introduced to give the basic knowledge needed to handle the more formal aspects of radiation dynamics and interaction. The explanation of the physics principles of interaction between radiation an...

  9. Device for introducing radiative pellets in a tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, A.; Milesi, A.

    1983-01-01

    Fuel sheaths are filled through a device comprising a funnel-guide with a bore having a diameter and slightly higher than pellet diameter and slightly lower than fuel can inside diameter. The flaring part of the funnel is toward facing a pellet distributor placed in a containment cell. The fuel can is tightened and aligned for a close contact with the funnel-guide [fr

  10. Device for the radiation centering at electron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, S.; Ardenne, T. von; Jessat, K.; Bahr, G.

    1985-01-01

    The invention has been directed at a device for a simplified and reliable centering of electron beams at electron emitters in particular for welding and thermal surface modifications. The electron beam has been focussed relatively to an electron-optical lens. A movable masked electron detector has been arranged at the electron beam deflection plane. The electron detector is connected with an electronic data evaluation equipment

  11. Characteristics of withstanding radiation damage of InP crystals and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Ando, Koshi

    1988-01-01

    Recently, the authors discovered that the characteristics of with standing radiation damage of InP crystals and devices (solar cells) are superior to those of Si and GaAs crystals and devices. Also the restoration phenomena at room temperature of radiation deterioration and the accelerated anneal phenomena by light irradiation and the injection of other minority, carriers in InP system devices were found. Such excellent characteristics suggested that InP devices are promising for the use in space. In this paper, taking an example of solar cells, the radiation resistance characteristics and their mechanism of InP crystals and devices are reported, based on the results of analysis by deep level transient spectroscopy and others. In InP solar cells, the high efficiency of photoelectric conversion was maintained even in the high dose irradiation of 1 MeV electron beam. As the carrier concentration in InP crystals is higher, they are stronger against radiation. With the increase of carrier concentration, the rate of anneal of radiation deterioration at room temperature increased. The accelerated anneal effect by minority carrier injection was remarkable in n + -p junction cells. The excellent characteristics of InP crystals are due to the formation of Frenkel defects of P and their instability. (K.I.)

  12. The solar ultraviolet B radiation protection provided by shading devices with regard to its diffuse component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudish, Avraham I; Harari, Marco; Evseev, Efim G

    2011-10-01

    The composition of the incident solar global ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation with regard to its beam and diffuse radiation fractions is highly relevant with regard to outdoor sun protection. This is especially true with respect to sun protection during leisure-time outdoor sun exposure at the shore and pools, where people tend to escape the sun under shade trees or different types of shading devices, e.g., umbrellas, overhangs, etc., believing they offer protection from the erythemal solar radiation. The degree of sun protection offered by such devices is directly related to the composition of the solar global UVB radiation, i.e., its beam and diffuse fractions. The composition of the incident solar global UVB radiation can be determined by measuring the global UVB (using Solar Light Co. Inc., Model 501A UV-Biometer) and either of its components. The beam component of the UVB radiation was determined by measuring the normal incidence beam radiation using a prototype, tracking instrument consisting of a Solar Light Co. Inc. Model 501A UV-Biometer mounted on an Eppley Solar Tracker Model St-1. The horizontal beam component of the global UVB radiation was calculated from the measured normal incidence using a simple geometric correlation and the diffuse component is determined as the difference between global and horizontal beam radiations. Horizontal and vertical surfaces positioned under a horizontal overhang/sunshade or an umbrella are not fully protected from exposure to solar global UVB radiation. They can receive a significant fraction of the UVB radiation, depending on their location beneath the shading device, the umbrella radius and the albedo (reflectance) of the surrounding ground surface in the case of a vertical surface. Shading devices such as an umbrella or horizontal overhang/shade provide relief from the solar global radiation and do block the solar global UVB radiation to some extent; nevertheless, a significant fraction of the solar global UVB

  13. Space and military radiation effects in silicon-on-insulator devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwank, J.R.

    1996-09-01

    Advantages in transient ionizing and single-event upset (SEU) radiation hardness of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology spurred much of its early development. Both of these advantages are a direct result of the reduced charge collection volume inherent to SOI technology. The fact that SOI transistor structures do not include parasitic n-p-n-p paths makes them immune to latchup. Even though considerable improvement in transient and single-event radiation hardness can be obtained by using SOI technology, there are some attributes of SOI devices and circuits that tend to limit their overall hardness. These attributes include the bipolar effect that can ultimately reduce the hardness of SOI ICs to SEU and transient ionizing radiation, and charge buildup in buried and sidewall oxides that can degrade the total-dose hardness of SOI devices. Nevertheless, high-performance SOI circuits can be fabricated that are hardened to both space and nuclear radiation environments, and radiation-hardened systems remain an active market for SOI devices. The effects of radiation on SOI MOS devices are reviewed

  14. Radiation Isotope Identification Device (RIIDs) Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher Hodge, Raymond Keegan

    2007-01-01

    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named 'Anole', it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign

  15. Malfunction of cardiac devices after radiotherapy without direct exposure to ionizing radiation: mechanisms and experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecchin, Massimo; Morea, Gaetano; Severgnini, Mara; Sergi, Elisabetta; Baratto Roldan, Anna; Bianco, Elisabetta; Magnani, Silvia; De Luca, Antonio; Zorzin Fantasia, Anna; Salvatore, Luca; Milan, Vittorino; Giannini, Gianrossano; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2016-02-01

    Malfunctions of cardiac implantable electronical devices (CIED) have been described after high-energy radiation therapy even in the absence of direct exposure to ionizing radiation, due to diffusion of neutrons (n) causing soft errors in inner circuits. The purpose of the study was to analyse the effect of scattered radiation on different types and models of CIED and the possible sources of malfunctions. Fifty-nine explanted CIED were placed on an anthropomorphous phantom of tissue-equivalent material, and a high-energy photon (15 MV) radiotherapy course (total dose = 70 Gy) for prostate treatment was performed. All devices were interrogated before and after radiation. Radiation dose, the electromagnetic field, and neutron fluence at the CIED site were measured. Thirty-four pacemakers (PM) and 25 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) were analysed. No malfunctions were detected before radiation. After radiation a software malfunction was evident in 13 (52%) ICD and 6 (18%) PM; no significant electromagnetic field or photon radiations were detected in the thoracic region. Neutron capture was demonstrated by the presence of the (198)Au((197)Au + n) or (192)Ir((191)Ir + n) isotope activation; it was significantly greater in ICD than in PM and non-significantly greater in damaged devices. A greater effect in St Jude PM (2/2 damaged), Boston (9/11), and St Jude ICD (3/6) and in older ICD models was observed; the year of production was not relevant in PM. High-energy radiation can cause different malfunctions on CIED, particularly ICD, even without direct exposure to ionizing radiation due to scattered radiation of neutrons produced by the linear accelerator. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Protective device for organs exposed to medical X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, K.

    1978-01-01

    The protective device for male or female gonads consists of a protective screen made of hard lead coated with silicon caoutchouc, a flexible supporting arm, and a base plate on which the supporting arm for the protective screen is monted. The protective screen has got the shape of a dish resp. a pear-shaped contour for male resp. female persons. The base may be arranged on a Bucky table between the legs of the person to be examined by means of suction cups. (DG) [de

  17. Radiation Effects in III-V Nanowire Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    fabrication of an in-plane nanowire (NW) GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field- effect transistor (MOSFET) by focused -ion beam (FIB) etching and chemical...8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS 6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-16-94 Radiation Effects in III-V...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY

  18. Heat resistant/radiation resistant cable and incore structure test device for FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Hajime; Shiono, Takeo; Sato, Yoshimi; Ito, Kazumi; Sudo, Shigeaki; Saito, Shin-ichi; Mitsui, Hisayasu.

    1995-01-01

    A heat resistant/radiation resistant coaxial cable of the present invention comprises an insulation layer, an outer conductor and a protection cover in this order on an inner conductor, in which the insulation layer comprises thermoplastic polyimide. In the same manner, a heat resistant/radiation resistant power cable has an insulation layer comprising thermoplastic polyimide on a conductor, and is provided with a protection cover comprising braid of alamide fibers at the outer circumference of the insulation layer. An incore structure test device for an FBR type reactor comprises the heat resistant/radiation resistant coaxial cable and/or the power cable. The thermoplastic polyimide can be extrusion molded, and has excellent radiation resistant by the extrusion, as well as has high dielectric withstand voltage, good flexibility and electric characteristics at high temperature. The incore structure test device for the FBR type reactor of the present invention comprising such a cable has excellent reliability and durability. (T.M.)

  19. Synchrotron radiation A general overview and a review of storage rings, research facilities, and insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.

    1989-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation, the electromagnetic radiation given off by electrons in circular motion, is revolutionizing many branches of science and technology by offering beams of vacuum ultraviolet light and x rays of immense flux and brightness. In the past decade there has been an explosion of interest in these applications leading activity to construct new research facilities based on advanced storage rings and insertion device sources. Applications include basic and applied research in biology, chemistry, medicine, and physics plus many areas of technology. In this article we present a general overview of the field of synchrotron radiation research, its history, the present status and future prospects of storage rings and research facilities, and the development of wiggler and undulator insertion devices as sources of synchrotron radiation

  20. Radiation hardness and qualification of semiconductor electronic devices for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friant, A.; Payat, R.

    1984-05-01

    After a brief review of radiation effects in semiconductors and radiation damage in semiconductor devices, the problems of qualification of electronic equipment to be used in nuclear reactors are compared to those relative to nuclear weapons or space experiments. The conclusion is that data obtained at very high dose rates or under pulsed irradiation in weapons and space programs should not be directly applied to nuclear plant instrumentation. The need for a specific qualification of semiconductor devices appropriate for nuclear reactors is emphasized. Some irradiation studies at IRDI/DEIN (CEN-Saclay) are related [fr

  1. Utilization of photoconductive gain in a-Si:H devices for radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.K.; Drewery, J.S.; Hong, W.S.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1995-05-01

    The photoconductive gain mechanism in a-Si:H was investigated in connection with applications to radiation detection. Various device types such as p-i-n, n-i-n and n-i-p-i-n structures were fabricated and tested. Photoconductive gain was measured in two time scales: one for short pulses of visible light ( 2 . Various gain results are discussed in terms of the device structure, applied bias and dark current

  2. Application of complex programmable logic devices in memory radiation effects test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yonghong; He Chaohui; Yang Hailiang; He Baoping

    2005-01-01

    The application of the complex programmable logic device (CPLD) in electronics is emphatically discussed. The method of using software MAX + plus II and CPLD are introduced. A new test system for memory radiation effects is established by using CPLD devices-EPM7128C84-15. The old test system's function are realized and, moreover, a number of small scale integrated circuits are reduced and the test system's reliability is improved. (authors)

  3. Radiation effects on semiconductor devices in high energy heavy ion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belousov, Anton

    2014-10-20

    Radiation effects on semiconductor devices in GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research are becoming more and more significant with the increase of beam intensity due to upgrades. Moreover a new accelerator is being constructed on the basis of GSI within the project of facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR). Beam intensities will be increased by factor of 100 and energies by factor of 10. Radiation fields in the vicinity of beam lines will increase more than 2 orders of magnitude and so will the effects on semiconductor devices. It is necessary to carry out a study of radiation effects on semiconductor devices considering specific properties of radiation typical for high energy heavy ion accelerators. Radiation effects on electronics in accelerator environment may be divided into two categories: short-term temporary effects and long-term permanent degradation. Both may become critical for proper operation of some electronic devices. This study is focused on radiation damage to CCD cameras in radiation environment of heavy ion accelerator. Series of experiments with irradiation of devices under test (DUTs) by secondary particles produced during ion beam losses were done for this study. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to simulate the experiment conditions and conditions expected in future accelerator. Corresponding comparisons and conclusions were done. Another device typical for accelerator facilities - industrial Ethernet switch was tested in similar conditions during this study. Series of direct irradiations of CCD and MOS transistors with heavy ion beams were done as well. Typical energies of the primary ion beams were 0.5-1 GeV/u. Ion species: from Na to U. Intensities of the beam up to 10{sup 9} ions/spill with spill length of 200-300 ns. Criteria of reliability and lifetime of DUTs in specific radiation conditions were formulated, basing on experimental results of the study. Predictions of electronic device reliability and lifetime were

  4. Device for forming the image of a radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosswill, C.H.

    1980-01-01

    An improvement can be made to the space resolution of systems providing the image of a radiation source by means of a slit collimator. In order to do so, a lateral movement of the collimator (with its detectors) is superimposed on the movement of the collimator, in a transversal direction in relation to the transmission direction through the collimator as well as in relation to the walls defining the slits. The total amplitude of the lateral movement is at least equal to the distance between centres of a slit and the following one. In the near field operating system, the lateral movement is a rectilinear movement perpendicular to the walls of the slits. In the distance field operating systems, it is an angular movement about an axis perpendicular to the direction of transmission through the slits [fr

  5. Study of radiation shielding requirements for n-MOS devices on the Exosat spacecraft. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The device-degradation and radiation-shielding problems presented by the probable use of an n-channel microprocessor integrated circuit of the 8080 type on the Exosat spacecraft of the European Space Agency, was studied. The radiation exposure likely for this device was calculated, using various assumptions for the amount of surrounding absorber, some being intentional shielding others being normal structure elements and device encapsulation. The conclusion was that this type of device could be used if careful engineering design and quality control were used. Mission doses vary between 5000 and 800 rads for various configurations and some patterns of MOS device will tolerate these doses. The use of specially thickened module covers was not recommended, a better method being upgrading device quality and applying internal (local) shielding when necessary and possibly modular addition of external plates in specific directions only. The result of this shielding philosophy would be much greater efficiency in weight use. The further development of a rads (reduction) per gram philosophy was strongly recommended. Throughout, the strong link between mission success and the choice (and control) of the correct MOS manufacturing technology is emphasized and some guidelines on control of manufactured MOS parts (n-channel and complementary type) with respect to tolerance to radiation are given

  6. Upgrade of of monitoring devices for radiation information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Won Man; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Bong Jae; Jae Yoo Kyung

    1999-01-01

    The Radiation Monitoring System (RMS) in Hanaro of KAERI and NPPs of Korea, supplied by victoreen, sometimes has been stopped to use slow 486 PC (Personal computer) and not to be enough memory in main processing computer, IOCA and IOCB, for signal processing and storing. It is very difficult for operator to operate and maintain RMS, because of using an unfamiliar operating system, SCO Unix, of main computer. And also, ScanRad (TM) program for processing and storing radiation signal has Y2K problems and is able to lose and not to display measuring signals. Therefore it needs to upgrade the computer system in RMS. This study is upgrading the main computer, IOCA, in RMS of Hanaro to Pentium PC, and changing operating System to Window NT-based system. Therefore it needs to upgrade the computer system in RMS. This study is upgrading the main computer, IOCA, in RMS of Hanaro to Pentium PC, and changing Operating System to Window NT-based system. Therefore a performance of the computer system in RMS has been upgraded for operator to be useful. This study is going two steps. First, the main computer, IOCA a part of the whole computer system has been upgraded to Pentium PC, and changed to Window NT-based system. Second, all of the computer system in Hanaro RMS is going to be upgraded. This study has got the following results: a RS-232C serial communication program: between the upgraded IOCA and LCU (Local Control Unit) -- a serial communication test configurating two LCU serial --a parallel communication test configurating two LCU parallel: GUI program to present a radioactive information -- overview schematic display page -- detail display pages -- alarm and event pages -- trend pages and group trend pages.

  7. Upgrade of of monitoring devices for radiation information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Won Man; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Bong Jae; Jae Yoo Kyung

    1999-01-01

    The Radiation Monitoring System (RMS) in Hanaro of KAERI and NPPs of Korea, supplied by victoreen, sometimes has been stopped to use slow 486 PC (Personal computer) and not to be enough memory in main processing computer, IOCA and IOCB, for signal processing and storing. It is very difficult for operator to operate and maintain RMS, because of using an unfamiliar operating system, SCO Unix, of main computer. And also, ScanRad (TM) program for processing and storing radiation signal has Y2K problems and is able to lose and not to display measuring signals. Therefore it needs to upgrade the computer system in RMS. This study is upgrading the main computer, IOCA, in RMS of Hanaro to Pentium PC, and changing operating System to Window NT-based system. Therefore it needs to upgrade the computer system in RMS. This study is upgrading the main computer, IOCA, in RMS of Hanaro to Pentium PC, and changing Operating System to Window NT-based system. Therefore a performance of the computer system in RMS has been upgraded for operator to be useful. This study is going two steps. First, the main computer, IOCA a part of the whole computer system has been upgraded to Pentium PC, and changed to Window NT-based system. Second, all of the computer system in Hanaro RMS is going to be upgraded. This study has got the following results: a RS-232C serial communication program: between the upgraded IOCA and LCU (Local Control Unit) -- a serial communication test configurating two LCU serial --a parallel communication test configurating two LCU parallel: GUI program to present a radioactive information -- overview schematic display page -- detail display pages -- alarm and event pages -- trend pages and group trend pages

  8. 49 CFR 213.235 - Inspection of switches, track crossings, and lift rail assemblies or other transition devices on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rail assemblies or other transition devices on moveable bridges. 213.235 Section 213.235 Transportation... assemblies or other transition devices on moveable bridges. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, each switch, turnout, track crossing, and moveable bridge lift rail assembly or other transition...

  9. Effects of cosmic radiation on devices and embedded systems in aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Adriane C.M.; Federico, Claudio A.; Pereira Junior, Evaldo C.F.; Goncalez, Odair L., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: odairlelisgoncalez@gmail.com, E-mail: adriane.acm@hotmail.com, E-mail: evaldocarlosjr@gmail.com [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAV/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Modern avionics systems use new electronic technologies devices that, due to their high degree of sophistication and miniaturization, are more susceptible to the effects of ionizing radiation, particularly the effect called 'Single Event Effect' (SEE) produced by neutron. Studies regarding the effects of radiation on electronic systems for space applications, such as satellites and orbital stations, have already been in progress for several years. However, tolerance requirements and specific studies, focusing on testing dedicated to avionics, have caused concern and gained importance in the last decade as a result of the accidents attributed to SEE in aircraft. Due to the development of a higher ceiling, an increase in airflow and a greater autonomy of certain aircrafts, the problem regarding the control of ionizing radiation dose received by the pilots, the crew and sensitive equipment became important in the areas of occupational health, radiation protection and flight safety. This paper presents an overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on devices and embedded systems in aircrafts, identifying and classifying these effects in relation to their potential risks in each device class. The assessment of these effects in avionics is a very important and emerging issue nowadays, which is being discussed by groups of the international scientific community; however, in South America, groups working in this area are still unknown. Consequently, this work is a great contribution and significantly valuable to the area of aeronautical engineering and flight safety associated to the effects of radiation on electronic components embedded in aircraft. (author)

  10. Effects of cosmic radiation on devices and embedded systems in aircrafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Adriane C.M.; Federico, Claudio A.; Pereira Junior, Evaldo C.F.; Goncalez, Odair L.

    2013-01-01

    Modern avionics systems use new electronic technologies devices that, due to their high degree of sophistication and miniaturization, are more susceptible to the effects of ionizing radiation, particularly the effect called 'Single Event Effect' (SEE) produced by neutron. Studies regarding the effects of radiation on electronic systems for space applications, such as satellites and orbital stations, have already been in progress for several years. However, tolerance requirements and specific studies, focusing on testing dedicated to avionics, have caused concern and gained importance in the last decade as a result of the accidents attributed to SEE in aircraft. Due to the development of a higher ceiling, an increase in airflow and a greater autonomy of certain aircrafts, the problem regarding the control of ionizing radiation dose received by the pilots, the crew and sensitive equipment became important in the areas of occupational health, radiation protection and flight safety. This paper presents an overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on devices and embedded systems in aircrafts, identifying and classifying these effects in relation to their potential risks in each device class. The assessment of these effects in avionics is a very important and emerging issue nowadays, which is being discussed by groups of the international scientific community; however, in South America, groups working in this area are still unknown. Consequently, this work is a great contribution and significantly valuable to the area of aeronautical engineering and flight safety associated to the effects of radiation on electronic components embedded in aircraft. (author)

  11. The Measurement of Spectral Characteristics and Composition of Radiation in Atlas with MEDIPIX2-USB Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M.; Doležal, Z.; Greiffenberg, D.; Heijne, E.; Holy, T.; Idárraga, J.; Jakůbek, J.; Král, V.; Králík, M.; Lebel, C.; Leroy, C.; Llopart, X.; Lord, G.; Maneuski, D.; Ouellette, O.; Sochor, V.; Pospíšil, S.; Suk, M.; Tlustos, L.; Vykydal, Z.; Wilhelm, I.

    2008-06-01

    A network of devices to perform real-time measurements of the spectral characteristics and composition of radiation in the ATLAS detector and cavern during its operation is being built. This system of detectors will be a stand alone system fully capable of delivering real-time images of fluxes and spectral composition of different particle species including slow and fast neutrons. The devices are based on MEDIPIX2 pixel silicon detectors that will be operated via active USB cables and USB-Ethernet extenders through an Ethernet network by a PC located in the USA15 ATLAS control room. The installation of 14 devices inside ATLAS (detector and cavern) is in progress.

  12. The Measurement of Spectral Characteristics and Composition of Radiation in ATLAS with MEDIPIX2-USB Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, M.; Greiffenberg, D.; Heijne, E.; Holy, T.; Idárraga, J.; Jakubek, J.; Král, V.; Králík, M.; Lebel, C.; Leroy, C.; Llopart, X.; Lord, G.; Maneuski, D.; Ouellette, O.; Sochor, V.; Prospísil, S.; Suk, M; Tlustos, L.; Vykydal, Z.; Wilhelm, I.

    2008-01-01

    A network of devices to perform real-time measurements of the spectral characteristics and composition of radiation in the ATLAS detector and cavern during its operation is being built. This system of detectors will be a stand alone system fully capable of delivering real-time images of fluxes and spectral composition of different particle species including slow and fast neutrons. The devices are based on MEDIPIX2 pixel silicon detectors that will be operated via active USB cables and USB-Ethernet extenders through an Ethernet network by a PC located in the USA15 ATLAS control room. The installation of 14 devices inside ATLAS (detector and cavern) is in progress.

  13. Asymmetric devices based on carbon nanotubes for terahertz-range radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, G. E., E-mail: gefedorov@mail.ru; Stepanova, T. S.; Gazaliev, A. Sh.; Gaiduchenko, I. A.; Kaurova, N. S.; Voronov, B. M.; Goltzman, G. N. [Moscow State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Various asymmetric detecting devices based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are studied. The asymmetry is understood as inhomogeneous properties along the conducting channel. In the first type of devices, an inhomogeneous morphology of the CNT grid is used. In the second type of devices, metals with highly varying work functions are used as the contact material. The relation between the sensitivity and detector configuration is analyzed. Based on the data obtained, approaches to the development of an efficient detector of terahertz radiation, based on carbon nanotubes are proposed.

  14. Application of Nd/sup 3+/-doped silica fibers to radiation sensing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, K.; Suzuki, T.; Gozen, T.; Tanaka, H.; Okamoto, S.

    1987-01-01

    Applications of rare-earth-ion-doped optical fibers to radiation sensing devices have been studied. It was revealed that rare-earth-ion-doped optical fibers are highly sensitive to radioactive rays such as gamma ray and thermal neutron flux and that they have little dependence on ambient temperature and optical power. An experimental distributed radiation sensing system incorporating Nd/sup 3+/-doped optical fibers, radiation resistant optical fibers and an OTDR was made and tested. The results proved that the distributed sensing system is practically adaptable to the measurement of the radioactive rays

  15. Dose setting for radiation sterilization of disposable medical device, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Yoshio; Hosobuchi, Kazunari.

    1985-01-01

    The microbial burden and dose setting for radiation sterilization of tampon for menstrual hygiene were examined, and the following results were obtained. 1. The maximum and minimum contaminants per a tampon were 100 and 0, and the average was 46.1. 2. The 91.2 % of the 125 strains isolated from the tampon was identified as bacilli by the microbiological and biochemical activities, and Bacillus pumilus compried 35.2 % of the strains. B. pumilus and B. megaterium spores indicated the highest radioresistance among those contaminants and both D-values were 0.22 Mrad. 3. The difference in the D-value was not found for the radioresistance of standard strain carried on a tampon and a glass fiber filter. 4. The sterilization dose (SD) was calculated to be 1.10 Mrad by the formula SD = D x log (No/N), while the SD was 0.90 and 0.76 Mrad, respectively, for the microbial burden informations and steility tests. From above ressults, it is supposed that the sterility assurance level in 10 -3 can be achieved by irradiating the dose less than 1 Mrad. (author)

  16. Research on the method of establishing the total radiation meter calibration device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianqiang; Xia, Ming; Xia, Junwen; Zhang, Dong

    2015-10-01

    Pyranometer is an instrument used to measure the solar radiation, according to pyranometer differs as installation state, can be respectively measured total solar radiation, reflected radiation, or with the help of shading device for measuring scattering radiation. Pyranometer uses the principle of thermoelectric effect, inductive element adopts winding plating type multi junction thermopile, its surface is coated with black coating with high absorption rate. Hot junction in the induction surface, while the cold junction is located in the body, the cold and hot junction produce thermoelectric potential. In the linear range, the output signal is proportional to the solar irradiance. Traceability to national meteorological station, as the unit of the national legal metrology organizations, the responsibility is to transfer value of the sun and the earth radiation value about the national meteorological industry. Using the method of comparison, with indoor calibration of solar simulator, at the same location, standard pyranometer and measured pyranometer were alternately measured radiation irradiance, depending on the irradiation sensitivity standard pyranometer were calculated the radiation sensitivity of measured pyranometer. This paper is mainly about the design and calibration method of the pyranometer indoor device. The uncertainty of the calibration result is also evaluated.

  17. Radiation dermatitis caused by a bolus effect from an abdominal compression device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, Michael; Wei, Randy L.; Yu, Suhong; Sehgal, Varun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Irvine Medical Center, Orange, CA (United States); Klempner, Samuel J. [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of California, Orange, CA (United States); Daroui, Parima, E-mail: pdaroui@uci.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Irvine Medical Center, Orange, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 176 evaluated the dosimetric effects caused by couch tops and immobilization devices. The report analyzed the extensive physics-based literature on couch tops, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) frames, and body immobilization bags, while noting the scarcity of clinical reports of skin toxicity because of external devices. Here, we present a clinical case report of grade 1 abdominal skin toxicity owing to an abdominal compression device. We discuss the dosimetric implications of the utilized treatment plan as well as post hoc alternative plans and quantify differences in attenuation and skin dose/build-up between the device, a lower-density alternative device, and an open field. The description of the case includes a 66-year-old male with HER2 amplified poorly differentiated distal esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemo-radiation and the use of an abdominal compression device. Radiation was delivered using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with 2 arcs using abdominal compression and image guidance. The total dose was 50.4 Gy delivered over 40 elapsed days. With 2 fractions remaining, the patient developed dermatitis in the area of the compression device. The original treatment plan did not include a contour of the device. Alternative post hoc treatment plans were generated, one to contour the device and a second with anterior avoidance. In conclusion, replanning with the device contoured revealed the bolus effect. The skin dose increased from 27 to 36 Gy. planned target volume (PTV) coverage at 45 Gy was reduced to 76.5% from 95.8%. The second VMAT treatment plan with an anterior avoidance sector and more oblique beam angles maintained PTV coverage and spared the anterior wall, however at the expense of substantially increased dose to lung. This case report provides an important reminder of the bolus effect from external devices such as abdominal compression. Special

  18. Radiation dermatitis caused by a bolus effect from an abdominal compression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, Michael; Wei, Randy L.; Yu, Suhong; Sehgal, Varun; Klempner, Samuel J.; Daroui, Parima

    2016-01-01

    American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 176 evaluated the dosimetric effects caused by couch tops and immobilization devices. The report analyzed the extensive physics-based literature on couch tops, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) frames, and body immobilization bags, while noting the scarcity of clinical reports of skin toxicity because of external devices. Here, we present a clinical case report of grade 1 abdominal skin toxicity owing to an abdominal compression device. We discuss the dosimetric implications of the utilized treatment plan as well as post hoc alternative plans and quantify differences in attenuation and skin dose/build-up between the device, a lower-density alternative device, and an open field. The description of the case includes a 66-year-old male with HER2 amplified poorly differentiated distal esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemo-radiation and the use of an abdominal compression device. Radiation was delivered using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with 2 arcs using abdominal compression and image guidance. The total dose was 50.4 Gy delivered over 40 elapsed days. With 2 fractions remaining, the patient developed dermatitis in the area of the compression device. The original treatment plan did not include a contour of the device. Alternative post hoc treatment plans were generated, one to contour the device and a second with anterior avoidance. In conclusion, replanning with the device contoured revealed the bolus effect. The skin dose increased from 27 to 36 Gy. planned target volume (PTV) coverage at 45 Gy was reduced to 76.5% from 95.8%. The second VMAT treatment plan with an anterior avoidance sector and more oblique beam angles maintained PTV coverage and spared the anterior wall, however at the expense of substantially increased dose to lung. This case report provides an important reminder of the bolus effect from external devices such as abdominal compression. Special

  19. Device Simulation of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors: Radiation Damage Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourches, N.T.

    2009-01-01

    Vertexing for the future International Linear Collider represents a challenging goal because of the high spatial resolution required with low material budget and high ionizing radiation tolerance. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) represent a good potential solution for this purpose. Up to now many MAPS sensors have been developed. They are based on various architectures and manufactured in different processes. However, up so far, the sensor diode has not been the subject of extensive modelization and simulation. Published simulation studies of sensor-signal formation have been less numerous than measurements on real sensors. This is a cause for concern because such sensor is physically based on the partially depleted diode, in the vicinity of which the electric field collects the minority carriers generated by an incident MIP (minimum ionizing particle). Although the microscopic mechanisms are well known and modelled, the global physical mechanisms for signal formation are not very rigorously established. This is partly due to the presence of a predominant diffusion component in the charge transport. We present here simulations mainly based on the S-PISCES code, in which physical mechanisms affecting transport are taken into account. Diffusion, influence of residual carrier concentration due to the doping level in the sensitive volume, and more importantly charge trapping due to deep levels in the active (detecting) layer are studied together with geometric aspects. The effect of neutron irradiation is studied to assess the effects of deep traps. A comparison with available experimental data, obtained on processed MAPS before or after neutron irradiation will be introduced. Simulated reconstruction of the Minimum Ionizing Particle (MIP) point of impact in two dimensions is also investigated. For further steps, guidelines for process choices of next Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors are introduced. (authors)

  20. 77 FR 41417 - Regulatory Science Considerations for Medical Countermeasure Radiation Biodosimetry Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... scientific and technological challenges for performance validation of radiation biodosimetry devices. Date... participants (non-FDA employees) is through Bldg. 1 where routine security check procedures will be performed... this document. FDA will do its best to accommodate requests to make public comment. Individuals and...

  1. Radiation effects and hardness of semiconductor electronic devices for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payat, R.; Friant, A.

    1988-01-01

    After a brief review of industrial and nuclear specificity and radiation effects in electronics components (semiconductors) the need for a specific test methodology of semiconductor devices is emphasized. Some studies appropriate for nuclear industry at D. LETI/DEIN/CEN-SACLAY are related [fr

  2. Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop on radiation effects on semiconductor devices for space application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This publication is the collection of the paper presented at the title workshop. The main purpose of the workshop is to bring the chance for exchange of information between scientists and engineers who work in the field of research and development of semiconductor devices used in strong radiation environment in space. The 27 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Continuous wave terahertz radiation from an InAs/GaAs quantum-dot photomixer device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczek, T.; Leyman, R.; Carnegie, D.; Bazieva, N.; Erbert, G.; Schulz, S.; Reardon, C.; Reynolds, S.; Rafailov, E. U.

    2012-08-01

    Generation of continuous wave radiation at terahertz (THz) frequencies from a heterodyne source based on quantum-dot (QD) semiconductor materials is reported. The source comprises an active region characterised by multiple alternating photoconductive and QD carrier trapping layers and is pumped by two infrared optical signals with slightly offset wavelengths, allowing photoconductive device switching at the signals' difference frequency ˜1 THz.

  4. Thermal management in MoS{sub 2} based integrated device using near-field radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Jiebin [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117546 (Singapore); Zhang, Gang, E-mail: zhangg@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Li, Baowen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Recently, wafer-scale growth of monolayer MoS{sub 2} films with spatial homogeneity is realized on SiO{sub 2} substrate. Together with the latest reported high mobility, MoS{sub 2} based integrated electronic devices are expected to be fabricated in the near future. Owing to the low lattice thermal conductivity in monolayer MoS{sub 2}, and the increased transistor density accompanied with the increased power density, heat dissipation will become a crucial issue for these integrated devices. In this letter, using the formalism of fluctuation electrodynamics, we explored the near-field radiative heat transfer from a monolayer MoS{sub 2} to graphene. We demonstrate that in resonance, the maximum heat transfer via near-field radiation between MoS{sub 2} and graphene can be ten times higher than the in-plane lattice thermal conduction for MoS{sub 2} sheet. Therefore, an efficient thermal management strategy for MoS{sub 2} integrated device is proposed: Graphene sheet is brought into close proximity, 10–20 nm from MoS{sub 2} device; heat energy transfer from MoS{sub 2} to graphene via near-field radiation; this amount of heat energy then be conducted to contact due to ultra-high lattice thermal conductivity of graphene. Our work sheds light for developing cooling strategy for nano devices constructing with low thermal conductivity materials.

  5. Development of advanced materials and devices for nuclear radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadkari, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of technologically important materials are grown in the Crystal Technology Section of the Technical Physics Division, BARC. These crystals find applications as scintillators and dosimeters in nuclear radiation detection/measurements. Scintillator crystals of some advanced materials like cerium doped Gd 3 Ga 3 Al 2 O 12 , Lu 2 SiO 5 , YAIO 3 etc and some conventional materials such as Bi 4 Ge 3 O 12 , CsI:Tl, NaI:Tl, etc have been grown from melts using the Czochralski and Bridgman techniques. Portable gamma-ray spectrometers that work from a USB port of a laptop have been developed using the grown scintillator crystals. In recent years there has been a flurry of research activities on materials containing Li 6 , B 10 , etc that have large capture cross-sections for neutrons to develop solid state detectors for neutrons. For this purpose single crystals of cerium doped Li 6 Y(BO 3 ) 3 and silver doped Li 2 B 4 O 7 have been developed. Optical, thermo-luminescence, photo-luminescence and scintillation properties of these crystals have been investigated with a view to develop detectors and dosimeters. The Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Ag is a tissue equivalent material (Z eff = 7.3 close to 7.4 of tissue) useful in the personal and medical dosimetry applications. As the emission of Ag + lies in the UV region (267 nm), a customized TL measurement set-up has been developed using a solar blind PMT that enabled the measurement of very low doses below 5 μGy and linearity up to 100 Gy. Films of CsI:TI in the 10 nm to 3 μm thickness range were deposited on silicon substrates using the physical vapor deposition technique under vacuum conditions. The deposited films investigated using SEM and AFM revealed a columnar growth behavior with a preferential orientation along <200>. The growth of single crystals from melts, recent efforts in the development of detectors and results of experiments conducted to detect thermal neutrons are described. (author)

  6. Emergency response activities and collecting damaged radiation devices from a war affected area in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subasic, Damir; Schaller, Antum [APO-Hazardous Waste Management Agency, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1997-12-31

    A number of various devices containing ionizing radiation sources were in use in the area affected by the recent war in Croatia. In destruction caused by the war operations, a number of these devices were damaged, destroyed or even missed/lost. The actions undertaken to (re)collect these radiation sources, experience gained and lessons learned are reviewed. The importance of a well-organized national regulatory system is highlighted as a precondition for the efficient identification and safe collection of radiation sources which were under ruins. Experience from this event could be well applicable to similar situations caused by disasters and particularly for regulatory authorities who design emergency preparedness plans. (author) 4 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Simulating threshold voltage shift of MOS devices due to radiation in the low-dose range

    CERN Document Server

    Wan Xin Heng; Gao Wen Yu; Huang Ru; Wang Yang Yuan

    2002-01-01

    An analytical MOSFET threshold voltage shift model due to radiation in the low-dose range has been developed for circuit simulations. Experimental data in the literature shows that the model predictions are in good agreement. It is simple in functional form and hence computationally efficient. It can be used as a basic circuit simulation tool for analysing MOSFET exposed to a nuclear environment up to about 1 Mrad(Si). In accordance with common believe, radiation induced absolute change of threshold voltage was found to be larger in irradiated PMOS devices. However, if the radiation sensitivity is defined in the way authors did it, the results indicated NMOS rather than PMOS devices are more sensitive, specially at low doses. This is important from the standpoint of their possible application in dosimetry

  8. Short term ionizing radiation impact on charge-coupled devices in radiation environment of high-intensity heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belousov, A.; Mustafin, E.; Ensinger, W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a first approach on studies of the results of short term ionizing radiation impact on charge-coupled device (CCD) chips in conditions typical for high-intensity ion accelerator areas. Radiation effects on semiconductor devices are a topical issue for high-intensity accelerator projects. In particular it concerns CCD cameras that are widely used for beam profile monitoring and surveillance in high radiation environment. 65 CCD cameras are going to be installed in the FAIR machines. It is necessary to have good understanding of radiation effects and their contribution to measured signal in CCD chips. A phenomenon of single event upset (SEU) in CCD chips is studied in the following experiment. By SEU in CCD chip we mean an event when an ionizing particle hits the CCD matrix cell and produces electron-hole pairs that are then collected and converted to a signal that is higher than certain level defined by author. Practically, it means that a certain cell will appear as a bright pixel on the resulting image from a chip. (authors)

  9. MINAC, A new radiographic inspection capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapides, M.E.; Schonberg, R.

    1983-01-01

    In service, radiographic inspection of thick section, metallic components has historically been limited to the capabilities of radioisotopic sources such as cobalt and iridium. Although practical in many applications, these sources tend to be restricted by output intensity, by resolution obtainable, and by the physical size and weight of necessary transport shielding. In nuclear plant applications, any radiography is also frequently inhibited by the presence of a radiation background from activated corrosion products on the inspection object which may fog the film before the desired exposure is achieved. In recognition of these limitations and the need for improved capability in the conduct of mandated ten-year inspection of U.S. nuclear plant components such as reactor coolant pumps, pressure vessel nozzles and valve bodies, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) undertook the development of a high energy, X-ray device appropriate for in service inspection of thick section (up to approximately 30 cm of steel) components. The development was conducted by Schonberg Radiation (U.S.A). The product, MINAC, a miniaturized linear accelerator system, has been in use in many plant inspections since April 1981. This paper describes the development and typical applications of MINAC

  10. Devices for the contamination containment employees in the steam generator inspection; Dispositivo para confinamiento de la contaminacion empleados en la inspeccion de generadores de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Bueno, A.; Largo Izquierdo, P.; Calleja Rubio, J. A.

    2010-07-01

    The process of induced current inspection of the tubes of the steam generator is a typical programmed inspections at each refueling outages of pressurized water in nuclear power plants. components inspection being quite active, interested in the program of continuous improvement, further optimize the inspection system.

  11. Preliminary study on the relation between the coping patterns and mental health of radiation control personnel and nondestructive inspectors engaged in the periodic inspections of nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Chika; Uchida, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    In order to safely manage nuclear power plants, their workforce should be mentally healthy. This study clarifies the coping strategies of radiation control personnel and nondestructive inspectors engaged in the periodic inspection of nuclear power plants, the effect of the coping strategies on their mental health, as well as any effect based on whether or not they had worked after the nuclear disaster caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami in March 2011. A questionnaire survey was administered to 133 technicians attending a certification course, and among them, our subjects of analysis were 104 people with work experience in radiation control and/or nondestructive inspection. The results indicated that even among workers of the same company who were assigned to similar duties in the periodic inspections of nuclear power plants, the group that had worked at a nuclear plant after the disaster had a tendency to use coping strategies, such as giving up and avoidance-like thinking, which was dissimilar to the group that had not worked at a nuclear plant after the disaster. Further, the former group had higher levels of distress than those who tended to use other coping strategies. In addition, the results suggested that the plan-drafting strategy adopted by the group that had not worked after the disaster did not result in stress reduction. Based on these results, we propose a stress management program specifically for radiation workers.

  12. Web software for the control and management of radiation protection devices in the Cadarache site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltritti, F.

    2010-01-01

    This series of slides presents how to use a new software dedicated to the management of the periodical controls that have to be performed on the equipment involved in radiation protection. This software is ready to be dispatched on the CEA site of Cadarache. This software gives information on: the device to be controlled, the controls that have to be performed, the procedures to follow to make the test, the equipment necessary for the test particularly the need for radioactive sources, the maintenance of the device, the previous measurements and in the end the device's conformity. An evaluation of the conformity of all the devices present in a building or an area or of a particular type can be easily obtained. (A.C.)

  13. Reduction in radiation exposure to nursing personnel with the use of remote afterloading brachytherapy devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigsby, P.W.; Perez, C.A.; Eichling, J.; Purdy, J.; Slessinger, E.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation exposure to nursing personnel from patients with brachytherapy implants on a large brachytherapy service were reviewed. Exposure to nurses, as determined by TLD monitors, indicates a 7-fold reduction in exposure after the implementation of the use of remote afterloading devices. Quarterly TLD monitor data for six quarters prior to the use of remote afterloading devices demonstrate an average projected annual dose equivalent to the nurses of 152 and 154 mrem (1.5 mSv). After the implementation of the remote afterloading devices, the quarterly TLD monitor data indicate an average dose equivalent per nurse of 23 and 19 mrem (0.2 mSv). This is an 87% reduction in exposure to nurses with the use of these devices (p less than 0.01)

  14. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and the smaller varieties of sausage and meat food products in animal casings. EC11SE91.001 For application to calf and goat carcasses and on the larger varieties of sausage and meat food products in animal... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official marks and devices to identify...

  15. Minimising radiation exposure due to source assembly-related deficiencies in industrial gamma radiography exposure devices (IGREDs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaraman, G.; Kannan, R.; Nandakumar, A.N.; Subrahmanya, M.J.; Murthy, B.K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Industrial radiographers receive higher doses as compared to radiation workers in medicine, agriculture, research, etc. Hence, it is essential that industrial gamma radiography exposure device (IGRED) be provided with efficient and effective safety systems in their design and operation to ensure smooth operation and minimise radiation exposures to the operators and public. Even though all these exposure devices have undergone stringent tests for radiographic exposure devices under international or national standards, certain deficiencies were noticed when scientists of Radiological Physics and Advisory Division (RPAD), carried out radiography equipment inspection of IGREDs. Some examples are briefly described here. The use of depleted Uranium pencil in some models led to the source pencil getting jammed due to formation of Uranium Oxide and bulging of the pencil. The solution was to replace the uranium pencil with high quality tungsten pencils or stainless steel clad pencils. In one type of pencils the source assembly would flare up after some use obstructing the smooth movement of the source assembly. The suggestion to subject the source assemblies to heat treatment solved the problem. In another type, the source pencil was getting corroded in high humid condition and affected the source movement. When the composition of the source pencil was changed it could withstand high humid condition. Another model had a hook type coupling between source assembly and drive cable. This often resulted in disengagement of the source assembly from the drive cable. Suggestions were made to change the coupling to ball and socket coupling for smooth functioning and for 'fail-safe' operation. During early days of the use of remote operated IGRED, in one particular model of the IGRED, the Iridium source wafers were directly loaded in a single encapsulation. Once the welding gave way and the source wafers got strewn. Subsequently, the source pellets/wafers were doubly encapsulated

  16. Total-dose radiation effects data for semiconductor devices. 1985 supplement. Volume 2, part A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, K.E.; Gauthier, M.K.; Coss, J.R.; Dantas, A.R.V.; Price, W.E.

    1986-05-01

    Steady-state, total-dose radiation test data, are provided in graphic format for use by electronic designers and other personnel using semiconductor devices in a radiation environment. The data were generated by JPL for various NASA space programs. This volume provides data on integrated circuits. The data are presented in graphic, tabular, and/or narrative format, depending on the complexity of the integrated circuit. Most tests were done using the JPL or Boeing electron accelerator (Dynamitron) which provides a steady-state 2.5 MeV electron beam. However, some radiation exposures were made with a cobalt-60 gamma ray source, the results of which should be regarded as only an approximate measure of the radiation damage that would be incurred by an equivalent electron dose

  17. Review of radiation effects on ReRAM devices and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Velo, Yago; Barnaby, Hugh J.; Kozicki, Michael N.

    2017-08-01

    A review of the ionizing radiation effects on resistive random access memory (ReRAM) technology and devices is presented in this article. The review focuses on vertical devices exhibiting bipolar resistance switching, devices that have already exhibited interesting properties and characteristics for memory applications and, in particular, for non-volatile memory applications. Non-volatile memories are important devices for any type of electronic and embedded system, as they are for space applications. In such applications, specific environmental issues related to the existence of cosmic rays and Van Allen radiation belts around the Earth contribute to specific failure mechanisms related to the energy deposition induced by such ionizing radiation. Such effects are important in non-volatile memory as the current leading technology, i.e. flash-based technology, is sensitive to the total ionizing dose (TID) and single-event effects. New technologies such as ReRAM, if competing with or complementing the existing non-volatile area of memories from the point of view of performance, also have to exhibit great reliability for use in radiation environments such as space. This has driven research on the radiation effects of such ReRAM technology, on both the conductive-bridge RAM as well as the valence-change memories, or OxRAM variants of the technology. Initial characterizations of ReRAM technology showed a high degree of resilience to TID, developing researchers’ interest in characterizing such resilience as well as investigating the cause of such behavior. The state of the art of such research is reviewed in this article.

  18. Improvements to a neutral radiation detection and position sensitive process and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, Georges; Nguyen, N.H.; Policarpo, Armando.

    1977-01-01

    This invention aims to provide a neutral radiation position sensitive process and device providing a spatial radiation satisfactory for most medical applications and an energy radiation that cannot be reached by gas detectors based on proportional counters or by scintillation counters. Only solid state detectors can compete with respect to energy resolution. The detector described enables large areas to be covered which cannot be reached at accessible costs by solid state detectors. With this aim in view, the invention suggests an incident neutral radiation and position sensitive process, particularly soft gamma and X radiations, whereby photoelectrons are made to form by incident radiation action on gas atoms contained in an enclosure. By means of an electric field, the electrons are diverted towards a space undergoing an electric field high enough in value to create photons by exciting gas atoms and returning them to the de-excited state. The photons are collected, through a transparent window, on a layer of a material for converting such photons into scintillations in the near or visible UV spectrum and the barycentre of the scintillations is positioned on the layer, for instance by photomultipliers or ionization detectors. According to another aspect of the invention, it suggests a detection and position sensitive device comprising (generally downstream of a collimator with a grid of inlet holes) a leak tight containment fitted with an inlet window transparent to incident radiations, filled with a gas producing electrons by interaction with the incident radiation, and fitted with electrodes for generating an electric field to divert the electrons to a space for creating secondary photons [fr

  19. Plant equipment integrity monitoring and diagnosing method and device therefor, plant equipment maintenance and inspection time determining method and device therefor, as well as nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takahiko; Ando, Masashi; Osumi, Katsumi; Horiuchi, Tetsuo; Asakura, Yamato; Akamine, Kazuhiko.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention can accurately forecast a time for occurrence of troubles of plant equipments in contact with recycling water, to conduct its maintenance and inspection before occurrence of the troubles. Namely, change of water quality in plant equipments caused by corrosion of recycling water occurred in constitutional parts of the plant equipments is measured. The time upon occurrence of the troubles of the plant equipments to corrosion of the recycling water is forecast based on the measured value. A time till the occurrence of the change of water quality after starting the use of the plant equipments is calculated based on the measured value. The calculated time is compared with a correlation between the time of occurrence of the troubles after starting the use of the plant equipments and the time of occurrence of change of the water quality, to forecast the time of occurrence of the troubles. Preferably, electroconductivity and pH of recycling water in the inside or at the exit of the plant equipments are measured as an object for the measurement of change of water quality. (I.S.)

  20. Radiation dose measurements of the insertion devices using radiachromic film dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderman, J.; Semones, E.; Job, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) uses Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets in the insertion devices to produce x-rays for scientific research [1,2]. Earlier investigations have exhibited varying degrees of demagnetization of these magnets [3] due to irradiation from electron beams [4,5,6], 60 Co γ-rays [5], and high-energy neutrons [7,8]. Radiation-induced demagnetization has been observed in the APS insertion devices [9] and was first measured in December of 2001. Partial demagnetization has also been observed in insertion devices at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) [4,6], where Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are also used. Growing concern for the lifetime of APS insertion devices, as well as the permanent magnets that will be used in next-generation, high-power light sources, like the FEL [10,11], resulted from the partial demagnetization observations made at both facilities. This concern in relation to radiation-induced demagnetization spurred a long-term project to measure and analyze the absorbed doses received by the APS insertion devices. The project required a reliable photon high-dose dosimetry technique capable of measuring absorbed doses greater than 10 6 rad, which was not readily available at the APS. Through a collaboration with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), one such technique using radiachromic films was considered, tested, and calibrated at the APS. This consequently led to the implementation of radiachromic film dosimetry for measuring the absorbed doses received by the insertion devices for each of the APS runs

  1. Response of GaAs charge storage devices to transient ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, D. L.; Klem, J. F.; Hughes, R. C.; Weaver, H. T.

    Charge storage devices in which non-equilibrium depletion regions represent stored charge are sensitive to ionizing radiation. This results since the radiation generates electron-hole pairs that neutralize excess ionized dopant charge. Silicon structures, such as dynamic RAM or CCD cells are particularly sensitive to radiation since carrier diffusion lengths in this material are often much longer than the depletion width, allowing collection of significant quantities of charge from quasi-neutral sections of the device. For GaAs the situation is somewhat different in that minority carrier diffusion lengths are shorter than in silicon, and although mobilities are higher, we expect a reduction of radiation sensitivity as suggested by observations of reduced quantum efficiency in GaAs solar cells. Dynamic memory cells in GaAs have potential increased retention times. In this paper, we report the response of a novel GaAs dynamic memory element to transient ionizing radiation. The charge readout technique is nondestructive over a reasonable applied voltage range and is more sensitive to stored charge than a simple capacitor.

  2. Commercial power silicon devices as possible routine dosimeters for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuochi, P.G.; Lavalle, M.; Gombia, E.; Mosca, R.; Kovacs, A.V.; Hargittai, P.; Vitanza, A.; Patti, A.

    2001-01-01

    The use of silicon devices as possible radiation dosimeters has been investigated in this study. A bipolar power transistor in TO126 plastic packaging has been selected. Irradiations, with doses in the range from 50 Gy up to 5 kGy, have been performed at room temperature using different radiation sources ( 60 Co g source, 2.5, 4 and 12 MeV electron accelerators). Few irradiations with g rays were also done at different temperatures. A physical parameter, T, related to the charge carrier lifetime, has been found to change as a function of irradiation dose. This change is radiation energy dependent. Long term stability of the electron irradiated transistors has been checked by means of a reliability test ('high temperature reverse bias', HTRB) at 150 deg. C for 1000 h. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements have been performed on the irradiated devices to identify the recombination centres introduced by the radiation treatment. The results obtained confirm that these transistors could be used as routine radiation dosimeters in a certain dose range. More work needs to be done particularly with g rays in the low dose region (50-200 Gy) and with low energy electrons. (author)

  3. Design and manufacture of an ultrasonic inspection device for the friction welds in reactor vessel control rod drive mechanism housings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslav, C.; Peteuil, M.

    1985-01-01

    The control rod drive mechanism housings of a PWR reactor vessel consist of a stainless steel flange and a Ni-Cr-Fe alloy tube, assembled by friction welding. The properties of the interface and the nature of the adjacent materials require the development of a specific ultrasonic inspection technique which could be easily automated, considering the number of parts involved (77 parts per 1300 MWe reactor vessel). The part has the general shape of a tube (inside diameter: 70 mm, outside diameter: 103 mm). The transition between both forged parent materials (stainless steel/Ni-Cr-Fe alloy) is obtained by a very thin interface, whose general orientation is normal to the tube centerline. The heat affected zone has generally a coarser and more irregular structure than that observed in the parent materials. The design and development were carried out using a prototype machine on test-pieces representative of a control rod drive mechanism housing, and containing the following artificial reflectors: notches obtained by electro-discharge machining on the inside and outside surfaces, on each side of the interface; planar artificial defects, parallel to the interface. These defects, obtained from 2 flat bottomed holes, drilled into the mock-up constituent parts, were conveyed to the interface during friction welding

  4. 2015 annual report of the managing director of the CEA general and nuclear inspection for nuclear safety and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-08-01

    After an introduction by the managing director of the CEA general and nuclear inspection about activities and events of 2015, this report proposes some key figures and indicators to illustrate these activities and events. The next parts discuss, present and comment how a culture of safety is at the heart of the continuous progress approach by the CEA. The next chapters propose overviews and comments of lessons learned from nuclear inspections within the frame of audit programme or within the frame of centres' safety audits, and from reactive inspections. The last parts address the follow-up of recommendations, and progress orientations and perspectives

  5. Evaluation of pelletron accelerator facility to study radiation effects on semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, A. P. Gnana; Pushpa, N.; Praveen, K. C.; Naik, P. S.; Revannasiddaiah, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the comprehensive results on the effects of different radiation on the electrical characteristics of different semiconductor devices like Si BJT, n-channel MOSFETs, 50 GHz and 200 GHz silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (SiGe HBTs). The total dose effects of different radiation are compared in the same total dose ranging from 100 krad to 100 Mrad. We show that the irradiation time needed to reach very high total dose can be reduced by using Pelletron accelerator facilities instead of conventional irradiation facilities.

  6. Evaluation of pelletron accelerator facility to study radiation effects on semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, A. P. Gnana; Pushpa, N.; Praveen, K. C.; Naik, P. S.; Revannasiddaiah, D. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006, Karnataka (India)

    2012-06-05

    In this paper we present the comprehensive results on the effects of different radiation on the electrical characteristics of different semiconductor devices like Si BJT, n-channel MOSFETs, 50 GHz and 200 GHz silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (SiGe HBTs). The total dose effects of different radiation are compared in the same total dose ranging from 100 krad to 100 Mrad. We show that the irradiation time needed to reach very high total dose can be reduced by using Pelletron accelerator facilities instead of conventional irradiation facilities.

  7. Discrete Event Simulation Model of the Polaris 2.1 Gamma Ray Imaging Radiation Detection Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    release; distribution is unlimited DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION MODEL OF THE POLARIS 2.1 GAMMA RAY IMAGING RADIATION DETECTION DEVICE by Andres T...ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE June 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION MODEL...modeled. The platform, Simkit, was utilized to create a discrete event simulation (DES) model of the Polaris. After carefully constructing the DES

  8. Development of microfluidic devices for biomedical applications of synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Birarda, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    2009/2010 ABSTRACT DEVELOPMENT OF MICROFLUIDIC DEVICES FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION INFRARED MICROSPECTROSCOPY by Birarda Giovanni The detection and measurement of biological processes in a complex living system is a discipline at the edge of Physics, Biology, and Engineering, with major scientific challenges, new technological applications and a great potential impact on dissection of phenomena occurring at tissue, cell, and sub cellular level. The ...

  9. New developments on the generation of arbitrary polarized radiation from insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elleaume, P.

    1991-01-01

    The complete description of the polarization of a beam of radiation is described in terms of the total energy and three polarization rates. The polarization characteristics from conventional undulators and wigglers is recalled. A presentation is made of some new insertion devices that were proposed and/or built to generate circular polarization and more generally to improve the control of polarization. They are the asymmetric and elliptical wigglers and the helical and crossed undulators

  10. Extreme Radiation Hardness and Space Qualification of AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ke-Xun; MacNeil, Lawrence; Balakrishnan, Kathik; Hultgren, Eric; Goebel, John; Bilenko, Yuri; Yang, Jinwei; Sun, Wenhong; Shatalov, Max; Hu, Xuhong; Gaska, Remis

    2010-01-01

    Unprecedented radiation hardness and environment robustness are required in the new generation of high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments and deep space exploration. National Ignition Facility (NIF) break-even shots will have a neutron yield of 10 15 or higher. The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) mission instruments will be irradiated with a total fluence of 10 12 protons/cm 2 during the space journey. In addition, large temperature variations and mechanical shocks are expected in these applications under extreme conditions. Hefty radiation and thermal shields are required for Si and GaAs based electronics and optoelectronics devices. However, for direct illumination and imaging applications, shielding is not a viable option. It is an urgent task to search for new semiconductor technologies and to develop radiation hard and environmentally robust optoelectronic devices. We will report on our latest systematic experimental studies on radiation hardness and space qualifications of AlGaN optoelectronic devices: Deep UV Light Emitting Diodes (DUV LEDs) and solarblind UV Photodiodes (PDs). For custom designed AlGaN DUV LEDs with a central emission wavelength of 255 nm, we have demonstrated its extreme radiation hardness up to 2 x 10 12 protons/cm 2 with 63.9 MeV proton beams. We have demonstrated an operation lifetime of over 26,000 hours in a nitrogen rich environment, and 23,000 hours of operation in vacuum without significant power drop and spectral shift. The DUV LEDs with multiple packaging styles have passed stringent space qualifications with 14 g random vibrations, and 21 cycles of 100K temperature cycles. The driving voltage, current, emission spectra and optical power (V-I-P) operation characteristics exhibited no significant changes after the space environmental tests. The DUV LEDs will be used for photoelectric charge management in space flights. For custom designed AlGaN UV photodiodes with a central response wavelength of 255 nm, we have

  11. Modeling of transient ionizing radiation effects in bipolar devices at high dose-rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FJELDLY, T.A.; DENG, Y.; SHUR, M.S.; HJALMARSON, HAROLD P.; MUYSHONDT, ARNOLDO

    2000-01-01

    To optimally design circuits for operation at high intensities of ionizing radiation, and to accurately predict their a behavior under radiation, precise device models are needed that include both stationary and dynamic effects of such radiation. Depending on the type and intensity of the ionizing radiation, different degradation mechanisms, such as photoelectric effect, total dose effect, or single even upset might be dominant. In this paper, the authors consider the photoelectric effect associated with the generation of electron-hole pairs in the semiconductor. The effects of low radiation intensity on p-II diodes and bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) were described by low-injection theory in the classical paper by Wirth and Rogers. However, in BJTs compatible with modem integrated circuit technology, high-resistivity regions are often used to enhance device performance, either as a substrate or as an epitaxial layer such as the low-doped n-type collector region of the device. Using low-injection theory, the transient response of epitaxial BJTs was discussed by Florian et al., who mainly concentrated on the effects of the Hi-Lo (high doping - low doping) epilayer/substrate junction of the collector, and on geometrical effects of realistic devices. For devices with highly resistive regions, the assumption of low-level injection is often inappropriate, even at moderate radiation intensities, and a more complete theory for high-injection levels was needed. In the dynamic photocurrent model by Enlow and Alexander. p-n junctions exposed to high-intensity radiation were considered. In their work, the variation of the minority carrier lifetime with excess carrier density, and the effects of the ohmic electric field in the quasi-neutral (q-n) regions were included in a simplified manner. Later, Wunsch and Axness presented a more comprehensive model for the transient radiation response of p-n and p-i-n diode geometries. A stationary model for high-level injection in p

  12. Relative risk analysis in regulating the use of radiation-emitting medical devices. A preliminary application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Altenbach, T.J.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary application of an analysis approach for assessing relative risks in the use of radiation- emitting medical devices. Results are presented on human-initiated actions and failure modes that are most likely to occur in the use of the Gamma Knife, a gamma irradiation therapy device. This effort represents an initial step in a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) plan to evaluate the potential role of risk analysis in regulating the use of nuclear medical devices. For this preliminary application of risk assessment, the focus was to develop a basic process using existing techniques for identifying the most likely risk contributors and their relative importance. The approach taken developed relative risk rankings and profiles that incorporated the type and quality of data available and could present results in an easily understood form. This work was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the NRC.

  13. Relative risk analysis in regulating the use of radiation-emitting medical devices. A preliminary application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Altenbach, T.J.; Fischer, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary application of an analysis approach for assessing relative risks in the use of radiation- emitting medical devices. Results are presented on human-initiated actions and failure modes that are most likely to occur in the use of the Gamma Knife, a gamma irradiation therapy device. This effort represents an initial step in a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) plan to evaluate the potential role of risk analysis in regulating the use of nuclear medical devices. For this preliminary application of risk assessment, the focus was to develop a basic process using existing techniques for identifying the most likely risk contributors and their relative importance. The approach taken developed relative risk rankings and profiles that incorporated the type and quality of data available and could present results in an easily understood form. This work was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the NRC

  14. Design of radiation-chemical devices with gamma source for sewage treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel'son, Eh.L.; Gol'din, V.A.; Breger, A.Kh.

    1981-01-01

    The semiempirical method of calculating conductivity of radiation- chemical devices (RCD) with γ-sources to purify domestic and industrial drainage waters and other processes in liquid phase systems which meet definite requirements based on taking into account the structure of the technological process, is suggested RCD of a new type is developed. It is coaxially cylindrical. A correcting coefficient which takes into account the difference in the actual time of keeping a current of drainage water in the device and its avaraged calculation value, conditioned by the longtitudinal transfer of a substance in the device, is determined. It is shown that the above RCD productivity can be considerably increased due to creating the structure of adisplacement current which provides the equality of absorbed doses in all its elements [ru

  15. Filter and window assemblies for high power insertion device synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.; Viccaro, P.J.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The powerful beams of x-ray radiation generated by insertion devices at high power synchrotron facilities deposit substantial amounts of localized heat in the front end and optical components that they intercept. X-ray beams from undulator sources, in particular, are confined to very narrow solid angles and therefore impose very high absorbed heat fluxes. This paper is devoted to a detailed study of the design of windows for the Advanced Photon Source undulators and wigglers, emphasizing alternative design concepts, material considerations, and cooling techniques necessary for handling the high heat load of the insertion devices. Various designs are thermally and structurally analyzed by numerically simulating full-power operating conditions. This analysis also has relevance to the design and development of other beam line components which are subjected to the high heat loads of insertion devices

  16. Studies of radiation hardness of MOS devices for application in a linear collider vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Qingyu

    2008-10-17

    The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) together with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN serve as a combined tool to explore the mysteries of the universe: the former is a precision machine and the latter can be considered as a finding machine. The key component of the ILC is the vertex detector that should be placed as close as possible to the Interaction Point (IP) and has better radiation tolerance against the dominant electron-positron pair production background from beam-beam interactions. A new generation of MOS-type Depleted-Field-Effect Transistor (MOSDEPFET) active pixel detectors has been proposed and developed by Semiconductor Labor Munich for Physics and for extraterrestrial Physics in order to meet the requirements of the vertex detector at the ILC. Since all MOS devices are susceptible to ionizing radiation, the main topic is focused on the radiation hardness of detectors, by which a series of physical processes are analyzed: e.g. surface damage due to ionizing radiation as well as damage mechanisms and their associated radiation effects. As a consequence, the main part of this thesis consists of a large number of irradiation experiments and the corresponding discussions. Finally, radiation hardness of the detectors should be improved through a set of concluded experiences that are based on a series of analysis of the characteristic parameters using different measurement techniques. The feasibility of the MOSDEPFET-based vertex detector is, therefore, predicted at ILC. (orig.)

  17. Studies of radiation hardness of MOS devices for application in a linear collider vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Qingyu

    2008-01-01

    The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) together with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN serve as a combined tool to explore the mysteries of the universe: the former is a precision machine and the latter can be considered as a finding machine. The key component of the ILC is the vertex detector that should be placed as close as possible to the Interaction Point (IP) and has better radiation tolerance against the dominant electron-positron pair production background from beam-beam interactions. A new generation of MOS-type Depleted-Field-Effect Transistor (MOSDEPFET) active pixel detectors has been proposed and developed by Semiconductor Labor Munich for Physics and for extraterrestrial Physics in order to meet the requirements of the vertex detector at the ILC. Since all MOS devices are susceptible to ionizing radiation, the main topic is focused on the radiation hardness of detectors, by which a series of physical processes are analyzed: e.g. surface damage due to ionizing radiation as well as damage mechanisms and their associated radiation effects. As a consequence, the main part of this thesis consists of a large number of irradiation experiments and the corresponding discussions. Finally, radiation hardness of the detectors should be improved through a set of concluded experiences that are based on a series of analysis of the characteristic parameters using different measurement techniques. The feasibility of the MOSDEPFET-based vertex detector is, therefore, predicted at ILC. (orig.)

  18. Radiation leakage monitoring method and device from primary to secondary coolant systems in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajiri, Yoshiaki; Umehara, Toshihiro; Yamada, Masataka.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention monitors radiation leaked from any one of primary cooling systems to secondary cooling systems in a plurality of steam generators. That is, radiation monitoring means each corresponding to steam each generators are disposed to the upstream of a position where main steam pipes are joined. With such a constitution, since the detection object of each of radiation monitoring means is secondary coolants before mixing with secondary coolants of other secondary loops or dilution, lowering of detection accuracy can be avoided. Except for the abnormal case, that is, a case neither of radiation leakage nor of background change, the device is adapted as a convenient measuring system only with calculation performance. Once abnormality occurs, a loop having a value exceeding a standard value is identified by a single channel analyzer function. The amount of radiation leakage from the steam generator belonging to the specified loop is monitored quantitatively by a multichannel analyzer function. According to the method of the present invention, since specific spectrum analysis is conducted upon occurrence of abnormality, presence of radiation leakage and the scale thereof can be judged rapidly. (I.S.)

  19. Possibilities of radiation sterilization for re-usage of medical devices in the medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabei, Masae; Kudo, Hisaaki; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2004-01-01

    The rule for re-usage of medical single-use devices was established in US in 2000 based on the concept of Managed Care (total management of medicare on cost, quality and patients' satisfaction) and 20-30% of those devices are re-used at present. The re-usage is conducted in not only US but also Canada, Denmark, UK, India, China etc. Standing on the viewpoint, this paper described and discussed the possibility of re-usage of the single-use devices now prohibited in Japan, possible re-sterilization, possible re-usage of hollow fiber-type hemodialyzer following γ-ray sterilization with consideration for D-values against bacteria and viruses, cost estimation of electron beam sterilization for re-usage, and radiation sterilization of waste water and plastic materials. Radiation sterilization for re-usage of medical devices was concluded possible if their materials and records for their usage processes are proper, and should be conducted in a large scale after sufficient examinations by industries/government/academia. (N.I.)

  20. Device for inspection and/or repair of tubes of a steam raising unit for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollensack, W.

    1985-01-01

    The device is situated in a chamber bounded by a pipe floor, the hemispherical floor of the steam raising unit and a wall extending between the pipe floor and this hemi-spherical floor. By using lifting gear which can be anchored in the pipe floor, a supporting leg is introduced into the chamber. Pegs of this supporting leg turned towards the pipe floor act to stop the supporting leg in the pipe floor. To make positioning of the pegs in the pipe floor easier, the lifting gear is provided with a guide turned towards the supporting leg. The guide has a spacer, which is fixed to the supporting leg and guides this along a wall of the chamber. (orig./HP) [de

  1. A comparison of ionizing radiation damage in CMOS devices from 60Co gamma rays, electrons and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Baoping; Yao Zhibin; Zhang Fengqi

    2009-01-01

    Radiation hardened CC4007RH and non-radiation hardened CC4011 devices were irradiated using 60 Co gamma rays, 1 MeV electrons and 1-9 MeV protons to compare the ionizing radiation damage of the gamma rays with the charged particles. For all devices examined, with experimental uncertainty, the radiation induced threshold voltage shifts (ΔV th ) generated by 60 Co gamma rays are equal to that of 1 MeV electron and 1-7 MeV proton radiation under 0 gate bias condition. Under 5 V gate bias condition, the distinction of threshold voltage shifts (ΔV th ) generated by 60 Co gamma rays and 1 MeV electrons irradiation are not large, and the radiation damage for protons below 9 MeV is always less than that of 60 Co gamma rays. The lower energy the proton has, the less serious the radiation damage becomes. (authors)

  2. Medical Device Recalls in Radiation Oncology: Analysis of US Food and Drug Administration Data, 2002-2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, Michael J.; Tringale, Kathryn; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marshall, Deborah C.; Moore, Kevin; Cervino, Laura; Atwood, Todd; Brown, Derek; Mundt, Arno J.; Pawlicki, Todd; Recht, Abram; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze all recalls involving radiation oncology devices (RODs) from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s recall database, comparing these with non–radiation oncology device recalls to identify discipline-specific trends that may inform improvements in device safety. Methods and Materials: Recall data on RODs from 2002 to 2015 were sorted into 4 product categories (external beam, brachytherapy, planning systems, and simulation systems). Outcomes included determined cause of recall, recall class (severity), quantity in commerce, time until recall termination (date FDA determines recall is complete), and time since 510(k) approval. Descriptive statistics were performed with linear regression of time-series data. Results for RODs were compared with those for other devices by Pearson χ"2 test for categorical data and 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for distributions. Results: There were 502 ROD recalls and 9534 other class II device recalls during 2002 to 2015. Most recalls were for external beam devices (66.7%) and planning systems (22.9%), and recall events peaked in 2011. Radiation oncology devices differed significantly from other devices in all recall outcomes (P≤.04). Recall cause was commonly software related (49% vs 10% for other devices). Recall severity was more often moderate among RODs (97.6% vs 87.2%) instead of severe (0.2% vs 4.4%; P<.001). Time from 510(k) market approval to recall was shorter among RODs (P<.001) and progressively shortened over time. Radiation oncology devices had fewer recalled devices in commerce than other devices (P<.001). Conclusions: Compared with other class II devices, RODs experience recalls sooner after market approval and are trending sooner still. Most of these recalls were moderate in severity, and software issues are prevalent. Comprehensive analysis of recall data can identify areas for device improvement, such as better system design among RODs.

  3. Medical Device Recalls in Radiation Oncology: Analysis of US Food and Drug Administration Data, 2002-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, Michael J. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, California (United States); Tringale, Kathryn; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marshall, Deborah C.; Moore, Kevin; Cervino, Laura; Atwood, Todd; Brown, Derek; Mundt, Arno J.; Pawlicki, Todd [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Recht, Abram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A., E-mail: jhattangadi@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: To analyze all recalls involving radiation oncology devices (RODs) from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s recall database, comparing these with non–radiation oncology device recalls to identify discipline-specific trends that may inform improvements in device safety. Methods and Materials: Recall data on RODs from 2002 to 2015 were sorted into 4 product categories (external beam, brachytherapy, planning systems, and simulation systems). Outcomes included determined cause of recall, recall class (severity), quantity in commerce, time until recall termination (date FDA determines recall is complete), and time since 510(k) approval. Descriptive statistics were performed with linear regression of time-series data. Results for RODs were compared with those for other devices by Pearson χ{sup 2} test for categorical data and 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for distributions. Results: There were 502 ROD recalls and 9534 other class II device recalls during 2002 to 2015. Most recalls were for external beam devices (66.7%) and planning systems (22.9%), and recall events peaked in 2011. Radiation oncology devices differed significantly from other devices in all recall outcomes (P≤.04). Recall cause was commonly software related (49% vs 10% for other devices). Recall severity was more often moderate among RODs (97.6% vs 87.2%) instead of severe (0.2% vs 4.4%; P<.001). Time from 510(k) market approval to recall was shorter among RODs (P<.001) and progressively shortened over time. Radiation oncology devices had fewer recalled devices in commerce than other devices (P<.001). Conclusions: Compared with other class II devices, RODs experience recalls sooner after market approval and are trending sooner still. Most of these recalls were moderate in severity, and software issues are prevalent. Comprehensive analysis of recall data can identify areas for device improvement, such as better system design among RODs.

  4. Inspection Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — FDA is disclosing the final inspection classification for inspections related to currently marketed FDA-regulated products. The disclosure of this information is not...

  5. [Morphological structure of rat epiphysis exposed to electromagnetic radiation from communication devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, S G; Rybalko, S Yu

    Pineal gland is one of the most important components of homeostasis - the supporting system of the body. It participates in the launch of stress responses, restriction of their development, prevention of adverse effects on the body. There was proved an impact of electromagnetic radiation on the epiphysis. However, morphological changes in the epiphysis under exposure to electromagnetic radiation of modern communication devices are studied not sufficiently. For the time present the population is daily exposed to electromagnetic radiation, including local irradiation on the brain. These date determined the task of this research - the study of the structure of rat pineal gland under the exposure to electromagnetic radiation from personal computers and mobile phones. These date determined the task of this research - the study of the structure of rat pineal gland under the exposure to electromagnetic radiation from personal computers and mobile phones. Performed transmission electron microscopy revealed signs of degeneration of dark and light pinealocytes. These signs were manifested in the development of a complex of general and specific morphological changes. There was revealed the appearance of signs of aging and depletion transmission electron microscopy both in light and dark pinealocytes. These signs were manifested in the accumulation of lipofuscin granules and electron-dense "brain sand", the disappearance of nucleoli, cytoplasm vacuolization and mitochondrial cristae enlightenment.

  6. Test results of the experimental laser device for potato tubers radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufrik, S.S.; Korzun, O.S.

    2007-01-01

    Results of 3 year investigation of the influence of the presowing low intensity laser radiation treatment of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers with the help of laser device with various spectral composition and exposition on plant growth, development and productivity and potato tubers quality and starch content in the conditions of the Republic of Belarus were presented. Presowing tubers treatment of potato cultivars Sante, Yavar and Arkhideya was realized by He-Ne, Ar-, Cu (in course of 3 and 5 minutes) and CO2 (in course of 5 seconds) lasers. Research results have shown that presowing treatment with CO2 laser promoted the higher (on 1,7-6,6%) potato germination capacity in comparison with the control variant without radiation treatment. Height of potato plants of Sante variety after radiation treatment fell behind the control ones. Haulm quantity per one plant and yield quality did not depend on radiation treatment Treatment with CO2 laser exercised the stimulatory action on productivity of Sante variety without changing the starch content in tubers. Tuber weight increased up to 0,4 kg (0,2 kg in the control variant). Similar effect for Arkhideya and Yavar varieties was obtained after Cu-laser treatment in course of 5 minutes. Radiation treatment with He-Ne laser caused the increased starch accumulation (on 0,4-0,6% in comparison with the control variant) in potato tubers of all studied varieties

  7. Improved Understanding of Space Radiation Effects on Exploration Electronics by Advanced Modeling of Nanoscale Devices and Novel Materials, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA space exploration missions will use nanometer-scale electronic technologies which call for a shift in how radiation effects in such devices and materials...

  8. Irradiation technology Pt. 2. Research devices. Glossary on radiation technology. Besugarzastechnika 2. resz. Kiserleti berendezesek, sugartechnikai kislexikon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foeldiak, G; Stenger, V

    1982-01-01

    It is a textbook and manual of a training course held at the Budapest Technical University for operators of irradiation devices. Calculation methods of radiation technology (estimation of activity variation, space dependence of dose rates, shielding, efficiency) are presented. Instructions for laboratory exercises (dose and dose rate measurements, sterilization by irradiation, handling of irradiation devices) involved in the course given. Two laboratory irradiation devices (RH-GAMMA-30, produced in the Soviet Union and the K-120-type semi-large scale device of the Isotope Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences are described in detail. Handling instructions for the two devices and radiation protection regulations are given. A brief glossary in the field of radiation technology is added.

  9. Parasitic effects in superconducting quantum interference device-based radiation comb generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosisio, R., E-mail: riccardo.bosisio@nano.cnr.it [SPIN-CNR, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); NEST, Instituto Nanoscienze-CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Giazotto, F., E-mail: giazotto@sns.it [NEST, Instituto Nanoscienze-CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Solinas, P., E-mail: paolo.solinas@spin.cnr.it [SPIN-CNR, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2015-12-07

    We study several parasitic effects on the implementation of a Josephson radiation comb generator based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) driven by an external magnetic field. This system can be used as a radiation generator similarly to what is done in optics and metrology, and allows one to generate up to several hundreds of harmonics of the driving frequency. First we take into account how the assumption of a finite loop geometrical inductance and junction capacitance in each SQUID may alter the operation of the devices. Then, we estimate the effect of imperfections in the fabrication of an array of SQUIDs, which is an unavoidable source of errors in practical situations. We show that the role of the junction capacitance is, in general, negligible, whereas the geometrical inductance has a beneficial effect on the performance of the device. The errors on the areas and junction resistance asymmetries may deteriorate the performance, but their effect can be limited to a large extent by a suitable choice of fabrication parameters.

  10. Emergency response activities and the collection of damaged radiation devices in the war areas of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subasic, D.; Schaller, A.

    1998-01-01

    Several kinds of devices containing sources of ionizing radiation had been in use in the areas of Croatia which were affected by the recent war, principally in industrial and medical applications. The greater share of these devices was constituted by 151 radioactive lightning conductors with a maximum individual activity of 19.5 GBq and some 8300 smoke detectors. In the destruction caused by the war, some of these devices were damaged, destroyed or lost. The actions undertaken to retrieve them and their sources are described, as well as the experience gained and lessons learned. The importance of a well organized national regulatory system is underscored as a precondition for the efficient identification and safe recovery of radiation sources lying amidst the ruins in the area affected by the war. The experience gained in these actions may be applicable to similar situations caused by natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, etc. and of particular interest to regulatory authorities for the drawing up of emergency preparedness plans. (author)

  11. Allegheny County Weights and Measures Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Inspections conducted by the Allegheny County Bureau of Weights and Measures. The Bureau inspects weighing and timing devices such as gas pumps, laundromat timers,...

  12. Medical Device Recalls in Radiation Oncology: Analysis of US Food and Drug Administration Data, 2002-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Michael J; Tringale, Kathryn; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marshall, Deborah C; Moore, Kevin; Cervino, Laura; Atwood, Todd; Brown, Derek; Mundt, Arno J; Pawlicki, Todd; Recht, Abram; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A

    2017-06-01

    To analyze all recalls involving radiation oncology devices (RODs) from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s recall database, comparing these with non-radiation oncology device recalls to identify discipline-specific trends that may inform improvements in device safety. Recall data on RODs from 2002 to 2015 were sorted into 4 product categories (external beam, brachytherapy, planning systems, and simulation systems). Outcomes included determined cause of recall, recall class (severity), quantity in commerce, time until recall termination (date FDA determines recall is complete), and time since 510(k) approval. Descriptive statistics were performed with linear regression of time-series data. Results for RODs were compared with those for other devices by Pearson χ 2 test for categorical data and 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for distributions. There were 502 ROD recalls and 9534 other class II device recalls during 2002 to 2015. Most recalls were for external beam devices (66.7%) and planning systems (22.9%), and recall events peaked in 2011. Radiation oncology devices differed significantly from other devices in all recall outcomes (P≤.04). Recall cause was commonly software related (49% vs 10% for other devices). Recall severity was more often moderate among RODs (97.6% vs 87.2%) instead of severe (0.2% vs 4.4%; Panalysis of recall data can identify areas for device improvement, such as better system design among RODs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality control devices for intraoperative gamma probes: physical, technical and radiation protection aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, C.; Diaz, M.; Salvador, F.J.; Hernandez, M.; Jimenez, P.

    2008-01-01

    Now a day, radio guided surgery -a novelty in Nuclear Medicine- is increasingly used. The clinical efficiency of these procedures requires the existence of well-trained professionals and implementation of quality assurance programs. It is essential for achieving the main objective, which is an effective and safe surgical procedure, a reliable performance of the detection device. Probes' parameters must remain within the acceptance limits, so they should be checked periodically. NEMA Standards Publication NU 3-2004 'Performance Measurement and Quality Control Guidelines for Non-Imaging Intraoperative Gamma Probes' recommends 13 tests; although only 3 of them -sensibility in air, visual inspection and power source check- are considered as steadiness tests. Space resolution in a scatter medium is also a test that needs to be carried out. These tests are considerably complex since open radioactive sources are used into a liquid medium in most of the procedures. The immersion of the probe and of the radioactive sources in each case represents both risks of radioactive contamination, and of damages to the equipment. On the other hand, tests in air demand a good reproducibility. Since they are recommended be carried out before any surgery procedure, they also should be easy and quick. This paper presents 3 devices with its accessories for acceptance and quality control tests of intraoperative gamma probes. They were designed and built taking into consideration important aspects of radiological protection to handle the calibration sources and probes, both in air and into a scatter medium. These devices are designed to fit any kind of probe. Regulatory bodies as part of their instrument audits can also use them. (author)

  14. Study of bremsstrahlung dose fields in radiation shield and labyrinth devices of plants with LUEH-8/5B accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikulin, A.A.; Vanyushkin, B.M.; Garnyk, D.V.; Kon'kov, N.G.; Terent'ev, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement results of exposure dose rate (EDR) of radiation in fields of bremsstrahlung of radiation plants with LUEh-8/5B linear accelerator of electrons by means of DRG2-03 dose meter, intended for operative measuring EDR in high intense fields of γ-radiation of powerful radioisotopic plants, are presented. Dose meter design is described. Measurements of bremsstrahlung EDR have been carried out in the chamber of plant irradiation for radiation sterilizing medical items, as well as in the chamber of VNIIRT experimental plant. RUP-1 device has been used for measuring radiation EDR in a labyrinth behind 1.8 m thick shoulder by concrete [ru

  15. Inspection planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.; Levstek, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) division of nuclear and radiological safety inspection has developed systematic approach to their inspections. To be efficient in their efforts regarding regular and other types of inspections, in past years, the inspection plan has been developed. It is yearly based and organized on a such systematic way, that all areas of nuclear safety important activities of the licensee are covered. The inspection plan assures appropriate preparation for conducting the inspections, allows the overview of the progress regarding the areas to be covered during the year. Depending on the licensee activities and nature of facility (nuclear power plant, research reactor, radioactive waste storage, others), the plan has different levels of intensity of inspections and also their frequency. One of the basic approaches of the plan is to cover all nuclear and radiological important activities on such way, that all regulatory requests are fulfilled. In addition, the inspection plan is a good tool to improve inspection effectiveness based on previous experience and allows to have the oversight of the current status of fulfillment of planned inspections. Future improvement of the plan is necessary in the light of newest achievements on this field in the nuclear world, that means, new types of inspections are planned and will be incorporated into plan in next year.(author)

  16. Intercomparison of radiation protection protection devices in a high-energy stray neutron field. Part III: Instrument response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Silari, M.; Agosteo, S.; Beck, P.; Bedogni, R.; Cale, E.; Caresana, M.; Domingo, C.; Donadille, L.; Dubourg, N.; Esposito, A.; Fehrenbacher, G.; Fernández, F.; Ferrarini, M.; Fiechtner, A.; Fuchs, A.; García, M. J.; Golnik, N.; Gutermuth, F.; Khurana, S.; Klages, T.; Latocha, M.; Mares, V.; Mayer, S.; Radon, T.; Reithmeier, H.; Rollet, S.; Roos, H.; Rühm, W.; Sandri, S.; Schardt, D.; Simmer, G.; Spurný, František; Trompier, F.; Villa-Grasa, C.; Weitzenegger, E.; Wiegel, B.; Wielunski, M.; Wissmann, F.; Zechner, A.; Zielczyński, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, 7-8 (2009), s. 673-691 ISSN 1350-4487 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100480902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiation protection devices * radiation field * detectors * dosemeters Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2009

  17. Determination of the permeability of α-, β- and γ-radiation in textile fabrics by Gamma-Scout device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gintibidze, N.; Mardaleishvili, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present was the measurement of radiation permeability in textile fabrics by Gamma-Scout device and the comparison of the obtained results with the radiation background of the ambient air. The authors of this article have produced new fiber Fibron-3, which, according to theoretical calculations, reduces permeability of solar radiation. With this in mind, an experiment was performed. Three samples of the knitted cloth from Fibron-3 were taken, and the permeability of solar radiation in them was determined. The measurements were performed on Gamma-Scout device. The comparative analysis of the permeability of solar radiation in fabrics of different fibrous structure was performed. It was inferred that the degree of radiation permeability in fabrics depended on the thread thickness and the fiber structure. (author)

  18. Method and device for demounting in a radiation detector a photomultiplier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persyk, D.E.; Stoub, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    A device is described for demounting in a radiation detector a photomultiplier tube which is bonded with its scintillation crystal assembly by means of an elastic light transparent adhesive, comprising: (a) a music wire of about 0.01 to 0.03 inch diameter which forms a noose between its wire ends, the noose being provided for being placed aroung the bond; and (b) twisting means connected with both wire ends for twisting them such that the noose becomes smaller thereby sharing the bond

  19. On Radiated Performance Evaluation of Massive MIMO Devices in Multi-Probe Anechoic Chamber OTA Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyösti, Pekka; Hentilä, Lassi; Fan, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Radiated testing of massive multiple-input-multipleoutput (MIMO) devices in fading radio channel conditions is expected to be essential in development of the fifth generation (5G) base stations (BS) and user equipment (UE) operating at or close to the millimetre wave (mm-wave) frequencies. In thi...... setup and find key design parameters by simulations. The results with the utilized channel models indicate that at 28 GHz up to 1616 planar arrays can be tested with range length of one meter and with at minimum eight active dual polarized probes....

  20. Structure of a radiate pseudocolony associated with an intrauterine contraceptive device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, P.K.; Lea, P.J.; Roth-Moyo, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy of a radiate pseudocolony associated with an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) showed central bundles of extracellular fibers averaging 35 nm in diameter, surrounded by layered mantles of electron-dense, amorphous granular material. No bacterial, viral, or fungal structures were present. X-ray microanalysis revealed copper, sulfur, chloride, iron, and phosphorus; no calcium was found. It is postulated that these structures and histologically identical non-IUCD-associated granules from the female genital tract, as well as similar structures from other body locations, including those reported in colloid cysts of the third ventricle, are of lipofuscin origin

  1. Modeling of radiation-induced charge trapping in MOS devices under ionizing irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petukhov, M. A., E-mail: m.a.petukhov@gmail.com; Ryazanov, A. I. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The numerical model of the radiation-induced charge trapping process in the oxide layer of a MOS device under ionizing irradiation is developed; the model includes carrier transport, hole capture by traps in different states, recombination of free electrons and trapped holes, kinetics of hydrogen ions which can be accumulated in the material during transistor manufacture, and accumulation and charging of interface states. Modeling of n-channel MOSFET behavior under 1 MeV photon irradiation is performed. The obtained dose dependences of the threshold voltage shift and its contributions from trapped holes and interface states are in good agreement with experimental data.

  2. New challenge for the radiation protection: devices for the radioactivity dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, J. C.; Robles, B.; Cancio, C.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years the terrorist attacks produced in several countries have changed the mind of the security experts. This has also included the Radiation Protection aspects. Newly considered features have required the update of emergency response and preparedness, ad well as a greater emphasis on security. Within the Radiation Protection field has been introduced the radiological and nuclear terrorism definition. almost every organism and research centre involved in Radiation Protection is nowadays working on. The possible terrorist attack scenarios have already been defined and the use of an explosive to disperse radioactive material, known as a Radiation Dispersion Devices (RDD), has been specified as the most probable one. Studies to mitigate against the chance of attack and to mitigate the consequences of any attack with a RDD are complex, due to the innovation that introduce. This leads to a need to take some immediate preventative actions and to carry out additional R and D efforts. This document presents some considerations on the possible RDD design and behaviour in order to prevent and prepare against a possible attack. (Author) 17 refs

  3. A new XUV optical end-station to characterize compact and flexible photonic devices using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, A.; Mazuritskiy, M. I.; Dabagov, S. B.; Hampai, D.; Lerer, A. M.; Izotova, E. A.; D'Elia, A.; Turchini, S.; Zema, N.; Zuccaro, F.; de Simone, M.; Javad Rezvani, S.; Coreno, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this contribution we present the new experimental end-station to characterize XUV diffractive optics, such as Micro Channel Plates (MCPs) and other polycapillary optics, presently under commission at the Elettra synchrotron radiation laboratory (Trieste, Italy). To show the opportunities offered by these new optical devices for 3rd and 4th generation radiation sources, in this work we present also some patterns collected at different energies of the primary XUV radiation transmitted by MCP optical devices working in the normal incidence geometry.

  4. A conceptual design of the set-up for solid state spectroscopy with free electron laser and insertion device radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Makhov, V N

    2001-01-01

    The set-up for complex solid state spectroscopy with the use of enhanced properties of radiation from insertion devices and free electron lasers is proposed. Very high flux and pulsed properties of radiation from insertion devices and free electron lasers offer the possibility for the use of such powerful techniques as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) for the studies of excited states of electronic excitations or defects in solids. The power density of radiation can become high enough for one more method of exited-state spectroscopy: transient optical absorption spectroscopy. The set-up is supposed to combine the EPR/ODMR spectrometer, i.e. cryostat supplied with superconducting magnet and microwave system, and the optical channels for excitation (by radiation from insertion devices or free electron laser) and detection of luminescence (i.e. primary and secondary monochromators). The set-up can be used both for 'conventional' spectroscopy of solids (reflec...

  5. Adverse Events Involving Radiation Oncology Medical Devices: Comprehensive Analysis of US Food and Drug Administration Data, 1991 to 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, Michael J.; Marshall, Deborah C.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Moore, Kevin; Cervino, Laura; Atwood, Todd; Sanghvi, Parag; Mundt, Arno J.; Pawlicki, Todd; Recht, Abram; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology relies on rapidly evolving technology and highly complex processes. The US Food and Drug Administration collects reports of adverse events related to medical devices. We sought to characterize all events involving radiation oncology devices (RODs) from the US Food and Drug Administration's postmarket surveillance Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database, comparing these with non–radiation oncology devices. Methods and Materials: MAUDE data on RODs from 1991 to 2015 were sorted into 4 product categories (external beam, brachytherapy, planning systems, and simulation systems) and 5 device problem categories (software, mechanical, electrical, user error, and dose delivery impact). Outcomes included whether the device was evaluated by the manufacturer, adverse event type, remedial action, problem code, device age, and time since 510(k) approval. Descriptive statistics were performed with linear regression of time-series data. Results for RODs were compared with those for other devices by the Pearson χ"2 test for categorical data and 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for distributions. Results: There were 4234 ROD and 4,985,698 other device adverse event reports. Adverse event reports increased over time, and events involving RODs peaked in 2011. Most ROD reports involved external beam therapy (50.8%), followed by brachytherapy (24.9%) and treatment planning systems (21.6%). The top problem types were software (30.4%), mechanical (20.9%), and user error (20.4%). RODs differed significantly from other devices in each outcome (P<.001). RODs were more likely to be evaluated by the manufacturer after an event (46.9% vs 33.0%) but less likely to be recalled (10.5% vs 37.9%) (P<.001). Device age and time since 510(k) approval were shorter among RODs (P<.001). Conclusions: Compared with other devices, RODs may experience adverse events sooner after manufacture and market approval. Close postmarket surveillance, improved

  6. Adverse Events Involving Radiation Oncology Medical Devices: Comprehensive Analysis of US Food and Drug Administration Data, 1991 to 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, Michael J. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, California (United States); Marshall, Deborah C.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Moore, Kevin; Cervino, Laura; Atwood, Todd; Sanghvi, Parag; Mundt, Arno J.; Pawlicki, Todd [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Recht, Abram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A., E-mail: jhattangadi@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology relies on rapidly evolving technology and highly complex processes. The US Food and Drug Administration collects reports of adverse events related to medical devices. We sought to characterize all events involving radiation oncology devices (RODs) from the US Food and Drug Administration's postmarket surveillance Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database, comparing these with non–radiation oncology devices. Methods and Materials: MAUDE data on RODs from 1991 to 2015 were sorted into 4 product categories (external beam, brachytherapy, planning systems, and simulation systems) and 5 device problem categories (software, mechanical, electrical, user error, and dose delivery impact). Outcomes included whether the device was evaluated by the manufacturer, adverse event type, remedial action, problem code, device age, and time since 510(k) approval. Descriptive statistics were performed with linear regression of time-series data. Results for RODs were compared with those for other devices by the Pearson χ{sup 2} test for categorical data and 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for distributions. Results: There were 4234 ROD and 4,985,698 other device adverse event reports. Adverse event reports increased over time, and events involving RODs peaked in 2011. Most ROD reports involved external beam therapy (50.8%), followed by brachytherapy (24.9%) and treatment planning systems (21.6%). The top problem types were software (30.4%), mechanical (20.9%), and user error (20.4%). RODs differed significantly from other devices in each outcome (P<.001). RODs were more likely to be evaluated by the manufacturer after an event (46.9% vs 33.0%) but less likely to be recalled (10.5% vs 37.9%) (P<.001). Device age and time since 510(k) approval were shorter among RODs (P<.001). Conclusions: Compared with other devices, RODs may experience adverse events sooner after manufacture and market approval. Close postmarket surveillance

  7. SU-E-J-48: Development of An Abdominal Compression Device for Respiratory Correlated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T; Kang, S; Kim, D; Suh, T; Kim, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop the abdominal compression device which could control pressure level according to the abdominal respiratory motion and evaluate its feasibility. Methods: In this study, we focused on developing the abdominal compression device which could control pressure level at any point of time so the developed device is possible to use a variety of purpose (gating technique or respiratory training system) while maintaining the merit of the existing commercial device. The compression device (air pad form) was designed to be able to compress the front and side of abdomen and the pressure level of the abdomen is controlled by air flow. Pressure level of abdomen (air flow) was determined using correlation data between external abdominal motion and respiratory volume signal measured by spirometer. In order to verify the feasibility of the device, it was necessary to confirm the correlation between the abdominal respiratory motion and respiratory volume signal and cooperation with respiratory training system also checked. Results: In the previous study, we could find that the correlation coefficient ratio between diaphragm and respiratory volume signal measured by spirometer was 0.95. In this study, we confirmed the correlation between the respiratory volume signal and the external abdominal motion measured by belt-transducer (correlation coefficient ratio was 0.92) and used the correlated respiratory volume data as an abdominal pressure level. It was possible to control the pressure level with negligible time delay and respiratory volume data based guiding waveforms could be properly inserted into the respiratory training system. Conclusion: Through this feasibility study, we confirmed the correlation between the respiratory volume signal and the external abdominal motion. Also initial assessment of the device and its compatibility with the respiratory training system were verified. Further study on application in respiratory gated

  8. Inspection vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaki; Omote, Tatsuyuki; Yoneya, Yutaka; Tanaka, Keiji; Waki, Tetsuro; Yoshida, Tomiji; Kido, Tsuyoshi.

    1993-01-01

    An inspection vehicle comprises a small-sized battery directly connected with a power motor or a direct power source from trolly lines and a switching circuit operated by external signals. The switch judges advance or retreat by two kinds of signals and the inspection vehicle is recovered by self-running. In order to recover the abnormally stopped inspection vehicle to the targeted place, the inspection vehicle is made in a free-running state by using a clutch mechanism and is pushed by an other vehicle. (T.M.)

  9. Study of radiation-induced leakage current between adjacent devices in a CMOS integrated circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Lili; Guo Hongxia; Chen Wei; Fan Ruyu

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced inter-device leakage is studied using an analytical model and TCAD simulation.There were some different opinions in understanding the process of defect build-up in trench oxide and parasitic leakage path turning on from earlier studies.To reanalyze this problem and make it beyond argument,every possible variable is considered using theoretical analysis,not just the change of electric field or oxide thickness independently.Among all possible inter-device leakage paths,parasitic structures with N-well as both drain and source are comparatively more sensitive to the total dose effect when a voltage discrepancy exists between the drain and source region.Since N-well regions are commonly connected to the same power supply,these kinds of structures will not be a problem in a real CMOS integrated circuit.Generally speaking,conduction paths of inter-device leakage existing in a real integrated circuit and under real electrical circumstances are not very sensitive to the total ionizing dose effect.

  10. Automatic analysis of image quality control for Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) devices in external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torfeh, Tarraf

    2009-01-01

    On-board imagers mounted on a radiotherapy treatment machine are very effective devices that improve the geometric accuracy of radiation delivery. However, a precise and regular quality control program is required in order to achieve this objective. Our purpose consisted of developing software tools dedicated to an automatic image quality control of IGRT devices used in external radiotherapy: 2D-MV mode for measuring patient position during the treatment using high energy images, 2D-kV mode (low energy images) and 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) MV or kV mode, used for patient positioning before treatment. Automated analysis of the Winston and Lutz test was also proposed. This test is used for the evaluation of the mechanical aspects of treatment machines on which additional constraints are carried out due to the on-board imagers additional weights. Finally, a technique of generating digital phantoms in order to assess the performance of the proposed software tools is described. Software tools dedicated to an automatic quality control of IGRT devices allow reducing by a factor of 100 the time spent by the medical physics team to analyze the results of controls while improving their accuracy by using objective and reproducible analysis and offering traceability through generating automatic monitoring reports and statistical studies. (author) [fr

  11. Design and implementation of a device for measuring radiation energy of an electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salhi, Heythem; Selmi, Samir

    2010-01-01

    Our work is part of a graduation project at the School of Technology and Computing, to obtain a master's degree in electrical engineering specialty industrial computer. Throughout the four-month internship at the National Center for Nuclear Science and Technology (CNSTN), we have learned to practice the knowledge acquired during the formative years and to manage our working time. Our job was to design and implementation of a device for measuring the energy of radiation. Our project meets the needs of users in the radio treatment Unit, which amount to automate measurement of radiation energy from the electron accelerator. This project has been beneficial on several levels: it was an opportunity to achieve better control of printed circuits, especially when they are dual layer and learning a new programming language that is actually BASIC. In human terms, this work has given us the opportunity to learn to manage our time, and learn teamwork. However, we are convinced that this project can be enhanced on various levels. It can be considered as a starting point of a contribution to the real-time measurement of the energy of radiation.

  12. Development of a daily dosimetric control for radiation therapy using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboori, Mohammadsaeed

    2015-01-01

    Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs) can be used to perform dose measurements during radiation therapy treatments if dedicated calibration and correction procedures are applied. The purpose of this study was to provide a new calibration and correction model for an amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPID for use in transit dose verification of step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A model was created in a commercial treatment planning system to calculate the nominal two-dimensional (2D) dose map of each radiation field at the EPID level. The EPID system was calibrated and correction factors were determined using a reference set-up, which consisted a patient phantom and an EPID phantom. The advantage of this method is that for the calibration, the actual beam spectrum is used to mimic a patient measurement. As proof-of-principle, the method was tested for the verification of two 7-field IMRT treatment plans with tumor sites in the head-and-neck and pelvic region. Predicted and measured EPID responses were successfully compared to the nominal data from treatment planning using dose difference maps and gamma analyses. Based on our result it can be concluded that this new method of 2D EPID dosimetry is a potential tool for simple patient treatment fraction dose verification.

  13. A wall-crawling robot for reactor vessel inspection in advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spelt, P.F.; Crane, C.; Feng, L.; Abidi, M.; Tosunoglu, S.

    1994-01-01

    A consortium of four universities and the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has designed a prototype wall-crawling robot to perform weld inspection in advanced nuclear reactors. Design efforts for the reactor vessel inspection robot (RVIR) concentrated on the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor because it presents the most demanding environment in which such a robot must operate. The RVIR consists of a chassis containing two sets of suction cups that can alternately grasp the side of the vessel being inspected, providing both locomotion and steering functions. Sensors include three CCD cameras and a weld inspection device based on new shear-wave technology. The restrictions of the inspection environment presented major challenges to the team. These challenges were met in the prototype, which has been tested in a non-radiation, room-temperature mockup of the robot work environment and shown to perform as expected. (author)

  14. A wall-crawling robot for reactor vessel inspection in advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spelt, P.F.; Crane, C.; Feng, L.; Abidi, M.; Tosunoglu, S.

    1994-01-01

    A consortium of four universities and the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has designed a prototype wall-crawling robot to perform weld inspection in advanced nuclear reactors. Design efforts for the reactor vessel inspection robot (RVIR) concentrated on the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor because it presents the most demanding environment in which such a robot must operate. The RVIR consists of a chassis containing two sets of suction cups that can alternately grasp the side of the vessel being inspected, providing both locomotion and steering functions. Sensors include three CCD cameras and a weld inspection device based on new shear-wave technology. The restrictions of the inspection environment presented major challenges to the team. These challenges were met in the prototype, which has been tested in a non-radiation, room-temperature mockup of the robot work environment and shown to perform as expected

  15. Ultraviolet spectral distribution and erythema-weighted irradiance from indoor tanning devices compared with solar radiation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Yolanda; Baeza, David; Gómez, Miguel; Lorente, Jerónimo

    2016-08-01

    Concern regarding the impact of indoor tanning devices on human health has led to different regulations and recommendations, which set limits on erythema-weighted irradiance. Here, we analyze spectral emissions from 52 tanning devices in Spanish facilities and compare them with surface solar irradiance for different solar zenith angles. Whereas most of the devices emitted less UV-B radiation than the midday summer sun, the unweighted UV-A irradiance was 2-6 times higher than solar radiation. Moreover, the spectral distributions of indoor devices were completely different from that of solar radiation, differing in one order of magnitude at some UV-A wavelengths, depending on the lamp characteristics. In 21% of the devices tested, the erythema-weighted irradiance exceeded 0.3Wm(-2): the limit fixed by the European standard and the Spanish regulation. Moreover, 29% of the devices fall within the UV type 4 classification, for which medical advice is required. The high variability in erythema-weighted irradiance results in a wide range of exposure times to reach 1 standard erythemal dose (SED: 100Jm(-2)), with 62% of devices requiring exposures of UV-A dose during this time period would be from 1.4 to 10.3 times more than the solar UV-A dose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Space Radiation Environment Prediction for VLSI microelectronics devices onboard a LEO Satellite using OMERE-Trad Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad

    This tutorial/survey paper presents the assessment/determination of level of hazard/threat to emerging microelectronics devices in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space radiation environment with perigee at 300 Km, apogee at 600Km altitude having different orbital inclinations to predict the reliability of onboard Bulk Built-In Current Sensor (BBICS) fabricated in 350nm technology node at OptMA Lab. UFMG Brazil. In this context, the various parameters for space radiation environment have been analyzed to characterize the ionizing radiation environment effects on proposed BBICS. The Space radiation environment has been modeled in the form of particles trapped in Van-Allen radiation belts(RBs), Energetic Solar Particles Events (ESPE) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) where as its potential effects on Device- Under-Test (DUT) has been predicted in terms of Total Ionizing Dose (TID), Single-Event Effects (SEE) and Displacement Damage Dose (DDD). Finally, the required mitigation techniques including necessary shielding requirements to avoid undesirable effects of radiation environment at device level has been estimated /determined with assumed standard thickness of Aluminum shielding. In order to evaluate space radiation environment and analyze energetic particles effects on BBICS, OMERE toolkit developed by TRAD was utilized.

  17. Experience on inspection at PFPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, I.; Yamamoto, Y.; Takahashi, Saburo; Ooshima, Hirofumi; Kuniyasu, Kazufusa.

    1993-01-01

    In order to reduce a personal radiation exposure, Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) introduced an automated MOX fabrication technology. Safeguards system for the PFPF was designed and installed so as to be compatible with automated process operation as much as possible. Introduction of these system in PFPF made possible to do the inspection measurements with unattended mode and Near Real Time Material Accountancy (NRTA), consequently inspection has been carrying out effectively and efficiently. This paper describes the new Inspection activities as a comparison with old Inspection activities based on our experience. (author)

  18. Ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satittada, Gannaga

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection is one of the most widely used methods for nondestructive inspection. The beam of high-frequency sound wave, ultrasonic wave, is introduced into the material. It travels through the material with some attendant loss of energy and can be reflected at interfaces. The reflected beam is detected and analyzed. Ultrasonic inspection is used to detect flaws in metal parts as well as in welded, brazed and bonded joints during research work and developing production and service. It is also used to detect and locate porosity, pipe, and flakes. In addition, it can be used for the measurement of metal thickness. Ultrasonic inspection is therefore used for quality control and material inspection in all major industries

  19. Short and long term ionizing radiation effects on charge-coupled devices in radiation environment of high-intensity heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belousov, A; Mustafin, E; Ensinger, W

    2012-01-01

    Radiation effects on semiconductor devices is a topical issue for high-intensity accelerator projects. In particular it concerns Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) cameras, which are widely used for beam profile monitoring and surveillance in high radiation environment. One should have a clear idea of short and long term radiation effects on such devices. To study these effects, a CCD camera was placed in positions less than half meter away from beam loss point. Primary heavy ion beam of 0.95GeV/n Uranium was dumped into a thick aluminium target creating high fluences of secondary particles (e.g., gammas, neutrons, protons). Effects of these particles on CCD camera were scored with LabView based acquisition software. Monte Carlo calculations with FLUKA code were performed to obtain fluence distributions for different particles and make relevant comparisons. Long term total ionising dose effects are represented by dark current increase, which was scored throughout experiment. Instant radiation effects are represented by creation of charge in CCD cells by ionising particles. Relation of this charge to beam intensity was obtained for different camera positions and fluences within 5 orders of magnitude ranges. With high intensities this charge is so high that it may dramatically influence data obtained from CCD camera used in high radiation environment. The linearity of described above relation confirms linear response of CCD to ionizing radiation. It gives an opportunity to find a new application to CCD cameras as beam loss monitors (BLM).

  20. Procedure for the determination of gap and base ground surface configurations beneath the bottom plate of storage tanks using neutron gauging inspection techniques : including radiation safety procedure and emergency procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar Abdullah

    1993-01-01

    The procedure is intended for the neutron gauging inspection of gap between the bottom plate and the foundation of bulk storage tanks, which potentially exhibit uneven sinking of the bottom plate and the foundation. Its describes the requirements for the performance of neutron back scattered inspection techniques (or radiometric non-destructive evaluation techniques), using an isotopic neutron source associated with neutron detecting systems, to detect and size the gap between the bottom plate and the foundations as well as to quantify the presence of hydrogenous materials (e.g. oil or water) underneath the bottom plate. This procedure is not only outline the requirements for the neutron gauging inspection, but also describes the requirements which shall be taken into account in formulating the radiation safety and emergency procedures for the neutron gauging inspection works

  1. Temperature and carrier-density dependence of Auger and radiative recombination in nitride optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Yan, Qimin; Steiauf, Daniel; Van de Walle, Chris G

    2013-01-01

    Nitride light-emitting diodes are a promising solution for efficient solid-state lighting, but their performance at high power is affected by the efficiency-droop problem. Previous experimental and theoretical work has identified Auger recombination, a three-particle nonradiative carrier recombination mechanism, as the likely cause of the droop. In this work, we use first-principles calculations to elucidate the dependence of the radiative and Auger recombination rates on temperature, carrier density and quantum-well confinement. Our calculated data for the temperature dependence of the recombination coefficients are in good agreement with experiment and provide further validation on the role of Auger recombination in the efficiency reduction. Polarization fields and phase-space filling negatively impact device efficiency because they increase the operating carrier density at a given current density and increase the fraction of carriers lost to Auger recombination. (paper)

  2. U-turn type continuous irradiation method and device for radiation-irradiated capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Takayuki.

    1997-01-01

    A capsule to be irradiated is moved while being rotated in one of conveying shafts disposed in a reactor to conduct irradiation treatment. Then, the irradiated capsule is made U-turn in the reactor, inserted to the other conveying shaft and moved while being rotated to conduct irradiation treatment again, and then transported out of the reactor. The device comprises a rotational conveying shaft for moving the irradiated capsule while rotating it, a conveying gear for U-turning the irradiated capsule in the reactor and inserting it to the conveying shaft and a driving mechanism for synchronously rotating the conveying gear relative to the conveying shaft at a constant ratio. Mechanical time loss and manual operation time loss can be reduced upon loading and taking up of the irradiated capsule. Then, the amount of irradiation treatment per unit time is increased, and an optional neutron irradiation amount can be obtained thereby enabling to reduce operator's radiation exposure. (N.H.)

  3. The moisture content monitoring device for PuO2 using self neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanenko, Valeriy I.; Sviridov, Victor; Frolov, Vladimir V.; Ryazanov, Boris G.; Talanov, Vladimir V.

    2003-01-01

    Solutions technology of plutonium dioxide powders production inevitably leads to free or chemically bound hydrogen to be present in these powders. This work is devoted to the nondestructive method of PuO 2 powder moisture measurement based on application of the effect of neutron moderation caused by water. Plutonium dioxide is fast neutron source, while 3 He counters located in the nickel and polyethylene annular reflectors surrounding PuO 2 serve as detectors. In the work wide range of issues are considered related to practical implementation of the moisture measurement method by detecting inherent neutron radiation of plutonium dioxide powder. The most practical design of the detector has been chosen, which include two 3 He detectors having different reflectors mounted to the device. The absolute error of measurement does not exceed 0.2wt% with confidence coefficient of 0.95. Duration of analysis ∼5 minutes. (author)

  4. Overview of a benefit/risk ratio optimized for a radiation emitting device used in non-destructive testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maharaj, H.P., E-mail: H_P_Maharaj@hc-sc.gc.ca [Health Canada, Dept. of Health, Consumer and Clinical Radiaton Protection Bureau, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    This paper aims to provide an overview of an optimized benefit/risk ratio for a radiation emitting device. The device, which is portable, hand-held, and open-beam x-ray tube based, is utilized by a wide variety of industries for purposes of determining elemental or chemical analyses of materials in-situ based on fluorescent x-rays. These analyses do not cause damage or permanent alteration of the test materials and are considered a non-destructive test (NDT). Briefly, the key characteristics, principles of use and radiation hazards associated with the Hay device are presented and discussed. In view of the potential radiation risks, a long term strategy that incorporates risk factors and guiding principles intended to mitigate the radiation risks to the end user was considered and applied. Consequently, an operator certification program was developed on the basis of an International Standards Organization (ISO) standard (ISO 20807:2004) and in collaboration with various stake holders and was implemented by a federal national NDT certification body several years ago. It comprises a written radiation safety examination and hands-on training with the x-ray device. The operator certification program was recently revised and the changes appear beneficial. There is a fivefold increase in operator certification (Levels 1 a nd 2) to date compared with earlier years. Results are favorable and promising. An operational guidance document is available to help mitigate radiation risks. Operator certification in conjunction with the use of the operational guidance document is prudent, and is recommended for end users of the x-ray device. Manufacturers and owners of the x-ray devices will also benefit from the operational guidance document. (author)

  5. Overview of a benefit/risk ratio optimized for a radiation emitting device used in non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharaj, H.P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of an optimized benefit/risk ratio for a radiation emitting device. The device, which is portable, hand-held, and open-beam x-ray tube based, is utilized by a wide variety of industries for purposes of determining elemental or chemical analyses of materials in-situ based on fluorescent x-rays. These analyses do not cause damage or permanent alteration of the test materials and are considered a non-destructive test (NDT). Briefly, the key characteristics, principles of use and radiation hazards associated with the Hay device are presented and discussed. In view of the potential radiation risks, a long term strategy that incorporates risk factors and guiding principles intended to mitigate the radiation risks to the end user was considered and applied. Consequently, an operator certification program was developed on the basis of an International Standards Organization (ISO) standard (ISO 20807:2004) and in collaboration with various stake holders and was implemented by a federal national NDT certification body several years ago. It comprises a written radiation safety examination and hands-on training with the x-ray device. The operator certification program was recently revised and the changes appear beneficial. There is a fivefold increase in operator certification (Levels 1 a nd 2) to date compared with earlier years. Results are favorable and promising. An operational guidance document is available to help mitigate radiation risks. Operator certification in conjunction with the use of the operational guidance document is prudent, and is recommended for end users of the x-ray device. Manufacturers and owners of the x-ray devices will also benefit from the operational guidance document. (author)

  6. Effect of radiofrequency radiation from Wi-Fi devices on mercury release from amalgam restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknahad, Maryam; Mortazavi, S M J; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Mortazavi, Ghazal; Haghani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Dental amalgam is composed of approximately 50% elemental mercury. Despite concerns over the toxicity of mercury, amalgam is still the most widely used restorative material. Wi-Fi is a rapidly using local area wireless computer networking technology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluates the effect of exposure to Wi-Fi signals on mercury release from amalgam restorations. Standard class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 20 non-carious extracted human premolars. The teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 10). The control group was stored in non-environment. The specimens in the experimental groups were exposed to a radiofrequency radiation emitted from standard Wi Fi devices at 2.4 GHz for 20 min. The distance between the Wi-Fi router and samples was 30 cm and the router was exchanging data with a laptop computer that was placed 20 m away from the router. The concentration of mercury in the artificial saliva in the groups was evaluated by using a cold-vapor atomic absorption Mercury Analyzer System. The independent t test was used to evaluate any significant differences in mercury release between the two groups. The mean (±SD) concentration of mercury in the artificial saliva of the Wi-Fi exposed teeth samples was 0.056 ± .025 mg/L, while it was only 0.026 ± .008 mg/L in the non-exposed control samples. This difference was statistically significant (P =0.009). Exposure of patients with amalgam restorations to radiofrequency radiation emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices can increase mercury release from amalgam restorations.

  7. Use of mobile device technology to continuously collect patient-reported symptoms during radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: A prospective feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D. Falchook, MD

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: A substantial percentage of patients used mobile devices to continuously report symptoms throughout a course of radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Future studies should evaluate the impact of mobile device symptom reporting on improving patient outcomes.

  8. Radiation-induced interface state generation in MOS devices with reoxidised nitrided SiO2 gate dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, G.Q.; Shih, D.K.; Ting, W.; Kwong, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    In this letter, the radiation-induced interface state generation ΔD it in MOS devices with reoxidised nitrided gate oxides has been studied. The reoxidised nitrided oxides were fabricated by rapid thermal reoxidation (RTO) of rapidly thermal nitrided (RTN) SiO 2 . The devices were irradiated by exposure to X-rays at doses of 0.5-5.0 Mrad (Si). It is found that the RTO process improves the radiation hardness of RTN oxides in terms of interface state generation. The enhanced interface ''hardness'' of reoxidised nitrided oxides is attributed to the strainless interfacial oxide regrowth or reduction of hydrogen concentration during RTO of RTN oxides. (author)

  9. Evaluation of image quality for various electronic portal imaging devices in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Soon Yong; Choi, Kwan Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of College of Health Science, Radiologic Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2015-12-15

    In megavoltage (MV) radiotherapy, delivering the dose to the target volume is important while protecting the surrounding normal tissue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS), and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) using an edge block in megavoltage X-ray imaging (MVI). We used an edge block, which consists of tungsten with dimensions of 19 (thickness) × 10 (length) × 1 (width) cm3 and measured the pre-sampling MTF at 6 MV energy. Various radiation therapy (RT) devices such as TrueBeamTM (Varian), BEAMVIEWPLUS (Siemens), iViewGT (Elekta) and Clinac®iX (Varian) were used. As for MTF results, TrueBeamTM(Varian) flattening filter free(FFF) showed the highest values of 0.46 mm-1and1.40mm-1for MTF 0.5 and 0.1. In NPS, iViewGT (Elekta) showed the lowest noise distribution. In DQE, iViewGT (Elekta) showed the best efficiency at a peak DQE and 1 mm-1DQE of 0.0026 and 0.00014, respectively. This study could be used not only for traditional QA imaging but also for quantitative MTF, NPS, and DQE measurement for development of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID)

  10. Designing a Polymerase Chain Reaction Device Working with Radiation and Convection Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadelahi, M.; Kalan, K.; Shamloo, A.

    2018-05-01

    Gene proliferation is vital for infectious and genetic diseases diagnosis from a blood sample, even before birth. In addition, DNA sequencing, genetic finger-print analyzing, and genetic mutation detecting can be mentioned as other procedures requiring gene reproduction. Polymerase chain reaction, briefly known as PCR, is a convenient and effective way to accomplish this task; where the DNA containing sample faces three temperature phases alternatively. These phases are known as denaturation, annealing, and elongation/extension which in this study -regarding the type of the primers and the target DNA sequence- are set to occur at 95, 58, and 72 degrees of Celsius. In this study, a PCR device has been designed and fabricated which uses radiation and convection heat transfer at the same time to set and control the mentioned thermal sections. A 300W incandescent light bulb able to immediately turn off and on along with two 8×8 cm DC fans, controlled by a microcontroller as well as PID and PD controller codes are used to monitor the applied thermal cycles. In designing the controller codes it has been concerned that they not only control the temperature over the set-points as well as possible, but also increase the temperature variation rate between each two phases. The temperature data were plotted and DNA samples were used to assess the device function.

  11. Radiation effects modeling and experimental data on I2L devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.M.; Repper, C.J.; Ragonese, L.J.; Yang, N.T.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reports on an Integrated Injection Logic (I 2 L) radiation effects model which includes radiation effects phenomena. Twenty-five individual current components were identified for an I 2 L logic gate by assuming wholly vertical or wholly horizontal current flow. Equations were developed for each component in terms of basic parameters such as doping profiles, distances, and diffusion lengths, and set up on a computer for specific logic cell configurations. For neutron damage, the model shows excellent agreement with experimental data. Reactor test results on GE I 2 L samples showed a neutron hardness level in the range of 6 x 10 12 to 3 x 10 13 n/cm 2 (1 MeV Eq), and cobalt-60 tests showed a total dose hardness of 6 x 10 4 to greater than 1 x 10 6 Rads(Si) (all device types at an injection current of 50 microamps per gate). It was found that significant hardness improvements could be achieved by: (a) diffusion profile variation, (b) utilizing a tight N + collar around the cell, and (c) locating the collector close to the injector. Flash X-ray tests showed a transient logic upset threshold of 1 x 10 9 Rads(Si)/sec for a 28 ns pulse, and a survival level greater than 2 x 10 12 Rads(Si)/sec

  12. The signature-based radiation-scanning approach to standoff detection of improvised explosive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, R.L.; Dunn, W.L.; Heider, S.; Matthew, C.; Yang, X.

    2012-01-01

    The signature-based radiation-scanning technique for detection of improvised explosive devices is described. The technique seeks to detect nitrogen-rich chemical explosives present in a target. The technology compares a set of “signatures” obtained from a test target to a collection of “templates”, sets of signatures for a target that contain an explosive in a specific configuration. Interrogation of nitrogen-rich fertilizer samples, which serve as surrogates for explosives, is shown experimentally to be able to discriminate samples of 3.8 L and larger. - Highlights: ► Signature-based radiation-scanning techniques applied to detection of explosives. ► Nitrogen-rich fertilizer samples served as surrogate explosive samples. ► Signatures of a target compared to collections of templates of surrogate explosives. ► Figure-of-merit determined for neutron and neutron-induced gamma-ray signatures. ► Discrimination of surrogate explosive from inert samples of 3.8 L and larger.

  13. Effects of device scaling and geometry on MOS radiation hardness assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Schwank, J.R.; Meisenheimer, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    In this work the authors investigate the effects of transistor scaling and geometry on radiation hardness. The total dose response is shown to depend strongly on transistor channel length. Specifically, transistors with shorter gate lengths tend to show more negative threshold-voltage shifts during irradiation than transistors with longer gate lengths. Similarly, transistors with longer gate lengths tend to show more positive threshold-voltage shifts during post-irradiation annealing than transistors with shorter gate lengths. These differences in radiation response, caused by differences in transistor size and geometry, will be important to factor into test-structure-to-IC correlations necessary to support cost-effective Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) hardness assurance. Transistors with minimum gate length (more negative ΔV th ) will have a larger effect on standby power supply current for an IC at high dose rates, such as in a weapon environment, where worst-case response is associated with negative threshold-voltage shifts during irradiation. On the other hand, transistors with maximum gate length (more positive ΔV th ) will have a larger effect on the timing parameters of an IC at low dose rates, such as in a space environment, where worst-case response is represented by positive threshold-voltage shifts after postirradiation anneal. The channel size and geometry effects they observe cannot be predicted from simple scaling models, but occur because of real differences in oxide-, interface-, and border-trap charge densities among devices of different sizes

  14. Radiation Hardness tests with neutron flux on different Silicon photomultiplier devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, P. W.; Cervi, T.; Menegolli, A.; Oddone, M.; Prata, M.; Prata, M. C.; Rossella, M.

    2017-07-01

    Radiation hardness is an important requirement for solid state readout devices operating in high radiation environments common in particle physics experiments. The MEG II experiment, at PSI, Switzerland, investigates the forbidden decay μ+ → e+ γ. Exploiting the most intense muon beam of the world. A significant flux of non-thermal neutrons (kinetic energy Ek>= 0.5 MeV) is present in the experimental hall produced along the beam-line and in the hall itself. We present the effects of neutron fluxes comparable to the MEG II expected doses on several Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPMs). The tested models are: AdvanSiD ASD-NUV3S-P50 (used in MEG II experiment), AdvanSiD ASD-NUV3S-P40, AdvanSiD ASD-RGB3S-P40, Hamamatsu and Excelitas C30742-33-050-X. The neutron source is the thermal Sub-critical Multiplication complex (SM1) moderated with water, located at the University of Pavia (Italy). We report the change of SiPMs most important electric parameters: dark current, dark pulse frequency, gain, direct bias resistance, as a function of the integrated neutron fluency.

  15. A NOVEL SUPPORT DEVICE FOR HEAD IMMOBILIZATION DURING RADIATION THERAPY THAT IS APPLICABLE TO BOTH CATS AND DOGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Yuki; Maruo, Takuya; Fukuyama, Yasuhiro; Kawarai, Shinpei; Shida, Takuo; Nakayama, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Repeatable head immobilization is important for minimizing positioning error during radiation therapy for veterinary patients with head neoplasms. The purpose of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to describe a novel technique for head immobilization (Device II) and compare this technique with a previously described technique (Device I). Device II provided additional support by incorporating three teeth (vs. two teeth with Device I). Between 2011 and 2013, both devices were applied in clinically affected cats (Device I, n = 17; Device II, n = 11) and dogs (Device I, n = 85; Device II, n = 22) of various breeds and sizes. The following data were recorded for each included patient: variability in the angle of the skull (roll, yaw, and pitch), coordinates of the isocenter, and distance from the reference mark to the tumor. Devices I and II differed for skull angle variability during the treatment of dogs (roll, P = 0.0007; yaw, P = 0.0018; pitch, P = 0.0384) and for yaw of during the treatment of cats (P patients. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  16. Manifestation of plasmonic response in the detection of sub-terahertz radiation by graphene-based devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayduchenko, I. A.; Fedorov, G. E.; Moskotin, M. V.; Yagodkin, D. I.; Seliverstov, S. V.; Goltsman, G. N.; Kuntsevich, A. Yu; Rybin, M. G.; Obraztsova, E. D.; Leiman, V. G.; Shur, M. S.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, V. I.

    2018-06-01

    We report on the sub-terahertz (THz) (129–450 GHz) photoresponse of devices based on single layer graphene and graphene nanoribbons with asymmetric source and drain (vanadium and gold) contacts. Vanadium forms a barrier at the graphene interface, while gold forms an Ohmic contact. We find that at low temperatures (77 K) the detector responsivity rises with the increasing frequency of the incident sub-THz radiation. We interpret this result as a manifestation of a plasmonic effect in the devices with the relatively long plasmonic wavelengths. Graphene nanoribbon devices display a similar pattern, albeit with a lower responsivity.

  17. Hospital Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Welcome to hospitalinspections.org, a website run by the Association of Health Care Journalists (AHCJ) that aims to make federal hospital inspection reports easier...

  18. An assessment of the effects of radiation on permanent magnet material in the ALS [Advanced Light Source] insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.V.; Jenkins, T.M.; Namito, Y.; Nelson, W.R.; Swanson, W.P.

    1989-08-01

    Electrons that are lost from the beam during normal operation of a synchrotron radiation source and during a beam dump at the end of a run produce both ionizing radiation and neutrons. This radiation has the potential for damaging sensitive materials, in particular those that need to be very close to the beam. The wigglers and undulators for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBL will use magnetic materials such as the very high performance neodymium-iron-boron, which will be as close as 1 cm away from the electron beam during operation. This material, which is preferred because of its high remanence, is known to be more sensitive to radiation than some other magnetic materials. Simple energy loss estimates and the EGS4 code were used to estimate the radiation levels in the ALS insertion devices in the regions of the magnetic materials. The radiation levels were estimated for both aluminum and stainless steel vacuum chambers to determine if one would provide significantly better shielding. We conclude that Nd-Fe-B can be used in the ALS insertion devices and that there is little difference in the radiation levels for aluminum and stainless vacuum vessels. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  19. The 16 MeV - microtron at the Institute for Physics and Technology of Radiation Devices and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catana, D.; Panaitescu, I.; Axinescu, S.; Minea, R.

    1992-01-01

    The 17-orbit microtron at the Institute for Physics and Technology of Radiation Devices, Bucharest is described. The energy of electrons is 11 MeV in the first accelerating mode and 16 MeV in the second accelerating mode with a pulse beam power of about 400 Kw and a duty ratio of 10 -3 . (Author)

  20. Method and means of reducing erosion of components of plasma devices exposed to helium and hydrogen isotope radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, M.S.; Das, S.K.; Rossing, T.D.

    1977-01-01

    Surfaces of components of plasma devices exposed to radiation by atoms or ions of helium or isotopes of hydrogen can be protected from damage due to blistering by shielding the surfaces with a structure formed by sintering a powder of aluminum or beryllium and its oxide or by coating the surfaces with such a sintered metal powder. 7 claims

  1. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) Compliance Program Guidance Manual (FY 88). Section 4. Medical and radiological devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The FDA Compliance Program Guidance Manual provides a system for issuing and filing program plans and instructions directed to Food and Drug Administration Field operations for project implementation. Section IV provides those chapters of the Compliance Program Guidance Manual which pertain to the areas of medical and radiological devices. Some of the areas of coverage include laser and sunlamp standards inspections, compliance testing of various radiation-emitting products such as television receivers and microwave ovens, emergency response planning and policy, premarket approval and device manufacturers inspections, device problem reporting, sterilization of devices, and consumer education programs on medical and radiological devices

  2. Radiation engineered multi-functional nanogels as nanoscale building blocks of useful biomedical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, C.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Nanogels, or small particles formed by physically or chemically crosslinked polymer networks, represent a niche in the development of 'smart' nanoparticles for drug delivery and diagnostics. They offer unique advantages over other systems, including a large and flexible surface for multivalent bio-conjugation; an internal 3D aqueous environment for incorporation and protection of (bio)molecular drugs; the possibility to entrap active metal or mineral cores for imaging or phototherapeutic purposes; stimuli-responsiveness to achieve temporal and/or site control of the release function and biocompatibility. Moreover, conformability and flexibility make these nanoparticles able to penetrate through small pores and channels through shape modification. Major synthetic strategies for the preparation of nanogels belong to either micro-fabrication methodologies (photolithography, microfluidic, micromoulding) or to self-assembly approaches that exploit ionic, hydrophobic or covalent interactions. When dimensional control has been achieved through the recourse to 'soft templates', such as the internal aqueous phase droplets of inverse microemulsions, the use of surfactants, initiators and catalysts often require complex purification procedures. On the other hand, micro-fabrication methods, such as nanomoulding, are limited by the need of costly equipments. The availability of inexpensive and robust preparation methodologies is at the basis of the development of effective nanogel-based theragnostic devices. High energy radiation processing already demonstrated its potential for the production of nanogels in the late 90's, owing to the pioneeristic work of Rosiak and collaborators, but since no adequate efforts have been spent in developing a viable and robust technology to produce multi-functional nanogels for the benefit of several different nanotechnology application fields, such as sensing, medicine and multiple others. The design rules

  3. Evaluation of manufactured device for radiation therapy in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Jun; Jin, Sun Sik; Kim, Dong Wook; Chung, Weon Kuu; Kim, Kyoung Tae

    2014-01-01

    We compared the set-up accuracy and right-left shoulder position variation of the manufactured device and other commercial shoulder-retractors in the head and neck radiation treatment. Six patients consist of three groups which were used three different Shoulder retractors. We measured position corrections of left and right Shoulder and the couch after the image guidance by using on board imager (OBI) for six head and neck patients who has the extended target to the neck node lower region. The position variation correction of left (right) Shoulder after image guidance were 1.07±3.99 mm (-4.35±2.09 mm), -0.37±5.91 mm (1.26±5.28 mm), -0.63±2.44 mm (0.25±1.61 mm) for group A, B and C. The vertical, lateral, longitudinal position and angular corrections of the couch after image guidance were -2.06±2.68, -1.11±8.15, 0.34±3.78 mm, and 0.51 ±0.77 degree for group A, -1.18±1.82, 0.94±2.13, -0.67±1.98 mm, and 0.91±1.04 degree for group B and 0.12±2.18, - 0.79±2.64, 0.79±2.64 mm, and 0.00±0.49 degree for group C. In this preliminary study, we found the positioning accuracy of the manufactured Shoulder retractor is comparable to other commercial Shoulder retractors. We expect that the reproducibility and accuracy of the patient set-up could be improved by using the home made Shoulder retractor in the head and neck radiation treatment

  4. Evaluation of manufactured device for radiation therapy in head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Jun; Jin, Sun Sik; Kim, Dong Wook; Chung, Weon Kuu; Kim, Kyoung Tae [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    We compared the set-up accuracy and right-left shoulder position variation of the manufactured device and other commercial shoulder-retractors in the head and neck radiation treatment. Six patients consist of three groups which were used three different Shoulder retractors. We measured position corrections of left and right Shoulder and the couch after the image guidance by using on board imager (OBI) for six head and neck patients who has the extended target to the neck node lower region. The position variation correction of left (right) Shoulder after image guidance were 1.07±3.99 mm (-4.35±2.09 mm), -0.37±5.91 mm (1.26±5.28 mm), -0.63±2.44 mm (0.25±1.61 mm) for group A, B and C. The vertical, lateral, longitudinal position and angular corrections of the couch after image guidance were -2.06±2.68, -1.11±8.15, 0.34±3.78 mm, and 0.51 ±0.77 degree for group A, -1.18±1.82, 0.94±2.13, -0.67±1.98 mm, and 0.91±1.04 degree for group B and 0.12±2.18, - 0.79±2.64, 0.79±2.64 mm, and 0.00±0.49 degree for group C. In this preliminary study, we found the positioning accuracy of the manufactured Shoulder retractor is comparable to other commercial Shoulder retractors. We expect that the reproducibility and accuracy of the patient set-up could be improved by using the home made Shoulder retractor in the head and neck radiation treatment.

  5. Radiation practices. Annual report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantanen, E.

    2009-09-01

    1775 safety licences for the use of radiation were current at the end of 2008. 1831 responsible parties were engaged in notifiable licence-exempt dental X-ray activities. Use of radiation was controlled through regular inspections performed at places of use, test packages sent by post to dental X-ray facilities and maintenance of the Dose Register. Radiation safety guides were also published and research was conducted in support of regulatory control. STUK conducted 424 inspections of licensed practices and 18 inspections of notifiable licence-exempt dental X-ray practices in 2008. 209 repair orders and recommendations were issued. Use of one appliance was prohibited. A total of just over 11 500 workers were subject to individual monitoring in 2008, and about 140 000 dose entries were made in the Dose Register maintained by STUK. Regulatory control of natural radiation focused on radon at workplaces and exposure of aircrews to cosmic radiation. 89 workplaces including a total of 201 work areas were subject to radon monitoring during 2008. Some 3700 pilots and cabin crew members were monitored for exposure to cosmic radiation. Metrological activities continued with calibration and development work as in previous years. Regulatory control of the use of non-ionizing radiation in 2008 focused particularly on mobile phones, sunbeds and lasers. Ten mobile phone types and five baby monitors were tested in market surveillance of wireless communication devices. 25 sunbed facilities were inspected and nine laser display inspections were performed. There were 22 abnormal incidents involving the use of radiation in 2008. Seventeen of these incidents concerned the use of radiation in industry, research or transportation, four concerned the use of radiation in health care, and one concerned the use of non-ionizing radiation. None of these incidents had serious consequences. (orig.)

  6. Wearable device for monitoring momentary presence of intense x-ray and/or ultra-violet radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, W.

    1981-01-01

    A credit-card-size clear-plastic-encased device can be worn or carried by a person to warn him of the momentary presence of dangerous intensities of ultra-violet and/or x-ray radiations. A base lamina (e.g. of cardboard) is coated with a material (e.g. zinc-cadmium sulfide or lead-barium sulfate) which fluoresces under such radiations. Numerals, letters, words or symbols are printed over the fluorescent coat with a material inhibitory to said radiations so that a warning message in dark print will appear on a light background when dangerous intensities of said radiations are present. An x-ray-warning area is covered with an ultra-violet absorbing screen so that said area will glow only under x-rays (Which rays will also activate the remaining ultra-violet-responsive area). The colors of the laminas and the coats are so selected that the messages are not visible when dangerous radiations are not present. If desired, only the message can be printed with fluorescent material so as to glow on a darker background. Optionally, step-layer attenuation devices can be added to indicate degrees of radiation; and reflecting surfaces can underlie the fluorescent coat to increase efficiency and/or sensitively

  7. Practical problems in radiation sterilization of medical devices made from plasticized PVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beenen, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The following three methods for sterilizing medical devices made from plasticised PVC are used in the Netherlands. 1. sterilization by steam, steam-air or superheated water. 2. sterilization by electron beam or gamma irradiation. 3. ethylene oxide sterilization. IV-bags, blood bags and other bag types for similar applications made from plasticized PVC are mostly sterilized by steam-air or super heated water, especially when filled or partly filled containers are considered. More complicated products or products with components that cannot resist steam sterilization of 121 0 C are sterilized by ethylene oxide or irradiation. These last two methods also are favoured for sterilizing empty bags where sticking of the surfaces at the sterilization temperature creates a serious handicap. Moreover, steam sterilization may cause a permanent opacity of some plastics. However, we have to add that due to developments in formulations steam sterilization of empty bags is going to be of an increasing importance. proven carcinogenity of the gas ethylene oxide, difficult deaeration and retention of the gas in plasticized PVC has increased the demand for better radiation resistant plastics as an alternative for steam sterilization. (author)

  8. Aerial Mobile Radiation Survey Following Detonation of a Radiological Dispersal Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Laurel E; Fortin, Richard; Buckle, John L; Coyle, Maurice J; Van Brabant, Reid A; Harvey, Bradley J A; Seywerd, Henry C J; McCurdy, Martin W

    2016-05-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in 2012 at the Defence Research and Development Canada's Suffield Research Centre in Alberta, Canada, during which three radiological dispersal devices were detonated. The detonations released radioactive (140)La into the air, which was then carried by winds and detectable over distances of up to 2 km. The Nuclear Emergency Response group of Natural Resources Canada conducted airborne radiometric surveys shortly following the explosions to map the pattern of radioactivity deposited on the ground. The survey instrument suite was based on large volume NaI(Tl) scintillation gamma radiation detectors, which were situated in a basket mounted exterior to the helicopter and oriented end-to-end to maximize the sensitivity. A standard geophysical data treatment was used to subtract backgrounds and to correct the data to produce counts due to (140)La at the nominal altitude. Sensitivity conversion factors obtained from Monte Carlo simulations were then applied to express the measurements in terms of surface activity concentration in kBq m(-2). Integrated over the survey area, the results indicate that only 20 to 25% of the bomb's original inventory of radioactive material is deposited within a 1.5-km radius of ground zero. These results can be accommodated with a simple model for the RDD behavior and atmospheric dispersion.

  9. Estimation of four-dimensional dose distribution using electronic portal imaging device in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Asumi; Arimura, Hidetaka; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    We are developing a method to evaluate four-dimensional radiation dose distribution in a patient body based upon the animated image of EPID (electronic portal imaging device) which is an image of beam-direction at the irradiation. In the first place, we have obtained the image of the dose which is emitted from patient body at therapy planning using therapy planning CT image and dose evaluation algorism. In the second place, we have estimated the emission dose image at the irradiation using EPID animated image which is obtained at the irradiation. In the third place, we have got an affine transformation matrix including respiratory movement in the body by performing linear registration on the emission dose image at therapy planning to get the one at the irradiation. In the fourth place, we have applied the affine transformation matrix on the therapy planning CT image and estimated the CT image 'at irradiation'. Finally we have evaluated four-dimensional dose distribution by calculating dose distribution in the CT image 'at irradiation' which has been estimated for each frame of the EPID animated-image. This scheme may be useful for evaluating therapy results and risk management. (author)

  10. A Cs2LiYCl6:Ce-based advanced radiation monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budden, B.S.; Stonehill, L.C.; Dallmann, N.; Baginski, M.J.; Best, D.J.; Smith, M.B.; Graham, S.A.; Dathy, C.; Frank, J.M.; McClish, M.

    2015-01-01

    Cs 2 LiYCl 6 :Ce 3+ (CLYC) scintillator has gained recent interest because of its ability to perform simultaneous gamma spectroscopy and thermal neutron detection. Discrimination between the two incident particle types owes to the fundamentally unique emission waveforms, a consequence of the interaction and subsequent scintillation mechanisms within the crystal. Due to this dual-mode detector capability, CLYC was selected for the development of an Advanced Radiation Monitoring Device (ARMD), a compact handheld instrument for radioisotope identification and localization. ARMD consists of four 1 in.-right cylindrical CLYC crystals, custom readout electronics including a suitable multi-window application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), battery pack, proprietary software, and Android-based tablet for high-level analysis and display. We herein describe the motivation of the work and engineering design of the unit, and we explain the software embedded in the core module and for radioisotope analysis. We report an operational range of tens of keV to 8.5 MeV with approximately 5.3% gamma energy resolution at 662 keV, thermal neutron detection efficiency of 10%, battery lifetime of up to 10 h, manageable rates of 20 kHz; further, we describe in greater detail time to identify specific gamma source setups

  11. Radiation sterilization and volatile matter used for medical devices touching to blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Akitada; Sato, Michio; Igarashi, Yoshiaki; Yagami, Takeshi [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshii, Fumio

    1998-02-01

    In this study, it was conducted by using chemical analysis and cell toxic test if any volatile matter actually on radiation, if any matter could be detected when its generating, if it stayed to a safe volume range, and so forth. Objective materials of this study focus the elements used for medical devices always touching blood having large effect on human bodies. In this fiscal year, because of many cases of sterilization after filling water and necessary gas-liquid equilibrium for quantitative method using a head space when actually using the materials for dialyzer, irradiation was conducted after filling water into the material, comparison of gas volume and evaluation of safety with those of conventional experiments. As a result, by {gamma}-ray irradiation, various matters are formed, and some volatile matters less than some ng level in present volume could be detected. However, from a standpoint of safety data and forming volume of the cell toxic test results, there were no matter anxious to safety. Furthermore, the present dialyzer and others are washed before using chemically, and its safety seems to be fully held. (G.K.)

  12. Radiation sterilization and volatile matter used for medical devices touching to blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akitada; Sato, Michio; Igarashi, Yoshiaki; Yagami, Takeshi; Yoshii, Fumio

    1998-01-01

    In this study, it was conducted by using chemical analysis and cell toxic test if any volatile matter actually on radiation, if any matter could be detected when its generating, if it stayed to a safe volume range, and so forth. Objective materials of this study focus the elements used for medical devices always touching blood having large effect on human bodies. In this fiscal year, because of many cases of sterilization after filling water and necessary gas-liquid equilibrium for quantitative method using a head space when actually using the materials for dialyzer, irradiation was conducted after filling water into the material, comparison of gas volume and evaluation of safety with those of conventional experiments. As a result, by γ-ray irradiation, various matters are formed, and some volatile matters less than some ng level in present volume could be detected. However, from a standpoint of safety data and forming volume of the cell toxic test results, there were no matter anxious to safety. Furthermore, the present dialyzer and others are washed before using chemically, and its safety seems to be fully held. (G.K.)

  13. Organic Crystal Growth Facility (OCGF) and Radiation Monitoring Container Device (RMCD) Groups in

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured are activities of the Organic Crystal Growth Facility (OCGF) and Radiation Monitoring Container Device (RMCD) groups in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.

  14. RIMACS, Reactor Inspection Main Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: RIMACS prepares for automatic inspection files on each inspection item for the reactor. These automatic inspection files provide the data to move RIROB (Reactor Inspection Robot) with laser by interpreting the coordinates of LASPO (Laser Positioner) and the laser detecting device of RIROB in three dimensional space. In addition, when RIROB arrives at the inspecting location, the files provide all values of the manipulator's motions to acquire the ultrasonic data. RIMACS provides various modules in order to perform these complex functions, and the functions are programmed on graphic user interface for the convenience of the user. RIMACS provides various functions, such as insertion of reactor production data, selection of the reactor for inspection, the creation of automatic inspection file, the selection of the inspection item, inspection simulation, and automatic inspection procedures. It also provides all other functions, which are necessary for the inspection, such as operating program download and manual control of LASPO and RIROB, the inspection simulation and the inspection status display by means of the graphic screen, and SODAS (ultra-Sonic Data Acquisition System) drive verification. 2 - Methods: Moving path and operation procedures for inspection robot are generated automatically with Kinematics algorithm. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A graphics display with MS-Window capability is required

  15. Improving radiation hardness in space-based Charge-Coupled Devices through the narrowing of the charge transfer channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D. J.; Skottfelt, J.; Soman, M. R.; Bush, N.; Holland, A.

    2017-12-01

    Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) have been the detector of choice for imaging and spectroscopy in space missions for several decades, such as those being used for the Euclid VIS instrument and baselined for the SMILE SXI. Despite the many positive properties of CCDs, such as the high quantum efficiency and low noise, when used in a space environment the detectors suffer damage from the often-harsh radiation environment. High energy particles can create defects in the silicon lattice which act to trap the signal electrons being transferred through the device, reducing the signal measured and effectively increasing the noise. We can reduce the impact of radiation on the devices through four key methods: increased radiation shielding, device design considerations, optimisation of operating conditions, and image correction. Here, we concentrate on device design operations, investigating the impact of narrowing the charge-transfer channel in the device with the aim of minimising the impact of traps during readout. Previous studies for the Euclid VIS instrument considered two devices, the e2v CCD204 and CCD273, the serial register of the former having a 50 μm channel and the latter having a 20 μm channel. The reduction in channel width was previously modelled to give an approximate 1.6× reduction in charge storage volume, verified experimentally to have a reduction in charge transfer inefficiency of 1.7×. The methods used to simulate the reduction approximated the charge cloud to a sharp-edged volume within which the probability of capture by traps was 100%. For high signals and slow readout speeds, this is a reasonable approximation. However, for low signals and higher readout speeds, the approximation falls short. Here we discuss a new method of simulating and calculating charge storage variations with device design changes, considering the absolute probability of capture across the pixel, bringing validity to all signal sizes and readout speeds. Using this method, we

  16. Operational inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystersky, M.

    1997-01-01

    Special equipment is described, designed for inspection of reactor pressure vessels performed from the inside. Central shaft manipulator ZMM-5 is available for crack detection control using ultrasound and eddy currents, for visual check of surfaces, repair works at the reactor pressure vessel, and hardness measurements. The manipulator consists of the manipulator bridge, a cable container, shaft segments, a control mechanism and auxiliary parts. Eight inspections were performed at the Bohunice nuclear power plant and two at the Paks nuclear power plant. (M.D.)

  17. Taking SiC Power Devices to the Final Frontier: Addressing Challenges of the Space Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Silicon carbide power device technology has the potential to enable a new generation of aerospace power systems that demand high efficiency, rapid switching, and reduced mass and volume in order to expand space-based capabilities. For this potential to be realized, SiC devices must be capable of withstanding the harsh space radiation environment. Commercial SiC components exhibit high tolerance to total ionizing dose but to date, have not performed well under exposure to heavy ion radiation representative of the on-orbit galactic cosmic rays. Insertion of SiC power device technology into space applications to achieve breakthrough performance gains will require intentional development of components hardened to the effects of these highly-energetic heavy ions. This work presents heavy-ion test data obtained by the authors over the past several years for discrete SiC power MOSFETs, JFETs, and diodes in order to increase the body of knowledge and understanding that will facilitate hardening of this technology to space radiation effects. Specifically, heavy-ion irradiation data taken under different bias, temperature, and ion beam conditions is presented for devices from different manufacturers, and the emerging patterns discussed.

  18. A NOVEL, REMOVABLE, CERROBEND, BEAM-BLOCKING DEVICE FOR RADIATION THERAPY OF THE CANINE HEAD AND NECK: PILOT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael S; Berlato, Davide; Vanhaezebrouck, Isabelle; Gordon, Ira K; Hansen, Katherine S; Theon, Alain P; Holt, Randall W; Trestrail, Earl A

    2017-01-01

    Radiation therapy of the head and neck can result in mucositis and other acute affects in the oral cavity. This prospective pilot study evaluated a novel, intraoral, beam-blocking device for use during imaging and therapeutic procedures. The beam-blocking device was made from a metal alloy inserted into a coated frozen dessert mold (Popsicle® Mold, Cost Plus World Market, Oakland, CA). The device was designed so that it could be inserted into an outer shell, which in turn allowed it to be placed or removed depending on the need due to beam configuration. A Farmer type ionization chamber and virtual water phantom were used to assess effects of field size on transmission. Six large breed cadaver dogs, donated by the owner after death, were recruited for the study. Delivered dose at the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the device, with and without the alloy block in place, were measured using radiochromic film. It was determined that transmission was field size dependent with larger field sizes leading to decreased attenuation of the beam, likely secondary to scatter. The mean and median transmission on the ventral surface without the beam-blocking device was 0.94 [range 0.94-0.96]. The mean and median transmission with the beam-blocking device was 0.52 [range 0.50-0.57]. The mean and median increase in dose due to backscatter on the dorsal surface of the beam-blocking device was 0.04 [range 0.02-0.04]. Findings indicated that this novel device can help attenuate radiation dose ventral to the block in dogs, with minimal backscatter. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  19. BNLs Synchrotron-radiation Research Hub for Characterizing Detection Materials and Devices for the NA-22 Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarda, G. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bolotnikov, A. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cui, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hossain, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roy, U. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yang, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vanier, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); McDowell, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rosen, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Labrum, Joseph [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to obtain and characterize scintillators, emerging- and commercial-compoundsemiconductor radiation- detection materials and devices provided by vendors and research organizations. The focus of our proposed research is to clarify the role of the deleterious defects and impurities responsible for the detectors' non-uniformity in scintillating crystals, commercial semiconductor radiation-detector materials, and in emerging R&D ones. Some benefits of this project addresses the need for fabricating high-performance scintillators and compound-semiconductor radiation-detectors with the proven potential for large-scale manufacturing. The findings help researchers to resolve the problems of non-uniformities in scintillating crystals, commercial semiconductor radiation-detector materials, and in emerging R&D ones.

  20. Standard Practice for Minimizing Dosimetry Errors in Radiation Hardness Testing of Silicon Electronic Devices Using Co-60 Sources

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers recommended procedures for the use of dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's), to determine the absorbed dose in a region of interest within an electronic device irradiated using a Co-60 source. Co-60 sources are commonly used for the absorbed dose testing of silicon electronic devices. Note 1—This absorbed-dose testing is sometimes called “total dose testing” to distinguish it from “dose rate testing.” Note 2—The effects of ionizing radiation on some types of electronic devices may depend on both the absorbed dose and the absorbed dose rate; that is, the effects may be different if the device is irradiated to the same absorbed-dose level at different absorbed-dose rates. Absorbed-dose rate effects are not covered in this practice but should be considered in radiation hardness testing. 1.2 The principal potential error for the measurement of absorbed dose in electronic devices arises from non-equilibrium energy deposition effects in the vicinity o...

  1. Gauging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurnell, F.D.; Patterson, C.B.

    1979-01-01

    A gauge supporting device for measuring say a square tube comprises a pair of rods or guides in tension between a pair of end members, the end members being spaced apart by a compression member or members. The tensioned guides provide planes of reference for measuring devices moved therealong on a carriage. The device is especially useful for making on site dimensional measurements of components, such as irradiated and therefore radioactive components, that cannot readily be transported to an inspection laboratory. (UK)

  2. Evaluation of initial setup errors of two immobilization devices for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Teshima, Teruki; Cárdenes, Higinia; Das, Indra J

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and efficacy of two commonly used commercial immobilization systems for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in lung cancer. This retrospective study assessed the efficacy and setup accuracy of two immobilization systems: the Elekta Body Frame (EBF) and the Civco Body Pro-Lok (CBP) in 80 patients evenly divided for each system. A cone beam CT (CBCT) was used before each treatment fraction for setup correction in both devices. Analyzed shifts were applied for setup correction and CBCT was repeated. If a large shift (>5 mm) occurred in any direction, an additional CBCT was employed for verification after localization. The efficacy of patient setup was analyzed for 105 sessions (48 with the EBF, 57 with the CBP). Result indicates that the CBCT was repeated at the 1 st treatment session in 22.5% and 47.5% of the EBF and CBP cases, respectively. The systematic errors {left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), cranio-caudal (CC), and 3D vector shift: (LR 2 + AP 2 + CC 2 ) 1/2 (mm)}, were {0.5 ± 3.7, 2.3 ± 2.5, 0.7 ± 3.5, 7.1 ± 3.1} mm and {0.4 ± 3.6, 0.7 ± 4.0, 0.0 ± 5.5, 9.2 ± 4.2} mm, and the random setup errors were {5.1, 3.0, 3.5, 3.9} mm and {4.6, 4.8, 5.4, 5.3} mm for the EBF and the CBP, respectively. The 3D vector shift was significantly larger for the CBP (P patient comfort could dictate the use of CBP system with slightly reduced accuracy. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  3. Main radiation protection actions for medical personnel as primary responders front of an event with radiological dispersive device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque, Hildanielle Ramos

    2015-01-01

    After the terrorist attack in New York, USA, in 2001, there was a worldwide concern about possible attacks using radioactive material in conventional detonators, called as Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or 'dirty bomb'. Several studies have been and are being made to form a global knowledge about this type of event. As until now, fortunately, there has not been an event with RDD, the Goiania Radiological Accident in Brazil, 1987, is used as a reference for decision-making. Several teams with technical experts should act in an event with RDD, but the medical staffs who respond quickly to the event must be properly protected from the harmful effects of radiation. Based on the radiological protection experts performance during the Goiania accident and the knowledge from lessons learned of many radiological accidents worldwide, this work presents an adaptation of the radiation protection actions for an event with RDD that helps a medical team as primary responders. The following aspects are presented: the problem of radioactive contamination from the explosion of the device in underground environment, the actions of the first responders and evaluation of health radiation effects. This work was based on specialized articles and papers about radiological accidents and RDD; as well as personal communication and academic information of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry. The radiation protection actions, adapted to a terrorist attack event with RDD, have as a scenario a subway station in the capital. The main results are: the use of the basic radiation protection principle of time because there is no condition to take care of a patient keeping distance or using a shielding; the use of full appropriate protection cloths for contaminating materials ensuring the physical safety of professionals, and the medical team monitoring at the end of a medical procedure, checking for surface contamination. The main conclusion is that all medical actions

  4. Total dose and dose rate radiation characterization of EPI-CMOS radiation hardened memory and microprocessor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingerich, B.L.; Hermsen, J.M.; Lee, J.C.; Schroeder, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The process, circuit discription, and total dose radiation characteristics are presented for two second generation hardened 4K EPI-CMOS RAMs and a first generation 80C85 microprocessor. Total dose radiation performance is presented to 10M rad-Si and effects of biasing and operating conditions are discussed. The dose rate sensitivity of the 4K RAMs is also presented along with single event upset (SEU) test data

  5. Methods and apparatus for multi-parameter acoustic signature inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Aaron A [Richland, WA; Samuel, Todd J [Pasco, WA; Valencia, Juan D [Kennewick, WA; Gervais, Kevin L [Richland, WA; Tucker, Brian J [Pasco, WA; Kirihara, Leslie J [Richland, WA; Skorpik, James R [Kennewick, WA; Reid, Larry D [Benton City, WA; Munley, John T [Benton City, WA; Pappas, Richard A [Richland, WA; Wright, Bob W [West Richland, WA; Panetta, Paul D [Richland, WA; Thompson, Jason S [Richland, WA

    2007-07-24

    A multiparameter acoustic signature inspection device and method are described for non-invasive inspection of containers. Dual acoustic signatures discriminate between various fluids and materials for identification of the same.

  6. Ionizing secondary radiation generated by analog radiological and digital coronary cine angiographic equipment. Influence of external protection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez N, Alfredo; Farias Ch, Eric; Silva J, Ana Maria; Leyton L, Fernando; Oyarzun C, Carlos; Ugalde P, Hector; Dussaillant, Gaston; Cumsille G, Angel

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a know hazard of radiological procedures. Aim: to compare the emission of secondary ionizing radiation from two coronary angiographic equipments, one with digital and the other with analog image generation. To evaluate the effectiveness of external radiological protection devices. Material and methods: environmental and fluoroscopy generated radiation in the cephalic region of the patient was measured during diagnostic coronary angiographies. Ionizing radiation generated in anterior left oblique protection (ALO) and anterior right oblique protection (ARO) were measured with and without leaded protections. In 19 patients (group 1), a digital equipment was used and in 21 (group 2), an analog equipment. Results: header radiation for group 1 and 2 was 1194±337 and 364±222 μGray/h respectively (p≤0.001). During fluoroscopy and with leaded protection generated radiation for groups 1 and 2 was 612±947 and 70±61μGray/h respectively (p≤0.001). For ALO projection, generated for groups 1 and 2 was 105±47 and 71±192 μGray/h respectively (p≤0.001). During filming the radiation for ALO projection for groups 1 and 2 was 7252±9569 and 1671±2038 μGray/h respectively (p=0.03). Out of the protection zone, registered radiation during fluoroscopy for groups 1 and 2 was 2800±1741 and 1318±954 μGray/h respectively (p≤0.001); during filming, the figures were 15500±5840 and 18961±10599 μGray/h respectively (NS). Conclusions: digital radiological equipment has a lower level of ionizing radiation emission than the analog equipment

  7. Evaluation of the Stryker S2 IM Nail Distal Targeting Device for reduction of radiation exposure: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastopoulos, George; Ntagiopoulos, Panagiotis G; Chissas, Dionisios; Loupasis, George; Asimakopoulos, Antonios; Athanaselis, Eustratios; Megas, Panagiotis

    2008-10-01

    Distal locking is one challenging step during intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures that can lead to an increase of radiation exposure. In the present study, the authors describe a technique for the distal locking of femoral nails, implementing a new targeting device in an attempt to reduce radiation exposure and operational time. Over a 2-year period, 127 consecutive cases of femoral shaft fractures were included in the study. All cases were treated with nailing of femoral shaft fractures with an unslotted reamed antegrade femoral nail and distal locking was performed with the use of a proximally mounted aiming device. Mean duration of the procedure was 63.5 18.1 min while the duration for distal locking was 6.6 +/- 2.6 min. In all successful cases, exposure from intraoperative fluoroscopy was 17.2 +/- 7.4 s for the whole operative procedure, and for distal locking was 2 shots, 1.35 s (range, 0.9-2.2 s) and 1.9 mGy (range, 1.1-2.9 mGy). Five cases (3.9%) were unsuccessful, but overall no intraoperative complications were encountered from the application of this technique. The ability of the device to correspond to the level of nail deformation and to properly identify the distal holes, reduced exposure to radiation compared to other published reports, and should be considered as a valuable tool for distal locking of femoral fractures.

  8. Tissue kerma vs distance relationships for initial nuclear radiation from the atomic devices detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Pace, J.V. III; Scott, W.H. Jr.

    1983-06-01

    Initial nuclear radiation is comprised of prompt neutrons and prompt primary gammas from an exploding nuclear device, prompt secondary gammas produced by neutron interactions in the environment, and delayed neutrons and delayed fission-product gammas from the fireball formed after the nuclear device explodes. These various components must all be considered in establishing tissue kerma vs distance relationships which describe the decrease of initial nuclear radiation with distance in Hiroshima and in Nagasaki. The tissue kerma at ground evel from delayed fission-product gammas and delayed neutrons was investigated using the NUIDEA code developed by Science Applications, Inc. This code incorporates very detailed models which can take into account such features as the rise of the fireball, the rapid radioactive decay of fission products in it, and the perturbation of the atmosphere by the explosion. Tissue kerma vs distance relationships obtained by summing results of these current state-of-the-art calculations will be discussed. Our results clearly show that the prompt secondary gammas and delayed fission-product gammas are the dominant components of total tissue kerma from initial nuclear radiation in the cases of the atomic (or pure-fission) devices detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  9. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) compliance program guidance manual and updates (FY 86). Section 4. Medical and radiological devices. Irregular report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The FDA Compliance Program Guidance Manual provides a system for issuing and filing program plans and instructions directed to Food and Drug Administration Field operations for project implementation. Section IV provides those chapters of the Compliance Program Guidance Manual which pertain to the areas of medical and radiological devices. Some of the areas of coverage include laser and sunlamp standards inspections, compliance testing of various radiation-emitting products such as television receivers and microwave ovens, emergency response planning and policy, premarket approval and device manufacturers inspections, device problem reporting, sterilization of devices, and consumer education programs on medical and radiological devices

  10. Comparative Study on Radiological Impact Due To Direct Exposure to a Radiological Dispersal Device Using A Sealed Radiation Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the most serious terrorist threats implies radiological dispersal devices (RDDs), the so-called dirty bombs, that combine a conventional explosive surrounded by an inflammatory material (like thermit) with radioactive material. The paper objective is to evaluate the radiological impact due to direct exposure to a RDD using a sealed radiation source (used for medical and industrial applications) as radioactive material. The simulations were performed for 60Co, 137Cs and 192Ir radiation sources. In order to model the contamination potential level and radiation exposure due to radioactive material spreading from RDD, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's HOTSPOT 2.07 computer code was used. The worst case scenario has been considered, calculations being performed for two radioactive material dispersion models, namely General radioactive Plume and General Explosion. Following parameters evolution with distance from the radiation source was investigated: total effective dose equivalent, time-integrated air concentration, ground surface deposition and ground shine dose rates. Comparisons between considered radiation sources and radioactive material dispersion models have been performed. The most drastic effects on population and the environment characterize 60Co sealed radiation source use in RDD.

  11. Radiation practices. Annual report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantanen, E. (ed.)

    2012-09-15

    1791 safety licences for the use of radiation were current at the end of 2011. 1702 responsible parties were engaged in notifiable licence-exempt dental X-ray activities. Use of radiation was controlled through regular inspections performed at places of use, test packages sent by post to dental X-ray facilities and maintenance of the Dose Register. Radiation safety guides were also published and research was conducted in support of regulatory control. The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) conducted 575 inspections of licensed practices in 2011. 633 repair orders and recommendations were issued in the course of inspections. A total of nearly 11 700 workers were subject to individual monitoring in 2011 and about 143 000 dose entries were made in the Dose Register maintained by STUK. Regulatory control of natural radiation focused on radon at workplaces and exposure of aircrews to cosmic radiation. 166 workplaces including a total of 288 work areas were subject to radon monitoring during 2011. Just over 3600 cockpit and cabin crew members were monitored for exposure to cosmic radiation. STUK was involved in four ionizing radiation research projects, and also took part in an international expert group evaluation of STUK research activities. New alpha and beta sources were procured for metrological activities and a Co-60 irradiation device procured in 2010 was installed and taken into use. Calibration and testing services continued as in previous years. Regulatory control of the use of non-ionizing radiation in 2011 focused particularly on mobile phones, sunbeds and lasers. Orders were issued to 5 responsible parties to discontinue the use of tattoo removal lasers. 7 sunbed facilities were inspected and 10 on-site laser display inspections were performed. Five mobile phone types were tested in market surveillance of wireless communication devices. Non-ionizing radiation research activities were also subjected to the evaluation of STUK research activities

  12. WE-D-BRE-01: A Sr-90 Irradiation Device for the Study of Cutaneous Radiation Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorand, JE; Bourland, JD [Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Burnett, LR [KeraNetics, LLC, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Tytell, M [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To determine dosimetric character for a custom-built Sr-90 beta irradiator designed for the study of Cutaneous Radiation Injury (CRI) in a porcine animal model. In the event of a radiological accident or terrorist event, Sr-90, a fission by-product, will likely be produced. CRI is a main concern due to the low energy and superficial penetration in tissue of beta particles from Sr-90. Seven 100 mCi plaque Sr-90 radiation sources within a custom-built irradiation device create a 40 mm diameter region of radiation-induced skin injury as part of a larger project to study the efficacy of a topical keratin-based product in CRI healing. Methods: A custom-built mobile irradiation device was designed and implemented for in vivo irradiations. Gafchromic™ EBT3 radiochromic film and a PTW Markus chamber type 23343 were utilized for dosimetric characterization of the beta fluence at the surface produced by this device. Films were used to assess 2-dimensional dose distribution and percent depth dose characteristics of the radiation field. Ion chamber measurements provided dose rate data within the field. Results: The radiation field produced by the irradiation device is homogeneous with high uniformity (∼5%) and symmetry (∼3%) with a steep dose fall-off with depth from the surface. Dose rates were determined to be 3.8 Gy/min and 3.3 Gy/min for film and ion chamber measurements, respectively. A dose rate of 3.4 Gy/min was used to calculate irradiation times for in vivo irradiations. Conclusion: The custom-built irradiation device enables the use of seven Sr-90 beta sources in an array to deliver a 40 mm diameter area of homogeneous skin dose with a dose rate that is useful for research purposes and clinically relevant for the induction of CRI. Doses of 36 and 42 Gy successfully produce Grade III CRI and are used in the study of the efficacy of KeraStat™. This project has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the Biomedical Advanced Research and

  13. Sterilization of health care products - Radiation. Part 1: Requirements for development, validation and routine control of a sterilization process for medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    reproducible so that predictions can be made, with reasonable confidence, that there is a low level of probability of there being a viable microorganism present on product after sterilization. Specification of this probability is a matter for regulatory authorities and may vary from country to country (see, for example, EN 556-1 and ANSI/AAMI ST67). Generic requirements of the quality management system for design and development, production, installation and servicing are given in ISO 9001 and particular requirements for quality management systems for medical device production are given in ISO 13485. The standards for quality management systems recognise that, for certain processes used in manufacturing, the effectiveness of the process cannot be fully verified by subsequent inspection and testing of the product. Sterilization is an example of such a process. For this reason, sterilization processes are validated for use, the performance of the sterilization process is monitored routinely and the equipment is maintained. Exposure to a properly validated, accurately controlled sterilization process is not the only factor associated with the provision of reliable assurance that the products are sterile and, in this regard, suitable for its intended use. Attention is therefore given to a number of considerations including: a) the microbiological status of incoming raw materials and/or components; b) the validation and routine control of any cleaning and disinfection procedures used on the product; c) the control of the environment in which the product is manufactured, assembled and packaged; d) the control of equipment and processes; e) the control of personnel and their hygiene; f) the manner and materials in which the product is packaged; g) the conditions under which product is stored. This part of ISO 11137 describes the requirements for ensuring that the activities associated with the process of radiation sterilization are performed properly. These activities are described

  14. Conceptual radiation shielding design of superconducting tokamak fusion device by PHITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukegawa, Atsuhiko M.; Kawasaki, Hiromitsu; Okuno, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    A complete 3D neutron and photon transport analysis by Monte Carlo transport code system PHITS (Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System) have been performed for superconducting tokamak fusion device such as JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60SA). It is possible to make use of PHITS in the port streaming analysis around the devices for the tokamak fusion device, the duct streaming analysis in the building where the device is installed, and the sky shine analysis for the site boundary. The neutron transport analysis by PHITS makes it clear that the shielding performance of the superconducting tokamak fusion device with the cryostat is improved by the graphical results. From the standpoint of the port streaming and the duct streaming, it is necessary to calculate by 3D Monte Carlo code such as PHITS for the neutronics analysis of superconducting tokamak fusion device. (author)

  15. Setup reproducibility in radiation therapy for lung cancer: a comparison between T-bar and expanded foam immobilization devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halperin, Ross; Roa, Wilson; Field, Melissa; Hanson, John; Murray, Brad

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Physiologic and non-physiologic tumor motion complicates the use of tight margins in three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy. Setup reproducibility is an important non-physiologic cause of tumor motion. The objective of this study is to evaluate and compare patient setup reproducibility using the reusable T-bar and the disposable expanded foam immobilization device (EFID) in radiation therapy for lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Two hundred forty-four portal films were taken from 16 prospectively accrued patients treated for lung cancer. Patients were treated with either a pair of anterior and posterior parallel opposing fields (POF), or a combination of POF and a three-field isocentric technique. Each patient was treated in a supine position using either the T-bar setup or EFID. Six patients were treated in both devices over their treatment courses. Field placement analysis was used to evaluate 3D setup reproducibility, by comparing positions of bony landmarks relative to the radiation field edges in digitized simulator and portal images. Anterior-posterior, lateral, and longitudinal displacements, as well as field rotations along coronal and sagittal planes were measured. Statistical analyses of variance were applied to the deviations among portal films of all patients and the subgroup treated with both immobilization methods. Results: For the T-bar immobilization device, standard deviations of the setup reproducibility were 5.1, 3.7, and 5.1 mm in the anterior-posterior, lateral, and longitudinal dimensions, respectively. Rotations in the coronal plane and the sagittal plane were 0.9 deg. and 1.0 deg. , respectively. For the EFID, corresponding standard deviations of set up reproducibility were 3.6 mm, 5.3 mm, 5.4 mm, 0.7 deg. and 1.4 deg. , respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.22) in the 3D setup reproducibility between T-bar and EFID. Subgroup analysis for the patients who were treated with both

  16. Two new NDT techniques for inspection of containment welds beneath coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, G.L.; Thome, D.K.

    1991-06-01

    Two new nondestructive testing methods were evaluated for inspection of containment welds beneath coatings, including magneto-optic imaging and Hall effect measurements. Traditional inspection methods, including magnetic particle inspection, are unsatisfactory in the nuclear containment environment coatings must be removed to provide reliable results. This creates radioactive waste, potential airborne contamination, and prolonged radiation exposure to inspection personnel. The new methods offer great improvement because of increased sensitivity and rapid scanning capability. Results obtained during Phase 1 demonstrated that magneto-optic imaging methods offered good detection of cracking in welded carbon steel samples, even through paint. Direct, real-time images were obtained with this technique in a video format ideal for complete documentation of the full inspection. A new method for rapidly inducing the required magnetic fields for inspection was also demonstrated and offers the potential for eliminating bulky, high current power supplies or magnetic yokes. Results obtained with the Hall effect were not as promising as they were on aluminum, due to electrical interference problems and variables biasing caused by residual magnetic fields in the parts. The technique may still be useful for inspecting tight spaces not accessible with magneto-optic imaging devices, but will require significant development. 13 refs., 18 figs

  17. Periodic inspections of the primary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, L.B.

    1978-01-01

    An impression is given of the inspection techniques, preparations and background for periodic examinations of the primary system of the Dodewaard Nuclear Reactor over the past 10 years. Unfortunately reliable integral inspection techniques to enable 'listening-in' to developing faults, are not yet available. Until they are, inspections will continue to be executed from a distance using different continuous methods, often under water and with a shortage of space and in the presence of ionising radiations. (C.F.)

  18. Intelligent Automated Nuclear Fuel Pellet Inspection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyvan, S.

    1999-01-01

    At the present time, nuclear pellet inspection is performed manually using naked eyes for judgment and decisionmaking on accepting or rejecting pellets. This current practice of pellet inspection is tedious and subject to inconsistencies and error. Furthermore, unnecessary re-fabrication of pellets is costly and the presence of low quality pellets in a fuel assembly is unacceptable. To improve the quality control in nuclear fuel fabrication plants, an automated pellet inspection system based on advanced techniques is needed. Such a system addresses the following concerns of the current manual inspection method: (1) the reliability of inspection due to typical human errors, (2) radiation exposure to the workers, and (3) speed of inspection and its economical impact. The goal of this research is to develop an automated nuclear fuel pellet inspection system which is based on pellet video (photographic) images and uses artificial intelligence techniques

  19. Acoustofluidics: Theory and simulation of streaming and radiation forces at ultrasound resonances in microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruus, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    fields, which are directly related to the acoustic radiation force on single particles and to the acoustic streaming of the liquid. For the radiation pressure effects, there is good agreement between theory and simulation, while the numeric results for the acoustic streaming effects are more problematic...

  20. Device for generation of transversal tomographic images of a body by penetrating radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hounsfield, G.N.

    1980-01-01

    An improvement of equipment for the examination of patients using penetrating radiation (e.g. gamma or X-ray radiation) is proposed, in particular of equipment as under US patent 3778614, which avoids undesirable patterns on the reconstructed image. The invention is explained by several models. (orig./PW)

  1. Estimating the Infrared Radiation Wavelength Emitted by a Remote Control Device Using a Digital Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelli, Francisco; Giovannini, Odilon; Bolzan, Vicente Dall Agnol

    2011-01-01

    The interference fringes produced by a diffraction grating illuminated with radiation from a TV remote control and a red laser beam are, simultaneously, captured by a digital camera. Based on an image with two interference patterns, an estimate of the infrared radiation wavelength emitted by a TV remote control is made. (Contains 4 figures.)

  2. Developing equipment for AGR remote visual inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, P.W.; Walton, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Remote Inspection Group is part of the CEGB's Generation Development and Construction Division, and has responsibility for the design, development, procurement, testing and setting to work of the equipment provided to carry out routine remote visual inspections of its AGRs. This equipment includes both the viewing devices and the necessary placement equipment. (author)

  3. Evaluation of novel disposable, light-weight radiation protection devices in an interventional radiology setting: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthoff, Heiko; Peña, Constantino; West, James; Contreras, Francisco; Benenati, James F; Katzen, Barry T

    2013-04-01

    Radiation exposure to interventionalists is increasing. The currently available standard radiation protection devices are heavy and do not protect the head of the operator. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and comfort of caps and thyroid collars made of a disposable, light-weight, lead-free material (XPF) for occupational radiation protection in a clinical setting. Up to two interventional operators were randomized to wear a XPF or standard 0.5-mm lead-equivalent thyroid collars in 60 consecutive endovascular procedures requiring fluoroscopy. Simultaneously a XPF cap was worn by all operators. Radiation doses were measured using dosimeters placed outside and underneath the caps and thyroid collars. Wearing comfort was assessed at the end of each procedure on a visual analog scale (0-100 [100 = optimal]). Patient and procedure data did not differ between the XPF and standard protection groups. The cumulative radiation dose measured outside the cap was 15,700 μSv and outside the thyroid collars 21,240 μSv. Measured radiation attenuation provided by the XPF caps (n = 70), XPF thyroid collars (n = 40), and standard thyroid collars (n = 38) was 85.4% ± 25.6%, 79.7% ± 25.8% and 71.9% ± 34.2%, respectively (mean difference XPF vs standard thyroid collars, 7.8% [95% CI, -5.9% to 21.6%]; p = 0.258). The median XPF cap weight was 144 g (interquartile range, 128-170 g), and the XPF thyroid collars were 27% lighter than the standard thyroid collars (p disposable caps and thyroid collars made of XPF were assessed as being comfortable to wear, and they provide radiation protection similar to that of standard 0.5-mm lead-equivalent thyroid collars.

  4. In service inspection of superphenix 1 vessels: MIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asty, M.; Viard, J.; Lerat, B.; Saglio, R.

    1985-02-01

    Presentation of the in-service inspection device, MIR, which has been specially developed for the visual and ultrasonic examination of Super Phenix 1 vessels (surface and internal defects). The inspections take place during fuel handling operations. The inspection device is a robot with a four-wheel drive vehicle which guidance along the welds is achieved by eddy-current devices; visual examination is performed by a television camera and ultrasonic probes are specially resistent to high temperatures

  5. Enhanced low dose rate radiation effect test on typical bipolar devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Minbo; Chen Wei; Yao Zhibin; He Baoping; Huang Shaoyan; Sheng Jiangkun; Xiao Zhigang; Wang Zujun

    2014-01-01

    Two types of bipolar transistors and nine types bipolar integrated circuit were selected in the irradiation experiment at different "6"0Co γ dose rate. The base current of bipolar transistor and input bias current of amplifier and comparator was measured, low dose enhance factor of test device was obtained. The results show that bipolar device have enhanced low dose rate sensitivity, enhancement factor of bipolar integrated circuit was bigger than that of transistor, and enhanced low dose rate sensitivity greatly varied with different structure and process of bipolar device. (authors)

  6. Terahertz Radome Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Friederich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Radomes protecting sensitive radar, navigational, and communications equipment of, e.g., aircraft, are strongly exposed to the environment and have to withstand harsh weather conditions and potential impacts. Besides their significance to the structural integrity of the radomes, it is often crucial to optimize the composite structures for best possible radio performance. Hence, there exists a significant interest in non-destructive testing techniques, which can be used for defect inspection of radomes in field use as well as for quality inspection during the manufacturing process. Contactless millimeter-wave and terahertz imaging techniques provide millimeter resolution and have the potential to address both application scenarios. We report on our development of a three-dimensional (3D terahertz imaging system for radome inspection during industrial manufacturing processes. The system was designed for operation within a machining center for radome manufacturing. It simultaneously gathers terahertz depth information in adjacent frequency ranges, from 70 to 110 GHz and from 110 to 170 GHz by combining two frequency modulated continuous-wave terahertz sensing units into a single measurement device. Results from spiraliform image acquisition of a radome test sample demonstrate the successful integration of the measurement system.

  7. 75 FR 8375 - Device Improvements to Reduce Unnecessary Radiation Exposure From Medical Imaging; Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... hardware and software features should manufacturers build into CT and fluoroscopic devices in order to... ALARA concept (maintaining dose As Low As Reasonably Achievable) and utilize or provide for...

  8. Cervix-to-rectum measuring device in a radiation applicator for use in the treatment of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischell, D.R.; Mazique, J.C.

    1981-10-01

    A cervix-to-rectum measuring device to be used in the treatment of cervical cancer is described. It includes a handle and a probe pivotably connected to the handle for insertion in the rectum. The measuring device further includes means for coupling the handle to an intrauterine radiation applicator when the latter is positioned in the uterine cervix and the probe is inserted in the rectum to pivot the handle about the probe. A gear is provided which is adapted to pivot with the probe. A pinion pivotably connected to the handle meshes with the gear. A pointer fixed to the pinion is displaced in response to the pivoting of the handle about the probe, and this displacement can be read from a scale on the handle, providing an indication of the cervix-to-rectum distance. Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

  9. Standard practice for application of thermoluminescence-dosimetry (TLD) systems for determining absorbed dose in radiation-hardness testing of electronic devices. ASTM standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-10 on Nuclear Technology and Applications and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E10.07 on Radiation Dosimetry for Radiation Effects on Materials and Devices. Current edition approved Jun. 10, 1997. Published May 1998. Originally published as E 668-78. Last previous edition E 668-93

  10. Non-Destructive Detection and Separation of Radiation Damaged Cells in Miniaturized, Inexpensive Device, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a clear and well-identified need for rapid, efficient, non-destructive detection and isolation of radiation damaged cells. Available commercial technologies...

  11. Comparison of horizontal and vertical noise power spectrum in measurements by using various electronic portal imaging devices in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwan Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Baekseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Seo Goo [Dept. of Medical Science, Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kyung Tae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Soon Yong [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The quality assurance (QA) is very important for diagnostic field and radiation therapy field to evaluate the characteristic of devices. The purpose of this study was to compare different NPS methodologies results which are measuring NPS with regard to horizontal and vertical directions by using megavoltage X-ray energies. The NPS evaluation methods were applied to the International Electro-technical Commission standard (IEC 62220-1). The electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) devices such as Siemens BEAMVIEWPLUS, Elekta iViewGT and Varian ClinacR iX aS1000 were used. NPS data were expressed by corresponding each frequency about average of noise value corresponding the each frequency, and NPS were evaluated quantitatively by totaling up the noise values of average frequency which are on horizontal and vertical directions. In NPS results for Elekta iViewGT, NPS of horizontal and vertical by using 4 methods were indicated the difference of 3-5% between horizontal and vertical direction. In the results of Siemens BEAMVIEWPLUS and Varian ClinacR iX aS1000, the NPS of horizontal and vertical direction were indicated the difference of 15% when averaging the whole values. This study were evaluated the NPS of each devices by totaling up the noise values of average frequency which are on horizontal and vertical directions suggesting the quantitative evaluation method using the data.

  12. Deposition of tellurium films by decomposition of electrochemically-generated H{sub 2}Te: application to radiative cooling devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhard, T.; Jones, E.D.; Viney, I. [Coventry Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Data Storage Mater.; Mastai, Y.; Hodes, G. [Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot (Israel)

    2000-07-17

    The preparation of homogenous, large area thin layers of tellurium on thin polyethylene foils is described. The tellurium was formed by room temperature decomposition of electrochemically generated H{sub 2}Te. Pre-treatment of the polyethylene substrates with KMnO{sub 4} to give a Mn-oxide layer was found to improve the Te adhesion and homogeneity. Optical characterization of the layers was performed using UV/VIS/NIR spectroscopy. Such coatings have favorable characteristics for use as solar radiation shields in radiative cooling devices. The simplicity of generation of the very unstable H{sub 2}Te was also exploited to demonstrate formation of size-quantized CdTe nanocrystals. (orig.)

  13. Operating devices for radiation protection: acceptable deviations from legal metrology point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukup, T.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to draw attention to possible discrepancies in the measuring the quantities of ionizing radiation mainly in natural environment, that cannot be explained by faulty gauges. In addition I would like to draw the attention to these issue radiation protection researchers, document that uncertainties in estimating the impact of exposure and transfer them into the language of used meters tolerances. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of stability of polymeric insulation materials in radiation fields and development of radiation stable PVC and polypropylene for medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.E.; Docters, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation stability of polypropylene and polyvinylchloride medical products of local origin was evaluated, establishing their functionality by appropriate methods. A device for a mechanical test of syringes and another device for puncture testing of plastic films were constructed and tested. Shelf-life anticipation of irradiated products was examined by treating to high doses and in other cases by storing irradiated products at high temperatures. In both cases negative results would anticipate no functionality for real time aged products. Radiation stability improvement was tried by incorporating light protectors and antioxidants into polypropylene homopolymer. A composition with added light protector was obtained that did not discolor and that kept mechanical stability during aging. Polyvinylchloride tubing was examined and found stable in comparison with imported materials. A non-discoloring product could not be obtained. Evaluation of local commercial polyvinylchloride insulations of wires similar to the wires used in the conveyor system of the Irradiation Facility of Ezeiza Atomic Center suggested that the limit of 50 % reduction in elongation to break in relation to control samples as an indication of failure is too conservative, because this limit was reached much earlier than the actual period of use of installed wires. (author)

  15. Thermodynamic limits to the conversion of blackbody radiation by quantum systems. [with application to solar energy conversion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.; Smith, B. T.; Byvik, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    Using general thermodynamic arguments, we analyze the conversion of the energy contained in the radiation from a blackbody to useful work by a quantum system. We show that the energy available for conversion is bounded above by the change in free energy in the incident and reradiated fields and that this free energy change depends upon the temperature of the receiving device. Universal efficiency curves giving the ultimate thermodynamic conversion efficiency of the quantum system are presented in terms of the blackbody temperature and the temperature and threshold energy of the quantum system. Application of these results is made to a variety of systems including biological photosynthetic, photovoltaic, and photoelectrochemical systems.

  16. Visual beam tube inspection at the TRIGA reactor Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Musilek, A.; Villa, M.

    2006-01-01

    Of the four TRIGA beam tubes two have been visually inspected in 1985. Prior to the inspection the reactor was shut down for 3 weeks. The fuel elements around the beam tubes were removed. Stainless steel dummy elements were inserted in the fuel positions to shield the core radiation. The active part of the Fast Rabbit Tube was removed into the beam tube loading device and transferred to an interim storage: Front dose rate was ∼ 50 mSv/h. Generally the beam tube was very clean, after the last inspection about 30 years ago. A1 cm cut was observed at the beam tube front end. A rigid endoscope was used to check the beam tube's inner surface using a 90 degree deflection objective and photo- and video equipment. The direct dose rate in front of the beam tube was about 30 mSv/h. The beam tube was vacuum cleaned. A corroded shielding tank containing boric acid has leaked. A wooden collimator partially disintegrating due to extreme temperature was removed from beam tube D. Documentation of the inspection for visible defects is produced for later comparison

  17. Ultrasonic inspection of inpile tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.M.; Bossi, H.

    1985-01-01

    The in-service inspection (ISI) of inpile tubes can be performed accurately and safely with a semiautomatic ultrasonic inspection system. The ultrasonic technique uses a set of multiple transducers to detect and size cracks, voids, and laminations radially and circumferentially. Welds are also inspected for defects. The system is designed to inspect stainless steel and Inconel tubes ranging from 53.8 mm (2.12 in.) to 101.6 mm (4 in.) inner diameter with wall thickness on the order of 5 mm. The inspection head contains seven transducers mounted in a surface-following device. Six angle-beam transducers generate shear waves in the tubes. Two of the six are oriented to detect circumferential cracks, and two detect axial cracks. Although each of these four transducers is used in the pulse-echo mode, they are oriented in aligned sets so pitch-catch operation is possible if desired. The remaining angle-beam transducers are angulated to detect flaws that are off axial or circumferential orientation. The seventh transducer is used for longitudinal inspection and detects and sizes laminar-type defects

  18. Emulating Dynamic Radio Channels for Radiated Testing of Massive MIMO Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyösti, Pekka; Hentilä, Lassi; Kyröläinen, Jukka

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses a multi-probe anechoic chamber based (MPAC) setup, capable of reconstructing non-stationary radio propagation environments for testing of mm-wave and massive MIMO devices. The test setup is aimed for evaluation of end to end performance of devices, including hybrid beamforming...... operations of antenna arrays and base band processing, in highly time variant channel conditions. In this work we present simulated comparison of an ideal reference radio channel model and corresponding model implemented with limited resources of MPAC components. We give a qualitative analysis of the results...... with non-line of sight (NLOS) channel models, without quantitative evaluation. The example device under test (DUT) is a 8x8 planar array with half wavelength inter-element spacing....

  19. MO-C-BRB-05: Translating NIH funding to a [potential] clinical device in breast cancer radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology are arguably two of the most technologically advanced specialties in medicine. The imaging and radiation medicine technologies in clinical use today have been continuously improved through new advances made in the commercial and academic research arenas. This symposium explores the translational path from research through clinical implementation. Dr. Pettigrew will start this discussion by sharing his perspectives as director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). The NIBIB has focused on promoting research that is technological in nature and has high clinical impact. We are in the age of precision medicine, and the technological innovations and quantitative tools developed by engineers and physicists working with physicians are providing innovative tools that increase precision and improve outcomes in health care. NIBIB funded grants lead to a very high patenting rate (per grant dollar), and these patents have higher citation rates by other patents, suggesting greater clinical impact, as well. Two examples of clinical translation resulting from NIH-funded research will be presented, in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Yu will describe a stereotactic radiotherapy device developed in his laboratory that is designed for treating breast cancer with the patient in the prone position. It uses 36 rotating Cobalt-60 sources positioned in an annular geometry to focus the radiation beam at the system’s isocenter. The radiation dose is delivered throughout the target volume in the breast by constantly moving the patient in a planned trajectory relative to the fixed isocenter. With this technique, the focal spot dynamically paints the dose distribution throughout the target volume in three dimensions. Dr. Jackson will conclude this symposium by describing the RSNA Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA), which is funded in part by NIBIB and is a synergistic collaboration

  20. MO-C-BRB-05: Translating NIH funding to a [potential] clinical device in breast cancer radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C. [Univ Maryland School of Medicine (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology are arguably two of the most technologically advanced specialties in medicine. The imaging and radiation medicine technologies in clinical use today have been continuously improved through new advances made in the commercial and academic research arenas. This symposium explores the translational path from research through clinical implementation. Dr. Pettigrew will start this discussion by sharing his perspectives as director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). The NIBIB has focused on promoting research that is technological in nature and has high clinical impact. We are in the age of precision medicine, and the technological innovations and quantitative tools developed by engineers and physicists working with physicians are providing innovative tools that increase precision and improve outcomes in health care. NIBIB funded grants lead to a very high patenting rate (per grant dollar), and these patents have higher citation rates by other patents, suggesting greater clinical impact, as well. Two examples of clinical translation resulting from NIH-funded research will be presented, in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Yu will describe a stereotactic radiotherapy device developed in his laboratory that is designed for treating breast cancer with the patient in the prone position. It uses 36 rotating Cobalt-60 sources positioned in an annular geometry to focus the radiation beam at the system’s isocenter. The radiation dose is delivered throughout the target volume in the breast by constantly moving the patient in a planned trajectory relative to the fixed isocenter. With this technique, the focal spot dynamically paints the dose distribution throughout the target volume in three dimensions. Dr. Jackson will conclude this symposium by describing the RSNA Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA), which is funded in part by NIBIB and is a synergistic collaboration

  1. Approval of devices and facilities using ionizing radiations for medical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Order made by the Ministers of Health and Social Security, Agriculture and Labour amends a previous Decree of 23 April 1969 in particular concerning the classification of medical or dental radiodiagnostic devices subject to approval. The technical conditions to be complied with for such devices and facilities have also been amended. Finally, it is provided that, as regards facilities with heavy equipment subject to licensing (Act of 31 December 1970), approval is subject to compliance with the licensing conditions and is requested together with the application for a licence. (NEA) [fr

  2. Acoustofluidics: theory and simulation of radiation forces at ultrasound resonances in microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune; Bruus, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical analysis is combined with numerical simulations to optimize designs and functionalities of acoustofluidic devices, i.e. microfluidic devices in which ultrasound waves are used to anipulate biological particles. The resonance frequencies and corresponding modes of the acoustic fields...... are calculated for various specific geometries of glass/silicon chips containing water-filled microchannels. A special emphasis is put on taking the surrounding glass/silicon material into account, thus going beyond the traditional transverse half-wavelength picture. For the resonance frequencies, where...

  3. Process and devices of detection of hard electromagnetic or particle radiations using a superconducting element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukier, A.K.; Valette, Claude; Waysand, Georges.

    1975-01-01

    The invention relates to processes and systems for the detection of hard electromagnetic or particle radiations and the sensors fitted to these systems. 'Hard radiations' means those whose energy is greater than a variable threshold, depending on the applications, but always more than 5 keV. The use of these sensors and the associated systems can therefore be envisaged in radiography and also in emission gammagraphy in the biological, anatomic and medical fields. In these processes, in order to detect a photon or a radiation particle, use is made of the transition phenomenon of a homogeneous grain of superconducting material of the first kind, from the metastable superconducting state to the normal state, under the effect of a photoelectron ejected by the impact of the photon or of the particle on the grain of superconducting material [fr

  4. Device for measuring absorption of radiation in a slice of a body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, G.

    1978-01-01

    In third-generation computer tomography apparatus measuring values must be intermediately stored partly for the total scanning time in order to enable processing of all measuring values with a given projection angle. This involves high expenditures for storage means. Moreover, the applied dose is larger than required for obtaining the measuring value per se. The invention consists in that there is provided a shield which moves with the radiator but whose direction does not change in space during the measurement, but does change relative to the radiation beam. As a result, it is achieved that all measuring values with a given projection angle can be obtained within a part of the scanning time, the said part corresponding to the ratio between the opening angle of the radiation beam and the total scanning time. As a result, the cost of intermediate storage as well as the patient dose can be reduced

  5. Eye safety related to near infrared radiation exposure to biometric devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Biometrics has become an emerging field of technology due to its intrinsic security features concerning the identification of individuals by means of measurable biological characteristics. Two of the most promising biometric modalities are iris and retina recognition, which primarily use nonionizing radiation in the infrared region. Illumination of the eye is achieved by infrared light emitting diodes (LEDs). Even if few LED sources are capable of causing direct eye damage as they emit incoherent light, there is a growing concern about the possible use of LED arrays that might pose a potential threat. Exposure to intense coherent infrared radiation has been proven to have significant effects on living tissues. The purpose of this study is to explore the biological effects arising from exposing the eye to near infrared radiation with reference to international legislation.

  6. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomer, Kayle D.; Engeman, Jason K.; Gunter, Jason R.; Joslyn, Cameron C.; Vazquez, Brandon J.; Venetz, Theodore J.; Garfield, John S.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line

  7. Automatic gamma radiation scanning device and feed mechanism for plural sample holders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    Apparatus is disclosed for measuring the level of gamma radiation contained in a plurality of biological samples which are located on the fibrous sheet member carried by a sample holder. The apparatus is adapted to count the radiation level of the number of closely spaced samples located in rows and columns on the sheet by automatically sequencing through the individual samples within the rows and to advance the holder to bring successive rows into proximity with the detector. The detector is moved from sample to sample within the rows, although a number of detectors can be employed. A plurality of sample holders are automatically advanced to the detector. 25 claims, 5 drawing figures

  8. Nano scale Devices for Rectification of High Frequency Radiation from the Infrared through the Visible: A New Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskovsky, N.M.; Cutler, P.H.; Miskovsky, N.M.; Cutler, P.H.; Lerne, P.B.; Mayer, A.; Weiss, B.L.; Willis, B.; Sullivan, T.E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new and viable method for optical rectification. This approach has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally and is the basis fot the development of devices to rectify radiation through the visible. This technique for rectification is based not on conventional material or temperature asymmetry as used in MIM (metal/insulator/metal) or Schottky diodes, but on a purely sharp geometric property of the antenna. This sharp tip or edge with a collector anode constitutes a tunnel junction. In these devices the rectenna (consisting of the antenna and the tunnel junction) acts as the absorber of the incident radiation and the rectifier. Using current nano fabrication techniques and the selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) process, junctions of 1?nm can be fabricated, which allow for rectification of frequencies up to the blue portion of the spectrum. To assess the viability of our approach, we review the development of nano antenna structures and tunnel junctions capable of operating in the visible region. In addition, we review the detailed process of rectification and present methodologies for analysis of diode data. Finally, we present operational designs for an optical rectenna and its fabrication and discuss outstanding problems and future work.

  9. Nanoscale Devices for Rectification of High Frequency Radiation from the Infrared through the Visible: A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Miskovsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new and viable method for optical rectification. This approach has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally and is the basis fot the development of devices to rectify radiation through the visible. This technique for rectification is based not on conventional material or temperature asymmetry as used in MIM (metal/insulator/metal or Schottky diodes, but on a purely sharp geometric property of the antenna. This sharp “tip” or edge with a collector anode constitutes a tunnel junction. In these devices the rectenna (consisting of the antenna and the tunnel junction acts as the absorber of the incident radiation and the rectifier. Using current nanofabrication techniques and the selective atomic layer deposition (ALD process, junctions of 1 nm can be fabricated, which allow for rectification of frequencies up to the blue portion of the spectrum. To assess the viability of our approach, we review the development of nanoantenna structures and tunnel junctions capable of operating in the visible region. In addition, we review the detailed process of rectification and present methodologies for analysis of diode data. Finally, we present operational designs for an optical rectenna and its fabrication and discuss outstanding problems and future work.

  10. 47 CFR 2.1091 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transmission of a signal. In general, maximum average power levels must be used to determine compliance. (3) If... workers that can be easily re-located, such as wireless devices associated with a personal computer, are... Satellite Communications Services, the General Wireless Communications Service, the Wireless Communications...

  11. Impact on reproducibility of the treatment position by improving immobilization device in image guided radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Yuko; Sasaki, Junichi; Shiomi, Hiroya; Oh, Ryoongjin; Inoue, Toshihiko; Tajiri, Shingo

    2012-01-01

    The immobilization device for treatment becomes important to obtain fixation and reproducibility of the treatment position. It was confirmed that reproducibility of the treatment position obtains higher accuracy by the method of using immobilization device. We divided into three terms by the methods of immobilization. An infrared reflective marker performs the setup of a position at the start of treatment, and setup of the patient in a fixed implement is performed by ExacTrac. Difference between coordinates of the immobilization device and the patient position was calculated by the vector in three directions. We estimated the position error index (PE index ) by using the square root of the sum of square of each vectors, and evaluated the amount of differences of patient position at three terms. Mean and standard deviation of index values were 9.53±7.21, 8.50±5.93, and 6.42±3.80 at each three terms. With every passing year, the amount of gap and difference of the patient fixation has decreased. By the improvement of the use of the immobilization device, gap and difference of fixation has decreased. Accordingly, we could obtain better accuracy of fixation. (author)

  12. Holographic inspection of nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, A.L.; Armour, I.A.; Glanville, R.; Malcolm, G.J.; Wright, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The high resolution, enormous depth of field and high tolerance to radiation of holography mean that it has great potential as an inspection tool in the nuclear industry. In addition, the ability of double-pulse holography to yield detailed information on vibration over the whole field of both large and small structures provides measurements that often cannot be obtained in any other way. This paper reviews the development of equipment for the holographic inspection of nuclear fuel elements; a portable holocamera for use inside reactors; and the application of holographic techniques for vibration measurements in a nuclear power station. (author)

  13. Radiation hormesis using an x-ray radiography device. The fourth report. Radiation hormesis of salad rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Atsushi; Nakayama, Miho

    2006-01-01

    Radiation hormesis was studied for salad rocket plant (Eruca vesicaria sp.sativa), using different energies of X-ray (100 kV and 10 MV). To get the optimum dose for plant to provide the highest growth, the dose for the seeds was changed from 0 to 3000 mGy using 100 kV of X-ray. The highest growth of the plant was found for the dose of 600 mGy. When the seeds were irradiated to 600 mGy with 100 kV and 10 MV X-rays, in both cases, the growth of the irradiated seeds was higher than those without irradiation, where P-values were 0.0112 and 0.0214, respectively. In the case of 600 mGy irradiation, there was not any significant change in the plant growth between the seeds irradiated with 10 MV and 100 kV X-ray (P=0.862). (author)

  14. Method and device for the examination of a body by penetrating radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    This radiological method of examination of the tomographical section of a body uses radiation between 0.2 and 2.0 MeV which is deflected in the body. The body is irradiated with a thin, parallel beam of rays emitted by a radiation source. On the side of the body opposite to the radiation source, three circular banks for detectors are arranged in a plane. The plane is crossed perpendicularly by the axis of the incident beam while the detector banks are arranged concentrically with regard to the point of intersection of the beam and the plane. The angle of deflection of a scattered ray from the axis of the incident beam can thus be registered by one of the detectors. The energy of the deflected beam can also be measured so that the distance between the centre of deflection in the body and the plane of the detector banks can be determined using the Compton scattering equation. The detectors used for the determination of the radiation energy contain Li-drifted Si or Ge, or CdTe. (HP/AK) [de

  15. QUANTUM ELECTRONIC DEVICES: Superconducting Nb3Sn point contact in the submillimeter range of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenov, É. M.; Danileĭko, M. V.; Derkach, V. E.; Romanenko, V. I.; Uskov, A. V.

    1988-05-01

    An investigation was made of the influence of submillimeter radiation emitted by an HCN laser operating at a frequency νl = 891 GHz on a superconducting point contact made of Nb3Sn. Three steps of the electric current were recorded. The experimental results indicated that such a contact could be used for frequency multiplication up to 3 THz.

  16. RD50 Status Report 2008 - Radiation hard semiconductor devices for very high luminosity colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Campabadal, Francesca; Díez, Sergio; Fleta, Celeste; Lozano, Manuel; Pellegrini, Giulio; Rafí, Joan Marc; Ullán, Miguel; Creanza, Donato; De Palma, Mauro; Fedele, Francesca; Manna, Norman; Kierstead, Jim; Li, Zheng; Buda, Manuela; Lazanu, Sorina; Pintilie, Lucian; Pintilie, Ioana; Popa, Andreia-Ioana; Lazanu, Ionel; Collins, Paula; Fahrer, Manuel; Glaser, Maurice; Joram, Christian; Kaska, Katharina; La Rosa, Alessandro; Mekki, Julien; Moll, Michael; Pacifico, Nicola; Pernegger, Heinz; Goessling, Claus; Klingenberg, Reiner; Weber, Jens; Wunstorf, Renate; Roeder, Ralf; Stolze, Dieter; Uebersee, Hartmut; Cihangir, Selcuk; Kwan, Simon; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Bruzzi, Mara; Focardi, Ettore; Menichelli, David; Scaringella, Monica; Breindl, Michael; Eckert, Simon; Köhler, Michael; Kuehn, Susanne; Parzefall, Ulrich; Wiik, Liv; Bates, Richard; Blue, Andrew; Buttar, Craig; Doherty, Freddie; Eklund, Lars; Bates, Alison G; Haddad, Lina; Houston, Sarah; James, Grant; Mathieson, Keith; Melone, J; OShea, Val; Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David; Buhmann, Peter; Eckstein, Doris; Fretwurst, Eckhart; Hönniger, Frank; Khomenkov, Vladimir; Klanner, Robert; Lindström, Gunnar; Pein, Uwe; Srivastava, Ajay; Härkönen, Jaakko; Lassila-Perini, Katri; Luukka, Panja; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuovinen, Esa; Eremin, Vladimir; Ilyashenko, Igor; Ivanov, Alexandr; Kalinina, Evgenia; Lebedev, Alexander; Strokan, Nikita; Verbitskaya, Elena; Barcz, Adam; Brzozowski, Andrzej; Kaminski, Pawel; Kozlowski, Roman; Kozubal, Michal; Luczynski, Zygmunt; Pawlowski, Marius; Surma, Barbara; Zelazko, Jaroslaw; de Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Frey, Martin; Hartmann, Frank; Zhukov, Valery; Barabash, L; Dolgolenko, A; Groza, A; Karpenko, A; Khivrich, V; Lastovetsky, V; Litovchenko, P; Polivtsev, L; Campbell, Duncan; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Fox, Harald; Hughes, Gareth; Jones, Brian Keith; Sloan, Terence; Samadashvili, Nino; Tuuva, Tuure; Affolder, Anthony; Allport, Phillip; Bowcock, Themis; Casse, Gianluigi; Vossebeld, Joost; Cindro, Vladimir; Dolenc, Irena; Kramberger, Gregor; Mandic, Igor; Mikuž, Marko; Zavrtanik, Marko; Zontar, Dejan; Gil, Eduardo Cortina; Grégoire, Ghislain; Lemaitre, Vincent; Militaru, Otilia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Kazuchits, Nikolai; Makarenko, Leonid; Charron, Sébastien; Genest, Marie-Helene; Houdayer, Alain; Lebel, Celine; Leroy, Claude; Aleev, Andrey; Golubev, Alexander; Grigoriev, Eugene; Karpov, Aleksey; Martemianov, Alxander; Rogozhkin, Sergey; Zaluzhny, Alexandre; Andricek, Ladislav; Beimforde, Michael; Macchiolo, Anna; Moser, Hans-Günther; Nisius, Richard; Richter, Rainer; Gorelov, Igor; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Metcalfe, Jessica; Seidel, Sally; Toms, Konstantin; Hartjes, Fred; Koffeman, Els; van der Graaf, Harry; Visschers, Jan; Kuznetsov, Andrej; Sundnes Løvlie, Lars; Monakhov, Edouard; Svensson, Bengt G; Bisello, Dario; Candelori, Andrea; Litovchenko, Alexei; Pantano, Devis; Rando, Riccardo; Bilei, Gian Mario; Passeri, Daniele; Petasecca, Marco; Pignatel, Giorgio Umberto; Bernardini, Jacopo; Borrello, Laura; Dutta, Suchandra; Fiori, Francesco; Messineo, Alberto; Bohm, Jan; Mikestikova, Marcela; Popule, Jiri; Sicho, Petr; Tomasek, Michal; Vrba, Vaclav; Broz, Jan; Dolezal, Zdenek; Kodys, Peter; Tsvetkov, Alexej; Wilhelm, Ivan; Chren, Dominik; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Kohout, Zdenek; Pospisil, Stanislav; Solar, Michael; Sopko, Vít; Sopko, Bruno; Uher, Josef; Horisberger, Roland; Radicci, Valeria; Rohe, Tilman; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; Giolo, Kim; Miyamoto, Jun; Rott, Carsten; Roy, Amitava; Shipsey, Ian; Son, SeungHee; Demina, Regina; Korjenevski, Sergey; Grillo, Alexander; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Schumm, Bruce; Seiden, Abraham; Spence, Ned; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Artuso, Marina; Borgia, Alessandra; Lefeuvre, Gwenaelle; Guskov, J; Marunko, Sergey; Ruzin, Arie; Tylchin, Tamir; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian - Franco; Gregori, Paolo; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Zen, Mario; Zorzi, Nicola; Garcia, Carmen; Lacasta, Carlos; Marco, Ricardo; Marti i Garcia, Salvador; Minano, Mercedes; Soldevila-Serrano, Urmila; Gaubas, Eugenijus; Kadys, Arunas; Kazukauskas, Vaidotas; Sakalauskas, Stanislavas; Storasta, Jurgis; Vidmantis Vaitkus, Juozas; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the CERN RD50 Collaboration is the development of radiation hard semiconductor detectors for very high luminosity colliders, particularly to face the requirements of a possible upgrade scenario of the LHC.This document reports the status of research and main results obtained after the sixth year of activity of the collaboration.

  17. Solid-state device for detecting and locating the points of impact of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougeot, H.; Roziere, G.

    1979-01-01

    A semiconductor body contains microscopic passages in which multiplication of the free electrons appearing at the entrances to said passages, under the effect of the incident ionizing radiation, takes place. A conductive film forms a surface barrier in conjunction with the semiconductor body which is endowed with the property of secondary emission with an emission coefficient better than unity

  18. Ultraviolet radiation after exposure to a low-fluence IPL home-use device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Erlendsson, Andres M; Nash, J F

    2015-01-01

    The prevailing advice is to avoid sun exposure after intense pulsed light (IPL) hair removal. However, no systematic evaluation of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) after IPL hair removal exits. Therefore, we investigated the occurrence of side effects in subjects receiving solar-simulated UVR after...

  19. RD50 Status Report 2009/2010 - Radiation hard semiconductor devices for very high luminosity colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Moll, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the CERN RD50 Collaboration is the development of radiation hard semiconductor detectors for very high luminosity colliders, particularly to face the requirements for the upgrade of the LHC detectors. This document reports on the status of research and main results obtained in the years 2009 and 2010.

  20. Development of data acquisition and processing system for In-service inspection of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takama, Shinkichi; Kobayashi, Koji; Satoh, Yoshio; Koga, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Takakazu

    1981-01-01

    In-service inspection (ISI) is required during the plant outage to assure the reliability of the components of a nuclear power plant. IHI has developed the advanced ISI system which consists of remote controlled and mechanized ultrasonic inspection devices for reactor pressure vessel examination, semi-automatic inspection instruments for piping examination with manual scan and automatic recording, data acquisition and processing system with microprocessor and mini-computer. By this system, ISI can be performed fully satisfying the requirement of ASME Code Sec. XI and minimizing operation in the high radioactive areas. All ultrasonic information is processed by the computer and the examination results such as size and location of ultrasonic indication are printed out in the form of sectional and plan view of the part examined, reproduced screen image and polar plot, etc. as well as the evaluation sheet. This system saves the elaborate work of inspection personnel and is expected to contribute to the improvement of inspection quality and to the reduction of radiation exposure of inspection personnel. (author)

  1. Development approach on usage of radiation and inspection of QA according to the change of approval procedure of safety regulatory guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, B. J.; Ahn, H. Z.; Kim, S. W.; Yoo, S. O.; Kang, S. C.; Yang, S. H.; Han, S. J.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. J.

    2002-01-01

    In accordance with 2001 amendment of the Atomic Energy Act(AEA), KINS also amended its internal 'Regulation on Implementation of Entrusted AEA-related Work'. Up to now the nuclear safety-specialized institute has used its internally developed guidelines in the safety regulation. From now on, however, the institute will enhance the objectivity and transparency by having the instruments approved by the Ministry of Science ad Technology. In this paper, we introduced the major points and directions to be considered to the development of the safety regulatory guides on Inspection for the quality assurance of the nuclear reactor facilities and the use of radioisotopes, and review and inspection for dosimeter reading

  2. Biological in situ Dose Painting for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy Using Drug-Loaded Implantable Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormack, Robert A.; Sridhar, Srinivas; Suh, W. Warren; D'Amico, Anthony V.; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Implantable devices routinely used for increasing spatial accuracy in modern image-guided radiation treatments (IGRT), such as fiducials or brachytherapy spacers, encompass the potential for in situ release of biologically active drugs, providing an opportunity to enhance the therapeutic ratio. We model this new approach for two types of treatment. Methods and Materials: Radiopaque fiducials used in IGRT, or prostate brachytherapy spacers ('eluters'), were assumed to be loaded with radiosensitizer for in situ drug slow release. An analytic function describing the concentration of radiosensitizer versus distance from eluters, depending on diffusion-elimination properties of the drug in tissue, was developed. Tumor coverage by the drug was modeled for tumors typical of lung stereotactic body radiation therapy treatments for various eluter dimensions and drug properties. Six prostate 125 I brachytherapy cases were analyzed by assuming implantation of drug-loaded spacers. Radiosensitizer-induced subvolume boost was simulated from which biologically effective doses for typical radiosensitizers were calculated in one example. Results: Drug distributions from three-dimensional arrangements of drug eluters versus eluter size and drug properties were tabulated. Four radiosensitizer-loaded fiducials provide adequate radiosensitization for ∼4-cm-diameter lung tumors, thus potentially boosting biologically equivalent doses in centrally located stereotactic body treated lesions. Similarly, multiple drug-loaded spacers provide prostate brachytherapy with flexible shaping of 'biologically equivalent doses' to fit requirements difficult to meet by using radiation alone, e.g., boosting a high-risk region juxtaposed to the urethra while respecting normal tissue tolerance of both the urethra and the rectum. Conclusions: Drug loading of implantable devices routinely used in IGRT provides new opportunities for therapy modulation via biological in situ dose painting.

  3. The Pocketable Electronic Devices in Radiation Oncology (PEDRO) Project: How the Use of Tools in Medical Decision Making is Changing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bari, Berardino; Franco, Pierfrancesco; Niyazi, Maximilian; Cornetto, Andrea Peruzzo; Qvortrup, Camilla; Martin, Arturo Navarro; Cacicedo, Jon; Fernandez, Gonçalo; Louro, Luís Vasco; Lestrade, Laëtitia; Ciammella, Patrizia; Greto, Daniela; Checkrine, Tarik; Youssef, Elkholti; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Poulsen, Laurids Østergaard; Alongi, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the impact of mobile electronic devices (MEDs) and apps in the daily clinical activity of young radiation or clinical oncologists in 5 Western European countries (Italy, Germany, Spain, Portugal, and Denmark). A web-based questionnaire was sent to 462 young (≤40 years) members of the national radiation or clinical oncology associations of the countries involved in the study. The 15 items investigated diffusion of MEDs (smartphones and/or tablets), their impact on daily clinical activity, and the differences perceived by participants along time. A total of 386 (83.5%) of the 462 correctly filled questionnaires were statistically evaluated. Up to 65% of respondents declared to use an electronic device during their clinical activity. Conversely, 72% considered low to moderate impact of smartphones/tables on their daily practice. The daily use significantly increased from 2009 to 2012: users reporting a use ≥6 times/d raised from 5% to 39.9%. Professional needs fulfillment was declared by less than 68% of respondents and compliance to apps indications by 66%. Significant differences were seen among the countries, in particular concerning the feeling of usefulness of MEDs in the daily clinical life. The perception of the need of a comprehensive Web site containing a variety of applications (apps) for clinical use significantly differed among countries in 2009, while it was comparable in 2012. This survey showed a large diffusion of MEDs in young professionals working in radiation oncology. Looking at these data, it is important to verify the consistency of information found within apps, in order to avoid potential errors eventually detrimental for patients. "Quality assurance" criteria should be specifically developed for medical apps and a comprehensive Web site gathering all reliable applications and tools might be useful for daily clinical practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. A device for the application of uniaxial strain to single crystal samples for use in synchrotron radiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gannon, L. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford Physics Department, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 ODE (United Kingdom); Bosak, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Burkovsky, R. G. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, 29 Politekhnicheskaya, 195251, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nisbet, G.; Hoesch, M., E-mail: Moritz.Hoesch@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 ODE (United Kingdom); Petrović, A. P. [DPMC-MaNEP, Université de Genève, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, 1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    We present the design, construction, and testing of a straining device compatible with many different synchrotron radiation techniques, in a wide range of experimental environments (including low temperature, high field and ultra-high vacuum). The device has been tested by X-ray diffraction on single crystal samples of quasi-one-dimensional Cs{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6} and K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6}, in which microscopic strains up to a Δc/c = 0.12% ± 0.01% change in the c lattice parameters have been achieved. We have also used the device in an inelastic X-ray scattering experiment, to probe the strain-dependent speed of sound ν along the c axis. A reduction Δν/ν of up to −3.8% was obtained at a strain of Δc/c = 0.25% in K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6}.

  5. How Agencies Inspect. A Comparative Study of Inspection Policies in Eight Swedish Government Agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, Lars; Clausen, Jonas; Edvardsson, Karin; Hayenhielm, Madeleine; Hermansson, Helene; Nihlen, Jessica; Palm, Elin; Ruden, Christina; Wikman, Per; Hansson, Sven Ove

    2003-04-01

    Eight Swedish authorities with inspection tasks in the areas of health, safety, and environmental protection have been compared, namely the authorities responsible for nuclear safety, radiation protection, railway, marine and aviation safety, environmental protection, chemicals control, and health and safety on workplaces. Significant differences in inspection policies and practices between the authorities were found, such as: diverging definitions of supervision and inspection that complicate comparisons, different priority-setting principles for inspections, variations in inspection frequencies (between 13 and 0.03 inspections per company and year), different practices with respect to notifying companies before inspection visits, and in particular, large differences in the extent to which non-compliance with regulations is reported to legal authorities. It was concluded that these agencies have much to gain from increasing their cooperation in methods development, evaluation studies, and education of inspectors

  6. In-service inspection of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapin, M.; Saglio, R.

    1983-01-01

    French legislation, which is more demanding than in other countries, had led Electricite de France, the State-owned utility, to acquire better performance in-service inspection facilities than those which existed previously. This fact has spurred the industrial development of the new technical facilities which are used worldwide today. This article presents the ''in-service inspection machine'' (MIS) for the inspection of the welds of a PWR vessel, and the inspection device of steam generator tubes; the MIS allow a remote-viewing, ultrasonic and gamma-graphic inspection; Foucault currents are the only one method adapted to the inspection steam generator tubes [fr

  7. Comparison of noise power spectrum methodologies in measurements by using various electronic portal imaging devices in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Soon Yong [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwan Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Baekseok Culture University College, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kyung Tae [Dep. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ah; Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Whan [Shingu University College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The noise power spectrum (NPS) is one of the most general methods for measuring the noise amplitude and the quality of an image acquired from a uniform radiation field. The purpose of this study was to compare different NPS methodologies by using megavoltage X-ray energies. The NPS evaluation methods in diagnostic radiation were applied to therapy using the International Electro-technical Commission standard (IEC 62220-1). Various radiation therapy (RT) devices such as TrueBeamTM(Varian), BEAMVIEWPLUS(Siemens), iViewGT(Elekta) and ClinacR iX (Varian) were used. In order to measure the region of interest (ROI) of the NPS, we used the following four factors: the overlapping impact, the non-overlapping impact, the flatness and penumbra. As for NPS results, iViewGT(Elekta) had the higher amplitude of noise, compared to BEAMVIEWPLUS (Siemens), TrueBeamTM(Varian) flattening filter, ClinacRiXaS1000(Varian) and TrueBeamTM(Varian) flattening filter free. The present study revealed that various factors could be employed to produce megavoltage imaging (MVI) of the NPS and as a baseline standard for NPS methodologies control in MVI.

  8. Definition and production of calibration standard neutron sources for radiation protection device calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Matos, E.

    1987-01-01

    To improve the characterization of radioprotection devices performances, it would be advisable to calibrate these devices in neutron spectra which are nearly like those met in practice (nuclear reactors, plutonium technology laboratories...). The purpose of this work is, in a first time, to choose the nature and the dimensions of the different shields used to achieve broad typical neutron spectra extending to lower energies from a 14.8 MeV neutron beam. The second step is the evaluation of spectral distribution and calculation of associated dosimetric quantities. For that, several spectrometric techniques are employed: on one hand, activation detectors and Bonner spheres method named rough spectrometry; on the other hand, an accurate spectrometry which uses recoil proton counters. The dosimetric quantities, especially the value of kerma deduced from these spectra must be in good agreement with those measured with a tissue equivalent ionization chamber [fr

  9. Characterizing effects of radiation on forward and reverse saturation characteristics of N-channel devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar Ali, M.N.; Bhuva, B.; Kerns, S.; Maher, M.; Lawrence, R.

    1999-01-01

    The forward and reverse characteristics of an N-channel device during the saturation mode of operation are used to determine the extent of damage non-uniformity along the channel. The non-uniformity at low total dose exposures is caused by bulk oxide trap. At higher doses, non-uniformity are dominated by interface traps. The unmatched forward and reverse characteristics will be a major problem for memory circuits for advanced technologies. (authors)

  10. Using CID for internals visual inspection and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Solid state sensors for video camera applications, notably the CCD (charge coupled device), tend to be much more compact than conventional tubes and therefore offer advantages in remote viewing applications. A major drawback in the nuclear context, however, is their low tolerance to radiation. Recently, however, Electricite de France and the French company Image Technologie have been working on a solid state vision system using CID (Charge injection device) technology, which is radiation resistant up to 10 5 gamma absorbed dose. The particular application is inspection and measurement of clearances in PWR core guide tubes. The system promises to save outage time by combining metrology with visual inspection - effectively two tools in one. Clearance measurements are made via the screen on the operator's computerized control system using an electronic grid system. Images can then be stored on magnetic tape. The CID camera is located at the lower end of a system of linked rods. The rods connect to a special head at the upper end, which provides fine height adjustment of the tool assembly. (author)

  11. Status of radiation detector and neutron monitor technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y K; Ha, J H; Han, S H; Hong, S B; Hwang, I K; Lee, W G; Moon, B S; Park, S H; Song, M H

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we describe the current states of the radiation detection technology, detectors for industrial application, and neutron monitors. We also survey the new technologies being applied to this field. The method to detect radiation is the measurement of the observable secondary effect from the interaction between incident radiation and detector material, such as ionization, excitation, fluorescence, and chemical reaction. The radiation detectors can be categorized into gas detectors, scintillation detectors, and semiconductor detectors according to major effects and main applications. This report contains the current status and operational principles of these detectors. The application fields of radiation detectors are industrial measurement system, in-core neutron monitor, medical radiation diagnostic device, nondestructive inspection device, environmental radiation monitoring, cosmic-ray measurement, security system, fundamental science experiment, and radiation measurement standardization. The st...

  12. Control method and device for automatic drift stabilization in radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, F.; Kubisiak, H.

    1979-01-01

    In the automatic control circuit individual electron peaks in the detectors, e.g. NaI crystals or proportional counters, are used. These peaks exhibit no drift dependence; they may be produced in the detectors in different ways. The control circuit may be applied in nuclear radiation measurement techniques, photometry, gamma cameras and for measuring the X-ray fine structure with proportional counters. (DG) [de

  13. Non-contact distance measurement and profilometry using thermal near-field radiation towards a high resolution inspection and metrology solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijster, R.J.F.; Sadeghian Marnani, H.; van Keulen, A.; Sanchez, M.I.; Ukraintsev, V.A.

    2016-01-01

    Optical near-field technologies such as solid immersion lenses and hyperlenses are candidate solutions for high resolution and high throughput wafer inspection and metrology for the next technology nodes. Besides sub-diffraction limited optical performance, these concepts share the necessity of

  14. Device for monitoring X-ray radiation and method of using same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Each of a plurality of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's) is secured to one of a plurality of slides, which are removably mounted in a like plurality of pockets formed in a generally wallet-sized carrier to open on one edge thereof. One additional TLD is secured in a recess in one corner of the carrier to be exposed to all X-ray radiation which falls upon the carrier. Each slide is releasably secured in its associated pocket by means which prevents accidental removal of the side from the pocket. Whenever the owner of the carrier is subjected to an X-ray examination, he or she removes from the carrier one of the slides having thereon an unused TLD, and by a means of adhesive on the back of the slide adheres the associated TLD directly in the path of the X-ray radiation to which the patient is subjected during the examination. After the examination the slide is returned to its pocket in the carrier. Periodically the used TLD elements, as well as the non-removable TLD element, can be processed in a conventional manner to determine the total amount of radiation recorded by the respective elements. In one embodiment the removable slides are housed in lead-lined pockets and beneath a lead-lined, hinged cover member

  15. Holography for fast reactor inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozer, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    Holography, an optical process whereby an image of the original subject can be reconstructed in three dimensions, is being developed for use as an optical inspection tool. With a potential information storage density of 10 16 bits/m 2 , the ability to reconstruct in 3 dimensions, a depth of field of up to 8 metres, extremely wide angle of view, and potentially diffraction limited resolution, holography should be invaluable for the optical recording of fast reactors during construction, and the inspection of optically accessible regions during operation, or maintenance down-times. The photographic emulsions used for high resolution holography are fine-grained and fog only very slowly when subjected to γ-radiation, so that inspection of highly radio-active regions and components can be effected satisfactorily. Some of the practical limitations affecting holography are described and ways of overcoming them discussed. Some preliminary results are presented. (author)

  16. Radiation practices. Annual report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantanen, E. (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    1760 safety licences for the use of radiation were current at the end of 2010. 1789 responsible parties were engaged in notifiable licence-exempt dental X-ray activities. Use of radiation was controlled through regular inspections performed at places of use, test packages sent by post to dental X-ray facilities and maintenance of the Dose Register. Radiation safety guides were also published and research was conducted in support of regulatory control. The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) conducted 384 inspections of licensed practices in 2010. 447 repair orders and recommendations were issued in the course of inspections. A total of nearly 12 100 workers were subject to individual monitoring in 2010. Just under 160 000 dose entries were made in the Dose Register maintained by STUK. Regulatory control of natural radiation focused on radon at workplaces and exposure of aircrews to cosmic radiation. 140 workplaces including a total of 348 work areas were subject to radon monitoring during 2010. 3428 cockpit and cabin crew members were monitored for exposure to cosmic radiation. STUK took part in three major ionizing radiation research projects. An IAEA research project tested diagnostic dosimetry guidelines. The accuracy and reliability of internal and external radiotherapy dosimetric methods in modern radiotherapy technology were studied as part of a European metrology research programme. In metrological activities the dosemeter calibration procedure for radiotherapy accelerator electron beams was modified by changing from meter calibrations in hospitals to laboratory calibrations. Some irradiation appliances were also replaced. Calibration services continued as in previous years. Regulatory control of the use of non-ionizing radiation in 2010 focused particularly on mobile phones, sunbeds and lasers. 16 sunbed facilities were inspected and 8 on-site laser display inspections were performed. Ten mobile phone types were tested in market surveillance of

  17. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  18. Tire inspection system with shielded x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisner, D.N.; Palermo, A. Jr.; Loyer, P.K.

    1976-01-01

    An automated tire inspection system is described which employs a penetrative radiation, such as x-radiation, to inspect the integrity of portions of tires fed sequentially along a feed path through a centering station and into a shielded enclosure where an inspection station is defined. Features of the system include a continuously operating x-ray source movable between inspection and retracted positions, and an x-ray shield for covering the source when it is retracted to permit the doors of the shielded enclosure to be opened without danger from escaping radiation. 19 Claims, 38 Drawing Figures

  19. Real-time and on-site γ-ray radiation response testing system for semiconductor devices and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Yifei, E-mail: Y.Mu@student.liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Zhao, Ce Zhou, E-mail: cezhou.zhao@xjtlu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Qi, Yanfei, E-mail: yanfei.qi01@xjtlu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Lam, Sang, E-mail: s.lam@xjtlu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhao, Chun, E-mail: garyzhao@ust.hk [Nano and Advanced Materials Institute, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Lu, Qifeng, E-mail: qifeng@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Cai, Yutao, E-mail: yutao.cai@xjtlu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Mitrovic, Ivona Z., E-mail: ivona@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Taylor, Stephen, E-mail: s.taylor@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Chalker, Paul R., E-mail: pchalker@liverpool.ac.uk [Center for Materials and Structures, School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    The construction of a turnkey real-time and on-site radiation response testing system for semiconductor devices is reported. Components of an on-site radiation response probe station, which contains a 1.11 GBq Cs{sup 137} gamma (γ)-ray source, and equipment of a real-time measurement system are described in detail for the construction of the whole system. The real-time measurement system includes a conventional capacitance–voltage (C–V) and stress module, a pulse C–V and stress module, a conventional current–voltage (I–V) and stress module, a pulse I–V and stress module, a DC on-the-fly (OTF) module and a pulse OTF module. Electrical characteristics of MOS capacitors or MOSFET devices are measured by each module integrated in the probe station under continuous γ-ray exposure and the measurement results are presented. The dose rates of different gate dielectrics are calculated by a novel calculation model based on the Cs{sup 137} γ-ray source placed in the probe station. For the sake of operators’ safety, an equivalent dose rate of 70 nSv/h at a given operation distance is indicated by a dose attenuation model in the experimental environment. HfO{sub 2} thin films formed by atomic layer deposition are employed to investigate the radiation response of the high-κ material by using the conventional C–V and pulse C–V modules. The irradiation exposure of the sample is carried out with a dose rate of 0.175 rad/s and ±1 V bias in the radiation response testing system. Analysis of flat-band voltage shifts (ΔV{sub FB}) of the MOS capacitors suggests that the on-site and real-time/pulse measurements detect more serious degradation of the HfO{sub 2} thin films compared with the off-site irradiation and conventional measurement techniques.

  20. Radiation hormesis of radish using an X-ray photography device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Atsushi [Asahikawa Kousei Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Radiation hormesis was studied at an X-ray photography room. Seed of radish (Kaiwaredaikon) was irradiated by X-ray, from 10 to 3000 mGy. Since the growth of plant was the highest around 500 mGy, 100 seeds were irradiated at a dose of 500 mGy. Fifty seeds were selected and the growth rate was measured after 1 and 2 weeks. After 2 weeks, the growth of the seeds irradiated (129{+-}5 mm) was found to be higher than those without irradiation (115{+-}5 mm). (author)

  1. Inquiry about the uses of special equipment (CT equipment, angiography systems, mammography devices, screens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwager, P.; Stieve, F.E.

    1986-01-01

    There are at least 1100 special devices in medical establishment in Bavaria which require special inspection and surveillance with regard to quality of equipment and radiation protection. In addition, there are at least 53 tomographs available for operation, and at least 120 installed X-ray screens. These devices need special approval testing and quality control services as they contribute a very significant amount of the medically indicated radiation exposure of the population. Appropriate measures are explained that can be applied in order to reduce the medical radiation exposure to an optimum. (orig.) [de

  2. Axial and radial preliminary results of the neutron radiation from miniature plasma focus devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, J.; Silva, P.; Soto, L. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-07-01

    As first step of a program to design a repetitive pulsed neutron generator for applications, two miniature plasma foci have been designed and constructed at the Chilean commission of nuclear energy. The devices operate at an energy level of the order of tens of joules (PF-50 J, 160 nF capacitor bank, 20-35 kV, 32-100 J, {approx} 150 ns time to peak current) and hundred of joules (PF-400 J, 880 nF, 20-35 kV, 176-539 J, {approx} 300 ns time to peak current). Neutron emission has been obtained in both devices operating in deuterium. A specific technique was necessary to develop in order to detect neutron pulsed of 10{sup 4} neutrons per shot. The maximum total neutron yield measured was of the order of 10{sup 6} and 10{sup 4} neutrons per shot in the PF-400 J and PF-50 J respectively. Axial and radial measurements of the neutron emission are presented and the anisotropy is evaluated in this work. The neutrons are measured by pairs of silver activation counters, {sup 3}He detectors and scintillator-photomultiplier detectors. (authors)

  3. A technician from NASDA test the real-time radiation monitoring device on SPACEHAB in preparation fo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A technician from the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) tests the real-time radiation monitoring device on SPACEHAB at Kennedy Space Center in preparation for the STS-89 mission, slated to be the first Shuttle launch of 1998. STS-89 will be the eighth of nine scheduled Mir dockings and will include a double module of SPACEHAB, used mainly as a large pressurized cargo container for science, logistical equipment and supplies to be exchanged between the orbiter Endeavour and the Russian Space Station Mir. The nine-day flight of STS-89 also is scheduled to include the transfer of the seventh American to live and work aboard the Russian orbiting outpost. Liftoff of Endeavour and its seven-member crew is targeted for Jan. 15, 1998, at 1:03 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  4. Development of new photon detection device for Cherenkov and fluorescence radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinti A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress on the development of a new solid state detector allowed the use of finely pixelled photocathodes obtained from silicon semiconductors. SiPM detectors seem to be an ideal tool for the detection of Cherenkov and fluorescence light in spite of their not yet resolved criticism for operating temperature and intrinsic noise. The main disadvantage of SiPM in this case is the poor sensitivity in the wavelength range 300-400 nm, where the Cherenkov light and fluorescence radiation are generated. We report on the possibility to realize a new kind of pixelled photodetector based on the use of silicon substrate with carbon nanotube compounds, more sensitive to the near UV radiation. Also if at the very beginning, the development of such detector appears very promising and useful for astroparticle physics, both in the ground based arrays and in the space experiments. The detectors are ready to be operated in conditions of measurements without signal amplification.

  5. Evaluating the Efficiency of the Device in Shielding Scattered Radiation during Treatment of Carcinoma of the Penis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gim, Yang Soo; Lee, Sun Young; Lim, Suk Gun; Gwak, Geun Tak; Park, Ju Gyeong; Lee, Seung Hoon; Hwang, Ho In; Cha, Sook Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Chonbuk National University Hoispital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    We evaluated the device that was created for maintaining the patient's setup and protecting the testicles from scattered radiation during treatment of carcinoma of the penis. The phantom testicles were made of vaseline cotton gauze and the device consisted of 5 mm of acryl box and 4 mm of lead shielding. 3 x 3 cm{sup 2}, 4 x 4 cm{sup 2}, 5 x 5 cm{sup 2}, 6 x 6 cm{sup 2}, 7 x 7 cm{sup 2} field sizes were used for this study and measurement was made at 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 cm from the lower edge of the field for 10 times with lead shielding and without the shielding respectively. 200 cGy was delivered using 6 MV photons. The scatted radiation without lead shielding at 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 cm from the lower edge of the field were 14.8-4.7 cGy with 3 x 3 cm{sup 2}, 15.7-5.2 cGy with 4 x 4 cm{sup 2}, 17.6-5.5 cGy with 5 x 5 cm{sup 2}, 19.9-6.6 cGy with 6 x 6 cm{sup 2}, 22.2-7.6 cGy with 7 x 7 cm{sup 2} and the measured dose without lead shielding were 7.1-2.6 cGy with 3 x 3 cm{sup 2}, 8.9-3.6 cGy with 4 x 4 cm{sup 2}, 12.3-4.8 cGy with 5 x 5 cm{sup 2}, 14.6-5.0 cGy with 6 x 6 cm{sup 2} and 21.1-6.4 cGy with 7 x 7 cm{sup 2}. As shown above, the scatted radiation decreased after using lead shielding. Depending of the range of field sizes, the resulting difference between without shielding values and with shielding values were: 7.8-1.1 cGy at 4 cm, 5.1-1.2 cGy at 5 cm, 3.8-1.1 cGy at 6 cm, 3.4-1.7 cGy at 7 cm, 2.8-1.7 cGy at 8 cm, 2.4-2.5 cGy at 9 cm and 2.1-1.8 cGy at 10 cm. In the situation as described above, the range in values depending on the distance was 7.8-1.1 cGy with 3 x 3 cm{sup 2}, 6.9-1.6 cGy with 4 x 4 cm{sup 2}, 5.3-0.8 cGy with 5 x 5 cm{sup 2}, 5.3-1.5 cGy with 6 x 6 cm{sup 2} and 1.1-1.8 cGy with 7 x 7 cm{sup 2}. Using the device we created to shield the testicles from scattered radiation during treatment of carcinoma of the penis, we have found that scattered radiation to the testicles is decreased by the phantom testicles, and by increasing the distance

  6. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  7. Radiation practices. Annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantanen, E.

    2003-06-01

    A total of 1820 safety licences granted for the use of radiation in Finland were current at the end of 2002. There were also 2037 undertakings for dental X-ray diagnostics (licencefree). The Safety Licence Register of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) listed 14 120 radiation devices and 262 radionuclide laboratories. In 2002, STUK performed 401 inspections of licensed practices and 25 inspections of licence-free dental X-ray practices. Restrictions were ordered on the use of one device. Repairs were ordered in 116 cases and recommended in 55 cases. No remarks were given in 254 cases. Imports of radioactive substances amounted to 110 157 GBq and exports totalled 22 359 GBq. Short-lived radionuclides produced in Finland amounted to 42 487 GBq. The STUK interim storage for radioactive wastes received 65 batches of low-level wastes. A total of 11 190 workers were individually monitored for radiation exposure at 1176 workplaces. Of these workers, some 32% were category A workers and 67% category B workers. In no case were annual dose limits exceeded. The total dose in the use of radiation and nuclear energy recorded in the STUK Dose Register was 6.35 Sv. The mean doses in typical diagnostic X-ray procedures based on phantom measurements were below the reference levels issued by the European Community, the IAEA and STUK. Accuracy of the therapeutic doses underlying good therapeutic results in radiotherapy has remained within acceptable limits, and no excessive doses jeopardizing the safety of therapy have occurred. In the regulatory control of natural radiation, inspection reports requesting performance of radon repairs or measurements of radon concentrations were sent to 145 enterprises. Underground radon inspections were performed in 4 mines and 7 excavation sites. The mean effective dose to aircraft crew caused by cosmic radiation was 1.6 mSv. Ministry of Social Affairs and Health Decree on the Limitation of Public Exposure to Non-Ionizing Radiation

  8. Theoretical study of the thermal radiation of rough surfaces. Development of a device for the measurement of emissivity, and application to AISI 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, Bruno

    1982-01-01

    Within the frame of the study of heat transfers by radiation, this research thesis addresses the theoretical and experimental determination of the directional monochromatic emissivity. After some theoretical recalls, the author presents models for a direct calculation of emissivity, which in fact calculate bidirectional reflectivity by using laws of physical optics. An experimental device has been developed for the direct measurement of directional monochromatic emissivity of materials in the infrared (wavelength from 2 to 15 microns) in a polarised radiation. This device uses double beam with double modulation. Experimental results are presented for the 316 stainless steel [fr

  9. Method for on-state measurement, trend analysis and long-term monitoring of radiation exposures in the private environment, and device for implementing the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jitschin, W.; Kalwar, K.

    1987-01-01

    Plans are made to carry out measurements by means of a radiation detector, to transmit the data to a data processing computer and to display the calculated data on one or several data output devices. The data output device can be a monitor of the computer, a television set, or an electronic printer. The computer can be a cheap, commercially available, programmable minicomputer, a home computer or a personal computer. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Photonic Integrated Circuit (PIC) Device Structures: Background, Fabrication Ecosystem, Relevance to Space Systems Applications, and Discussion of Related Radiation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Electronic integrated circuits are considered one of the most significant technological advances of the 20th century, with demonstrated impact in their ability to incorporate successively higher numbers transistors and construct electronic devices onto a single CMOS chip. Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) exist as the optical analog to integrated circuits; however, in place of transistors, PICs consist of numerous scaled optical components, including such "building-block" structures as waveguides, MMIs, lasers, and optical ring resonators. The ability to construct electronic and photonic components on a single microsystems platform offers transformative potential for the development of technologies in fields including communications, biomedical device development, autonomous navigation, and chemical and atmospheric sensing. Developing on-chip systems that provide new avenues for integration and replacement of bulk optical and electro-optic components also reduces size, weight, power and cost (SWaP-C) limitations, which are important in the selection of instrumentation for specific flight projects. The number of applications currently emerging for complex photonics systems-particularly in data communications-warrants additional investigations when considering reliability for space systems development. This Body of Knowledge document seeks to provide an overview of existing integrated photonics architectures; the current state of design, development, and fabrication ecosystems in the United States and Europe; and potential space applications, with emphasis given to associated radiation effects and reliability.

  11. Dosimetric properties of an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device for verification of dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, Peter B.; Popescu, Carmen C.

    2003-01-01

    Dosimetric properties of an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (EPID) for verification of dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery were investigated. The EPID was utilized with continuous frame-averaging during the beam delivery. Properties studied included effect of buildup, dose linearity, field size response, sampling of rapid multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf speeds, response to dose-rate fluctuations, memory effect, and reproducibility. The dependence of response on EPID calibration and a dead time in image frame acquisition occurring every 64 frames were measured. EPID measurements were also compared to ion chamber and film for open and wedged static fields and IMRT fields. The EPID was linear with dose and dose rate, and response to MLC leaf speeds up to 2.5 cm s-1 was found to be linear. A field size dependent response of up to 5% relative to d max ion-chamber measurement was found. Reproducibility was within 0.8% (1 standard deviation) for an IMRT delivery recorded at intervals over a period of one month. The dead time in frame acquisition resulted in errors in the EPID that increased with leaf speed and were over 20% for a 1 cm leaf gap moving at 1.0 cm s-1. The EPID measurements were also found to depend on the input beam profile utilized for EPID flood-field calibration. The EPID shows promise as a device for verification of IMRT, the major limitation currently being due to dead-time in frame acquisition

  12. X-ray radiation detectors of 'scintillator-photoreceiving device type' for industrial digital radiography with improved spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhykov, V.D.; Lysetska, O.K.; Opolonin, O.D.; Kozin, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    Main types of photo receivers used in X-ray digital radiography systems are luminescent screens that transfer the optical image onto charge collection instruments, which require cooling, and semiconductor silicon detectors, which limit the contrast sensitivity. We have developed and produced X-ray radiation detectors of 'scintillator-photoreceiving device' (S-PRD) type, which are integrally located on the inverse side of the photodiode (PD). The receiving-converting circuit (RCC) is designed for data conversion into digital form and their input into PC. Software is provided for RCC control and image visualization. Main advantages of these detectors are high industrial resolution (3-5 line pairs per mm), detecting activity up to 20 μm, controlled sensitivity, low weight and small size, imaging low (0.1-0.3 mrad) object dose in real time. In this work, main characteristics of 32-, 64- and 1024-channel detectors of S-PRD type were studied and compared for X-ray sensitivity with S-PD detectors. Images of the tested objects have been obtained. Recommendations are given on the use of different scintillation materials, depending upon the purpose of a digital radiographic system. The detectors operate in a broad energy range of ionizing radiation, hence the size of the controlled object is not limited. The system is sufficiently powerful to ensure frontal (through two walls) observation of pipelines with wall thickness up to 10 cm

  13. Impact of radiation history, gender and age on bone quality in sites for orthodontic skeletal anchorage device placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konermann, A; Appel, T; Wenghoefer, M; Sirokay, S; Dirk, C; Jäger, A; Götz, W

    2015-05-01

    Stability of orthodontic miniscrew implants is prerequisite to their success and durability in orthodontic treatment. As investigations revealed a positive correlation of miniscrew stability to periimplant bone quality, it has been the aim of this study to analyze the bone structure of resection preparations of human mandibles histologically by investigating the samples according to age, gender and exposure to radiotherapy. Inflammation- and tumor-free alveolar bone sections from human mandibles (n = 31) with previously diagnosed carcinoma, chronic osteomyelitis or cysts were analyzed histomorphologically and histomorphometrically as to the dimension of trabeculae in cancellous areas. Group A investigated the impact of a history of radiation therapy, group B of gender and group C contrasted biopsies from individuals aging under 60 or over 60 years. Statistics were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis-test. Radiation, gender and age did not significantly influence bone density. The mean bone density averaged 40.7 ± 15.0% of spongiosa for the total collective with a median age of 58.4 years ± 14.7 years. Our findings provide new information on bone quality, thus contributing to a more precise evaluation of the parameters affecting and those not affecting miniscrew implant stability. On the basis of these results, the formulation of clinical guidelines for risk assessment of therapeutic approaches in patients prior to insertion of orthodontic skeletal anchorage devices seems to be conceivable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Rheological analysis of irradiated crosslinkable and scissionable polymers used for medical devices under different radiation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satti, A. J.; Ressia, J. A.; Cerrada, M. L.; Andreucetti, N. A.; Vallés, E. M.

    2018-03-01

    The effects on different synthetic polymers of distinct types of radiation, gamma rays and electron beam, under different atmospheres are followed by changes in their viscoelastic behavior. Taking into account the two main radioinduced reactions, crosslinking and scissioning of polymeric chains, liquid polydimethylsiloxane has been used as example of crosslinkable polymer and semi crystalline polypropylene as example of scissionable polymer. Propylene - 1-hexene copolymers have been also evaluated, and the effects of both reactions were clearly noticed. Accordingly, samples of those aforementioned polymers have been irradiated with 60Co gamma irradiation in air and under vacuum, and also with electron beam, at similar doses. Sinusoidal dynamic oscillation experiments showed a significant increase in branching and crosslinking reactions when specimens are irradiated under vacuum, while scissioning reactions were observed for the different polymers when irradiation takes place under air with either gamma irradiation or electron beam.

  15. Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders

    CERN Multimedia

    Joram, C; Gregor, I; Dierlamm, A H; Wilson, F F; Sloan, T; Tuboltsev, Y V; Marone, M; Artuso, M; Cindro, V; Bruzzi, M; Bhardwaj, A; Bohm, J; Mikestikova, M; Walz, M; Breindl, M A; Ruzin, A; Marunko, S; Guskov, J; Haerkoenen, J J; Pospisil, S; Fadeyev, V; Makarenko, L; Kaminski, P; Zelazko, J; Pintilie, L; Radu, R; Nistor, S V; Ullan comes, M; Storasta, J V; Gaubas, E; Lacasta llacer, C; Kilminster, B J; Garutti, E; Buhmann, P; Khomenkov, V; Poehlsen, J A; Fernandez garcia, M; Buttar, C; Eklund, L M; Munoz sanchez, F J; Eremin, V; Aleev, A; Modi, B; Sicho, P; Gisen, A J; Nikolopoulos, K; Van beuzekom, M G; Kozlowski, R; Lozano fantoba, M; Leroy, C; Pernegger, H; Del burgo, R; Vila alvarez, I; Palomo pinto, F R; Lounis, A; Eremin, I; Fadeeva, N; Rogozhkin, S; Shivpuri, R K; Arsenovich, T; Ott, J; Abt, M; Loenker, J; Savic, N; Monaco, V; Visser, J; Lynn, D; Horazdovsky, T; Solar, M; Dervan, P J; Meng, L; Spencer, E N; Kazuchits, N; Brzozowski, A; Kozubal, M; Nistor, L C; Marti i garcia, S; Gomez camacho, J J; Fretwurst, E; Hoenniger, F; Schwandt, J; Hartmann, F; Marchiori, G; Maneuski, D; De capua, S; Williams, M R J; Mandic, I; Gadda, A; Preiss, J; Macchiolo, A; Nisius, R; Grinstein, S; Gonella, L; Wennloef, H L O; Slavicek, T; Masek, P; Casse, G; Flores, D; Tuuva, T; Jimenez ramos, M D C; Charron, S; Rubinskiy, I; Jansen, H; Eichhorn, T V; Matysek, M; Andersson-lindstroem, G; Donegani, E; Bomben, M; Oshea, V; Muenstermann, D; Holmkvist, C W; Oh, A; Lopez paz, I; Verbitskaya, E; Mitina, D; Grigoriev, E; Zaluzhnyy, A; Mikuz, M; Kramberger, G; Scaringella, M; Ranjeet, R; Jain, A; Luukka, P R; Tuominen, E M; Allport, P P; Cartiglia, N; Brigljevic, V; Kohout, Z; Quirion, D; Lauer, K; Collins, P; Gallrapp, C; Rohe, T V; Chauveau, J; Villani, E G; Fox, H; Parkes, C J; Nikitin, A; Spiegel, L G; Creanza, D M; Menichelli, D; Mcduff, H; Carna, M; Weers, M; Weigell, P; Bortoletto, D; Staiano, A; Bellan, R; Szumlak, T; Sopko, V; Pawlowski, M; Pintilie, I; Pellegrini, G; Rafi tatjer, J M; Moll, M; Eckstein, D; Klanner, R; Gomez, G; Gersabeck, M; Cobbledick, J L; Shepelev, A; Golubev, A; Apresyan, A; Lipton, R J; Borgia, A; Zavrtanik, M; Manna, N; Ranjan, K; Chhabra, S; Beyer, J; Korolkov, I; Heintz, U; Sadrozinski, H; Seiden, A; Surma, B; Esteban, S; Kazukauskas, V; Kalendra, V; Mekys, A; Nachman, B P; Tackmann, K; Steinbrueck, G; Pohlsen, T; Calderini, G; Svihra, P; Murray, D; Bolla, G; Zontar, D; Focardi, E; Seidel, S C; Winkler, A D; Altenheiner, S; Parzefall, U; Moser, H; Sopko, B; Buckland, M D; Vaitkus, J V; Ortlepp, T

    2002-01-01

    The requirements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN have pushed the present day silicon tracking detectors to the very edge of the current technology. Future very high luminosity colliders or a possible upgrade scenario of the LHC to a luminosity of 10$^{35}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ will require semiconductor detectors with substantially improved properties. Considering the expected total fluences of fast hadrons above 10$^{16}$ cm$^{-2}$ and a possible reduced bunch-crossing interval of $\\approx$10 ns, the detector must be ultra radiation hard, provide a fast and efficient charge collection and be as thin as possible.\\\\ We propose a research and development program to provide a detector technology, which is able to operate safely and efficiently in such an environment. Within this project we will optimize existing methods and evaluate new ways to engineer the silicon bulk material, the detector structure and the detector operational conditions. Furthermore, possibilities to use semiconductor materials othe...

  16. Use of mobile device technology to continuously collect patient-reported symptoms during radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: A prospective feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchook, Aaron D; Tracton, Gregg; Stravers, Lori; Fleming, Mary E; Snavely, Anna C; Noe, Jeanne F; Hayes, David N; Grilley-Olson, Juneko E; Weiss, Jared M; Reeve, Bryce B; Basch, Ethan M; Chera, Bhishamjit S

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of toxicity allows for timely delivery of supportive measures during radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. The current paradigm requires weekly evaluation of patients by a provider. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring patient reported symptoms via mobile devices. We developed a mobile application for patients to report symptoms in 5 domains using validated questions. Patients were asked to report symptoms using a mobile device once daily during treatment or more often as needed. Clinicians reviewed patient-reported symptoms during weekly symptom management visits and patients completed surveys regarding perceptions of the utility of the mobile application. The primary outcome measure was patient compliance with mobile device reporting. Compliance is defined as number of days with a symptom report divided by number of days on study. There were 921 symptom reports collected from 22 patients during treatment. Median reporting compliance was 71% (interquartile range, 45%-80%). Median number of reports submitted per patient was 34 (interquartile range, 21-53). Median number of reports submitted by patients per week was similar throughout radiation therapy and there was significant reporting during nonclinic hours. Patients reported high satisfaction with the use of mobile devices to report symptoms. A substantial percentage of patients used mobile devices to continuously report symptoms throughout a course of radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Future studies should evaluate the impact of mobile device symptom reporting on improving patient outcomes.

  17. Regulatory inspection of BARC facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajdeep; Jayarajan, K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear and radiation facilities are sited, constructed, commissioned, operated and decommissioned, in conformity with the current safety standards and codes. Regulatory bodies follow different means to ensure compliance of the standards for the safety of the personnel, the public and the environment. Regulatory Inspection (RI) is one of the important measures employed by regulatory bodies to obtain the safety status of a facility or project and to verify the fulfilment of the conditions stipulated in the consent

  18. Radiation beans characterization and implantation for study of lead equivalent individual protection device used in radiodiagnostic practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Leslie Silva

    2004-01-01

    The protective shielding (IPC) must be used by occupationally exposed professionals, patients and volunteers, in order to optimize the doses who receive due to radiological practices. International and national norms establish the methodology to be adopted for determination of the IPC attenuation. In this work, the IPC had been submitted to X-rays beams with known characteristics, standardized for determination of their attenuation equivalent thickness by comparison to an experimental lead attenuation slope. This comparison technique allowed insurance estimative of the IPC attenuation equivalent thickness in mm of lead. Thus, it was possible to verify the conformity of the attenuation equivalent thickness determined experimentally and the value of the thickness indicated by the manufacturer. To carry out this work, it was necessary the implementation of experimental setups stated in the specifics norms, the study of the X-rays beams original features and the determination of combined additional filters, in order to allow the X-ray equipment used operates in compliance with Norm IEC 61331-1 IEC. The radiation quality selected is characterized by a 100 kV voltage and a 0.25 mm of copper overall filtration. The implementation of this radiation quality it was carried through of its first and second HVL (Half Value Layer). Thus, a methodology according to the international Norms has been implemented in the laboratory. The results of the present work provide suitable and useful information about radiation beams features related to the determination techniques of the attenuation properties. Once implemented the procedures for conformity evaluation of the protection devices, it will be possible to carry out specific quality control tests, which will be helpful to manufacturers, customers, as well as authorities in the radiological protection and health areas. (author)

  19. Development of radioactive materials inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lu; Wang Guobao; Chen Yuhua; Li Latu; Zhang Sujing

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive materials inspection system which is applied to inspect the horror activities of radioactive materials and its illegal transfer. The detector sections are made of highly stable and credible material. It has high sensitivity to radioactive materials. The inspect lowest limit of inspection is the 2-3 times to the background, the energy range is 30 keV-2.5 MeV and the response time is 0.5 s. Inspection message can be transmitted through wired or wireless web to implement remote control. The structure of the system is small, light and convenient. It is ideal for protecting society and public from the harm of the radiation. (authors)

  20. Report by the work-group on 'safety of medical devices emitting ionizing radiations'. Articulation of radiation protection requirements of the 97/43/Euratom directive and IAEA recommendations with the essential requirements of the 93/42/CEE directive related to medical devices used in external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    As some dysfunctions and events had been reported in 2007 and 2008 in field of radiotherapy, this report aims at clarifying the articulation between the different European regulations concerning medical devices emitting ionizing radiations and radiation protection. The authors report a survey with device manufacturers, and analyze the content of the different regulations and recommendations. Then, the authors recommend and propose a set of actions related to the IAEA requirements and recommendations, to CE marking requirements, and to new radiation protection and safety requirements present in the Euratom directive