Radiation effects on microelectronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gover, J.E.
1987-01-01
Applications of radiation-hardened microelectronics in nuclear power systems include (a) light water reactor (LWR) containment building, postaccident instrumentation that can operate through the beta and gamma radiation released in a design basis loss-of-coolant accident; (b) advanced LWR instrumentation and control systems employing distributed digital integrated circuit (IC) technology to achieve a high degree of artificial intelligence and thereby reduce the probability of operator error under accident conditions; (c) instrumentation, command, control and communication systems for space nuclear power applications that must operate during the neutron and gamma-ray core leakage environments as well as the background electron, proton, and heavy charged particle environments of space; and (d) robotics systems designed for the described functions. Advanced microelectronics offer advantages in cost and reliability over alternative approaches to instrumentation and control. No semiconductor technology is hard to all classes of radiation effects phenomena. As the effects have become better understood, however, significant progress has been made in hardening IC technology. Application of hardened microelectronics to nuclear power systems has lagged military applications because of the limited market potential of hardened instruments and numerous institutional impediments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moen, C.D.; Spence, P.A.; Meza, J.C.; Plantenga, T.D.
1996-12-31
Automatic differentiation is applied to the optimal design of microelectronic manufacturing equipment. The performance of nonlinear, least-squares optimization methods is compared between numerical and analytical gradient approaches. The optimization calculations are performed by running large finite-element codes in an object-oriented optimization environment. The Adifor automatic differentiation tool is used to generate analytic derivatives for the finite-element codes. The performance results support previous observations that automatic differentiation becomes beneficial as the number of optimization parameters increases. The increase in speed, relative to numerical differences, has a limited value and results are reported for two different analysis codes.
Carbon nanotubes as heat dissipaters in microelectronics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pérez Paz, Alejandro; García-Lastra, Juan María; Markussen, Troels
2013-01-01
We review our recent modelling work of carbon nanotubes as potential candidates for heat dissipation in microelectronics cooling. In the first part, we analyze the impact of nanotube defects on their thermal transport properties. In the second part, we investigate the loss of thermal properties...... of nanotubes in presence of an interface with various substances, including air and water. Comparison with previous works is established whenever is possible....
Radiation effects on microelectronics in space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srour, J.R.; McGarrity, J.M.
1988-01-01
The basic mechanisms of space radiation effects on microelectronics are reviewed in this paper. Topics discussed include the effects of displacement damage and ionizing radiation on devices and circuits, single event phenomena, dose enhancement, radiation effects on optoelectronic devices and passive components, hardening approaches, and simulation of the space radiation environment. A summary is presented of damage mechanisms that can cause temporary or permanent failure of devices and circuits operating in space
Use of COTS microelectronics in radiation environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winokur, P.S.; Lum, G.K.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Hash, G.L.; Scott, L.
1999-01-01
This paper addresses key issues for the cost-effective use of COTS (Commercially available Off The Shelf) microelectronics in radiation environments that enable circuit or system designers to manage risks and ensure mission success. They review several factors and tradeoffs affecting the successful application of COTS parts including (1) hardness assurance and qualification issues, (2) system hardening techniques, and (3) life-cycle costs. The paper also describes several experimental studies that address trends in total-dose, transient, and single-event radiation hardness as COTS technology scales to smaller feature sizes. As an example, the level at which dose-rate upset occurs in Samsung SRAMs increases from 1.4 x 10 8 rad(Si)/s for a 256K SRAM to 7.7 x 10 9 rad(Si)/s for a 4M SRAM, indicating unintentional hardening improvements in the design of process of a commercial technology. Additional experiments were performed to quantify variations in radiation hardness for COTS parts. In one study, only small (10--15%) variations were found in the dose-rate upset and latchup thresholds for Samsung 4M SRAMs from three different date codes. In another study, irradiations of 4M SRAMs from Samsung, Hitachi, and Toshiba indicate large differences in total-dose radiation hardness. The paper attempts to carefully define terms and clear up misunderstandings about the definitions of COTS and radiation-hardened (RH) technology
Kovar Micro Heat Pipe Substrates for Microelectronic Cooling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benson, David A.; Burchett, Steven N.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Robino, Charles V.; Schmidt, Carrie; Tigges, Chris P.
1999-04-01
We describe the development of a new technology for cooling microelectronics. This report documents the design, fabrication, and prototype testing of micro scale heat pipes embedded in a flat plate substrate or heat spreader. A thermal model tuned to the test results enables us to describe heat transfer in the prototype, as well as evaluate the use of this technology in other applications. The substrate walls are Kovar alloy, which has a coefficient of thermal expansion close to that of microelectronic die. The prototype designs integrating micro heat pipes with Kovar enhance thermal conductivity by more than a factor of two over that of Kovar alone, thus improving the cooling of micro-electronic die.
Application of ionizing radiation processing in biomedical engineering and microelectronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hongfej, H.; Jilan, W.
1988-01-01
The applied radiation chemistry has made great contributions to the development of polymeric industrial materials by the characteristics reaction means such as crosslinking, graft copolymerization and low-temperature or solid-phase polymerization, and become a important field on peaceful use of atomic energy. A brief review on the applications of ionizing radiation processing in biomedical engineering and microelectronics is presented. The examples of this technique were the studies on biocompatible and biofunctional polymers for medical use and on resists of lithography in microelectronics
Applications of ionizing radiation processing in biomedical engineering and microelectronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ha Hongfei; Wu Jilan
1987-01-01
The applied radiation chemistry has made great contributions to the development of polymeric industrial materials by the characteristic reaction means such as corsslinking, graft copolymerization and low-temperature or solid-phase polymerization, and become an important field on peaceful use of atomic energy. A brief review on the applications of ionizing radiation processing in biomedical engineering and microelectronics is presented. The examples of this techique were the studies on biocompatible and biofunctional polymers for medical use and on resists of lithography in microelectronics. (author)
Radiation effects in advanced microelectronics technologies
Johnston, A. H.
1998-06-01
The pace of device scaling has increased rapidly in recent years. Experimental CMOS devices have been produced with feature sizes below 0.1 /spl mu/m, demonstrating that devices with feature sizes between 0.1 and 0.25 /spl mu/m will likely be available in mainstream technologies after the year 2000. This paper discusses how the anticipated changes in device dimensions and design are likely to affect their radiation response in space environments. Traditional problems, such as total dose effects, SEU and latchup are discussed, along with new phenomena. The latter include hard errors from heavy ions (microdose and gate-rupture errors), and complex failure modes related to advanced circuit architecture. The main focus of the paper is on commercial devices, which are displacing hardened device technologies in many space applications. However, the impact of device scaling on hardened devices is also discussed.
Radiation-Induced Prompt Photocurrents in Microelectronics Physics
Dodd, P E; Buller, D L; Doyle, B L; Vizkelethy, G; Walsh, D S
2003-01-01
The effects of photocurrents in nuclear weapons induced by proximal nuclear detonations are well known and remain a serious hostile environment threat for the US stockpile. This report describes the final results of an LDRD study of the physical phenomena underlying prompt photocurrents in microelectronic devices and circuits. The goals of this project were to obtain an improved understanding of these phenomena, and to incorporate improved models of photocurrent effects into simulation codes to assist designers in meeting hostile radiation requirements with minimum build and test cycles. We have also developed a new capability on the ion microbeam accelerator in Sandia's Ion Beam Materials Research Laboratory (the Transient Radiation Microscope, or TRM) to supply ionizing radiation in selected micro-regions of a device. The dose rates achieved in this new facility approach those possible with conventional large-scale dose-rate sources at Sandia such as HERMES III and Saturn. It is now possible to test the phy...
Radiation Effects and Hardening Techniques for Spacecraft Microelectronics
Gambles, J. W.; Maki, G. K.
2002-01-01
The natural radiation from the Van Allen belts, solar flares, and cosmic rays found outside of the protection of the earth's atmosphere can produce deleterious effects on microelectronics used in space systems. Historically civil space agencies and the commercial satellite industry have been able to utilize components produced in special radiation hardened fabrication process foundries that were developed during the 1970s and 1980s under sponsorship of the Departments of Defense (DoD) and Energy (DoE). In the post--cold war world the DoD and DoE push to advance the rad--hard processes has waned. Today the available rad--hard components lag two-plus technology node generations behind state- of-the-art commercial technologies. As a result space craft designers face a large performance gap when trying to utilize available rad--hard components. Compounding the performance gap problems, rad--hard components are becoming increasingly harder to get. Faced with the economic pitfalls associated with low demand versus the ever increasing investment required for integrated circuit manufacturing equipment most sources of rad--hard parts have simply exited this market in recent years, leaving only two domestic US suppliers of digital rad--hard components. This paper summarizes the radiation induced mechanisms that can cause digital microelectronics to fail in space, techniques that can be applied to mitigate these failure mechanisms, and ground based testing used to validate radiation hardness/tolerance. The radiation hardening techniques can be broken down into two classes, Hardness By Process (HBP) and Hardness By Design (HBD). Fortunately many HBD techniques can be applied to commercial fabrication processes providing space craft designer with radiation tolerant Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) that can bridge the performance gap between the special HBP foundries and the commercial state-of-the-art performance.
Radiation-hardened micro-electronics for nuclear instrumentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Uffelen, M.
2007-01-01
The successful development and deployment of future fission and thermonuclear fusion reactors depends to a large extent on the advances of different enabling technologies. Not only the materials need to be custom engineered but also the instrumentation, the electronics and the communication equipment need to support operation in this harsh environment, with expected radiation levels during maintenance up to several MGy. Indeed, there are yet no commercially available electronic devices available off-the-shelf which demonstrated a satisfying operation at these extremely high radiation levels. The main goal of this task is to identify commercially available radiation tolerant technologies, and to design dedicated and integrated electronic circuits, using radiation hardening techniques, both at the topological and architectural level. Within a stepwise approach, we first design circuits with discrete components and look for an equivalent integrated technology. This will enable us to develop innovative instrumentation and communication tools for the next generation of nuclear reactors, where both radiation hardening and miniaturization play a dominant role
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maushart, R.
1986-01-01
The progress achieved by microelectronics is impressive already now, but it is only a beginning. The contribution deals with the modern methods of representing measured data and with the processing of measured data as the optimum area of use of microprocessors. It outlines the uses of personnel dosimeters and portable dose rate meters, portable units with data storage capacity, new possibilities in monitoring the room air in large building complexes, gamma spectroscopy with very high purity germanium detectors, equivalent dose measurement with multichannel data evaluation, 'talking' equipment, and it also presents a forecast of future radiation protection measuring equipment. (orig.) [de
Low level radiation testing of micro-electronic components. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farren, J.; Stephen, J.H.; Mapper, D.; Sanderson, T.K.; Hardman, M.
1984-05-01
A review of the existing literature has been carried out, dealing with the current technology relating to low level radiation testing of microelectronic devices, as used in space satellite systems. After consideration of the space radiation environment, the general effects of cosmic radiation on MOSFET structures and other MOS devices have been assessed. The important aspect of annealing phenomena in relation to gamma-ray induced damage has also been reviewed in detail. The experimental and theoretical aspects of radiation testing have been assessed, with particular reference to the Harwell LORAD low level irradiation test facility. In addition, a review of modern dosimetry methods has been carried out, with specific regard to the problems of accurately measuring low radiation fields (1 to 10 R/hour) over periods of many months. Finally, a detailed account of the proposed experimental programme to be carried out in the LORAD facility is presented, and aspects of the experimental set-up discussed. The particular types of test circuits to be studied are dealt with, and full consideration is given to the various CMOS memory devices of special interest in the ESA space satellite programme. (author)
Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter
2004-01-01
Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac
Moore's law and the impact on trusted and radiation-hardened microelectronics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma, Kwok Kee
2011-12-01
In 1965 Gordon Moore wrote an article claiming that integrated circuit density would scale exponentially. His prediction has remained valid for more than four decades. Integrated circuits have changed all aspects of everyday life. They are also the 'heart and soul' of modern systems for defense, national infrastructure, and intelligence applications. The United States government needs an assured and trusted microelectronics supply for military systems. However, migration of microelectronics design and manufacturing from the United States to other countries in recent years has placed the supply of trusted microelectronics in jeopardy. Prevailing wisdom dictates that it is necessary to use microelectronics fabricated in a state-of-the-art technology for highest performance and military system superiority. Close examination of silicon microelectronics technology evolution and Moore's Law reveals that this prevailing wisdom is not necessarily true. This presents the US government the possibility of a totally new approach to acquire trusted microelectronics.
Use of COTS [commercial-off-the-shelf] Microelectronics in Radiation Environments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winokur, P.S.; Lum, G.K.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Hash, G.L.; Scott, L.
1999-07-07
This paper addresses key issues for the cost-effective use of COTS microelectronics in radiation environments that enable circuit or system designers to manage risks and ensure mission success. COTS parts with low radiation tolerance should not be used when they degrade mission critical functions or lead to premature system failure. We review several factors and tradeoffs affecting the successful application of COTS parts including (1) hardness assurance and qualification issues, (2) system hardening techniques, and (3) life-cycle costs. The paper also describes several experimental studies that address trends in total-dose, transient, and single-event radiation hardness as COTS technology scales to smaller feature sizes. As an example, the level at which dose-rate upset occurs in Samsung SRAMS increases from 1.4x10{sup 8} rads(Si)/s for a 256K SRAM to 7.7x10{sup 9} rads(Si)/s for a 4M SRAM, indicating unintentional hardening improvements in the design or process of a commercial technology. Additional experiments were performed to quantify variations in radiation hardness for COTS parts. In one study, only small (10-15%) variations were found in the dose-rate upset and latchup thresholds for Samsung 4M SRAMS from three different date codes. In another study, irradiations of 4M SRAMS from Samsung, Hitachi, and Toshiba indicate large differences in total-dose radiation hardness. The paper attempts to carefully define terms and clear up misunderstandings about the definitions of ''COTS'' and ''radiation-hardened'' technology.
Use of COTS [commercial-off-the-shelf] Microelectronics in Radiation Environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winokur, P.S.; Lum, G.K.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Hash, G.L.; Scott, L.
1999-01-01
This paper addresses key issues for the cost-effective use of COTS microelectronics in radiation environments that enable circuit or system designers to manage risks and ensure mission success. COTS parts with low radiation tolerance should not be used when they degrade mission critical functions or lead to premature system failure. We review several factors and tradeoffs affecting the successful application of COTS parts including (1) hardness assurance and qualification issues, (2) system hardening techniques, and (3) life-cycle costs. The paper also describes several experimental studies that address trends in total-dose, transient, and single-event radiation hardness as COTS technology scales to smaller feature sizes. As an example, the level at which dose-rate upset occurs in Samsung SRAMS increases from 1.4x10 8 rads(Si)/s for a 256K SRAM to 7.7x10 9 rads(Si)/s for a 4M SRAM, indicating unintentional hardening improvements in the design or process of a commercial technology. Additional experiments were performed to quantify variations in radiation hardness for COTS parts. In one study, only small (10-15%) variations were found in the dose-rate upset and latchup thresholds for Samsung 4M SRAMS from three different date codes. In another study, irradiations of 4M SRAMS from Samsung, Hitachi, and Toshiba indicate large differences in total-dose radiation hardness. The paper attempts to carefully define terms and clear up misunderstandings about the definitions of ''COTS'' and ''radiation-hardened'' technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Della Sala, D.; Privato, C.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Fortunato, G.
1999-01-01
Giant microelectronics, on which the technology of flat liquid-crystal screens is based, is an example of fruitful interaction among independently-developed technologies, in this case thin film micro devices and laser applications. It typifies the interdisciplinary approach needed to produce innovations in microelectronics [it
Thermal radiation heat transfer
Howell, John R; Mengüç, M Pinar
2011-01-01
Providing a comprehensive overview of the radiative behavior and properties of materials, the fifth edition of this classic textbook describes the physics of radiative heat transfer, development of relevant analysis methods, and associated mathematical and numerical techniques. Retaining the salient features and fundamental coverage that have made it popular, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Fifth Edition has been carefully streamlined to omit superfluous material, yet enhanced to update information with extensive references. Includes four new chapters on Inverse Methods, Electromagnetic Theory, Scattering and Absorption by Particles, and Near-Field Radiative Transfer Keeping pace with significant developments, this book begins by addressing the radiative properties of blackbody and opaque materials, and how they are predicted using electromagnetic theory and obtained through measurements. It discusses radiative exchange in enclosures without any radiating medium between the surfaces-and where heat conduction...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa-Patry, E.
2011-11-01
Improving the energy efficiency of cooling systems can contribute to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Currently, most microelectronic applications are air-cooled. Switching to two-phase cooling systems would decrease power consumption and allow for the reuse of the extracted heat. For this type of application, multi-microchannel evaporators are thought to be well adapted. However, such devices have not been tested for a wide range of operating conditions, such that their thermal response to the high non-uniform power map typically generated by microelectronics has not been studied. This research project aims at clarifying these gray areas by investigating the behavior of the two-phase flow of different refrigerants in silicon and copper multi-microchannel evaporators under uniform, non-uniform and transient heat fluxes operating conditions. The test elements use as a heat source a pseudo-chip able to mimic the behavior of a CPU. It is formed by 35 independent sub-heaters, each having its own temperature sensor, such that 35 temperature and 35 heat flux measurements can be made simultaneously. Careful measurements of each pressure drop component (inlet, microchannels and outlet) found in the micro-evaporators showed the importance of the inlet and outlet restriction pressure losses. The overall pressure drop levels found in the copper test section were low enough to possibly be driven by a thermosyphon system. The heat transfer coefficients measured for uniform heat flux conditions were very high and typically followed a V-shape curve. The first branch was associated to the slug flow regime and the second to the annular flow regime. By tracking the minimum level of heat transfer, a transition criteria between the regimes was established, which included the effect of heat flux on the transition. Then for each branch, a different prediction method was used to form the first flow pattern-based prediction method for two-phase heat transfer in microchannels. A
Modest, Michael F
2013-01-01
The third edition of Radiative Heat Transfer describes the basic physics of radiation heat transfer. The book provides models, methodologies, and calculations essential in solving research problems in a variety of industries, including solar and nuclear energy, nanotechnology, biomedical, and environmental. Every chapter of Radiative Heat Transfer offers uncluttered nomenclature, numerous worked examples, and a large number of problems-many based on real world situations-making it ideal for classroom use as well as for self-study. The book's 24 chapters cover the four major areas in the field: surface properties; surface transport; properties of participating media; and transfer through participating media. Within each chapter, all analytical methods are developed in substantial detail, and a number of examples show how the developed relations may be applied to practical problems. It is an extensive solution manual for adopting instructors. Features: most complete text in the field of radiative heat transfer;...
Planck, Max
2003-01-01
Nobel laureate's classic exposition of the theory of radiant heat in terms of quantum action. Kirchoff's law, black radiation, Maxwell's radiation pressure, entropy, other topics. 1914 edition. Bibliography.
Sajid, Muhammad
This tutorial/survey paper presents the assessment/determination of level of hazard/threat to emerging microelectronics devices in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space radiation environment with perigee at 300 Km, apogee at 600Km altitude having different orbital inclinations to predict the reliability of onboard Bulk Built-In Current Sensor (BBICS) fabricated in 350nm technology node at OptMA Lab. UFMG Brazil. In this context, the various parameters for space radiation environment have been analyzed to characterize the ionizing radiation environment effects on proposed BBICS. The Space radiation environment has been modeled in the form of particles trapped in Van-Allen radiation belts(RBs), Energetic Solar Particles Events (ESPE) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) where as its potential effects on Device- Under-Test (DUT) has been predicted in terms of Total Ionizing Dose (TID), Single-Event Effects (SEE) and Displacement Damage Dose (DDD). Finally, the required mitigation techniques including necessary shielding requirements to avoid undesirable effects of radiation environment at device level has been estimated /determined with assumed standard thickness of Aluminum shielding. In order to evaluate space radiation environment and analyze energetic particles effects on BBICS, OMERE toolkit developed by TRAD was utilized.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gould, C.A.; Shammas, N.Y.A.; Grainger, S.; Taylor, I.
2011-01-01
Thermoelectric cooling and micro-power generation from waste heat within a standard desktop computer has been demonstrated. A thermoelectric test system has been designed and constructed, with typical test results presented for thermoelectric cooling and micro-power generation when the computer is executing a number of different applications. A thermoelectric module, operating as a heat pump, can lower the operating temperature of the computer's microprocessor and graphics processor to temperatures below ambient conditions. A small amount of electrical power, typically in the micro-watt or milli-watt range, can be generated by a thermoelectric module attached to the outside of the computer's standard heat sink assembly, when a secondary heat sink is attached to the other side of the thermoelectric module. Maximum electrical power can be generated by the thermoelectric module when a water cooled heat sink is used as the secondary heat sink, as this produces the greatest temperature difference between both sides of the module.
Analog and Power Microelectronics to Higher Radiation Levels and Lower Temperatures
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A study was done to examine low-temperature effects and radiation damage properties of bipolar integrated circuits. Anticipated benefits: useful in missions with...
Risk Management of New Microelectronics for NASA: Radiation Knowledge-base
LaBel, Kenneth A.
2004-01-01
Contents include the following: NASA Missions - implications to reliability and radiation constraints. Approach to Insertion of New Technologies Technology Knowledge-base development. Technology model/tool development and validation. Summary comments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warren, Kevin; Reed, Robert; Weller, Robert; Mendenhall, Marcus; Sierawski, Brian; Schrimpf, Ronald
2011-01-01
MRED (Monte Carlo Radiative Energy Deposition) is Vanderbilt University's Geant4 application for simulating radiation events in semiconductors. Geant4 is comprised of the best available computational physics models for the transport of radiation through matter. In addition to basic radiation transport physics contained in the Geant4 core, MRED has the capability to track energy loss in tetrahedral geometric objects, includes a cross section biasing and track weighting technique for variance reduction, and additional features relevant to semiconductor device applications. The crucial element of predicting Single Event Upset (SEU) parameters using radiation transport software is the creation of a dosimetry model that accurately approximates the net collected charge at transistor contacts as a function of deposited energy. The dosimetry technique described here is the multiple sensitive volume (MSV) model. It is shown to be a reasonable approximation of the charge collection process and its parameters can be calibrated to experimental measurements of SEU cross sections. The MSV model, within the framework of MRED, is examined for heavy ion and high-energy proton SEU measurements of a static random access memory.
LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.
2008-01-01
At GOMAC 2007, we discussed a selection of the challenges for radiation testing of modern semiconductor devices focusing on state-of-the-art memory technologies. This included FLASH non-volatile memories (NVMs) and synchronous dynamic random access memories (SDRAMs). In this presentation, we extend this discussion in device packaging and complexity as well as single event upset (SEU) mechanisms using several technology areas as examples including: system-on-a-chip (SOC) devices and photonic or fiber optic systems. The underlying goal is intended to provoke thought for understanding the limitations and interpretation of radiation testing results.
Essentials of radiation heat transfer
Balaji
2014-01-01
Essentials of Radiation Heat Transfer is a textbook presenting the essential, fundamental information required to gain an understanding of radiation heat transfer and equips the reader with enough knowledge to be able to tackle more challenging problems. All concepts are reinforced by carefully chosen and fully worked examples, and exercise problems are provided at the end of every chapter. In a significant departure from other books on this subject, this book completely dispenses with the network method to solve problems of radiation heat transfer in surfaces. It instead presents the powerful radiosity-irradiation method and shows how this technique can be used to solve problems of radiation in enclosures made of one to any number of surfaces. The network method is not easily scalable. Secondly, the book introduces atmospheric radiation, which is now being considered as a potentially important area, in which engineers can contribute to the technology of remote sensing and atmospheric sciences in general, b...
Microelectronics in energy technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oeding, D; Jesse, G
1984-07-01
This meeting, which will take place on the 16th and 17th of October 1984 at the Old Opera House at Frankfurt on Main, in the context of the VDE Congress, will consist of 14 lectures on the state of the application of microelectronics to energy technology, and give its participants information on and a chance for discussion of this subject. The meeting will cover the following subjects: Microelectronics in energy supply undertakings; Microelectronics in the automation of power stations; Microelectronics in switchgear and transmission networks; Microelectronics in measurement technology; Microelectronics in lighting technology; Microelectronics in drive technology; Microelectronics in railway technology. The following shortened versions of these lectures are intended to motivate people to visit this event and to prepare contributions to and questions for the discussions.
Engineering calculations in radiative heat transfer
Gray, W A; Hopkins, D W
1974-01-01
Engineering Calculations in Radiative Heat Transfer is a six-chapter book that first explains the basic principles of thermal radiation and direct radiative transfer. Total exchange of radiation within an enclosure containing an absorbing or non-absorbing medium is then described. Subsequent chapters detail the radiative heat transfer applications and measurement of radiation and temperature.
Radiative heat exchange between surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yener, Y.; Yuncu, H.
1987-01-01
The geometrical features of radiative heat exchange between surfaces are discussed first by developing various radiation shape factor relations. The governing equations for enclosures with diffusely emitting and diffusely reflecting surfaces, as well as the equations for enclosures with gray surfaces having specular component of reflectivity are introduced next. Finally, a simplified model for enclosures with isothermal surfaces under the assumption of uniform radiosity over the surfaces is discussed, and various working relations for different conditions are presented
Radiation and combined heat transfer in channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamonis, M.
1986-01-01
This book presents numerical methods of calculation of radiative and combined heat transfer in channel flows of radiating as well as nonradiating media. Results obtained in calculations for flow conditions of combustion products from organic fuel products are given and methods used in determining the spectral optical properties of molecular gases are analyzed. The book presents applications of heat transfer in solving problems. Topic covered are as follows: optical properties of molecular gases; transfer equations for combined heat transfer; experimental technique; convective heat transfer in heated gas flows; radiative heat transfer in gaseous media; combined heat transfer; and radiative and combined heat transfer in applied problems
Radiation effects on heat transfer in heat exchangers, (2)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mori, Yasuo; Watanabe, Kenji; Taira, Tatsuji.
1980-01-01
In a high temperature gas-cooled reactor system, in which the working fluid exchanges heat at high temperature near 1000 deg C, the heat transfer acceleration by positively utilizing the radiation heat transfer between solid surfaces should be considered. This paper reports on the results of experiment and analysis for the effects of radiant heat on the heat transfer performance at elevated temperature by applying the heat transfer-accelerating method using radiators to the heat exchanger with tube bundle composed of two channels of heating and heated sides. As the test heat exchangers, a parallel counter flow exchanger and the cross flow exchanger simulating helical tubes were employed, and the results studied on the characteristics of each heat exchanger are described. The plates placed in parallel to flow in every space of the tube bundle arranged in a matrix were used as the heat transfer accelerator. The effects of acceleration with the plates were the increase of heat transmission from 12 to 24% and 12 to 38% in the parallel flow and cross flow heat exchangers, respectively. Also, it was clarified that the theoretical analysis, in which it was assumed that the region within pitch S and two radiator plates, with a heat-transferring tube placed at the center, is the minimum domain for calculation, and that the heat exchange by radiation occurs only between the domain and the adjacent domains, can estimate the heat transfer-accelerating effect and the temperature distribution in a heat exchanger with sufficient accuracy. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Solid state radiative heat pump
Berdahl, P.H.
1984-09-28
A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.
Microelectronic systems 1 checkbook
Vears, R E
2013-01-01
Microelectronic Systems 1 Checkbook provides coverage of the Business and Technician Education Council level 1 unit in Microelectronic Systems. However, it can be regarded as a basic textbook in microelectronic systems for a much wider range of studies. Each topic considered in the text is presented in a way that assumes the reader has little prior knowledge of electronics. The aim of the book is to provide an introduction to the concept of systems, to differentiate analogue and digital systems, and to describe the nature of microprocessor-controlled systems. An introduction to programming is
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge Mario Cruz Duarte
Full Text Available This article deals with the design of optimum microchannel heat sinks through Unified Particle Swarm Optimisation (UPSO and Harmony Search (HS. These heat sinks are used for the thermal management of electronic devices, and we analyse the performance of UPSO and HS in their design, both, systematically and thoroughly. The objective function was created using the entropy generation minimisation criterion. In this study, we fixed the geometry of the microchannel, the amount of heat to be removed, and the properties of the cooling fluid. Moreover, we calculated the entropy generation rate, the volume flow rate of air, the channel width, the channel height, and the Knudsen number. The results of several simulation optimizations indicate that both global optimisation strategies yielded similar results, about 0.032 W/K, and that HS required five times more iterations than UPSO, but only about a nineteenth of its computation time. In addition, HS revealed a greater chance (about three times of finding a better solution than UPSO, but with a higher dispersion rate (about five times. Nonetheless, both algorithms successfully optimised the design for different scenarios, even when varying the material of the heat sink, and for different heat transfer rates.
Physics in microelectronics and microelectronics in physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mooser, E.
1983-01-01
Modern semiconductor technology and its many different facets such as microelectronics, optoelectronics, integrated optics, solar energy conversion, etc... have their origin in solid state physics, However, because of their enormous economic impact, their development has been so rapid and has lead to such a high degree of complexity and sophistication, that to the newcomer in the field, the links between solid state electronics and solid state physics are no longer evident. (author) [pt
CRRES microelectronics test package (MEP)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mullen, E.G.; Ray, K.P.
1993-01-01
The Microelectronics Test Package (MEP) flown on board the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) contained over 60 device types and approximately 400 total devices which were tested for both single event upset (SEU) and total dose (parametric degradation and annealing). A description of the experiment, the method of testing devices, and the structure of data acquisition are presented. Sample flight data are shown. These included SEUs from a GaAs 1 K RAM during the March 1991 solar flare, and a comparison between passive shielding and a specially designed spot shielding package
Ion implantation for microelectronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dearnaley, G.
1977-01-01
Ion implantation has proved to be a versatile and efficient means of producing microelectronic devices. This review summarizes the relevant physics and technology and assesses the advantages of the method. Examples are then given of widely different device structures which have been made by ion implantation. While most of the industrial application has been in silicon, good progress continues to be made in the more difficult field of compound semiconductors. Equipment designed for the industrial ion implantation of microelectronic devices is discussed briefly. (Auth.)
Microelectronic systems 3 checkbook
Vears, R E
1985-01-01
Microelectronic Systems 3: Checkbook aims to extend the range of hardware, software, and interfacing techniques developed at level 2. This book concentrates on the highly popular 6502, Z80, and 6800 microprocessors and contains approximately 70 tested programs that may be used with little or no modification on most systems based on these microprocessors. This text also covers the main points concerned with computer hardware configuration, interfacing devices, subroutines and the stack, polling and interrupts, microelectronic stores, and address decoding and organization. Each chapter of the b
Structures to radiate heat softly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perilae, T.; Wikstroem, T. [ed.
1997-11-01
Over the past fifty years, heating systems in single-family houses have taken a great leap forward. First wood-burning stoves gave way to oil heaters; then these were superseded by central heating systems; and now conventional central heating systems have lost their way with the increasingly widespread use of room-specific heating systems
Heat Rejection from a Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiator Panel
Jaworske, D. A.; Gibson, M. A.; Hervol, D. S.
2012-01-01
A titanium-water heat pipe radiator having an innovative proprietary evaporator configuration was evaluated in a large vacuum chamber equipped with liquid nitrogen cooled cold walls. The radiator was manufactured by Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT), Lancaster, PA, and delivered as part of a Small Business Innovative Research effort. The radiator panel consisted of five titanium-water heat pipes operating as thermosyphons, sandwiched between two polymer matrix composite face sheets. The five variable conductance heat pipes were purposely charged with a small amount of non-condensable gas to control heat flow through the condenser. Heat rejection was evaluated over a wide range of inlet water temperature and flow conditions, and heat rejection was calculated in real-time utilizing a data acquisition system programmed with the Stefan-Boltzmann equation. Thermography through an infra-red transparent window identified heat flow across the panel. Under nominal operation, a maximum heat rejection value of over 2200 Watts was identified. The thermal vacuum evaluation of heat rejection provided critical information on understanding the radiator s performance, and in steady state and transient scenarios provided useful information for validating current thermal models in support of the Fission Power Systems Project.
Microelectronics used for Semiconductor Imaging Detectors
Heijne, Erik H M
2010-01-01
Semiconductor crystal technology, microelectronics developments and nuclear particle detection have been in a relation of symbiosis, all the way from the beginning. The increase of complexity in electronics chips can now be applied to obtain much more information on the incident nuclear radiation. Some basic technologies are described, in order to acquire insight in possibilities and limitations for the most recent detectors.
The log mean heat transfer rate method of heat exchanger considering the influence of heat radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, K.-L.; Ke, M.-T.; Ku, S.-S.
2009-01-01
The log mean temperature difference (LMTD) method is conventionally used to calculate the total heat transfer rate of heat exchangers. Because the heat radiation equation contains the 4th order exponential of temperature which is very complicate in calculations, thus LMTD method neglects the influence of heat radiation. From the recent investigation of a circular duct in some practical situations, it is found that even in the situation of the temperature difference between outer duct surface and surrounding is low to 1 deg. C, the heat radiation effect can not be ignored in the situations of lower ambient convective heat coefficient and greater surface emissivities. In this investigation, the log mean heat transfer rate (LMHTR) method which considering the influence of heat radiation, is developed to calculate the total heat transfer rate of heat exchangers.
The radiative heating response to climate change
Maycock, Amanda
2016-04-01
The structure and magnitude of radiative heating rates in the atmosphere can change markedly in response to climate forcings; diagnosing the causes of these changes can aid in understanding parts of the large-scale circulation response to climate change. This study separates the relative drivers of projected changes in longwave and shortwave radiative heating rates over the 21st century into contributions from radiatively active gases, such as carbon dioxide, ozone and water vapour, and from changes in atmospheric and surface temperatures. Results are shown using novel radiative diagnostics applied to timeslice experiments from the UM-UKCA chemistry-climate model; these online estimates are compared to offline radiative transfer calculations. Line-by-line calculations showing spectrally-resolved changes in heating rates due to different gases will also be presented.
Wire bonding in microelectronics
Harman, George G
2010-01-01
Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...
Physics in microelectronics and microelectronics in physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mooser, E.
1983-01-01
Modern semiconductor technology and its many different facets such as micro-electronics, optoelectronics, integrated optics, solar energy conversion, etc... have their origin in solid state physics. However, because of their enormous economic impact, their development has been so rapid and has lead to such a high degree of complexity and sophistication, that to the newcomer in the field, the links between solid state electronics and solid state physics are no longer evident. The processes involved in the production of integrated circuits and solid state lasers afford very instructive examples on which to demostrate the impact of physics on semiconductor technology. Processes discussed include: Purification of silicon; Crystal growth; Liquid and vapour phase epitaxy; Photo- and electronbeam lithography; Mask production; Wet and dry etching; Doping and metal deposition, etc... The inverse phenomenon, i.e. the impact of semiconductor technology on physics will be demonstrated on examples involving two-dimensional electron gases. Such gases can readily be obtained in 'synthetic' layer structures, produced by molecular beam epitaxy and in the depletion layers of field-effect transistors with MOS geometry. the examples discussed involve the multiple potential well laser and the 'von Klitzing experiment'. (Author) [pt
Heat enhances radiation inhibition of wound healing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Twomey, P.; Hill, S.; Joiner, M.; Hobson, B.; Denekamp, J.
1987-01-01
To study the effect of hyperthermia on the inhibition of healing by radiation, the authors used 2 models of wound tensile strength in mice. In one, tensile strength of 1 cm strips of wounded skin was measured. In the other, strength was measured on 2 by 1 by .3 cm surgical prosthetic sponges of polyvinyl alcohol which has been cut, resutured, and implanted subcutaneously. Granulation tissue grows into the pores of the sponges which gradually fill with collagen. Tensile strength in both models was measured on day 14 using a constant strain extensiometer. The wounds were given graduated doses of ortho-voltage radiation with or without hyperthermia. Maximum radiation sensitivity occurred during the period of rapid neovascularization in the first 5 days after wounding, when a loss of 80% in wound strength occurred with doses less than 20 gray. For single radiation doses given 48 hours after wounding, the authors found a steep dose-response curve with half maximum reduction in strength occurring in both models at approximately 10 gray. Hyperthermia was produced in two ways. Skin wounds were heated in a circulating water bath. In the sponge model, more uniform heating occurs with an RF generator scaled to the mouse. At a dose of 43 C for 30 minutes, no inhibition of healing by heat alone was found. However the combination of heat and radiation produced definite enhancement of radiation damage, with thermal enhancement ratios of up to 1.9 being observed
Radiation detector system having heat pipe based cooling
Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Saveliev, Valeri D.; Barkan, Shaul
2006-10-31
A radiation detector system having a heat pipe based cooling. The radiation detector system includes a radiation detector thermally coupled to a thermo electric cooler (TEC). The TEC cools down the radiation detector, whereby heat is generated by the TEC. A heat removal device dissipates the heat generated by the TEC to surrounding environment. A heat pipe has a first end thermally coupled to the TEC to receive the heat generated by the TEC, and a second end thermally coupled to the heat removal device. The heat pipe transfers the heat generated by the TEC from the first end to the second end to be removed by the heat removal device.
Heat Radiators for Electromagnetic Pumps
Campana, R. J.
1986-01-01
Report proposes use of carbon/carbon composite radiators in electromagnetic coolant pumps of nuclear reactors on spacecraft. Carbon/carbon composite materials function well at temperatures in excess of 2,200 K. Aluminum has melting temperature of only 880 K.
Microelectronic systems N2 checkbook
Vears, R E
2013-01-01
Microelectronic Systems N2 Checkbook provides coverage of the Business and Technician Education Council level NII unit in Microelectronic Systems. However, it can be regarded as a textbook in microelectronic systems for a much wider range of studies. The aim of this book is to provide a foundation in microelectronic systems hardware and software techniques. Each topic considered in the text is presented in a way that assumes in the reader only the knowledge attained in BTEC Information Technology Studies F, Engineering Fundamentals F, or equivalent. This book concentrates on the highly popular
Mittal, K L
2014-01-01
This comprehensive book will provide both fundamental and applied aspects of adhesion pertaining to microelectronics in a single and easily accessible source. Among the topics to be covered include; Various theories or mechanisms of adhesionSurface (physical or chemical) characterization of materials as it pertains to adhesionSurface cleaning as it pertains to adhesionWays to improve adhesionUnraveling of interfacial interactions using an array of pertinent techniquesCharacterization of interfaces / interphasesPolymer-polymer adhesionMetal-polymer adhesion (metallized polymers)Polymer adhesi
Nougier, JP
1991-01-01
As is well known, Silicon widely dominates the market of semiconductor devices and circuits, and in particular is well suited for Ultra Large Scale Integration processes. However, a number of III-V compound semiconductor devices and circuits have recently been built, and the contributions in this volume are devoted to those types of materials, which offer a number of interesting properties. Taking into account the great variety of problems encountered and of their mutual correlations when fabricating a circuit or even a device, most of the aspects of III-V microelectronics, from fundamental p
Radiation drive in laser heated hohlraums
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suter, L.J.; Kauffman, R.L.; Darrow, C.B.
1995-01-01
Nearly 10 years of Nova experiments and analysis have lead to a relatively detailed quantitative and qualitative understanding of radiation drive in laser heated hohlraums. Our most successful quantitative modelling tool is 2D Lasnex numerical simulations. Analysis of the simulations provides us with insight into the details of the hohlraum drive. In particular we find hohlraum radiation conversion efficiency becomes quite high with longer pulses as the accumulated, high Z blow-off plasma begins to radiate. Extensive Nova experiments corroborate our quantitative and qualitative understanding
Ocean heat content and Earth's radiation imbalance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douglass, David H.; Knox, Robert S.
2009-01-01
Earth's radiation imbalance is determined from ocean heat content data and compared with results of direct measurements. Distinct time intervals of alternating positive and negative values are found: 1960-mid-1970s (-0.15), mid-1970s-2000 (+0.15), 2001-present (-0.2 W/m 2 ), and are consistent with prior reports. These climate shifts limit climate predictability.
Applications of Radiative Heating for Space Exploration
Brandis, Aaron
2017-01-01
Vehicles entering planetary atmospheres at high speeds (6 - 12 kms) experience intense heating by flows with temperatures of the order 10 000K. The flow around the vehicle experiences significant dissociation and ionization and is characterized by thermal and chemical non-equilibrium near the shock front, relaxing toward equilibrium. Emission from the plasma is intense enough to impart a significant heat flux on the entering spacecraft, making it necessary to predict the magnitude of radiative heating. Shock tubes represent a unique method capable of characterizing these processes in a flight-similar environment. The Electric Arc Shock tube (EAST) facility is one of the only facilities in its class, able to produce hypersonic flows at speeds up to Mach 50. This talk will review the characterization of radiation measured in EAST with simulations by the codes DPLR and NEQAIR, and in particular, focus on the impact these analyses have on recent missions to explore the solar system.
Highly heat removing radiation shielding material
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asano, Norio; Hozumi, Masahiro.
1990-01-01
Organic materials, inorganic materials or metals having excellent radiation shielding performance are impregnated into expanded metal materials, such as Al, Cu or Mg, having high heat conductivity. Further, the porosity of the expanded metals and combination of the expanded metals and the materials to be impregnated are changed depending on the purpose. Further, a plurality of shielding materials are impregnated into the expanded metal of the same kind, to constitute shielding materials. In such shielding materials, impregnated materials provide shielding performance against radiation rays such as neutrons and gamma rays, the expanded metals provide heat removing performance respectively and they act as shielding materials having heat removing performance as a whole. Accordingly, problems of non-informity and discontinuity in the prior art can be dissolved be provide materials having flexibility in view of fabrication work. (T.M.)
Heat pump processes induced by laser radiation
Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.
1980-01-01
A carbon dioxide laser system was constructed for the demonstration of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation. The system consisted of a frequency doubling stage, a gas reaction cell with its vacuum and high purity gas supply system, and provisions to measure the temperature changes by pressure, or alternatively, by density changes. The theoretical considerations for the choice of designs and components are dicussed.
Photopolymerizable liquid encapsulants for microelectronic devices
Baikerikar, Kiran K.
2000-10-01
Plastic encapsulated microelectronic devices consist of a silicon chip that is physically attached to a leadframe, electrically interconnected to input-output leads, and molded in a plastic that is in direct contact with the chip, leadframe, and interconnects. The plastic is often referred to as the molding compound, and is used to protect the chip from adverse mechanical, thermal, chemical, and electrical environments. Encapsulation of microelectronic devices is typically accomplished using a transfer molding process in which the molding compound is cured by heat. Most transfer molding processes suffer from significant problems arising from the high operating temperatures and pressures required to fill the mold. These aspects of the current process can lead to thermal stresses, incomplete mold filling, and wire sweep. In this research, a new strategy for encapsulating microelectronic devices using photopolymerizable liquid encapsulants (PLEs) has been investigated. The PLEs consist of an epoxy novolac-based vinyl ester resin (˜25 wt.%), fused silica filler (70--74 wt.%), and a photoinitiator, thermal initiator, and silane coupling agent. For these encapsulants, the use of light, rather than heat, to initiate the polymerization allows precise control over when the reaction starts, and therefore completely decouples the mold filling and the cure. The low viscosity of the PLEs allows for low operating pressures and minimizes problems associated with wire sweep. In addition, the in-mold cure time for the PLEs is equivalent to the in-mold cure times of current transfer molding compounds. In this thesis, the thermal and mechanical properties, as well as the viscosity and adhesion of photopolymerizable liquid encapsulants, are reported in order to demonstrate that a UV-curable formulation can have the material properties necessary for microelectronic encapsulation. In addition, the effects of the illumination time, postcure time, fused silica loading, and the inclusion
International symposium on radiative heat transfer: Book of abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-01-01
The international symposium on radiative heat transfer was held on 14-18 August 1995 Turkey. The specialists discussed radiation transfer in materials processing and manufacturing, solution of radiative heat transfer equation, transient radiation problem and radiation-turbulence interactions, raditive properties of gases, atmospheric and stellar radiative transfer , radiative transfer and its applications, optical and radiative properties of soot particles, inverse radiation problems, partticles, fibres,thermophoresis and waves and modelling of comprehensive systems at the meeting. Almost 79 papers were presented in the meeting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ting, A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Computational Mechanics Dept.
1994-08-01
Understanding the thermal response of lamp-heated rapid thermal processing (RTP) systems requires understanding relatively complex radiation exchange among opaque and partially transmitting surfaces and materials. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of wavelength-dependent radiative properties. The examples used for the analysis consider axisymmetric systems of the kind that were developed by Texas Instruments (TI) for the Microelectronics Manufacturing Science and Technology (MMST) Program and illustrate a number of wavelength-dependent (spectral) effects. The models execute quickly on workstation class computing flatforms, and thus permit rapid comparison of alternative reactor designs and physical models. The fast execution may also permit the incorporation of these models into real-time model-based process control algorithms.
Nanoelectronics: The perspective in microelectronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.; Cicuttin, A.; Colavita, A.A.
2001-10-01
The present survey briefly presents the-state-of-the-art in microelectronics, invokes physical considerations in estimating the intrinsic limits of present microelectronic devices, and highlights the future trends in the perspectives of the incoming nanoscale technologies. In order to design artificial systems with molecular precision, molecular brand new engineering methods must be developed, that is, to hold, position, and assemble nanoscale parts in compliance with the laws of physics. In the framework of the nanoscale technologies, the thermodynamically reversible single electron switching systems are considered as ultimate evolutionary end point of electronic logic devices built up at molecular level. (author)
3D microelectronic packaging from fundamentals to applications
Goyal, Deepak
2017-01-01
This volume provides a comprehensive reference for graduate students and professionals in both academia and industry on the fundamentals, processing details, and applications of 3D microelectronic packaging, an industry trend for future microelectronic packages. Chapters written by experts cover the most recent research results and industry progress in the following areas: TSV, die processing, micro bumps, direct bonding, thermal compression bonding, advanced materials, heat dissipation, thermal management, thermal mechanical modeling, quality, reliability, fault isolation, and failure analysis of 3D microelectronic packages. Numerous images, tables, and didactic schematics are included throughout. This essential volume equips readers with an in-depth understanding of all aspects of 3D packaging, including packaging architecture, processing, thermal mechanical and moisture related reliability concerns, common failures, developing areas, and future challenges, providing insights into key areas for future resea...
Spacecraft Radiator Freeze Protection Using a Regenerative Heat Exchanger
Ungar, Eugene K.; Schunk, Richard G.
2011-01-01
An active thermal control system architecture has been modified to include a regenerative heat exchanger (regenerator) inboard of the radiator. Rather than using a radiator bypass valve a regenerative heat exchanger is placed inboard of the radiators. A regenerator cold side bypass valve is used to set the return temperature. During operation, the regenerator bypass flow is varied, mixing cold radiator return fluid and warm regenerator outlet fluid to maintain the system setpoint. At the lowest heat load for stable operation, the bypass flow is closed off, sending all of the flow through the regenerator. This lowers the radiator inlet temperature well below the system set-point while maintaining full flow through the radiators. By using a regenerator bypass flow control to maintain system setpoint, the required minimum heat load to avoid radiator freezing can be reduced by more than half compared to a radiator bypass system.
Influence of radiation heat transfer during a severe accident
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cazares R, R. I.; Epinosa P, G.; Varela H, J. R.; Vazquez R, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Polo L, M. A., E-mail: ricardo-cazares@hotmail.com [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)
2016-09-15
The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the radiation heat transfer on an average fuel channel during a severe accident of a BWR nuclear power plant. The analysis considers the radiation heat transfer in a participating medium, where the gases inside the system participate in the radiation heat transfer. We consider the steam-water mixture as an isothermal gray gas, and the boundaries of the system as a gray diffuse isothermal surface for the clad and refractory surfaces for the rest, and consider the average fuel channel as an enclosure system. During a severe accident, generation and diffusion of hydrogen begin at high temperature range (1,273 to 2,100 K), and the fuel rod cladding oxidation, but the hydrogen generated do not participate in the radiation heat transfer because it does not have any radiation properties. The heat transfer process in the fuel assembly is considered with a reduced order model, and from this, the convection and the radiation heat transfer is introduced in the system. In this paper, a system with and without the radiation heat transfer term was calculated and analyzed in order to obtain the influence of the radiation heat transfer on the average fuel channel. We show the behavior of radiation heat transfer effects on the temporal evolution of the hydrogen concentration and temperature profiles in a fuel assembly, where a stream of steam is flowing. Finally, this study is a practical complement for more accurate modeling of a severe accident analysis. (Author)
Influence of radiation heat transfer during a severe accident
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cazares R, R. I.; Epinosa P, G.; Varela H, J. R.; Vazquez R, A.; Polo L, M. A.
2016-09-01
The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the radiation heat transfer on an average fuel channel during a severe accident of a BWR nuclear power plant. The analysis considers the radiation heat transfer in a participating medium, where the gases inside the system participate in the radiation heat transfer. We consider the steam-water mixture as an isothermal gray gas, and the boundaries of the system as a gray diffuse isothermal surface for the clad and refractory surfaces for the rest, and consider the average fuel channel as an enclosure system. During a severe accident, generation and diffusion of hydrogen begin at high temperature range (1,273 to 2,100 K), and the fuel rod cladding oxidation, but the hydrogen generated do not participate in the radiation heat transfer because it does not have any radiation properties. The heat transfer process in the fuel assembly is considered with a reduced order model, and from this, the convection and the radiation heat transfer is introduced in the system. In this paper, a system with and without the radiation heat transfer term was calculated and analyzed in order to obtain the influence of the radiation heat transfer on the average fuel channel. We show the behavior of radiation heat transfer effects on the temporal evolution of the hydrogen concentration and temperature profiles in a fuel assembly, where a stream of steam is flowing. Finally, this study is a practical complement for more accurate modeling of a severe accident analysis. (Author)
Solar-Radiation Heating as a Possible Heat Source for Dehydration of Hydrous Carbonaceous Chondrites
Nakamura, T.; Golabek, G.; Ohtsuka, K.; Matsuoka, M.
2017-07-01
We have calculated time-dependent temperature profiles of near surface layers of primitive Near Sun Asteroid (3200) Phaethon and found that solar radiation heating is a possible heat source for dehydration of carbonaceous chondrites.
Evaluation method for radiative heat transfer in polydisperse water droplets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maruyama, Shigenao; Nakai, Hirotaka; Sakurai, Atsushi; Komiya, Atsuki
2008-01-01
Simplifications of the model for nongray radiative heat transfer analysis in participating media comprised of polydisperse water droplets are presented. Databases of the radiative properties for a water droplet over a wide range of wavelengths and diameters are constructed using rigorous Mie theory. The accuracy of the radiative properties obtained from the database interpolation is validated by comparing them with those obtained from the Mie calculations. The radiative properties of polydisperse water droplets are compared with those of monodisperse water droplets with equivalent mean diameters. Nongray radiative heat transfer in the anisotropic scattering fog layer, including direct and diffuse solar irradiations and infrared sky flux, is analyzed using REM 2 . The radiative heat fluxes within the fog layer containing polydisperse water droplets are compared with those in the layer containing monodisperse water droplets. Through numerical simulation of the radiative heat transfer, polydisperse water droplets can be approximated by using the Sauter diameter, a technique that can be useful in several research fields, such as engineering and atmospheric science. Although this approximation is valid in the case of pure radiative transfer problems, the Sauter diameter is reconfirmed to be the appropriate diameter for approximating problems in radiative heat transfer, although volume-length mean diameter shows better accordance in some cases. The CPU time for nongray radiative heat transfer analysis with a fog model is evaluated. It is proved that the CPU time is decreased by using the databases and the approximation method for polydisperse particulate media
Heat- and radiation-resistant scintillator for electron microscopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kosov, A.V.; Petrov, S.A.; Puzyr', A.P.; Chetvergov, N.A.
1987-01-01
The use of a scintillator consisting of a single crystal of bismuth orthogermanate, which has high heat and radiation resistance, in REM-100, REM-200, and REM-100U electron microscopes is described. A study of the heat and radiation stabilities of single crystals of bismuth orthogermanate (Bi 4 Ge 3 O 12 ) has shown that they withstood multiple electron-beam heating redness (T ∼ 800 0 C) without changes in their properties
Intense radiative heat transport across a nano-scale gap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budaev, Bair V.; Ghafari, Amin; Bogy, David B.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we analyze the radiative heat transport in layered structures. The analysis is based on our prior description of the spectrum of thermally excited waves in systems with a heat flux. The developed method correctly predicts results for all known special cases for both large and closing gaps. Numerical examples demonstrate the applicability of our approach to the calculation of the radiative heat transport coefficient across various layered structures.
Nonsteady heat conduction code with radiation boundary conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fillo, J.A.; Benenati, R.; Powell, J.
1975-01-01
A heat-transfer model for studying the temperature build-up in graphite blankets for fusion reactors is presented. In essence, the computer code developed is for two-dimensional, nonsteady heat conduction in heterogeneous, anisotropic solids with nonuniform internal heating. Thermal radiation as well as bremsstrahlung radiation boundary conditions are included. Numerical calculations are performed for two design options by varying the wall loading, bremsstrahlung, surface layer thickness and thermal conductivity, blanket dimensions, time step and grid size. (auth)
Radiative heat transfer in the extreme near field.
Kim, Kyeongtae; Song, Bai; Fernández-Hurtado, Víctor; Lee, Woochul; Jeong, Wonho; Cui, Longji; Thompson, Dakotah; Feist, Johannes; Reid, M T Homer; García-Vidal, Francisco J; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod
2015-12-17
Radiative transfer of energy at the nanometre length scale is of great importance to a variety of technologies including heat-assisted magnetic recording, near-field thermophotovoltaics and lithography. Although experimental advances have enabled elucidation of near-field radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as 20-30 nanometres (refs 4-6), quantitative analysis in the extreme near field (less than 10 nanometres) has been greatly limited by experimental challenges. Moreover, the results of pioneering measurements differed from theoretical predictions by orders of magnitude. Here we use custom-fabricated scanning probes with embedded thermocouples, in conjunction with new microdevices capable of periodic temperature modulation, to measure radiative heat transfer down to gaps as small as two nanometres. For our experiments we deposited suitably chosen metal or dielectric layers on the scanning probes and microdevices, enabling direct study of extreme near-field radiation between silica-silica, silicon nitride-silicon nitride and gold-gold surfaces to reveal marked, gap-size-dependent enhancements of radiative heat transfer. Furthermore, our state-of-the-art calculations of radiative heat transfer, performed within the theoretical framework of fluctuational electrodynamics, are in excellent agreement with our experimental results, providing unambiguous evidence that confirms the validity of this theory for modelling radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as a few nanometres. This work lays the foundations required for the rational design of novel technologies that leverage nanoscale radiative heat transfer.
User's Manual: Routines for Radiative Heat Transfer and Thermometry
Risch, Timothy K.
2016-01-01
Determining the intensity and spectral distribution of radiation emanating from a heated surface has applications in many areas of science and engineering. Areas of research in which the quantification of spectral radiation is used routinely include thermal radiation heat transfer, infrared signature analysis, and radiation thermometry. In the analysis of radiation, it is helpful to be able to predict the radiative intensity and the spectral distribution of the emitted energy. Presented in this report is a set of routines written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) and incorporating functions specific to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) that are useful for predicting the radiative behavior of heated surfaces. These routines include functions for calculating quantities of primary importance to engineers and scientists. In addition, the routines also provide the capability to use such information to determine surface temperatures from spectral intensities and for calculating the sensitivity of the surface temperature measurements to unknowns in the input parameters.
Shape Morphing Adaptive Radiator Technology (SMART) for Variable Heat Rejection
Erickson, Lisa
2016-01-01
The proposed technology leverages the temperature dependent phase change of shape memory alloys (SMAs) to drive the shape of a flexible radiator panel. The opening/closing of the radiator panel, as a function of temperature, passively adapts the radiator's rate of heat rejection in response to a vehicle's needs.
Applications of focused ion beams in microelectronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broughton, C.; Beale, M.I.J.; Deshmukh, V.G.I.
1986-04-01
We present the conclusions of the RSRE programme on the application of focused ion beams in microelectronics and review the literature published in this field. We discuss the design and performance of focused beam implanters and the viability of their application to semiconductor device fabrication. Applications in the areas of lithography, direct implantation and micromachining are discussed in detail. Comparisons are made between the use of focused ion beams and existing techniques for these fabrication processes with a strong emphasis placed on the relative throughputs. We present results on a novel spot size measurement technique and the effect of beam heating on resist. We also present the results of studies into implantation passivation of resist to oxygen plasma attack as basis for a dry development lithography scheme. A novel lithography system employing flood electron exposure from a photocathode which is patterned by a focused ion beam which can also be used to repair mask defects is considered. (author)
Radiators in hydronic heating installations structure, selection and thermal characteristics
Muniak, Damian Piotr
2017-01-01
This book addresses key design and computational issues related to radiators in hydronic heating installations. A historical outline is included to highlight the evolution of radiators and heating technologies. Further, the book includes a chapter on thermal comfort, which is the decisive factor in selecting the ideal heating system and radiator type. The majority of the book is devoted to an extensive discussion of the types and kinds of radiators currently in use, and to identifying the reasons for the remarkable diversity of design solutions. The differences between the solutions are also addressed, both in terms of the effects of operation and of the thermal comfort that needs to be ensured. The book then compares the advantages and disadvantages of each solution, as well as its potential applications. A detailed discussion, supported by an extensive theoretical and mathematical analysis, is presented of the computational relations that are used in selecting the radiator type. The dynamics of radiator hea...
Design and Modeling of a Variable Heat Rejection Radiator
Miller, Jennifer R.; Birur, Gajanana C.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Berisford, Daniel F.; Stephan, Ryan
2011-01-01
Variable Heat Rejection Radiator technology needed for future NASA human rated & robotic missions Primary objective is to enable a single loop architecture for human-rated missions (1) Radiators are typically sized for maximum heat load in the warmest continuous environment resulting in a large panel area (2) Large radiator area results in fluid being susceptible to freezing at low load in cold environment and typically results in a two-loop system (3) Dual loop architecture is approximately 18% heavier than single loop architecture (based on Orion thermal control system mass) (4) Single loop architecture requires adaptability to varying environments and heat loads
Analysis of radiative heat transfer impact in cross-flow tube and fin heat exchangers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hanuszkiewicz-Drapała Małgorzata
2016-03-01
Full Text Available A cross-flow, tube and fin heat exchanger of the water – air type is the subject of the analysis. The analysis had experimental and computational form and was aimed for evaluation of radiative heat transfer impact on the heat exchanger performance. The main element of the test facility was an enlarged recurrent segment of the heat exchanger under consideration. The main results of measurements are heat transfer rates, as well as temperature distributions on the surface of the first fin obtained by using the infrared camera. The experimental results have been next compared to computational ones coming from a numerical model of the test station. The model has been elaborated using computational fluid dynamics software. The computations have been accomplished for two cases: without radiative heat transfer and taking this phenomenon into account. Evaluation of the radiative heat transfer impact in considered system has been done by comparing all the received results.
Inactivation of ascaris lumbricoides eggs by heat, radiation, and thermoradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brannen, J.P.; Garst, D.M.; Langley, S.
1975-07-01
It is desirable to eliminate the public health hazards associated with land application of municipal sewage sludge as a fertilizer or soil conditioner. This report describes experimentation to determine the effects of heat, radiation, and thermoradiation on the suppression of embryonation of Ascaris lumbricoides ova, a parasite commonly found in sewage sludge. Heat effects were observed at a minimum temperature of 51 0 C and radiation effects at doses in excess of 15 krads of radiation. Thermoradiation at 47 0 C suppressed embryonation at less than half the total dose required by radiation alone. (U.S.)
Titanium Loop Heat Pipes for Space Nuclear Radiators, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop titanium Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) that can be used in low-mass space nuclear radiators, such as...
Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.; White, Todd R.; Mahzari, Milad; Bose, Deepak
2014-01-01
During the recent entry of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the heat shield was equipped with thermocouple stacks to measure in-depth heating of the thermal protection system (TPS). When only convective heating was considered, the derived heat flux from gauges in the stagnation region was found to be underpredicted by as much as 17 W/sq cm, which is significant compared to the peak heating of 32 W/sq cm. In order to quantify the contribution of radiative heating phenomena to the discrepancy, ground tests and predictive simulations that replicated the MSL entry trajectory were performed. An analysis is carried through to assess the quality of the radiation model and the impact to stagnation line heating. The impact is shown to be significant, but does not fully explain the heating discrepancy.
Radiative heat transfer in low-dimensional systems -- microscopic mode
Woods, Lilia; Phan, Anh; Drosdoff, David
2013-03-01
Radiative heat transfer between objects can increase dramatically at sub-wavelength scales. Exploring ways to modulate such transport between nano-systems is a key issue from fundamental and applied points of view. We advance the theoretical understanding of radiative heat transfer between nano-objects by introducing a microscopic model, which takes into account the individual atoms and their atomic polarizabilities. This approach is especially useful to investigate nano-objects with various geometries and give a detailed description of the heat transfer distribution. We employ this model to study the heat exchange in graphene nanoribbon/substrate systems. Our results for the distance separations, substrates, and presence of extended or localized defects enable making predictions for tailoring the radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale. Financial support from the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-06ER46297 is acknowledged.
Analysis of the thermal performance of heat pipe radiators
Boo, J. H.; Hartley, J. G.
1990-01-01
A comprehensive mathematical model and computational methodology are presented to obtain numerical solutions for the transient behavior of a heat pipe radiator in a space environment. The modeling is focused on a typical radiator panel having a long heat pipe at the center and two extended surfaces attached to opposing sides of the heat pipe shell in the condenser section. In the set of governing equations developed for the model, each region of the heat pipe - shell, liquid, and vapor - is thermally lumped to the extent possible, while the fin is lumped only in the direction normal to its surface. Convection is considered to be the only significant heat transfer mode in the vapor, and the evaporation and condensation velocity at the liquid-vapor interface is calculated from kinetic theory. A finite-difference numerical technique is used to predict the transient behavior of the entire radiator in response to changing loads.
Heat transfer augmentation of a car radiator using nanofluids
Hussein, Adnan M.; Bakar, R. A.; Kadirgama, K.; Sharma, K. V.
2014-05-01
The car radiator heat transfer enhancement by using TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in water as a base fluid was studied experimentally. The test rig is setup as a car radiator with tubes and container. The range of Reynolds number and volume fraction are (250-1,750) and (1.0-2.5 %) respectively. Results showed that the heat transfer increases with increasing of nanofluid volume fraction. The experimental data is agreed with other investigator.
Canine tumor and normal tissue response to heat and radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gillette, E.L.; McChesney, S.L.
1985-01-01
Oral squamous cell carcinomas of dogs were treated with either irradiation alone or combined with hyperthermia. Tumor control was assessed as no evidence of disease one year following treatment. Dogs were randomized to variable radiation doses which were given in ten fractions three times a week for three weeks. Heat was given three hours after the first and third radiation dose each week for seven treatments. The attempt was made to achieve a minimum tumor temperature of 42 0 C for thirty minutes with a maximum normal tissue temperature of 40 0 C. It was usually possible to selectively heat tumors. The TCD 50 for irradiation alone was about 400 rads greater than for heat plus irradiation. The dose response curve for heat plus radiation was much steeper than for radiation alone indicating less heterogeneity of tumor response. That also implies a much greater effectiveness of radiation combined with heat at higher tumor control probabilities. Early necrosis caused by heating healed with conservative management. No increase in late radiation necrosis was observed
Progress in nuclear measuring and experimental techniques by application of microelectronics. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meiling, W.
1984-01-01
In the past decade considerable progress has been made in nuclear measuring and experimental techniques by developing position-sensitive detector systems and widely using integrated circuits and microcomputers for data acquisition and processing as well as for automation of measuring processes. In this report which will be published in three parts those developments are reviewed and demonstrated on selected examples. After briefly characterizing microelectronics, the use of microelectronic elements for radiation detectors is reviewed. (author)
Thermosolutal MHD flow and radiative heat transfer with viscous ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper investigates double diffusive convection MHD flow past a vertical porous plate in a chemically active fluid with radiative heat transfer in the presence of viscous work and heat source. The resulting nonlinear dimensionless equations are solved by asymptotic analysis technique giving approximate analytic ...
Free convection effects and radiative heat transfer in MHD Stokes ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The present note deals with the effects of radiative heat transfer and free convection in MHD for a ﬂow of an electrically conducting, incompressible, dusty viscous ﬂuid past an impulsively started vertical non-conducting plate, under the inﬂuence of transversely applied magnetic ﬁeld. The heat due to viscous dissipation and ...
Influence of Variable Fluid Properties and Radiative Heat loss on ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Consequently, comparative analysis is also performed on the wall shear stress and local heat transfer of the present study with the available results.The results show that the inclusion variable viscosity and thermal conductivity, and radiative heat loss mechanism cause significant effects on the fluid flow velocity, temperature ...
Free convection effects and radiative heat transfer in MHD Stokes ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... radiative heat transfer is useful for predicting the heat feedback to the burning surface ... petroleum technology, to study the movement of natural gas, oil and water ... (e.g. sea water, rain water, and sewage) past an impulsively started infinite ...
Computer simulation of heating of biological tissue during laser radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bojanic, S.; Sreckovic, M.
1995-01-01
Computer model is based on an implicit finite difference scheme to solve the diffusion equation for light distribution and the bio-heat equation. A practical application of the model is to calculate the temperature distributions during thermal coagulation of prostate by radiative heating. (author)
Multiplied effect of heat and radiation in chemical stress relaxation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, Masayuki
1981-01-01
About the deterioration of rubber due to radiation, useful knowledge can be obtained by the measurement of chemical stress relaxation. As an example, the rubber coating of cables in a reactor containment vessel is estimated to be irradiated by weak radiation at the temperature between 60 and 90 deg C for about 40 years. In such case, it is desirable to establish the method of accelerated test of the deterioration. The author showed previously that the law of time-dose rate conversion holds in the case of radiation. In this study, the chemical stress relaxation to rubber was measured by the simultaneous application of heat and radiation, and it was found that there was the multiplied effect of heat and radiation in the stress relaxation speed. Therefore the factor of multiplication of heat and radiation was proposed to describe quantitatively the degree of the multiplied effect. The chloroprene rubber used was offered by Hitachi Cable Co., Ltd. The experimental method and the results are reported. The multiplication of heat and radiation is not caused by the direct cut of molecular chains by radiation, instead, it is based on the temperature dependence of various reaction rates at which the activated species reached the cut of molecular chains through complex reaction mechanism and the temperature dependence of the diffusion rate of oxygen in rubber. (Kako, I.)
Radiation heat transfer model for the SCDAP code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sohal, M.S.
1984-01-01
A radiation heat transfer model has been developed for severe fuel damage analysis which accounts for anisotropic effects of reflected radiation. The model simplifies the view factor calculation which results in significant savings in computational cost with little loss of accuracy. Radiation heat transfer rates calculated by the isotropic and anisotropic models compare reasonably well with those calculated by other models. The model is applied to an experimental nuclear rod bundle during a slow boiloff of the coolant liquid, a situation encountered during a loss of coolant accident with severe fuel damage. At lower temperatures and also lower temperature gradients in the core, the anisotropic effect was not found to be significant
Polymeric hollow fiber heat exchanger as an automotive radiator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krásný, Ivo; Astrouski, Ilya; Raudenský, Miroslav
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Polymeric hollow fiber heat exchanger as an automotive radiator is proposed. • The mechanism of heat transfer (HT) relies on diameter of polymeric hollow fiber. • Grimson equation is sufficient for approximate prediction of the heat transfers. - Abstract: Nowadays, different automotive parts (tubing, covers, manifolds, etc.) are made of plastics because of their superior characteristics, low weight, chemical resistance, reasonable price and several other aspects. Manufacturing technologies are already well-established and the application of plastics is proven. Following this trend, the production of compact and light all-plastic radiators seems reasonable. Two plastic heat exchangers were manufactured based on polypropylene tubes of diameter 0.6 and 0.8 mm (so-called fibers) and tested. The heat transfer performance and pressure drops were studied with hot (60 °C) ethyleneglycol-water brine flowing inside the fibers and air (20 °C) outside because these conditions are conventional for car radiator operation. It was observed that heat transfer rates (up to 10.2 kW), overall heat transfer coefficients (up to 335 W/m"2 K), and pressure drops are competitive to conventional aluminium finned-tube radiators. Moreover, influence of fiber diameter was studied. It was observed that air-side convective coefficients rise with a decrease of fiber diameter. Air-side pressure drops of plastic prototypes were slightly higher than of aluminium radiator but it is expected that additional optimization will eliminate this drawback. Experimentally obtained air-side heat transfer coefficients were compared with the theoretical prediction using the Grimson equation and the Churchill and Bernstein approach. It was found that the Grimson equation is sufficient for approximate prediction of the outer HTCs and can be used for engineering calculations. Further work will concentrate on optimizing and developing a polymeric hollow fiber heat exchanger with reduced size
Fluctuations of radiative heat exchange between two bodies
Biehs, S.-A.; Ben-Abdallah, P.
2018-05-01
We present a theory to describe the fluctuations of nonequilibrium radiative heat transfer between two bodies both in the far- and near-field regimes. As predicted by the blackbody theory, in the far field, we show that the variance of radiative heat flux is of the same order of magnitude as its mean value. However, in the near-field regime, we demonstrate that the presence of surface polaritons makes this variance more than one order of magnitude larger than the mean flux. We further show that the correlation time of heat flux in this regime is comparable to the relaxation time of heat carriers in each medium. This theory could open the way to an experimental investigation of heat exchanges far from the thermal equilibrium condition.
Effect of radiation heat transfer on the performance of high temperature heat exchanger, (2)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamada, Yukio; Mori, Yasuo; Hijikata, Kunio.
1977-01-01
In high temperature helium gas-cooled reactors, the nuclear energy can be utilized effectively, and the safety is excellent as compared with conventional reactors. They are advantageous also in view of environmental problems. In this report, the high temperature heat exchanger used for heating steam with the helium from a high temperature gas reactor is modeled, and the case that radiating gas flow between parallel plates is considered. Analysis was made on the case of one channel and constant heat flux and on the model for a counter-flow type heat exchanger with two channels, and the effect of radiation on the heat transfer in laminar flow and turbulent flow regions was clarified theoretically. The basic equations, the method of approximate solution and the results of calculation are explained. When one dimensional radiation was considered, the representative temperature Tr regarding fluid radiation was introduced, and its relation to mean mixing temperature Tm was determined. It was clarified that the large error in the result did not arise even if Tr was taken equally to Tm, especially in case of turbulent flow. The error was practically negligible when the rate of forced convection heat transfer in case of radiating medium flow was taken same as that in the case without radiation. (Kako, I.)
Dynamic ignition regime of condensed system by radiate heat flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arkhipov, V A; Zolotorev, N N; Korotkikh, A G; Kuznetsov, V T
2017-01-01
The main ignition characteristics of high-energy materials are the ignition time and critical heat flux allowing evaluation of the critical conditions for ignition, fire and explosive safety for the test solid propellants. The ignition process is typically studied in stationary conditions of heat input at constant temperature of the heating surface, environment or the radiate heat flux on the sample surface. In real conditions, ignition is usually effected at variable time-dependent values of the heat flux. In this case, the heated layer is formed on the sample surface in dynamic conditions and significantly depends on the heat flux change, i.e. increasing or decreasing falling heat flux in the reaction period of the propellant sample. This paper presents a method for measuring the ignition characteristics of a high-energy material sample in initiation of the dynamic radiant heat flux, which includes the measurement of the ignition time when exposed to a sample time varying radiant heat flux given intensity. In case of pyroxyline containing 1 wt. % of soot, it is shown that the ignition times are reduced by 20–50 % depending on the initial value of the radiant flux density in initiation by increasing or decreasing radiant heat flux compared with the stationary conditions of heat supply in the same ambient conditions. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dyrboel, Susanne
1998-05-01
Fibrous materials are some of the most widely used materials for thermal insulation. In this project the focus of interest has been on fibrous materials for building application. Interest in improving the thermal properties of insulation materials is increasing as legislation is being tightened to reduce the overall energy consumption. A knowledge of the individual heat transfer mechanisms - whereby heat is transferred within a particular material is an essential tool to improve continuously the thermal properties of the material. Heat is transferred in fibrous materials by four different transfer mechanisms: conduction through air, conduction through fibres, thermal radiation and convection. In a particular temperature range the conduction through air can be regarded as a constant, and conduction through fibres is an insignificant part of the total heat transfer. Radiation, however, constitutes 25-40% of the total heat transfer in light fibrous materials. In Denmark and a number of other countries convection in fibrous materials is considered as non-existent when calculating heat transmission as well as when designing building structures. Two heat transfer mechanisms have been the focus of the current project: radiation heat transfer and convection. The radiation analysis serves to develop a model that can be used in further work to gain a wider knowledge of the way in which the morphology of the fibrous material, i.e. fibre diameter distribution, fibre orientation distribution etc., influences the radiation heat transfer under different conditions. The convection investigation serves to examine whether considering convection as non-existent is a fair assumption to use in present and future building structures. The assumption applied in practically is that convection makes a notable difference only in very thick insulation, at external temperatures below -20 deg. C, and at very low densities. For lager thickness dimensions the resulting heat transfer through the
Lessons learned from early microelectronics production at Sandia National Laboratories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weaver, H.T.
1998-02-01
During the 1980s Sandia designed, developed, fabricated, tested, and delivered hundreds of thousands of radiation hardened Integrated Circuits (IC) for use in weapons and satellites. Initially, Sandia carried out all phases, design through delivery, so that development of next generation ICs and production of current generation circuits were carried out simultaneously. All this changed in the mid-eighties when an outside contractor was brought in to produce ICs that Sandia developed, in effect creating a crisp separation between development and production. This partnership had a severe impact on operations, but its more damaging effect was the degradation of Sandia`s microelectronics capabilities. This report outlines microelectronics development and production in the early eighties and summarizes the impact of changing to a separate contractor for production. This record suggests that low volume production be best accomplished within the development organization.
Super-Planckian far-field radiative heat transfer
Fernández-Hurtado, V.; Fernández-Domínguez, A. I.; Feist, J.; García-Vidal, F. J.; Cuevas, J. C.
2018-01-01
We present here a theoretical analysis that demonstrates that the far-field radiative heat transfer between objects with dimensions smaller than the thermal wavelength can overcome the Planckian limit by orders of magnitude. To guide the search for super-Planckian far-field radiative heat transfer, we make use of the theory of fluctuational electrodynamics and derive a relation between the far-field radiative heat transfer and the directional absorption efficiency of the objects involved. Guided by this relation, and making use of state-of-the-art numerical simulations, we show that the far-field radiative heat transfer between highly anisotropic objects can largely overcome the black-body limit when some of their dimensions are smaller than the thermal wavelength. In particular, we illustrate this phenomenon in the case of suspended pads made of polar dielectrics like SiN or SiO2. These structures are widely used to measure the thermal transport through nanowires and low-dimensional systems and can be employed to test our predictions. Our work illustrates the dramatic failure of the classical theory to predict the far-field radiative heat transfer between micro- and nanodevices.
Experimental investigation of single-phase microjet cooling of microelectronics
Rusowicz, Artur; Leszczyński, Maciej; Grzebielec, Andrzej; Laskowski, Rafał
2015-09-01
Development of electronics, which aims to improve the functionality of electronic devices, aims at increasing the packing of transistors in a chip and boosting clock speed (the number of elementary operations per second). While pursuing this objective, one encounters the growing problem of thermal nature. Each switching of the logic state at the elementary level of an integrated circuit is associated with the generation of heat. Due to a large number of transistors and high clock speeds, higher heat flux is emitted by the microprocessor to a level where the component needs to be intensively cooled, or otherwise it will become overheated. This paper presents the cooling of microelectronic components using microjets.
Heat rejection efficiency research of new energy automobile radiators
Ma, W. S.; Shen, W. X.; Zhang, L. W.
2018-03-01
The driving system of new energy vehicle has larger heat load than conventional engine. How to ensure the heat dissipation performance of the cooling system is the focus of the design of new energy vehicle thermal management system. In this paper, the heat dissipation efficiency of the radiator of the hybrid electric vehicle is taken as the research object, the heat dissipation efficiency of the radiator of the new energy vehicle is studied through the multi-working-condition enthalpy difference test. In this paper, the test method in the current standard QC/T 468-2010 “automobile radiator” is taken, but not limited to the test conditions specified in the standard, 5 types of automobile radiator are chosen, each of them is tested 20 times in simulated condition of different wind speed and engine inlet temperature. Finally, regression analysis is carried out for the test results, and regression equation describing the relationship of radiator heat dissipation heat dissipation efficiency air side flow rate cooling medium velocity and inlet air temperature is obtained, and the influence rule is systematically discussed.
Bunch heating by coherent synchrotron radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heifets, S.A.; Zolotorev, M.
1995-10-01
The authors discuss here effects which define the steady-state rms energy spread of a microbunch in a storage ring. It is implied that the longitudinal microwave instability is controlled by low α lattice. In this case the coherent synchrotron radiation, if exists, may be the main factor defining the bunch temperature. Another effect comes from the fact that a nonlinear momentum compaction of such lattices makes Haissinskii equation not applicable, and the coherent synchrotron radiation may effect not only bunch lengthening but the energy spread as well
Some factors affecting radiative heat transport in PWR cores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, A.N.
1989-04-01
This report discusses radiative heat transport in Pressurized Water Reactor cores, using simple models to illustrate basic features of the transport process. Heat transport by conduction and convection is ignored in order to focus attention on the restrictions on radiative heat transport imposed by the geometry of the heat emitting and absorbing structures. The importance of the spacing of the emitting and absorbing structures is emphasised. Steady state temperature distributions are found for models of cores which are uniformly heated by fission product decay. In all of the models, a steady state temperature distribution can only be obtained if the central core temperature is in excess of the melting point of UO 2 . It has recently been reported that the MIMAS computer code, which takes into account radiative heat transport, has been used to model the heat-up of the Three Mile Island-2 reactor core, and the computations indicate that the core could not have reached the melting point of UO 2 at any time or any place. We discuss this result in the light of the calculations presented in this paper. It appears that the predicted stabilisation of the core temperatures at ∼ 2200 0 C may be a consequence of the artificially large spacing between the radial rings employed in the MIMAS code, rather than a result of physical significance. (author)
Modelling radiative heat transfer inside a basin type solar still
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madhlopa, A.
2014-01-01
Radiative heat transfer inside a basin type solar still has been investigated using two models with (model 1) and without (model 2) taking into account optical view factors. The coefficient of radiative heat exchange (h r,w-gc ) between the water and cover surfaces of a practical solar still was computed using the two models. Simulation results show that model 1 yields lower values of h r,w-gc and the root mean square error than model 2. It is therefore concluded that the accuracy of modelling the performance of a basin-type solar still can be improved by incorporating view factors. - Highlights: • Radiative heat transfer in a basin type solar still has been investigated. • Two models with and without view factors were used. • The model with view factors exhibits a lower magnitude of root mean square error. • View factors affect the accuracy of modelling the performance of the solar still
Radiative heat transfer by the Monte Carlo method
Hartnett †, James P; Cho, Young I; Greene, George A; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Yang, Wen-Jei; Kudo, Kazuhiko
1995-01-01
This book presents the basic principles and applications of radiative heat transfer used in energy, space, and geo-environmental engineering, and can serve as a reference book for engineers and scientists in researchand development. A PC disk containing software for numerical analyses by the Monte Carlo method is included to provide hands-on practice in analyzing actual radiative heat transfer problems.Advances in Heat Transfer is designed to fill the information gap between regularly scheduled journals and university level textbooks by providing in-depth review articles over a broader scope than journals or texts usually allow.Key Features* Offers solution methods for integro-differential formulation to help avoid difficulties* Includes a computer disk for numerical analyses by PC* Discusses energy absorption by gas and scattering effects by particles* Treats non-gray radiative gases* Provides example problems for direct applications in energy, space, and geo-environmental engineering
The radiation safety assessment of the heating loop of district heating reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yuanzhong
1993-01-01
The district heating reactors are used to supply heating to the houses in cities. The concerned problems are whether the radioactive materials reach the heated houses through heating loop, and whether the safety of the dwellers can be ensured. In order to prevent radioactive materials getting into the heated houses, the district heating reactors have three loops, namely, primary loop, intermediate loop, and heating loop. In the paper, the measures of preventing radioactive materials getting into the heating loop are presented, and the possible sources of the radioactivity in the water of the intermediate loop and the heating loop are given. The regulatory aim limit of radioactive concentration in the water of the intermediate loop is put forward, which is 18.5 Bq/l. Assuming that specific radioactivity of the water of contaminated intermediate loop is up to 18.5 Bq/l, the maximum concentration of radionuclides in water of the heating loop is calculated for the normal operation and the accident of district heating reactor. The results show that the maximum possible concentration is 5.7 x 10 -3 Bq/l. The radiation safety assessment of the heating loop is made out. The conclusions are that the district heating reactors do not bring any harmful impact to the dwellers, and the safety of the dwellers can be safeguarded completely
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Waqar Azeem Khan
Full Text Available The present paper deals with the analysis of melting heat and mass transfer characteristics in the stagnation point flow of an incompressible generalized Burgers fluid over a stretching sheet in the presence of non-linear radiative heat flux. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. The governing equations in dimensional form are reduced to a system of dimensionless expressions by implementation of suitable similarity transformations. The resulting dimensionless problem governing the generalized Burgers is solved analytically by using the homotopy analysis method (HAM. The effects of different flow parameters like the ratio parameter, magnetic parameter, Prandtl number, melting parameter, radiation parameter, temperature ratio parameter and Schmidt number on the velocity, heat and mass transfer characteristics are computed and presented graphically. Moreover, useful discussions in detail are carried out with the help of plotted graphs and tables. Keywords: Generalized Burgers fluid, Non-linear radiative flow, Magnetic field, Melting heat transfer
Thermotronics: Towards Nanocircuits to Manage Radiative Heat Flux
Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age
2017-02-01
The control of electric currents in solids is at the origin of the modern electronics revolution that has driven our daily life since the second half of 20th century. Surprisingly, to date, there is no thermal analogue for a control of heat flux. Here, we summarise the very last developments carried out in this direction to control heat exchanges by radiation both in near and far-field in complex architecture networks.
Thermotronics. Towards nanocircuits to manage radiative heat flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Sherbrooke Univ., PQ; Biehs, Svend-Age
2017-01-01
The control of electric currents in solids is at the origin of the modern electronics revolution that has driven our daily life since the second half of 20 th century. Surprisingly, to date, there is no thermal analogue for a control of heat flux. Here, we summarise the very last developments carried out in this direction to control heat exchanges by radiation both in near and far-field in complex architecture networks.
Thermotronics. Towards nanocircuits to manage radiative heat flux
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben-Abdallah, Philippe [Univ. Paris-Sud 11, Palaiseau (France). Lab. Charles Fabry; Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Biehs, Svend-Age [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik
2017-05-01
The control of electric currents in solids is at the origin of the modern electronics revolution that has driven our daily life since the second half of 20{sup th} century. Surprisingly, to date, there is no thermal analogue for a control of heat flux. Here, we summarise the very last developments carried out in this direction to control heat exchanges by radiation both in near and far-field in complex architecture networks.
Maximal near-field radiative heat transfer between two plates
Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Drévillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl
2013-09-01
Near-field radiative transfer is a promising way to significantly and simultaneously enhance both thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) devices power densities and efficiencies. A parametric study of Drude and Lorentz models performances in maximizing near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite planes separated by nanometric distances at room temperature is presented in this paper. Optimal parameters of these models that provide optical properties maximizing the radiative heat flux are reported and compared to real materials usually considered in similar studies, silicon carbide and heavily doped silicon in this case. Results are obtained by exact and approximate (in the extreme near-field regime and the electrostatic limit hypothesis) calculations. The two methods are compared in terms of accuracy and CPU resources consumption. Their differences are explained according to a mesoscopic description of nearfield radiative heat transfer. Finally, the frequently assumed hypothesis which states a maximal radiative heat transfer when the two semi-infinite planes are of identical materials is numerically confirmed. Its subsequent practical constraints are then discussed. Presented results enlighten relevant paths to follow in order to choose or design materials maximizing nano-TPV devices performances.
Experiences with integral microelectronics on smart structures for space
Nye, Ted; Casteel, Scott; Navarro, Sergio A.; Kraml, Bob
1995-05-01
One feature of a smart structure implies that some computational and signal processing capability can be performed at a local level, perhaps integral to the controlled structure. This requires electronics with a minimal mechanical influence regarding structural stiffening, heat dissipation, weight, and electrical interface connectivity. The Advanced Controls Technology Experiment II (ACTEX II) space-flight experiments implemented such a local control electronics scheme by utilizing composite smart members with integral processing electronics. These microelectronics, tested to MIL-STD-883B levels, were fabricated with conventional thick film on ceramic multichip module techniques. Kovar housings and aluminum-kapton multilayer insulation was used to protect against harsh space radiation and thermal environments. Development and acceptance testing showed the electronics design was extremely robust, operating in vacuum and at temperature range with minimal gain variations occurring just above room temperatures. Four electronics modules, used for the flight hardware configuration, were connected by a RS-485 2 Mbit per second serial data bus. The data bus was controlled by Actel field programmable gate arrays arranged in a single master, four slave configuration. An Intel 80C196KD microprocessor was chosen as the digital compensator in each controller. It was used to apply a series of selectable biquad filters, implemented via Delta Transforms. Instability in any compensator was expected to appear as large amplitude oscillations in the deployed structure. Thus, over-vibration detection circuitry with automatic output isolation was incorporated into the design. This was not used however, since during experiment integration and test, intentionally induced compensator instabilities resulted in benign mechanical oscillation symptoms. Not too surprisingly, it was determined that instabilities were most detectable by large temperature increases in the electronics, typically
Maximal near-field radiative heat transfer between two plates
Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Drevillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl
2013-01-01
International audience; Near-field radiative transfer is a promising way to significantly and simultaneously enhance both thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) devices power densities and efficiencies. A parametric study of Drude and Lorentz models performances in maximizing near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite planes separated by nanometric distances at room temperature is presented in this paper. Optimal parameters of these models that provide optical properties maximizing the r...
Near-field radiative heat transfer in mesoporous alumina
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jing; Feng Yan-Hui; Zhang Xin-Xin; Huang Cong-Liang; Wang Ge
2015-01-01
The thermal conductivity of mesoporous material has aroused the great interest of scholars due to its wide applications such as insulation, catalyst, etc. Mesoporous alumina substrate consists of uniformly distributed, unconnected cylindrical pores. Near-field radiative heat transfer cannot be ignored, when the diameters of the pores are less than the characteristic wavelength of thermal radiation. In this paper, near-field radiation across a cylindrical pore is simulated by employing the fluctuation dissipation theorem and Green function. Such factors as the diameter of the pore, and the temperature of the material are further analyzed. The research results show that the radiative heat transfer on a mesoscale is 2∼4 orders higher than on a macroscale. The heat flux and equivalent thermal conductivity of radiation across a cylindrical pore decrease exponentially with pore diameter increasing, while increase with temperature increasing. The calculated equivalent thermal conductivity of radiation is further developed to modify the thermal conductivity of the mesoporous alumina. The combined thermal conductivity of the mesoporous alumina is obtained by using porosity weighted dilute medium and compared with the measurement. The combined thermal conductivity of mesoporous silica decreases gradually with pore diameter increasing, while increases smoothly with temperature increasing, which is in good agreement with the experimental data. The larger the porosity, the more significant the near-field effect is, which cannot be ignored. (paper)
Materials contamination control in the microelectronic industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tardif, F.
1993-01-01
This paper deals with many aspects of the contamination of materials in the microelectronic industry. The contamination's control of chemicals, process gases, silicon and the survey of the ions free water's purity are treated. (TEC). 29 figs., 7 tabs
Microelectronics to nanoelectronics materials, devices & manufacturability
Kaul, Anupama B
2012-01-01
Composed of contributions from top experts, Microelectronics to Nanoelectronics: Materials, Devices and Manufacturability offers a detailed overview of important recent scientific and technological developments in the rapidly evolving nanoelectronics arena.Under the editorial guidance and technical expertise of noted materials scientist Anupama B. Kaul of California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Lab, this book captures the ascent of microelectronics into the nanoscale realm. It addresses a wide variety of important scientific and technological issues in nanoelectronics research and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Senve, Vinay; Narasimham, G.S.V.L.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Transport processes in isothermal hexagonal sheath with 19 heat generating rods is studied. → Correlation is given to predict the maximum temperature considering all transport processes. → Effective thermal conductivity of rod bundle can be obtained using max temperature. → Data on the critical Rayleigh numbers for p/d ratios of 1.1-2.0 is presented. → Radiative heat transfer contributes to heat dissipation of 38-65% of total heat. - Abstract: A numerical study of conjugate natural convection and surface radiation in a horizontal hexagonal sheath housing 19 solid heat generating rods with cladding and argon as the fill gas, is performed. The natural convection in the sheath is driven by the volumetric heat generation in the solid rods. The problem is solved using the FLUENT CFD code. A correlation is obtained to predict the maximum temperature in the rod bundle for different pitch-to-diameter ratios and heat generating rates. The effective thermal conductivity is related to the heat generation rate, maximum temperature and the sheath temperature. Results are presented for the dimensionless maximum temperature, Rayleigh number and the contribution of radiation with changing emissivity, total wattage and the pitch-to-diameter ratio. In the simulation of a larger system that contains a rod bundle, the effective thermal conductivity facilitates simplified modelling of the rod bundle by treating it as a solid of effective thermal conductivity. The parametric studies revealed that the contribution of radiation can be 38-65% of the total heat generation, for the parameter ranges chosen. Data for critical Rayleigh number above which natural convection comes into effect is also presented.
Radiative heat conduction and the magnetorotational instability
Araya-Gochez, R A; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.08329.x
2004-01-01
A photon or a neutrino gas, semicontained by a non-diffusive particle species through scattering, comprises a rather peculiar magnetohydrodynamic fluid where the magnetic field is truly frozen only to the comoving volume associated with the mass density. Although radiative diffusion precludes a formal adiabatic treatment of compressive perturbations, we cast the energy equation in quasi- adiabatic form by assuming a negligible rate of energy exchange among species on the time-scale of the perturbation. This leads to a simplified dispersion relation for toroidal, non-axisymmetric magnetorotational modes when the accretion disc has comparable stress contributions from diffusive and non-diffusive components. The properties of the modes of fastest growth are shown to depend strongly on the compressibility of the mode, with a reduction in growth rate consistent with the results of Blaes & Socrates for axisymmetric modes. A clumpy disc structure is anticipated on the basis of the polarization properties of the ...
Aerodynamic characteristics and heat radiation performance of sportswear fabrics
Koga, H.; Hiratsuka, M.; Ito, S.; Konno, A.
2017-10-01
Sports such as swimming, speed skating, and marathon are sports competing for time. In recent years, reduction of the fluid drag of sportswear is required for these competitions in order to improve the record. In addition, sweating and discomfort due to body temperature rise during competition are thought to affect competitor performance, and heat radiation performance is also an important factor for sportswear. The authors have measured fluid force drag by wrapping cloth around a cylinder and have confirmed their differences due to the roughness of the fabric surface, differences in sewing. The authors could be verified the drag can be reduced by the position of the wear stitch. This time, we measured the heat radiation performance of 14 types of cloths whose aero dynamic properties are known using cylinders which are regarded as human fuselages, and found elements of cloth with heat radiation performance. It was found to be important for raising the heat radiation performance of sportswear that the fabric is thin and flat surface processing.
Feasibility of Jujube peeling using novel infrared radiation heating technology
Infrared (IR) radiation heating has a promising potential to be used as a sustainable and effective method to eliminate the use of water and chemicals in the jujube-peeling process and enhance the quality of peeled products. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of use IR he...
Improvement of boiling heat transfer by radiation induced boiling enhancement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imai, Yasuyuki; Okamoto, Koji; Madarame, Haruki; Takamasa, Tomoji
2003-01-01
For nuclear reactor systems, the critical heat flux (CHF) data is very important because it limits reactor efficiency. Improvement of CHF requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability, highly hydrophilic heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. In our previous study, we confirmed that the surface wettability changed significantly or that highly hydrophilic conditions were achieved, after irradiation of 60 Co gamma ray, by the Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) phenomenon. To delineate the effect of RISA on boiling phenomena, surface wettability in a high-temperature environment and critical heat flux (CHF) of metal oxides irradiated by gamma rays were investigated. A CHF experiment in the pool boiling condition was carried out under atmospheric pressure. The heating test section made of titanium was 0.2 mm in thickness, 3 mm in height, and 60 mm in length. Oxidation of the surface was carried out by plasma jetting for 40 seconds. The test section was irradiated by 60 Co gamma ray with predetermined radiation intensity and period. The CHF of oxidized titanium was improved up to 100 percent after 800 kGy 60 Co gamma ray irradiation. We call this effect Radiation Induced Boiling Enhancement (RIBE). Before we conducted the CHF experiment, contact angles of the test pieces were measured to show the relationship between wettability and CHF. The CHF in the present experiment increases will surface wettability in the same manner as shown by Liaw and Dhir's results. (author)
Improvement of boiling heat transfer by radiation induced boiling enhancement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imai, Y.; Okamoto, K.; Madarame, H.; Takamasa, T.
2003-01-01
For nuclear reactor systems, the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) data is very important because it limits reactor efficiency. Improvement of CHF requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability, highly hydrophilic heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. In our previous study, we confirmed that the surface wettability changed significantly or that highly hydrophilic conditions were achieved, after irradiation of 60Co gamma ray, by the Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) phenomenon. To delineate the effect of RISA on boiling phenomena, surface wettability in a high-temperature environment and Critical Heat Flux (CHF) of metal oxides irradiated by gamma rays were investigated. A CHF experiment in the pool boiling condition was carried out under atmospheric pressure. The heating test section made of titanium was 0.2mm in thickness, 3mm in height, and 60mm in length. Oxidation of the surfaces was carried out by plasma jetting for 40 seconds. The test section was irradiated by 60Co gamma ray with predetermined radiation intensity and period. The CHF of oxidized titanium was improved up to 100 percent after 800kGy 60Co gamma ray irradiation. We call this effect Radiation Induced Boiling Enhancement (RIBE). Before we conducted the CHF experiment, contact angles of the test pieces were measured to show the relationship between wettability and CHF. The CHF in the present experiment increases with surface wettability in the same manner as shown by Liaw and Dhir's results
Analytical heat transfer modeling of a new radiation calorimeter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Obame Ndong, Elysée [Department of Industrial Engineering and Maintenance, University of Sciences and Technology of Masuku (USTM), BP 941 Franceville (Gabon); Grenoble Electrical Engineering Laboratory (G2Elab), University Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, G2Elab, F38000 Grenoble (France); Gallot-Lavallée, Olivier [Grenoble Electrical Engineering Laboratory (G2Elab), University Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, G2Elab, F38000 Grenoble (France); Aitken, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.aitken@g2elab.grenoble-inp.fr [Grenoble Electrical Engineering Laboratory (G2Elab), University Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, G2Elab, F38000 Grenoble (France)
2016-06-10
Highlights: • Design of a new calorimeter for measuring heat power loss in electrical components. • The calorimeter can operate in a temperature range from −50 °C to 150 °C. • An analytical model of heat transfers for this new calorimeter is presented. • The theoretical sensibility of the new apparatus is estimated at ±1 mW. - Abstract: This paper deals with an analytical modeling of heat transfers simulating a new radiation calorimeter operating in a temperature range from −50 °C to 150 °C. The aim of this modeling is the evaluation of the feasibility and performance of the calorimeter by assessing the measurement of power losses of some electrical devices by radiation, the influence of the geometry and materials. Finally a theoretical sensibility of the new apparatus is estimated at ±1 mW. From these results the calorimeter has been successfully implemented and patented.
Analytical heat transfer modeling of a new radiation calorimeter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obame Ndong, Elysée; Gallot-Lavallée, Olivier; Aitken, Frédéric
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Design of a new calorimeter for measuring heat power loss in electrical components. • The calorimeter can operate in a temperature range from −50 °C to 150 °C. • An analytical model of heat transfers for this new calorimeter is presented. • The theoretical sensibility of the new apparatus is estimated at ±1 mW. - Abstract: This paper deals with an analytical modeling of heat transfers simulating a new radiation calorimeter operating in a temperature range from −50 °C to 150 °C. The aim of this modeling is the evaluation of the feasibility and performance of the calorimeter by assessing the measurement of power losses of some electrical devices by radiation, the influence of the geometry and materials. Finally a theoretical sensibility of the new apparatus is estimated at ±1 mW. From these results the calorimeter has been successfully implemented and patented.
21 CFR 179.30 - Radiofrequency radiation for the heating of food, including microwave frequencies.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Radiofrequency radiation for the heating of food... PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 179.30 Radiofrequency radiation for the heating of food, including microwave frequencies. Radiofrequency radiation, including...
Chemical implications of heat and radiation damage to rock salt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pederson, L.R.
1984-11-01
Chemical changes induced in Palo Duro and Paradox Basin natural rock salts and in synthetic NaCl by heat and gamma radiation were investigated. Heating of unirradiated natural rock salts to 300 0 C resulted in HCl (most prevalent), SO 2 , CO 2 , and H 2 S evolution, and increased the base content of the remaining salt by not more than 10 microequivalents per gram; whereas, heating of synthetic NaCl gave no product. Gamma irradiation produced sodium colloids and neutral chlorine in amounts similar to the results of Levy and coworkers. When the irradiated salts were heated, three reactions were apparent: (1) radiation-induced defects recombined; (2) neutral chlorine was evolved; and (3) HCl, SO 2 , CO 2 , and H 2 S were evolved, similar to results for unirradiated salts. Because reaction (1) appeared to dominate over reaction (2), it is expected that the influence of radiation damage to salt on the near-field chemical environment will be minor. 4 figures, 1 table
Radiative heat transfer between nanoparticles enhanced by intermediate particle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanhong Wang
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Radiative heat transfer between two polar nanostructures at different temperatures can be enhanced by resonant tunneling of surface polaritons. Here we show that the heat transfer between two nanoparticles is strongly varied by the interactions with a third nanoparticle. By controlling the size of the third particle, the time scale of thermalization toward the thermal bath temperature can be modified over 5 orders of magnitude. This effect provides control of temperature distribution in nanoparticle aggregation and facilitates thermal management at nanoscale.
Radiation and heat sensitivity of microflora in mixed spices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alam, M. K.; Choudhury, N.; Chowdhury, N. A.; Youssouf, Q.M.
1994-01-01
Spices such as coriander, cumin, turmeric, chilli collected from local market were found to be highly contaminated with bacteria and fungi. A dose of 3 kGy without heat treatment reduced the microbial load from 6 log to 3 log and from 5 log to 2 log units depending on the storage temperature whereas the same dose of radiation combined with heat treatment reduced the microbial load from 6 log to 2 log units and from 4 log to below detectable level depending on storage condition. The combination treated spices retained good organoleptic quality in comparison to that of only irradiated species with higher dose. 11 refs., 2 tables (author)
Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang-Kong; Dalvit, Diego A R
2015-01-01
We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. Finally, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials. (paper)
Heat and radiation analysis of NPP Krsko irradiated fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lalovic, M.
1986-01-01
Radioactive and heat potential for irradiated fuel in the region 2 with burnup of 13400 MWd/tHM, and in the region 4A with burnup of 9360 MWd/tHM for NPP KRSKO, was calculated. Computer code KORIGEN (Karlsruhe Oak Ridge Isotope Generation and Depletion Code) was used. The aspects of radiation (mainly gamma and neutrons) and of heat production was considered with respect to their impact on fuel handing and waste management. Isotopic concentrations for irradiated fuel was calculated and compared with Westinghouse data. (author)
Advanced Computational Methods for Thermal Radiative Heat Transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tencer, John; Carlberg, Kevin Thomas; Larsen, Marvin E.; Hogan, Roy E.,
2016-10-01
Participating media radiation (PMR) in weapon safety calculations for abnormal thermal environments are too costly to do routinely. This cost may be s ubstantially reduced by applying reduced order modeling (ROM) techniques. The application of ROM to PMR is a new and unique approach for this class of problems. This approach was investigated by the authors and shown to provide significant reductions in the computational expense associated with typical PMR simulations. Once this technology is migrated into production heat transfer analysis codes this capability will enable the routine use of PMR heat transfer in higher - fidelity simulations of weapon resp onse in fire environments.
A multilevel method for conductive-radiative heat transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banoczi, J.M.; Kelley, C.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
1996-12-31
We present a fast multilevel algorithm for the solution of a system of nonlinear integro-differential equations that model steady-state combined radiative-conductive heat transfer. The equations can be formulated as a compact fixed point problem with a fixed point map that requires both a solution of the linear transport equation and the linear heat equation for its evaluation. We use fast transport solvers developed by the second author, to construct an efficient evaluation of the fixed point map and then apply the Atkinson-Brakhage, method, with Newton-GMRES as the coarse mesh solver, to the full nonlinear system.
Near-field radiative heat transfer between metasurfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dai, Jin; Dyakov, Sergey A.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.
2016-01-01
Metamaterials possess artificial bulk and surface electromagnetic states. Tamed dispersion properties of surface waves allow one to achieve a controllable super-Planckian radiative heat transfer (RHT) process between two closely spaced objects. We numerically demonstrate enhanced RHT between two...... and highly geometrically tailorable. Our simulation also reveals thermally excited nonresonant surface waves in constituent metallic materials may play a prevailing role for RHT at an extremely small separation between two metal plates, rendering metamaterial modes insignificant for the energy-transfer...
Investigation of transient conduction–radiation heat transfer in a ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Mohammad Mehdi Keshtkar
2018-04-17
Apr 17, 2018 ... For absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering medium, the radiative heat transfer in any discrete direction s_m with direction index m is given as. dIm dsm. ¼ s_m. :rImрr; s_m. ЮјАbIm ю Sm. р16Ю .... thermore, V is the volume of the cell defined as dx В dy and. Im p and Sm p are the intensities and ...
Analysis of a radiative heat exchanger for systems for thermal control of space vehicles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasil'ev, L.L.; Kanonchik, L.E.; Babenko, V.A.
1995-01-01
Starting from the solution of a two-dimensional heat conduction problem, a mathematical model of a heat pipe-based radiative heat exchanger is developed. Good agreement between the predicted and experimental results is obtained. The effect of operational and structural parameters on the characteristics of the radiative heat exchanger is analyzed
Radiative heat transfer in a heat generating and turbulently convecting fluid layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, F.B.; Chan, S.H.; Chawla, T.C.; Cho, D.H.
1980-01-01
The coupled problem of radiative transport and turbulent natural convection in a volumetrically heated, horizontal gray fluid medium, bounded from above by a rigid, isothermal wall and below by a rigid, adiabatic wall, is investigated analytically. An approximate method based upon the boundary layer approach is employed to obtain the dependence of heat transfer at the upper wall on the principal parameters of the problem, which, for moderate Prandtl number, are the Rayleigh number, Ra, the optical thickness, KL, and the conduction-radiation coupling parameter, N. Also obtained in this study is the behaviour of the thermal boundary layer at the upper wall. At large kL, the contribution of thermal radiation to heat transfer in the layer is found to be negligible for N > 10, moderate for N approximately 1, and overwhelming for N < 0.1. However, at small kL, thermal radiation is found to be important only for N < 0.01. While a higher level of turbulence results in a thinner boundary layer, a larger effect of radiation is found to result in a thicker one. Thus, in the presence of strong thermal radiation, a much larger value of Ra is required for the boundary layer approach to remain valid. Under severe radiation conditions, no boundary layer flow regime is found to exist even at very high Rayleigh numbers. Accordingly, the ranges of applicability of the present results are determined and the approximate method justified. In particular, the validity of the present analysis is tested in three limiting cases, ie those of kL → infinity, N → infinity, and Ra → infinity, and is further confirmed by comparison with the numerical solution (author)
CHROMOSPHERIC HEATING BY ACOUSTIC WAVES COMPARED TO RADIATIVE COOLING
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sobotka, M.; Heinzel, P.; Švanda, M.; Jurčák, J. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (v.v.i.), Fričova 298, 25165 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Del Moro, D.; Berrilli, F. [Department of Physics, University of Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy)
2016-07-20
Acoustic and magnetoacoustic waves are among the possible candidate mechanisms that heat the upper layers of the solar atmosphere. A weak chromospheric plage near the large solar pore NOAA 11005 was observed on 2008 October 15, in the Fe i 617.3 nm and Ca ii 853.2 nm lines of the Interferometric Bidimemsional Spectrometer attached to the Dunn Solar Telescope. In analyzing the Ca ii observations (with spatial and temporal resolutions of 0.″4 and 52 s) the energy deposited by acoustic waves is compared to that released by radiative losses. The deposited acoustic flux is estimated from the power spectra of Doppler oscillations measured in the Ca ii line core. The radiative losses are calculated using a grid of seven one-dimensional hydrostatic semi-empirical model atmospheres. The comparison shows that the spatial correlation of the maps of radiative losses and acoustic flux is 72%. In a quiet chromosphere, the contribution of acoustic energy flux to radiative losses is small, only about 15%. In active areas with a photospheric magnetic-field strength between 300 and 1300 G and an inclination of 20°–60°, the contribution increases from 23% (chromospheric network) to 54% (a plage). However, these values have to be considered as lower limits and it might be possible that the acoustic energy flux is the main contributor to the heating of bright chromospheric network and plages.
Analysis of radiative heat transfer in the presence of obscurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finkelstein, L.; Weissman, Y.
1981-05-01
Numerical simulation of radiative heat transfer problems in general axisymmetric geometry in the presence of an active gas is considered. Such simulation requires subdivision of the radiating surfaces into discrete elements, which are in the present case radiating rings. While the effect of a participating medium is easily taken into account by integration along the lines of vision between the surface elements, the calculation of the different obscurations poses the main difficulty. We have written a closed expression which formulates the problem exactly, and then developed a systematic and compact computational approach to the obscuration problem in complex configurations. The present procedure is particularly suited to computer calculations associated with engineering applications in the aircraft and furnace industries. (author)
Hermeticity testing of MEMS and microelectronic packages
Costello, Suzanne
2013-01-01
Packaging of microelectronics has been developing since the invention of the transistor in 1947. With the increasing complexity and decreasing size of the die, packaging requirements have continued to change. A step change in package requirements came with the introduction of the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) whereby interactions with the external environment are, in some cases, required.This resource is a rapid, definitive reference on hermetic packaging for the MEMS and microelectronics industry, giving practical guidance on traditional and newly developed test methods. This book in
Microelectronic circuit design for energy harvesting systems
Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio
2017-01-01
This book describes the design of microelectronic circuits for energy harvesting, broadband energy conversion, new methods and technologies for energy conversion. The author also discusses the design of power management circuits and the implementation of voltage regulators. Coverage includes advanced methods in low and high power electronics, as well as principles of micro-scale design based on piezoelectric, electromagnetic and thermoelectric technologies with control and conditioning circuit design. Provides a single-source reference to energy harvesting and its applications; Serves as a practical guide to microelectronics design for energy harvesting, with application to mobile power supplies; Enables readers to develop energy harvesting systems for wearable/mobile electronics.
The microelectronics and photonics test bed (MPTB) space, ground test and modeling experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, A.
1999-01-01
This paper is an overview of the MPTB (microelectronics and photonics test bed) experiment, a combination of a space experiment, ground test and modeling programs looking at the response of advanced electronic and photonic technologies to the natural radiation environment of space. (author)
Interconnect mechanisms in microelectronic packaging
Roma, Maria Penafrancia C.
Global economic, environmental and market developments caused major impact in the microelectronics industry. Astronomical rise of gold metal prices over the last decade shifted the use of copper and silver alloys as bonding wires. Environmental legislation on the restriction of the use of Pb launched worldwide search for lead-free solders and platings. Finally, electrical and digital uses demanded smaller, faster and cheaper devices. Ultra-fine pitch bonding, decreasing bond wire sizes and hard to bond substrates have put the once-robust stitch bond in the center of reliability issues due to stitch bond lift or open wires .Unlike the ball bond, stitch bonding does not lead to intermetallic compound formation but adhesion is dependent on mechanical deformation, interdiffusion, solid solution formation, void formation and mechanical interlocking depending on the wire material, bond configuration, substrate type , thickness and surface condition. Using Au standoff stitch bonds on NiPdAu plated substrates eliminated stitch bond lift even when the Au and Pd layers are reduced. Using the Matano-Boltzmann analysis on a STEM (Scanning Transmission Analysis) concentration profile the interdiffusion coefficient is measured to be 10-16 cm 2/s. Wire pull strength data showed that the wire pull strength is 0.062N and increases upon stress testing. Meanwhile, coating the Cu wire with Pd, not only increases oxidation resistance but also improved adhesion due to the formation of a unique interfacial adhesion layers. Adhesion strength as measured by pull showed the Cu wire bonded to Ag plated Cu substrate (0.132N) to be stronger than the Au wire bonded on the same substrate (0.124N). Ag stitch bonded to Au is predicted to be strong but surface modification made the adhesion stronger. However, on the Ag ball bonded to Al showed multiple IMC formation with unique morphology exposed by ion milling and backscattered scanning electron microscopy. Adding alloying elements in the Ag wire
Advanced Microelectronics Technologies for Future Small Satellite Systems
Alkalai, Leon
1999-01-01
Future small satellite systems for both Earth observation as well as deep-space exploration are greatly enabled by the technological advances in deep sub-micron microelectronics technologies. Whereas these technological advances are being fueled by the commercial (non-space) industries, more recently there has been an exciting new synergism evolving between the two otherwise disjointed markets. In other words, both the commercial and space industries are enabled by advances in low-power, highly integrated, miniaturized (low-volume), lightweight, and reliable real-time embedded systems. Recent announcements by commercial semiconductor manufacturers to introduce Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology into their commercial product lines is driven by the need for high-performance low-power integrated devices. Moreover, SOI has been the technology of choice for many space semiconductor manufacturers where radiation requirements are critical. This technology has inherent radiation latch-up immunity built into the process, which makes it very attractive to space applications. In this paper, we describe the advanced microelectronics and avionics technologies under development by NASA's Deep Space Systems Technology Program (also known as X2000). These technologies are of significant benefit to both the commercial satellite as well as the deep-space and Earth orbiting science missions. Such a synergistic technology roadmap may truly enable quick turn-around, low-cost, and highly capable small satellite systems for both Earth observation as well as deep-space missions.
Wells, A.; Langton, T.; Rees Jones, D. W.; Moon, W.; Kim, J. H.; Wilkinson, J.
2016-12-01
Melt ponds have key impacts on the evolution of Arctic sea ice and summer ice melt. Small changes to the energy budget can have significant consequences, with a net heat-flux perturbation of only a few Watts per square metre sufficient to explain the thinning of sea ice over recent decades. Whilst parameterisations of melt-pond thermodynamics often assume that pond temperatures remain close to the freezing point, recent in-situ observations show more complex thermal structure with significant diurnal and synoptic variability. We here consider the energy budget of melt ponds and explore the role of internal convective heat transfer in determining the thermal structure within the pond in relatively calm conditions with low winds. We quantify the energy fluxes and temperature variability using two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of convective turbulence within a melt pond, driven by internal radiative heating and surface fluxes. Our results show that the convective flow dynamics are modulated by changes to the incoming radiative flux and sensible heat flux at the pond surface. The evolving pond surface temperature controls the outgoing longwave emissions from the pond. Hence the convective flow modifies the net energy balance of a melt pond, modulating the relative fractions of the incoming heat flux that is re-emitted to the atmosphere or transferred downward into the sea ice to drive melt.
Nonlinear radiative heat flux and heat source/sink on entropy generation minimization rate
Hayat, T.; Khan, M. Waleed Ahmed; Khan, M. Ijaz; Alsaedi, A.
2018-06-01
Entropy generation minimization in nonlinear radiative mixed convective flow towards a variable thicked surface is addressed. Entropy generation for momentum and temperature is carried out. The source for this flow analysis is stretching velocity of sheet. Transformations are used to reduce system of partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Total entropy generation rate is determined. Series solutions for the zeroth and mth order deformation systems are computed. Domain of convergence for obtained solutions is identified. Velocity, temperature and concentration fields are plotted and interpreted. Entropy equation is studied through nonlinear mixed convection and radiative heat flux. Velocity and temperature gradients are discussed through graphs. Meaningful results are concluded in the final remarks.
Engine and radiator: fetal and placental interactions for heat dissipation.
Schröder, H J; Power, G G
1997-03-01
The 'engine' of fetal metabolism generates heat (3-4 W kg-1 in fetal sheep) which has to be dissipated to the maternal organism. Fetal heat may move through the amniotic/allantoic fluids to the uterine wall (conductive pathway; total conductance, 1.1 W degrees C-1 kg-1) and with the umbilical arterial blood flow (convective pathway) to the placenta. Because resistance to heat flow is larger than zero fetal temperature exceeds maternal temperature by about 0.5 degree C (0.3-1 degree C). Probably 85% of fetal heat is lost to the maternal organism through the placenta, which thus serves as the main 'radiator'. Placental heat conductivity appears to be extremely high and this may lead to impaired heat exchange (guinea-pig placenta). A computer simulation demonstrates that fetal temperature is essentially clamped to maternal temperature, and that fetal thermoregulatory efforts to gain thermal independence would be futile. Indeed, when the late gestational fetus in utero is challenged by cold stress, direct and indirect indicators of (non-shivering) thermogenesis (oxygen consumption, increase of plasma glycerol and free fatty acid levels) change only moderately. In prematurely delivered lambs, however, cold stress provokes summit metabolism and maximum heat production. Only when birth is imitated in utero (by cord clamping, external artificial lung ventilation and cooling) do thermogenic efforts approach levels typical of extra-uterine life. This suggests the presence of inhibitors of thermogenesis of placental origin, e.g. prostaglandins and adenosine. When the synthesis of prostaglandins is blocked by pretreatment with indomethacin, sheep fetuses react to intra-uterine cooling with vigorous thermogenic responses, which can be subdued by infusion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Since the sheep placenta is known to produce sufficient amounts of PGE2, it seems that the placenta controls fetal thermogenic responses to some extent. This transforms the fetus into an ectothermic
Experimental investigation of single-phase microjet cooling of microelectronics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rusowicz Artur
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Development of electronics, which aims to improve the functionality of electronic devices, aims at increasing the packing of transistors in a chip and boosting clock speed (the number of elementary operations per second. While pursuing this objective, one encounters the growing problem of thermal nature. Each switching of the logic state at the elementary level of an integrated circuit is associated with the generation of heat. Due to a large number of transistors and high clock speeds, higher heat flux is emitted by the microprocessor to a level where the component needs to be intensively cooled, or otherwise it will become overheated. This paper presents the cooling of microelectronic components using microjets.
Government Microelectronics Assessment for Trust (GOMAT)
Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.
2018-01-01
NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) is developing a process to be employed in critical applications. The framework assesses levels of trust and assurance in microelectronic systems. The process is being created with participation from a variety of organizations. We present a synopsis of the framework that includes contributions from The Aerospace Corporation.
Dictionary of microelectronics and microcomputer technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Attiyate, Y.H.; Shah, R.R.
1984-01-01
This bilingual dictionary (German-English and English-German) is to give the general public a clearer idea of the terminology of microelectronics, microcomputers, data processing, and computer science. Each part contains about 7500 terms frequently encountered in practice, about 2000 of which are supplemented by precise explanations. (orig./HP) [de
International Conference on Microelectronics, Electromagnetics and Telecommunications
Rao, N; Kumar, S; Raj, C; Rao, V; Sarma, G
2016-01-01
This volume contains 73 papers presented at ICMEET 2015: International Conference on Microelectronics, Electromagnetics and Telecommunications. The conference was held during 18 – 19 December, 2015 at Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, GITAM Institute of Technology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, INDIA. This volume contains papers mainly focused on Antennas, Electromagnetics, Telecommunication Engineering and Low Power VLSI Design.
Microelectronics in power electronics and electrical drives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1982-01-01
From October, 1214, 1982 at Darmstadt (FRG) a meeting took place on ''Microelectronics in power electronics and Electrical Drives''. This volume contains the papers of the 65 lectures, held at the symposium. For each of the 10 papers dealing with problems on electric-powered vehicles a separate subject analysis has been carried out.
Problems in CEMA microelectronic cooperation noted
Grzybowski, J.; Kusinski, J.
1983-10-01
The development and market trends of products, which use large scale integrated circuits are discussed. Products such as pocket calculators, electronic wrist watches, telephones, and automobiles are used to illustrate the economic results of market saturation with specialized integrated circuits. The status of microelectronics in socialist countries in Europe is addressed.
Integrated evaluation of radiative heating systems for residential buildings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anastaselos, Dimitrios; Theodoridou, Ifigeneia; Papadopoulos, Agis M.; Hegger, Manfred
2011-01-01
Based on the need to reduce CO 2 emissions and minimize energy dependency, the EU Member States have set ambitious energy policies goals and have developed respective, specific regulations, in order to improve the energy performance of the building sector. Thus, specific measures regarding the buildings' envelope, the use of efficient HVAC technologies and the integration of renewable energy systems are being constantly studied and promoted. The effective combination of these three main aspects will consequently result in maximum energy efficiency. Germany has played a key role in this development, with intensive work focusing in the improvement of the energy behaviour of the residential building stock. In this paper, the use of radiative heating systems placing special emphasis on infrared is being studied as part of the energy renovation of residential buildings from the 1970's. This is done by applying an integrated assessment model to evaluate specific interventions regarding the improvement of the energy behaviour of the buildings' envelope and the use of radiative heating systems, based on a thorough Life Cycle Analysis according to criteria of energy, economic and environmental performance, as well as thermal comfort. -- Highlights: → Assessment of energy, economic and environmental performance of heating systems. → Life Cycle Analysis in combination with the quality of thermal comfort. → Effectiveness of interventions in already partially insulated buildings.
Homogenization of a Conductive-Radiative Heat Transfer Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Habibi Zakaria
2012-04-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the contribution of the second order corrector in periodic homogenization applied to a conductive-radiative heat transfer problem. Especially, for a heat conduction problem in a periodically perforated domain with a non-local boundary condition modelling the radiative heat transfer, if this model contains an oscillating thermal source and a thermal exchange with the perforations, the second order corrector helps us to model the gradients which appear between the source area and the perforations. Ce papier est consacré à montrer l’influence du correcteur de second ordre en homogénéisation périodique. Dans l’homogénéisation d’un problème de conduction rayonnement dans un domaine périodiquement perforé par plusieurs trous, on peut voir une contribution non négligeable de ce correcteur lors de la présence d’une source thermique oscillante et d’un échange thermique dans les perforations. Ce correcteur nous permet de modéliser les gradients qui apparaissent entre la zone de la source thermique et les perforations.
The effect of turbulence-radiation interaction on radiative entropy generation and heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldas, Miguel; Semiao, Viriato
2007-01-01
The analysis under the second law of thermodynamics is the gateway for optimisation in thermal equipments and systems. Through entropy minimisation techniques it is possible to increase the efficiency and overall performance of all kinds of thermal systems. Radiation, being the dominant mechanism of heat transfer in high-temperature systems, plays a determinant role in entropy generation within such equipments. Turbulence is also known to be a major player in the phenomenon of entropy generation. Therefore, turbulence-radiation interaction is expected to have a determinant effect on entropy generation. However, this is a subject that has not been dealt with so far, at least to the extent of the authors' knowledge. The present work attempts to fill that void, by studying the effect of turbulence-radiation interaction on entropy generation. All calculations are approached in such a way as to make them totally compatible with standard engineering methods for radiative heat transfer, namely the discrete ordinates method. It was found that turbulence-radiation interaction does not significantly change the spatial pattern of entropy generation, or heat transfer, but does change significantly their magnitude, in a way approximately proportional to the square of the intensity of turbulence
Analysis of directional radiative behavior and heating efficiency for a gas-fired radiant burner
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, B.X.; Lu, Y.P.; Liu, L.H.; Kudo, K.; Tan, H.P.
2005-01-01
For the purpose of energy conservation and uniform heating of object surface, a gas-fired porous radiant burner with a bundle of reflecting tubes is developed. A physical model is developed to simulate the directional radiative behavior of this heating device, in which the Monte Carlo method based on the concept of radiation distribution factor is used to compute the directional radiative behavior. The effects of relating parameters on the directional behavior of radiative heating and the heating efficiency are analyzed. With the increase of the length-to-radius ratio of tube, the radiation heating efficiency decreases, but the radiation energy incident on the object surface is more collimated. The radiation heating efficiency increases with the specular reflectivity. With the increase in length of tube segment with specular reflective surface, the radiation heating efficiency increases, but the extent of concentration and collimation of radiative energy decreases. For real design of the heating device, some trade-offs are needed to balance the radiation heating efficiency and the uniformity of radiative heating of object surface
Chaos of radiative heat-loss-induced flame front instability.
Kinugawa, Hikaru; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Gotoda, Hiroshi
2016-03-01
We are intensively studying the chaos via the period-doubling bifurcation cascade in radiative heat-loss-induced flame front instability by analytical methods based on dynamical systems theory and complex networks. Significant changes in flame front dynamics in the chaotic region, which cannot be seen in the bifurcation diagrams, were successfully extracted from recurrence quantification analysis and nonlinear forecasting and from the network entropy. The temporal dynamics of the fuel concentration in the well-developed chaotic region is much more complicated than that of the flame front temperature. It exhibits self-affinity as a result of the scale-free structure in the constructed visibility graph.
Modeling Radiative Heat Transfer and Turbulence-Radiation Interactions in Engines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paul, Chandan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sircar, Arpan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Ferreyro-Fernandez, Sebastian [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Imren, Abdurrahman [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Haworth, Daniel C [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Roy, Somesh P [Marquette University (United States); Ge, Wenjun [University of California Merced (United States); Modest, Michael F [University of California Merced (United States)
2017-04-26
Detailed radiation modelling in piston engines has received relatively little attention to date. Recently, it is being revisited in light of current trends towards higher operating pressures and higher levels of exhaust-gas recirculation, both of which enhance molecular gas radiation. Advanced high-efficiency engines also are expected to function closer to the limits of stable operation, where even small perturbations to the energy balance can have a large influence on system behavior. Here several different spectral radiation property models and radiative transfer equation (RTE) solvers have been implemented in an OpenFOAM-based engine CFD code, and simulations have been performed for a full-load (peak pressure ~200 bar) heavy-duty diesel engine. Differences in computed temperature fields, NO and soot levels, and wall heat transfer rates are shown for different combinations of spectral models and RTE solvers. The relative importance of molecular gas radiation versus soot radiation is examined. And the influence of turbulence-radiation interactions is determined by comparing results obtained using local mean values of composition and temperature to compute radiative emission and absorption with those obtained using a particle-based transported probability density function method.
Flower garden trees' ability to absorb solar radiation heat for local heat reduction
Maulana, Muhammad Ilham; Syuhada, Ahmad; Hamdani
2017-06-01
Banda Aceh as an urban area tends to have a high air temperature than its rural surroundings. A simple way to cool Banda Aceh city is by planting urban vegetation such as home gardens or parks. In addition to aesthetics, urban vegetation plays an important role as a reducer of air pollution, oxygen producer, and reducer of the heat of the environment. To create an ideal combination of plants, knowledge about the ability of plants to absorb solar radiation heat is necessary. In this study, some types of flowers commonly grown by communities around the house, such as Michelia Champaka, Saraca Asoka, Oliander, Adenium, Codiaeum Variegatum, Jas Minum Sambac, Pisonia Alba, Variegata, Apium Graveolens, Elephantopus Scaber, Randia, Cordylin.Sp, Hibiscus Rosasinensis, Agave, Lili, Amarilis, and Sesamum Indicum, were examined. The expected benefit of this research is to provide information for people, especially in Banda Aceh, on the ability of each plant relationship in absorbing heat for thermal comfort in residential environments. The flower plant which absorbs most of the sun's heat energy is Hibiscus Rosasinensis (kembang sepatu) 6.2 Joule, Elephantopus Scaber.L (tapak leman) 4.l Joule. On the other hand, the lowest heat absorption is Oliander (sakura) 0.9 Joule.
Heat effect of pulsed Er:YAG laser radiation
Hibst, Raimund; Keller, Ulrich
1990-06-01
Pulsed Er:YAG laser radiation has been found to be effective for dental enamel and dentin removal. Damage to the surrounding hard tissue is little, but before testing the Er:YAG laser clinically for the preparation of cavities, possible effects on the soft tissue of the pulp must be known. In order to estimate pulp damage , temperature rise in dentin caused by the laser radiation was measured by a thermocouple. Additionally, temperature distributions were observed by means of a thermal imaging system. The heat effect of a single Er:YAG laser pulse is little and limited to the vicinity of the impact side. Because heat energy is added with each additional pulse , the temperature distribution depends not only on the radiant energy, but also on the number of pulses and the repetition rate. Both irradiation conditions can be found , making irreversible pulp damage either likely or unlikely. The experimental observations can be explained qualitatively by a simple model of the ablation process.
Radiative heat transfer and water content in atmosphere of Venus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yarov, M.Y.; Gal'stev, A.P.; Shari, V.P.
1985-01-01
The authors present the procedure for calculating optical characteristics of the main components and the effective fluxes in the atmosphere of Venus, and concrete results of the calculations. They are compared to the results of other authors and to the experimantal data. Integration was carried out by the Simpson method with automatic selection of the step or interval for a given relative integrating accuracy delta. The calculations were done with a BESM-6 computer. Using this procedure and data on absorbtion coefficients, calculations of the spectrum of effective flux were carried out for a pure carbon dioxide atmosphere and for an atmosphere containing water vapor at various relative admixtures, for different altitude profiles of temperature and cloudiness albedo. Thus, the comparisons made, enable the authors to judge about the degree of agreement of the F(z) altitude profile, in some regions of the planet where measurements have been made, rather than about the absolute values of the heat fluxes. In conclusion, the authors point out that the task of calculating in detail the radiation balance in Venus' lower atmosphere, as also the problem of a more reliable interpretation of the experimantal data, is coupled with the necessity of elaborating reliable models of the atmospheric components' optical characteristics, which determine the radiative transfer of heat
Concrete Hydration Heat Analysis for RCB Basemat Considering Solar Radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Seong-Cheol; Son, Yong-Ki; Choi, Seong-Cheol
2015-01-01
The NPP especially puts an emphasis on concrete durability for structural integrity. It has led to higher cementitious material contents, lower water-cementitious-material ratios, and deeper cover depth over reinforcing steel. These requirements have resulted in more concrete placements that are subject to high internal temperatures. The problem with high internal temperatures is the increase in the potential for thermal cracking that can decrease concrete's long-term durability and ultimate strength. Thermal cracking negates the benefits of less permeable concrete and deeper cover by providing a direct path for corrosion-causing agents to reach the reinforcing steel. The purpose of this study is to develop how to analyze and estimate accurately concrete hydration heat of the real-scale massive concrete with wide large plane. An analysis method considering concrete placement sequence was studied and solar radiation effects on the real-scale massive concrete with wide large plane were reviewed through the analytical method. In this study, the measured temperatures at the real scale structure and the analysis results of concrete hydration heat were compared. And thermal stress analysis was conducted. Through the analysis, it was found that concrete placement duration, sequence and solar radiation effects should be considered to get the accurate concrete peak temperature, maximum temperature differences and crack index
Control of food-borne molds by combination of heat and radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padwal-Desai, S.R.; Bongirwar, D.R.
1979-01-01
After enumerating the fungi responsible for food spoilage, work done on the factors influencing growth of fungi in stored foods is reviewed and the methods using heat, radiation or chemicals for control of food-borne molds are briefly surveyed. Work on combination process employing heat treatment and radiation treatment is reviewed in detail. The review covers the following aspects: (1) theory and engineering aspects of combination process of heat and radiation including modes of heat transfer, radiation physics, radiation sources, heat radiation effect and calculation of energy balance of the process, (2) biological effects of heat, radiation and heat-radiation combination treatments on mold growth with special reference to DNA and (3) application of the process for mold control in cereal products, nuts and raisins and fruits. Heat treatment and radiation treatment have been found to complement each other and when given in proper sequence show synergism. Design requirements of radiation sources and heat transfer equipment are also surveyed. (M.G.B.)
Kovtanyuk, Andrey E.; Botkin, Nikolai D.; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz
2012-01-01
Radiative-conductive heat transfer in a medium bounded by two reflecting and radiating plane surfaces is considered. This process is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations: an equation of the radiative heat transfer
Microelectronics from fundamentals to applied design
Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio
2016-01-01
This book serves as a practical guide for practicing engineers who need to design analog circuits for microelectronics. Readers will develop a comprehensive understanding of the basic techniques of analog modern electronic circuit design, discrete and integrated, application as sensors and control and data acquisition systems,and techniques of PCB design. · Describes fundamentals of microelectronics design in an accessible manner; · Takes a problem-solving approach to the topic, offering a hands-on guide for practicing engineers; · Provides realistic examples to inspire a thorough understanding of system-level issues, before going into the detail of components and devices; · Uses a new approach and provides several skills that help engineers and designers retain key and advanced concepts.
RF and microwave microelectronics packaging II
Sturdivant, Rick
2017-01-01
Reviews RF, microwave, and microelectronics assembly process, quality control, and failure analysis Bridges the gap between low cost commercial and hi-res RF/Microwave packaging technologies Engages in an in-depth discussion of challenges in packaging and assembly of advanced high-power amplifiers This book presents the latest developments in packaging for high-frequency electronics. It is a companion volume to “RF and Microwave Microelectronics Packaging” (2010) and covers the latest developments in thermal management, electrical/RF/thermal-mechanical designs and simulations, packaging and processing methods, and other RF and microwave packaging topics. Chapters provide detailed coverage of phased arrays, T/R modules, 3D transitions, high thermal conductivity materials, carbon nanotubes and graphene advanced materials, and chip size packaging for RF MEMS. It appeals to practicing engineers in the electronic packaging and high-frequency electronics domain, and to academic researchers interested in underst...
Laser processing of ceramics for microelectronics manufacturing
Sposili, Robert S.; Bovatsek, James; Patel, Rajesh
2017-03-01
Ceramic materials are used extensively in the microelectronics, semiconductor, and LED lighting industries because of their electrically insulating and thermally conductive properties, as well as for their high-temperature-service capabilities. However, their brittleness presents significant challenges for conventional machining processes. In this paper we report on a series of experiments that demonstrate and characterize the efficacy of pulsed nanosecond UV and green lasers in machining ceramics commonly used in microelectronics manufacturing, such as aluminum oxide (alumina) and aluminum nitride. With a series of laser pocket milling experiments, fundamental volume ablation rate and ablation efficiency data were generated. In addition, techniques for various industrial machining processes, such as shallow scribing and deep scribing, were developed and demonstrated. We demonstrate that lasers with higher average powers offer higher processing rates with the one exception of deep scribes in aluminum nitride, where a lower average power but higher pulse energy source outperformed a higher average power laser.
Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System
Krug, Eric; Philpot, Brian; Trott, Aaron; Lawrence, Shaun
2013-01-01
NASA Stennis Space Center's (SSC's) large rocket engine test facility requires the use of liquid propellants, including the use of cryogenic fluids like liquid hydrogen as fuel, and liquid oxygen as an oxidizer (gases which have been liquefied at very low temperatures). These fluids require special handling, storage, and transfer technology. The biggest problem associated with transferring cryogenic liquids is product loss due to heat transfer. Vacuum jacketed piping is specifically designed to maintain high thermal efficiency so that cryogenic liquids can be transferred with minimal heat transfer. A vacuum jacketed pipe is essentially two pipes in one. There is an inner carrier pipe, in which the cryogenic liquid is actually transferred, and an outer jacket pipe that supports and seals the vacuum insulation, forming the "vacuum jacket." The integrity of the vacuum jacketed transmission lines that transfer the cryogenic fluid from delivery barges to the test stand must be maintained prior to and during engine testing. To monitor the vacuum in these vacuum jacketed transmission lines, vacuum gauge readings are used. At SSC, vacuum gauge measurements are done on a manual rotation basis with two technicians, each using a handheld instrument. Manual collection of vacuum data is labor intensive and uses valuable personnel time. Additionally, there are times when personnel cannot collect the data in a timely fashion (i.e., when a leak is detected, measurements must be taken more often). Additionally, distribution of this data to all interested parties can be cumbersome. To simplify the vacuum-gauge data collection process, automate the data collection, and decrease the labor costs associated with acquiring these measurements, an automated system that monitors the existing gauges was developed by Invocon, Inc. For this project, Invocon developed a Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System (WIMVSS) that provides the ability to gather vacuum
Radiative heat exchange of a meteor body in the approximation of radiant heat conduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pilyugin, N.N.; Chernova, T.A.
1986-01-01
The problem of the thermal and dynamic destruction of large meteor bodies moving in planetary atmospheres is fundamental for the clarification of optical observations and anomalous phenomena in the atmosphere, the determination of the physicochemical properties of meteoroids, and the explanation of the fall of remnants of large meteorites. Therefore, it is important to calculate the coefficient of radiant heat exchange (which is the determining factor under these conditions) for large meteor bodies as they move with hypersonic velocities in an atmosphere. The solution of this problem enables one to find the ablation of a meteorite during its aerodynamic heating and to determine the initial conditions for the solution of problems of the breakup of large bodies and their subsequent motion and ablation. Hypersonic flow of an inviscid gas stream over an axisymmetric blunt body is analyzed with allowance for radiative transfer in a thick-thin approximation. The gas-dynamic problem of the flow of an optically thick gas over a large body is solved by the method of asymptotic joined expansions, using a hypersonic approximation and local self-similarity. An equation is obtained for the coefficient of radiant heat exchange and the peculiarities of such heat exchange for meteor bodies of large size are noted
Application of solar radiation for heating and preparation of warm water in an individual house
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozak, Tadeeusz; Majchrzycka, Anna
2009-01-01
The paper is aimed at analysis of application of the solar collectors array for preparing of warm water and space heating in an individual house. Keywords: application of solar radiation, preparation of warm water, heating
Update on NASA Microelectronics Activities
Label, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.; Casey, Megan; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie
2017-01-01
Mission Statement: The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program provides NASA's leadership for developing and maintaining guidance for the screening, qualification, test. and usage of EEE parts by NASA as well as in collaboration with other government Agencies and industry. NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) "STMD rapidly develops, demonstrates, and infuses revolutionary, high-payoff technologies through transparent, collaborative partnerships, expanding the boundaries of the aerospace enterprise." Mission Statement: The Space Environments Testing Management Office (SETMO) will identify, prioritize, and manage a select suite of Agency key capabilities/assets that are deemed to be essential to the future needs of NASA or the nation, including some capabilities that lack an adequate business base over the budget horizon. NESC mission is to perform value-added independent testing, analysis, and assessments of NASA's high-risk projects to ensure safety and mission success. NASA Space Environments and Avionics Fellows as well as Radiation and EEE Parts Community of Practice (CoP) leads.
Split radiator design for heat rejection optimization for a waste heat recovery system
Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.
2016-10-18
A cooling system provides improved heat recovery by providing a split core radiator for both engine cooling and condenser cooling for a Rankine cycle (RC). The cooling system includes a radiator having a first cooling core portion and a second cooling core portion. An engine cooling loop is fluidly connected the second cooling core portion. A condenser of an RC has a cooling loop fluidly connected to the first cooling core portion. A valve is provided between the engine cooling loop and the condenser cooling loop adjustably control the flow of coolant in the condenser cooling loop into the engine cooling loop. The cooling system includes a controller communicatively coupled to the valve and adapted to determine a load requirement for the internal combustion engine and adjust the valve in accordance with the engine load requirement.
Thermal and Electrical Characterization of Alumina Substrate for Microelectronic Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, S.; Ibrahim, A.; Alias, R.; Shapee, S. M.; Ambak, Z.; Zakaria, S. Z.; Yahya, M. R.; Mat, A. F. A.
2010-01-01
This paper reports the effect of sintering temperature on thermal and electrical properties of alumina material as substrate for microelectronic devices. Alumina materials in the form of green sheet with 1 mm thickness were sintered at 1100 deg. C, 1300 deg. C and 1500 deg. C for about 20 hours using heating and cooling rates of 2 deg. C/min. The densities were measured using densitometer and the microstructures of the samples were analyzed using SEM micrographs. Meanwhile thermal and electrical properties of the samples were measured using flash method and impedance analyzer respectively. It was found that thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the substrate increases as sintering temperature increases. It was found also that the dielectric constant of alumina substrate increases as the sintering temperature increases.
Thermal and Electrical Characterization of Alumina Substrate for Microelectronic Applications
Ahmad, S.; Ibrahim, A.; Alias, R.; Shapee, S. M.; Ambak, Z.; Zakaria, S. Z.; Yahya, M. R.; Mat, A. F. A.
2010-03-01
This paper reports the effect of sintering temperature on thermal and electrical properties of alumina material as substrate for microelectronic devices. Alumina materials in the form of green sheet with 1 mm thickness were sintered at 1100° C, 1300° C and 1500° C for about 20 hours using heating and cooling rates of 2° C/min. The densities were measured using densitometer and the microstructures of the samples were analyzed using SEM micrographs. Meanwhile thermal and electrical properties of the samples were measured using flash method and impedance analyzer respectively. It was found that thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the substrate increases as sintering temperature increases. It was found also that the dielectric constant of alumina substrate increases as the sintering temperature increases.
ESTIMATION OF WORKING CONDITIONS OF FOUNDRY WORKERS BY INFRARED (HEAT RADIATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. M. Lazarenkov
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The description of infrared radiations, their influence on human organism is given. The results of investigation of infrared (heat radiation intensity on the workers in foundries are given.
Development of a contact heat exchanger for a constructable radiator system
Howell, H. R.
1983-01-01
A development program for a contact heat exchanger to be used to transfer heat from a spacecraft coolant loop to a heat pipe radiator is described. The contact heat exchanger provides for a connectable/disconnectable joint which allows for on-orbit assembly of the radiator system and replacement or exchange of radiator panels for repair and maintenance. The contact heat exchanger does not require the transfer of fluid across the joint; the spacecraft coolant loop remains contained in an all welded system with no static or dynamic fluid seals. The contact interface is also "dry' with no conductive grease or interstitial material required.
Dry heat and radiation combination effects on Aspergillus flavus Link. infecting cocoa beans
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amoako-Atta, B.; Meier, H.; Odamtten, G.T.
1981-01-01
The paper deals with the effect of heat and radiation combination treatments on the control of microbial spoilage of cocoa beans caused by toxigenic Aspergillus flavus Link. The heat and radiation sources were from dry air oven heat and 60 Co gammacell 220 irradiator, respectively. The radiation doses used were either 0, 50, 100, 150 or 200 krad, with combined heat temperatures of 30, 60 or 90 0 C. At each temperature level three different exposure time intervals of either 15 min, 30 min or 60 min respectively, were used. Two reversible sequential heat/radiation combination effects were evaluated. The first sequence involved cocoa beans inoculated with A. flavus spores exposed first to dry heat at pre-determined temperature heat exposure time, followed by radiation treatment, then retention of samples in a constant humidity environmental chamber set at 80% for daily observation up to forty days post-treatment. The second sequence involved exposure of the inoculated beans first to radiation, then to heat before retention under fixed RH for observation. From their results, the authors arrive at four conclusions: first, that there is a critical radiation/heat combination range (200, 150 and 100 krad/90 0 C for 15 min) that significantly decontaminates (less than 5% mouldiness) A. flavus infected cocoa beans even under high relative humidity (80% RH) environment; second, that a temperature level of 90 0 C combined with 200, 150 or 100 krad maximizes such effect but the heat exposure time is a major factor; third, that low heat temperature ranges of 30 or 60 0 C, combined with low radiation dosages of 150 krad or below, enhance the rate of A. flavus spoilage effects of cocoa beans; and, lastly, that the sequence of exposure of the inoculated cocoa beans to heat/radiation combination influenced the spore germination; exposure to heat before radiation would sensitize the spores (200 krad/90 0 C) but results in an increased radioresistance. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seddeek, M.A.; Abdelmeguid, M.S.
2006-01-01
The effect of radiation and thermal diffusivity on heat transfer over a stretching surface with variable heat flux has been studied. The thermal diffusivity is assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. The governing partial differential equations have been transformed to ordinary differential equations. The exact analytical solution for the velocity and the numerical solution for the temperature field are given. Numerical solutions are obtained for different values of variable thermal diffusivity, radiation, temperature parameter and Prandtl number
Tabulation of Fundamental Assembly Heat and Radiation Source Files
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
T. deBues; J.C. Ryman
2006-01-01
The purpose of this calculation is to tabulate a set of computer files for use as input to the WPLOAD thermal loading software. These files contain details regarding heat and radiation from pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies. The scope of this calculation is limited to rearranging and reducing the existing file information into a more streamlined set of tables for use as input to WPLOAD. The electronic source term files used as input to this calculation were generated from the output files of the SAS2H/ORIGIN-S sequence of the SCALE Version 4.3 modular code system, as documented in References 2.1.1 and 2.1.2, and are included in Attachment II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, Joo Hyung; Kim, Young In; Kim, Keung Koo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Jun; Lee, Hee Joon [School of Mechanical Eng., Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
An attempt has begun to extend the life time of emergency cooldown tank (ECT) by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) researchers. Moon et al. recently reported a basic concept upon how to keep the ECT in operation beyond 72 hours after an accident occurs without any active corrective actions for the postulated design basis accidents. When the SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reac-Tor) received its Standard Design Approval (SDA) for the first time in the world, hybrid safety systems are applied. However, the passive safety systems of SMART are being enforced in response to the public concern for much safer reactors since the Fukushima accident occurred. The ECT is a major component of a passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS), which is one of the most important systems to enhance the safety of SMART. It is being developed in a SMART safety enhancement project to contain enough cooling water to remove a sensible heat and a decay heat from reactor core for 72 hours since an accident occurs. Moon et al. offered to install another heat exchanger above the ECT and to recirculate an evaporated steam into water, which enables the ECT to be in operation, theoretically, indefinitely. An investigation was made to determine how long and how many tubes were required to meet the purpose of the study. In their calculation, however, a radiation heat transfer effect was neglected. The present study is to consider the radiation heat transfer for the design of air-cooling heat exchanger. Radiation heat transfer is normally ignored in many situations, but this is not the case for the present study. Kim et al. conducted thermal sizing of scaled-down ECT heat exchanger, which will be used to validate experimentally the basic concept of the present study. Their calculation is also examined to see if a radiation heat transfer effect was taken into consideration. The thermal sizing of an air-cooling heat exchanger was conducted including radiation heat transfer
Spectral estimates of net radiation and soil heat flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daughtry, C.S.T.; Kustas, W.P.; Moran, M.S.; Pinter, P.J. Jr.; Jackson, R.D.; Brown, P.W.; Nichols, W.D.; Gay, L.W.
1990-01-01
Conventional methods of measuring surface energy balance are point measurements and represent only a small area. Remote sensing offers a potential means of measuring outgoing fluxes over large areas at the spatial resolution of the sensor. The objective of this study was to estimate net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux (G) using remotely sensed multispectral data acquired from an aircraft over large agricultural fields. Ground-based instruments measured Rn and G at nine locations along the flight lines. Incoming fluxes were also measured by ground-based instruments. Outgoing fluxes were estimated using remotely sensed data. Remote Rn, estimated as the algebraic sum of incoming and outgoing fluxes, slightly underestimated Rn measured by the ground-based net radiometers. The mean absolute errors for remote Rn minus measured Rn were less than 7%. Remote G, estimated as a function of a spectral vegetation index and remote Rn, slightly overestimated measured G; however, the mean absolute error for remote G was 13%. Some of the differences between measured and remote values of Rn and G are associated with differences in instrument designs and measurement techniques. The root mean square error for available energy (Rn - G) was 12%. Thus, methods using both ground-based and remotely sensed data can provide reliable estimates of the available energy which can be partitioned into sensible and latent heat under non advective conditions
Sterilization techniques without heating (ultraviolet ray, radiation and ozone)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, Hitoshi
1991-01-01
The recent demand of consumers for processed foods is characterized by the intention for health and nature, besides, the demand for low sweetness, salt reduction, no additive and freshness becomes strong. In view of the control of microorganisms in products, all these become the negative factors. Accordingly, in order to overcome them, it is urgently desired to develop new technology or to improve conventional methods. As to heating sterilization, the uniform temperature treatment to the inside of foods is difficult, and it cannot be applied to perishables. The high temperature sterilization above 120degC causes the change in nutrition composition and physical properties. Ultraviolet ray and ozone can be used for the sterilization of food surface and powder and liquid foods. Radiation treatment can be applied to packed foods and frozen foods as well as food surface. The principle and the fields of application of ultraviolet ray sterilization, radiation sterilization and ozone sterilization are reported. In the mechanism of these methods, the action to DNA and oxidation are common. (K.I.)
Adriamycin resistance, heat resistance and radiation response in Chinese hamster fibroblasts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wallner, K.; Li, G.
1985-01-01
Previous investigators have demonstrated synergistic interaction between hyperthermia and radiation or Adriamycin (ADR), using cell lines that are sensitive to heat or ADR alone. The authors investigated the effect of heat, radiation or ADR on Chinese hamster fibroblasts (HA-1), their heat resistant variants and their ADR resistant variants. Heat for ADR resistance did not confer cross resistance to radiation. Cells resistant to heat did show cross resistance to ADR. While cells selected for ADR resistance were not cross resistant to heat, they did not exhibit drug potentiation by hyperthermia, characteristic of ADR sensitive cells. Cytofluorometric measurement showed decreased ADR uptake in both heat and ADR resistant cells. The possibility of cross resistance between heat and ADR should be considered when designing combined modality trials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdel-Ghany, Ahmed M.; Kozai, Toyoki
2006-01-01
A physical model for analyzing the radiative and convective heat transfer in a fog cooled, naturally ventilated greenhouse was developed for estimating the overall heat transmission coefficient based on the conduction, convection and thermal radiation heat transfer coefficients and for predicting the soil heat flux. The contribution of the water vapor of the inside air to the emission and absorption of thermal radiation was determined. Measurements of the outside and inside greenhouse environments to be used in the analysis were conducted around solar noon (12:19-13:00) on a hot sunny day to provide the maximum solar radiation transmission into the greenhouse. The net solar radiation flux measured at the greenhouse floor showed a reasonable agreement with the predicted value. The net fluxes were estimated around noon. The average net radiation (solar and thermal) at the soil surface was 220.0 W m -2 , the average soil heat flux was 155.0 W m -2 and the average contribution of the water vapor of the inside air to the thermal radiation was 22.0 W m -2 . The average overall heat transmission coefficient was 4.0 W m -2 C -1 and was in the range between 3.0 W m -2 C -1 and 6.0 W m -2 C -1 under the different hot summer conditions between the inside and outside of the naturally ventilated, fog cooled greenhouse
Integrated Microelectronics and Photonics Active Cooling Technology (IMPACT)
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bowers, John
2003-01-01
...) coolers and their integration with microelectronics and photonics. The majority of our research involves the development of this new technology through nanostructured materials design and growth...
Best estimate radiation heat transfer model developed for TRAC-BD1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spore, J.W.; Giles, M.M.; Shumway, R.W.
1981-01-01
A best estimate radiation heat transfer model for analysis of BWR fuel bundles has been developed and compared with 8 x 8 fuel bundle data. The model includes surface-to-surface and surface-to-two-phase fluid radiation heat transfer. A simple method of correcting for anisotropic reflection effects has been included in the model
Understanding microelectronics a top-down approach
Maloberti, Franco
2011-01-01
The microelectronics evolution has given rise to many modern benefits but has also changed design methods and attitudes to learning. Technology advancements shifted focus from simple circuits to complex systems with major attention to high-level descriptions. The design methods moved from a bottom-up to a top-down approach. For today's students, the most beneficial approach to learning is this top-down method that demonstrates a global view of electronics before going into specifics. Franco Maloberti uses this approach to explain the fundamentals of electronics, such as processing functions,
Microelectronic test structures for CMOS technology
Ketchen, Mark B
2011-01-01
Microelectronic Test Structures for CMOS Technology and Products addresses the basic concepts of the design of test structures for incorporation within test-vehicles, scribe-lines, and CMOS products. The role of test structures in the development and monitoring of CMOS technologies and products has become ever more important with the increased cost and complexity of development and manufacturing. In this timely volume, IBM scientists Manjul Bhushan and Mark Ketchen emphasize high speed characterization techniques for digital CMOS circuit applications and bridging between circuit performance an
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, King-Leung; Salazar, Jose Luis Leon; Prasad, Leo; Chen, Wen-Lih
2011-01-01
In this investigation, the differences of heat transfer characteristics for insulated and non-insulated spherical containers between considering and neglecting the influence of heat radiation are studied by the simulations in some practical situations. It is found that the heat radiation effect cannot be ignored in conditions of low ambient convection heat coefficients (such ambient air) and high surface emissivities, especially for the non-insulated and thin insulated cases. In most practical situations when ambient temperature is different from surroundings temperature and the emissivity of insulation surface is different from that of metal wall surface, neglecting heat radiation will result in inaccurate insulation effect and heat transfer errors even with very thick insulation. However, the insulation effect considering heat radiation will only increase a very small amount after some dimensionless insulated thickness (such insulation thickness/radius ≥0.2 in this study), thus such dimensionless insulated thickness can be used as the optimum thickness in practical applications. Meanwhile, wrapping a material with low surface emissivity (such as aluminum foil) around the oxidized metal wall or insulation layer (always with high surface emissivity) can achieve very good insulated effect for the non-insulated or thin insulated containers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, W.M.; Kong, L.X.; Hodgson, P.D.
2006-01-01
The heat-transfer coefficients around a workpiece immersed in an electrically heated heat treatment fluidised bed were studied. A suspension probe designed to simulate a workpiece of complex geometry was developed to measure local total and radiative heat-transfer coefficients at a high bed temperature. The probe consisted of an energy-storage region separated by insulation from the fluidised bed, except for the measuring surface, and a multi-thermocouple measurement system. Experiments in the fluidised bed were performed for a fluidising medium of 120-mesh alumina, a wide temperature range of 110-1050 deg. C and a fluidising number range of 1.18-4.24. It was found that the workpiece surface temperature has a more significant effect on heat transfer than the bed temperature. The total heat-transfer coefficient at the upper surface of the workpiece sharply decreased at the start of heating, and then steadily increased as heating progressed, while a sharp decrease became a rapid increase and then a slow increase for the radiative heat-transfer coefficient. A great difference in the heat-transfer coefficients around the workpiece was observed
Radiation Effects in Dual Heat Sinks for Cooling of Concentrated Photovoltaics
2016-06-01
heat transfer out of a module is by radiation [7]. 1. Previous work Previous work in field has been focused on improving convection transfer via...LEFT BLANK 35 VII. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION A. CONCLUSION This thesis examined means to improve heat transfer out of a CPV module by... heat transfer by radiation to lower the operating temperature of the CPV system, and therefore increase the power output. Experimental and
Numerical modeling of the conduction and radiation heating in precision glass moulding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard
2012-01-01
wafer, heating can be performed by either conduction or radiation. The numerical simulation of these two heating mechanisms in the wafer based glass moulding process is the topic of the present paper. First, the transient heating of the glass wafer is simulated by the FEM software ABAQUS. Temperature...
Budaev, Bair V.; Bogy, David B.
2018-06-01
We extend the statistical analysis of equilibrium systems to systems with a constant heat flux. This extension leads to natural generalizations of Maxwell-Boltzmann's and Planck's equilibrium energy distributions to energy distributions of systems with a net heat flux. This development provides a long needed foundation for addressing problems of nanoscale heat transport by a systematic method based on a few fundamental principles. As an example, we consider the computation of the radiative heat flux between narrowly spaced half-spaces maintained at different temperatures.
Temperature patterns in the gas infrared radiator heating area
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kurilenko N.I.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The obtained results of experimental studies provide the basis for the heat transfer mechanism specification on the studied conditions that are typical for many practical applications. It was proved appropriateness of the natural convection and heat conduction process simulation while analyzing the heat transfer in rectangular enclosures with the radiant heating sources at the high bound.
Jackson, George L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Marshall, Cheryl; Barth, Janet; Seidleck, Christina; Marshall, Paul
1998-01-01
NASA Goddard Spare Flight Center's (GSFC) Dual Rate 1773 (DR1773) Experiment on the Microelectronic and Photonic Test Bed (MPTB) has provided valuable information on the performance of the AS 1773 fiber optic data bus in the space radiation environment. Correlation of preliminary experiment data to ground based radiation test results show the AS 1773 bus is employable in future spacecraft applications requiring radiation tolerant communication links.
Generating a heated fluid using an electromagnetic radiation-absorbing complex
Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara
2018-01-09
A vessel including a concentrator configured to concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source and a complex configured to absorb EM radiation to generate heat. The vessel is configured to receive a cool fluid from the cool fluid source, concentrate the EM radiation using the concentrator, apply the EM radiation to the complex, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the cool fluid to the heated fluid. The complex is at least one of consisting of copper nanoparticles, copper oxide nanoparticles, nanoshells, nanorods, carbon moieties, encapsulated nanoshells, encapsulated nanoparticles, and branched nanostructures. Further, the EM radiation is at least one of EM radiation in an ultraviolet region of an electromagnetic spectrum, in a visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and in an infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Title Investigation of the influence of various factors on the power of heat exchange by radiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Korolyov Alexander V.
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The issue of lack of knowledge of radiation heat transfer process has been repeatedly raised in various studies. Despite the fact that works on study of heat transfer by radiation covers a wide range of different industries, it should be noted the lack of materials on study of heat exchange processes by radiation in a core of a nuclear reactor. In this work, the fuel assemblies of the VVER-1000 reactor were used as the bodies under study. Aim: The aim of the research is to investigate the heat exchange process between heat transfer assemblies and to study of the effect of changing the distance between the fuel assemblies on their power taking into account the inter-radiating of assemblies. Materials and Methods: A general description of the process of heat transfer by radiation. A calculation study of the effect of geometric parameters on heat transfer in the close lattice of the reactor core is performed. The influence of heat transfer by radiation on the temperature change of the fuel assemblies surface of the VVER-1000 reactor at change in the cassette gap is studied. The change in the power of the fuel assemblies relative to the initial power with a change in the cassette gap was studied. Experimental measurements of the temperature at different distances from the radiation source were made with an obstacle in the path of radiation propagation in the form of glass and water of different levels. The heat radiation and convective heat transfer are calculated based on the obtained experimental data. The calculation of thermal radiation power and convective heat transfer based on the obtained experimental data is performed. Results: The calculation results show that in models that determine the temperature of the fuel assemblies in the core of the VVER-1000 reactor, the radiation heat transfer must be taken into account. In this case, the amount of transferred energy is the greater, the smaller the distance between objects. This is observed
Irvan Paramananda; Prabowo Prabowo
2014-01-01
Pengeringan yang dilakukan pada batu bara dengan memanfaatkan udara panas menggunakan konsep heat exchanger. Salah satu heat exchanger yang sering digunakan adalah heat exchanger dengan tipe single row-fin tube yaitu radiator. Radiator ini akan dimanfaatkan sebagai penghasil udara panas dari air panas yang mengalir dan dihembuskan oleh kipas radiator. Penelitian ini difokuskan pada effectiveness dari komponen radiator fungsi dari kecepatan udara mulai dari kecepatan 1 m/s, 2 m/s, 3 m/s, 4 m/s...
Radiative heat transfer in turbulent combustion systems theory and applications
Modest, Michael F
2016-01-01
This introduction reviews why combustion and radiation are important, as well as the technical challenges posed by radiation. Emphasis is on interactions among turbulence, chemistry and radiation (turbulence-chemistry-radiation interactions – TCRI) in Reynolds-averaged and large-eddy simulations. Subsequent chapters cover: chemically reacting turbulent flows; radiation properties, Reynolds transport equation (RTE) solution methods, and TCRI; radiation effects in laminar flames; TCRI in turbulent flames; and high-pressure combustion systems. This Brief presents integrated approach that includes radiation at the outset, rather than as an afterthought. It stands as the most recent developments in physical modeling, numerical algorithms, and applications collected in one monograph.
Spectral tuning of near-field radiative heat transfer by graphene-covered metasurfaces
Zheng, Zhiheng; Wang, Ao; Xuan, Yimin
2018-03-01
When two gratings are respectively covered by a layer of graphene sheet, the near-field radiative heat transfer between two parallel gratings made of silica (SiO2) could be greatly improved. As the material properties of doped silicon (n-type doping concentration is 1020 cm-3, marked as Si-20) and SiO2 differ greatly, we theoretically investigate the near-field radiative heat transfer between two parallel graphene-covered gratings made of Si-20 to explore some different phenomena, especially for modulating the spectral properties. The radiative heat flux between two parallel bulks made of Si-20 can be enhanced by using gratings instead of bulks. When the two gratings are respectively covered by a layer of graphene sheet, the radiative heat flux between two gratings made of Si-20 can be further enhanced. By tuning graphene chemical potential μ and grating filling factor f, due to the interaction between surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) of graphene sheets and grating structures, the spectral properties of the radiative heat flux between two parallel graphene-covered gratings can be effectively regulated. This work will develop and supplement the effects of materials on the near-field radiative heat transfer for this kind of system configuration, paving a way to modulate the spectral properties of near-field radiative heat transfer.
Detection of radiation from a heated and modulated equatorial electrojet current system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lunnen, R.J.; Lee, H.S.; Ferraro, A.J.; Collins, T.W.
1984-01-01
In May 1983, ionospheric heating experiments were conducted using the very high frequency radar facility at Lima, Peru. Experiments involving high frequency heating of the ionosphere were successfully conducted during 1982 at Islote, Puerto Rico. These local experiments had characterized the signal radiated from a heated and modulated ionospheric current system near the mid-latitudes. A long-path signal had also been received in September 1982 at Salinas, Puerto Rico from a mid-day equatorial electrojet, heated and modulated by the Jicamarca facility. The authors have investigated the characteristics of the local signal that would be radiated from a strong equatorial electrojet when heated and modulated, and report here that at the geomagnetic equator they were similar to, but less intense than, those observed at Arecibo, Puerto Rico due to parameter differences. This radiation is believed to be the first detected from a heated and modulated equatorial electrojet current system in the Western Hemisphere. (author)
Electricity eliminates rust from district heat pipes. The new deoxidation method works on radiators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sonninen, R.; Leisio, C.
1996-11-01
Oxygen dissolving in district heating water through district heat pipes and pipe joints made of plastic corrodes many small and medium-size district heating systems, resulting in heat cuts in the buildings connected to these systems. IN some cases, corrosion products have even circulated back to district heating power plants, thus hampering heat generation in the worst of cases. People residing in blocks of flats where some radiator components are made of plastic also face a similar problem, though on a smaller scale. A small and efficient electrochemical deoxidation cell has now been invented to eliminate this nuisance, which occurs particularly in cold winter weather. (orig.)
Application of the finite element method to problems with heat radiation exchange
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breitbach, G.; Altes, J.
1985-07-01
The calculation of temperature distributions for systems exchanging heat radiation requires in a first step the determination of the heat fluxes caused by radiation at its surfaces. In this paper the radiation transport equation is developed and it is shown, that it can be derived from a variational principle. The functional of the variational principle is the starting point of a numerical solution method. By using Finite Element Procedures a system of linear equations is derived, which supplies an approximation of the radiosity. Having the radiosity the heat flux at the surfaces, which governs as the boundary condition the temperature distribution in the structure, can be calculated. (orig.) [de
Alamirew, Netsanet K.; Todd, Martin C.; Ryder, Claire L.; Marsham, John H.; Wang, Yi
2018-01-01
The Saharan heat low (SHL) is a key component of the west African climate system and an important driver of the west African monsoon across a range of timescales of variability. The physical mechanisms driving the variability in the SHL remain uncertain, although water vapour has been implicated as of primary importance. Here, we quantify the independent effects of variability in dust and water vapour on the radiation budget and atmospheric heating of the region using a radiative transfer model configured with observational input data from the Fennec field campaign at the location of Bordj Badji Mokhtar (BBM) in southern Algeria (21.4° N, 0.9° E), close to the SHL core for June 2011. Overall, we find dust aerosol and water vapour to be of similar importance in driving variability in the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget and therefore the column-integrated heating over the SHL (˜ 7 W m-2 per standard deviation of dust aerosol optical depth - AOD). As such, we infer that SHL intensity is likely to be similarly enhanced by the effects of dust and water vapour surge events. However, the details of the processes differ. Dust generates substantial radiative cooling at the surface (˜ 11 W m-2 per standard deviation of dust AOD), presumably leading to reduced sensible heat flux in the boundary layer, which is more than compensated by direct radiative heating from shortwave (SW) absorption by dust in the dusty boundary layer. In contrast, water vapour invokes a radiative warming at the surface of ˜ 6 W m-2 per standard deviation of column-integrated water vapour in kg m-2. Net effects involve a pronounced net atmospheric radiative convergence with heating rates on average of 0.5 K day-1 and up to 6 K day-1 during synoptic/mesoscale dust events from monsoon surges and convective cold-pool outflows (haboobs). On this basis, we make inferences on the processes driving variability in the SHL associated with radiative and advective heating/cooling. Depending on the
Effects of microelectronics on industrial level measuring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaudel, D.E.
1979-01-01
Microelectronic elements and production technologies have begun to change industrial level measurement, and this trend will continue. Spectacular breakthroughs cannot be expected, due to the major demand of reliability and to administrative constraints. The demand for transducers has increased with the advance of low-cost computer hardware. Electronics makes well-known method of measurements more universally applicable; it helps to realize new methods, and to design multifunctional transducers which always give the necessary signal for process guidance. The effects on society and environment are wholly positive: More and better measuring technologies permit a better utilisation of raw materials and energies, help to prevent environmental damage, and to raise the standard of living. Negative results are not to be expected on this sector. (orig./RW) [de
Free-world microelectronic manufacturing equipment
Kilby, J. S.; Arnold, W. H.; Booth, W. T.; Cunningham, J. A.; Hutcheson, J. D.; Owen, R. W.; Runyan, W. R.; McKenney, Barbara L.; McGrain, Moira; Taub, Renee G.
1988-12-01
Equipment is examined and evaluated for the manufacture of microelectronic integrated circuit devices and sources for that equipment within the Free World. Equipment suitable for the following are examined: single-crystal silicon slice manufacturing and processing; required lithographic processes; wafer processing; device packaging; and test of digital integrated circuits. Availability of the equipment is also discussed, now and in the near future. Very adequate equipment for most stages of the integrated circuit manufacturing process is available from several sources, in different countries, although the best and most widely used versions of most manufacturing equipment are made in the United States or Japan. There is also an active market in used equipment, suitable for manufacture of capable integrated circuits with performance somewhat short of the present state of the art.
Heteromagnetic Microelectronics Microsystems of Active Type
Ignatiev, Alexander A
2010-01-01
Heteromagnetic Microelectronics: Microsystems of Active Type, by Alexander A. Ignatiev of Saratov State University and Alexander V. Lyashenko of JSC Research Institute Tantal in Russia, offers a very detailed and specialized account of the author's research and development of heteromagnetic materials and devices. The book is based on original material from the author's programs of designing heteromagnetic microsystems. Polyvalent, multiple parameter magneto-semiconductor microsystems are described and the book reports on extensive experimental and theoretical results of research in a range of frequencies up to 1000 GHz. For the first time the direction of satisfying criteria, and burst technologies, which can make a subject of discovery, are discussed in great detail. This book is intended for post-graduate students and researchers specializing in the design and application of heteromagnetic materials and devices. Alexander A. Ignatiev is author of Magnetoelectronics of Microwaves and Extremely High Frequenci...
Pflug, I. J.
1973-01-01
The mechanistic basis of the synergetic effect of combined heat and radiation on microbial destruction was analyzed and results show that radiation intensity, temperature, and relative humidity are the determining factors. Dry heat resistance evaluation for selected bacterial spore crops indicates that different strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus demonstrate marked differences in resistance. Preliminary work to determine the effects of storage time, suspending medium, storage temperature and spore crop cleaning procedures on dry heat survival characteristics of Bacillus subtilis var. Niger, and dry heat resistance of natural microflora in soil particles is also reported.
Graphene-assisted near-field radiative heat transfer between corrugated polar materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, X. L.; Zhang, Z. M.
2014-01-01
Graphene has attracted great attention in nanoelectronics, optics, and energy harvesting. Here, the near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered corrugated silica is investigated based on the exact scattering theory. It is found that graphene can improve the radiative heat flux between silica gratings by more than one order of magnitude and alleviate the performance sensitivity to lateral shift. The underlying mechanism is mainly attributed to the improved photon tunneling of modes away from phonon resonances. Besides, coating with graphene leads to nonlocal radiative transfer that breaks Derjaguin's proximity approximation and enables corrugated silica to outperform bulk silica in near-field radiation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai Hongtao; Wang Jiaying; Wu Manxue
2001-01-01
Management information system of radiation protection for low temperature reactor uses computer to manage the data of the low temperature nuclear heating reactor radiation monitoring, it saves the data from the front real-time radiation monitoring system, comparing these data with historical data to give the consequence. Also, the system provides some picture in order to show space information at need. The system, based on Microsoft Access 97, consists of nine parts, including radiation dose, environmental data, meteorological data and so on. The system will have value in safely operation of the low temperature nuclear heating reactor
Mattick, A. T.; Hertzberg, A.
1984-01-01
A heat rejection system for space is described which uses a recirculating free stream of liquid droplets in place of a solid surface to radiate waste heat. By using sufficiently small droplets ( 100 micron diameter) of low vapor pressure liquids the radiating droplet sheet can be made many times lighter than the lightest solid surface radiators (heat pipes). The liquid droplet radiator (LDR) is less vulnerable to damage by micrometeoroids than solid surface radiators, and may be transported into space far more efficiently. Analyses are presented of LDR applications in thermal and photovoltaic energy conversion which indicate that fluid handling components (droplet generator, droplet collector, heat exchanger, and pump) may comprise most of the radiator system mass. Even the unoptimized models employed yield LDR system masses less than heat pipe radiator system masses, and significant improvement is expected using design approaches that incorporate fluid handling components more efficiently. Technical problems (e.g., spacecraft contamination and electrostatic deflection of droplets) unique to this method of heat rejectioon are discussed and solutions are suggested.
Radiation loss driven instabilities in laser heated plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, R.G.
1985-01-01
Any plasma in which a significant part of the power balance is due to optically thin radiative losses may be subject to a radiation cooling instability. A simple analytical model gives the dispersion relation for the instability and inclusion of a realistic radiation loss term in a two dimensional hydrodynamic simulation shows that ''jet'' like features form in moderate to high Z plasmas
Rolston, Nicholas; Printz, Adam D.; Dupont, Stephanie R.; Voroshazi, Eszter; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.
2017-01-01
Organic solar cells subjected to environmental stressors such as heat, moisture, and UV radiation can undergo significant mechanical degradation, leading to delamination of layers and device failure. This paper reports the effect these stressors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, G.H.; McHugh, T.; Weber, R.; Goeddel, D.V.
1991-01-01
We report here that infection of the human T-cell line HUT-78 with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases its sensitivity to heat and radiation toxicity. A possible explanation for this result may be the reduced expression of manganous superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in HIV-infected cells compared to uninfected cells. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) further sensitizes HIV-infected cells but not uninfected cells to heat and radiation. This is consistent with the ability of TNF-alpha to induce the expression of MnSOD in uninfected but not in HIV-infected cells. HIV-infected HUT-78 cell lines engineered to overexpress MnSOD are more resistant to heat and radiation than HIV-infected cells that do not overexpress MnSOD. However, treatment with TNF-alpha still sensitizes these cells to heat and radiation
Radiation heat transfer through the gas of a sodium cooled fast breeder reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pradel, P.; Frachet, S.; Petit, D.
1984-04-01
Analysis based on results from the COCA test campaign and Germinal mockup of Super Phenix upper shuttings, of the heat transfers and radiation attenuation due to sodium aerosols between the free surface of sodium and the upper shuttings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, L.H. [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China)]. E-mail: lhliu@hit.edu.cn
2006-11-15
In graded index media, the ray goes along a curved path determined by Fermat principle. Generally, the curved ray trajectory in graded index media is a complex implicit function, and the curved ray tracing is very difficult and complex. Only for some special refractive index distributions, the curved ray trajectory can be expressed as a simple explicit function. Two important examples are the layered and the radial graded index distributions. In this paper, the radiative heat transfer problems in two-dimensional square semitransparent with layered and radial graded index distributions are analyzed. After deduction of the ray trajectory, the radiative heat transfer problems are solved by using the Monte Carlo curved ray-tracing method. Some numerical solutions of dimensionless net radiative heat flux and medium temperature are tabulated as the benchmark solutions for the future development of approximation techniques for multi-dimensional radiative heat transfer in graded index media.
Impact of cloud radiative heating on East Asian summer monsoon circulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun; Wang, Minghuai; Qian, Yun
2015-01-01
The impacts of cloud radiative heating on the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) over southeastern China (105°–125°E, 20°–35°N) are addressed by using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the radiative heating of clouds leads to a positive effect on the local EASM circulation over southeastern China. Without the radiative heating of clouds, the EASM circulation and precipitation would be much weaker than that in normal conditions. The longwave heating of clouds dominates the changes of EASM circulation. The positive effect of clouds on EASM circulation is explained by the thermodynamic energy equation, i.e. the different heating rate between cloud base and cloud top enhances the convective instability over southeastern China, which consequently enhances updraft. The strong updraft would further result in a southward meridional wind above the center of the updraft through Sverdrup vorticity balance. (letter)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maruyama, Shigenao; Mori, Yusuke; Sakai, Seigo
2004-01-01
Radiative heat transfer in the fog layer is analyzed. Direct and diffuse solar irradiation, and infrared sky flux are considered as incident radiation. Anisotropic scattering of radiation by water droplets is taken into account. Absorption and emission of radiation by water droplets and radiative gases are also considered. Furthermore, spectral dependences of radiative properties of irradiation, reflectivity, gas absorption and scattering and absorption of mist are considered. The radiation element method by ray emission model (REM 2 ) is used for the nongray radiation analysis. Net downward radiative heat flux at the sea surface and radiative equilibrium temperature distribution in the fog layer are calculated for several conditions. Transmitted solar flux decreases as liquid water content (LWC) in the fog increases. However, the value does not become zero but has the value about 60 W/m 2 . The effect of humidity and mist on radiative cooling at night is investigated. Due to high temperature and humidity condition, the radiation cooling at night is not so large even in the clear sky. Furthermore, the radiative equilibrium temperature distribution in the fog layer in the daytime is higher as LWC increases, and the inversion layer of temperature occurs
ANALYSIS OF MEASURED AND MODELED SOLAR RADIATION AT THE TARS SOLAR HEATING PLANT IN DENMARK
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tian, Zhiyong; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon
2017-01-01
, such as solar radiation, inlet and outlet temperature for the solar collector field, flow rate and pressure, ambient temperature, Wind speed and wind direction were measured. Global horizontal radiation, direct normal irradiation (DNI) and total radiation on the tilted collector plane of the flat plate...... collector field have been measured in Tars solar heating plant. To determine the accuracy of modeled and measured solar radiation in Tars solar heating plant, monthly comparisons of measured and calculated radiation using 6 empirical models have been carried out. Comparisons of measured and modeled total......A novel combined solar heating plant with tracking parabolic trough collectors (PTC) and flat plate collectors (FPC) has been constructed and put into operation in Tars, 30 km north of Aalborg, Denmark in August 2015. To assess the operation performance of the plant, detailed parameters...
Homogenization of some radiative heat transfer models: application to gas-cooled reactor cores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Ganaoui, K.
2006-09-01
In the context of homogenization theory we treat some heat transfer problems involving unusual (according to the homogenization) boundary conditions. These problems are defined in a solid periodic perforated domain where two scales (macroscopic and microscopic) are to be taken into account and describe heat transfer by conduction in the solid and by radiation on the wall of each hole. Two kinds of radiation are considered: radiation in an infinite medium (non-linear problem) and radiation in cavity with grey-diffuse walls (non-linear and non-local problem). The derived homogenized models are conduction problems with an effective conductivity which depend on the considered radiation. Thus we introduce a framework (homogenization and validation) based on mathematical justification using the two-scale convergence method and numerical validation by simulations using the computer code CAST3M. This study, performed for gas cooled reactors cores, can be extended to other perforated domains involving the considered heat transfer phenomena. (author)
Future trends in microelectronics journey into the unknown
Xu, Jimmy; Zaslavsky, Alexander
2016-01-01
Presents the developments in microelectronic-related fields, with comprehensive insight from a number of leading industry professionals. The book presents the future developments and innovations in the developing field of microelectronics. The book’s chapters contain contributions from various authors, all of whom are leading industry professionals affiliated either with top universities, major semiconductor companies, or government laboratories, discussing the evolution of their profession. A wide range of microelectronic-related fields are examined, including solid-state electronics, material science, optoelectronics, bioelectronics, and renewable energies. The topics covered range from fundamental physical principles, materials and device technologies, and major new market opportunities.
End users heat energy savings using thermostat regulation valves radiators, v. 16(64)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jakimovska, Emilija Misheva; Potsev, Eftim
2008-01-01
Billing the used heat energy offers the opportunity to motivate end users to use the heat energy rationally and to save the energy. Installing the thermostat valves on the radiators it is possible frequently to regulate the room temperature and to use the heat gains, obtaining comfortable climate in the apartments and saving the energy. Thermostat valves give the possibility to use the heat energy rationally and save the energy, and these way and users can regulate the heat energy consumption according to their own level of thermal comfort. (Author)
End users heat energy savings using thermostat regulation valves radiators, v. 16(63)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jakimovska, Emilija Misheva; Potsev, Eftim
2008-01-01
Billing the used heat energy offers the opportunity to motivate end users to use the heat energy rationally and to save the energy. Installing the thermostat valves on the radiators it is possible frequently to regulate the room temperature and to use the heat gains, obtaining comfortable climate in the apartments and saving the energy. Thermostat valves give the possibility to use the heat energy rationally and save the energy, and these way and users can regulate the heat energy consumption according to their own level of thermal comfort. (Author)
Mahanthesh, B.; Gireesha, B. J.; Shehzad, S. A.; Rauf, A.; Kumar, P. B. Sampath
2018-05-01
This research is made to visualize the nonlinear radiated flow of hydromagnetic nano-fluid induced due to rotation of the disk. The considered nano-fluid is a mixture of water and Ti6Al4V or AA7072 nano-particles. The various shapes of nanoparticles like lamina, column, sphere, tetrahedron and hexahedron are chosen in the analysis. The irregular heat source and nonlinear radiative terms are accounted in the law of energy. We used the heat flux condition instead of constant surface temperature condition. Heat flux condition is more relativistic and according to physical nature of the problem. The problem is made dimensionless with the help of suitable similarity constraints. The Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg scheme is adopted to find the numerical solutions of governing nonlinear ordinary differential systems. The solutions are plotted by considering the various values of emerging physical constraints. The effects of various shapes of nanoparticles are drawn and discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, K.H.; Gonzalez-Santalo, J.M.; Tien, C.L.
1976-01-01
A model has been developed to calculate the heat transfer coefficients from the fuel rods to the steam-droplet mixture typical of Boiling Water Reactors under Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) operation conditions during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The model includes the heat transfer by convection to the vapor, the radiation from the surfaces to both the water droplets and the vapor, and the effects of droplet evaporation. The combined convection and radiation heat transfer coefficient can be evaluated with respect to the characteristic droplet size. Calculations of the heat transfer coefficient based on the droplet sizes obtained from the existing literature are consistent with those determined empirically from the Full-Length-Emergency-Cooling-Heat-Transfer (FLECHT) program. The present model can also be used to assess the effects of geometrical distortions (or deviations from nominal dimensions) on the heat transfer to the cooling medium in a rod bundle
Simulation of Radiation Heat Transfer in a VAR Furnace Using an Electrical Resistance Network
Ballantyne, A. Stewart
The use of electrical resistance networks to simulate heat transfer is a well known analytical technique that greatly simplifies the solution of radiation heat transfer problems. In a VAR furnace, radiative heat transfer occurs between the ingot, electrode, and crucible wall; and the arc when the latter is present during melting. To explore the relative heat exchange between these elements, a resistive network model was developed to simulate the heat exchange between the electrode, ingot, and crucible with and without the presence of an arc. This model was then combined with an ingot model to simulate the VAR process and permit a comparison between calculated and observed results during steady state melting. Results from simulations of a variety of alloys of different sizes have demonstrated the validity of the model. Subsequent simulations demonstrate the application of the model to the optimization of both steady state and hot top melt practices, and raises questions concerning heat flux assumptions at the ingot top surface.
Radiation from Large Gas Volumes and Heat Exchange in Steam Boiler Furnaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Makarov, A. N., E-mail: tgtu-kafedra-ese@mail.ru [Tver State Technical University (Russian Federation)
2015-09-15
Radiation from large cylindrical gas volumes is studied as a means of simulating the flare in steam boiler furnaces. Calculations of heat exchange in a furnace by the zonal method and by simulation of the flare with cylindrical gas volumes are described. The latter method is more accurate and yields more reliable information on heat transfer processes taking place in furnaces.
New Physical and Mathematical Model of Radiation Heat Transmission Inside Circular Furnace
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. I. Timoshpolsky
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Methods of solving problems concerning heat transmission by radiation are considered in the paper. The paper shows disadvantages of the existing techniques. A physical and mathematical model of a conjugate heat exchange has been developed to eliminate the above disadvantages.
Plasmon enhanced near-field radiative heat transfer for graphene covered dielectrics
Svetovoy, Vitaly; van Zwol, P.J.; Chevrier, J.
2012-01-01
It is shown that a graphene layer on top of a dielectric slab can dramatically influence the ability of this dielectric for radiative heat exchange turning a poor heat emitter/absorber into a good one and vice versa. The effect of graphene is related to thermally excited plasmons. The frequency of
Calculation of radiation heat generation on a graphite reflector side of IAN-R1 Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duque O, J.; Velez A, L.H.
1987-01-01
Calculation methods for radiation heat generation in nuclear reactor, based on the point kernel approach are revisited and applied to the graphite reflector of IAN-R1 reactor. A Fortran computer program was written for the determination of total heat generation in the reflector, taking 1155 point in it
Passive cryogenic cooling of electrooptics with a heat pipe/radiator.
Nelson, B E; Goldstein, G A
1974-09-01
The current status of the heat pipe is discussed with particular emphasis on applications to cryogenic thermal control. The competitive nature of the passive heat pipe/radiator system is demonstrated through a comparative study with other candidate systems for a 1-yr mission. The mission involves cooling a spaceborne experiment to 100 K while it dissipates 10 W.
Calculation of heat generation due to nuclear radiation in nuclear reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres, L.M.R.; Gomes, I.C.; Maiorino, J.R.
1986-01-01
The study is performed for caculating nuclear heating due to the interaction of neutrons and gamma-rays with matter. Modifications were implemented in the ANISN code, that solves the one-dimensional transport equation using the discrete ordinate method, to include nuclear heating calculations. Tests of the implemented modifications were performed in problems of nuclear heating due to radiation energy deposition in a fusion reactor. (Author) [pt
Radiation and gas conduction heat transport across a helium dewer multilayer insulation system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Green, M.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)
1995-02-01
This report describes a method for calculating mixed heat transfer through the multilayer insulation used to insulated a 4K liquid helium cryostat. The method described permits one to estimate the insulation potential for a multilayer insulation system from first principles. The heat transfer regimes included are: radiation, conduction by free molecule gas conduction, and conduction through continuum gas conduction. Heat transfer in the transition region between the two gas conduction regimes is also included.
Theory of many-body radiative heat transfer without the constraint of reciprocity
Zhu, Linxiao; Guo, Yu; Fan, Shanhui
2018-03-01
Using a self-consistent scattered field approach based on fluctuational electrodynamics, we develop compact formulas for radiative heat transfer in many-body systems without the constraint of reciprocity. The formulas allow for efficient numerical calculation for a system consisting of a large number of bodies, and are in principle exact. As a demonstration, for a nonreciprocal many-body system, we investigate persistent heat current at thermal equilibrium and directional heat transfer when the system is away from thermal equilibrium.
Billiet, Marijn; De Schampheleire, Sven; Huisseune, Henk; De Paepe, Michel
2015-01-01
Two differently-produced open-cell aluminum foams were compared to a commercially available finned heat sink. Further, an aluminum plate and block were tested as a reference. All heat sinks have the same base plate dimensions of four by six inches. The first foam was made by investment casting of a polyurethane preform and has a porosity of 0.946 and a pore density of 10 pores per linear inch. The second foam is manufactured by casting over a solvable core and has a porosity of 0.85 and a pore density of 2.5 pores per linear inch. The effects of orientation and radiative heat transfer are experimentally investigated. The heat sinks are tested in a vertical and horizontal orientation. The effect of radiative heat transfer is investigated by comparing a painted/anodized heat sink with an untreated one. The heat flux through the heat sink for a certain temperature difference between the environment and the heat sink’s base plate is used as the performance indicator. For temperature differences larger than 30 ∘C, the finned heat sink outperforms the in-house-made aluminum foam heat sink on average by 17%. Furthermore, the in-house-made aluminum foam dissipates on average 12% less heat than the other aluminum foam for a temperature difference larger than 40 ∘C. By painting/anodizing the heat sinks, the heat transfer rate increased on average by 10% to 50%. Finally, the thermal performance of the horizontal in-house-made aluminum foam heat sink is up to 18% larger than the one of the vertical aluminum foam heat sink. PMID:28793601
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marijn Billiet
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Two differently-produced open-cell aluminum foams were compared to a commercially available finned heat sink. Further, an aluminum plate and block were tested as a reference. All heat sinks have the same base plate dimensions of four by six inches. The first foam was made by investment casting of a polyurethane preform and has a porosity of 0.946 and a pore density of 10 pores per linear inch. The second foam is manufactured by casting over a solvable core and has a porosity of 0.85 and a pore density of 2.5 pores per linear inch. The effects of orientation and radiative heat transfer are experimentally investigated. The heat sinks are tested in a vertical and horizontal orientation. The effect of radiative heat transfer is investigated by comparing a painted/anodized heat sink with an untreated one. The heat flux through the heat sink for a certain temperature difference between the environment and the heat sink’s base plate is used as the performance indicator. For temperature differences larger than 30 °C, the finned heat sink outperforms the in-house-made aluminum foam heat sink on average by 17%. Furthermore, the in-house-made aluminum foam dissipates on average 12% less heat than the other aluminum foam for a temperature difference larger than 40 °C. By painting/anodizing the heat sinks, the heat transfer rate increased on average by 10% to 50%. Finally, the thermal performance of the horizontal in-house-made aluminum foam heat sink is up to 18% larger than the one of the vertical aluminum foam heat sink.
Harijishnu, R.; Jayakumar, J. S.
2017-09-01
The main objective of this paper is to study the heat transfer rate of thermal radiation in participating media. For that, a generated collimated beam has been passed through a two dimensional slab model of flint glass with a refractive index 2. Both Polar and azimuthal angle have been varied to generate such a beam. The Temperature of the slab and Snells law has been validated by Radiation Transfer Equation (RTE) in OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), a CFD software which is the major computational tool used in Industry and research applications where the source code is modified in which radiation heat transfer equation is added to the case and different radiation heat transfer models are utilized. This work concentrates on the numerical strategies involving both transparent and participating media. Since Radiation Transfer Equation (RTE) is difficult to solve, the purpose of this paper is to use existing solver buoyantSimlpeFoam to solve radiation model in the participating media by compiling the source code to obtain the heat transfer rate inside the slab by varying the Intensity of radiation. The Finite Volume Method (FVM) is applied to solve the Radiation Transfer Equation (RTE) governing the above said physical phenomena.
Drying characteristics of rough rice by far-infrared radiation heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuoka, T.
1990-01-01
The relationship between the heat radiation characteristics of a far-infrared radiation heater and the drying characteristics of rough rice was investigated to determine the basic data required for utilization of far-infrared rays for drying rough rice. Results of investigations are discussed in detail
Combined natural convection and radiation in a volumetrically heated fluid layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chawla, T.C.; Chan, S.H.; Cheung, F.B.; Cho, D.H.
1980-01-01
The effect of radiation in combination with turbulent natural convection on the rates of heat transfer in volumetrically heated fluid layers characterized by high temperatures has been considered in this study. It is demonstrated that even at high Rayleigh numbers the radiation mode is as effective as the turbulent natural convection mode in removing the heat from the upper surface of the molten pools with adiabatic lower boundary. As a result of this improved heat transfer, it is shown that considerably thicker molten pools with internal heat generation can be supported without boiling inception. The total Nusselt number at a moderate but fixed value of conduction-radiation parameter, can be represented as a function of Rayleigh number in a simple power-law form. As a consequence of this relationship it is shown that maximum nonboiling pool thicknesses vary approximately inversely as the 0.9% power of internal heat generation rate. A comparison between exact analysis using the integral formulation of radiation flux and Rosseland approximation shows that the latter approximation bears out very adequately for optically thick pools with conduction-radiation parameters greater than or equal to 0.4 inspite of the fact that individual components of Nusselt number due to radiation and convection, respectively, are grossly in error. These errors in component heat fluxes are compensating due to the total heat balance constraint. However, the comparison between Rosseland approximation and exact formulation gets poorer as the value of conduction-radiation parameters decreases. This increase in error is principally incurred due to the error in estimating wall temperature differences
Combined natural convection and radiation in a volumetrically heated fluid layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chawla, T.C.; Chan, S.H.; Cheung, F.B.; Cho, D.H.
1980-01-01
The effect of radiation in combining with turbulent natural convection on the rates of heat transfer in volumetrically heated fluid layers characterized by high temperatures has been considered in this study. It is demonstrated that even at high Rayleigh numbers the radiation mode is as effective as the turbulent natural convection mode in removing the heat from the upper surface of molten pools with adiabatic lower boundary. As a result of this improved heat transfer, it is shown that considerably thicker molten pools with internal heat generation can be supported without boiling inception. The total Nusselt number at a moderate but fixed value of conduction-radiation parameter, can be represented as a function of Rayleigh number in a simple power-law form. As a consequence of this relationship it is shown that maximum nonboiling pool thicknesses vary approximately inversely as the 0.9 power of internal heat generation rate. A comparison between exact analysis using the integral formulation of radiation flux and Rosseland approximateion shows that the latter approximation bears out very adequately for optically thick pools with conduction-radiation parameter > or approx. =0.4 inspite of the fact that individual components of Nusselt number due to radiation and convection, respectively, are grossly in error. These errors in component heat fluxes are compensating due to the total heat balance constraint. However, the comparison between Rosseland approximation and exact formulation gets poorer as the value of conduction-radiation parameter decreases. This increase in error is principally incurred due to the error in estimating wall temperature differences
Radiation heat transfer in a pressurized water reactor lower head filled with molten corium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Šadek, Siniša; Grgić, Davor; Debrecin, Nenad
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► We develop radiation heat exchange model for a reactor pressure vessel lower head. ► Model is used during a late in-vessel phase of severe accidents. ► View factors are calculated automatically for a time-dependent enclosure. ► Model is included in the RELAP5/SCDAPSIM computer code. ► Inclusion of heat radiation causes faster heat-up rate of RPV lower head structures. - Abstract: Following a core melt, molten material may slump to the lower head of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV). In that case, some structures like lower parts of fuel elements and a core support plate would remain intact. Since the melt is at high temperature and there are no obstacles between the melt and the supporting plate, the plate is exposed to an intense radiation heating. The radiation heat exchange model of the lower head was developed and applied to a finite element code COUPLE which is a part of the detailed mechanistic code RELAP5/SCDAPSIM. The radiation enclosure consisted of three surfaces: the upper surface of the relocated material, the inner surface of the RPV wall above the relocated material and the lower surface of the core support plate. View factors were calculated for the enclosure geometry that is changing in time because of intermittent accumulation of molten material. The enclosure surfaces were covered by mesh of polygonal areas and view factors were calculated, for each pair of the element areas, by solving the definite integrals using the algorithms for adaptive integrations by means of Gaussian quadrature. Algebraic equations for radiosity and irradiation vectors were solved by LU decomposition and the radiation model was explicitly coupled with the heat conduction model. The results show that there is a possibility of the core support plate failure after being heated up due to radiation heat exchange with the melt.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamai, K.; Abe, T.; Araki, M.; Ito, H.
1998-01-01
Seasonal changes in the radiation budget and soil heat flux of a forest floor were measured in a mixed forest located in Kyoto, Japan. The basal area at breast height in the survey forest was about 15·82 m 2 ha −1 , for evergreen trees, and 12·46 m 2 ha −1 , for deciduous trees. The sky view factor was 16 and 22% at the survey site in the foliate and defoliate seasons, respectively. The small difference between the sky view factor in the two seasons was reflected in the seasonal change in the radiation budget of the forest floor. Namely, the net long-wave radiation changed rapidly in leafing and falling days, and the rate of net short-wave radiation was highest in April. The distinctive characteristic of the radiation budget was that the rates of available radiation in the daytime and at night were almost equal in September and October. Latent heat flux at the forest floor was estimated to be around 94 MJ m −2 annually, from our measurement with the simulation model. (author)
Sandwich Core Heat-Pipe Radiator for Power and Propulsion Systems
Gibson, Marc; Sanzi, James; Locci, Ivan
2013-01-01
Next-generation heat-pipe radiator technologies are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to provide advancements in heat-rejection systems for space power and propulsion systems. All spacecraft power and propulsion systems require their waste heat to be rejected to space in order to function at their desired design conditions. The thermal efficiency of these heat-rejection systems, balanced with structural requirements, directly affect the total mass of the system. Terrestrially, this technology could be used for thermal control of structural systems. One potential use is radiant heating systems for residential and commercial applications. The thin cross section and efficient heat transportability could easily be applied to flooring and wall structures that could evenly heat large surface areas. Using this heat-pipe technology, the evaporator of the radiators could be heated using any household heat source (electric, gas, etc.), which would vaporize the internal working fluid and carry the heat to the condenser sections (walls and/or floors). The temperature could be easily controlled, providing a comfortable and affordable living environment. Investigating the appropriate materials and working fluids is needed to determine this application's potential success and usage.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhengguo Shang
2009-05-01
Full Text Available A novel high-precision vacuum microelectronic accelerometer has been successfully fabricated and tested in our laboratory. This accelerometer has unique advantages of high sensitivity, fast response, and anti-radiation stability. It is a prototype intended for navigation applications and is required to feature micro-g resolution. This paper briefly describes the structure and working principle of our vacuum microelectronic accelerometer, and the mathematical model is also established. The performances of the accelerometer system are discussed after Matlab modeling. The results show that, the dynamic response of the accelerometer system is significantly improved by choosing appropriate parameters of signal detecting circuit, and the signal detecting circuit is designed. In order to attain good linearity and performance, the closed-loop control mode is adopted. Weak current detection technology is studied, and integral T-style feedback network is used in I/V conversion, which will eliminate high-frequency noise at the front of the circuit. According to the modeling parameters, the low-pass filter is designed. This circuit is simple, reliable, and has high precision. Experiments are done and the results show that the vacuum microelectronic accelerometer exhibits good linearity over -1 g to +1 g, an output sensitivity of 543 mV/g, and a nonlinearity of 0.94 %.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, Hafiz Muhammad; Ali, Hassan; Liaquat, Hassan; Bin Maqsood, Hafiz Talha; Nadir, Malik Ahmed
2015-01-01
New experimental data are reported for water based nanofluids to enhance the heat transfer performance of a car radiator. ZnO nanoparticles have been added into base fluid in different volumetric concentrations (0.01%, 0.08%, 0.2% and 0.3%). The effect of these volumetric concentrations on the heat transfer performance for car radiator is determined experimentally. Fluid flow rate has been varied in a range of 7–11 LPM (liter per minute) (corresponding Reynolds number range was 17,500–27,600). Nanofluids showed heat transfer enhancement compared to the base fluid for all concentrations tested. The best heat transfer enhancement up to 46% was found compared to base fluid at 0.2% volumetric concentration. A further increase in volumetric concentration to 0.3% has shown a decrease in heat transfer enhancement compared to 0.2% volumetric concentration. Fluid inlet temperature was kept in a range of 45–55 °C. An increase in fluid inlet temperature from 45 °C to 55 °C showed increase in heat transfer rate up to 4%. - Highlights: • ZnO–water nanofluids were used for car radiator thermal enhancement. • Heat transfer enhancement up to 46% was achieved comparing pure water. • 0.2% vol. concentration of ZnO found to be optimum for heat transfer. • Heat transfer was found weakly dependant on the fluid inlet temperature
Microelectronics and nanoelectronics trends, and applications to HEP instrumentation
CERN. Geneva
2004-01-01
Lecture 1 : Microelectronics and HEP instrumentation CMOS technology has been the leading technology in microelectronics for more that 30 years thanks to its outstanding capability to miniaturization and low power consumption. A brief history of the microelectronics semiconductor industry is presented with applications for LEP and LHC experiments. Lecture 2: Future trends in microelectronics and nanoelectronics Trends in miniaturization point to the fabrication of ULSI nanoscale CMOS circuits by the end of the decade. Device issues and quantum effects in nanoscale MOS transistor will be discussed. Beyond CMOS technology, several technology avenues based on nanotechnology are under investigation. We will present some promising nanoelectronic devices and circuits based on Single Electron Tunneling (SET) transistor, nanowire, quantum dot and carbon nanotubes. Lecture 3: Monolithic pixel detectors Microvertex detectors for particle physics experiments currently uses hybrid silicon pixel detector. Novel emerging m...
Heat transfer enhancement of car radiator using aqua based magnesium oxide nanofluids
Ali Hafiz Muhammad; Azhar Muhammad Danish; Saleem Musab; Saeed Qazi Samie; Saieed Ahmed
2015-01-01
The focus of this research paper is on the application of water based MgO nanofluids for thermal management of a car radiator. Nanofluids of different volumetric concentrations (i.e. 0.06%, 0.09% and 0.12%) were prepared and then experimentally tested for their heat transfer performance in a car radiator. All concentrations showed enhancement in heat transfer compared to the pure base fluid. A peak heat transfer enhancement of 31% was obtained at 0.12 % vol...
Heat exchange from the toucan bill reveals a controllable vascular thermal radiator.
Tattersall, Glenn J; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S
2009-07-24
The toco toucan (Ramphastos toco), the largest member of the toucan family, possesses the largest beak relative to body size of all birds. This exaggerated feature has received various interpretations, from serving as a sexual ornament to being a refined adaptation for feeding. However, it is also a significant surface area for heat exchange. Here we show the remarkable capacity of the toco toucan to regulate heat distribution by modifying blood flow, using the bill as a transient thermal radiator. Our results indicate that the toucan's bill is, relative to its size, one of the largest thermal windows in the animal kingdom, rivaling elephants' ears in its ability to radiate body heat.
Gas Temperature and Radiative Heat Transfer in Oxy-fuel Flames
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bäckström, Daniel; Johansson, Robert; Andersson, Klas
This work presents measurements of the gas temperature, including fluctuations, and its influence on the radiative heat transfer in oxy-fuel flames. The measurements were carried out in the Chalmers 100 kW oxy-fuel test unit. The in-furnace gas temperature was measured by a suction pyrometer...... on the radiative heat transfer shows no effect of turbulence-radiation interaction. However, by comparing with temperature fluctuations in other flames it can be seen that the fluctuations measured here are relatively small. Further research is needed to clarify to which extent the applied methods can account...
Prasad, D. V. V. Krishna; Chaitanya, G. S. Krishna; Raju, R. Srinivasa
2018-05-01
The aim of this research work is to find the EFGM solutions of the unsteady magnetohydromagnetic natural convection heat transfer flow of a rotating, incompressible, viscous, Boussinesq fluid is presented in this study in the presence of radiative heat transfer. The Rosseland approximation for an optically thick fluid is invoked to describe the radiative flux. Numerical results obtained show that a decrease in the temperature boundary layer occurs when the Prandtl number and the radiation parameter are increased and the flow velocity approaches steady state as the time parameter t is increased. These findings are in quantitative agreement with earlier reported studies.
IP validation in remote microelectronics testing
Osseiran, Adam; Eshraghian, Kamran; Lachowicz, Stefan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Jeffery, Roger; Robins, Michael
2004-03-01
This paper presents the test and validation of FPGA based IP using the concept of remote testing. It demonstrates how a virtual tester environment based on a powerful, networked Integrated Circuit testing facility, aimed to complement the emerging Australian microelectronics based research and development, can be employed to perform the tasks beyond the standard IC test. IC testing in production consists in verifying the tested products and eliminating defective parts. Defects could have a number of different causes, including process defects, process migration and IP design and implementation errors. One of the challenges in semiconductor testing is that while current fault models are used to represent likely faults (stuck-at, delay, etc.) in a global context, they do not account for all possible defects. Research in this field keeps growing but the high cost of ATE is preventing a large community from accessing test and verification equipment to validate innovative IP designs. For these reasons a world class networked IC teletest facility has been established in Australia under the support of the Commonwealth government. The facility is based on a state-of-the-art semiconductor tester operating as a virtual centre spanning Australia and accessible internationally. Through a novel approach the teletest network provides virtual access to the tester on which the DUT has previously been placed. The tester software is then accessible as if the designer is sitting next to the tester. This paper presents the approach used to test and validate FPGA based IPs using this remote test approach.
Carbon-ionogel supercapacitors for integrated microelectronics
Leung, Greg; Smith, Leland; Lau, Jonathan; Dunn, Bruce; Chui, Chi On
2016-01-01
To exceed the performance limits of dielectric capacitors in microelectronic circuit applications, we design and demonstrate on-chip coplanar electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), or supercapacitors, employing carbon-coated gold electrodes with ionogel electrolyte. The formation of carbon-coated microelectrodes is accomplished by solution processing and results in a ten-fold increase in EDLC capacitance compared to bare gold electrodes without carbon. At frequencies up to 10 Hz, an areal capacitance of 2.1 pF μm-2 is achieved for coplanar carbon-ionogel EDLCs with 10 μm electrode gaps and 0.14 mm2 electrode area. Our smallest devices, comprised of 5 μm electrode gaps and 80 μm2 of active electrode area, reach areal capacitance values of ˜0.3 pF μm-2 at frequencies up to 1 kHz, even without carbon. To our knowledge, these are the highest reported values to date for on-chip EDLCs with sub-mm2 areas. A physical EDLC model is developed through the use of computer-aided simulations for design exploration and optimization of coplanar EDLCs. Through modeling and comparison with experimental data, we highlight the importance of reducing the electrode gap and electrolyte resistance to achieve maximum performance from on-chip EDLCs.
Enabling laser applications in microelectronics manufacturing
Delmdahl, Ralph; Brune, Jan; Fechner, Burkhard; Senczuk, Rolf
2016-02-01
In this experimental study, we report on high-pulse-energy excimer laser drilling into high-performance build-up films which are pivotal in microelectronics manufacturing. Build-up materials ABF-GX13 from Ajinomoto as well as ZS-100 from Zeon Corporation are evaluated with respect to their viability for economic excimer laser-based micro-via formation. Excimer laser mask imaging projection at laser wavelengths of 193, 248 and 308 nm is employed to generate matrices of smaller micro-vias with different diameters and via pitches. High drilling quality is achievable for all excimer laser wavelengths with the fastest ablation rates measured in the case of 248 and 308 nm wavelengths. The presence of glass fillers in build-up films as in the ABF-GX13 material poses some limitations to the minimum achievable via diameter. However, surprisingly good drilling results are obtainable as long as the filler dimensions are well below the diameter of the micro-vias. Sidewall angles of vias are controllable by adjusting the laser energy density and pulse number. In this work, the structuring capabilities of excimer lasers in build-up films as to taper angle variations, attainable via diameters, edge-stop behavior and ablation rates will be elucidated.
Wang, Feng; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhao, Shufan; Zhao, Guangxin; Wang, Min
2017-05-01
Electromagnetic extremely low frequency (ELF) waves play an important role in modulating the Earth's radiation belt electron dynamics. High-frequency (HF) modulated heating of the ionosphere acts as a viable means to generate artificial ELF waves. The artificial ELF waves can reside in two different plasma regions in geo-space by propagating in the ionosphere and penetrating into the magnetosphere. As a consequence, the entire trajectory of ELF wave propagation should be considered to carefully analyze the wave radiation properties resulting from modulated ionospheric heating. We adopt a model of full wave solution to evaluate the Poynting vector of the ELF radiation field in the ionosphere, which can reflect the propagation characteristics of the radiated ELF waves along the background magnetic field and provide the initial condition of waves for ray tracing in the magnetosphere. The results indicate that the induced ELF wave energy forms a collimated beam and the center of the ELF radiation shifts obviously with respect to the ambient magnetic field with the radiation power inversely proportional to the wave frequency. The intensity of ELF wave radiation also shows a weak correlation with the size of the radiation source or its geographical location. Furthermore, the combination of ELF propagation in the ionosphere and magnetosphere is proposed on basis of the characteristics of the ELF radiation field from the upper ionospheric boundary and ray tracing simulations are implemented to reasonably calculate magnetospheric ray paths of ELF waves induced by modulated ionospheric heating.
Self-Regulating Freezable Heat Exchanger and Radiator, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — At present, both the astronaut's metabolic heat and that produced by the Portable Life Support System are rejected to space by a sublimator that consumes up to 8...
Multiscale solutions of radiative heat transfer by the discrete unified gas kinetic scheme
Luo, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Cun-Hai; Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hong-Liang; Tan, He-Ping
2018-06-01
The radiative transfer equation (RTE) has two asymptotic regimes characterized by the optical thickness, namely, optically thin and optically thick regimes. In the optically thin regime, a ballistic or kinetic transport is dominant. In the optically thick regime, energy transport is totally dominated by multiple collisions between photons; that is, the photons propagate by means of diffusion. To obtain convergent solutions to the RTE, conventional numerical schemes have a strong dependence on the number of spatial grids, which leads to a serious computational inefficiency in the regime where the diffusion is predominant. In this work, a discrete unified gas kinetic scheme (DUGKS) is developed to predict radiative heat transfer in participating media. Numerical performances of the DUGKS are compared in detail with conventional methods through three cases including one-dimensional transient radiative heat transfer, two-dimensional steady radiative heat transfer, and three-dimensional multiscale radiative heat transfer. Due to the asymptotic preserving property, the present method with relatively coarse grids gives accurate and reliable numerical solutions for large, small, and in-between values of optical thickness, and, especially in the optically thick regime, the DUGKS demonstrates a pronounced computational efficiency advantage over the conventional numerical models. In addition, the DUGKS has a promising potential in the study of multiscale radiative heat transfer inside the participating medium with a transition from optically thin to optically thick regimes.
Snowpack radiative heating: Influence on Tibetan Plateau climate
Flanner, Mark G; Zender, C. S.
2005-01-01
Solar absorption decays exponentially with depth in snowpacks. However, most climate models constrain all snowpack absorption to occur uniformly in the top-most snow layer. We show that 20–45% of solar absorption by deep snowpacks occurs more than 2 cm beneath the surface. Accounting for vertically-resolved solar heating alters steady-state snow mass without changing bulk snow albedo, and ice-albedo feedback amplifies this effect. Vertically-resolved snowpack heating reduces winter snow mass...
Effect of surface radiation on natural convection in an asymmetrically heated channel-chimney system
Nasri, Zied; Derouich, Youssef; Laatar, Ali Hatem; Balti, Jalloul
2018-05-01
In this paper, a more realistic numerical approach that takes into account the effect of surface radiation on the laminar air flow induced by natural convection in a channel-chimney system asymmetrically heated at uniform heat flux is used. The aim is to enrich the results given in Nasri et al. (Int J Therm Sci 90:122-134, 2015) by varying all the geometric parameters of the system and by taking into account the effect of surface radiation on the flows. The numerical results are first validated against experimental and numerical data available in the literature. The computations have allowed the determination of optimal configurations that maximize the mass flow rate and the convective heat transfer and minimize the heated wall temperatures. The analysis of the temperature fields with the streamlines and the pressure fields has helped to explain the effects of surface radiation and of the different thermo-geometrical parameters on the system performances to improve the mass flow rate and the heat transfer with respect to the simple channel. It is shown that the thermal performance of the channel-chimney system in terms of lower heated wall temperatures is little affected by the surface radiation. At the end, simple correlation equations have been proposed for quickly and easily predict the optimal configurations as well as the corresponding enhancement rates of the induced mass flow rate and the convective heat transfer.
Radiation heat transfer within an open-cycle MHD generator channel
Delil, A. A. M.
1983-05-01
Radiation heat transfer in an MHD generator was modeled using the Sparrow and Cess model for radiation in an emitting, absorbing and scattering medium. The resulting general equations can be considerably reduced by introducing simplifying approximations for the channel and MHD gas properties. The simplifications lead to an engineering model, which is very useful for one-dimensional channel flow approximation. The model can estimate thermo-optical MHD gas properties, which can be substituted in the energy equation. The model considers the contribution of solid particles in the MHD gas to radiation heat transfer, considerable in coal-fired closed cycle MHD generators. The modeling is applicable also for other types of flow at elevated temperatures, where radiation heat transfer is an important quantity.
CFD analysis of heat transfer performance of graphene based hybrid nanofluid in radiators
Bharadwaj, Bharath R.; Sanketh Mogeraya, K.; Manjunath, D. M.; Rao Ponangi, Babu; Rajendra Prasad, K. S.; Krishna, V.
2018-04-01
For Improved performance of an automobile engine, Cooling systems are one of the critical systems that need attention. With increased capacity to carry away large amounts of wasted heat, performance of an engine is increased. Current research on Nano-fluids suggests that they offer higher heat transfer rate compared to that of conventional coolants. Hence this project seeks to investigate the use of hybrid-nanofluids in radiators so as to increase its heat transfer performance. Carboxyl Graphene and Graphene Oxide based nanoparticles were selected due to the very high thermal conductivity of Graphene. System Analysis of the radiator was performed by considering a small part of the whole automobile radiator modelled using SEIMENS NX. CFD analysis was conducted using ANSYS FLUENT® for the nanofluid defined and the increase in effectiveness was compared to that of conventional coolants. Usage of such nanofluids for a fixed cooling requirement in the future can lead to significant downsizing of the radiator.
Heat resistant/radiation resistant cable and incore structure test device for FBR type reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanimoto, Hajime; Shiono, Takeo; Sato, Yoshimi; Ito, Kazumi; Sudo, Shigeaki; Saito, Shin-ichi; Mitsui, Hisayasu.
1995-01-01
A heat resistant/radiation resistant coaxial cable of the present invention comprises an insulation layer, an outer conductor and a protection cover in this order on an inner conductor, in which the insulation layer comprises thermoplastic polyimide. In the same manner, a heat resistant/radiation resistant power cable has an insulation layer comprising thermoplastic polyimide on a conductor, and is provided with a protection cover comprising braid of alamide fibers at the outer circumference of the insulation layer. An incore structure test device for an FBR type reactor comprises the heat resistant/radiation resistant coaxial cable and/or the power cable. The thermoplastic polyimide can be extrusion molded, and has excellent radiation resistant by the extrusion, as well as has high dielectric withstand voltage, good flexibility and electric characteristics at high temperature. The incore structure test device for the FBR type reactor of the present invention comprising such a cable has excellent reliability and durability. (T.M.)
Scrape-off layer radiation and heat load to the ASDEX Upgrade LYRA divertor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kallenbach, A.; Kaufmann, M.; Coster, D.P.
1999-01-01
In 1997 the new 'LYRA' divertor went into operation at ASDEX Upgrade and, in parallel, the neutral beam heating power was increased to 20 MW by installation of a second injector leading to a P/R value of 12 MW/m. Experiments have shown that the ASDEX Upgrade LYRA divertor is capable of handling such high heating powers. There is an overall reduction of the maximum heat flux in the LYRA divertor by about a factor of 2 compared with the previous open divertor Div I. This reduction is mainly due to increased radiative losses inside the divertor region, which are caused by an effective reflection of hydrogen neutrals into the hot separatrix region. The main channel of radiative loss is carbon radiation, which cools the divertor plasma down to a few electronvolts, where hydrogen radiation losses become significant. The radiative losses preferentially reduce the power flux at the separatrix, leading to early detachment around the strike point position. With increasing density, the detached region extends upwards on the vertical target. The power fraction radiated in the LYRA divertor is around 45% and nearly independent of the heating power. This value is a factor of 2 higher than the typical radiation fraction in Div I. B2-EIRENE modelling of the performed experiments supports the experimental finding and refines the understanding of loss processes in the divertor region. (author)
The pretective effects of heat shock protein 70 on radiation injury of V79 cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin Yongchun; Zhang Baoguo; Hong Chengjiao
2008-01-01
Westem blot was used to detect the expression of heat shock protein 70 in V79 cells after heat shock pretreatment; V79 cells were irradiated using γ-ray after heat shock pretreatment, survival rate was observed using Colony formation assay. Our study shows that 1) the overexpression of heat shock protein 70 was observed in cells recovering for 1 hour after heat shock pretreatment, with peak expression in cells recovering for 4 hours, and could last for 24 hours; 2) heat shock pretreatment was able to elevate survival rate of V79 cells after irradiation by 60 Co γ ray (when the irradiation dose was less than 6 Gy). The results indicate that heat shock protein 70 has protective effect on radiation induced cell death of V79 cells (when the irradiation dose was less than 6 Gy). (authors)
David Frankman; Brent W. Webb; Bret W. Butler; Daniel Jimenez; Michael Harrington
2012-01-01
Time-resolved radiative and convective heating measurements were collected on a prescribed burn in coniferous fuels at a sampling frequency of 500 Hz. Evaluation of the data in the time and frequency domain indicate that this sampling rate was sufficient to capture the temporal fluctuations of radiative and convective heating. The convective heating signal contained...
Comparison of DSMC and CFD Solutions of Fire II Including Radiative Heating
Liechty, Derek S.; Johnston, Christopher O.; Lewis, Mark J.
2011-01-01
The ability to compute rarefied, ionized hypersonic flows is becoming more important as missions such as Earth reentry, landing high mass payloads on Mars, and the exploration of the outer planets and their satellites are being considered. These flows may also contain significant radiative heating. To prepare for these missions, NASA is developing the capability to simulate rarefied, ionized flows and to then calculate the resulting radiative heating to the vehicle's surface. In this study, the DSMC codes DAC and DS2V are used to obtain charge-neutral ionization solutions. NASA s direct simulation Monte Carlo code DAC is currently being updated to include the ability to simulate charge-neutral ionized flows, take advantage of the recently introduced Quantum-Kinetic chemistry model, and to include electronic energy levels as an additional internal energy mode. The Fire II flight test is used in this study to assess these new capabilities. The 1634 second data point was chosen for comparisons to be made in order to include comparisons to computational fluid dynamics solutions. The Knudsen number at this point in time is such that the DSMC simulations are still tractable and the CFD computations are at the edge of what is considered valid. It is shown that there can be quite a bit of variability in the vibrational temperature inferred from DSMC solutions and that, from how radiative heating is computed, the electronic temperature is much better suited for radiative calculations. To include the radiative portion of heating, the flow-field solutions are post-processed by the non-equilibrium radiation code HARA. Acceptable agreement between CFD and DSMC flow field solutions is demonstrated and the progress of the updates to DAC, along with an appropriate radiative heating solution, are discussed. In addition, future plans to generate more high fidelity radiative heat transfer solutions are discussed.
Hydromagnetic nonlinear thermally radiative nanoliquid flow with Newtonian heat and mass conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Ijaz Khan
Full Text Available This paper communicates the analysis of MHD three-dimensional flow of Jeffrey nanoliquid over a stretchable surface. Flow due to a bidirectional surface is considered. Heat and mass transfer subject to volume fraction of nanoparticles, heat generation and nonlinear solar radiation are examined. Newtonian heat and mass transportation conditions are employed at surface. Concept of boundary layer is utilized to developed the mathematical problem. The boundary value problem is dictated by ten physical parameters: Deborah number, Hartman number, ratio of stretching rates, thermophoretic parameter, Brownian motion parameter, Prandtl number, temperature ratio parameter, conjugate heat and mass parameters and Lewis number. Convergent solutions are obtained using homotopic procedure. Convergence zone for obtained results is explicitly identified. The obtained solutions are interpreted physically. Keywords: Hydromagnetic flow, Viscoelastic nanofluid, Thermophoretic and Brownian moment, Nonlinear thermal radiation, Heat generation
Measurement of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation
Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.
1983-01-01
A series of experiments was performed in which a suitably tuned CO2 laser, frequency doubled by a Tl3AsSe37 crystal, was brought into resonance with a P-line or two R-lines in the fundamental vibration spectrum of CO. Cooling or heating produced by absorption in CO was measured in a gas-thermometer arrangement. P-line cooling and R-line heating could be demonstrated, measured, and compared. The experiments were continued with CO mixed with N2 added in partial pressures from 9 to 200 Torr. It was found that an efficient collisional resonance energy transfer from CO to N2 existed which increased the cooling effects by one to two orders of magnitude over those in pure CO. Temperature reductions in the order of tens of degrees Kelvin were obtained by a single pulse in the core of the irradiated volume. These measurements followed predicted values rather closely, and it is expected that increase of pulse energies and durations will enhance the heat pump effects. The experiments confirm the feasibility of quasi-isentropic engines which convert laser power into work without the need for heat rejection. Of more immediate potential interest is the possibility of remotely powered heat pumps for cryogenic use, such applications are discussed to the extent possible at the present stage.
Dynamic simulation of space heating systems with radiators controlled by TRVs in buildings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Baoping; Fu, Lin; Di, Hongfa [Department of Building Science, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)
2008-07-01
The objective of this paper is to develop a model for simulating the thermal and hydraulic behavior of space heating systems with radiators controlled by thermostat valves (TRVs) in multi-family buildings. This is done by treating the building and the heating system as a complete entity. Sub-models for rooms, radiators, TRVs, and the hydraulic network are derived. Then the suggested sub-models are combined to form an integrated model by considering interactions between them. The proposed model takes into account the heat transfer between neighboring rooms, the transport delay in the radiator, the self-adjusting function of the TRV, and the consumer's regulation behavior, as well as the hydraulic interactions between consumers. To test the model, two space heating systems in Beijing and Tianjin were investigated, and the model was validated under three operation modes. There was good agreement between the measured and simulated values for room temperature, return water temperature, and flow rate. A modeling analysis case was given based on an existing building and heating system. It was found that when the set value of the TRVs were kept on 2-3, about 12.4% reduction of heat consumption could be gained, compared with the situation in which the TRVs were kept fully open. The water flow rate was an important index that truly reflected the heat load change. It was also noted that if the flow rate or supply water temperature changed much during the transport delay time in the radiator, ignoring the transport delay would introduce an obvious deviation of the simulation results. Additionally, when an apartment stopped using the heating system during a heating season, the heat consumption of its neighboring apartments would be increased about 6-14%. (author)
Energy conservation. Purposeful regulation and control systems for gas infrared radiation heating
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reitsch, L [GoGaS Goch G.m.b.H. und Co., Dortmund (Germany, F.R.)
1978-01-01
Gas infrared radiators have been in use for a long time for heating large halls of trade and industrial buildings as well as sport centers. The success of this heating system is based mainly on considerably reduced energy consumption as against convective heating systems. However, the biggest energy savings can be achieved when heating systems of this kind are equipped with regulation and control systems which are adapted to the way the rooms are used. Solutions to problems are described and information is given for planning.
Radiative heat transfer analysis in pure water heater used for semiconductor processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, L.H.; Kudo, K.; Mochida, A.; Ogawa, T.; Kadotani, K.
2004-01-01
A simplified one-dimensional model is presented to analyze the non-gray radiative transfer in pure water heater used in the rinsing processes within semiconductor production lines, and the ray-tracing method is extended to simulate the radiative heat transfer. To examine the accuracy of the simplified model, the distribution of radiation absorption is determined by the ray-tracing method based the simplified model and compared with the data obtained by three-dimensional non-gray model in combination with Monte Carlo method in reference, and the effects of the water thickness on the radiation absorption are analyzed. The results show that the simplified model has a good accuracy in solving the radiation absorption in the pure water heater. The radiation absorption increases with the water thickness, but when the water thickness is greater than 50 mm, the radiation absorption increases very slowly with the water thickness
Measurements of Bremsstrahlung radiation and X-ray heat load to cryostat on SECRAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, H.Y.; Cao, Y.; Lu, W.; Zhang, W.H.; Zhao, H.W.; Zhang, X.Z.; Zhu, Y.H.; Li, X.X.; Xie, D.Z.
2012-01-01
The measurement of Bremsstrahlung radiation from ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) plasma can yield certain information about the ECR heating process and the plasma confinement, and more important it can give a plausible estimate of the X-ray heat load to the cryostat of a superconducting ECR source. To better understand the additional heat load to the cryostat due to Bremsstrahlung radiation, the axial Bremsstrahlung measurements have been conducted on SECRAL (Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) with different source parameters. In addition, the heat load induced by intense X-ray or even γ-ray was estimated in terms of liquid helium consumption. The relationship between these two parameters is presented here. Thick-target Bremsstrahlung, induced by the collision of hot electrons with the wall or the source electrode, is much more intensive compared with the radiation produced in the plasma and, consequently, much more difficult to shield off. In this paper the presence of the thick-target Bremsstrahlung is correlated with the magnetic confinement configuration, specifically, the ratio of B(last) to B(ext). And possible solutions to reduce the X-ray heat load induced by Bremsstrahlung radiation are proposed and discussed. It appears that by choosing an appropriate ratio of B(last) to B(ext) the thick-target Bremsstrahlung radiation can be avoided effectively. The paper is followed by the associated poster
Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goland, A.N.
1990-10-01
The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khaled, M; Garnier, B; Peerhossaini, H; Harambat, F
2010-01-01
A new experimental technique is presented that allows simultaneous measurement of convective and radiative heat flux in the underhood. The goal is to devise an easily implemented and accurate experimental method for application in the vehicle underhood compartment. The new method is based on a technique for heat-flux measurement developed by the authors (Heat flow (flux) sensors for measurement of convection, conduction and radiation heat flow 27036-2, © Rhopoint Components Ltd, Hurst Green, Oxted, RH8 9AX, UK) that uses several thermocouples in the thickness of a thermal resistive layer (foil heat-flux sensor). The method proposed here uses a pair of these thermocouples with different radiative properties. Measurements validating this novel technique are carried out on a flat plate with a prescribed constant temperature in both natural- and forced-convection flow regimes. The test flat plate is instrumented by this new technique, and also with a different technique that is intrusive but very accurate, used as reference here (Bardon J P and Jarny Y 1994 Procédé et dispositif de mesure transitoire de température et flux surfacique Brevet n°94.011996, 22 February). Discrepancies between the measurements by the two techniques are less than 10% for both convective and radiative heat flux. Error identification and sensitivity analysis of the new method are also presented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berour, Nacer; Lacroix, David E-mail: david.lacroix@lemta.uhp-nancy.fr; Boulet, Pascal; Jeandel, Gerard
2004-06-01
This paper deals with heat transfer in nongrey media which scatter, absorb and emit radiation. Considering a two dimensional geometry, radiative and conductive phenomena through the medium have been taken into account. The radiative part of the problem was solved using the discrete ordinate method with classical S{sub n} quadratures. The absorption and scattering coefficients involved in the radiative transfer equation (RTE) were obtained from the Mie theory. Conduction inside the medium was linked to the RTE through the energy conservation. Validation of the model has been achieved with several simulation of water spray curtains used as fire protection walls.
Measurements of convective and radiative heating in wildland fires
David Frankman; Brent W. Webb; Bret W. Butler; Daniel Jimenez; Jason M. Forthofer; Paul Sopko; Kyle S. Shannon; J. Kevin Hiers; Roger D. Ottmar
2012-01-01
Time-resolved irradiance and convective heating and cooling of fast-response thermopile sensors were measured in 13 natural and prescribed wildland fires under a variety of fuel and ambient conditions. It was shown that a sensor exposed to the fire environment was subject to rapid fluctuations of convective transfer whereas irradiance measured by a windowed sensor was...
Peeling of tomatoes using novel infrared radiation heating technology
The effectiveness of using infrared (IR) dry-peeling as an alternative process for peeling tomatoes without lye and water was studied. Compared to conventional lye peeling, IR dry-peeling using 30 s to 75 s heating time resulted in lower peeling loss (8.3% - 13.2% vs. 12.9% - 15.8%), thinner thickne...
Experimental studies on radiation heat transfer enhancement on a standard muffle furnace
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minea Alina Adriana
2013-01-01
Full Text Available One of the sources of increased industrial energy consumption is the heating equipment, e.g., furnaces. Their domain of use is very wide and due to its abundance of applications it is key equipment in modern civilization. The present experimental investigations are related to reducing energy consumptions and started from the geometry of a classic manufactured furnace. During this experimental study, different cases have been carefully chosen in order to compare and measure the effects of applying different enhancement methods of the radiation heat transfer processes. The main objective work was to evaluate the behavior of a heated enclosure, when different radiant panels were introduced. The experimental investigation showed that their efficiency was influenced by their position inside the heating area. In conclusion, changing the inner geometry by introducing radiant panels inside the heated chamber leads to important time savings in the heating process.
Radiative heat transfer in honeycomb structures-New simple analytical and numerical approaches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baillis, D; Coquard, R; Randrianalisoa, J
2012-01-01
Porous Honeycomb Structures present the interest of combining, at the same time, high thermal insulating properties, low density and sufficient mechanical resistance. However, their thermal properties remain relatively unexplored. The aim of this study is the modelling of the combined heat transfer and especially radiative heat transfer through this type of anisotropic porous material. The equivalent radiative properties of the material are determined using ray-tracing procedures inside the honeycomb porous structure. From computational ray-tracing results, simple new analytical relations have been deduced. These useful analytical relations permit to determine radiative properties such as extinction, absorption and scattering coefficients and phase function functions of cell dimensions and optical properties of cell walls. The radiative properties of honeycomb material strongly depend on the direction of propagation. From the radiative properties computed, we have estimated the radiative heat flux passing through slabs of honeycomb core materials submitted to a 1-D temperature difference between a hot and a cold plate. We have compared numerical results obtained from Discrete Ordinate Method with analytical results obtained from Rosseland-Deissler approximation. This approximation is usually used in the case of isotropic materials. We have extended it to anisotropic honeycomb materials. Indeed a mean over incident directions of Rosseland extinction coefficient is proposed. Results tend to show that Rosseland-Deissler extended approximation can be used as a first approximation. Deviation on radiative conductivity obtained from Rosseland-Deissler approximation and from the Discrete Ordinated Method are lower than 6.7% for all the cases studied.
Thompson, Michelle L; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi; Bennett, Nigel C; McKechnie, Andrew E
2015-01-01
Many small mammals bask in the sun during rewarming from heterothermy, but the implications of this behaviour for their energy balance remain little understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether solar radiation supplements endogenous metabolic thermogenesis (i.e., rewarming occurs through the additive effects of internally-produced and external heat), or whether solar radiation reduces the energy required to rewarm by substituting (i.e, replacing) metabolic heat production. To address this question, we examined patterns of torpor and rewarming rates in eastern rock elephant shrews (Elephantulus myurus) housed in outdoor cages with access to either natural levels of solar radiation or levels that were experimentally reduced by means of shade cloth. We also tested whether acclimation to solar radiation availability was manifested via phenotypic flexibility in basal metabolic rate (BMR), non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity and/or summit metabolism (Msum). Rewarming rates varied significantly among treatments, with elephant shrews experiencing natural solar radiation levels rewarming faster than conspecifics experiencing solar radiation levels equivalent to approximately 20% or 40% of natural levels. BMR differed significantly between individuals experiencing natural levels of solar radiation and conspecifics experiencing approximately 20% of natural levels, but no between-treatment difference was evident for NST capacity or Msum. The positive relationship between solar radiation availability and rewarming rate, together with the absence of acclimation in maximum non-shivering and total heat production capacities, suggests that under the conditions of this study solar radiation supplemented rather than substituted metabolic thermogenesis as a source of heat during rewarming from heterothermy.
Thermal radiators with embedded pulsating heat pipes: Infra-red thermography and simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hemadri, Vadiraj A.; Gupta, Ashish; Khandekar, Sameer
2011-01-01
With the aim of exploring potential applications of Pulsating Heat Pipes (PHP), for space/terrestrial sectors, experimental study of embedded PHP thermal radiators, having two different effective Biot numbers respectively, and subjected to conjugate heat transfer conditions on their surface, i.e., natural convection and radiation, has been carried out under different thermo-mechanical boundary conditions. High resolution infrared camera is used to obtain spatial temperature profiles of the radiators. To complement the experimental study, detailed 3D computational heat transfer simulation has also been undertaken. By embedding PHP structures, it was possible to make the net thermal resistance of the mild steel radiator plate equivalent to the aluminum radiator plate, in spite of the large difference in their respective thermal conductivities (k Al ∼ 4k MS ). The study reveals that embedded PHP structures can be beneficial only under certain boundary conditions. The degree of isothermalization achieved in these structures strongly depends on its effective Biot number. The relative advantage of embedded PHP is appreciably higher if the thermal conductivity of the radiator plate material itself is low. The study indicates that the effective thermal conductivity of embedded PHP structure is of the order of 400 W/mK to 2300 W/mK, depending on the operating conditions. - Research highlights: → Study of radiator plates with embedded Pulsating Heat Pipe by infrared thermography. → Radiator is subjected to natural convection and radiation boundary conditions. → Experimental study is supported by 3D simulation. → Effective thermal conductivity of PHPs of the order of 2000 W/mK is obtained. → Efficacy of embedded PHPs depends on the effective Biot number of the system.
Steady state ensembles of thermal radiation in a layered media with a constant heat flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budaev, Bair V.; Bogy, David B.
2013-01-01
This paper describes steady-state ensembles of thermally excited electromagnetic radiation in nano-scale layered media with a constant non-vanishing heat flux across the layers. It is shown that Planck's law of thermal radiation, the principle of equivalence, and the laws of wave propagation in layered media, imply that in order for the ensemble of thermally excited electromagnetic fields to exist in a medium consisting of a stack of layers between two half-space, the net heat flux across the layers must exceed a certain threshold that is determined by the temperatures of the half spaces and by the reflective properties of the entire structure. The obtained results provide a way for estimating the radiative heat transfer coefficient of nano-scale layered structures. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Influence of heat and radiation on the germinability and viability of B. cereus BIS-59 spores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamat, A.S.; Lewis, N.F.
1983-01-01
Spores of Bicillus cereus BIS-59, isolated in this laboratory from shrimps, exhibited an exponential gamma radiation survival curve with a d 10 value of 400 krad as compared with a D 10 value of 30 krad for the vegetative cells. The D 10 value of DPA-depleted spores was also 400 krad indicating that DPA does not influence the radiation response of these spores. Maximum germination monitored with irradiated spores was 60 percent as compared with 80 percent in case of unirradiated spores. Radiation-induced inhibition of the germination processes was not dose dependent. Heat treatment (15 min at 80 C) to spores resulted in activation of the germination process; however, increase in heating time (30 min and 60 min) increased the germination lag period. DPA-depleted spores were less heat resistant than normal spores and exhibited biphasic exponential inactivation. (author)
Heat transfer including radiation and slag particles evolution in MHD channel-I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.
1980-01-01
Accurate estimates of convective and radiative heat transfer in the magnetohydrodynamic channel are provided. Calculations performed for a base load-size channel indicate that heat transfer by gas radiation almost equals that by convection for smooth walls, and amounts to 70% as much as the convective heat transfer for rough walls. Carbon dioxide, water vapor, and potassium atoms are the principal participating gases. The evolution of slag particles by homogeneous nucleation and condensation is also investigated. The particle-size spectrum so computed is later utilized to analyze the radiation enhancement by slag particles in the MHD diffuser. The impact of the slag particle spectrum on the selection of a workable and design of an efficient seed collection system is discussed
Asymptotic solution for heat convection-radiation equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mabood, Fazle; Ismail, Ahmad Izani Md [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Khan, Waqar A. [Department of Engineering Sciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, PN Engineering College, Karachi, 75350 (Pakistan)
2014-07-10
In this paper, we employ a new approximate analytical method called the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) to solve steady state heat transfer problem in slabs. The heat transfer problem is modeled using nonlinear two-point boundary value problem. Using OHAM, we obtained the approximate analytical solution for dimensionless temperature with different values of a parameter ε. Further, the OHAM results for dimensionless temperature have been presented graphically and in tabular form. Comparison has been provided with existing results from the use of homotopy perturbation method, perturbation method and numerical method. For numerical results, we used Runge-Kutta Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method. It was found that OHAM produces better approximate analytical solutions than those which are obtained by homotopy perturbation and perturbation methods, in the sense of closer agreement with results obtained from the use of Runge-Kutta Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method.
Turbulence Control Through Selective Surface Heating Using Microwave Radiation
2013-05-01
3 Model Size 3 Mod el Vibrator Array Fig.3.5. New optimized experimental chamber in MRTI – the full electrodynamic analogue of new wind...before the model burnout that enable only a limited number of test runs. The main drawback of the MW heating resultd from the non-uniformity of energy... burnout occurred in a certain point, organic substances in model burnt out and were blown away but some of them consisting mainly of carbon
Near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered hyperbolic metamaterials
Hong, Xiao-Juan; Li, Jian-Wen; Wang, Tong-Biao; Zhang, De-Jian; Liu, Wen-Xing; Liao, Qing-Hua; Yu, Tian-Bao; Liu, Nian-Hua
2018-04-01
We propose the use of graphene-covered silicon carbide (SiC) nanowire arrays (NWAs) for theoretical studies of near-field radiative heat transfer. The SiC NWAs exhibit a hyperbolic characteristic at an appropriately selected filling-volume fraction. The surface plasmon supported by graphene and the hyperbolic modes supported by SiC NWAs significantly affect radiative heat transfer. The heat-transfer coefficient (HTC) between the proposed structures is larger than that between SiC NWAs. We also find that the chemical potential of graphene plays an important role in modulating the HTC. The tunability of chemical potential through gate voltage enables flexible control of heat transfer using the graphene-covered SiC NWAs.
Ultra thin metallic coatings to control near field radiative heat transfer
Esquivel-Sirvent, R.
2016-09-01
We present a theoretical calculation of the changes in the near field radiative heat transfer between two surfaces due to the presence of ultra thin metallic coatings on semiconductors. Depending on the substrates, the radiative heat transfer is modulated by the thickness of the ultra thin film. In particular we consider gold thin films with thicknesses varying from 4 to 20 nm. The ultra-thin film has an insulator-conductor transition close to a critical thickness of dc = 6.4 nm and there is an increase in the near field spectral heat transfer just before the percolation transition. Depending on the substrates (Si or SiC) and the thickness of the metallic coatings we show how the near field heat transfer can be increased or decreased as a function of the metallic coating thickness. The calculations are based on available experimental data for the optical properties of ultrathin coatings.
Influences of deforestation on radiation and heat balances in tropical peat swamp forest in Thailand
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, S.; Ishida, T.; Nagano, T.; Matsukawa, S.
1997-01-01
The difference of radiation and heat balances between a natural peat swamp forest and a deforested secondary forest has been investigated in Narathiwat Province, Thailand. Micrometeorological measurements were conducted continuously on observation towers 38 m and 4 m in heights in the primary forest and the secondary forest respectively. Results show that the deforestation of peat swamp forest leads to an increase in the sensible heat flux in the secondary forest. The yearly average ratio of the sensible heat flux to the net radiation was 20.9% in the peat swamp forest, and 33.2% in the secondary forest from Aug. 1995 to Jul. 1996. A ratio more than 40% was observed only in the dry season in the secondary forest. The change in sensible heat flux seemed to be influenced by the change in ground water levels. (author)
User's manual for the Heat Pipe Space Radiator design and analysis Code (HEPSPARC)
Hainley, Donald C.
1991-01-01
A heat pipe space radiatior code (HEPSPARC), was written for the NASA Lewis Research Center and is used for the design and analysis of a radiator that is constructed from a pumped fluid loop that transfers heat to the evaporative section of heat pipes. This manual is designed to familiarize the user with this new code and to serve as a reference for its use. This manual documents the completed work and is intended to be the first step towards verification of the HEPSPARC code. Details are furnished to provide a description of all the requirements and variables used in the design and analysis of a combined pumped loop/heat pipe radiator system. A description of the subroutines used in the program is furnished for those interested in understanding its detailed workings.
Near-field radiative heat transfer between clusters of dielectric nanoparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong, J.; Zhao, J.M.; Liu, L.H.
2017-01-01
In this work, we explore the near-field radiative heat transfer between two clusters of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles using the many-body radiative heat transfer theory. The effects of fractal dimension of clusters, many-body interaction between nanoparticles and relative orientation of clusters on the thermal conductance are studied. Meanwhile, the applicability of the equivalent volume spheres (EVS) approximation for near-field radiative heat transfer between clusters is examined. It is observed that the thermal conductance is larger for clusters with larger fractal dimension, which is more significant in the near-field. The thermal conductance of EVS resembles that of the clusters, but EVS overestimates the conductance of clusters, especially in the near-field. Compared to the case of two nanoparticles, the conductance of nanoparticle clusters decays much slower with increasing distance in the near-field, but shares similar dependence on the distance in the far-field. The thermal conductance of SiC nanoparticle clusters is inhibited by the many-body interaction when surface phonon polariton is supported but enhanced at frequencies close to the resonance frequency. The total thermal conductance is decreased due to many-body interaction among particles in the cluster. The relative orientation between the clusters is also an important factor in the near-field, especially for clusters with lower fractal dimension. - Highlights: • Near-field radiative heat transfer between clusters of nanoparticles is studied. • The many-body radiative heat transfer theory is applied for rigorous analysis. • The accuracy of equivalent volume spheres approximation is examined. • Clusters with larger fractal dimension have larger radiative thermal conductance. • Many-body interaction inhibits the total radiative thermal conductance.
Antenna-coupled terahertz radiation from joule-heated single-wall carbon nanotubes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Muthee
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In this letter an experimental method is introduced that allows detection of terahertz (THz radiation from arrays of joule-heated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs, by coupling this radiation through integrated antennas and a silicon lens. The radiation forms a diffraction-limited beam with a total maximum radiated power of 450 nW, significantly greater than the power estimated from Nyquist thermal noise (8 nW. The physical radiation process is unknown at this stage, but possible explanations for the high radiated power are discussed briefly. The emission has a typical bandwidth of 1.2 THz and can be tuned to different frequencies by changing the dimensions of the antennas. Arrays of the devices could be integrated in CMOS integrated circuits, and find application in THz systems, such as in near-range medical imaging.
Coupling heat conduction and radiation in complex 2D and 3D geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peniguel, C.
1997-01-01
Thermal radiation is a very important mode of heat transfer in most real industrial systems. A numerical approach coupling radiation (restricted to non participant medium) and conduction is presented. The code (SYRTHES) is able to handle 2D and 3D problems (including cases with symmetries and periodicity). Radiation is solved by a radiosity approach, and conduction by a finite element method. Accurate and efficient algorithms based on a mixing of analytical/numerical integration, and ray tracing techniques are used to compute the view factors. Validation has been performed on numerous test cases. A conjugate residual algorithm solves the radiosity system. An explicit interactive numerical procedure is then used to couple conduction and radiation. No stability problem has been encountered so far. One specificity of SYRTHES is that conduction and radiation are solved on independent grids. This brings much flexibility and allows to keep the number of independent radiation patches at a reasonable level. Several industrial examples are given as illustration. (author)
Thermal performance of a porus radial fin with natural convection and radiative heat losses
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Darvishi M.T.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An analytic (series solution is developed to describe the thermal performance of a porous radial fin with natural convection in the fluid saturating the fin and radiation heat loss from the top and bottom surfaces of the fin. The HAM results for the temperature distribution and base heat flux are compared with the direct numerical results and found to be very accurate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gustafsson, Jonas; Delsing, Jerker; Deventer, Jan van
2011-01-01
Highlights: → We compared a new radiator system control approach with traditional control. → This is an experimental verification of previous simulation results. → We examine changes in delta-T and indoor comfort. → The indoor comfort were not affected by the introduction of alt. radiator control. → The alternative control method can contribute to an increased delta-T. -- Abstract: In this paper, we evaluate whether the primary supply temperature in district heating networks can be used to control radiator systems in buildings connected to district heating; with the purpose of increasing the ΔT. The primary supply temperature in district heating systems can mostly be described as a function of outdoor temperature; similarly, the radiator supply temperature in houses, offices and industries can also be described as a function of outdoor temperature. To calibrate the radiator control system to produce an ideally optimal radiator supply temperature that produces a maximized ΔT across the substation, the relationship between the primary supply temperature and outdoor temperature must be known. However, even if the relation is known there is always a deviation between the expected primary supply temperature and the actual temperature of the received distribution media. This deviation makes the radiator control system incapable of controlling the radiator supply temperature to a point that would generate a maximized ΔT. Published simulation results show that it is possible and advantageous to utilize the primary supply temperature for radiator system control. In this paper, the simulation results are experimentally verified through implementation of the control method in a real district heating substation. The primary supply temperature is measured by the heat-meter and is shared with the radiator control system; thus no additional temperature sensors were needed to perform the experiments. However additional meters were installed for surveillance purposes
Radiative Heat Transfer Modeling in Fibrous Porous Media
Sobhani, Sadaf; Panerai, Francesco; Borner, Arnaud; Ferguson, Joseph C.; Wray, Alan; Mansour, Nagi N.
2017-01-01
Phenolic-Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) was developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a lightweight thermal protection system material for successful atmospheric entries. The objective of the current work is to compute the effective radiative conductivity of fibrous porous media, such as preforms used to make PICA, to enable the efficient design of materials that can meet the thermal performance goals of forthcoming space exploration missions.
Modeling Loss-of-Flow Accidents and Their Impact on Radiation Heat Transfer
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Jivan Khatry
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Long-term high payload missions necessitate the need for nuclear space propulsion. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA investigated several reactor designs from 1959 to 1973 in order to develop the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA. Study of planned/unplanned transients on nuclear thermal rockets is important due to the need for long-term missions. In this work, a system model based on RELAP5 is developed to simulate loss-of-flow accidents on the Pewee I test reactor. This paper investigates the radiation heat transfer between the fuel elements and the structures around it. In addition, the impact on the core fuel element temperature and average core pressure was also investigated. The following expected results were achieved: (i greater than normal fuel element temperatures, (ii fuel element temperatures exceeding the uranium carbide melting point, and (iii average core pressure less than normal. Results show that the radiation heat transfer rate between fuel elements and cold surfaces increases with decreasing flow rate through the reactor system. However, radiation heat transfer decreases when there is a complete LOFA. When there is a complete LOFA, the peripheral coolant channels of the fuel elements handle most of the radiation heat transfer. A safety system needs to be designed to counteract the decay heat resulting from a post-LOFA reactor scram.
Heat transfer analysis of radiator using graphene oxide nanofluids
Rao Ponangi, Babu; Sumanth, S.; Krishna, V.; Seetharam, T. R.; Seetharamu, K. N.
2018-04-01
As the technology is developing day by day, there is a requirement for enhancement in performance of automobile radiator to have a better performance of the IC Engine and fuel effectiveness. One of the major and recent approach to upgrade the performance of a radiator is that nanoparticles must be suspended in the general coolant (Ethylene Glycol – Water) which form nanofluids. Present work has been carried out by suspending graphene oxide nanoparticles in 50:50 Ethylene Glycol and RO-Water as base fluid. Experimentation is carried out by using three volume concentrations of the nanofluid (0.02%, 0.03% and 0.04%) and at different volumetric flow rates ranging from 3 to 6 LPM. Effect of volume concentration, inlet temperature and flow rate on Effectiveness, pressure drop and friction factor has been studied experimentally. Effectiveness versus NTU curves are plotted for further design calculations. The results show that the nanofluids will enhance the performance of an automobile radiator when compared with base fluid. Results also shows a maximum of 56.45% and 41.47% improvement in effectiveness for 0.03% volume concentration and 5 LPM flow rate at 40°C and 50°C inlet temperatures respectively.
Heated water and UV-C radiation to post harvest control of Cryptosporiopsis perennans on apples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartnicki, Vinicius Adao; Amarante, Cassandro Vidal Talamini do; Castro, Luis Antonio Suita de; Rizzatti, Mara Regina; Souza, Joao Antonio Vargas de
2010-01-01
The objective of this work was to assess the colonization of Cryptosporiopsis perennans in the epidermis of apples and the efficiency of heated water and UV-C radiation application to control this pathogen. In apples inoculated with C. perennans, the colonization of lenticels and adjacent areas by the pathogen was observed by electronic scanning microscopy. The sensitivity of C. perennans conidia was evaluated in aqueous suspension, at temperatures of 28, 45, 50 and 55 deg C for 15 and 30 s, and at UV.C radiation doses of 0.018, 0.037, 0.075, 0.150, 0.375, 0.750, 1.500 and 3.000 kJ m.2. The effects of UV.C radiation doses at 0.375, 0.750 and 1.500 kJ m.2 and heated water at 50 deg C, sprayed during 15 and 30 s were evaluated for controlling C. perennans in apples inoculated with the pathogen. The fungus produced abundant mycelium and conidia in lenticels and adjacent areas on the epidermis of the apples. The heated water at 50 deg C during 15 s and a 0.750 kJ m.2 UV.C radiation dose reduced conidia survival in more than 99%. Heated water sprayed at 50 deg C during 15 s and a UV.C radiation dose of 0.375 kJ m.2 control C. perennans in apples. (author)
Cost-effective computational method for radiation heat transfer in semi-crystalline polymers
Boztepe, Sinan; Gilblas, Rémi; de Almeida, Olivier; Le Maoult, Yannick; Schmidt, Fabrice
2018-05-01
This paper introduces a cost-effective numerical model for infrared (IR) heating of semi-crystalline polymers. For the numerical and experimental studies presented here semi-crystalline polyethylene (PE) was used. The optical properties of PE were experimentally analyzed under varying temperature and the obtained results were used as input in the numerical studies. The model was built based on optically homogeneous medium assumption whereas the strong variation in the thermo-optical properties of semi-crystalline PE under heating was taken into account. Thus, the change in the amount radiative energy absorbed by the PE medium was introduced in the model induced by its temperature-dependent thermo-optical properties. The computational study was carried out considering an iterative closed-loop computation, where the absorbed radiation was computed using an in-house developed radiation heat transfer algorithm -RAYHEAT- and the computed results was transferred into the commercial software -COMSOL Multiphysics- for solving transient heat transfer problem to predict temperature field. The predicted temperature field was used to iterate the thermo-optical properties of PE that varies under heating. In order to analyze the accuracy of the numerical model experimental analyses were carried out performing IR-thermographic measurements during the heating of the PE plate. The applicability of the model in terms of computational cost, number of numerical input and accuracy was highlighted.
Electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood and heat transfer in a capillary with thermal radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinha, A.; Shit, G.C.
2015-01-01
This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical study on heat transfer characteristics together with fully developed electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood through a capillary, having electrokinetic effects by considering the constant heat flux at the wall. The effect of thermal radiation and velocity slip condition have been taken into account. A rigorous mathematical model for describing Joule heating in electro-osmotic flow of blood including the Poisson–Boltzmann equation, the momentum equation and the energy equation is developed. The alterations in the thermal transport phenomenon, induced by the variation of imposed electromagnetic effects, are thoroughly explained through an elegant mathematical formalism. Results presented here pertain to the case where the height of the capillary is much greater than the thickness of electrical double layer comprising the stern and diffuse layers. The essential features of the electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood and associated heat transfer characteristics through capillary are clearly highlighted by the variations in the non-dimensional parameters for velocity profile, temperature profile and the Nusselt number. The study reveals that the temperature of blood can be controlled by regulating Joule heating parameter. - Highlights: • Electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood in capillary is studied. • Potential electric field is applied for driving elecroosmotic flow of blood. • Effect of thermal radiation, Joule heating and velocity slip is investigated. • Thermal radiation bears the significant change in the temperature field
Electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood and heat transfer in a capillary with thermal radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sinha, A. [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Shit, G.C., E-mail: gopal_iitkgp@yahoo.co.in [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai 600113 (India)
2015-03-15
This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical study on heat transfer characteristics together with fully developed electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood through a capillary, having electrokinetic effects by considering the constant heat flux at the wall. The effect of thermal radiation and velocity slip condition have been taken into account. A rigorous mathematical model for describing Joule heating in electro-osmotic flow of blood including the Poisson–Boltzmann equation, the momentum equation and the energy equation is developed. The alterations in the thermal transport phenomenon, induced by the variation of imposed electromagnetic effects, are thoroughly explained through an elegant mathematical formalism. Results presented here pertain to the case where the height of the capillary is much greater than the thickness of electrical double layer comprising the stern and diffuse layers. The essential features of the electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood and associated heat transfer characteristics through capillary are clearly highlighted by the variations in the non-dimensional parameters for velocity profile, temperature profile and the Nusselt number. The study reveals that the temperature of blood can be controlled by regulating Joule heating parameter. - Highlights: • Electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood in capillary is studied. • Potential electric field is applied for driving elecroosmotic flow of blood. • Effect of thermal radiation, Joule heating and velocity slip is investigated. • Thermal radiation bears the significant change in the temperature field.
Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor); Walters, R. J.; Morton, T. L.; Messenger, S. R.
2004-01-01
The objective is to develop an improved space solar cell radiation response analysis capability and to produce a computer modeling tool which implements the analysis. This was accomplished through analysis of solar cell flight data taken on the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed experiment. This effort specifically addresses issues related to rapid technological change in the area of solar cells for space applications in order to enhance system performance, decrease risk, and reduce cost for future missions.
Solar radiative heating of fiber-optic cables used to monitor temperatures in water
Neilson, Bethany T.; Hatch, Christine E.; Ban, Heng; Tyler, Scott W.
2010-08-01
In recent years, applications of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) have increased in number and diversity. Because fiber-optic cables used for DTS are typically sheathed in dark UV-resistant materials, the question arises as to how shortwave solar radiation penetrating a water column influences the accuracy of absolute DTS-derived temperatures in aquatic applications. To quantify these effects, we completed a modeling effort that accounts for the effects of radiation and convection on a submersed cable to predict when solar heating may be important. Results indicate that for cables installed at shallow depths in clear, low-velocity water bodies, measurable heating of the cable is likely during peak solar radiation. However, at higher velocities, increased turbidity and/or greater depths, the effects of solar heating are immeasurable. A field study illustrated the effects of solar radiation by installing two types of fiber-optic cable at multiple water depths (from 0.05 to 0.8 m) in the center and along the sidewall of a trapezoidal canal. Thermistors were installed at similar depths and shielded from solar radiation to record absolute water temperatures. During peak radiation, thermistor data showed small temperature differences (˜0.003°C-0.04°C) between depths suggesting minor thermal stratification in the canal center. DTS data from cables at these same depths show differences of 0.01°C-0.17°C. The DTS differences cannot be explained by stratification alone and are likely evidence of additional heating from solar radiation. Sidewall thermistor strings also recorded stratification. However, corresponding DTS data suggested that bed conduction overwhelmed the effects of solar radiation.
Radiation Effects on the Flow and Heat Transfer over a Moving Plate in a Parallel Stream
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishak, Anuar
2009-01-01
Effects of thermal radiation on the steady laminar boundary layer flow over a moving plate in a moving fluid is investigated. Under certain conditions, the present problem reduces to the classical Blasius and Sakiadis problems. It is found that dual solutions exist when the plate and the fluid move in the opposite directions. Moreover, the existence of thermal radiation is to reduce the heat transfer rate at the surface. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Blood flow in curved pipe with radiative heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogulu, A.; Bestman, A.R.
1992-03-01
Blood flow in a curved pipe such as the aorta is modelled in this study. The aorta is modelled as a curved pipe of slowly varying cross-section. Asymptotic series expansions about a small parameter δ, which is a measure of the curvature ratio is employed to obtain the velocity and temperature distributions. The study simulates the effect of radio-frequency heating, for instance during physiotherapy, on the flow of blood in the cardiovascular system assuming an external constant pressure gradient; and our results agree very well with results obtained by Pedley. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sidi-Ali Kamel
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This work analyses the contribution of radiation heat transfer in the cooling of a pebble bed modular reactor. The mathematical model, developed for a porous medium, is based on a set of equations applied to an annular geometry. Previous major works dealing with the subject have considered the forced convection mode and often did not take into account the radiation heat transfer. In this work, only free convection and radiation heat transfer are considered. This can occur during the removal of residual heat after shutdown or during an emergency situation. In order to derive the governing equations of radiation heat transfer, a steady-state in an isotropic and emissive porous medium (CO2 is considered. The obtained system of equations is written in a dimensionless form and then solved. In order to evaluate the effect of radiation heat transfer on the total heat removed, an analytical method for solving the system of equations is used. The results allow quantifying both radiation and free convection heat transfer. For the studied situation, they show that, in a pebble bed modular reactor, more than 70% of heat is removed by radiation heat transfer when CO2 is used as the coolant gas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vishwakarma, J P; Nath, G
2010-01-01
A self-similar solution for the propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in a dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux, which is rotating about the axis of symmetry, is investigated. The shock is assumed to be driven out by a piston (an inner expanding surface) and the dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles. The density of the ambient medium is assumed to be constant. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and radiation is considered to be of diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient α R are assumed to vary with temperature and density. Similarity solutions are obtained, and the effects of variation of the parameter of non-idealness of the gas in the mixture, the mass concentration of solid particles and the ratio of density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas are investigated.
Heat transfer enhancement of car radiator using aqua based magnesium oxide nanofluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Hafiz Muhammad
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The focus of this research paper is on the application of water based MgO nanofluids for thermal management of a car radiator. Nanofluids of different volumetric concentrations (i.e. 0.06%, 0.09% and 0.12% were prepared and then experimentally tested for their heat transfer performance in a car radiator. All concentrations showed enhancement in heat transfer compared to the pure base fluid. A peak heat transfer enhancement of 31% was obtained at 0.12 % volumetric concentration of MgO in basefluid. The fluid flow rate was kept in a range of 8-16 liter per minute. Lower flow rates resulted in greater heat transfer rates as compared to heat transfer rates at higher flow rates for the same volumetric concentration. Heat transfer rates were found weakly dependent on the inlet fluid temperature. An increase of 8°C in inlet temperature showed only a 6% increase in heat transfer rate.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yong [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Yi, Hong-Liang, E-mail: yihongliang@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Tan, He-Ping, E-mail: tanheping@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China)
2013-05-15
This paper develops a numerical solution to the radiative heat transfer problem coupled with conduction in an absorbing, emitting and isotropically scattering medium with the irregular geometries using the natural element method (NEM). The walls of the enclosures, having temperature and mixed boundary conditions, are considered to be opaque, diffuse as well as gray. The NEM as a meshless method is a new numerical scheme in the field of computational mechanics. Different from most of other meshless methods such as element-free Galerkin method or those based on radial basis functions, the shape functions used in NEM are constructed by the natural neighbor interpolations, which are strictly interpolant and the essential boundary conditions can be imposed directly. The natural element solutions in dealing with the coupled heat transfer problem for the mixed boundary conditions have been validated by comparison with those from Monte Carlo method (MCM) generated by the authors. For the validation of the NEM solution to radiative heat transfer in the semicircular medium with an inner circle, the results by NEM have been compared with those reported in the literatures. For pure radiative transfer, the upwind scheme is employed to overcome the oscillatory behavior of the solutions in some conditions. The steady state and transient heat transfer problem combined with radiation and conduction in the semicircular enclosure with an inner circle are studied. Effects of various parameters such as the extinction coefficient, the scattering albedo, the conduction–radiation parameter and the boundary emissivity are analyzed on the radiative and conductive heat fluxes and transient temperature distributions.
Active control of near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered metamaterials
Zhao, Qimei; Zhou, Ting; Wang, Tongbiao; Liu, Wenxing; Liu, Jiangtao; Yu, Tianbao; Liao, Qinghua; Liu, Nianhua
2017-04-01
In this study, the near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered metamaterials is investigated. The electric surface plasmons (SPs) supported by metamaterials can be coupled with the SPs supported by graphene. The near-field heat transfer between the graphene-covered metamaterials is significantly larger than that between metamaterials because of the strong coupling in our studied frequency range. The relationship between heat flux and chemical potential is studied for different vacuum gaps. Given that the chemical potential of graphene can be tuned by the external electric field, heat transfer can be actively controlled by modulating the chemical potential. The heat flux for certain vacuum gaps can reach a maximum value when the chemical potential is at a particular value. The results of this study are beneficial for actively controlling energy transfer.
Thermal radiosensitization in heat- and radiation-sensitive mutants of CHO cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kampinga, H.H.; Kanon, B.; Konings, A.W.T.; Stackhouse, M.A.; Bedford, J.S.
1993-01-01
In the current study, the extent of hyperthermic radiosensitization in a new γ-radiation-sensitive cell line, irs-20, recently isolated by Stackhouse and Bedford (1991) and a heat-sensitive mutant hs-36 (Harvey and Bedford 1988) was compared with the radiosensitization of their mutual parent CHO 10B12 cell line. The irs-20 and CHO 10B12 cells have comparable heat (43.5 o C) sensitivities, whereas hs-36 and CHO 10B12 show a similar sensitivity to γ- and X-rays. Radiosensitization due to pre-exposure to 43.5 o C heating of plateau phase cultures was found for all three cell lines, even after relatively mild heat treatment killing <20% of cells. Experiments using CHEF electrophoresis confirmed the dsb repair deficiency of the irs-20 cells (Stackhouse and Bedford 1992) and showed that heat inhibited dsb repair in all three cell lines. (Author)
Active control of near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered metamaterials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Qimei; Zhou, Ting; Wang, Tongbiao; Liu, Wenxing; Liu, Jiangtao; Yu, Tianbao; Liao, Qinghua; Liu, Nianhua
2017-01-01
In this study, the near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered metamaterials is investigated. The electric surface plasmons (SPs) supported by metamaterials can be coupled with the SPs supported by graphene. The near-field heat transfer between the graphene-covered metamaterials is significantly larger than that between metamaterials because of the strong coupling in our studied frequency range. The relationship between heat flux and chemical potential is studied for different vacuum gaps. Given that the chemical potential of graphene can be tuned by the external electric field, heat transfer can be actively controlled by modulating the chemical potential. The heat flux for certain vacuum gaps can reach a maximum value when the chemical potential is at a particular value. The results of this study are beneficial for actively controlling energy transfer. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shah, S., E-mail: sajidshah313@yahoo.com; Hussain, S.; Sagheer, M. [Department of Mathematics, Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2016-08-15
Present study examines the numerical analysis of MHD flow of Maxwell fluid with thermal radiation and Joule heating by considering the recently developed Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model which explains the time relaxation characteristics for the heat flux. The objective is to analyze the governing parameters such as viscoelastic fluid parameter, Magnetic parameter, Eckert and Prandtl number’s impact on the velocity and temperature profiles through graphs and tables. Suitable similarity transformations have been used to reduce the formulated PDEs into a system of coupled non-linear ODEs. Shooting technique has been invoked for finding the numerical solutions of the dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles. Additionally, the MATLAB built-in routine bvp4c has also been used to verify and strengthen the results obtained by shooting method. From some special cases of the present work, a comparison with the previously published results has been presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junxiong Hu
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate a facile approach to significantly enhance the heat dissipation potential of conventional aluminum (Al heat sinks by mechanically coating graphene nanosheets. For Al and graphene-coated Al heat sinks, the change in temperature with change in coating coverage, coating thickness and heat flux are studied. It is found that with the increase in coating coverage from 0 to 100%, the steady-state temperature is decreased by 5 °C at a heat flux of 1.8 W cm-1. By increasing the average thickness of graphene coating from 480 nm to 1900 nm, a remarkable temperature reduction up to 7 °C can be observed. Moreover, with the increase in heat flux from 1.2 W cm-1 to 2.4 W cm-1, the temperature difference between uncoated and graphene-coated samples increases from 1 °C to 6 °C. The thermal analysis and finite element simulation reveal that the thermal radiation plays a key role in enhancing the heat dissipation performance. The effect of heat convection remains weak owing to the low air velocity at surface-air boundary. This work provides a technological innovation in improving metal heat dissipation using graphene nanosheets.
Heating tokamaks by parametric decay of intense extraordinary mode radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elder, G.B.; Perkins, F.W.
1979-08-01
Intense electron beam technology has developed coherent, very high power (350 megawatts) microwave sources at frequencies which are a modest fraction of the electron cyclotron frequency in tokamaks. Propagation into a plasma occurs via the extraordinary mode which is subject to parametric decay instabilities in the density range ω/sub o/ 2 2 < ω/sub o/(ω/sub o/ + Ω/sub e/). For an incident wave focused onto a hot spot by a dish antenna of radius rho, the effective threshold power P/sub o/ required to induced effective parametric heating is P/sub o/ approx. = 10 MW x/rho Ω/sub e//ω/sub o/ (T/sub e//1 keV)/sup 3/2/ where x denotes the distance to the hot spot
Heat- and radiation-induced radio- and thermo-tolerance of Zea mays seedlings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gikoshvili, T.I.; Vagabova, M.Eh.; Vilenchik, M.M.; Kuzin, A.M.
1985-01-01
It was shown that γ-irradiation of Zea mays seedlings with low doses (1-3 Gy) induced thermotolerance, and preheating up to 43 deg C increased their radioresistance and thermotolerance. A hypothesis of the formation of common protective proteins after exposure to low - level radiation and heat is discussed
Research on high-temperature heat receiver in concentrated solar radiation system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Estera Przenzak
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The article presents the results of experimental and computer simulations studies of the high temperature heat receiver working in the concentrated solar radiation system. In order to study the radiation absorption process and heat exchange, the two types of computer simulations were carried out. The first one was used to find the best location for absorber in the concentrating installation. Ray Tracing Monte Carlo (RTMC method in Trace Pro software was used to perform the optical simulations. The results of these simulations were presented in the form of the solar radiation distribution map and chart. The data obtained in RTMC simulations were used as a second type boundary conditions for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations. These studies were used to optimize the internal geometry of the receiver and also to select the most effective flow parameters of the working medium. In order to validate the computer simulations, high temperature heat receiver was tested in experimental conditions. The article presents the results of experimental measurements in the form of temperature, radiation intensity and power graphs. The tests were performed for varied flow rate and receiver location. The experimental and computer simulation studies presented in this article allowed to optimize the configuration of concentrating and heat receiving system.
Cong, Li; Qifei, Jian; Wu, Shifeng
2017-02-01
An experimental study and theoretical analysis of heat transfer performance of a sintered heat pipe radiator that implemented in a 50 L domestic semiconductor refrigerator have been conducted to examine the effect of inclination angle, combined with a minimum entropy generation analysis. The experiment results suggest that inclination angle has influences on both the evaporator and condenser section, and the performance of the heat pipe radiator is more sensitive to the inclination change in negative inclined than in positive inclined position. When the heat pipe radiator is in negative inclination angle position, large amplitude of variation on the thermal resistance of this heat pipe radiator is observed. As the thermal load is below 58.89 W, the influence of inclination angle on the overall thermal resistance is not that apparent as compared to the other three thermal loads. Thermal resistance of heat pipe radiator decreases by 82.86 % in inclination of 60° at the set of 138.46 W, compared to horizontal position. Based on the analysis results in this paper, in order to achieve a better heat transfer performance of the heat pipe radiator, it is recommended that the heat pipe radiator be mounted in positive inclination angle positions (30°-90°), where the condenser is above the evaporator.
Mathematical Model for the Sequential Action of Radiation and Heat on Yeast Cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Yun Jong; Kim, Su Hyoun; Nili, Mohammad; Zhurakovskaya, Galina P.; Petin, Vladislav G.
2009-01-01
It is well known that the synergistic interaction of hyperthermia with ionizing radiation and other agents is widely used in hyperthermic oncology. Interaction between two agents may be considered as synergistic or antagonistic when the effect produced is greater or smaller than the sum of the two single responses. It has long be considered that the mechanism of synergistic interaction of hyperthermia and ionizing radiation may be brought about by an inhibition of the repair from sublethal and potentially lethal damage at the cellular level. The inhibition of the recovery process after combined treatments cannot be considered as a reason for the synergy, but rather would be the expected and predicted consequence of the production of irreversible damage. On the basis of it, a simple mathematical model of the synergistic interaction of two agents acting simultaneously has been proposed. However, the model has not been applied to predict the degree of interaction of heat and ionizing radiation after their sequential action. Extension of the model to the sequential treatment of heat and ionizing radiation seems to be of interest for theoretical and practical reasons. Thus, the purposes of the present work is to suggest the simplest mathematical model which would be able to account for the results obtained and currently available experimental information on the sequential action of radiation and heat.
Open Loop Heat Pipe Radiator Having a Free-Piston for Wiping Condensed Working Fluid
Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
An open loop heat pipe radiator comprises a radiator tube and a free-piston. The radiator tube has a first end, a second end, and a tube wall, and the tube wall has an inner surface and an outer surface. The free-piston is enclosed within the radiator tube and is capable of movement within the radiator tube between the first and second ends. The free-piston defines a first space between the free-piston, the first end, and the tube wall, and further defines a second space between the free-piston, the second end, and the tube wall. A gaseous-state working fluid, which was evaporated to remove waste heat, alternately enters the first and second spaces, and the free-piston wipes condensed working fluid from the inner surface of the tube wall as the free-piston alternately moves between the first and second ends. The condensed working fluid is then pumped back to the heat source.
Radiation losses and global energy balance for Ohmically heated discharges in ASDEX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, E.R.; Behringer, K.; Niedermeyer, H.
1982-01-01
Global energy balance, radiation profiles and dominant impurity radiation sources are compared for Ohmically heated limiter and divertor discharges in the ASDEX tokamak. In discharges with a poloidal stainless-steel limiter, total radiation from the plasma is the dominant energy loss channel. The axisymmetric divertor reduces this volume-integrated radiation to 30-35% of the heating power and additional Ti-gettering halves it again to 10-15%. Local radiation losses in the plasma centre, which are mainly due to the presence of iron impurity ions, are reduced by about one order of magnitude. In high-current (Isub(p) = 400 kA) and high-density (nsub(e)-bar = 6 x 10 13 cm -3 ) ungettered divertor discharges, up to 55% of the heating power is dumped into a cold-gas target inside the divertor chambers. The bolometrically detected volume power losses in the chambers can mainly be attributed to neutral hydrogen atoms with kinetic energies of a few eV. In this parameter range, the divertor plasma is dominated by inelastic molecular and atomic processes, the main process being Franck-Condon dissociation of H 2 molecules. (author)
Ocean heat content and Earth's radiation imbalance. II. Relation to climate shifts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douglass, D.H.; Knox, R.S.
2012-01-01
In an earlier study of ocean heat content (OHC) we showed that Earth's empirically implied radiation imbalance has undergone abrupt changes. Other studies have identified additional such climate shifts since 1950. The shifts can be correlated with features in recently updated OHC data. The implied radiation imbalance may possibly alternate in sign at dates close to the climate shifts. The most recent shifts occurred during 2001–2002 and 2008–2009. The implied radiation imbalance between these dates, in the direction of ocean heat loss, was −0.03±0.06 W/m 2 , with a possible systematic error of [−0.00,+0.09] W/m 2 . -- Highlights: ► Ocean heat content (OHC) slope discontinuities match similar Earth climate features. ► OHC slopes between climate shifts give most of the implied radiation balance (IRI). ► IRI often alternates in sign at dates close to the climate shifts. ► IRI between climate shifts of 2001–2002 and 2008–2009 was −0.03±0.06 W/m 2 . ► Geothermal flux is relevant to analyses of radiation imbalance.
Hybrid finite volume/ finite element method for radiative heat transfer in graded index media
Zhang, L.; Zhao, J. M.; Liu, L. H.; Wang, S. Y.
2012-09-01
The rays propagate along curved path determined by the Fermat principle in the graded index medium. The radiative transfer equation in graded index medium (GRTE) contains two specific redistribution terms (with partial derivatives to the angular coordinates) accounting for the effect of the curved ray path. In this paper, the hybrid finite volume with finite element method (hybrid FVM/FEM) (P.J. Coelho, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf., vol. 93, pp. 89-101, 2005) is extended to solve the radiative heat transfer in two-dimensional absorbing-emitting-scattering graded index media, in which the spatial discretization is carried out using a FVM, while the angular discretization is by a FEM. The FEM angular discretization is demonstrated to be preferable in dealing with the redistribution terms in the GRTE. Two stiff matrix assembly schemes of the angular FEM discretization, namely, the traditional assembly approach and a new spherical assembly approach (assembly on the unit sphere of the solid angular space), are discussed. The spherical assembly scheme is demonstrated to give better results than the traditional assembly approach. The predicted heat flux distributions and temperature distributions in radiative equilibrium are determined by the proposed method and compared with the results available in other references. The proposed hybrid FVM/FEM method can predict the radiative heat transfer in absorbing-emitting-scattering graded index medium with good accuracy.
Hybrid finite volume/ finite element method for radiative heat transfer in graded index media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, L.; Zhao, J.M.; Liu, L.H.; Wang, S.Y.
2012-01-01
The rays propagate along curved path determined by the Fermat principle in the graded index medium. The radiative transfer equation in graded index medium (GRTE) contains two specific redistribution terms (with partial derivatives to the angular coordinates) accounting for the effect of the curved ray path. In this paper, the hybrid finite volume with finite element method (hybrid FVM/FEM) (P.J. Coelho, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf., vol. 93, pp. 89-101, 2005) is extended to solve the radiative heat transfer in two-dimensional absorbing-emitting-scattering graded index media, in which the spatial discretization is carried out using a FVM, while the angular discretization is by a FEM. The FEM angular discretization is demonstrated to be preferable in dealing with the redistribution terms in the GRTE. Two stiff matrix assembly schemes of the angular FEM discretization, namely, the traditional assembly approach and a new spherical assembly approach (assembly on the unit sphere of the solid angular space), are discussed. The spherical assembly scheme is demonstrated to give better results than the traditional assembly approach. The predicted heat flux distributions and temperature distributions in radiative equilibrium are determined by the proposed method and compared with the results available in other references. The proposed hybrid FVM/FEM method can predict the radiative heat transfer in absorbing-emitting-scattering graded index medium with good accuracy.
Wang, Guang-Hai; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Da-Hai; Fan, Jin-Peng
2012-02-01
The infrared transmittance and emissivity of heat-insulating coatings pigmented with various structural particles were studied using Kubelka-Munk theory and Mie theory. The primary design purpose was to obtain the low transmittance and low emissivity coatings to reduce the heat transfer by thermal radiation for high-temperature applications. In the case of silica coating layers constituted with various structural titania particles (solid, hollow, and core-shell spherical), the dependence of transmittance and emissivity of the coating layer on the particle structure and the layer thickness was investigated and optimized. The results indicate that the coating pigmented with core-shell titania particles exhibits a lower infrared transmittance and a lower emissivity value than that with other structural particles and is suitable to radiative heat-insulating applications.
Heat enhancement of radiation resistivity of evaporated CsI, KI and KBr photocathodes
Tremsin, A S
2000-01-01
The photoemissive stability of as-deposited and heat-treated CsI, KI and KBr evaporated thin films under UV radiation is examined in this paper. After the deposition, some photocathodes were annealed for several hours at 90 deg. C in vacuum and their performance was then compared to the performance of non-heated samples. We observed that the post-evaporation thermal treatment not only increases the photoyield of CsI and KI photocathodes in the spectral range of 115-190 nm, but also reduces CsI, KI and KBr photocurrent degradation that occurs after UV irradiation. KBr evaporated layers appeared to be more radiation-resistant than CsI and KI layers. Post-deposition heat treatment did not result in any significant variation of KBr UV sensitivity.
Effect of radiation on the laminar convective heat transfer through a layer of highly porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, K.; Howell, J.R.
1986-01-01
A numerical investigation is reported of the coupled forced convective and radiative transfer through a highly porous medium. The porosity range investigated is high enough that the fluid inertia terms in the momentum equation cannot be neglected; i.e., the simple form of Darcy's law is invalid. The geometry studied is a plane layer of highly porous medium resting on one impermeable boundary and exposed to a two-dimensional laminar external flow field. The objective is to determine the effective overall heat transfer coefficients for such a geometry. The results are applicable to diverse situations, including insulation batts exposed to external flow, the heat loss and drying rates of grain fields and forest areas, and the drying of beds of porous material exposed to convective and radiative heating
Nonlinear radiative heat transfer to stagnation-point flow of Sisko fluid past a stretching cylinder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masood Khan
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, we endeavor to perform a numerical analysis in connection with the nonlinear radiative stagnation-point flow and heat transfer to Sisko fluid past a stretching cylinder in the presence of convective boundary conditions. The influence of thermal radiation using nonlinear Rosseland approximation is explored. The numerical solutions of transformed governing equations are calculated through forth order Runge-Kutta method using shooting technique. With the help of graphs and tables, the influence of non-dimensional parameters on velocity and temperature along with the local skin friction and Nusselt number is discussed. The results reveal that the temperature increases however, heat transfer from the surface of cylinder decreases with the increasing values of thermal radiation and temperature ratio parameters. Moreover, the authenticity of numerical solutions is validated by finding their good agreement with the HAM solutions.
Nonlinear radiative heat transfer to stagnation-point flow of Sisko fluid past a stretching cylinder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, Masood [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Malik, Rabia, E-mail: rabiamalik.qau@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, International Islamic University Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hussain, M. [Department of Sciences and Humanities, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)
2016-05-15
In the present paper, we endeavor to perform a numerical analysis in connection with the nonlinear radiative stagnation-point flow and heat transfer to Sisko fluid past a stretching cylinder in the presence of convective boundary conditions. The influence of thermal radiation using nonlinear Rosseland approximation is explored. The numerical solutions of transformed governing equations are calculated through forth order Runge-Kutta method using shooting technique. With the help of graphs and tables, the influence of non-dimensional parameters on velocity and temperature along with the local skin friction and Nusselt number is discussed. The results reveal that the temperature increases however, heat transfer from the surface of cylinder decreases with the increasing values of thermal radiation and temperature ratio parameters. Moreover, the authenticity of numerical solutions is validated by finding their good agreement with the HAM solutions.
Comprehensive analysis of heat transfer of gold-blood nanofluid (Sisko-model) with thermal radiation
Eid, Mohamed R.; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Muhammad, Taseer; Hayat, Tasawar
Characteristics of heat transfer of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) in flow past a power-law stretching surface are discussed. Sisko bio-nanofluid flow (with blood as a base fluid) in existence of non-linear thermal radiation is studied. The resulting equations system is abbreviated to model the suggested problem in non-linear PDEs. Along with initial and boundary-conditions, the equations are made non-dimensional and then resolved numerically utilizing 4th-5th order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg (RKF45) technique with shooting integration procedure. Various flow quantities behaviors are examined for parametric consideration such as the Au-NPs volume fraction, the exponentially stretching and thermal radiation parameters. It is observed that radiation drives to shortage the thermal boundary-layer thickness and therefore resulted in better heat transfer at surface.
Verification of radiation heat transfer analysis in KSTAR PFC and vacuum vessel during baking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoo, S.Y. [Chungnam National University, 79 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34167 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.J., E-mail: k43689@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.T.; Jung, N.Y.; Im, D.S.; Gong, J.D.; Lee, J.M.; Park, K.R.; Oh, Y.K. [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-11-01
Highlights: • Thermal network is used to analyze heat transfer from PFC to VV. • Three heat transfer rate equations are derived based on the thermal network. • The equations is verified using Experimental data and design documents. • Most of the heat lost in tokamak is transferred to experimental room air. • The heat loss to the air is 101 kW of the total heat loss of 154 kW in tokamak. - Abstract: KSTAR PFC (Plasma Facing Component) and VV (Vacuum Vessel) were not arrived at the target temperatures in bake-out phase, which are 300 °C and 110 °C, respectively. The purpose of this study is to find out the reason why they have not been reached the target temperature. A thermal network analysis is used to investigate the radiation heat transfer from PFC to VV, and the thermal network is drawn up based on the actual KSTAR tokamak. The analysis model consists of three equations, and is solved using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver). The heat transfer rates obtained with the analysis model is verified using the experimental data at the KSTAR bake-out phase. The analyzed radiation heat transfer rates from PFC to VV agree quite well with those of experiment throughout the bake-out phase. Heat loss from PFC to experimental room air via flange of VV is also calculated and compared, which is found be the main reason of temperature gap between the target temperature and actually attained temperature of KSTAR PFC.
Verification of radiation heat transfer analysis in KSTAR PFC and vacuum vessel during baking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, S.Y.; Kim, Y.J.; Kim, S.T.; Jung, N.Y.; Im, D.S.; Gong, J.D.; Lee, J.M.; Park, K.R.; Oh, Y.K.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Thermal network is used to analyze heat transfer from PFC to VV. • Three heat transfer rate equations are derived based on the thermal network. • The equations is verified using Experimental data and design documents. • Most of the heat lost in tokamak is transferred to experimental room air. • The heat loss to the air is 101 kW of the total heat loss of 154 kW in tokamak. - Abstract: KSTAR PFC (Plasma Facing Component) and VV (Vacuum Vessel) were not arrived at the target temperatures in bake-out phase, which are 300 °C and 110 °C, respectively. The purpose of this study is to find out the reason why they have not been reached the target temperature. A thermal network analysis is used to investigate the radiation heat transfer from PFC to VV, and the thermal network is drawn up based on the actual KSTAR tokamak. The analysis model consists of three equations, and is solved using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver). The heat transfer rates obtained with the analysis model is verified using the experimental data at the KSTAR bake-out phase. The analyzed radiation heat transfer rates from PFC to VV agree quite well with those of experiment throughout the bake-out phase. Heat loss from PFC to experimental room air via flange of VV is also calculated and compared, which is found be the main reason of temperature gap between the target temperature and actually attained temperature of KSTAR PFC.
Robust non-local effects of ocean heat uptake on radiative feedback and subtropical cloud cover
Rose, B. E. J.
2016-02-01
Much recent work has pointed to the limitations of the global mean planetary energy budget as a useful diagnostic tool for understanding transient climate response, because the climate sensitivity (or radiative feedback) governing the relationships between ocean heat content, surface temperature and top-of-atmosphere energy imbalance depends sensitively on timescale, spatial pattern and nature of the climate forcing. Progress has been made by treating the slowly-evolving (and spatially complex) pattern of ocean heat uptake as a quasi-equilibrium forcing on the "fast" components of the climate system: the atmospheric radiative-dynamical processes that link air-sea heat exchange to the top-of-atmosphere energy budget. Differences between these feedbacks and those on CO2 radiative forcing can be expressed as an "efficacy" of ocean heat uptake. We use idealized slab ocean GCMs forced by prescribed steady energy sinks limited to specific latitude bands (representing heat exchange with the deep ocean) to quantify how (and why) the efficacy depends on the spatial pattern of ocean heat uptake. By repeating the experiment across several independent GCMs we identify robust and non-robust aspects of the response. We find that the efficacy of sub-polar heat uptake is 3 to 4 times larger than the efficacy of tropical heat uptake. Radiative kernel analysis allows an accurate partition into feedbacks due to temperature, water vapor and clouds. We find large and robust differences in clear-sky lapse rate feedbacks, associated with robust differences in large-scale atmospheric circulation and stratification driven by ocean heat uptake. A more novel and surprising result is the robustness across several independent GCMs of the differences in subtropical low cloud feedback (positive under high-latitude uptake, strongly negative under tropical uptake). We trace these robust differences to thermodynamic constraints associated with lower-tropospheric stability and boundary layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhanja, Dipankar; Kundu, Balaram; Aziz, Abdul
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Analytical model for thermal analysis of moving porous fins. • Heat transfer from the fin surface due to convection and radiation. • For practical design aspects, optimization analysis was carried out. • Comparative study was made between the solid and porous moving fins. • Porous moving fin has more heat transfer ability than the stationary fin. - Abstract: In the present article, an exercise has been devoted to establish an analytical model for the determination of temperature distribution, fin efficiency and optimum design parameters of a porous moving fin which is losing heat by simultaneous convection and radiation to its surroundings. For the adaptation of this consideration, the governing equation becomes highly nonlinear. An analytical technique called Adomian decomposition method (ADM) is proposed for the solution methodology. The accuracy of the analytic solution is validated by using a numeric scheme called finite difference method. The results indicate that the numerical data and analytical approach are in agreement with each other. As the present study is an analytic, it is extended to the analysis for determination of optimum dimensions of said fin by satisfying either the maximization of rate of heat transfer for a given fin volume or by the minimization of fin volume for a desired heat transfer rate. The study is further extended to the porous fin in stationary condition and it is found that porous fin in moving condition transfers more heat than stationary condition. Investigation has also been made on solid moving fin to compare the outcomes of these parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irvan Paramananda
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Pengeringan yang dilakukan pada batu bara dengan memanfaatkan udara panas menggunakan konsep heat exchanger. Salah satu heat exchanger yang sering digunakan adalah heat exchanger dengan tipe single row-fin tube yaitu radiator. Radiator ini akan dimanfaatkan sebagai penghasil udara panas dari air panas yang mengalir dan dihembuskan oleh kipas radiator. Penelitian ini difokuskan pada effectiveness dari komponen radiator fungsi dari kecepatan udara mulai dari kecepatan 1 m/s, 2 m/s, 3 m/s, 4 m/s dan 5 m/s dan fungsi jumlah radiator yang digunakan. Prinsip dari radiator yang digunakan adalah mengalirkan fluida panas berupa air ke dalam tube-tube radiator kemudian didinginkan oleh udara yang dihembuskan oleh fan yang melewati fin sehingga air yang keluar dari tube menjadi dingin dan udara yang melewati fin menjadi panas. Hasil yang didapatkan dari eksperimen ini diantaranya kecepatan udara yang optimal terhadap proses pengeringan batu bara yang dipakai pada alat pengering batu bara adalah sebesar 5 m/s dengan menggunakan 2 radiator. qhot untuk penggunaan 2 radiator dengan kecepatan udara sebesar 5 m/s adalah 30121.17 Watt. Effectiveness pada penggunaan 2 radiator dengan kecepatan udara sebesar 5 m/s adalah 0.65. Efisiensi fin yang terjadi pada kecepatan udara 5 m/s dengan menggunakan 2 radiator sebesar 0.93
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atouei, S.A.; Hosseinzadeh, Kh.; Hatami, M.; Ghasemi, Seiyed E.; Sahebi, S.A.R.; Ganji, D.D.
2015-01-01
In this study, heat transfer and temperature distribution equations for semi-spherical convective–radiative porous fins are presented. Temperature-dependent heat generation, convection and radiation effects are considered and after deriving the governing equation, Least Square Method (LSM), Collocation Method (CM) and fourth order Runge-Kutta method (NUM) are applied for predicting the temperature distribution in the described fins. Results reveal that LSM has excellent agreement with numerical method, so can be suitable analytical method for solving the problem. Also, the effect of some physical parameters which are appeared in the mathematical formulation on fin surface temperature is investigated to show the effect of radiation and heat generation in a solid fin temperature. - Highlights: • Thermal analysis of a semi-spherical fin is investigated. • Collocation and Least Square Methods are applied on the problem. • Convection, radiation and heat generation is considered. • Physical results are compared to numerical outcomes.
Temperature-independent resistor for microelectronic circuits
Aegerter, S.; Libby, W. F.
1970-01-01
Heat treating insulating crystals in gaseous hydrogen atmosphere produce resistive device which is temperature-independent from 77 to 295 degrees K. Increasing the concentration of hydrogen within the crystal yields semiconductor, hybrid, and metallic conduction characteristics which are combined with a depletion layer at the surface.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eremin, V.A.; Marej, A.N.; Nechiporenko, N.I.; Rasskazov, A.P.; Sayapin, N.P.; Soldatov, G.E.; Shcherbinin, A.S.
1983-01-01
The experience in using an atomic power plant for heat and hot water supply of the village of Bilibino is outlined. Particular attention is given to the population radiation safety. It has been demonstrated that radiation safety of the system is ensured by maintaining fixed pressure levels in the heating media and by the hermetic state of heat exchanges. Water in the heat and hot water supply network meets the requirements for drinking water. Radioactive corrosion products were not detected in the test water. Gamma-radiation dose rate from the surface of heating devices and pipe-lines in the test premises did not exceed the natural background, that is, U.U1-0.025 mrad
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sohn, Chae Hoon
2007-01-01
Extinction characteristics of hydrogen-air diffusion flames are investigated numerically by adopting counterflow flame configuration. At various pressures, effect of radiative heat loss on flame extinction is examined. Only gas-phase radiation is considered here. Radiative heat loss depends on flame thickness, temperature, H 2 O concentration, and pressure. From flame structures at various pressures, flame thickness decreases with pressure, but its gradient decreases at high pressure. Flame temperature and mole fraction of H 2 O increase slightly with pressure. Accordingly, as pressure increases, radiative heat loss becomes dominant. When radiative heat loss is considered, radiation-induced extinction is observed at low strain rate in addition to transport-induced extinction. As pressure increases, flammable region shifts to the high-temperature region and then, shrunk to the point on the coordinate plane of flame temperature and strain rate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Qiuhuan; Zhu, Jialing; Lu, Xinli
2017-01-01
Graphical abstract: A 3-D numerical model integrated with a discrete ordinate (DO) solar radiation model (considering solar radiation effect in the room of solar collector) was developed to investigate the influence of solar radiation intensity and ambient pressure on the efficiency and thermal characteristics of the SENDDCT. Our study shows that introducing such a radiation model can more accurately simulate the heat transfer process in the SENDDCT. Calculation results indicate that previous simulations overestimated solar energy obtained by the solar collector and underestimated the heat loss. The cooling performance is improved when the solar radiation intensity or ambient pressure is high. Air temperature and velocity increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. But ambient pressure has inverse effects on the changes of air temperature and velocity. Under a condition that the solar load increases but the ambient pressure decreases, the increased rate of heat transferred in the heat exchanger is not obvious. Thus the performance of the SENDDCT not only depends on the solar radiation intensity but also depends on the ambient pressure. - Highlights: • A radiation model has been introduced to accurately simulate heat transfer process. • Heat transfer rate would be overestimated if the radiation model was not introduced. • The heat transfer rate is approximately proportional to solar radiation intensity. • The higher the solar radiation or ambient pressure, the better SENDDCT performance. - Abstract: Solar enhanced natural draft dry cooling tower (SENDDCT) is more efficient than natural draft dry cooling tower by utilizing solar radiation in arid region. A three-dimensional numerical model considering solar radiation effect was developed to investigate the influence of solar radiation intensity and ambient pressure on the efficiency and thermal characteristics of SENDDCT. The numerical simulation outcomes reveal that a model with consideration of
Combination Treatment of Spores of Cl. Botulinum with Heat plus Radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grecz, N.; Upadhyay, J.; Tang, T. C.; Lin, C. A. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)
1967-11-15
Radiation resistance of spores of Cl. botulinum is strongly affected by the temperature during irradiation. Very low radiation resistance was consistently observed at 0 Degree-Sign C when samples were in the liquid state. Below 0 Degree-Sign C, the resistance of spores increased because the solidly frozen medium presumably decreased the diffusion of free radicals. As temperature increased above 0 Degree-Sign C processes of radiation protection occurred. When spores were subjected to low levels of radiation (0.6-0.8 Mrad) the heat resistance of the surviving spores was very remarkedly decreased. Experiments were designed to study what kind of radiation damage, i.e. direct hit or indirect action, is responsible for the loss of heat resistance of spores. Indirect effects were reduced by freezing the medium and lowering the temperature during irradiation down to -196 Degree-Sign C. Spores of Cl. botulinum 33A in phosphate buffer were irradiated to 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 Mrad at irradiation temperatures ranging from +25 to -196 Degree-Sign C and subsequently heated at 99 Degree-Sign C. Survival curves revealed that all spores irradiated at +25 and 0 Degree-Sign C were highly sensitive to heat with D{sub 10} = 5.5 min (after 0.6 Mrad), D{sub 10} = 3.0 min (after 0.8 Mrad) and D{sub 10} = 2.3 min (after 1.0 Mrad). For nonTirradiated controls D10 was 23 min. Pre-irradiation at -25 through -196 Degree-Sign C resulted in a much smaller loss of heat resistance with D{sub 10} clustering around 17.4 min (after 0.6 Mrad), 13. 5 min (after 0.8 Mrad) and 11.5 min (after 1.0 Mrad). Loss of heat resistance after pre-irradiation at +25 and 0 Degree-Sign C was highly influenced by the liquid state of suspending medium whereas at -25 through -196 Degree-Sign C it depended primarily on radiation dose. The mechanism of heat sensitization of spores seems to be related primarily to migrating active free radicals at +25 and 0 Degree-Sign C and to random splitting of molecular bonds at -25 to -196
Modern Microelectronics as Hardware Face of Information Technologies
Jozwiak, L.; Luba, T.; Zbierzchowski, B.
2000-01-01
Development trends of contemporary microelectronics, as well as its influence on development of widely grasped information systems are discussed. It was proved, that about this development decide not only quantitative, but also qualitative reasons, such as technology of manufacturing and technology
Micro-electronics and employment in the Japanese automobile industry.
Watanabe, S
1984-01-01
ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the employment effects of microelectronics technological change and industrial robots in the motor vehicle industry in Japan - examines industrial processes, labour productivity, job requirements of automobile workers, effects on the subcontracting system and small scale industry, diffusion patterns and prospects, etc. Bibliography, references and statistical tables.
Microelectronics materials characterization studies at the Cornell TRIGA Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGuire, Stephen C.
1992-01-01
The Cornell program of microelectronics materials characterization by neutron activation analysis (NAA) is described. Experimental details and results from the successful application of NAA to silicon germanium circuit structures and nickel silicide layers are presented. In doing so, the potential for using X rays from isotopes that decay by electron capture is demonstrated. (author)
Khan, M.; Irfan, M.; Khan, W. A.
2018-06-01
Nanofluids retain noteworthy structure that have absorbed attentions of numerous investigators because of their exploration in nanotechnology and nanoscience. In this scrutiny a mathematical computation of 2D flows of Maxwell nanoliquid influenced by a stretched cylinder has been established. The heat transfer structure is conceded out in the manifestation of thermal radiation and heat source/sink. Moreover, the nanoparticles mass flux condition is engaged in this exploration. This newly endorsed tactic is more realistic where the conjecture is made that the nanoparticle flux is zero and nanoparticle fraction regulates itself on the restrictions consequently. By utilizing apposite conversion the governing PDEs are transformed into ODEs and then tackled analytically via HAM. The attained outcomes are plotted and deliberated in aspect for somatic parameters. It is remarked that with an intensification in the Deborah number β diminish the liquid temperature while it boosts for radiation parameter Rd . Furthermore, the concentration of Maxwell liquid has conflicting impact for Brownian motion Nb and thermophoresis parameters Nt .
Radiation heat transfer model in a spent fuel pool by TRACE code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez-Saez, F.; Carlos, S.; Villanueva, J.F.; Martorell, S.
2014-01-01
Nuclear policies have experienced an important change since Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant accident and the safety of spent fuels has been in the spot issue among all the safety concerns. The work presented consists of the thermohydraulic simulation of spent fuel pool behavior after a loss of coolant throughout transfer channel with loss of cooling transient is produced. The simulation is done with the TRACE code. One of the most important variables that define the behavior of the pool is cladding temperature, which evolution depends on the heat emission. In this work convection and radiation heat transfer is considered. When both heat transfer models are considered, a clear delay in achieving the maximum peak cladding temperature (1477 K) is observed compared with the simulation in which only convection heat transfer is considered. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Echigo, R.; Hasegawa, S.; Kamiuto, K.
1975-01-01
An analytical procedure is presented for simultaneous convective and radiative heat transfer with a fully developed laminar flow in a pipe by taking account of the two-dimensional propagation of radiative transfer and also shows the numerical results on the temperature profiles and the heat-transfer characteristics. In order to solve the energy equation with two-dimensional radiative transfer the entire ranges of the temperature field have to be solved simultaneously both along the radial and flow directions. Moreover, the heat flux by thermal radiation emitted from the heating wall propagates upstream so that it is necessary to examine the temperature profiles of the flowing medium to a certain distance upstream from the entrance of the heating section. In this way in order to attempt to solve the governing equation numerically by a finite difference method the dimension of matrix becomes extremely large provided that a satisfactory validity of numerical calculation is required Consequently the band matrix method is used and the temperature profiles of the medium in both regions upstream and downstream from the entrance of the heating section are illustrated and the heat transfer results are discussed in some detail by comparing with those of the one-dimensional transfer of radiation.(auth)
Study of radiation heating (part 1). UR spectroscopic characteristics of radiant heat source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagaoka, Yoshikazu; Ajisaka, Kazuhiro; Toyonaga, Hajime; Kitahata, Hiroki; Oshida, Shun' ichi; Sugihara, Tomonori
1987-09-01
There are many IR permeable substances. When this is heated with IR beam, UR beam penetrated into the substance and heat up the substance from the inside. In this case, the inside gets hot quicker than the surface which gives much difference in the finish of the product. Characteristics of permeation and absorption of the IR beam vary by the type of the substance and the wave-length of the UR beam. Examples of effectiveness of far infra-red heater are: Baking of rice cake. Baking of PVC granules as a slip-stop for a working gloves. Far infra-red sauna (sweating effect around 50/sup 0/C). Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. and other companies introduced an IR spectroscopic radiometer of Minarad Systems of USA to establish a data exchange system in 1984. The spectroscopic radio-meter system consists of 3 components, i.e., a spectrophotometric radiometer, a black body furnace, and a computer for data processing. (14 figs, 5 tabs)
The role of a convective surface in models of the radiative heat transfer in nanofluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rahman, M.M., E-mail: mansurdu@yahoo.com; Al-Mazroui, W.A.; Al-Hatmi, F.S.; Al-Lawatia, M.A.; Eltayeb, I.A.
2014-08-15
Highlights: • The role of a convective surface in modelling with nanofluids is investigated over a wedge. • Surface convection significantly controls the rate of heat transfer in nanofluid. • Increased volume fraction of nanoparticles to the base-fluid may not always increase the rate of heat transfer. • Effect of nanoparticles solid volume fraction depends on the types of constitutive materials. • Higher heat transfer in nanofluids is found in a moving wedge rather than in a static wedge. - Abstract: Nanotechnology becomes the core of the 21st century. Nanofluids are important class of fluids which help advancing nanotechnology in various ways. Convection in nanofluids plays a key role in enhancing the rate of heat transfer either for heating or cooling nanodevices. In this paper, we investigate theoretically the role of a convective surface on the heat transfer characteristics of water-based nanofluids over a static or moving wedge in the presence of thermal radiation. Three different types of nanoparticles, namely copper Cu, alumina Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and titanium dioxide TiO{sub 2} are considered in preparation of nanofluids. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are made dimensionless with the similarity transformations. Numerical simulations are carried out through the very robust computer algebra software MAPLE 13 to investigate the effects of various pertinent parameters on the flow field. The obtained results presented graphically as well as in tabular form and discussed from physical and engineering points of view. The results show that the rate of heat transfer in a nanofluid in the presence of thermal radiation significantly depends on the surface convection parameter. If the hot fluid side surface convection resistance is lower than the cold fluid side surface convection resistance, then increased volume fraction of the nanoparticles to the base fluid may reduces the heat transfer rate rather than increases from the surface of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsien, T.-L.; Wong, K.-L.; Yu, S.-J.
2009-01-01
The non-insulated and insulated ducts are commonly applied in the industries and various buildings, because the heat radiation equation contains the 4th order exponential of temperature which is very complicate in calculations. Most heat transfer experts recognized from their own experiences that the heat radiation effect can be ignored due to the small temperature difference between insulated and non-insulated surface and surroundings. This paper studies in detail to check the inaccuracies of heat transfer characteristics non-insulated and insulated duct by comparing the results between considering and neglecting heat radiation effect. It is found that neglecting the heat radiation effect is likely to produce large errors of non-insulated and thin-insulated ducts in situations of ambient air with low external convection heat coefficients and larger surface emissivity, especially while the ambient air temperature is different from that of surroundings and greater internal fluid convection coefficients. It is also found in this paper that using greater duct surface emissivity can greatly improve the heat exchanger effect and using smaller insulated surface emissivity can obtain better insulation.
CREME96: A revision of the Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tylka, A.J.; Adams, J.H. Jr.; Boberg, P.R.
1997-01-01
CREME96 is an update of the Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics code, a widely-used suite of programs for creating numerical models of the ionizing-radiation environment in near-Earth orbits and for evaluating radiation effects in spacecraft. CREME96, which is now available over the World-Wide Web (WWW) at http://crsp3.nrl.navy.mil/creme96/, has many significant features, including (1) improved models of the galactic cosmic ray, anomalous cosmic ray, and solar energetic particle (flare) components of the near-Earth environment; (2) improved geomagnetic transmission calculations; (3) improved nuclear transport routines; (4) improved single-event upset (SEU) calculation techniques, for both proton-induced and direct-ionization-induced SEUs; and (5) an easy-to-use graphical interface, with extensive on-line tutorial information. In this paper the authors document some of these improvements
Effects of radiative heat transfer on the turbulence structure in inert and reacting mixing layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Somnath; Friedrich, Rainer
2015-01-01
We use large-eddy simulation to study the interaction between turbulence and radiative heat transfer in low-speed inert and reacting plane temporal mixing layers. An explicit filtering scheme based on approximate deconvolution is applied to treat the closure problem arising from quadratic nonlinearities of the filtered transport equations. In the reacting case, the working fluid is a mixture of ideal gases where the low-speed stream consists of hydrogen and nitrogen and the high-speed stream consists of oxygen and nitrogen. Both streams are premixed in a way that the free-stream densities are the same and the stoichiometric mixture fraction is 0.3. The filtered heat release term is modelled using equilibrium chemistry. In the inert case, the low-speed stream consists of nitrogen at a temperature of 1000 K and the highspeed stream is pure water vapour of 2000 K, when radiation is turned off. Simulations assuming the gas mixtures as gray gases with artificially increased Planck mean absorption coefficients are performed in which the large-eddy simulation code and the radiation code PRISSMA are fully coupled. In both cases, radiative heat transfer is found to clearly affect fluctuations of thermodynamic variables, Reynolds stresses, and Reynolds stress budget terms like pressure-strain correlations. Source terms in the transport equation for the variance of temperature are used to explain the decrease of this variance in the reacting case and its increase in the inert case
The Potential of Heat Collection from Solar Radiation in Asphalt Solar Collectors in Malaysia
Beddu, Salmia; Talib, Siti Hidayah Abdul; Itam, Zarina
2016-03-01
The implementation of asphalt solar collectors as a means of an energy source is being widely studied in recent years. Asphalt pavements are exposed to daily solar radiation, and are capable of reaching up to 70°C in temperature. The potential of harvesting energy from solar pavements as an alternative energy source in replace of non-renewable energy sources prone to depletion such as fuel is promising. In Malaysia, the sun intensity is quite high and for this reason, absorbing the heat from sun radiation, and then utilizing it in many other applications such as generating electricity could definitely be impressive. Previous researches on the different methods of studying the effect of heat absorption caused by solar radiation prove to be quite old and inaffective. More recent findings, on the otherhand, prove to be more informative. This paper focuses on determining the potential of heat collection from solar radiation in asphalt solar collectors using steel piping. The asphalt solar collector model constructed for this research was prepared in the civil engineering laboratory. The hot mixed asphalt (HMA) contains 10% bitumen mixed with 90% aggregates of the total size of asphalt. Three stainless steel pipes were embedded into the interior region of the model according to the design criteria, and then put to test. Results show that harvesting energy from asphalt solar collectors proves highly potential in Malaysia due its the hot climate.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, S.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Moon, Y.-J., E-mail: sanjaykumar@khu.ac.kr [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 446-701, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)
2016-06-10
Standing long-period (with periods longer than several minutes) oscillations in large, hot (with a temperature higher than 3 MK) coronal loops have been observed as the quasi-periodic modulation of the EUV and microwave intensity emission and the Doppler shift of coronal emission lines, and they have been interpreted as standing slow magnetoacoustic (longitudinal) oscillations. Quasi-periodic pulsations of shorter periods, detected in thermal and non-thermal emissions in solar flares could be produced by a similar mechanism. We present theoretical modeling of the standing slow magnetoacoustic mode, showing that this mode of oscillation is highly sensitive to peculiarities of the radiative cooling and heating function. We generalized the theoretical model of standing slow magnetoacoustic oscillations in a hot plasma, including the effects of the radiative losses and accounting for plasma heating. The heating mechanism is not specified and taken empirically to compensate the cooling by radiation and thermal conduction. It is shown that the evolution of the oscillations is described by a generalized Burgers equation. The numerical solution of an initial value problem for the evolutionary equation demonstrates that different dependences of the radiative cooling and plasma heating on the temperature lead to different regimes of the oscillations, including growing, quasi-stationary, and rapidly decaying. Our findings provide a theoretical foundation for probing the coronal heating function and may explain the observations of decayless long-period, quasi-periodic pulsations in flares. The hydrodynamic approach employed in this study should be considered with caution in the modeling of non-thermal emission associated with flares, because it misses potentially important non-hydrodynamic effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaabane, Raoudha; Askri, Faouzi; Ben Nasrallah, Sassi
2011-01-01
In this paper, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is applied to solve the energy equation of a transient conduction-radiation heat transfer problem in a two-dimensional cylindrical enclosure filled with an emitting, absorbing and scattering media. The control volume finite element method (CVFEM) is used to obtain the radiative information. To demonstrate the workability of the LBM in conjunction with the CVFEM to conduction-radiation problems in cylindrical media, the energy equation of the same problem is also solved using the finite difference method (FDM). The effects of different parameters, such as the grid size, the scattering albedo, the extinction coefficient and the conduction-radiation parameter on temperature distribution within the medium are studied. Results of the present work are compared with those available in the literature. LBM-CVFEM results are also compared with those given by the FDM-CVFEM. In all cases, good agreement has been obtained.
Numbers game : using aluminum helps Global Heat Transfer develop new frac radiators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marsters, S.
2009-11-15
Aluminum is thought to be a beneficial new option for the construction of frac radiators. This article discussed how aluminum has been used to help Global Heat Transfer Ltd. (GHT) develop new frac radiators. The company developed the Jumbotron, an all-aluminum frac radiator that achieved 3,000 horsepower, but with less weight than a typical 2,250 horsepower package. The article provided information on Jumbotron, including how it was conceptualized, its features, applications, and other details. Background information on GHT was also presented. GHT focuses on the oil and gas and mining sectors and has over 500 employees worldwide in 15 locations. The aluminum parts for the Jumbotron frac radiator are produced at one of GHT's China facilities and brought to Canada for final assembly. 1 fig.
Finite element method for radiation heat transfer in multi-dimensional graded index medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, L.H.; Zhang, L.; Tan, H.P.
2006-01-01
In graded index medium, ray goes along a curved path determined by Fermat principle, and curved ray-tracing is very difficult and complex. To avoid the complicated and time-consuming computation of curved ray trajectories, a finite element method based on discrete ordinate equation is developed to solve the radiative transfer problem in a multi-dimensional semitransparent graded index medium. Two particular test problems of radiative transfer are taken as examples to verify this finite element method. The predicted dimensionless net radiative heat fluxes are determined by the proposed method and compared with the results obtained by finite volume method. The results show that the finite element method presented in this paper has a good accuracy in solving the multi-dimensional radiative transfer problem in semitransparent graded index medium
Salamon, V.; Senthil kumar, D.; Thirumalini, S.
2017-08-01
The use of nanoparticle dispersed coolants in automobile radiators improves the heat transfer rate and facilitates overall reduction in size of the radiators. In this study, the heat transfer characteristics of water/propylene glycol based TiO2 nanofluid was analyzed experimentally and compared with pure water and water/propylene glycol mixture. Two different concentrations of nanofluids were prepared by adding 0.1 vol. % and 0.3 vol. % of TiO2 nanoparticles into water/propylene glycol mixture (70:30). The experiments were conducted by varying the coolant flow rate between 3 to 6 lit/min for various coolant temperatures (50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C) to understand the effect of coolant flow rate on heat transfer. The results showed that the Nusselt number of the nanofluid coolant increases with increase in flow rate. At low inlet coolant temperature the water/propylene glycol mixture showed higher heat transfer rate when compared with nanofluid coolant. However at higher operating temperature and higher coolant flow rate, 0.3 vol. % of TiO2 nanofluid enhances the heat transfer rate by 8.5% when compared to base fluids.
Development and adaptation of conduction and radiation heat-transfer computer codes for the CFTL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conklin, J.C.
1981-08-01
RODCON and HOTTEL are two computational methods used to calculate thermal and radiation heat transfer for the Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL) analysis efforts. RODCON was developed at ORNL to calculate the internal temperature distribution of the fuel rod simulator (FRS) for the CFTL. RODCON solves the time-dependent heat transfer equation in two-dimensional (R angle) cylindrical coordinates at an axial plane with user-specified radial material zones and time- and position-variant surface conditions at the FRS periphery. Symmetry of the FRS periphery boundary conditions is not necessary. The governing elliptic, partial differential heat equation is cast into a fully implicit, finite-difference form by approximating the derivatives with a forward-differencing scheme with variable mesh spacing. The heat conduction path is circumferentially complete, and the potential mathematical problem at the rod center can be effectively ignored. HOTTEL is a revision of an algorithm developed by C.B. Baxi at the General Atomic Company (GAC) to be used in calculating radiation heat transfer in a rod bundle enclosed in a hexagonal duct. HOTTEL uses geometric view factors, surface emissivities, and surface areas to calculate the gray-body or composite view factors in an enclosure having multiple reflections in a nonparticipating medium
PN solutions of radiative heat transfer in a slab with reflective boundaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atalay, M.A.
2006-01-01
The spherical harmonics method is used to obtain solution for the radiative heat transfer equation for a slab with reflective boundaries. An absorbing, emitting, non-isothermal, gray medium is considered with linearly anisotropic scattering. Under the condition of the thermal equilibrium, the slab boundaries are subjected to specular and diffuse reflection. The analytical form of solutions is obtained for both conservative and non-conservative cases. The accuracy of the method was verified by benchmark comparisons against the solutions of an earlier work performed by the normal-mode expansion technique. The present predictions of heat flux were found to be in good agreement with the benchmark data. a
Effects of gamma radiation and heat on immunogenicity and morphology of Salmonella typhimurium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos Araujo, E. dos; Silva, D.M.
1979-01-01
Results are presented about immunogenicity of vaccines prepared from Salmonella typhimurium suspensions submitted to 0,55 MR and 1,10 MR of gamma radiation and heating at 60 0 C, (60 min) and at 100 0 C, (3 min) correlated with the cell morphology alterations observed at electron microscopy. The results of mouse-protection tests showed that prepared vaccines with 0,55 MR and with heating at 60 0 C, 60 min were identical and more efficient than the two other treatments. The electronmicrografies also showed one positive correlation between morphological alterations caused by the treatments and the immunogenicities. (Author) [pt
Combined effect of heat sterilization and ionizing radiation on folacin in canned food
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hozova, B.; Sorman, L.
1986-01-01
The results are reported of a study in folacin changes following heat sterilization at reduced intensity combined with irradiation of model food products, such as pickled cauliflower and beef in gravy. The folacin content in cauliflower was found to vary with the intensity of heat sterilization; no significant effect was observed of varying radiation doses. With respect to beef in gravy, the study confirmed the suitability of the combined preservation process in view of the higher folacin retention in the given food type. (author). 3 tabs., 14 refs
Processing summary report: Fabrication of cesium and strontium heat and radiation sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holton, L.K. Jr.; Surma, J.E.; Allen, R.P.
1989-02-01
The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), has produced 30 isotopic heat sources (canisters) for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) to be used as part of a repository testing program in the Asse Salt Mine. PNL program work involved the filling, closure, and decontamination of the 30 canisters. The canisters were fabricated (filled) in three separate processing campaigns using the radioactive liquid-fed ceramic melter to produce a borosilicate glass. Within the borosilicate glass matrix radiochemical constituents ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) were immobilized to yield a product with a predetermined decay heat and surface radiation exposure rate
Optimization of the Mu2e Production Solenoid Heat and Radiation Shield
Pronskikh, V. S.; Coleman, R.; Glenzinski, D.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Mokhov, N. V.
2014-03-01
The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab is designed to study the conversion of a negative muon to electron in the field of a nucleus without emission of neutrinos. Observation of this process would provide unambiguous evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model, and can point to new physics beyond the reach of the LHC. The main parts of the Mu2e apparatus are its superconducting solenoids: Production Solenoid (PS), Transport Solenoid (TS), and Detector Solenoid (DS). Being in the vicinity of the beam, PS magnets are most subjected to the radiation damage. In order for the PS superconducting magnet to operate reliably, the peak neutron flux in the PS coils must be reduced by 3 orders of magnitude by means of sophisticatedly designed massive Heat and Radiation Shield (HRS), optimized for the performance and cost. An issue with radiation damage is related to large residual electrical resistivity degradation in the superconducting coils, especially its Al stabilizer. A detailed MARS15 analysis and optimization of the HRS has been carried out both to satisfy the Mu2e requirements to the radiation quantities (such as displacements per atom, peak temperature and power density in the coils, absorbed dose in the insulation, and dynamic heat load) and cost. Results of MARS15 simulations of these radiation quantities are reported and optimized HRS models are presented; it is shown that design levels satisfy all requirements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dauvois, Yann
2016-01-01
In the present work, the effective heat transfer properties of fibrous medium are determined by taking into account a coupling of heat conduction and radiation. A virtual, statistically homogeneous, two-phase fibrous sample has been built by stacking finite absorbing cylinders in vacuum. These cylinders are dispersed according to prescribed distribution functions defining the cylinder positions and orientations. Cylinder overlappings are allowed. Extinction, absorption and scattering are characterised by radiative statistical functions which allow the Beerian behaviour of a medium to be assessed (or not). They are accurately determined with a Monte Carlo method. Whereas the gaseous phase exhibits a Beerian behaviour, the fibre phase is strongly non Beerian. The radiative power field deposited within the fibrous material is calculated by resolving a model which couples a Generalized Radiative Transfer Equation (GRTE) and a classic Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). The model of conduction transfer is based on a random walk method without meshing. The simulation of Brownian motion of walkers in fibres allows the energy equation to be solved. The idea of the method is to characterize the temperature in an elementary volume by the density of walkers, which roam the medium. The problem is governed by boundary conditions; A constant concentration of walkers (or a constant flux) is associated with a fixed temperature (or flux). (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Unal, C.; Bohl, W.R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.
1999-01-01
Complex ladder-like structures recently have been considered as the target design for accelerator applications. The decay heat, during a postulated beyond design-basis loss-of-coolant accident in the target where all normal and emergency cooling fails, is removed mainly by radiation heat transfer. Modeling of the radiation transport in complex ladder-like structures has several challenges and limitations when the standard net-radiation model is used. This paper proposes a simplified lumped, or 'hot-rung' model, that considers the worst elements and utilizes the standard net-radiation method. The net-radiation model would under-predict structure temperatures if surfaces were subject to non-uniform radiosity. The proposed model was assessed to suggest corrections to account for the non-uniform radiosity. The non-uniform radiosity effect causes the proposed hot-rung model to under-predict the center-rung temperatures by ∼4-74 C when all parametrics, including temperatures up to 1500 C, were considered. These temperatures are small. The proposed model predicted that an important effect of decreasing the emissivity was smoothing of non-isothermal effects. The radiosity effects are more pronounced when there are strong temperature gradients. Uniform rung temperatures tend to decrease the radiosity effects. We concluded that a relatively simple model that is conservative with respect to radiosity effects could be developed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahdi, M.; Ebrahimi, R.; Shams, M.
2011-01-01
A numerical scheme for simulating the acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation was developed. Bubble instantaneous radius was obtained using Gilmore equation which considered the compressibility of the liquid. A uniform temperature was assumed for the inside gas during the collapse. Radiation heat transfer inside the bubble and the heat conduction to the bubble was considered. The numerical code was validated with the experimental data and a good correspondence was observed. The dynamics of hydrofoil cavitation bubble were also investigated. It was concluded that the thermal radiation heat transfer rate strongly depended on the cavitation number, initial bubble radius and hydrofoil angle of attack. -- Highlights: → Heat transfer and ionization energy losses were analyzed in the cavitation bubble. → Radiation of hydrodynamic bubble was approximately equal to the black body. → Radiation heat transfer did not affect the bubble dynamic. → Conduction decreased the bubble pressure and increased the bubble temperature. → Ionization decreased the temperature and increased the pressure in the bubble.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hawthorne, J.R.
1979-01-01
Nuclear-radiation service typically produces a progressive reduction in the notch ductility of low-alloy steels. The reduction is manifested by a decrease in Charpy-V (Csub(v)) upper-shelf energy level and by an elevation in temperature of the ductile-to-brittle transition. Post irradiation heat treatment (annealing) is being investigated as a method for the reversal of these detrimental radiation effects for reactor-vessel steels. This study was undertaken to analyze factors which could affect annealing response, report data available to qualify suspected influences on annealing, and summarize experimental results generated for many commercially produced reactor materials and companion materials produced in the laboratory
Method to treat a product infested with microorganisms with ionizing radiation and heat
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruenewald, T.
1977-01-01
The method applies to the reduction of the number of germs in infected products by combined treatment of the microorganisms with ionizing radiation and raised temperatures. In this process, at least part of the energy lost in the irradiation unit (e.g. electron linear accelerator or X-ray unit), which is not converted into ionizing radiation is used to heat the product. The invention can be used in the field of food and animal food treatment, for the sterilisation of medical equipment, or for the pasteurisation of waste water and fertilizers. (VJ) [de
Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis of Afterbody Radiative Heating Predictions for Earth Entry
West, Thomas K., IV; Johnston, Christopher O.; Hosder, Serhat
2016-01-01
The objective of this work was to perform sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification for afterbody radiative heating predictions of Stardust capsule during Earth entry at peak afterbody radiation conditions. The radiation environment in the afterbody region poses significant challenges for accurate uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis due to the complexity of the flow physics, computational cost, and large number of un-certain variables. In this study, first a sparse collocation non-intrusive polynomial chaos approach along with global non-linear sensitivity analysis was used to identify the most significant uncertain variables and reduce the dimensions of the stochastic problem. Then, a total order stochastic expansion was constructed over only the important parameters for an efficient and accurate estimate of the uncertainty in radiation. Based on previous work, 388 uncertain parameters were considered in the radiation model, which came from the thermodynamics, flow field chemistry, and radiation modeling. The sensitivity analysis showed that only four of these variables contributed significantly to afterbody radiation uncertainty, accounting for almost 95% of the uncertainty. These included the electronic- impact excitation rate for N between level 2 and level 5 and rates of three chemical reactions in uencing N, N(+), O, and O(+) number densities in the flow field.
Radio frequency powering of microelectronic sensor modules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boegel, Gerd vom; Meyer, Frederic; Kemmerling, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Mikroelektronische Schaltungen und Systeme, Duisburg (Germany)
2013-03-01
In RFID applications the power supply of transponders via electromagnetic field is state-of-the-art. In this presentation the use of electromagnetic energy will be discussed for the operation of sensor modules. Starting with the question, whether the omnipresent radiation from power supply networks, radio transmitters, and mobile phone base stations is useable (energy harvesting), the feasibility of the operation of self-sufficient sensor modules is explained. Ancillary conditions of typical applications (e.g. operating range) and technology are considered. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kasmani, Ruhaila Md; Bhuvaneswari, M. [Centre for Foundation Studies in Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sivasankaran, S.; Siri, Zailan [Institute of Mathematical Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2015-10-22
An analysis is presented to find the effects of thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption on convection heat transfer of nanofluid past a wedge in the presence of wall suction. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation. The resulting system is solved numerically using a fourth-order Runge–Kutta method with shooting technique. Numerical computations are carried out for different values of dimensionless parameters to predict the effects of wedge angle, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, heat generation/absorption, thermal radiation and suction. It is found that the temperature increases significantly when the value of the heat generation/absorption parameter increases. But the opposite observation is found for the effect of thermal radiation.
Heating, Hydrodynamics, and Radiation From a Laser Heated Non-LTE High-Z Target
Gray, William; Foord, M. E.; Schneider, M. B.; Barrios, M. A.; Brown, G. V.; Heeter, R. F.; Jarrott, L. C.; Liedahl, D. A.; Marley, E. V.; Mauche, C. W.; Widmann, K.
2016-10-01
We present 2D R-z simulations that model the hydrodynamics and x-ray output of a laser heated, tamped foil, using the rad-hydro code LASNEX. The foil consists of a thin (2400 A) cylindrical disk of iron/vanadium/gold that is embedded in a thicker Be tamper. The simulations utilize a non-LTE detailed configuration (DCA) model, which generates the emission spectra. Simulated pinhole images are compared with data, finding qualitative agreement with the time-history of the face-on emission profiles, and exhibiting an interesting reduction in emission size over a few ns time period. Furthermore, we find that the simulations recover similar burn through times in both the target and Be tamper as measured by a time-dependent filtered x-ray detector (DANTE). Additional results and characterization of the experimental plasma will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shehzad, S.A., E-mail: ali_qau70@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Abdullah, Z. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hayat, T. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)
2016-01-01
This research work addresses the three-dimensional hydromagnetic flow of Jeffrey fluid with nanoparticles. Flow is generated by a bidirectional stretching surface. The effects of thermal radiation and internal heat generation are encountered in energy expressions. More realistic convective boundary conditions at the surface are employed instead of constant surface temperature and mass species conditions. Boundary layer assumptions lead to the governing non-linear mathematical model. Resulting equations through momentum, energy and mass species are made dimensionless using suitable variables. The solution expressions of dimensionless velocities, temperature and nanoparticle concentration have been computed for the convergent series solutions. The impacts of interesting parameters on the dimensionless quantities are displayed and interpreted. The values of physical quantities are computed and analyzed. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional hydromagnetic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid is considered. • Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are encountered. • Heat transfer analysis is performed with thermal radiation. • Results are plotted and visualized.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasheninnikov, S. I.
2014-01-01
A simple model developed by Paradkar et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 060703 (2012)] for the study of synergistic effects of electrostatic potential well and laser radiation is extended for the case where electric field of the well is accelerating electrons moving in the direction of the laser field propagation. It was found that in these cases, the rate of stochastic heating of energetic electrons remains virtually the same as in Paradkar et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 060703 (2012)], where electric field in electrostatic potential was slowing down electrons moving in the direction of the laser field propagation. However, the heating of electrons with relatively low energy can be sensitive to the orientation of the electrostatic potential well with respect to the direction of the laser radiation propagation
Assessment of Haar Wavelet-Quasilinearization Technique in Heat Convection-Radiation Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Umer Saeed
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We showed that solutions by the Haar wavelet-quasilinearization technique for the two problems, namely, (i temperature distribution equation in lumped system of combined convection-radiation in a slab made of materials with variable thermal conductivity and (ii cooling of a lumped system by combined convection and radiation are strongly reliable and also more accurate than the other numerical methods and are in good agreement with exact solution. According to the Haar wavelet-quasilinearization technique, we convert the nonlinear heat transfer equation to linear discretized equation with the help of quasilinearization technique and apply the Haar wavelet method at each iteration of quasilinearization technique to get the solution. The main aim of present work is to show the reliability of the Haar wavelet-quasilinearization technique for heat transfer equations.
Chang, Jui-Yung
Recently, nanostructured metamaterials have attracted lots of attentions due to its tunable artificial properties. In particular, nanowire/nanohole based metamaterials which are known of the capability of large area fabrication were intensively studied. Most of the studies are only based on the electrical responses of the metamaterials; however, magnetic response, is usually neglected since magnetic material does not exist naturally within the visible or infrared range. For the past few years, artificial magnetic response from nanostructure based metamaterials has been proposed. This reveals the possibility of exciting resonance modes based on magnetic responses in nanowire/nanohole metamaterials which can potentially provide additional enhancement on radiative transport. On the other hand, beyond classical far-field radiative heat transfer, near-field radiation which is known of exceeding the Planck's blackbody limit has also become a hot topic in the field. This PhD dissertation aims to obtain a deep fundamental understanding of nanowire/nanohole based metamaterials in both far-field and near-field in terms of both electrical and magnetic responses. The underlying mechanisms that can be excited by nanowire/nanohole metamaterials such as electrical surface plasmon polariton, magnetic hyperbolic mode, magnetic polariton, etc., will be theoretically studied in both far-field and near-field. Furthermore, other than conventional effective medium theory which only considers the electrical response of metamaterials, the artificial magnetic response of metamaterials will also be studied through parameter retrieval of far-field optical and radiative properties for studying near-field radiative transport. Moreover, a custom-made AFM tip based metrology will be employed to experimentally study near-field radiative transfer between a plate and a sphere separated by nanometer vacuum gaps in vacuum. This transformative research will break new ground in nanoscale radiative heat
Radiation and convective heat transfer, and burnout in oxy-coal combustion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J.P. Smart; P. O' Nions; G.S. Riley [RWE npower, Swindon (United Kingdom)
2010-09-15
Measurements of radiative and convective heat transfer, and carbon-in-ash have been taken on the RWEn 0.5 MWth combustion test facility (CTF) firing two different coals under oxy-fuel firing conditions. The two coals fired were a Russian Coal and a South African Coal. Recycle ratios were varied within the range of 65-75% dependent on coal. Furnace exit O{sub 2} values were maintained at 3% and 6% for the majority of tests. Air firing tests were also performed to generate baseline data. The work gives a comprehensive insight into the effect of oxy-fuel combustion on both radiative and convective heat transfer, and carbon-in-ash compared to air under dry simulated recycle conditions. Results have shown peak radiative heat flux values are inversely related to the recycle ratio for the two coals studied. Conversely, the convective heat flux values increase with increasing recycle ratio. It was also observed that the axial position of the peak in radiative heat flux moves downstream away from the burner as recycle ratio is increased. A 'working range' of recycle ratios exists where both the radiative and convective heat fluxes are comparable with air. Carbon-in-ash (CIA) was measured for selected conditions. For air firing of Russian Coal, the CIA for follows and expected trend with CIA decreasing with increasing furnace exit O{sub 2}. The CIA data for the two recycle ratios of 72% and 68% for the same coal show that the CIA values are lower than for air firing for corresponding furnace exit O{sub 2} levels and vary little with the value of furnace exit O{sub 2}. CIA measurements were taken for the South African Coal for a range of recycle ratios at 3% and 6% furnace exit O{sub 2} levels. Results indicate that the CIA values are lower for higher furnace exit O{sub 2}. 32 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.
Application of the HN method to radiative heat transfer for a non-conservative slab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulut, S.; Guelecyuez, M.C.
2008-01-01
The H N method is used to calculate the partial fluxes relevant to radiative transfer in a plane parallel medium for linearly anisotropic scattering with specularly and diffusely reflecting boundaries. The solutions are obtained for the non-conservative case. The numerical values of the heat flux functions at the boundaries of the medium are calculated for the two source functions. The numerical results and the convergence of the H N method are compared with earlier results. (orig.)
Anisotropic scattering in three dimensional differential approximation of radiation heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Condiff, D.W.
1987-01-01
The differential approximation is extended to account for anisotropic scattering in invariant three dimensional form. A moment method using polyadic Legendre functions establishes that pressure cross sections should take precedence over extinction cross sections for treating radiation heat transfer in an absorbing, emitting, and scattering medium, and that use of these cross sections accounts for the extent of preferred forward or backwards scattering. The procedure and principle is extended to polyadic P-N approximations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Icre, P.; Rocquigny, H. de
1995-01-01
The Thermorad process is used for decontaminating hospital wastes at the hospital as they are collected from the different departments. The process utilises the combined microbiological effects of ionising radiation (5 kGy) and dry heat (60 o C). The treatment unit, which is compact and of small size, contains a cobalt 60 source of under 100,000 curies and has an annual treatment capacity of 5000 m 3 . (author)
Highly-Efficient Thermoelectronic Conversion of Heat and Solar Radiation to Electric Power
Meir, Stefan
2013-01-01
Thermionic energy conversion has long been a candidate to convert solar radiation and the combustion heat of fossil fuels into electricity at high efficiencies. However, the formation of electron space charges has prevented the widespread use of the principle since its was first suggested in 1915. In this work, a novel mechanism to suppress the effects of the space charge was investigated: the acceleration of electrons in a special configuration of electric and magnetic fields. This work d...
On the importance of radiative heat exchange during nocturnal flight in birds.
Léger, Jérôme; Larochelle, Jacques
2006-01-01
Many migratory flights take place during cloudless nights, thus under conditions where the sky temperature can commonly be 20 degrees C below local air temperature. The sky then acts as a radiative sink, leading objects exposed to it to have a lower surface temperature than unexposed ones because less infrared energy is received from the sky than from the surfaces that are isothermic to air. To investigate the significance of this effect for heat dissipation during nocturnal flight in birds, we built a wind tunnel with the facility to control wall temperature (TASK) and air temperature (TAIR) independently at air speeds (UWIN) comparable to flying speeds. We used it to measure the influence of TASK, TAIR and UWIN on plumage and skin temperatures in pigeons having to dissipate a thermal load while constrained at rest in a flight posture. Our results show that the temperature of the flight and insulation plumages exposed to a radiative sink can be accurately described by multiple regression models (r2>0.96) based only on TAIR, TASK and UWIN. Predictions based on these models indicate that while convection dominates heat loss for a plumage exposed to air moving at flight speed in a thermally uniform environment, radiation may dominate in the presence of a radiative sink comparable to a clear sky. Our data also indicate that reducing TASK to a temperature 20 degrees C below TAIR can increase the temperature difference across the exposed plumage by at least 13% and thus facilitate heat flow through the main thermal resistance to the loss of internally produced heat in birds. While extrapolation from our experimentally constrained conditions to free flight in the atmosphere is difficult, our results suggest that the sky temperature has been a neglected factor in determining the range of TAIR over which prolonged flight is possible.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anjan Sarkar
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The paper describes a thermal analysis of a three-phase inverter operated under a Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM technique which used three sine waves displaced in 120° phase difference as reference signals. The IGBT unit is assumed to be placed with a heat sink inside an evacuated chamber and the entire heat has to be transferred by conduction and radiation. The main heat sources present here are the set of IGBTs and diodes which generates heat on a pulse basing on their switching frequencies. Melcosim (a well-known tool developed by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation has been used to generate the power pulse from one set of IGBT and diode connected to a phase. A Scilab code is written to study the conduction and thermal radiation of heat sink and their combined effect on transient growth of the junction temperature of IGBT unit against complex switching pulses. The results mainly show that how thermal radiation from heat sink plays a crucial role in maintaining the junction temperature of IGBT within a threshold limit by adjusting various heat sink parameters. As the IGBT heat generation rate becomes higher, radiative heat transfer of the heat sink increases sharply which enhances overall cooling performance of the system.
Heat transfer capability of solar radiation in colored roof and influence on room thermal comfort
Syuhada, Ahmad; Maulana, Muhammad Ilham
2018-02-01
Colored zinc is the most widely used by people in Indonesia as the roof of the building. Each color has different heat absorption capability, the higher the absorption capacity of a roof will cause high room temperature. A high temperature in the room will cause the room is not thermally comfortable for activity. Lack of public knowledge about the ability of each color to absorb heat can cause errors in choosing the color of the roof of the building so that it becomes uncomfortable regarding thermal comfort. This study examined how big the ability of each color in influencing the heat absorption on the roof of the zinc. The purpose of this study is to examine which colors are the lowest to absorb radiation heat. This research used theexperimental method. Data collected by measuring the temperature of the environment above and below the colored tin roof, starting at 11:00 am until 15:00 pm. The zinc roofs tested in this study are zinc black, red zinc, green zinc, blue zinc, brown zinc, maroon zinc, orange zinc, zinc gray, zinc color chrome and zinc white color. The study results show that black and blackish colors will absorb more heat than other colors. While the color white or close to whitish color will absorb a slight heat.
A novel monochromator for high heat-load synchrotron x-ray radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khounsary, A.M.
1992-01-01
The high heat load associated with the powerful and concentrated x-ray beams generated by the insertion devices at a number of present and many of the future (planned or under construction) synchrotron radiation facilities pose a formidable engineering challenge in the designer of the monochromators and other optical devices. For example, the Undulator A source on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) ring (being constructed at the Argonne National Laboratory) will generate as much as 10 kW of heat deposited on a small area (about 1 cm 2 ) of the first optics located some 24 m from the source. The peak normal incident heat flux can be as high as 500 W/mm 2 . Successful utilization of the intense x-ray beams from insertion devices critically depends on the development, design, and availability of optical elements that provide acceptable performance under high heat load. Present monochromators can handle, at best, heat load levels that are an order of magnitude lower than those generated by such sources. The monochromator described here and referred to as the open-quote inclinedclose quotes monochromator can provide a solution to high heat-load problems
Synergistic effect of solar radiation and solar heating to disinfect drinking water sources.
Rijal, G K; Fujioka, R S
2001-01-01
Waterborne diseases are still common in developing countries as drinking water sources are contaminated and feasible means to reliably treat and disinfect these waters are not available. Many of these developing countries are in the tropical regions of the world where sunlight is plentiful. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of combining solar radiation and solar heating to disinfect contaminated water using a modified Family Sol*Saver System (FSP). The non-UV transmittable cover sheet of the former FSP system was replaced with an UV transmittable plastic cover sheet to enable more wavelengths of sunlight to treat the water. Disinfection efficiency of both systems was evaluated based on reduction of the natural populations of faecal coliform, E. coli, enterococci, C. perfringens, total heterotrophic bacteria, hydrogen sulphide producing bacteria and FRNA virus. The results showed that under sunny and partly sunny conditions, water was heated to critical temperature (60 degrees C) in both the FSP systems inactivating more than 3 log (99.9%) of the concentrations of faecal coliform and E. coli to undetectable levels of heat worked synergistically to enhance the inactivation of faecal indicator bacteria. The relative log removal of indicator microorganism in the FSP treated water was total heterotrophic bacteria heat and radiation effects of sunlight were important in disinfecting water by solar units. The data indicated that direct radiation of sunlight worked synergistically with solar heating of the water to disinfect the water. Thus, effective disinfection was observed even when the water temperature did not reach 60 degrees C. Finally, the hydrogen sulphide test is a simple and reliable test that householders can use to determine whether their water had been sufficiently disinfected.
Safety verification of radiation shielding and heat transfer for a model for dry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Haiyan; Tang, Xiaobin; Wang, Peng; Chen, Feida; Chai, Hao; Chen, Da
2015-01-01
Highlights: • New type of dry spent fuel storage was designed. • MC method and FEM were used to verify the reliability of new storage. • Radiation shield and heat transfer both meet IAEA standards: 2 mSv/h, 0.1 mSv/h and 190 °C, 85 °C. • Provided possibilities for future implementation of this type of dry storage. - Abstract: The goal of this research is to develop a type of dry spent fuel storage called CHN-24 container, which could contain an equivalent load of 45 GWD/MTU of spent fuel after 10 years cooling. Basically, radiation shielding performance and safe removal of decay heat, which play important roles in the safety performance, were checked and validated using the Monte Carlo method and finite element analysis to establish the radiation dose rate calculation model and three-dimensional heat transfer model for the CHN-24 container. The dose rates at the surface of the container and at a distance of 1 m from the surface were 0.42 mSv/h and 0.06 mSv/h, respectively. These conform to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) radioactive material transportation safety standards 2 mSv/h and 0.1 mSv/h. The results shows that the CHN-24 container maintains its structural and material integrity under the condition of normal thermal steady-state heat transfer as well as in case of extreme fire as evinced by transient-state analysis. The temperature inside and on the surface of the container were 150.91 °C and 80 °C under normal storage conditions, which indicated that the design also conform to IAEA heat transfer safety standards of 190 °C and 85 °C
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.K. Abdul Hakeem
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this present article heat transfer in a Walter’s liquid B fluid over an impermeable stretching sheet with non-uniform heat source/sink, elastic deformation and radiation are reported. The basic boundary layer equations for momentum and heat transfer, which are non-linear partial differential equations, are converted into non-linear ordinary differential equations by means of similarity transformation. The dimensionless governing equations for this investigation are solved analytically using hyper geometric functions. The results are carried out for prescribed surface temperature (PST and prescribed power law surface heat flux (PHF. The effects of viscous dissipation, Prandtl number, Eckert number, heat source/sink parameter with elastic deformation and radiation are shown in the several plots and addressed.
Radiation control report on intermediate heat exchanger replacement and related works
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanou, Y.; Yamanaka, T.; Sasajima, T.; Hoshiba, H.; Emori, S.; Shindou, K.
2002-03-01
The 13th periodical inspection of the experimental fast reactor JOYO is being made from Jun. 2000 to Jan. 2003. While this inspection, from the end of Oct. 2000 to Nov. 2001, the MK-III modification work on heat transport system was made in lower region of the reactor containment vessel in the reactor facility (under floor area). In the MK-III modification work, the works important to radiation control were the replacement of intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) and fixtures, and the picking out of the surveillance material from primary heat transport piping carried out in the maintenance building. Because the working areas of these works were executed in small space around the complicated primary heat transport piping, workability was bad and dose rate from the corrosion products (CP) in piping or fixtures was high. In such condition, radiation control was performed mainly concerned about external exposure. The planted total external exposure of the IHX replacement and related works was 7135 man-mSv (target of total dose control: less than 5708 man-mSv, 80% of the plan), derived from special radiation work plants for segmental works, concerned about work procedure, number of workers, period of work, dose rate of working area and surface dose rate of equipments. The special radiation control organization was established for such long and large-scale work. The spatial organization held detailed discussion about radiation control of this work with the execution section and contractors appropriately, performance careful external/internal exposure control and surface contamination control and made efforts to reduce te external exposure thoroughly. As a result of these action, the total external exposure was 2386 man·mSv (≅33% of the plan, ≅42% of the target) and the maximum individual exposure were 24.7 mSv for staffs and 21.7mSv for contractors. The dose rate, surface contamination and air contamination while the works were kept under the control level with the
Experimental study on the heat transfer of MWCNT/water nanofluid flowing in a car radiator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, Guilherme Azevedo; Cardenas Contreras, Edwin Martin; Bandarra Filho, Enio Pedone
2017-01-01
This study is concerned with an experimental evaluation of the thermal performance of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) dispersed in distilled water flowing inside an automotive radiator. A two-step method called high-pressure homogenization was used to disperse the MWCNT nanoparticles in water, in concentrations varying between 0.05 and 0.16 wt%. Experiments have been carried out in an experimental set up composed by a wind tunnel that simulates the air flow through a car radiator, and a hot fluid circuit, that circulates the nanofluid inside the radiator. The air flow rate was maintained constant at 0.175 kg/s. The mass flow rate of the hot fluid varied from 30 up to 70 g/s and the inlet temperature was maintained constant at 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C, respectively. The temperature drop and heat transfer rate have been investigated. A slight-decrease on the heat transfer rate, up to 5%, was found for all test conditions. On the other hand as the nanoparticle concentration increased, the heat transfer rate decreased.
Method for calculating internal radiation and ventilation with the ADINAT heat-flow code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butkovich, T.R.; Montan, D.N.
1980-01-01
One objective of the spent fuel test in Climax Stock granite (SFTC) is to correctly model the thermal transport, and the changes in the stress field and accompanying displacements from the application of the thermal loads. We have chosen the ADINA and ADINAT finite element codes to do these calculations. ADINAT is a heat transfer code compatible to the ADINA displacement and stress analysis code. The heat flow problem encountered at SFTC requires a code with conduction, radiation, and ventilation capabilities, which the present version of ADINAT does not have. We have devised a method for calculating internal radiation and ventilation with the ADINAT code. This method effectively reproduces the results from the TRUMP multi-dimensional finite difference code, which correctly models radiative heat transport between drift surfaces, conductive and convective thermal transport to and through air in the drifts, and mass flow of air in the drifts. The temperature histories for each node in the finite element mesh calculated with ADINAT using this method can be used directly in the ADINA thermal-mechanical calculation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. D. Makinde
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the unsteady hydromagnetic-free convection of an incompressible electrical conducting Boussinesq’s radiating fluid past a moving vertical plate in an optically thin environment with the Navier slip, viscous dissipation, and Ohmic and Newtonian heating. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the transient problem are obtained and tackled numerically using a semidiscretization finite difference method coupled with Runge-Kutta Fehlberg integration technique. Numerical data for the local skin friction coefficient and the Nusselt number have been tabulated for various values of parametric conditions. Graphical results for the fluid velocity, temperature, skin friction, and the Nusselt number are presented and discussed. The results indicate that the skin friction coefficient decreases while the heat transfer rate at the plate surface increases as the slip parameter and Newtonian heating increase.
Heat transfer analysis in a calorimeter for concentrated solar radiation measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Estrada, C.A.; Jaramillo, O.A.; Arancibia-Bulnes, C.A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Col. Centro. Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico); Acosta, R. [Universidad de Quintana Roo, Boulevard Bahia s/n Esq. I. Comonfort, Chetumal Quintana Roo 77019 (Mexico)
2007-10-15
A calorimeter was built for measuring the concentrated solar power produced by a point focus solar concentrator that was developed at CIE - UNAM. In order to obtain a thermal characterization of the calorimeter a theoretical and experimental heat transfer study is carried out. This study addresses the heat transfer in the circular flat plate of the calorimeter, which acts as receiver for the concentrating system. Temperatures are measured at different points of this plate and fit with a theoretical model that considers heat conduction with convective and radiative boundary conditions. In particular, it is possible to calculate the temperature distribution on the irradiated surface. This allows to examine the validity of the assumptions of cold water calorimetry, which was the technique applied to this system in previous works. (author)
Some technological aspects of combined processing of meat by heat and ionizing radiations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gel'fand, S.Yu.; Nomenotskaya, N.F.; Mozul', M.Ya.
1974-01-01
The paper discusses the use of ionizing radiation to prolong the storage life of meat and meat products. Irradiating raw meat with doses of 0.4-0.6 Mrad increased storage life up to two months at low above-zero C temperatures. The difficulty of inhibiting autolytic processes during storage of irradiated raw meat led to searches for combined methods of meat treatment. A series of experiments was staged with pre-irradiation heating of meat up to 75, 77, and 80 0 C in order to see how cathepsin activity is affected by the duration and temperature of heating in the case of combined treatment. To increase the resistance of meat products to microbial damage, tests were carried out in which meat was exposed to short-term but intensive heat by immersing it in hot (130-160 0 C) vegetable oil (frying grease). The results are presented in the form of tables and diagrams. (E.T.)
Dhara, Chirag; Renner, Maik; Kleidon, Axel
2015-04-01
The convective transport of heat and moisture plays a key role in the climate system, but the transport is typically parameterized in models. Here, we aim at the simplest possible physical representation and treat convective heat fluxes as the result of a heat engine. We combine the well-known Carnot limit of this heat engine with the energy balances of the surface-atmosphere system that describe how the temperature difference is affected by convective heat transport, yielding a maximum power limit of convection. This results in a simple analytic expression for convective strength that depends primarily on surface solar absorption. We compare this expression with an idealized grey atmosphere radiative-convective (RC) model as well as Global Circulation Model (GCM) simulations at the grid scale. We find that our simple expression as well as the RC model can explain much of the geographic variation of the GCM output, resulting in strong linear correlations among the three approaches. The RC model, however, shows a lower bias than our simple expression. We identify the use of the prescribed convective adjustment in RC-like models as the reason for the lower bias. The strength of our model lies in its ability to capture the geographic variation of convective strength with a parameter-free expression. On the other hand, the comparison with the RC model indicates a method for improving the formulation of radiative transfer in our simple approach. We also find that the latent heat fluxes compare very well among the approaches, as well as their sensitivity to surface warming. What our comparison suggests is that the strength of convection and their sensitivity in the climatic mean can be estimated relatively robustly by rather simple approaches.
Error in interpreting field chlorophyll fluorescence measurements: heat gain from solar radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marler, T.E.; Lawton, P.D.
1994-01-01
Temperature and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics were determined on leaves of various horticultural species following a dark adaptation period where dark adaptation cuvettes were shielded from or exposed to solar radiation. In one study, temperature of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. leaflets within cuvettes increased from approximately 36C to approximately 50C during a 30-minute exposure to solar radiation. Alternatively, when the leaflets and cuvettes were shielded from solar radiation, leaflet temperature declined to 33C in 10 to 15 minutes. In a second study, 16 horticultural species exhibited a lower variable: maximum fluorescence (F v :F m ) when cuvettes were exposed to solar radiation during the 30-minute dark adaptation than when cuvettes were shielded. In a third study with S. mahagoni, the influence of self-shielding the cuvettes by wrapping them with white tape, white paper, or aluminum foil on temperature and fluorescence was compared to exposing or shielding the entire leaflet and cuvette. All of the shielding methods reduced leaflet temperature and increased the F v :F m ratio compared to leaving cuvettes exposed. These results indicate that heat stress from direct exposure to solar radiation is a potential source of error when interpreting chlorophyll fluorescence measurements on intact leaves. Methods for moderating or minimizing radiation interception during dark adaptation are recommended. (author)
Coupling heat conduction and radiation in complex 2D and 3D geometries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peniguel, C [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Rupp, I [SIMULOG, 78 - Guyancourt (France)
1998-12-31
Thermal radiation is a very important mode of heat transfer in most real industrial systems. A numerical approach coupling radiation (restricted to non participant medium) and conduction is presented. The code (SYRTHES) is able to handle 2D and 3D problems (including cases with symmetries and periodicity). Radiation is solved by a radiosity approach, and conduction by a finite element method. Accurate and efficient algorithms based on a mixing of analytical/numerical integration, and ray tracing techniques are used to compute the view factors. Validation has been performed on numerous test cases. A conjugate residual algorithm solves the radiosity system. An explicit interactive numerical procedure is then used to couple conduction and radiation. No stability problem has been encountered so far. One specificity of SYRTHES is that conduction and radiation are solved on independent grids. This brings much flexibility and allows to keep the number of independent radiation patches at a reasonable level. Several industrial examples are given as illustration. (author) 6 refs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hameed K. Hamzah
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In this work, effect of adding MgO nanoparticle to base fluid (water in car radiator has been implemented experimentally. In this investigation, an experimental test rig has been designed to study effect inlet temperature of nanofluid, the flow rate and nanoparticle volume fraction on heat transfer rates. Six different concentrations of nanofluid of 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%,1% ,1.5% and 2% have been prepared by mixed of MgO nanoparticles with water. Reynolds number of nanofluid was between 4500 and 19000.Thermal behavior of an automobile radiator worked with nanofluid has been compared with using pure water in it. So, the fluid circulating rate in radiator has been varied in the extent of the range of 1-8 L/min and fluid inlet temperature is also varied for all experimental. Results emphasized that Nusselt number increases with an increase of liquid inlet temperature, nanoparticle volume fraction and Reynolds number. As well as, the enhancement in heat transfer coefficient due to presence of nanoparticles is more than that without noanoparticles. These results can be achieved to optimize the dimension of an automobile radiator. A good agreement was seen with theoretical and experimental results with many authors
Effect that radiation exerts to insulation breakdown of heat resistant polymer materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujita, Shigetaka; Baba, Makoto; Noto, Fumitoshi; Ruike, Mitsuo.
1990-01-01
Artificial satellites are always exposed to cosmic rays which contain the radiations which do not reach the ground, therefore, the radiation resistance of the polymer insulators for cables and others used in such environment becomes a problem. Also the polymer insulator materials used for nuclear facilities require excellent radiation resistance. It is important to examine the effect that radiation exerts to electric insulation characteristics from the viewpoint of material development. In this paper, the insulation breakdown characteristics of heat resistant polymer films and the mini-cables made for trial of heat resistant polymer materials in the case without irradiation and in the case of gamma ray irradiation, and the results of the structural analysis are reported. The specimens tested, the experimental method and the results are described. The insulation breakdown strength of PFA and FEP films lowered from 0.15-0.2 MGy, but that of PEEK film did not change up to 5 MGy. It was found that fluorine group resins were apt to deteriorate by oxidation as dose increased. (K.I.)
Second law analysis of coupled conduction-radiation heat transfer with phase change
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makhanlall, D.; Liu, L.H.
2010-01-01
This work considers an exergy-based analysis of two-dimensional solid-liquid phase change processes in a square cavity enclosure. The phase change material (PCM) concerns a semi-transparent absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering medium with constant thermodynamic properties. The enthalpy-based energy equation is solved numerically using computational fluid dynamics. Once the energy equation is solved, local exergy loss due to heat conduction and radiative heat transfer during the phase change process is calculated by post processing procedures. In this work, the radiation exergy loss in the medium and at the enclosure boundary is taken into consideration. It is found that radiation exergy loss is significant in the high-temperature phase change process. Parametric investigation is also carried out to study the effects of Stefan number, Biot number, Planck number, single scattering albedo and wall emissivity on exergy loss. The results show that the total exergy loss increases with Biot number, single scattering albedo and wall emissivity. The second law effects of the conduction-radiation coupling in the energy equation are also shown in this work. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasiliev, A.D.; Kobelev, G.V.; Astafieva, V.O.
2007-01-01
Radiative heat transfer is very important in different fields of mechanical engineering and related technologies including nuclear reactors, heat transfer in furnaces, aerospace, different high-temperature assemblies. In particular, in the course of a hypothetical severe accident at PWR-type nuclear reactor the temperatures inside the reactor vessel reach high values at which taking into account of radiative heat exchange between the structures of reactor (including core and other reactor vessel elements) gets important. Radiative heat transfer dominates the late phase of severe accident because radiative heat fluxes (proportional to T4, where T is the temperature) are generally considerably higher than convective and conductive heat fluxes in a system. In particular, heat transfer due to radiation determines the heating and degradation of the core and surrounding steel in-vessel structures and finally influences the composition, temperature and mass of materials pouring out of the reactor vessel after its loss of integrity. Existing models of radiative heat exchange use many limitations and approximations: approximate estimation of view factors and beam lengths; the geometry change in the course of the accident is neglected; the database for emissivities of materials is not complete; absorption/emission by steam-noncondensable medium is taken into account approximately. The module MRAD was developed in this paper to model the radiative heat exchange in rod-like geometry typical of PWR-type reactor. Radiative heat exchange is computed using dividing on zones (zonal method) as in existing radiation models implemented to severe accident numerical codes such as ICARE, SCDAP/RELAP, MELCOR but improved in following aspects: new approach to evaluation of view factors and mean beam length; detailed evaluation of gas absorptivity and emissivity; account of effective radiative thermal conductivity for the large core; account of geometry modification in the course of severe
Applicability of LET to single events in microelectronic structures
Xapsos, Michael A.
1992-12-01
LET is often used as a single parameter to determine the energy deposited in a microelectronic structure by a single event. The accuracy of this assumption is examined for ranges of ion energies and volumes of silicon appropriate for modern microelectronics. It is shown to be accurate only under very restricted conditions. Significant differences arise because (1) LET is related to energy lost by the ion, not energy deposited in the volume; and (2) LET is an average value and does not account for statistical variations in energy deposition. Criteria are suggested for determining when factors other than LET should be considered, and new analytical approaches are presented to account for them. One implication of these results is that improvements can be made in space upset rate predictions by incorporating the new methods into currently used codes such as CREME and CRUP.
Effects of heat, radiation, and thermoradiation on the filterability of sewage sludge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, C.V.
1978-01-01
The effects of heat, radiation and thermoradiation processes on the dewatering properties of raw and primary digested sewage sludges were investigated. These effects were measured by observing the changes in filterability subsequent to treatment. Thermal treatment (40 0 to 95 0 C) of the sewage sludge resulted in decreased filterability. Radiation and thermoradiation treatment increased the filterability, the increase being dose and temperature dependent. These treatment methods are not as effective as chemical additives in increasing the filterability of sewage sludge. The combined use of radiation and organic polymer conditioner shows no significant improvement in the filterability of sewage sludge over the use of polymer alone. There appears to be some interaction; however, it shows no useful synergistic effect
Thermal-hydraulic analysis of the improved TOPAZ-II power system using a heat pipe radiator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Wenwen; Zhang, Dalin, E-mail: dlzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Tian, Wenxi; Qiu, Suizheng; Su, G.H.
2016-10-15
Highlights: • The system thermal-hydraulic model of the improved space thermionic reactor is developed. • The temperature reactivity feedback effects of the moderator, UO2 fuel, electrodes and reflector are considered. • The alkali metal heat pipe radiator is modeled with the two dimensional heat pipe model. • The steady state and the start-up procedure of the system are analyzed. - Abstract: A system analysis code coupled with the heat pipe model is developed to analyze the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the improved TOPAZ-II reactor power system with a heat pipe radiator. The core thermal-hydraulic model, neutron physics model, and the coolant loop component models (including pump, volume accumulator, pipes and plenums) are established. The designed heat pipe radiator, which replaces the original pumped loop radiator, is also modeled, including two-dimensional heat pipe analysis model, fin model and coolant transport duct model. The system analysis code and the heat pipe model is coupled in the transport duct model. Steady state condition and start-up procedure of the improved TOPAZ-II system are calculated. The results show that the designed radiator can satisfy the waste heat rejection requirement of the improved power system. Meanwhile, the code can be used to obtained the thermal characteristics of the system transients such as the start-up process.
Performance Evaluation of Management Environment in Microelectronics Enterprise
Hui-ying Gao
2013-01-01
For the microelectronics manufacturing industries that have uncertain demand, high volume cost and Oligarchs characteristics, we often discuss the possibility of competitors on the capacity of strategy. First of all we use the industry data to analysis the manufacturing cost, demand and the historical situation of the revenue and we also discuss the influence about the uncertain demand and high volume cost to the industrial structure. Secondly, it put the individual manufacturer not consideri...
Using federal technology policy to strength the US microelectronics industry
Gover, J. E.; Gwyn, C. W.
1994-07-01
A review of US and Japanese experiences with using microelectronics consortia as a tool for strengthening their respective industries reveals major differences. Japan has established catch-up consortia with focused goals. These consortia have a finite life targeted from the beginning, and emphasis is on work that supports or leads to product and process-improvement-driven commercialization. Japan's government has played a key role in facilitating the development of consortia and has used consortia promote domestic competition. US consortia, on the other hand, have often emphasized long-range research with considerably less focus than those in Japan. The US consortia have searched for and often made revolutionary technology advancements. However, technology transfer to their members has been difficult. Only SEMATECH has assisted its members with continuous improvements, compressing product cycles, establishing relationships, and strengthening core competencies. The US government has not been a catalyst nor provided leadership in consortia creation and operation. We propose that in order to regain world leadership in areas where US companies lag foreign competition, the US should create industry-wide, horizontal-vertical, catch-up consortia or continue existing consortia in the six areas where the US lags behind Japan -- optoelectronics, displays, memories, materials, packaging, and manufacturing equipment. In addition, we recommend that consortia be established for special government microelectronics and microelectronics research integration and application. We advocate that these consortia be managed by an industry-led Microelectronics Alliance, whose establishment would be coordinated by the Department of Commerce. We further recommend that the Semiconductor Research Corporation, the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Centers, and relevant elements of other federal programs be integrated into this consortia complex.
Using federal technology policy to strength the US microelectronics industry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gover, J.E.; Gwyn, C.W.
1994-07-01
A review of US and Japanese experiences with using microelectronics consortia as a tool for strengthening their respective industries reveals major differences. Japan has established catch-up consortia with focused goals. These consortia have a finite life targeted from the beginning, and emphasis is on work that supports or leads to product and process-improvement-driven commercialization. Japan`s government has played a key role in facilitating the development of consortia and has used consortia promote domestic competition. US consortia, on the other hand, have often emphasized long-range research with considerably less focus than those in Japan. The US consortia have searched for and often made revolutionary technology advancements. However, technology transfer to their members has been difficult. Only SEMATECH has assisted its members with continuous improvements, compressing product cycles, establishing relationships, and strengthening core competencies. The US government has not been a catalyst nor provided leadership in consortia creation and operation. We propose that in order to regain world leadership in areas where US companies lag foreign competition, the US should create industry-wide, horizontal-vertical, catch-up consortia or continue existing consortia in the six areas where the US lags behind Japan -- optoelectronics, displays, memories, materials, packaging, and manufacturing equipment. In addition, we recommend that consortia be established for special government microelectronics and microelectronics research integration and application. We advocate that these consortia be managed by an industry-led Microelectronics Alliance, whose establishment would be coordinated by the Department of Commerce. We further recommend that the Semiconductor Research Corporation, the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Centers, and relevant elements of other federal programs be integrated into this consortia complex.
A self-regulating valve for single-phase liquid cooling of microelectronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donose, Radu; De Volder, Michaël; Peirs, Jan; Reynaerts, Dominiek
2011-01-01
This paper reports on the design, optimization and testing of a self-regulating valve for single-phase liquid cooling of microelectronics. Its purpose is to maintain the integrated circuit (IC) at constant temperature and to reduce power consumption by diminishing flow generated by the pump as a function of the cooling requirements. It uses a thermopneumatic actuation principle that combines the advantages of zero power consumption and small size in combination with a high flow rate and low manufacturing costs. The valve actuation is provided by the thermal expansion of a liquid (actuation fluid) which, at the same time, actuates the valve and provides feed-back sensing. A maximum flow rate of 38 kg h −1 passes through the valve for a heat load up to 500 W. The valve is able to reduce the pumping power by up to 60% and it has the capability to maintain the IC at a more uniform temperature.
Kosterev, Vladimir V.; Kramer-Ageev, Evgeny A.; Mazokhin, Vladimir N.; van Rhoon, Gerard C.; Crezee, Johannes
2015-01-01
This paper describes the development of a new type of electromagnetic hyperthermia applicator delivering dose control within large application fields and increased effectiveness by providing simultaneous action of radiation and heating (SRH) in malignant tumours, and development of a dosimetric
Exploration Of `Click' Chemistry For Microelectronic Applications
Musa, Osama M.; Sridhar, Laxmisha M.
The ‘Click’ chemistry was explored for low temperature snap cure and for possible use as an adhesion promoter in electronic applications. Several azide and alkyne resins were synthesized and their curing potential was evaluated with a special emphasis on exploring Cu(I) catalyst effect. The preliminary curing study in the absence of catalysts showed a strong dependence of cure temperatures on the electronic nature of alkynes. The cure temperatures showed a tendency to increase with decreasing electronegativity of the substituent on alkynes. The capability of Cu(I) catalysts to accelerate the ‘Click’ chemistry was demonstrated for the first time in bulk phase. Using several Cu(I) catalysts, the cure temperatures could be lowered by as much as 40-100°C compared to the control, depending on the nature of catalyst and the catalyst loading. We discovered a novel synergistic effect between Cu(I) and silver filler in lowering the cure temperatures. Using this combination, lower cure temperatures could be obtained than using either alone. Among several resins screened, one resin system has shown promise for 80°C snap-cure in which the aforementioned synergistic effect is operative. Solution phase ‘Click’ chemistry was employed for the synthesis of a hybrid triazole-epoxy resin system. This system was found to cure without added amine curative. The triazole group here serves as a linker as well as an internal adhesion promoter. To address the incompatibility and volatility issues, which arose during evaluation, a controlled oligomerization method has been developed using controlled heating of azides and alkynes in solution phase.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitchel, R.E.J.; Morrison, D.P.
1983-01-01
In response to a heat shock, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes a large increase in its resistance to heat and, by the induction of its recombinational DNA repair capacity, a corresponding increase in resistance to radiation. Yeast which lack mitochondrial DNA, mitochondria-controlled protein synthetic apparatus, aerobic respiration, and electron transport (rho 0 strain) were used to assess the role of O 2 , mitochondria, and oxidative processes controlled by mitochondria in the induction of these resistances. We have found that rho 0 yeast grown and heat shocked in either the presence or absence of O 2 are capable of developing both radiation and heat resistance. We conclude that neither the stress signal nor its cellular consequences of induced heat and radiation resistance are directly dependent on O 2 , mitochondrial DNA, or mitochondria-controlled protein synthetic or oxidative processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gosal, S.S.; Das, A.; Gopal, J.; Minocha, J.L.; Chopra, H.R.; Dhaliwal, H.S.
2001-01-01
In vitro cultured shoots of potato, cvs. 'Kufri Jyoti' and 'Kufri Chandramukhi', were irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy gamma rays. Microtubers, obtained from MIV3 shoots multiplied in vitro, were planted in pots. The resulting plants were screened for resistance to late blight, using detached leaf method. In 'Kufri Chandramukhi', 42% plants and in 'Kufri Jyoti' 36% plants, obtained from 40 Gy treatment, showed resistance to late blight. The frequency of resistant plants was lower from 20 Gy treatment. The progenies of putatively resistant plants were grown in field, and inoculated with sporangial inoculum of late blight fungus. The field grown progeny segregated for disease resistance, and approximately 56% plants showed resistance. During the next propagation, the frequency of resistant plants increased to 72%. For developing heat tolerance, microtubers obtained from 20 and 40 Gy treatments and in vitro multiplied M 1 V 3 shoots were cultured at high temperature of 28C. In both varieties, the number of the microtubers per plant was highly reduced and the resulting microtubers had distorted shape but showed better germination (62%), even in early sowing at relatively higher temperature. Of the two radiation doses, the higher dose of 40 Gy gave better results in both the varieties. Heat tolerance was also assessed from chlorophyll persistence. The progenies from putative heat-tolerant plants were tested in field by planting at higher temperature in two subsequent generations. The heat tolerant plants segregated in each generation, but the frequency of heat-tolerant plants increased. (author)
Hu, Chia-Yu; Naab, Thorsten; Glover, Simon C. O.; Walch, Stefanie; Clark, Paul C.
2017-10-01
We present high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies including self-gravity, non-equilibrium cooling and chemistry, interstellar radiation fields (ISRF) and shielding, star formation, and stellar feedback. This includes spatially and temporally varying photoelectric (PE) heating, photoionization, resolved supernova (SN) blast waves and metal enrichment. A new flexible method to sample the stellar initial mass function allows us to follow the contribution to the ISRF, the metal output and the SN delay times of individual massive stars. We find that SNe play the dominant role in regulating the global star formation rate, shaping the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM) and driving galactic outflows. Outflow rates (with mass-loading factors of a few) and hot gas fractions of the ISM increase with the number of SNe exploding in low-density environments where radiative energy losses are low. While PE heating alone can suppress star formation as efficiently as SNe alone can do, it is unable to drive outflows and reproduce the multiphase ISM that emerges naturally whenever SNe are included. We discuss the potential origins for the discrepancy between our results and another recent study that claimed that PE heating dominates over SNe. In the absence of SNe and photoionization (mechanisms to disperse dense clouds), the impact of PE heating is highly overestimated owing to the (unrealistic) proximity of dense gas to the radiation sources. This leads to a substantial boost of the infrared continuum emission from the UV-irradiated dust and a far-infrared line-to-continuum ratio too low compared to observations.
Design and Testing of an Active Heat Rejection Radiator with Digital Turn-Down Capability
Sunada, Eric; Birur, Gajanana C.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Miller, Jennifer; Berisford, Daniel; Stephan, Ryan
2010-01-01
NASA's proposed lunar lander, Altair, will be exposed to vastly different external environment temperatures. The challenges to the active thermal control system (ATCS) are compounded by unfavorable transients in the internal waste heat dissipation profile: the lowest heat load occurs in the coldest environment while peak loads coincide with the warmest environment. The current baseline for this fluid is a 50/50 inhibited propylene glycol/water mixture with a freeze temperature around -35 C. While the overall size of the radiator's heat rejection area is dictated by the worst case hot scenario, a turn-down feature is necessary to tolerate the worst case cold scenario. A radiator with digital turn-down capability is being designed as a robust means to maintain cabin environment and equipment temperatures while minimizing mass and power consumption. It utilizes active valving to isolate and render ineffective any number of parallel flow tubes which span across the ATCS radiator. Several options were assessed in a trade-study to accommodate flow tube isolation and how to deal with the stagnant fluid that would otherwise remain in the tube. Bread-board environmental tests were conducted for options to drain the fluid from a turned-down leg as well an option to allow a leg to freeze/thaw. Each drain option involved a positive displacement gear pump with different methods of providing a pressure head to feed it. Test results showed that a start-up heater used to generate vapor at the tube inlet held the most promise for tube evacuation. Based on these test results and conclusions drawn from the trade-study, a full-scale radiator design is being worked for the Altair mission profile.
Ahamad, N. Ameer; Ravikumar, S.; Govindaraju, Kalimuthu
2017-07-01
The aim of the present attempt was to investigate an effect of slip and joule heating on MHD peristaltic Newtonian fluid through an asymmetric vertical tapered channel under influence of radiation. The Mathematical modeling is investigated by utilizing long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions. The effects of Hartmann number, porosity parameter, volumetric flow rate, radiation parameter, non uniform parameter, shift angle, Prandtl number, Brinkman number, heat source/sink parameter on temperature characteristics are presented graphically and discussed in detail.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pawdal-Desai, S.R.; Ghanekar, A.S.; Thomas, P.; Sreenivasan, A.
1973-01-01
A combination of mild heat and low dose irradiation was found to extend the shelf-life of fresh fruits and processed cereal foods by controlling mold infection. Chapaties (Indian unleavened bread) and bread slices packed in polycell pouches, subjected to 50 krad followed by dry heat (65 0 C) were free from mold and shelf-stable for 10 weeks at ambient temperature (28-32 0 C). Inoculated pack studies confirmed the efficiency of the treatment. No immediate changes in organoleptic attributes were discernible even after exposure to 100 krad. The quality deterioration in sliced bread stored for 2 1/2 months has been attributed to natural staling rather than radiation. Hot water dip (50 0 C for 5 min) followed by 150 krad irradiation extended the shelf-life of fresh figs by 3-4 days at 28-32 0 C and 8-10 days at 15 0 C. Regardless of the sequence of treatments, combination of heat and 100 krad extended the shelf-life of grapes both at ambinet and refrigerated storage. In mangoes, heat followed by 50 krad was effective in controlling anthracnose and stem-end rot whereas in bananas irradiated for delayed ripening, hot water treatment can be used as a supplementary process to control stem-end rot. Quality of combination treated fruits was comparable to normally ripened fruits. In vitro studies with fungal pathogens isolated from the above fruits and cereal foods revealed that the synergistic effect of heat-radiation combination depends on the sequence of treatments which varied with respect to different pathogens studied. Some biochemical aspects of combination treated fruits is discussed. (F.J.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sizyuk, V., E-mail: vsizyuk@purdue.edu; Hassanein, A., E-mail: hassanein@purdue.edu [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)
2015-01-15
A fundamental issue in tokamak operation related to power exhaust during plasma instabilities is the understanding of heat and particle transport from the core plasma into the scrape-off layer and to plasma-facing materials. During abnormal and disruptive operation in tokamaks, radiation transport processes play a critical role in divertor/edge-generated plasma dynamics and are very important in determining overall lifetimes of the divertor and nearby components. This is equivalent to or greater than the effect of the direct impact of escaped core plasma on the divertor plate. We have developed and implemented comprehensive enhanced physical and numerical models in the upgraded HEIGHTS package for simulating detailed photon and particle transport in the evolved edge plasma during various instabilities. The paper describes details of a newly developed 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport model, including optimization methods of generated plasma opacities in the full range of expected photon spectra. Response of the ITER divertor's nearby surfaces due to radiation from the divertor-developed plasma was simulated by using actual full 3D reactor design and magnetic configurations. We analyzed in detail the radiation emission spectra and compared the emission of both carbon and tungsten as divertor plate materials. The integrated 3D simulation predicted unexpectedly high damage risk to the open stainless steel legs of the dome structure in the current ITER design from the intense radiation during a disruption on the tungsten divertor plate.
Changes in domestic heating fuel use in Greece: effects on atmospheric chemistry and radiation
Athanasopoulou, Eleni; Speyer, Orestis; Brunner, Dominik; Vogel, Heike; Vogel, Bernhard; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos
2017-09-01
For the past 8 years, Greece has been experiencing a major financial crisis which, among other side effects, has led to a shift in the fuel used for residential heating from fossil fuel towards biofuels, primarily wood. This study simulates the fate of the residential wood burning aerosol plume (RWB smog) and the implications on atmospheric chemistry and radiation, with the support of detailed aerosol characterization from measurements during the winter of 2013-2014 in Athens. The applied model system (TNO-MACC_II emissions and COSMO-ART model) and configuration used reproduces the measured frequent nighttime aerosol spikes (hourly PM10 > 75 µg m-3) and their chemical profile (carbonaceous components and ratios). Updated temporal and chemical RWB emission profiles, derived from measurements, were used, while the level of the model performance was tested for different heating demand (HD) conditions, resulting in better agreement with measurements for Tmin < 9 °C. Half of the aerosol mass over the Athens basin is organic in the submicron range, of which 80 % corresponds to RWB (average values during the smog period). Although organic particles are important light scatterers, the direct radiative cooling of the aerosol plume during wintertime is found low (monthly average forcing of -0.4 W m-2 at the surface), followed by a minor feedback to the concentration levels of aerosol species. The low radiative cooling of a period with such intense air pollution conditions is attributed to the timing of the smog plume appearance, both directly (longwave radiation increases during nighttime) and indirectly (the mild effect of the residual plume on solar radiation during the next day, due to removal and dispersion processes).
Changing transport processes in the stratosphere by radiative heating of sulfate aerosols
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
U. Niemeier
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2 into the stratosphere to form an artificial stratospheric aerosol layer is discussed as an option for solar radiation management. Sulfate aerosol scatters solar radiation and absorbs infrared radiation, which warms the stratospheric sulfur layer. Simulations with the general circulation model ECHAM5-HAM, including aerosol microphysics, show consequences of this warming, including changes of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO in the tropics. The QBO slows down after an injection of 4 Tg(S yr−1 and completely shuts down after an injection of 8 Tg(S yr−1. Transport of species in the tropics and sub-tropics depends on the phase of the QBO. Consequently, the heated aerosol layer not only impacts the oscillation of the QBO but also the meridional transport of the sulfate aerosols. The stronger the injection, the stronger the heating and the simulated impact on the QBO and equatorial wind systems. With increasing injection rate the velocity of the equatorial jet streams increases, and the less sulfate is transported out of the tropics. This reduces the global distribution of sulfate and decreases the radiative forcing efficiency of the aerosol layer by 10 to 14 % compared to simulations with low vertical resolution and without generated QBO. Increasing the height of the injection increases the radiative forcing only for injection rates below 10 Tg(S yr−1 (8–18 %, a much smaller value than the 50 % calculated previously. Stronger injection rates at higher levels even result in smaller forcing than the injections at lower levels.
Study of radiation heat transfer between PFC and vacuum vessel during SST-1 baking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chaudhuri, Paritosh E-mail: paritosh@ipr.res.in; Chenna Reddy, D.; Santra, P.; Khirwadkar, S.; Ravi Pragash, N.; Saxena, Y.C
2003-01-01
Steady-state superconducting tokamak (SST-1) is a medium size tokamak with superconducting magnetic field coils. Plasma facing components (PFC) of SST-1 are placed inside the vacuum vessel (VV) of the tokamak and are designed to be compatible for steady-state operation. The main consideration in the design of the PFC is the steady-state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m{sup 2}. In addition to remove high heat fluxes, the PFC are also designed to be compatible for baking at high temperature. Since it is difficult to calculate the radiation heat loads between PFC and VV in a 3-D irregular geometry, a simplified model of concentric cylinders has been chosen for the purpose of estimation of the power requirements and the thermal responses of PFC and VV during their bakeout phases. Thermal responses of the PFC and VV have been analysed and the analytical results have been compared with 2-D finite element analysis using ANSYS. The radiation losses between PFC and VV also have been evaluated on the actual model containing all PFC inside the VV.
The effect of heat and radiation on the initiation and elongation processes of DNA synthesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davies, R.C.; Bowden, G.T.; Cress, A.E.
1983-01-01
The pH step alkaline elution and alkaline sucrose gradient techniques were utilized to evaluate alterations in DNA replication (initiation and elongation) induced by heat and low dose X-irradiation in synchronized Chinese hamster ovary cells. The initiation and elongation processes of DNA synthesis were radioresistant at the G 1 /S boundary (4 hours after mitosis) while in mid S phase (9 hours after mitosis) DNA initiation and elongation were sensitive to X-irradiation. The initiation and elongation processes of DNA synthesis which were radiation resistant at the G 1 /S boundary could be inhibited by a hyperthermia treatment (43 0 C for 1 hour beginning at 4 hours after mitosis). The impairment of initiation in the heated cells was maintained through late S phase while that of elongation was reversible as judged by full recovery at 15 hours after mitosis. These data suggest that the known synergistic lethality of heat and radiation may be mediated by an impairment of initiation of DNA synthesis. (author)
Heat transfer enhancement of automobile radiator using H2O–CuO nanofluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Sabeel Khan
2017-04-01
Full Text Available In this article, we study heat transfer enhancement of water based nanofluids with application to automotive radiators. In this respect, we consider here three types of different nanoparticles viz. copper oxide (CuO, Titanium dioxide (TiO2 and Aluminum oxide (Al2O3. The dynamics of the flow in a radiator is governed by set of partial differential equations (PDEs along with boundary conditions which are formulated. Suitable similarity transformations are utilized to convert the PDEs into their respective system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs. The boundary value problem is solved using Shooting method embedded with Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg (RK-5 numerical scheme. Effects of different physical parameters are studied on profiles of velocity and temperature fields at boundary. In addition, influence of nanoparticle concentration factor on the local coefficient of skin-friction and Nusselt number is analyzed. We conclude that water based nanofluids with copper oxide nano-particles have a much higher heat transfer rate than the Al2O3-water and TiO2-water nanofluids. Moreover, larger the concentration of the CuO nanoparticles in the base fluid higher is the heat transfer rate of CuO-water nanofluid.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, Kota; Miura, Atsushi; Iizuka, Hideo; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi
2015-01-01
Near-field radiative heat transfer has been a subject of great interest due to the applicability to thermal management and energy conversion. In this letter, a submicron gap between a pair of diced fused quartz substrates is formed by using micromachined low-density pillars to obtain both the parallelism and small parasitic heat conduction. The gap uniformity is validated by the optical interferometry at four corners of the substrates. The heat flux across the gap is measured in a steady-state and is no greater than twice of theoretically predicted radiative heat flux, which indicates that the parasitic heat conduction is suppressed to the level of the radiative heat transfer or less. The heat conduction through the pillars is modeled, and it is found to be limited by the thermal contact resistance between the pillar top and the opposing substrate surface. The methodology to form and evaluate the gap promotes the near-field radiative heat transfer to various applications such as thermal rectification, thermal modulation, and thermophotovoltaics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ito, Kota, E-mail: kotaito@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Miura, Atsushi; Iizuka, Hideo [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)
2015-02-23
Near-field radiative heat transfer has been a subject of great interest due to the applicability to thermal management and energy conversion. In this letter, a submicron gap between a pair of diced fused quartz substrates is formed by using micromachined low-density pillars to obtain both the parallelism and small parasitic heat conduction. The gap uniformity is validated by the optical interferometry at four corners of the substrates. The heat flux across the gap is measured in a steady-state and is no greater than twice of theoretically predicted radiative heat flux, which indicates that the parasitic heat conduction is suppressed to the level of the radiative heat transfer or less. The heat conduction through the pillars is modeled, and it is found to be limited by the thermal contact resistance between the pillar top and the opposing substrate surface. The methodology to form and evaluate the gap promotes the near-field radiative heat transfer to various applications such as thermal rectification, thermal modulation, and thermophotovoltaics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Sandeep
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We analyzed the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic radiative flow and heat transfer characteristics of a dusty nanofluid over an exponentially permeable stretching surface in presence of volume fraction of dust and nano particles. We considered two types of nanofluids namely Cu-water and CuO-water embedded with conducting dust particles. The governing equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and solved numerically using Runge–Kutta based shooting technique. The effects of non-dimensional governing parameters namely magneticfield parameter, mass concentration of dust particles, fluid particle interaction parameter, volume fraction of dust particles, volume fraction of nano particles, unsteadiness parameter, exponential parameter, radiation parameter and suction/injection parameter on velocity profiles for fluid phase, dust phase and temperature profiles are discussed and presented through graphs. Also, friction factor and Nusselt numbers are discussed and presented for two dusty nanofluids separately. Comparisons of the present study were made with existing studies under some special assumptions. The present results have an excellent agreement with existing studies. Results indicated that the enhancement in fluid particle interaction increases the heat transfer rate and depreciates the wall friction. Also, radiation parameter has the tendency to increase the temperature profiles of the dusty nanofluid.
Liu, L. H.; Tan, J. Y.
2007-02-01
A least-squares collocation meshless method is employed for solving the radiative heat transfer in absorbing, emitting and scattering media. The least-squares collocation meshless method for radiative transfer is based on the discrete ordinates equation. A moving least-squares approximation is applied to construct the trial functions. Except for the collocation points which are used to construct the trial functions, a number of auxiliary points are also adopted to form the total residuals of the problem. The least-squares technique is used to obtain the solution of the problem by minimizing the summation of residuals of all collocation and auxiliary points. Three numerical examples are studied to illustrate the performance of this new solution method. The numerical results are compared with the other benchmark approximate solutions. By comparison, the results show that the least-squares collocation meshless method is efficient, accurate and stable, and can be used for solving the radiative heat transfer in absorbing, emitting and scattering media.
Casimir friction and near-field radiative heat transfer in graphene structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Volokitin, A.I. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Peter Gruenberg Inst.; Samara State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation). Physical Dept.
2017-05-01
The dependence of the Casimir friction force between a graphene sheet and a (amorphous) SiO{sub 2} substrate on the drift velocity of the electrons in the graphene sheet is studied. It is shown that the Casimir friction is strongly enhanced for the drift velocity above the threshold velocity when the friction is determined by the resonant excitation of the surface phonon-polaritons in the SiO{sub 2} substrate and the electron-hole pairs in graphene. The theory agrees well with the experimental data for the current-voltage dependence for unsuspended graphene on the SiO{sub 2} substrate. The theories of the Casimir friction and the near-field radiative energy transfer are used to study the heat generation and dissipation in graphene due to the interaction with phonon-polaritons in the (amorphous) SiO{sub 2} substrate and acoustic phonons in graphene. For suspended graphene, the energy transfer coefficient at nanoscale gap is ∝ three orders of magnitude larger than the radiative heat transfer coefficient of the blackbody radiation limit.
Casimir friction and near-field radiative heat transfer in graphene structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volokitin, A.I.; Samara State Technical Univ.
2017-01-01
The dependence of the Casimir friction force between a graphene sheet and a (amorphous) SiO 2 substrate on the drift velocity of the electrons in the graphene sheet is studied. It is shown that the Casimir friction is strongly enhanced for the drift velocity above the threshold velocity when the friction is determined by the resonant excitation of the surface phonon-polaritons in the SiO 2 substrate and the electron-hole pairs in graphene. The theory agrees well with the experimental data for the current-voltage dependence for unsuspended graphene on the SiO 2 substrate. The theories of the Casimir friction and the near-field radiative energy transfer are used to study the heat generation and dissipation in graphene due to the interaction with phonon-polaritons in the (amorphous) SiO 2 substrate and acoustic phonons in graphene. For suspended graphene, the energy transfer coefficient at nanoscale gap is ∝ three orders of magnitude larger than the radiative heat transfer coefficient of the blackbody radiation limit.
Fabrication of vitrified isotopic heat and radiation sources for testing in the Asse Mine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holton, L.K.; Burkholder, H.C.; McElroy, J.L.; Kahl, L.; Kroebel, R.; Rothfuchs, T.; Strippler, R.
1989-02-01
The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy, has produced 30 isotopic heat and radiation sources (canisters) for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) to be used as part of a repository testing program in the Asse Salt Mine. PNL was responsible for the fabrication, including filling, closing, decontaminating, and characterizing the canisters. The canisters were fabricated (filled) in three separate processing campaigns using the radioactive liquid-fed ceramic melter to produce a borosilicate glass. Radiochemical constituents ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) were immobilized within the borosilicate glass matrix to yield a product with a predetermined decay heat and surface radiation exposure rate. Canister lid-welding was completed using an autogenous gas tungsten arc welding process. A helium leak test of lid weld tightness verified the leak rate to be no greater than 2.4 /times/ 10/sup /minus/8/ atm-cc/sec, which was less than the criterion of 10/sup /minus/7/ atm-cc/sec. The top, sides, and bottom of the canisters were decontaminated by electropolishing. All canisters were decontaminated to surface smear contamination levels of less than 33 Bq/100 cm 2 beta-gamma radiation. No significant alpha contamination was observed on canister surfaces. 11 figs., 2 tabs
Ghandehari, Masoud; Emig, Thorsten; Aghamohamadnia, Milad
2018-02-02
Despite decades of research seeking to derive the urban energy budget, the dynamics of thermal exchange in the densely constructed environment is not yet well understood. Using New York City as a study site, we present a novel hybrid experimental-computational approach for a better understanding of the radiative heat transfer in complex urban environments. The aim of this work is to contribute to the calculation of the urban energy budget, particularly the stored energy. We will focus our attention on surface thermal radiation. Improved understanding of urban thermodynamics incorporating the interaction of various bodies, particularly in high rise cities, will have implications on energy conservation at the building scale, and for human health and comfort at the urban scale. The platform presented is based on longwave hyperspectral imaging of nearly 100 blocks of Manhattan, in addition to a geospatial radiosity model that describes the collective radiative heat exchange between multiple buildings. Despite assumptions in surface emissivity and thermal conductivity of buildings walls, the close comparison of temperatures derived from measurements and computations is promising. Results imply that the presented geospatial thermodynamic model of urban structures can enable accurate and high resolution analysis of instantaneous urban surface temperatures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, L.H.; Tan, J.Y.
2007-01-01
A least-squares collocation meshless method is employed for solving the radiative heat transfer in absorbing, emitting and scattering media. The least-squares collocation meshless method for radiative transfer is based on the discrete ordinates equation. A moving least-squares approximation is applied to construct the trial functions. Except for the collocation points which are used to construct the trial functions, a number of auxiliary points are also adopted to form the total residuals of the problem. The least-squares technique is used to obtain the solution of the problem by minimizing the summation of residuals of all collocation and auxiliary points. Three numerical examples are studied to illustrate the performance of this new solution method. The numerical results are compared with the other benchmark approximate solutions. By comparison, the results show that the least-squares collocation meshless method is efficient, accurate and stable, and can be used for solving the radiative heat transfer in absorbing, emitting and scattering media
Morphological response of human rotavirus to ultra-violet radiation, heat and disinfectants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodgers, F.G.; Hufton, P.; Kurzawska, E.; Molloy, C.; Morgan, S.
1985-01-01
The morphological damage induced in human rotavirus particles by exposure to UV radiation (254 nm) increased progressively with length of treatment. Exposure of the virus in suspension to 9000 ergs/cm 2 /s removed the smooth capsid layer from 50% of particles after 1 min and from all the virions within 10 min. By this time, the number of stain-penetrated or empty particles increased markedly, along with the appearance of virus-derived debris in the form of disrupted and isolated capsomeres. After treatment for 120 min no intact virus particles were observed. The action of wet (100 0 C) or dry (60 0 C) heat resulted in changes similar to those effected by UV radiation. Sodium hypochlorite, cetrimide and 70% ethanol induced a rapid loss of the outer capsid layer, but, compared with UV radiation or heat, a slower increase in the number of stain-penetrated particles was noted. Chlorhexidine and phenol had effects on virus structure only after extended periods of exposure, whilst glutaraldehyde treatment had little influence on virus morphology. Glutaraldehyde 2% v/v would appear to be most suitable for the disinfection of rotavirus-containing electron microscope grids before their examination. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdel-Fattah, K.I.; Abou-Safi, H.M.
2003-01-01
Since Egypt is classified as a hot country, the present work has been directed to study the combined effect of heat stress and gamma radiation exposure on blood thyroid hormonal levels and some other parameters. Four groups of rats were served as: control, whole-body gamma irradiated (6Gy), exposed to ambient heat stress (38 C-40 C) and a group exposed to heat stress and irradiation. Four time intervals 1, 3, 5 and 7 days were determined for heat stress or exposure to heat followed by irradiation. Blood samples and liver specimens were taken at the end of each time interval in the third group and after one hour of irradiation in the second and fourth groups. To detect the radiation effects after the different periods of heat stress, plasma levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4), lipid fractions (triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol), glucose and liver glycogen content were determined. The results revealed that exposure to heat and ionizing radiation leads to a decrease in the levels of thyroid hormones, which was mostly pronounced in the T3 levels. Plasma glucose levels showed significant elevations in both, the heat-stressed group and the heat-treated then irradiated group. While, liver glycogen content exhibited similar elevations only during the 1st, 3 rd and 5 th days of heating followed by irradiation treatment as compared to the heat stressed group. Yet, it showed significant declines in comparison with both control and irradiated groups. Enormous increments in all determined plasma lipid fractions were induced by heat stress and / or gamma radiation
Radiation induced Maillard reactions (the kinetic of colour formation during heating)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tegota, A.; Bachman, S.
1998-01-01
The results are presented of the investigation of the effect of ionizing radiation from 60 Co on the acceleration of the Maillard reactions in a model system containing an aqueous solution of fructose (F) at 0.03 mol/dm 3 and alanine (Ala) at 0.01 mol/dm 3 . Solutions of F/Ala irradiated with 5 to 30 kGy at a dose rate 1.4 Gy/s were then heated for a few hours at different temperatures: 400, 600, 800, and 1000 deg C. The colour intensity of the solutions was measured via their absorbance at 450 nm. The reaction constant estimates increased with increasing radiation dose and temperature. The activation energy of colour development determined over the range of 600 deg C to 1000 deg C decreased with dose from 70.6 kJ/mol for 5 kGy to 60.7 kJ/mol for 30 kGy. The results confirmed the formation of carbonyl products from fructose radiolysis and their participation in the acceleration of the non-enzymatic browning reactions. The aldehyde products formed from the amino acids as a result of the Strecker degradation are responsible for the formation of odour typical of the Maillard reaction during heating. The changes in the F and Ala concentrations during irradiation of the solutions were proportional to the radiation dose. The radiation yield of fructose and alanine decomposition was G = 2.6 and 0.22, respectively. In the irradiated solutions of F/Ala, serine has been found, which has not been mentioned so far as a product of alanine radiolysis. The study demonstrates the influence of radiation and acceleration of the Maillard reaction during subsequent heating at 400 deg C up to 1000 deg C of systems containing reducing sugars and amino acids. It should be taken under consideration in the studies on introducing radiation technology of food products preservation connected with further thermal treatment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsui, M. (Fukuyama Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)
1994-07-01
The committee was established in July 1990 for research and investigation of infrared (IR) heating technology and finished its activity in March 1993. This report describes the committee members and the results of research and investigation. (1) Application of IR radiation (sensing): the research and investigation results were reported on the following items; the recognition of letters and patterns on cultural properties by IR radiation, the passive sensor (detecting the IR radiated from the object without emitting from the sensor), the IR image system, and the diagnosis of outer wail of buildings. (2) The following were researched on the IR radiation source and IR emitting material; multi-functional heating element having far infrared radiation function and deodorant function, the emissivity of far IR radiation, and the evaluation of the functions by the difference in emissivity. (3) The IR heating technology was described on the following: drying the persimmon using far IR radiation, the present situation of research on IR heating done by foreign power supply companies, and the feature and the application of far IR heater. In addition to these, the following were also reported; (4) measurement of IR radiation and (5) effect of living body and organism.
Bajargaan, Ruchi; Patel, Arvind
2018-04-01
One-dimensional unsteady adiabatic flow behind an exponential shock wave propagating in a self-gravitating, rotating, axisymmetric dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux, which has exponentially varying azimuthal and axial fluid velocities, is investigated. The shock wave is driven out by a piston moving with time according to an exponential law. The dusty gas is taken to be a mixture of a non-ideal gas and small solid particles. The density of the ambient medium is assumed to be constant. The equilibrium flow conditions are maintained and energy is varying exponentially, which is continuously supplied by the piston. The heat conduction is expressed in the terms of Fourier's law, and the radiation is assumed of diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity and the absorption coefficient are assumed to vary with temperature and density according to a power law. The effects of the variation of heat transfer parameters, gravitation parameter and dusty gas parameters on the shock strength, the distance between the piston and the shock front, and on the flow variables are studied out in detail. It is interesting to note that the similarity solution exists under the constant initial angular velocity, and the shock strength is independent from the self gravitation, heat conduction and radiation heat flux.
Otani, Hidenori; Goto, Takayuki; Goto, Heita; Shirato, Minayuki
2017-01-01
High solar radiation has been recognised as a contributing factor to exertional heat-related illness in individuals exercising outdoors in the heat. Although solar radiation intensity has been known to have similar time-of-day variation as body temperature, the relationship between fluctuations in solar radiation associated with diurnal change in the angle of sunlight and thermoregulatory responses in individuals exercising outdoors in a hot environment remains largely unknown. The present study therefore investigated the time-of-day effects of variations in solar radiation associated with changing solar elevation angle on thermoregulatory responses during moderate-intensity outdoor exercise in the heat of summer. Eight healthy, high school baseball players, heat-acclimatised male volunteers completed a 3-h outdoor baseball trainings under the clear sky in the heat. The trainings were commenced at 0900 h in AM trial and at 1600 h in PM trial each on a separate day. Solar radiation and solar elevation angle during exercise continued to increase in AM (672-1107 W/m 2 and 44-69°) and decrease in PM (717-0 W/m 2 and 34-0°) and were higher on AM than on PM (both P 0.05). Tympanic temperature measured by an infrared tympanic thermometer and mean skin temperature were higher in AM than PM at 120 and 180 min (P 0.05). The current study demonstrates a greater thermoregulatory strain in the morning than in the afternoon resulting from a higher body temperature and heart rate in relation to an increase in environmental heat stress with rising solar radiation and solar elevation angle during moderate-intensity outdoor exercise in the heat. This response is associated with a lesser net heat loss at the skin and a greater body heat gain from the sun in the morning compared with the afternoon.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verbenko, V.N.; Kuznetsova, L.V.; Bikineeva, E.G.; Kalinin, V.L.
1992-01-01
Lethal effects of γ-irradiation were studied in Escherichia coli strains with normal repair genotype and in radiation-resistant Gam r strains, both carrying additional mutations in the structural genes dnaK, grpE, groES or groEL. The null mutation ΔdnaK52::Cm r enhanced radiation sensitivity of wild-type cells and abolished the effect of heat induced rediation-resistance (ETIRR) and elevated radiation resistance of the Gam r strains
Mahdi, M.; Ebrahimi, R.; Shams, M.
2011-06-01
A numerical scheme for simulating the acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation was developed. Bubble instantaneous radius was obtained using Gilmore equation which considered the compressibility of the liquid. A uniform temperature was assumed for the inside gas during the collapse. Radiation heat transfer inside the bubble and the heat conduction to the bubble was considered. The numerical code was validated with the experimental data and a good correspondence was observed. The dynamics of hydrofoil cavitation bubble were also investigated. It was concluded that the thermal radiation heat transfer rate strongly depended on the cavitation number, initial bubble radius and hydrofoil angle of attack.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parks, C.V.; Hermann, O.W.; Ryman, J.C.
1986-01-01
In order to be a self-sufficient system for transport/storage cask shielding and heat transfer analysis, the SCALE system developers included modules to evaluate spent fuel radiation spectra and decay heat. The primary module developed for these analyses is ORIGEN-S which is an updated verision of the original ORIGEN code. The COUPLE module was also developed to enable ORIGEN-S to easily utilize multigroup cross sections and neutron flux data during a depletion analysis. Finally, the SAS2 control module was developed for automating the depletion and decay via ORIGEN-S while using burnup-dependent neutronic data based on a user-specified fuel assembly and reactor history. The ORIGEN-S data libraries available for depletion and decay have also been significantly updated from that developed with the original ORIGEN code
Radiative flow of Carreau liquid in presence of Newtonian heating and chemical reaction
Hayat, T.; Ullah, Ikram; Ahmad, B.; Alsaedi, A.
Objective of this article is to investigate the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer stretched flow of Carreau fluid in the presence of Newtonian heating. Sheet is presumed permeable. Analysis is studied in the presence of chemical reaction and thermal radiation. Mathematical formulation is established by using the boundary layer approximations. The resultant nonlinear flow analysis is computed for the convergent solutions. Interval of convergence via numerical data and plots are obtained and verified. Impact of numerous pertinent variables on the velocity, temperature and concentration is outlined. Numerical data for surface drag coefficient, surface heat transfer (local Nusselt number) and mass transfer (local Sherwood number) is executed and inspected. Comparison of skin friction coefficient in limiting case is made for the verification of current derived solutions.
Radiation dosimetry of iodine-123 HEAT, an alpha-1 receptor imaging agent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, K.D.; Greer, D.M.; Couch, M.W.; Williams, C.M.
1987-01-01
Biologic distribution data in the rat were obtained for the alpha-1 adrenoceptor imaging agent (+/-) 2-[beta-(iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylaminomethyl]tetralone (HEAT) labeled with [ 123 I]. The major excretory routes were through the liver (67%) and the kidney (33%). Internal radiation absorbed dose estimates to nine source organs, total body, the GI tract, gonads, and red bone marrow were calculated for the human using the physical decay data for [ 123 I]. The critical organ was found to be the lower large intestine, receiving 1.1 rad per mCi of [ 123 I]HEAT administered. The total-body dose was found to be 58 mrad per mCi
Circular heat and momentum flux radiated by magneto-optical nanoparticles
Ott, A.; Ben-Abdallah, P.; Biehs, S.-A.
2018-05-01
In the present article we investigate the heat and momentum fluxes radiated by a hot magneto-optical nanoparticle in its surroundings under the action of an external magnetic field. We show that the flux lines circulate in a confined region at a nanometric distance from the particle around the axis of the magnetic field in a vortexlike configuration. Moreover we prove that the spatial orientation of these vortices (clockwise or counterclockwise) is associated with the contribution of optical resonances with topological charges m =+1 or m =-1 to the thermal emission. This work paves the way for a geometric description of heat and momentum transport in lattices of magneto-optical particles. Moreover it could have important applications in the field of energy storage as well as in thermal management at nanoscale.
Molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin.
Akhalaya, M Ya; Maksimov, G V; Rubin, A B; Lademann, J; Darvin, M E
2014-07-01
The generation of ROS underlies all solar infrared-affected therapeutic and pathological cutaneous effects. The signaling pathway NF-kB is responsible for the induced therapeutic effects, while the AP-1 for the pathological effects. The different signaling pathways of infrared-induced ROS and infrared-induced heat shock ROS were shown to act independently multiplying the influence on each other by increasing the doses of irradiation and/or increasing the temperature. The molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin are summarized and discussed in detail in the present paper. The critical doses are determined. Protection strategies against infrared-induced skin damage are proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Conservation of apple and pear juice concentrates. Synergic effect of heat and radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaupert, N.L.; Lescano, H.G.; Kotliar, N.
1981-01-01
This paper aims at assessing the feasibility for conserving apple and pear-juice concentrates through the synergic action of heat and radiation. The material was packed in sterile 100-μm polyethylene bags and, after the treatment was applied, the resulting fractions were stored under room temperature (25 0 C+-1 0 C). The temperature applied to the samples before irradiation was 50 0 C during 10 minutes and the doses were 100, 200, 300 and 400 krad. For such purposes, a 60 Co 165-krad/h source was used, located in a mobile irradiator. Periodical microbiological, chemical and organoleptic controls of the food were performed on both control and on irradiated samples, with or without heat. A single alterating microorganism was isolated from all the samples, which was featured as Saccharomyces rouxii. Adopting the temperature as an application variable and the absorbed dose as a constant, the above osmophilic yeast is considerably more sensitive to radiations when it is suspended in a 50% sucrose solution, after the latter was submitted to a 50 0 C temperature treatment. It has been proved that 72.5 krad are needed to attain the reduction of a logarithmic cycle in the Saccharomyces rouxii population irradiated at room temperature, while 36 krad are needed if the sample has been previously heated to 50 0 C for 10 minutes. An attempt was made to apply the synergism of such process to the juice concentrate. Below 50 0 C associated with 400 krad gamma radiation, a total inactivation took place in the Saccharomyces rouxii during the 150 days under analysis. Colour changes were detected in the concentrate; however, the acceptability features for consumption remained at a normal value (level 5) in a hedonic scale of 7 points. (author)
Marangoni convection radiative flow of dusty nanoliquid with exponential space dependent heat source
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Basavarajappa Mahanthesh
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The flow of liquids submerged with nanoparticles is of significance to industrial applications, specifically in nuclear reactors and the cooling of nuclear systems to improve energy efficiency. The application of nanofluids in water-cooled nuclear systems can result in a significant improvement of their economic performance and/or safety margins. Therefore, in this paper, Marangoni thermal convective boundary layer dusty nanoliquid flow across a flat surface in the presence of solar radiation is studied. A two phase dusty liquid model is considered. Unlike classical temperature-dependent heat source effects, an exponential space-dependent heat source aspect is considered. Stretching variables are utilized to transform the prevailing partial differential system into a nonlinear ordinary differential system, which is then solved numerically via the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg approach coupled with a shooting technique. The roles of physical parameters are focused in momentum and heat transport distributions. Graphical illustrations are also used to consider local and average Nusselt numbers. We examined the results under both linear and quadratic variation of the surface temperature. Our simulations established that the impact of Marangoni flow is useful for an enhancement of the heat transfer rate.
Antithermal shield for rockets with heat evacuation by infrared radiation reflection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ioan RUSU
2010-12-01
Full Text Available At high speed, the friction between the air mass and the rocket surface causes a localheating of over 1000 Celsius degrees. For the heat protection of the rocket, on its outside surfacethermal shields are installed.Studying the Coanda effect, the fluid flow on solids surface, respectively, the author Ioan Rusuhas discovered by simply researches that the Coanda effect could be /extended also to the fluid flowon discontinuous solids, namely, on solids provided with orifices. This phenomenon was named by theauthor, the expanded Coanda effect. Starting with this discovery, the author has invented a thermalshield, registered at The State Office for inventions and Trademarks OSIM, deposit F 2010 0153This thermal shield:- is built as a covering rocket sheet with many orifices installed with a minimum space fromthe rocket body- takes over the heat fluid generated by the frontal part of the rocket and avoids the directcontact between the heat fluid and the rocket body- ensures the evacuation of the infrared radiation, generated by the heat fluid flowing overthe shield because of the extended Coanda effect by reflection from the rocket bodysurface.
Levin, Andrey V.
1996-04-01
High-speed, efficient method of laser surface treatment has been developed using (500 W) cw CO2 laser. The principal advantages of CO2 laser surface treatment in comparison with solid state lasers are the basis of the method. It has been affirmed that high efficiency of welding was a consequence of the fundamental properties of metal-IR-radiation (10,6 mkm) interaction. CO2 laser hermetization of metal frames of microelectronic devices is described as an example of the proposed method application.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thonneau, P.F.; Rachou, E.; Ducot, B.; Multigner, L.; Velez de la Calle, J.P.; Le Martelot, M.T.
1998-01-01
Very few studies have investigated the possible effects of environmental radiation and heat exposure on male reproductive function. We conducted a case control study to evaluate the various infertility risk factors in the military population of the french town of Brest to investigate an apparently high incidence of infertility in couples in which the man may have been exposed to occupational nuclear radiation. These findings suggest that in addition to well known medical factors, 'potential' exposure to heat or nuclear radiation could also be risk factors for infertility. (N.C.)
Micromachined sensor and actuator research at Sandia`s Microelectronics Development Laboratory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, J.H.
1996-11-01
An overview of the surface micromachining program at the Microelectronics Development Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories is presented. Development efforts are underway for a variety of surface micromachined sensors and actuators for both defense and commercial applications. A technology that embeds micromechanical devices below the surface of the wafer prior to microelectronics fabrication has been developed for integrating microelectronics with surface-micromachined micromechanical devices. The application of chemical-mechanical polishing to increase the manufacturability of micromechanical devices is also presented.
Jin, Weiliang; Messina, Riccardo; Rodriguez, Alejandro W
2017-06-26
Radiative heat transfer between uniform plates is bounded by the narrow range and limited contribution of surface waves. Using a combination of analytical calculations and numerical gradient-based optimization, we show that such a limitation can be overcome in complicated multilayer geometries, allowing the scattering and coupling rates of slab resonances to be altered over a broad range of evanescent wavevectors. We conclude that while the radiative flux between two inhomogeneous slabs can only be weakly enhanced, the flux between a dipolar particle and an inhomogeneous slab-proportional to the local density of states-can be orders of magnitude larger, albeit at the expense of increased frequency selectivity. A brief discussion of hyperbolic metamaterials shows that they provide far less enhancement than optimized inhomogeneous slabs.
View factor for radiation heat exchange between the wall and end of a cylinder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Bahadili, H.; Wood, J.
1991-01-01
In a paper by previous authors (Carlson and Garcia (1984) Ann. Nucl. Energy Vol 11, No 4), a numerical integration technique (trapezoidal rule) is developed for the approximate calculation of view factors for radiant heat transfer, for both internal and external radiation, from the curved surface of a right circular cylinder. In that paper the variation of view factor for internal radiation (wall to bottom of cylinder) with height, H, of the cylinder, is shown to reach a maximum value of about 0.36 when H is about 0.3. This behaviour is remarked upon in the text. We wish to make two points: (i) the internal view factors for the cylinder can be determined analytically (ii) the view factor behavior shown is erroneous. In fact, the view factor decreases monatonically as H increases, achieving its greatest value (0.5) as H tends to zero. H is normalised to a radius of unity. (author)
The origin of polarized blackbody radiation from resistively heated multiwalled carbon nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aliev, Ali E.; Kuznetsov, Alexander A.
2008-01-01
We observed very pronounced polarization of light emitted by highly aligned free-standing multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) sheet in axial direction which is turned to the perpendicular polarization when a number of layers are increased. The radiation spectrum of resistively heated MWNT sheet closely follows to the Plank's blackbody radiation distribution. The obtained polarization features can be described by a classical dielectric cylindrical shell model, taking into consideration the contribution of delocalized π-electrons (π surface plasmons). In absorption (emission) the optical transverse polarizability, which is much smaller than longitudinal one, is substantially suppressed by depolarization effect due to screening by induced charges. This phenomenon suggests very simple and precise method to estimate the alignment of nanotubes in bundles or large assemblies
Contribution to the study of the ionization and heating of gases by laser radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veyrie, P.
1968-01-01
The ionization and heating of gases by the concentrated radiation of a neodymium laser is studied. The power is 300 MW, the gas studied is primarily deuterium between 300 mm and 2280 mm. The first part concerns a certain number of experimental results on the absorption of the radiation and on changes produced in the plasma as a function of time. From these results are deduced a certain number of consequences, amongst which may be mentioned the definition of a pre-ionization threshold. These experimental results are interpreted in the second part. A calculation is made of the length of the period during which the electrons multiply up to when the absorption becomes measurable. The last phase corresponds to the hydrodynamics evolution, the calculations are compared with the experiments. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory for the different phases. (author) [fr
Natural convective magneto-nanofluid flow and radiative heat transfer past a moving vertical plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Das
2015-03-01
Full Text Available An investigation of the hydromagnetic boundary layer flow past a moving vertical plate in nanofluids in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field and thermal radiation has been carried out. Three different types of water-based nanofluids containing copper, aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide are taken into consideration. The governing equations are solved using Laplace transform technique and the solutions are presented in closed form. The numerical values of nanofluid temperature, velocity, the rate of heat transfer and the shear stress at the plate are presented graphically for several values of the pertinent parameters. The present study finds applications in engineering devices.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khaled S.M.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we re-investigate the problem describing effects of radiation, Joule heating, and viscous dissipation on magnetohydrodynamic Marangoni convection boundary layer over a flat surface with suction/injection. The analytical solution obtained for the reduced system of non-linear-coupled differential equations governing the problem. Laplace transform successfully implemented to get the exact expression for the temperature profile. Furthermore, comparing the current exact results with approximate numerical results obtained using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method is introduced. These comparisons declare that the published numerical results agree with the current exact results. In addition, the effects of various parameters on the temperature profile are discussed graphically.
Chemical stress relaxation of ethylene-propylene copolymer rubber by heat and radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, M.; Okada, S.; Kuriyama, I.
1980-01-01
An attempt was made to shorten the evaluation time for the deterioration under various conditions caused by chemical reactions by extending the time-temperature superposition principle for the stress relaxation of rubber. In the case of deterioration by radiation instead of by heat, a time-dose rate reduction is proposed and the master curves obtained for chemical-stress relaxation of rubber. A new method which contains a numerical analysis of stress decay curves is proposed to obtain the rate of crosslinking and scission under irradiation for already crosslinked samples. (author)
Hameed K. Hamzah; Qusay Rasheed Al-Amir
2017-01-01
In this work, effect of adding MgO nanoparticle to base fluid (water) in car radiator has been implemented experimentally. In this investigation, an experimental test rig has been designed to study effect inlet temperature of nanofluid, the flow rate and nanoparticle volume fraction on heat transfer rates. Six different concentrations of nanofluid of 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%,1% ,1.5% and 2% have been prepared by mixed of MgO nanoparticles with water. Reynolds number of nanofluid was between 4500 a...
Residual heat estimation by using Cherenkov radiation in Tehran Research Reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arkani, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharib, M. [Tehran Research Reactor, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran 14395-836 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mgharib@aeoi.org.ir
2008-11-11
An experiment is set up in Tehran 5 MW research reactor to observe Cherenkov radiation response during post-shutdown periods. An ordinary PC camera is used for this purpose. Theoretical estimation of the total power including decay heat and neutronic power is checked against detector response. A general agreement suggests that the same setup could equally serve as an independent channel for similar purposes in other reactors. This suggested that a similar setup based on present experience could be utilized in other reactors especially with the aim of fuel surveillance and monitoring.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Condiff, D.W.
1987-03-01
The Differential Approximation of Radiation Heat Transfer which includes anisotropic scattering is formulated to account for multiple source and temperature fields of multiphase flow. The formulation is applied to a simplified model of a plume consisting of high temperature emissive particles in steam at parametrically variable lower temperatures. Parametric model calculations are presented which account for spectral emission and absorption by steam using a band approximation as well as emission, absorption and scattering by the debris. The results are found to be far more sensitive to emission properties of individual particles, than to their scattering properties at high temperatures
COMPUTATIONAL FLOW MODELLING OF FORMULA-SAE SIDEPODS FOR OPTIMUM RADIATOR HEAT MANAGEMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. M. DE SILVA
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Formula SAE vehicles, over the program’s history have showcased a myriad of aerodynamic packages, each claiming specific quantitative and qualitative features. This paper attempts to critique differing aerodynamic sidepod designs and their effect upon radiator heat management. Various features from inlet size, sidepod shape and size, presence of an undertray, suspension cover, gills and chimneys are analysed for their effects. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analyses are performed in the FLUENT environment, with the aid of GAMBIT meshing software and SolidWorks modelling.
Residual heat estimation by using Cherenkov radiation in Tehran Research Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arkani, M.; Gharib, M.
2008-01-01
An experiment is set up in Tehran 5 MW research reactor to observe Cherenkov radiation response during post-shutdown periods. An ordinary PC camera is used for this purpose. Theoretical estimation of the total power including decay heat and neutronic power is checked against detector response. A general agreement suggests that the same setup could equally serve as an independent channel for similar purposes in other reactors. This suggested that a similar setup based on present experience could be utilized in other reactors especially with the aim of fuel surveillance and monitoring.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moiseeva, L.A.; Budagov, R.S.; Khlopovskaya, E.I.
1992-01-01
In experiments with Wistar rats it was found that the increase in the length of the hexenal dream during the first week after the effect of a mixture of radiation and heat is much more pronounced than that observed after exposure to radiation alone and independent of the severity of a radiation component (gamma-radiation, 4, 6 and 7.5 Gy). The peculiarities revealed in the hypnotic effect of hexenal develop against the background of the postirradiation aggravation of hypoalbuminemia and decrease in the lever ATP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peyghambarzadeh, S.M.; Hashemabadi, S.H.; Naraki, M.; Vermahmoudi, Y.
2013-01-01
Heat transfer of coolant flow through the automobile radiators is of great importance for the optimization of fuel consumption. In this study, the heat transfer performance of the automobile radiator is evaluated experimentally by calculating the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) according to the conventional ε-NTU technique. Copper oxide (CuO) and Iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles are added to the water at three concentrations 0.15, 0.4, and 0.65 vol.% with considering the best pH for longer stability. In these experiments, the liquid side Reynolds number is varied in the range of 50–1000 and the inlet liquid to the radiator has a constant temperature which is changed at 50, 65 and 80 °C. The ambient air for cooling of the hot liquid is used at constant temperature and the air Reynolds number is varied between 500 and 700. However, the effects of these variables on the overall heat transfer coefficient are deeply investigated. Results demonstrate that both nanofluids show greater overall heat transfer coefficient in comparison with water up to 9%. Furthermore, increasing the nanoparticle concentration, air velocity, and nanofluid velocity enhances the overall heat transfer coefficient. In contrast, increasing the nanofluid inlet temperature, lower overall heat transfer coefficient was recorded. -- Highlights: ► Overall heat transfer coefficient in the car radiator measured experimentally. ► Nanofluids showed greater heat transfer performance comparing with water. ► Increasing liquid and air Re increases the overall heat transfer coefficient. ► Increasing the inlet liquid temperature decreases the overall heat transfer coefficient
Gu, Lianhong; Meyers, Tilden; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hanson, Paul J.; Yang, Bai; Heuer, Mark; Hosman, Kevin P.; Liu, Qing; Riggs, Jeffery S.; Sluss, Dan; Wullschleger, Stan D.
2007-01-01
The interest of this study was to develop an initial assessment on the potential importance of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages for land-atmosphere interactions, an issue that has been largely neglected so far. We conducted flux tower observations and model simulations at a temperate deciduous forest site in central Missouri in the summer of 2004. The model used was the comprehensive terrestrial ecosystem Fluxes and Pools Integrated Simulator (FAPIS). We first examined FAPIS performance by testing its predictions with and without the representation of biomass energy storages against measurements of surface energy and CO2 fluxes. We then evaluated the magnitudes and temporal patterns of the biomass energy storages calculated by FAPIS. Finally, the effects of biomass energy storages on land-atmosphere exchanges of sensible and latent heat fluxes and variations of land surface radiative temperature were investigated by contrasting FAPIS simulations with and without these storage terms. We found that with the representation of the two biomass energy storage terms, FAPIS predictions agreed with flux tower measurements fairly well; without the representation, however, FAPIS performance deteriorated for all predicted surface energy flux terms although the effect on the predicted CO2 flux was minimal. In addition, we found that the biomass heat storage and biochemical energy storage had clear diurnal patterns with typical ranges from -50 to 50 and -3 to 20 W m-2, respectively; these typical ranges were exceeded substantially when there were sudden changes in atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, FAPIS simulations without the energy storages produced larger sensible and latent heat fluxes during the day but smaller fluxes (more negative values) at night as compared with simulations with the energy storages. Similarly, without-storage simulations had higher surface radiative temperature during the day but lower radiative temperature at night, indicating that the
Radiation level analysis for the port cell of the ITER electron cyclotron-heating upper launcher
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weinhorst, Bastian, E-mail: bastian.weinhorst@kit.edu [KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Fischer, Ulrich; Lu, Lei [KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Strauss, Dirk; Spaeh, Peter; Scherer, Theo [KIT, Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Leichtle, Dieter [F4E, Analysis & Codes/Technical Support Services, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)
2016-11-01
Highlights: • First detailed neutronic modelling of the ECHUL port cell with ECHUL equipment (including beam lines with diamond windows, the beam lines mounting box, conduit boxes and rails). • Three different bioshield port plug configurations and two different neutron source configurations are investigated. • Radiation Levels are calculated in the port cell, focusing on the position of the diamond window. • The dose rate in the port cell is below the limit for maintenance in the port cell. • The radiation level at the diamond window is very low and should not influence its performance. - Abstract: The electron cyclotron-heating upper launcher (ECHUL) will be installed in four upper ports of the ITER tokamak thermonuclear fusion reactor. Each ECHUL is able to deposit 8 MW power into the plasma for plasma mode stabilization via microwave beam lines. An essential part of these beam lines are the diamond windows. They are located in the upper port cell behind the bioshield to reduce the radiation levels to a minimum. The paper describes the first detailed neutronic modelling of the ECHUL port cell with ECHUL equipment. The bioshield plug is modelled including passageways for the microwave beam lines, piping and cables looms as well as rails and openings for ventilation. The port cell is equipped with the beam lines including the diamond windows, the beam lines mounting box, conduit boxes and rails. The neutrons are transported into the port cell starting from a surface source in front of the bioshield. Neutronic results are obtained for radiation levels in the port cell at different positions, mainly focusing on the diamond windows position. It is shown that the radiation level is below the limit for maintenance in the port cell. The radiation level at the diamond window is very low and should not influence its performance.
Hydromagnetic flow and radiative heat transfer of nanofluid past a vertical plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Ganga
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Hydromagnetic flow of an incompressible viscous nanofluid past a vertical plate in the presence of thermal radiation is investigated both analytically and numerically. The radiative heat flux is described by the Rosseland diffusion approximation in the energy equation. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are converted into a set of ordinary differential equations by suitable similarity transformations. The resulting ordinary differential equations are successfully solved analytically with the help of homotopy analysis method and numerically by the fourth order RungeâKutta method with shooting technique. The effects of various physical parameters are analyzed and discussed in graphical and tabular forms. The effects of some physical parameters such as Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, radiation parameter and magnetic parameter are analyzed on the velocity, temperature and solid volume fraction profiles as well as on the reduced Nusselt number and the local Sherwood number. An excellent agreement is observed between present analytical and numerical results. Keywords: Nanofluid, Hydromagnetic, Homotopy analysis method, Vertical plate and thermal radiation
Synergy of ionizing radiation and of heating on the shelf life of the Italia grape
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domarco, Rachel Elisabeth; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Blumer, Lucimara; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges
1999-01-01
The storage behavior of grapes c v. Italia, immersed in hot water and irradiated with different radiation doses was studied through their chemical analysis (soluble solids, titratable acidity and p H) and sensorial analysis (overall appearance and firmness). Samples of 500 g grapes were used in 4 replicates per treatment. Part of them were immersed in hot water ( 50 deg C for 5 min) before irradiation and part was irradiated at room temperature (22 deg C - 25 deg C). The irradiation was performed using a Cobalto-60 source, type Gamma bean-650. The dose rate was 1.89 kGy/h. The radiation doses were 0 (control), 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kGy. After irradiation the samples were placed in cartoon boxes and stored under refrigeration at 6 deg C - 8 deg C. The chemical and sensorial analysis were performed after 60 days of storage. The titratable acidity and the p H increased significantly with increasing radiation doses. The heat and gamma radiation treatments, combined or not, did not extended the grape shelf life. (author)
Kovtanyuk, Andrey E.
2012-01-01
Radiative-conductive heat transfer in a medium bounded by two reflecting and radiating plane surfaces is considered. This process is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations: an equation of the radiative heat transfer and an equation of the conductive heat exchange. The problem is characterized by anisotropic scattering of the medium and by specularly and diffusely reflecting boundaries. For the computation of solutions of this problem, two approaches based on iterative techniques are considered. First, a recursive algorithm based on some modification of the Monte Carlo method is proposed. Second, the diffusion approximation of the radiative transfer equation is utilized. Numerical comparisons of the approaches proposed are given in the case of isotropic scattering. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Maddux, Gary
2000-01-01
The MT Division, Engineering Directorate (ED), RDEC, AMCOM has the mission and function of providing microelectronic technology assessments, and producibility and supportability analyses for the HAWK weapon system...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Maddux, Gary
1999-01-01
The Industrial Operations Division (IOD), SEPD, RDEC, AMCOM has the mission and function of providing microelectronic technology assessments, and producibility and supportability analyses for the HAWK weapon system...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vilchiz, Luis Enrique; Pacheco-Vega, Arturo; Handy, Brent E.
2005-01-01
Mathematical models of a Tian-Calvet microcalorimeter were solved numerically by the finite-element method in an effort to understand the relative importance of the three basic heat transfer mechanisms operative during gas dosing experiments typically used to determine heats of adsorption on catalysts and adsorbents. The analysis pays particular attention to the quantitative release of heat through various elements of the cell and sensor cups to assess time delays and the deg.ree of thermal shunting that may result in inaccuracies in calorimetric measurements. Conductive transfer predominates in situations where there is high gas headspace pressure. The convection currents that arise when dosing with considerable gas pressure in the cell headspace region are not sufficiently strong to shunt significant amounts of sample heat away from being sensed by the surrounding thermopiles. Therefore, the heat capture fraction (heat sensed/heat produced) does not vary significantly with gas headspace pressure. During gas dosing under very low gas headspace pressure, radiation losses from the top of the sample bed may significantly affect the heat capture fraction, leading to underestimations of adsorption heats, unless the heat radiated from the top of the catalyst bed is effectively reflected back to the sample region or absorbed by an inert packing layer also in thermal contact with the thermopile wall
Basic radiation effects in nuclear power electronics technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gover, J.E.; Srour, J.R.
1985-05-01
An overview is presented of the effects of radiation in microelectronics technology. The approach taken throughout these notes is to review microscopic phenomena associated with radiation effects and to show how these lead to macroscopic effects in semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. Bipolar integrated circuits technology is reviewed in Appendix A. Appendix B gives present and future applications of radiation-tolerant microelectronics in nuclear power applications as well as the radiation tolerance requirements of these applications
An Approach for Impression Creep of Lead Free Microelectronic Solders
Anastasio, Onofrio A.
2002-06-01
Currently, the microelectronics industry is transitioning from lead-containing to lead-free solders in response to legislation in the EU and Japan. Before an alternative alloy can be designated as a replacement for current Pb-Sn extensive testing must be accomplished. One major characteristic of the alloy that must be considered is creep. Traditionally, creep testing requires numerous samples and a long tin, which thwarts the generation of comprehensive creep databases for difficult to prepare samples such as microelectronic solder joints. However, a relatively new technique, impression creep enables us to rapidly generate creep data. This test uses a cylindrical punch with a flat end to make an impression on the surface of a specimen under constant load. The steady state velocity of the indenter is found to have the same stress and temperature dependence as the conventional unidirectional creep test using bulk specimens. This thesis examines impression creep tests of eutectic Sn-Ag. A testing program and apparatus was developed constructed based on a servo hydraulic test frame. The apparatus is capable of a load resolution of 0.01N with a stability of plus/minus 0.1N, and a displacement resolution of 0.05 microns with a stability of plus/minus 0.1 microns. Samples of eutectic Sn-Ag solder were reflowed to develop the microstructure used in microelectronic packaging. Creep tests were conducted at various stresses and temperatures and showed that coarse microstructures creep more rapidly than the microstructures in the tested regime.
Using SDI-12 with ST microelectronics MCU's
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saari, Alexandra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hinzey, Shawn Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Frigo, Janette Rose [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Proicou, Michael Chris [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Borges, Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-09-03
ST Microelectronics microcontrollers and processors are readily available, capable and economical processors. Unfortunately they lack a broad user base like similar offerings from Texas Instrument, Atmel, or Microchip. All of these devices could be useful in economical devices for remote sensing applications used with environmental sensing. With the increased need for environmental studies, and limited budgets, flexibility in hardware is very important. To that end, and in an effort to increase open support of ST devices, I am sharing my teams' experience in interfacing a common environmental sensor communication protocol (SDI-12) with ST devices.
High Efficiency Microchannel Diamond Heat Sinks, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While absolute power levels in microelectronic devices are relatively modest (a few tens to a few hundred watts), heat fluxes can be significant (~50 W/cm2 in...
Salomatov, V. V.; Puzyrev, E. M.; Salomatov, A. V.
2018-05-01
A class of nonlinear problems of nonstationary radiative-convective heat transfer under the microwave action with a small penetration depth is considered in a stabilized coolant flow in a circular channel. The solutions to these problems are obtained, using asymptotic procedures at the stages of nonstationary and stationary convective heat transfer on the heat-radiating channel surface. The nonstationary and stationary stages of the solution are matched, using the "longitudinal coordinate-time" characteristic. The approximate solutions constructed on such principles correlate reliably with the exact ones at the limiting values of the operation parameters, as well as with numerical and experimental data of other researchers. An important advantage of these solutions is that they allow the determination of the main regularities of the microwave and thermal radiation influence on convective heat transfer in a channel even before performing cumbersome calculations. It is shown that, irrespective of the heat exchange regime (nonstationary or stationary), the Nusselt number decreases and the rate of the surface temperature change increases with increase in the intensity of thermal action.
Effect of heat and ionizing radiation on normal and neoplastic tissue of the C3H mouse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thrall, D.E.; Gillette, E.L.; Dewey, W.C.
1975-01-01
The radiation response of the skin of the C3H mouse was evaluated in terms of the dose of radiation required to produce moist desquamation completely surrounding the lower aspect of the hind leg by 21 days following irradiation (DD50-21). Irradiation of the leg under various conditions of local tissue oxygenation indicated that when the animals were breathing air (ambient conditions), the cells in the skin were not fully oxygenated. Heat was administered by immersing the leg for 15 min in 44.5 0 C water either immediately prior to or immediately following irradiation under various conditions of local tissue oxygenation. Heat administered following irradiation reduced the DD50-21 values by 724 rad for hyperbaric O 2 , 1210 rad for ambient, and 1656 rad for hypoxic conditions. Approximately these same rad equivalents were observed when heat was administered prior to irradiation, under hyperbaric O 2 and hypoxic conditions. However, administration of heat prior to irradiation under ambient conditions sensitized the cells to the effects of ionizing radiation. This sensitization was assumed to result from heat causing an increase in local tissue oxygenation prior to and at the time of irradiation. The effect of the heat dose administered under acute hypoxic conditions immediately prior to acute hypoxic irradiation was not significantly different from the protocol where heat was administered under ambient conditions immediately prior to acute hypoxic irradiation. This indicates an independence of the magnitude of the heat effect on the tissue oxygenation status at the time of heating. The response of the C3H mouse mammary adenocarcinoma to combined wet heat (Δ) and x radiation (X) administered under either hypoxic, ambient, or hyperbaric O 2 conditions of local tissue oxygenation was studied. (U.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amaya, J.; Cabrit, O.; Poitou, D.; Cuenot, B.; El Hafi, M.
2010-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of an anisothermal reacting turbulent channel flow with and without radiative source terms have been performed to study the influence of the radiative heat transfer on the optically non-homogeneous boundary layer structure. A methodology for the study of the emitting/absorbing turbulent boundary layer (TBL) is presented. Details on the coupling strategy and the parallelization techniques are exposed. An analysis of the first order statistics is then carried out. It is shown that, in the studied configuration, the global structure of the thermal boundary layer is not significantly modified by radiation. However, the radiative transfer mechanism is not negligible and contributes to the heat losses at the walls. The classical law-of-the-wall for temperature can thus be improved for RANS/LES simulations taking into account the radiative contribution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muresan, C.
2005-01-01
The present work is supported by the CSTB and the ADEME and is a part of an Integrated Research Project - Energy Program of CNRS - (http://www.imp.cnrs.fr/energie/) coordinated by the CETHIL: 'Integration of hybrid Thermal - Photovoltaic solar collector in buildings'. In this context, this thesis represents upstream studies led in the I.R.P., pursuing the study itself of these hybrid components in stage of integration to the framework of buildings (thermal/electric management in response to the needs). Its objective falls under an action to identify and look further into knowledge of the limiting factors of the efficiency of these hybrid components (the operating temperature of the photosensitive cells), to identify the enduring scientific bolts persisting and to contribute to removing them. To reach this aim, predictive numerical tools are developed in order to guide and follow the future evolutions of these active wall elements. The problems related to the Photovoltaic components of Mono or Poly crystalline type, namely the risk of heating of the modules included within the built framework that can lead to a degradation of their energy efficiency. The developed model aims at obtaining the evaluation of the internal field of temperature. The modeling of the radiative behavior of multi-layer components of not scattering semi-transparent media is carried out. Propagation of a collimated flux corresponds to the direct solar radiation, and a diffuse flux represents the solar radiation diffused and that resulting from the other external sources (environment). Both are treated in a separate way. The incidental radiation power and radiative net flux are thus evaluated by a superposition of the values obtained at the time of the separate studies of the two components. The collimated component of incidental flux is treated according to an approach of 'ray tracing' type. The Discrete Ordinates Method (DOM) associated to the method of finite volumes, is employed for the
Characterization and radiation response of a heat-resistant variant of V79 cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, S.D.; Kruuv, J.; Lepock, J.R.
1983-01-01
A thermoresistant variant of the established cell line V79-S171-W1 was isolated after treatment with nitrosoguanidine and repeated heat treatments at 42.6 to 43 degrees C, and showed an enhanced ability to survive at 42.6, 43.5, and 44.5 degrees C. The rates of inactivation of the normal and heat-resistant lines differed by approximately a factor of 2 over this temperature range. This level of thermoresistance was stable for the first 80 doublings, but was lost by 120 doublings. This may have been due to a reversion to the normal V79 line since there was no continuous selection pressure and the thermoresistant variant, which was designated at HR7, had a longer average doubling time. Transient thermotolerance was induced in both the V79 and HR7 cells by a 10-min exposure to 44.5 degrees C. After 3 hr incubation at 37 degrees C, both cell lines had an identical sensitivity to further exposure to 44.5 degrees C. Thus the long-term thermoresistance of the HR7 cells may be due to a permanent induction of a low level of thermotolerance. The (ionizing) radiation survival curves and the ability to repair sublethal radiation damage were identical for the thermoresistant variant and the parent cell line
Reactive transport modelling of a heating and radiation experiment in the Boom clay (Belgium)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montenegro, L.; Samper, J.; Delgado, J.
2003-01-01
Most countries around the world consider Deep Geological Repositories (DGR) as the most safe option for the final disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW). DGR is based on adopting a system of multiple barriers between the HLW and the biosphere. Underground laboratories provide information about the behaviour of these barriers at real conditions. Here we present a reactive transport model for the CERBERUS experiment performed at the HADES underground laboratory at Mol (Belgium) in order to characterize the thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H) and geochemical (G) behaviour of the Boon clay. This experiment is unique because it addresses the combined effect of heat and radiation produced by the storage of HLW in a DGR. Reactive transport models which are solved with CORE, are used to perform quantitative predictions of Boom clay thermo-hydro-geochemical (THG) behaviour. Numerical results indicate that heat and radiation cause a slight oxidation near of the radioactive source, pyrite dissolution, a pH decrease and slight changes in the pore water chemical composition of the Boom clay. (Author) 33 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishra, Subhash C.; Roy, Hillol K.
2007-01-01
The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) was used to solve the energy equation of a transient conduction-radiation heat transfer problem. The finite volume method (FVM) was used to compute the radiative information. To study the compatibility of the LBM for the energy equation and the FVM for the radiative transfer equation, transient conduction and radiation heat transfer problems in 1-D planar and 2-D rectangular geometries were considered. In order to establish the suitability of the LBM, the energy equations of the two problems were also solved using the FVM of the computational fluid dynamics. The FVM used in the radiative heat transfer was employed to compute the radiative information required for the solution of the energy equation using the LBM or the FVM (of the CFD). To study the compatibility and suitability of the LBM for the solution of energy equation and the FVM for the radiative information, results were analyzed for the effects of various parameters such as the scattering albedo, the conduction-radiation parameter and the boundary emissivity. The results of the LBM-FVM combination were found to be in excellent agreement with the FVM-FVM combination. The number of iterations and CPU times in both the combinations were found comparable
Impacts of cloud overlap assumptions on radiative budgets and heating fields in convective regions
Wang, XiaoCong; Liu, YiMin; Bao, Qing
2016-01-01
Impacts of cloud overlap assumptions on radiative budgets and heating fields are explored with the aid of a cloud-resolving model (CRM), which provided cloud geometry as well as cloud micro and macro properties. Large-scale forcing data to drive the CRM are from TRMM Kwajalein Experiment and the Global Atmospheric Research Program's Atlantic Tropical Experiment field campaigns during which abundant convective systems were observed. The investigated overlap assumptions include those that were traditional and widely used in the past and the one that was recently addressed by Hogan and Illingworth (2000), in which the vertically projected cloud fraction is expressed by a linear combination of maximum and random overlap, with the weighting coefficient depending on the so-called decorrelation length Lcf. Results show that both shortwave and longwave cloud radiative forcings (SWCF/LWCF) are significantly underestimated under maximum (MO) and maximum-random (MRO) overlap assumptions, whereas remarkably overestimated under the random overlap (RO) assumption in comparison with that using CRM inherent cloud geometry. These biases can reach as high as 100 Wm- 2 for SWCF and 60 Wm- 2 for LWCF. By its very nature, the general overlap (GenO) assumption exhibits an encouraging performance on both SWCF and LWCF simulations, with the biases almost reduced by 3-fold compared with traditional overlap assumptions. The superiority of GenO assumption is also manifested in the simulation of shortwave and longwave radiative heating fields, which are either significantly overestimated or underestimated under traditional overlap assumptions. The study also pointed out the deficiency of constant assumption on Lcf in GenO assumption. Further examinations indicate that the CRM diagnostic Lcf varies among different cloud types and tends to be stratified in the vertical. The new parameterization that takes into account variation of Lcf in the vertical well reproduces such a relationship and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Svetlana V. Boriskina
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The properties of thermal radiation exchange between hot and cold objects can be strongly modified if they interact in the near field where electromagnetic coupling occurs across gaps narrower than the dominant wavelength of thermal radiation. Using a rigorous fluctuational electrodynamics approach, we predict that ultra-thin films of plasmonic materials can be used to dramatically enhance near-field heat transfer. The total spectrally integrated film-to-film heat transfer is over an order of magnitude larger than between the same materials in bulk form and also exceeds the levels achievable with polar dielectrics such as SiC. We attribute this enhancement to the significant spectral broadening of radiative heat transfer due to coupling between surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs on both sides of each thin film. We show that the radiative heat flux spectrum can be further shaped by the choice of the substrate onto which the thin film is deposited. In particular, substrates supporting surface phonon polaritons (SPhP strongly modify the heat flux spectrum owing to the interactions between SPPs on thin films and SPhPs of the substrate. The use of thin film phase change materials on polar dielectric substrates allows for dynamic switching of the heat flux spectrum between SPP-mediated and SPhP-mediated peaks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdesslem, Jbara; Khalifa, Slimi; Abdelaziz, Nasr; Abdallah, Mhimid
2013-01-01
The present article deals with a numerical study of coupled fluid flow and heat transfer by transient natural convection and thermal radiation in a porous bed confined between two-vertical hot plates and saturated by a homogeneous and isotropic fluid phase. The main objective is to study the effects of radiative properties on fluid flow and heat transfer behavior inside the porous material. The numerical results show that the temperature, the axial velocity, the volumetric flow rate and the convective heat flux exchanged at the channel's exit are found to be increased when the particle emissivity (ε) and/or the absorption coefficient (κ) increase or when the scattering coefficient (σ s ) and/or the single scattering albedo (ω) decrease. Furthermore, the amount of heat (Q c ) transferred to fluid and the energetic efficiency E c are found to be increased when there is a raise in the particle emissivity values. In order to improve the performance of heat exchanger, we proposed the model of a porous heat exchanger which includes a porous bed of large spherical particles with high emissivity as a practical application of the current study. - Highlights: • The temperature increases with the particle emissivity ε. • The volumetric flow rate and the convective heat flux exchanged increase with the particle emissivity ε. • The amount of heat transferred to fluid and the energetic efficiency increase with the particle emissivity ε. • A heat exchanger including a porous bed of spherical particles with high emissivity is proposed like a practical application
Effect of individual or combined treatment of heat or radiation on clostridium perfringens spores
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Zawahry, Y A; El-Fouly, M Z; Aziz, N H
1986-01-01
Separate treatments of high temperature had considerable effect on Cl.perfrigens spores suspended in saline solution especially at 90 and 100[sup 0]C, while 70 and 80[sup 0]C had only slight effect on the spores viabilty. The decimal reduction times (D[sub T]) were 33.7, 26, 4, 10.7 and 2.8 at 70, 80, 90 and 100[sup 0]C for NCTC 8798 strain and were 45.1, 27.1, 10.2 and 4.0 for the Egyptian strain at the same degrees of temperature respectively. Heat treatment pre-irradiation at 70 and 80[sup 0]C for 30 and 60 min decreased the viable spore numbers by about 0.5 to 3.0 log cycles, but the treatment had no effect on increasing the sensitivity of the rest spores to radiation. The decimal reduction dose (D[sub 10]-value) for the spores was almost the same as the control but there was a tendency to reduce the shoulder part in the radiation response curve especially when the spores were subjected to 80[sup 0]C for 60 min. On the other hand, irradiation pre-heat treatment with doses from 1-10 KGY was sufficient to decrease the spore numbers from 0.2 to 5.0 log cycles and had a sensitizing effect on subsequently heated spores especially those exposed to 90 and 100[sup 0]C. Meanwhile the rate of inactivation for spores exposed to 70 and 80[sup 0]C after irradiation increased only during the first ten minutes. Thereafter, the rate of inactivation was almost the same for the non-irradiated spores. The D[sub 10]-values for the spores irradiated with 10 KGY were 0.77 and 0.84 minutes for NCTC 8798 strain and Egyptian strain at 100[sup 0]C respectively and the spores were completely destroyed before 5 minutes.
Near-field radiative heat transfer under temperature gradients and conductive transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, Weiliang; Rodriguez, Alejandro W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Messina, Riccardo [CNRS-Univ. de Montpellier (France). Lab. Charles Coulomb
2017-05-01
We describe a recently developed formulation of coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer (RHT) between objects separated by nanometric, vacuum gaps. Our results rely on analytical formulas of RHT between planar slabs (based on the scattering-matrix method) as well as a general formulation of RHT between arbitrarily shaped bodies (based on the fluctuating-volume current method), which fully captures the existence of temperature inhomogeneities. In particular, the impact of RHT on conduction, and vice versa, is obtained via self-consistent solutions of the Fourier heat equation and Maxwell's equations. We show that in materials with low thermal conductivities (e.g. zinc oxides and glasses), the interplay of conduction and RHT can strongly modify heat exchange, exemplified for instance by the presence of large temperature gradients and saturating flux rates at short (nanometric) distances. More generally, we show that the ability to tailor the temperature distribution of an object can modify the behaviour of RHT with respect to gap separations, e.g. qualitatively changing the asymptotic scaling at short separations from quadratic to linear or logarithmic. Our results could be relevant to the interpretation of both past and future experimental measurements of RHT at nanometric distances.
Transition to turbulence and noise radiation in heated coaxial jet flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gloor, Michael, E-mail: gloor@ifd.mavt.ethz.ch; Bühler, Stefan; Kleiser, Leonhard [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)
2016-04-15
Laminar-turbulent transition and noise radiation of a parametrized set of subsonic coaxial jet flows with a hot primary (core) stream are investigated numerically by Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) and direct noise computation. This study extends our previous research on local linear stability of heated coaxial jet flows by analyzing the nonlinear evolution of initially laminar flows disturbed by a superposition of small-amplitude unstable eigenmodes. First, a baseline configuration is studied to shed light on the flow dynamics of coaxial jet flows. Subsequently, LESs are performed for a range of Mach and Reynolds numbers to systematically analyze the influences of the temperature and the velocity ratios between the primary and the secondary (bypass) stream. The results provide a basis for a detailed analysis of fundamental flow-acoustic phenomena in the considered heated coaxial jet flows. Increasing the primary-jet temperature leads to an increase of fluctuation levels and to an amplification of far-field noise, especially at low frequencies. Strong mixing between the cold bypass stream and the hot primary stream as well as the intermittent character of the flow field at the end of the potential core lead to a pronounced noise radiation at an aft angle of approximately 35{sup ∘}. The velocity ratio strongly affects the shear-layer development and therefore also the noise generation mechanisms. Increasing the secondary-stream velocity amplifies the dominance of outer shear-layer perturbations while the disturbance growth rates in the inner shear layer decrease. Already for r{sub mic} > 40R{sub 1}, where r{sub mic} is the distance from the end of the potential core and R{sub 1} is the core-jet radius, a perfect 1/r{sub mic} decay of the sound pressure amplitudes is observed. The potential-core length increases for higher secondary-stream velocities which leads to a shift of the center of the dominant acoustic radiation in the downstream direction.
Wiryanta, I. K. E. H.; Adiaksa, I. M. A.
2018-01-01
The purposes of this research was to investigate the temperature performance of tube and fins car radiator experimentally and numerically. The experiment research was carried out on a simulation design consists of a reservoir water tank, a heater, pump to circulate hot water to the radiator and a cooling fan. The hot water mass flow rate is 0.486 kg/s, and the cooling air velocity of the fan is 1 m/s. The heat transfer rate and the effectiveness of radiator were investigated. The results showed that the exhaust heat transfer rate from the radiator tended to increase over time, with an average heat transfer rate of 3974.3 Watt. The maximum heat transfer rate was 4680 Watt obtained at 6 minutes. The effectiveness of the radiator (ε) over time tends to increase with an average of ε = 0.3 and the maximum effectiveness value was obtained at 12 minutes i.e. 0.35. The numerical research conducted using CFD method. The geometry and meshing created using ANSYS Workbench and the post processing using Fluent. The simulation result showed the similarity with the experimental research. The temperatures of air-side radiator are about 45°C.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sevilgen, Goekhan; Kilic, Muhsin [Uludag University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Mechanical Engineering, TR-16059 Bursa (Turkey)
2011-01-15
A three-dimensional steady-state numerical analysis was performed in a room heated by two-panel radiators. A virtual sitting manikin with real dimensions and physiological shape was added to the model of the room, and it was assumed that the manikin surfaces were subjected to constant temperature. Two different heat transfer coefficients for the outer wall and for the window were considered. Heat interactions between the human body surfaces and the room environment, the air flow, the temperature, the humidity, and the local heat transfer characteristics of the manikin and the room surfaces were computed numerically under different environmental conditions. Comparisons of the results are presented and discussed. The results show that energy consumption can be significantly reduced while increasing the thermal comfort by using better-insulated outer wall materials and windows. (author)
Dogonchi, A. S.; Ganji, D. D.
2018-06-01
In this study, buoyancy MHD nanofluid flow and heat transfer over a stretching sheet in the presence of Joule heating and thermal radiation impacts, are studied. Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model instead of conventional Fourier's law of heat conduction is applied to investigate the heat transfer characteristics. A similarity transformation is used to transmute the governing momentum and energy equations into non-linear ordinary differential equations with the appropriate boundary conditions. The obtained non-linear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically. The impacts of diverse active parameters such as the magnetic parameter, the radiation parameter, the buoyancy parameter, the heat source parameter, the volume fraction of nanofluid and the thermal relaxation parameter are examined on the velocity and temperature profiles. In addition, the value of the Nusselt number is calculated and presented through figures. The results demonstrate that the temperature profile is lower in the case of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model as compared to Fourier's law. Moreover, the Nusselt number raises with the raising volume fraction of nanofluid and it abates with the ascending the radiation parameter.
Radiative heat transfer in coal-fired furnaces and oxycoal retrofit considerations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erfurth, Jens
2012-07-01
Oxycoal combustion is the combustion of coal using a mixture of oxygen and cooled recycled flue gas in place of air. In the last years it has gained interest as a means of CO{sub 2} capture from stationary point sources. In particular, under emission mitigation regimes the retrofit of existing coal-fired power plants may help avoid ''stranded assets'' through lower emissions and thus costs if certain technical criteria can be met. Among these is the need to keep total heat transfer in the boiler constant while not raising the furnace exit temperature. The altered gas composition in oxycoal combustion leads to changes in both convective and radiative heat transfer, of which the latter, while of overwhelming importance in the furnace, poses a particular challenge to modellers. This work is thus primarily concerned with the simulation of radiative heat transfer. After a short introduction to oxycoal combustion, a general discussion of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models for coal combustion is given. Emphasis is placed on the physics of molecular gas band radiation, respective modelling approaches and their application within a CFD context. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that for the purposes of this work, a non-grey CFD implementation of the Exponential Wide Band Model is most suitable. Then the results of CFD simulations of the furnace of a state-of-the-art coal-fired USC boiler with a thermal power of 1,210 MW are presented, which were carried out using the commercial software FLUENT {sup registered} 6.3, combined with some User-Defined Functions. In addition to air combustion, the cases studied include variations of the burner oxygen concentration and the mode of flue gas recycling (wet and dry), the two additional parameters that present themselves in oxycoal combustion to meet the retrofit criteria. The same burner geometry optimised for oxycoal combustion was used in all cases, while the overall boiler geometry designed for air
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Zeeshan
Full Text Available The purpose of the current article is to explore the boundary layer heat transport flow of multiphase magnetic fluid with solid impurities suspended homogeneously past a stretching sheet under the impact of circular magnetic field. Thermal radiation effects are also taken in account. The equations describing the flow of dust particles in fluid along with point dipole are modelled by employing conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy, which are then converted into non-linear coupled differential equations by mean of similarity approach. The transformed ODE’s are tackled numerically with the help of efficient Runga-Kutta method. The influence of ferromagnetic interaction parameter, viscous dissipation, fluid-particle interaction parameter, Eckert number, Prandtl number, thermal radiation parameter and number of dust particles, heat production or absorption parameter with the two thermal process namely, prescribed heat flux (PHF or prescribed surface temperature (PST are observed on temperature and velocity profiles. The value of skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt number are calculated for numerous physical parameters. Present results are correlated with available for a limited case and an excellent agreement is found. Keywords: Ferromagnetic interaction parameter, Dusty magnetic fluid, stretching sheet, Magnetic dipole, Heat source/sink, Thermal radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernández-Seara, José; Piñeiro, Carolina; Alberto Dopazo, J.; Fernandes, F.; Sousa, Paulo X.B.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► We analyze a direct expansion solar assisted heat pump under zero solar radiation. ► We determine the COP and equivalent seasonal performance factors (SPFe). ► We determine the main components’ performance under transient operating conditions. ► The Huang and Lee performance evaluation method provides a characteristic COP of 3.23. - Abstract: This paper deals with the experimental evaluation of the performance of a direct expansion solar assisted heat pump water heating (DX-SAHPWH) system working under zero solar radiation conditions at static heating operation mode of the storage tank. The DX-SAHPWH system includes two bare solar collectors as evaporator, a R134a rotary-type hermetic compressor, a thermostatic expansion valve and a helical coil condenser immersed in a 300 L water storage tank. The zero solar radiation and stable ambient air temperature working conditions were established by placing the solar collectors into a climate chamber. The analysis is based on experimental data taken from the DX-SAHPWH provided by the manufacturer and equipped with an appropriate data acquisition system. In the paper, the experimental facility, the data acquisition system and the experimental methodology are described. Performance parameters to evaluate the energy efficiency, such as COP and equivalent seasonal performance factors (SPFe) for the heating period, and the water thermal stratification in the storage tank are defined and obtained from the experimental data. Results from the experimental analysis under transient operating working conditions of the DX-SAHPWH system and its main components are shown and discussed. Lastly, the Huang and Lee DX-SAHPWH performance evaluation method was applied resulting in a characteristic COP of 3.23 for the DX-SAHPWH system evaluated under zero solar radiation condition.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clement, P.; Deruaz, R.
1976-01-01
Heat transfer modeling is presented in the scope of emergency core cooling. The rewetting of a hot dry wall during reflooding is a conduction-controlled phenomenon described by a model of heat-transfer coefficient. Upstream of the quench front, a two-dimensional approach involving both axial and transverse (or radial) heat conduction is discussed in view of thick walls, high quench front velocities and nucleate boiling. Downstream of the quench-front, high wall temperatures are reached so that a thermal radiation model is required to separate the different mechanisms of heat transfer. An attempt is made to consider radiation between walls, water droplets and vapor, with scattering emission and absorption of the two phases