Radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of quasar disk winds
Higginbottom, N.
2015-09-01
Disk winds are a compelling candidate to provide geometrical unification between Broad Absorption Line QSOs (BALQSOs) and Type1 Quasars. However, the geometry of these winds, and even the driving mech- anism remain largely unknown. Progress has been made through RT simulations and theoretical analysis of simplified wind geometries but there are several outstanding issues including the problem of shielding the low ionization BAL gas from the intense X-ray radiation from the central corona, and also how to produce the strong emission lines which exemplify Type 1 Quasars. A complex, clumpy geometry may provide a solution, and a full hydrodynamic model in which such structure may well spontaneously develop is something we wish to investigate. We have already demonstrated that the previous generation of hydrodynamic models of BALQSOs suffer from the fact that radiation transfer (RT) was necessarily simplified to permit computation, thereby neglecting the effects of multiple scattering and reprocessing of photons within the wind (potentially very important processes). We have therefore embarked upon a project to marry together a RT code with a hydrodynamics code to permit full radiation hydrodynamics simulations to be carried out on QSO disk winds. Here we present details of the project and results to date.
An Efficient Radiative Cooling Approximation for Use in Hydrodynamic Simulations
Lombardi, James C; Faber, Joshua A
2014-01-01
To make relevant predictions about observable emission, hydrodynamical simulation codes must employ schemes that account for radiative losses, but the large dimensionality of accurate radiative transfer schemes is often prohibitive. Stamatellos and collaborators introduced a scheme for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations based on the notion of polytropic pseudo-clouds that uses only local quantities to estimate cooling rates. The computational approach is extremely efficient and works well in cases close to spherical symmetry, such as in star formation problems. Unfortunately, the method, which takes the local gravitational potential as an input, can be inaccurate when applied to non-spherical configurations, limiting its usefulness when studying disks or stellar collisions, among other situations of interest. Here, we introduce the "pressure scale height method," which incorporates the fluid pressure scale height into the determination of column densities and cooling rates, and show that it pro...
An efficient radiative cooling approximation for use in hydrodynamic simulations
Lombardi, James C.; McInally, William G.; Faber, Joshua A.
2015-02-01
To make relevant predictions about observable emission, hydrodynamical simulation codes must employ schemes that account for radiative losses, but the large dimensionality of accurate radiative transfer schemes is often prohibitive. Stamatellos and collaborators introduced a scheme for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations based on the notion of polytropic pseudo-clouds that uses only local quantities to estimate cooling rates. The computational approach is extremely efficient and works well in cases close to spherical symmetry, such as in star formation problems. Unfortunately, the method, which takes the local gravitational potential as an input, can be inaccurate when applied to non-spherical configurations, limiting its usefulness when studying discs or stellar collisions, among other situations of interest. Here, we introduce the `pressure scale height method,' which incorporates the fluid pressure scaleheight into the determination of column densities and cooling rates, and show that it produces more accurate results across a wide range of physical scenarios while retaining the computational efficiency of the original method. The tested models include spherical polytropes as well as discs with specified density and temperature profiles. We focus on applying our techniques within an SPH code, although our method can be implemented within any particle-based Lagrangian or grid-based Eulerian hydrodynamic scheme. Our new method may be applied in a broad range of situations, including within the realm of stellar interactions, collisions, and mergers.
Castor, J I
2003-10-16
The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is
Radiation hydrodynamics simulations of massive star formation using Monte Carlo radiation transfer
Harries, Tim J; Acreman, David
2012-01-01
We present a radiation hydrodynamics simulation of the formation of a massive star using a Monte Carlo treatment for the radiation field. We find that strong, high speed bipolar cavities are driven by the radiation from the protostar, and that accretion occurs stochastically from a circumstellar disc. We have computed spectral energy distributions and images at each timestep, which may in future be used to compare our models with photometric, spectroscopic, and interferometric observations of young massive stellar objects.
Black Widow Pulsar radiation hydrodynamics simulation using Castro: Methodology
Barrios Sazo, Maria; Zingale, Michael; Zhang, Weiqun
2017-01-01
A black widow pulsar (BWP) is a millisecond pulsar in a tight binary system with a low mass star. The fast rotating pulsar emits intense radiation, which injects energy and ablates the companion star. Observation of the ablation is seen as pulsar eclipses caused by a larger object than the companion star Roche lobe. This phenomenon is attributed to a cloud surrounding the evaporating star. We will present the methodology for modeling the interaction between the radiation coming from the pulsar and the companion star using the radiation hydrodynamics code Castro. Castro is an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code that solves the compressible hydrodynamic equations for astrophysical flows with simultaneous refinement in space and time. The code also includes self-gravity, nuclear reactions and radiation. We are employing the gray-radiation solver, which uses a mixed-frame formulation of radiation hydrodynamics under the flux-limited diffusion approximation. In our setup, we are modeling the companion star with the radiation field as a boundary condition, coming from one side of the domain. In addition to a model setup in 2-d axisymmetry, we also have a 3-d setup, which is more physical given the nature of the system considering the companion is facing the pulsar on one side. We discuss the progress of our calculations, first results, and future work.The work at Stony Brook was supported by DOE/Office of Nuclear Physics grant DE-FG02-87ER40317
Abe, Makito; Hasegawa, Kenji
2016-01-01
We explore the possibility of the formation of globular clusters under ultraviolet (UV) background radiation. One-dimensional spherical symmetric radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) simulations by Hasegawa et al. have demonstrated that the collapse of low-mass (10^6-10^7 solar masses) gas clouds exposed to intense UV radiation can lead to the formation of compact star clusters like globular clusters (GCs) if gas clouds contract with supersonic infall velocities. However, three-dimensional effects, such as the anisotropy of background radiation and the inhomogeneity in gas clouds, have not been studied so far. In this paper, we perform three-dimensional RHD simulations in a semi-cosmological context, and reconsider the formation of compact star clusters in strong UV radiation fields. As a result, we find that although anisotropic radiation fields bring an elongated shadow of neutral gas, almost spherical compact star clusters can be procreated from a "supersonic infall" cloud, since photo-dissociating radiation supp...
Radiation Hydrodynamic Simulations of Dust-Driven Winds
Zhang, Dong
2016-01-01
We study dusty winds driven by radiation pressure in the atmosphere of a rapidly star-forming environment. We apply the variable Eddington tensor algorithm to re-examine the two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic problem of a column of gas that is accelerated by a constant infrared radiation flux. In the absence of gravity, the system can be characterized by the initial optical depth of the gas. We perform several runs with different initial optical depth and resolution. We find that the gas spreads out along the vertical direction, as its mean velocity and velocity dispersion increase. In contrast to previous work using flux-limited diffusion algorithm, we find little evolution in the trapping factor. The momentum coupling between radiation and gas in the absence of gravity is similar to that with gravity. For Eddington ratio increasing with the height in the system, the momentum transfer from the radiation to the gas is not merely $\\sim L/c$, but amplified by a factor of $1+\\eta \\tau_{\\rm IR}$, where $\\tau_...
Abe, Makito; Umemura, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Kenji
2016-12-01
We explore the possibility of the formation of globular clusters (GCs) under ultraviolet (UV) background radiation. One-dimensional spherical symmetric radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) simulations by Hasegawa et al. have demonstrated that the collapse of low-mass (106-7 M⊙) gas clouds exposed to intense UV radiation can lead to the formation of compact star clusters like GCs if gas clouds contract with supersonic infall velocities. However, three-dimensional effects, such as the anisotropy of background radiation and the inhomogeneity in gas clouds, have not been studied so far. In this paper, we perform three-dimensional RHD simulations in a semicosmological context, and reconsider the formation of compact star clusters in strong UV radiation fields. As a result, we find that although anisotropic radiation fields bring an elongated shadow of neutral gas, almost spherical compact star clusters can be procreated from a `supersonic infall' cloud, since photodissociating radiation suppresses the formation of hydrogen molecules in the shadowed regions and the regions are compressed by UV heated ambient gas. The properties of resultant star clusters match those of GCs. On the other hand, in weak UV radiation fields, dark-matter-dominated star clusters with low stellar density form due to the self-shielding effect as well as the positive feedback by ionizing photons. Thus, we conclude that the `supersonic infall' under a strong UV background is a potential mechanism to form GCs.
Pawlik, Andreas H; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla
2015-01-01
We present a suite of cosmological radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of the assembly of galaxies driving the reionization of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z >~ 6. The simulations account for the hydrodynamical feedback from photoionization heating and the explosion of massive stars as supernovae (SNe). Our reference simulation, which was carried out in a box of size 25 comoving Mpc/h using 2 x 512^3 particles, produces a reasonable reionization history and matches the observed UV luminosity function of galaxies. Simulations with different box sizes and resolutions are used to investigate numerical convergence, and simulations in which either SNe or photoionization heating or both are turned off, are used to investigate the role of feedback from star formation. Ionizing radiation is treated using accurate radiative transfer at the high spatially adaptive resolution at which the hydrodynamics is carried out. SN feedback strongly reduces the star formation rates (SFRs) over nearly the full mass range of s...
Simulations of protostellar collapse using multigroup radiation hydrodynamics. I. The first collapse
Vaytet, Neil; Chabrier, Gilles; Commercon, Benoit; Masson, Jacques
2012-01-01
Radiative transfer plays a major role in the process of star formation. Many simulations of gravitational collapse of a cold gas cloud followed by the formation of a protostellar core use a grey treatment of radiative transfer coupled to the hydrodynamics. However, dust opacities which dominate extinction show large variations as a function of frequency. In this paper, we used frequency-dependent radiative transfer to investigate the influence of the opacity variations on the properties of Larson's first core. We used a multigroup M1 moment model in a 1D radiation hydrodynamics code to simulate the spherically symmetric collapse of a 1 solar mass cloud core. Monochromatic dust opacities for five different temperature ranges were used to compute Planck and Rosseland means inside each frequency group. The results are very consistent with previous studies and only small differences were observed between the grey and multigroup simulations. For a same central density, the multigroup simulations tend to produce fi...
Buntemeyer, Lars; Peters, Thomas; Klassen, Mikhail; Pudritz, Ralph E
2015-01-01
We present an algorithm for solving the radiative transfer problem on massively parallel computers using adaptive mesh refinement and domain decomposition. The solver is based on the method of characteristics which requires an adaptive raytracer that integrates the equation of radiative transfer. The radiation field is split into local and global components which are handled separately to overcome the non-locality problem. The solver is implemented in the framework of the magneto-hydrodynamics code FLASH and is coupled by an operator splitting step. The goal is the study of radiation in the context of star formation simulations with a focus on early disc formation and evolution. This requires a proper treatment of radiation physics that covers both the optically thin as well as the optically thick regimes and the transition region in particular. We successfully show the accuracy and feasibility of our method in a series of standard radiative transfer problems and two 3D collapse simulations resembling the ear...
The Aurora radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of reionization: calibration and first results
Pawlik, Andreas H; Schaye, Joop; Jeon, Myoungwon; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla
2016-01-01
We introduce a new suite of radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation and reionization called Aurora. The Aurora simulations make use of a spatially adaptive radiative transfer technique that lets us accurately capture the small-scale structure in the gas at the resolution of the hydrodynamics, in cosmological volumes. In addition to ionizing radiation, Aurora includes galactic winds driven by star formation and the enrichment of the universe with metals synthesized in the stars. Our reference simulation uses 2x512^3 dark matter and gas particles in a box of size 25 comoving Mpc/h with a force softening scale of at most 0.28 kpc/h. It is accompanied by simulations in larger and smaller boxes and at higher and lower resolution, employing up to 2x1024^3 particles, to investigate numerical convergence. All simulations are calibrated to yield simulated star formation rate (SFR) functions in close agreement with observational constraints at redshift z = 7 and to achieve reionization at z = 8.3, whic...
Angulo, A. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B. A.; Kalantar, D.; MacLaren, S.; Raman, K.; Miles, A.; Trantham, Matthew; Kline, J. L.; Flippo, K.; Doss, F. W.; Shvarts, D.
2016-10-01
This poster will describe simulations based on results from ongoing laboratory astrophysics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) relevant to the effects of radiative shock on hydrodynamically unstable surfaces. The experiments performed on NIF uniquely provide the necessary conditions required to emulate radiative shock that occurs in astrophysical systems. The core-collapse explosions of red supergiant stars is such an example wherein the interaction between the supernova ejecta and the circumstellar medium creates a region susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instabilities. Radiative and nonradiative experiments were performed to show that R-T growth should be reduced by the effects of the radiative shocks that occur during this core-collapse. Simulations were performed using the radiation hydrodynamics code Hyades using the experimental conditions to find the mean interface acceleration of the instability and then further analyzed in the buoyancy drag model to observe how the material expansion contributes to the mix-layer growth. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas under Grant Number DE-FG52-09NA29548.
Jiang, Yan-Fei; Stone, James M.; Davis, Shane W.
2014-12-01
We study super-Eddington accretion flows onto black holes using a global three-dimensional radiation magneto-hydrodynamical simulation. We solve the time-dependent radiative transfer equation for the specific intensities to accurately calculate the angular distribution of the emitted radiation. Turbulence generated by the magneto-rotational instability provides self-consistent angular momentum transfer. The simulation reaches inflow equilibrium with an accretion rate ~220 L Edd/c 2 and forms a radiation-driven outflow along the rotation axis. The mechanical energy flux carried by the outflow is ~20% of the radiative energy flux. The total mass flux lost in the outflow is about 29% of the net accretion rate. The radiative luminosity of this flow is ~10 L Edd. This yields a radiative efficiency ~4.5%, which is comparable to the value in a standard thin disk model. In our simulation, vertical advection of radiation caused by magnetic buoyancy transports energy faster than photon diffusion, allowing a significant fraction of the photons to escape from the surface of the disk before being advected into the black hole. We contrast our results with the lower radiative efficiencies inferred in most models, such as the slim disk model, which neglect vertical advection. Our inferred radiative efficiencies also exceed published results from previous global numerical simulations, which did not attribute a significant role to vertical advection. We briefly discuss the implications for the growth of supermassive black holes in the early universe and describe how these results provided a basis for explaining the spectrum and population statistics of ultraluminous X-ray sources.
Jiang, Yan-Fei [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Stone, James M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Davis, Shane W. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics. Toronto, ON M5S3H4 (Canada)
2014-12-01
We study super-Eddington accretion flows onto black holes using a global three-dimensional radiation magneto-hydrodynamical simulation. We solve the time-dependent radiative transfer equation for the specific intensities to accurately calculate the angular distribution of the emitted radiation. Turbulence generated by the magneto-rotational instability provides self-consistent angular momentum transfer. The simulation reaches inflow equilibrium with an accretion rate ∼220 L {sub Edd}/c {sup 2} and forms a radiation-driven outflow along the rotation axis. The mechanical energy flux carried by the outflow is ∼20% of the radiative energy flux. The total mass flux lost in the outflow is about 29% of the net accretion rate. The radiative luminosity of this flow is ∼10 L {sub Edd}. This yields a radiative efficiency ∼4.5%, which is comparable to the value in a standard thin disk model. In our simulation, vertical advection of radiation caused by magnetic buoyancy transports energy faster than photon diffusion, allowing a significant fraction of the photons to escape from the surface of the disk before being advected into the black hole. We contrast our results with the lower radiative efficiencies inferred in most models, such as the slim disk model, which neglect vertical advection. Our inferred radiative efficiencies also exceed published results from previous global numerical simulations, which did not attribute a significant role to vertical advection. We briefly discuss the implications for the growth of supermassive black holes in the early universe and describe how these results provided a basis for explaining the spectrum and population statistics of ultraluminous X-ray sources.
The Aurora radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of reionization: calibration and first results
Pawlik, Andreas H.; Rahmati, Alireza; Schaye, Joop; Jeon, Myoungwon; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio
2017-04-01
We introduce a new suite of radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation and reionization called Aurora. The Aurora simulations make use of a spatially adaptive radiative transfer technique that lets us accurately capture the small-scale structure in the gas at the resolution of the hydrodynamics, in cosmological volumes. In addition to ionizing radiation, Aurora includes galactic winds driven by star formation and the enrichment of the universe with metals synthesized in the stars. Our reference simulation uses 2 × 5123 dark matter and gas particles in a box of size 25 h-1 comoving Mpc with a force softening scale of at most 0.28 h-1 kpc. It is accompanied by simulations in larger and smaller boxes and at higher and lower resolution, employing up to 2 × 10243 particles, to investigate numerical convergence. All simulations are calibrated to yield simulated star formation rate functions in close agreement with observational constraints at redshift z = 7 and to achieve reionization at z ≈ 8.3, which is consistent with the observed optical depth to reionization. We focus on the design and calibration of the simulations and present some first results. The median stellar metallicities of low-mass galaxies at z = 6 are consistent with the metallicities of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, which are believed to have formed most of their stars at high redshifts. After reionization, the mean photoionization rate decreases systematically with increasing resolution. This coincides with a systematic increase in the abundance of neutral hydrogen absorbers in the intergalactic medium.
Local Radiation Hydrodynamic Simulations of Massive Star Envelopes at the Iron Opacity Peak
Jiang, Yan-Fei; Bildsten, Lars; Quataert, Eliot; Blaes, Omer
2015-01-01
We perform three dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations of the structure and dynamics of radiation dominated envelopes of massive stars at the location of the iron opacity peak. One dimensional hydrostatic calculations predict an unstable density inversion at this location, whereas our simulations reveal a complex interplay of convective and radiative transport whose behavior depends on the ratio of the photon diffusion time to the dynamical time. The latter is set by the ratio of the optical depth per pressure scale height, $\\tau_0$, to $\\tau_c=c/c_g$, where $c_g \\approx$ 50 km/s is the isothermal sound speed in the gas alone. When $\\tau_0 \\gg \\tau_c$, convection reduces the radiation acceleration and removes the density inversion. The turbulent energy transport in the simulations agrees with mixing length theory and provides its first numerical calibration in the radiation dominated regime. When $\\tau_0 \\ll \\tau_c$, convection becomes inefficient and the turbulent energy transport is negligible. The...
3D radiative hydrodynamic simulations of protostellar collapse with H-C-O dynamical chemistry
Dzyurkevich, Natalia; Lesaffre, Pierre; Semenov, Dimitry
2016-01-01
Combining the co-evolving chemistry, hydrodynamics and radiative transfer is an important step for star formation studies. It allows both a better link to observations and a self-consistent monitoring of the magnetic dissipation in the collapsing core. Our aim is to follow a chemo-dynamical evolution of collapsing dense cores with a reduced gas-grain chemical network. We present the results of radiative hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations of 1 M$_\\odot$ isolated dense core collapse. The physical setup includes RHD and dynamical evolution of a chemical network. To perform those simulations, we merged the multi-dimensional adaptive-mesh-refinement code RAMSES and the thermo-chemistry Paris-Durham shock code. We simulate the formation of the first hydro-static core (FHSC) and the co-evolution of 56 species describing mainly H-C-O chemistry. Accurate benchmarking is performed, testing the reduced chemical network against a well-establiched complex network. We show that by using a compact set of reactions, one can matc...
Buntemeyer, Lars; Banerjee, Robi; Peters, Thomas; Klassen, Mikhail; Pudritz, Ralph E.
2016-02-01
We present an algorithm for solving the radiative transfer problem on massively parallel computers using adaptive mesh refinement and domain decomposition. The solver is based on the method of characteristics which requires an adaptive raytracer that integrates the equation of radiative transfer. The radiation field is split into local and global components which are handled separately to overcome the non-locality problem. The solver is implemented in the framework of the magneto-hydrodynamics code FLASH and is coupled by an operator splitting step. The goal is the study of radiation in the context of star formation simulations with a focus on early disc formation and evolution. This requires a proper treatment of radiation physics that covers both the optically thin as well as the optically thick regimes and the transition region in particular. We successfully show the accuracy and feasibility of our method in a series of standard radiative transfer problems and two 3D collapse simulations resembling the early stages of protostar and disc formation.
Radiation-Hydrodynamic Simulations of Massive Star Formation with Protostellar Outflows
Cunningham, A J; Klein, R I; Krumholz, M R; McKee, C F
2011-03-02
We report the results of a series of AMR radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the collapse of massive star forming clouds using the ORION code. These simulations are the first to include the feedback effects protostellar outflows, as well as protostellar radiative heating and radiation pressure exerted on the infalling, dusty gas. We find that that outflows evacuate polar cavities of reduced optical depth through the ambient core. These enhance the radiative flux in the poleward direction so that it is 1.7 to 15 times larger than that in the midplane. As a result the radiative heating and outward radiation force exerted on the protostellar disk and infalling cloud gas in the equatorial direction are greatly diminished. The simultaneously reduces the Eddington radiation pressure barrier to high-mass star formation and increases the minimum threshold surface density for radiative heating to suppress fragmentation compared to models that do not include outflows. The strength of both these effects depends on the initial core surface density. Lower surface density cores have longer free-fall times and thus massive stars formed within them undergo more Kelvin contraction as the core collapses, leading to more powerful outflows. Furthermore, in lower surface density clouds the ratio of the time required for the outflow to break out of the core to the core free-fall time is smaller, so that these clouds are consequently influenced by outflows at earlier stages of collapse. As a result, outflow effects are strongest in low surface density cores and weakest in high surface density one. We also find that radiation focusing in the direction of outflow cavities is sufficient to prevent the formation of radiation pressure-supported circumstellar gas bubbles, in contrast to models which neglect protostellar outflow feedback.
Vaytet, N; Audit, E; Commercon, B; Masson, J; Ferguson, J; Delahaye, F
2013-01-01
Star formation begins with the gravitational collapse of a dense core inside a molecular cloud. As the collapse progresses, the centre of the core begins to heat up as it becomes optically thick. The temperature and density in the centre eventually reach high enough values where fusion reactions can ignite; the protostar is born. This sequence of events entail many physical processes, of which radiative transfer is of paramount importance. Many simulations of protostellar collapse make use of a grey treatment of radiative transfer coupled to the hydrodynamics. However, interstellar gas and dust opacities present large variations as a function of frequency. In this paper, we follow-up on a previous paper on the collapse and formation of Larson's first core using multigroup radiation hydrodynamics (Paper I) by extending the calculations to the second phase of the collapse and the formation of Larson's second core. We have made the use of a non-ideal gas equation of state as well as an extensive set of spectral ...
Paschos, Pascal; Bordner, James O; Harkness, Robert
2007-01-01
We study the ionization and thermal evolution of the intergalactic medium during the epoch of \\heii reionization by means of radiation hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. We post-process baryonic density fields from a standard optically-thin IGM simulation with a homogeneous galaxy-dominated UV background (UVB) which reionizes \\hi and \\hei at z=6.5 but does not have any contribution to the ionization of \\heii. Quasars with luminosities proportional to the mass of the host halos are then introduced as point sources throughout the 100 Mpc simulation volume consistent with the Pei luminosity function. We evolve the spatial distribution of the \\heii ionizing radiation field using a time-implicit variable tensor Eddington factor radiative transfer scheme. Simultaneously, we also solve for the local ionization of \\heii to \\heii and the associated photoheating of the gas. We find that the percolation of the \\heiii regions is essentially complete by z=2.5. When comparing to a self-consistent optically thin simul...
Enzo+Moray: Radiation Hydrodynamics Adaptive Mesh Refinement Simulations with Adaptive Ray Tracing
Wise, John H
2010-01-01
We describe a photon-conserving radiative transfer algorithm, using a spatially-adaptive ray tracing scheme, and its parallel implementation into the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) cosmological hydrodynamics code, Enzo. By coupling the solver with the energy equation and non-equilibrium chemistry network, our radiation hydrodynamics framework can be utilised to study a broad range of astrophysical problems, such as stellar and black hole (BH) feedback. Inaccuracies can arise from large timesteps and poor sampling, therefore we devised an adaptive time-stepping scheme and a fast approximation of the optically-thin radiation field with multiple sources. We test the method with several radiative transfer and radiation hydrodynamics tests that are given in Iliev et al. (2006, 2009). We further test our method with more dynamical situations, for example, the propagation of an ionisation front through a Rayleigh-Taylor instability, time-varying luminosities, and collimated radiation. The test suite also includes an...
Foundations of radiation hydrodynamics
Mihalas, Dimitri
1999-01-01
Radiation hydrodynamics is a broad subject that cuts across many disciplines in physics and astronomy: fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, kinetic theory, and radiative transfer, among others. The theory developed in this book by two specialists in the field can be applied to the study of such diverse astrophysical phenomena as stellar winds, supernova explosions, and the initial phases of cosmic expansion, as well as the physics of laser fusion and reentry vehicles. As such, it provides students with the basic tools for research on radiating flows.Largely self-contained,
Dark matter annihilation radiation in hydrodynamic simulations of Milky Way haloes
Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; Calore, Francesca; Bertone, Gianfranco; Bozorgnia, Nassim; Crain, Robert A; Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F; Sawala, Till; Schaye, Joop
2015-01-01
We obtain predictions for the properties of cold dark matter annihilation radiation using high resolution hydrodynamic zoom-in cosmological simulations of Milky Way-like galaxies carried out as part of the "Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments" (EAGLE) programme. Galactic halos in the simulation have significantly different properties from those assumed by the "standard halo model" often used in dark matter detection studies. The formation of the galaxy causes a contraction of the dark matter halo, whose density profile develops a steeper slope than the Navarro-Frenk-White profile between $r\\approx1.5~\\rm{kpc}$ and $r\\approx10~\\rm{kpc}$, and a flatter slope at smaller radii. The inner regions of the halos are almost perfectly spherical (axis ratios $b/a > 0.96$ within $r=500~\\rm{pc}$) and there is no offset larger than $45~\\rm{pc}$ between the centre of the stellar distribution and the centre of the dark halo. The morphology of the predicted dark matter annihilation radiation signal is in...
ENZO+MORAY: radiation hydrodynamics adaptive mesh refinement simulations with adaptive ray tracing
Wise, John H.; Abel, Tom
2011-07-01
We describe a photon-conserving radiative transfer algorithm, using a spatially-adaptive ray-tracing scheme, and its parallel implementation into the adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamics code ENZO. By coupling the solver with the energy equation and non-equilibrium chemistry network, our radiation hydrodynamics framework can be utilized to study a broad range of astrophysical problems, such as stellar and black hole feedback. Inaccuracies can arise from large time-steps and poor sampling; therefore, we devised an adaptive time-stepping scheme and a fast approximation of the optically-thin radiation field with multiple sources. We test the method with several radiative transfer and radiation hydrodynamics tests that are given in Iliev et al. We further test our method with more dynamical situations, for example, the propagation of an ionization front through a Rayleigh-Taylor instability, time-varying luminosities and collimated radiation. The test suite also includes an expanding H II region in a magnetized medium, utilizing the newly implemented magnetohydrodynamics module in ENZO. This method linearly scales with the number of point sources and number of grid cells. Our implementation is scalable to 512 processors on distributed memory machines and can include the radiation pressure and secondary ionizations from X-ray radiation. It is included in the newest public release of ENZO.
Marleau, Gabriel-Dominique; Klahr, Hubert; Kuiper, Rolf; Mordasini, Christoph
2017-02-01
The key aspect determining the postformation luminosity of gas giants has long been considered to be the energetics of the accretion shock at the surface of the planet. We use one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamical simulations to study the radiative loss efficiency and to obtain postshock temperatures and pressures and thus entropies. The efficiency is defined as the fraction of the total incoming energy flux that escapes the system (roughly the Hill sphere), taking into account the energy recycling that occurs ahead of the shock in a radiative precursor. We focus in this paper on a constant equation of state (EOS) to isolate the shock physics but use constant and tabulated opacities. While robust quantitative results will have to await a self-consistent treatment including hydrogen dissociation and ionization, the results presented here show the correct qualitative behavior and can be understood from semianalytical calculations. The shock is found to be isothermal and supercritical for a range of conditions relevant to the core accretion formation scenario (CA), with Mach numbers { M }≳ 3. Across the shock, the entropy decreases significantly by a few times {k}{{B}}/{{baryon}}. While nearly 100% of the incoming kinetic energy is converted to radiation locally, the efficiencies are found to be as low as roughly 40%, implying that a significant fraction of the total accretion energy is brought into the planet. However, for realistic parameter combinations in the CA scenario, we find that a nonzero fraction of the luminosity always escapes the Hill sphere. This luminosity could explain, at least in part, recent observations in the young LkCa 15 and HD 100546 systems.
Radiation hydrodynamic simulations of line-driven disk winds for ultra-fast outflows
Nomura, Mariko; Ohsuga, Ken; Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Wada, Keiichi; Yoshida, Tessei
2016-02-01
Using two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the origin of the ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) that are often observed in luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We found that the radiation force due to the spectral lines generates strong winds (line-driven disk winds) that are launched from the inner region of accretion disks (˜30 Schwarzschild radii). A wide range of black hole masses (MBH) and Eddington ratios (ε) was investigated to study the conditions causing the line-driven winds. For MBH = 106-109 M⊙ and ε = 0.1-0.7, funnel-shaped disk winds appear, in which dense matter is accelerated outward with an opening angle of 70°-80° and with 10% of the speed of light. If we observe the wind along its direction, the velocity, the column density, and the ionization state are consistent with those of the observed UFOs. As long as obscuration by the torus does not affect the observation of X-ray bands, the UFOs could be statistically observed in about 13%-28% of the luminous AGNs, which is not inconsistent with the observed ratio (˜40%). We also found that the results are insensitive to the X-ray luminosity and the density of the disk surface. Thus, we can conclude that UFOs could exist in any luminous AGNs, such as narrow-line Seyfert 1s and quasars with ε > 0.1, with which fast line-driven winds are associated.
Radiation Hydrodynamic Simulations of Line-Driven Disk Winds for Ultra Fast Outflows
Nomura, Mariko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki R; Wada, Keiichi; Yoshida, Tessei
2015-01-01
Using two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate origin of the ultra fast outflows (UFOs) that are often observed in luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We found that the radiation force due to the spectral lines generates strong winds (line-driven disk winds) that are launched from the inner region of accretion disks (~30 Schwarzschild radii). A wide range of black hole masses ($M_{\\rm BH}$) and Eddington ratios ($\\varepsilon$) was investigated to study conditions for causing the line-driven winds. For $M_{\\rm BH} = 10^6-10^9 M_\\odot$ and $\\varepsilon = 0.1-0.7$, funnel-shaped disk winds appear, in which dense matter is accelerated outward with an opening angle of 70-80 deg and with 10% of the light speed. If we observe the wind along its direction, the velocity, the column density, and the ionization state are consistent with those of the observed UFOs. As long as the obscuration by the torus does not affect the observations of X-ray bands, the UFOs could be statistically observe...
Dong, Yunsong; Yang, Jiamin; Song, Tianming; Zhu, Tuo; Huang, Chengwu
2016-04-01
As a fundamental and crucial research topic in the direct-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF), especially for shock ignition (SI), investigation on the laser coupling with planar low-Z targets is beneficial for deep physical comprehension at the primary phase of SI. The production of the intense shock and the shock coalescence in the multi-layer targets, driven by the 3ω intense laser (351 nm the wavelength), were studied in detail with the 1D and 2D radiation hydrodynamic simulations. It was inferred that the 1D simulation would overrate the shock velocity and the ablation pressure of the spike; the coalescence time and the velocity of the coalescence shock depended evidently on the pulse shape and the start time of the spike. The present study can also provide a semi-quantitative reference for the design of the SI decomposition experiments on the Shenguang-III prototype laser facility. supported by the National High-Tech R&D Program (863 Program) of China and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11205143, 11505167)
Battaglia, Nick; Cen, Renyue; Loeb, Abraham
2012-01-01
We present a new method for modeling inhomogeneous cosmic reionization on large scales. Utilizing high-resolution radiation-hydrodynamic simulations with 2048^3 dark matter particles, 2048^3 gas cells, and 17 billion adaptive rays in a L = 100 Mpc/h box, we show that the density and reionization-redshift fields are highly correlated on large scales (>~ 1 Mpc/h). This correlation can be statistically represented by a scale-dependent linear bias. We construct a parametric function for the bias, which is then used to filter any large-scale density field to derive the corresponding spatially varying reionization-redshift field. The parametric model has three free parameters which can be reduced to one free parameter when we fit the two bias parameters to simulations results. We can differentiate degenerate combinations of the bias parameters by combining results for the global ionization histories and correlation length between ionized regions. Unlike previous semi-analytic models, the evolution of the reionizati...
Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory [University of Wisconsin—Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Delettrez, Jacques [Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)
2015-08-15
An implicit, non-local thermal conduction algorithm based on the algorithm developed by Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet (SNB) [Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] for non-local electron transport is presented and has been implemented in the radiation-hydrodynamics code DRACO. To study the model's effect on DRACO's predictive capability, simulations of shot 60 303 from OMEGA are completed using the iSNB model, and the computed shock speed vs. time is compared to experiment. Temperature outputs from the iSNB model are compared with the non-local transport model of Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)]. Effects on adiabat are also examined in a polar drive surrogate simulation. Results show that the iSNB model is not only capable of flux-limitation but also preheat prediction while remaining numerically robust and sacrificing little computational speed. Additionally, the results provide strong incentive to further modify key parameters within the SNB theory, namely, the newly introduced non-local mean free path. This research was supported by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester.
Dark matter annihilation radiation in hydrodynamic simulations of Milky Way haloes
Schaller, Matthieu; Frenk, Carlos S.; Theuns, Tom; Calore, Francesca; Bertone, Gianfranco; Bozorgnia, Nassim; Crain, Robert A.; Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F.; Sawala, Till; Schaye, Joop
2016-02-01
We obtain predictions for the properties of cold dark matter annihilation radiation using high-resolution hydrodynamic zoom-in cosmological simulations of Milky Way-like galaxies (APOSTLE project) carried out as part of the `Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments' (EAGLE) programme. Galactic haloes in the simulation have significantly different properties from those assumed in the `standard halo model' often used in dark matter detection studies. The formation of the galaxy causes a contraction of the dark matter halo, whose density profile develops a steeper slope than the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile between r ≈ 1.5 kpc and r ≈ 10 kpc. At smaller radii, r ≲ 1.5 kpc, the haloes develop a flatter than NFW slope. This unexpected feature may be specific to our particular choice of subgrid physics model but nevertheless the dark matter density profiles agree within 30 per cent as the mass resolution is increased by a factor 150. The inner regions of the haloes are almost perfectly spherical (axis ratios b/a > 0.97 within r = 1 kpc) and there is no offset larger than 45 pc between the centre of the stellar distribution and the centre of the dark halo. The morphology of the predicted dark matter annihilation radiation signal is in broad agreement with γ-ray observations at large Galactic latitudes (b ≳ 3°). At smaller angles, the inferred signal in one of our four galaxies is similar to that which is observed but it is significantly weaker in the other three.
Multi-Dimensional Radiation/Hydrodynamic Simulations of Protoneutron Star Convection
Dessart, L; Livne, E; Ott, C D
2005-01-01
Based on multi-dimensional multi-group radiation hydrodynamic simulations of core-collapse supernovae with the VULCAN/2D code, we study the physical conditions within and in the vicinity of the nascent protoneutron star (PNS). Conclusions of this work are threefold: First, as before, we do not see any large-scale overturn of the inner PNS material. Second, we see no evidence of doubly-diffusive instabilities in the PNS, expected to operate on diffusion timescales of at least a second, but instead observe the presence of convection, within a radius range of 10-20 km, operating with a timescale of a few milliseconds. Third, we identify unambiguously the presence of gravity waves, predominantly at 200-300 ms past core bounce, in the region separating the convective zones inside the PNS and between the PNS surface and the shocked region. PNS convection is always confined to a region between 10 and 20 km, i.e., within the neutrinospheric radii for all neutrino energies above just a few MeV. We find that such motio...
Photospheric Emission of Collapsar Jet in 3D Relativistic Radiation Hydrodynamical Simulation
Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Warren, Donald C; Barkov, Maxim V
2015-01-01
We explore the photospheric emission from a relativistic jet breaking out from a massive stellar envelope based on relativistic hydrodynamical simulations and post-process radiation transfer calculations in three dimensions (3D). To investigate the impact of 3D dynamics on the emission, two models of injection conditions are considered for the jet at the center of the progenitor star: one with periodic precession and another without precession. We show that structures developed within the jet due to the interaction with the stellar envelope, as well as due to the precession, have a significant imprint on the resulting emission. Particularly, we find that the signature of precession activity by the central engine is not smeared out and can be directly observed in the light curve as a periodic signal. We also show non-thermal features that can account for observations of gamma-ray bursts are produced in the resulting spectra, even though only thermal photons are injected initially and the effect of non-thermal ...
Grosskopf, Michael; Drake, R.; Kuranz, C.; Park, H.; Kugland, N.; Pollaine, S.; Ross, J.; Remington, B.; Spitkovsky, A.; Gargate, L.; Gregori, G.; Bell, A.; Murphy, C.; Meinecke, J.; Reville, B.; Sakawa, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Takabe, H.; Froula, D.; Fiksel, G.; Miniati, F.; Koenig, M.; Ravasio, A.; Liang, E.; Woolsey, N.
2012-05-01
Collisionless shocks, shocks generated by plasma wave interactions in regions where the collisional mean-free-path for ions is long compared to the length scale for instabilities that generate magnetic fields, are found in many astrophysical systems such as supernova remnants and planetary bow shocks. Generating conditions to investigate collisionless shock physics is difficult to achieve in a laboratory setting; however, high-energy-density physics facilities have made this a possibility. Experiments whose goal is to investigate the production and growth of magnetic fields in collisionless shocks in laboratory-scale systems are being carried out on intense lasers, several of which are measuring the plasma properties and magnetic field strength in counter-streaming, collisionless flows generated by laser ablation. This poster reports radiation-hydrodynamic simulations using the CRASH code to model the ablative flow of plasma generated in order to assess potential designs, as well as infer properties of collected data from previous experiments. This work is funded by the Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in NNSA-ASC via grant DEFC52- 08NA28616, by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-FG52-09NA29548, and by the National Laser User Facility Program, grant number DE-NA0000850.
De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Granot, Jonathan [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Lopez-Camara, Diego, E-mail: fabio@ucolick.org [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-543, 04510 D.F. (Mexico)
2012-02-20
We report on the development of Mezcal-SRHD, a new adaptive mesh refinement, special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) code, developed with the aim of studying the highly relativistic flows in gamma-ray burst sources. The SRHD equations are solved using finite-volume conservative solvers, with second-order interpolation in space and time. The correct implementation of the algorithms is verified by one-dimensional (1D) and multi-dimensional tests. The code is then applied to study the propagation of 1D spherical impulsive blast waves expanding in a stratified medium with {rho}{proportional_to}r{sup -k}, bridging between the relativistic and Newtonian phases (which are described by the Blandford-McKee and Sedov-Taylor self-similar solutions, respectively), as well as to a two-dimensional (2D) cylindrically symmetric impulsive jet propagating in a constant density medium. It is shown that the deceleration to nonrelativistic speeds in one dimension occurs on scales significantly larger than the Sedov length. This transition is further delayed with respect to the Sedov length as the degree of stratification of the ambient medium is increased. This result, together with the scaling of position, Lorentz factor, and the shock velocity as a function of time and shock radius, is explained here using a simple analytical model based on energy conservation. The method used for calculating the afterglow radiation by post-processing the results of the simulations is described in detail. The light curves computed using the results of 1D numerical simulations during the relativistic stage correctly reproduce those calculated assuming the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution for the evolution of the flow. The jet dynamics from our 2D simulations and the resulting afterglow light curves, including the jet break, are in good agreement with those presented in previous works. Finally, we show how the details of the dynamics critically depend on properly resolving the structure of the
De Colle, Fabio; Granot, Jonathan; López-Cámara, Diego; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico
2012-02-01
We report on the development of Mezcal-SRHD, a new adaptive mesh refinement, special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) code, developed with the aim of studying the highly relativistic flows in gamma-ray burst sources. The SRHD equations are solved using finite-volume conservative solvers, with second-order interpolation in space and time. The correct implementation of the algorithms is verified by one-dimensional (1D) and multi-dimensional tests. The code is then applied to study the propagation of 1D spherical impulsive blast waves expanding in a stratified medium with ρvpropr -k , bridging between the relativistic and Newtonian phases (which are described by the Blandford-McKee and Sedov-Taylor self-similar solutions, respectively), as well as to a two-dimensional (2D) cylindrically symmetric impulsive jet propagating in a constant density medium. It is shown that the deceleration to nonrelativistic speeds in one dimension occurs on scales significantly larger than the Sedov length. This transition is further delayed with respect to the Sedov length as the degree of stratification of the ambient medium is increased. This result, together with the scaling of position, Lorentz factor, and the shock velocity as a function of time and shock radius, is explained here using a simple analytical model based on energy conservation. The method used for calculating the afterglow radiation by post-processing the results of the simulations is described in detail. The light curves computed using the results of 1D numerical simulations during the relativistic stage correctly reproduce those calculated assuming the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution for the evolution of the flow. The jet dynamics from our 2D simulations and the resulting afterglow light curves, including the jet break, are in good agreement with those presented in previous works. Finally, we show how the details of the dynamics critically depend on properly resolving the structure of the relativistic flow.
Using hybrid implicit Monte Carlo diffusion to simulate gray radiation hydrodynamics
Cleveland, Mathew A., E-mail: cleveland7@llnl.gov; Gentile, Nick
2015-06-15
This work describes how to couple a hybrid Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion (HIMCD) method with a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code to evaluate the coupled radiation hydrodynamics equations. This HIMCD method dynamically applies Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion (IMD) [1] to regions of a problem that are opaque and diffusive while applying standard Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) [2] to regions where the diffusion approximation is invalid. We show that this method significantly improves the computational efficiency as compared to a standard IMC/Hydrodynamics solver, when optically thick diffusive material is present, while maintaining accuracy. Two test cases are used to demonstrate the accuracy and performance of HIMCD as compared to IMC and IMD. The first is the Lowrie semi-analytic diffusive shock [3]. The second is a simple test case where the source radiation streams through optically thin material and heats a thick diffusive region of material causing it to rapidly expand. We found that HIMCD proves to be accurate, robust, and computationally efficient for these test problems.
Ocvirk, Pierre; Shapiro, Paul R; Aubert, Dominique; Iliev, Ilian T; Teyssier, Romain; Yepes, Gustavo; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Sullivan, David; Knebe, Alexander; Gottloeber, Stefan; D'Aloisio, Anson; Park, Hyunbae; Hoffman, Yehuda; Stranex, Timothy
2015-01-01
Cosmic reionization by starlight from early galaxies affected their evolution, thereby impacting reionization, itself. Star formation suppression, for example, may explain the observed underabundance of Local Group dwarfs relative to N-body predictions for Cold Dark Matter. Reionization modelling requires simulating volumes large enough ~(100 Mpc)^3 to sample reionization "patchiness", while resolving millions of galaxy sources above ~10^8 Msun, combining gravitational and gas dynamics with radiative transfer. Modelling the Local Group requires initial cosmological density fluctuations pre-selected to form the well-known structures of the local universe today. Cosmic Dawn ("CoDa") is the first such fully-coupled, radiation-hydrodynamics simulation of reionization of the local universe. Our new hybrid CPU-GPU code, RAMSES-CUDATON, performs hundreds of radiative transfer and ionization rate-solver timesteps on the GPUs for each hydro-gravity timestep on the CPUs. CoDa simulated (91 Mpc)^3 with 4096^3 particles ...
Solar Chromospheric Flares: Observations in Ly-lpha and Hlpha and Radiative Hydrodynamic Simulations
Rubio da Costa, Fatima
2011-03-01
This thesis is divided into two main parts: a multiwavelength observational study of solar flares, focusing mainly in the chromosphere in Ly-α and Hα, and an application of a radiative transfer code and a radiative hydrodynamic code, to compare the results obtained by observations with the simulated ones. The Ly-α emission is a very interesting line because it is a natural tracer of the solar activity in the chromosphere. The Transition Region And Coronal Explorer satellite observed a small number of flares in the Ly-α passband, but apart from this, these events have not often been observed in this strong chromospheric line. Because TRACE has a broad Ly-α channel, in order to estimate the "pure" Lyα emission, we had to apply an empirical correction. We found that there is a reasonable coverage in TRACE 1216 A and the TRACE 1600 A for two different flares: on 8 September 1999 and on 28 February 1999. Studying them we estimated, for the first time, the pure Ly-α flare signature, being on the order of 10^25 erg/s at the flare peak. The study of the first flare gave us the possibility to calculate the electron energy budget using the X-ray data from Yohkoh/HXT in the context of the collisional thick target model, finding that the Ly-α power is less than 10% of the power inferred by the electrons. The morphology and evolution of the second flare were described in different wavelengths by using imaging data acquired by TRACE and by BBSO in white light and in Hα. We studied the magnetic topology using the magnetic field provided by SOHO/MDI, extrapolating the photospheric magnetic field lines, assuming a potential field. We found different morphologies in the magnetic configuration before and after the flare, confirming the occurrence of a reconnection process. The Hα line is the most important line in the chromosphere. We studied the Hα emission of a flare which occurred on 3 July 2002 using some spectroscopical observations from the Ondrejov Observatory
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Simulator
2016-10-05
This code is a highly modular framework for developing smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations running on parallel platforms. The compartmentalization of the code allows for rapid development of new SPH applications and modifications of existing algorithms. The compartmentalization also allows changes in one part of the code used by many applications to instantly be made available to all applications.
Greif, Thomas H
2014-01-01
We investigate the collapse of primordial gas in a minihalo with three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations that accurately model the transfer of H2 line emission. For this purpose, we have implemented a multi-line, multi-frequency ray-tracing scheme in the moving-mesh code Arepo that is capable of adaptively refining rays based on the Healpix algorithm, as well as a hybrid equilibrium/non-equilibrium primordial chemistry solver. We find that the chemical and thermal evolution of the central gas cloud is similar to the case where an escape probability formalism with a fit to detailed one-dimensional calculations is used, with the exception that the suppression of density perturbations due to the diffusion of radiation is only present in the full radiation hydrodynamics simulations. A multi-frequency treatment of the individual H2 lines is essential, since for high optical depths the smaller cross section in the wings of the lines greatly increases the amount of energy that can escape. The influence...
Ott, Christian D; Dessart, Luc; Livne, Eli
2008-01-01
We perform axisymmetric (2D) multi-angle, multi-group neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the postbounce phase of core-collapse supernovae using a genuinely 2D discrete-ordinate (S_n) method. We follow the long-term postbounce evolution of the cores of one nonrotating and one rapidly-rotating 20-solar-mass stellar model for ~400 milliseconds from 160 ms to ~550 ms after bounce. We present a multi-D analysis of the multi-angle neutrino radiation fields and compare in detail with counterpart simulations carried out in the 2D multi-group flux-limited diffusion (MGFLD) approximation to neutrino transport. We find that 2D multi-angle transport is superior in capturing the global and local radiation-field variations associated with rotation-induced and SASI-induced aspherical hydrodynamic configurations. In the rotating model, multi-angle transport predicts much larger asymptotic neutrino flux asymmetries with pole to equator ratios of up to ~2.5, while MGFLD tends to sphericize the radiation fields al...
Scalability of Hydrodynamic Simulations
Tang, Shikui
2009-01-01
Many hydrodynamic processes can be studied in a way that is scalable over a vastly relevant physical parameter space. We systematically examine this scalability, which has so far only briefly discussed in astrophysical literature. We show how the scalability is limited by various constraints imposed by physical processes and initial conditions. Using supernova remnants in different environments and evolutionary phases as application examples, we demonstrate the use of the scaling as a powerful tool to explore the interdependence among relevant parameters, based on a minimum set of simulations. In particular, we devise a scaling scheme that can be used to adaptively generate numerous seed remnants and plant them into 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the supernova-dominated interstellar medium.
da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Petrosian, Vahé; Dalda, Alberto Sainz; Liu, Wei
2014-01-01
Solar flares involve impulsive energy release, which results in enhanced radiation in a broad spectral and at a wide height range. In particular, line emission from the chromosphere (lower atmosphere) can provide critical diagnostics of plasma heating processes. Thus, a direct comparison between high-resolution spectroscopic observations and advanced numerical modeling results can be extremely valuable, but has not been attempted so far. We present in this paper such a self-consistent investigation of an M3.0 flare observed by the Dunn Solar Telescope's (DST) Interferometric Bi-dimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) on 2011 September 24 that we have modeled with the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN (Carlsson & Stein 1992, 1997; Abbett & Hawley 1999; Allred et al. 2005). We obtained images and spectra of the flaring region with IBIS in H$\\alpha$ 6563 \\AA\\ and Ca II 8542 \\AA, and with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager (RHESSI) in X-rays. The latter was used to infer the non-thermal elect...
Ocvirk, Pierre; Gillet, Nicolas; Shapiro, Paul R.; Aubert, Dominique; Iliev, Ilian T.; Teyssier, Romain; Yepes, Gustavo; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Sullivan, David; Knebe, Alexander; Gottlöber, Stefan; D'Aloisio, Anson; Park, Hyunbae; Hoffman, Yehuda; Stranex, Timothy
2016-12-01
Cosmic reionization by starlight from early galaxies affected their evolution, thereby impacting reionization itself. Star formation suppression, for example, may explain the observed underabundance of Local Group dwarfs relative to N-body predictions for cold dark matter. Reionization modelling requires simulating volumes large enough [˜ (100 Mpc)3] to sample reionization `patchiness', while resolving millions of galaxy sources above ˜108 M⊙ combining gravitational and gas dynamics with radiative transfer. Modelling the Local Group requires initial cosmological density fluctuations pre-selected to form the well-known structures of the Local Universe today. Cosmic Dawn (`CoDa') is the first such fully coupled, radiation-hydrodynamics simulation of reionization of the Local Universe. Our new hybrid CPU-GPU code, RAMSES-CUDATON, performs hundreds of radiative transfer and ionization rate-solver timesteps on the GPUs for each hydro-gravity timestep on the CPUs. CoDa simulated (91Mpc)3 with 40963 particles and cells, to redshift 4.23, on ORNL supercomputer Titan, utilizing 8192 cores and 8192 GPUs. Global reionization ended slightly later than observed. However, a simple temporal rescaling which brings the evolution of ionized fraction into agreement with observations also reconciles ionizing flux density, cosmic star formation history, CMB electron scattering optical depth and galaxy UV luminosity function with their observed values. Photoionization heating suppressed the star formation of haloes below ˜2 × 109 M⊙, decreasing the abundance of faint galaxies around MAB1600 = [-10, -12]. For most of reionization, star formation was dominated by haloes between 1010-1011 M⊙ , so low-mass halo suppression was not reflected by a distinct feature in the global star formation history. Intergalactic filaments display sheathed structures, with hot envelopes surrounding cooler cores, but do not self-shield, unlike regions denser than 100 .
Ocvirk, Pierre; Gillet, Nicolas; Shapiro, Paul R.; Aubert, Dominique; Iliev, Ilian T.; Teyssier, Romain; Yepes, Gustavo; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Sullivan, David; Knebe, Alexander; Gottlöber, Stefan; D'Aloisio, Anson; Park, Hyunbae; Hoffman, Yehuda; Stranex, Timothy
2016-08-01
Cosmic reionization by starlight from early galaxies affected their evolution, thereby impacting reionization, itself. Star formation suppression, for example, may explain the observed underabundance of Local Group dwarfs relative to N-body predictions for Cold Dark Matter. Reionization modelling requires simulating volumes large enough [ ˜ (100 Mpc)3] to sample reionization "patchiness", while resolving millions of galaxy sources above ˜108 M⊙ , combining gravitational and gas dynamics with radiative transfer. Modelling the Local Group requires initial cosmological density fluctuations pre-selected to form the well-known structures of the local universe today. Cosmic Dawn ("CoDa") is the first such fully-coupled, radiation-hydrodynamics simulation of reionization of the local universe. Our new hybrid CPU-GPU code, RAMSES-CUDATON, performs hundreds of radiative transfer and ionization rate-solver timesteps on the GPUs for each hydro-gravity timestep on the CPUs. CoDa simulated (91Mpc)3 with 40963 particles and cells, to redshift 4.23, on ORNL supercomputer Titan, utilizing 8192 cores and 8192 GPUs. Global reionization ended slightly later than observed. However, a simple temporal rescaling which brings the evolution of ionized fraction into agreement with observations also reconciles ionizing flux density, cosmic star formation history, CMB electron scattering optical depth and galaxy UV luminosity function with their observed values. Photoionization heating suppressed the star formation of haloes below ˜2 × 109 M⊙ , For most of reionization, star formation was dominated by haloes between 1010 - 1011 M⊙ , so low-mass halo suppression was not reflected by a distinct feature in the global star formation history. Intergalactic filaments display sheathed structures, with hot envelopes surrounding cooler cores, but do not self-shield, unlike regions denser than 100 .
De Colle, Fabio; Lopez-Camara, Diego; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico
2011-01-01
We report on the development of Mezcal-SRHD, a new adaptive mesh refinement, special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) code, developed with the aim of studying the highly relativistic flows in Gamma-Ray Burst sources. The SRHD equations are solved using finite volume conservative solvers. The correct implementation of the algorithms is verified by one-dimensional (1D) shock tube and multidimensional tests. The code is then applied to study the propagation of 1D spherical impulsive blast waves expanding in a stratified medium with $\\rho \\propto r^{-k}$, bridging between the relativistic and Newtonian phases, as well as to a two-dimensional (2D) cylindrically symmetric impulsive jet propagating in a constant density medium. It is shown that the deceleration to non-relativistic speeds in one-dimension occurs on scales significantly larger than the Sedov length. This transition is further delayed with respect to the Sedov length as the degree of stratification of the ambient medium is increased. This result, toge...
Livne, E; Walder, R; Lichtenstadt, I; Thompson, T A; Livne, Eli; Burrows, Adam; Walder, Rolf; Lichtenstadt, Itamar; Thompson, Todd A.
2004-01-01
We have developed a time-dependent, multi-energy-group, and multi-angle (S$_n$) Boltzmann transport scheme for radiation hydrodynamics simulations, in one and two spatial dimensions. The implicit transport is coupled to both 1D (spherically-symmetric) and 2D (axially-symmetric) versions of the explicit Newtonian hydrodynamics code VULCAN. The 2D variant, VULCAN/2D, can be operated in general structured or unstructured grids and though the code can address many problems in astrophysics it was constructed specifically to study the core-collapse supernova problem. Furthermore, VULCAN/2D can simulate the radiation/hydrodynamic evolution of differentially rotating bodies. We summarize the equations solved and methods incorporated into the algorithm and present results of a time-dependent 2D test calculation. A more complete description of the algorithm is postponed to another paper. We highlight a 2D test run that follows for 22 milliseconds the immediate post-bounce evolution of a collapsed core. We present the r...
The RAGE radiation-hydrodynamic code
Gittings, Michael; Clover, Michael; Betlach, Thomas; Byrne, Nelson; Coker, Robert; Dendy, Edward; Hueckstaedt, Robert; New, Kim; Oakes, W Rob; Ranta, Dale; Stefan, Ryan
2008-01-01
We describe RAGE, the ``Radiation Adaptive Grid Eulerian'' radiation-hydrodynamics code, including its data structures, its parallelization strategy and performance, its hydrodynamic algorithm(s), its (gray) radiation diffusion algorithm, and some of the considerable amount of verification and validation efforts. The hydrodynamics is a basic Godunov solver, to which we have made significant improvements to increase the advection algorithm's robustness and to converge stiffnesses in the equation of state. Similarly, the radiation transport is a basic gray diffusion, but our treatment of the radiation-material coupling, wherein we converge nonlinearities in a novel manner to allow larger timesteps and more robust behavior, can be applied to any multi-group transport algorithm.
Ball, W H; Cameron, R H; Gizon, L
2016-01-01
... [C]urrent stellar models predict oscillation frequencies that are systematically affected by simplified modelling of the near-surface layers. We use three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations to better model the near-surface equilibrium structure of dwarfs with spectral types F3, G2, K0 and K5, and examine the differences between oscillation mode frequencies. ... We precisely match stellar models to the simulations' gravities and effective temperatures at the surface, and to the temporally- and horizontally-averaged densities and pressures at their deepest points. We then replace the near-surface structure with that of the averaged simulation and compute the change in the oscillation mode frequencies. We also fit the differences using several parametric models currently available in the literature. The surface effect in the stars of solar-type and later is qualitatively similar and changes steadily with decreasing effective temperature. In particular, the point of greatest frequency difference ...
Radiation hydrodynamics integrated in the PLUTO code
Kolb, Stefan M.; Stute, Matthias; Kley, Wilhelm; Mignone, Andrea
2013-11-01
Aims: The transport of energy through radiation is very important in many astrophysical phenomena. In dynamical problems the time-dependent equations of radiation hydrodynamics have to be solved. We present a newly developed radiation-hydrodynamics module specifically designed for the versatile magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code PLUTO. Methods: The solver is based on the flux-limited diffusion approximation in the two-temperature approach. All equations are solved in the co-moving frame in the frequency-independent (gray) approximation. The hydrodynamics is solved by the different Godunov schemes implemented in PLUTO, and for the radiation transport we use a fully implicit scheme. The resulting system of linear equations is solved either using the successive over-relaxation (SOR) method (for testing purposes) or using matrix solvers that are available in the PETSc library. We state in detail the methodology and describe several test cases to verify the correctness of our implementation. The solver works in standard coordinate systems, such as Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical, and also for non-equidistant grids. Results: We present a new radiation-hydrodynamics solver coupled to the MHD-code PLUTO that is a modern, versatile, and efficient new module for treating complex radiation hydrodynamical problems in astrophysics. As test cases, either purely radiative situations, or full radiation-hydrodynamical setups (including radiative shocks and convection in accretion disks) were successfully studied. The new module scales very well on parallel computers using MPI. For problems in star or planet formation, we added the possibility of irradiation by a central source.
Simple Waves in Ideal Radiation Hydrodynamics
Johnson, Bryan M
2008-01-01
In the dynamic diffusion limit of radiation hydrodynamics, advection dominates diffusion; the latter primarily affects small scales and has negligible impact on the large scale flow. The radiation can thus be accurately regarded as an ideal fluid, i.e., radiative diffusion can be neglected along with other forms of dissipation. This viewpoint is applied here to an analysis of simple waves in an ideal radiating fluid. It is shown that much of the hydrodynamic analysis carries over by simply replacing the material sound speed, pressure and index with the values appropriate for a radiating fluid. A complete analysis is performed for a centered rarefaction wave, and expressions are provided for the Riemann invariants and characteristic curves of the one-dimensional system of equations. The analytical solution is checked for consistency against a finite difference numerical integration, and the validity of neglecting the diffusion operator is demonstrated. An interesting physical result is that for a material comp...
Annual Report: Hydrodynamics and Radiative Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications
R. Paul Drake
2005-12-01
We report the ongoing work of our group in hydrodynamics and radiative hydrodynamics with astrophysical applications. During the period of the existing grant, we have carried out two types of experiments at the Omega laser. One set of experiments has studied radiatively collapsing shocks, obtaining high-quality scaling data using a backlit pinhole and obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) Thomson-scattering data from a radiative shock. Other experiments have studied the deeply nonlinear development of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability from complex initial conditions, obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) dual-axis radiographic data using backlit pinholes and ungated detectors. All these experiments have applications to astrophysics, discussed in the corresponding papers either in print or in preparation. We also have obtained preliminary radiographs of experimental targets using our x-ray source. The targets for the experiments have been assembled at Michigan, where we also prepare many of the simple components. The above activities, in addition to a variety of data analysis and design projects, provide good experience for graduate and undergraduates students. In the process of doing this research we have built a research group that uses such work to train junior scientists.
Kinetic simulation of hydrodynamic equivalent capsule implosions
Kwan, Thomas; Le, Ari; Schmitt, Mark; Herrmann, Hans
2016-10-01
We have carried out simulations of direct-drive hydrodynamic equivalent capsule implosion experiments conducted on Omega laser facility at the Laboratory of Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester. The capsules had a glass shell (SiO2) 4.87 μm with an inner diameter of 1086 μm. One was filled with deuterium (D) and tritium (T) at 6.635 and 2.475 atmospheric pressure respectively. The other capsule with D, T, and He-3 at 2.475, 2.475, and 5.55 atmospheric pressure respectively. The capsules were imploded with 60 laser beams with a square pulse length of 0.6ns of total energy of 15.6 kJ. One-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic calculations with HYDRA and kinetic particle/hybrid simulations with LSP are carried out for the post-shot analysis. HYDRA outputs at 0.6ns are linked to LSP, in which the electrons are treated as a fluid while all the ion dynamics is simulated by the standard particle-in-cell technique. Additionally, simulations with the new photon package in LSP are initiated at the beginning of the implosion to include the implosion phase of the capsule. The simulation results of density, temperature, and velocity profiles of the electrons, D, T, He-3, and SiO2species are compared with HYDRA. Detail comparisons among the kinetic simulations, rad-hydro simulations, and experimental results of neutron yield, yield ratio, fusion burn histories, and shell convergence will be presented to assess plasma kinetic effects. Work performed under the auspices of the US DOE by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W7405-ENG-36.
Radiation-Hydrodynamics of Hot Jupiter Atmospheres
Menou, Kristen
2009-01-01
Radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres is usually treated in the static limit, i.e., neglecting atmospheric motions. We argue that hot Jupiter atmospheres, with possibly fast (sonic) wind speeds, may require a more strongly coupled treatment, formally in the regime of radiation-hydrodynamics. To lowest order in v/c, relativistic Doppler shifts distort line profiles along optical paths with finite wind velocity gradients. This leads to flow-dependent deviations in the effective emission and absorption properties of the atmospheric medium. Evaluating the overall impact of these distortions on the radiative structure of a dynamic atmosphere is non-trivial. We present transmissivity and systematic equivalent width excess calculations which suggest possibly important consequences for radiation transport in hot Jupiter atmospheres. If winds are fast and bulk Doppler shifts are indeed important for the global radiative balance, accurate modeling and reliable data interpretation for hot Jupiter atmospheres may p...
Sizyuk, V.; Hassanein, A.; Morozov, V.; Sizyuk, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science
2007-01-16
The HEIGHTS integrated model has been developed as an instrument for simulation and optimization of laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources relevant to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The model combines three general parts: hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and heat conduction. The first part employs a total variation diminishing scheme in the Lax-Friedrich formulation (TVD-LF); the second part, a Monte Carlo model; and the third part, implicit schemes with sparse matrix technology. All model parts consider physical processes in three-dimensional geometry. The influence of a generated magnetic field on laser plasma behavior was estimated, and it was found that this effect could be neglected for laser intensities relevant to EUV (up to {approx}10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}). All applied schemes were tested on analytical problems separately. Benchmark modeling of the full EUV source problem with a planar tin target showed good correspondence with experimental and theoretical data. Preliminary results are presented for tin droplet- and planar-target LPP devices. The influence of three-dimensional effects on EUV properties of source is discussed.
Development and Implementation of Radiation-Hydrodynamics Verification Test Problems
Marcath, Matthew J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Matthew Y. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-08-22
Analytic solutions to the radiation-hydrodynamic equations are useful for verifying any large-scale numerical simulation software that solves the same set of equations. The one-dimensional, spherically symmetric Coggeshall No.9 and No.11 analytic solutions, cell-averaged over a uniform-grid have been developed to analyze the corresponding solutions from the Los Alamos National Laboratory Eulerian Applications Project radiation-hydrodynamics code xRAGE. These Coggeshall solutions have been shown to be independent of heat conduction, providing a unique opportunity for comparison with xRAGE solutions with and without the heat conduction module. Solution convergence was analyzed based on radial step size. Since no shocks are involved in either problem and the solutions are smooth, second-order convergence was expected for both cases. The global L1 errors were used to estimate the convergence rates with and without the heat conduction module implemented.
A Higher Order Godunov Method for Radiation Hydrodynamics: Radiation Subsystem
Sekora, Michael
2009-01-01
A higher order Godunov method for the radiation subsystem of radiation hydrodynamics is presented. A key ingredient of the method is the direct coupling of stiff source term effects to the hyperbolic structure of the system of conservation laws; it is composed of a predictor step that is based on Duhamel's principle and a corrector step that is based on Picard iteration. The method is second order accurate in both time and space, unsplit, asymptotically preserving, and uniformly well behaved from the photon free streaming (hyperbolic) limit through the weak equilibrium diffusion (parabolic) limit and to the strong equilibrium diffusion (hyperbolic) limit. Numerical tests demonstrate second order convergence across various parameter regimes.
First Numerical Simulations of Anomalous Hydrodynamics
Hongo, Masaru; Hirano, Tetsufumi
2013-01-01
Anomalous hydrodynamics is a low-energy effective theory that captures effects of quantum anomalies. We develop a numerical code of anomalous hydrodynamics and apply it to dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, where anomalous transports are expected to occur. This is the first attempt to perform fully non-linear numerical simulations of anomalous hydrodynamics. We discuss implications of the simulations for possible experimental observations of anomalous transport effects. From analyses of the charge-dependent elliptic flow parameters ($v_2^\\pm$) as a function of the net charge asymmetry $A_\\pm$, we quantitatively verify that the linear dependence of $\\Delta v_2 \\equiv v_2^- - v_2^+$ on the net charge asymmetry $A_\\pm$ cannot be regarded as a sensitive signal of anomalous transports, contrary to previous studies. We, however, find that the intercept $\\Delta v_2(A_\\pm=0)$ is sensitive to anomalous transport effects.
Radiative Hydrodynamic Models of Optical and Ultraviolet Emission from M Dwarf Flares
Allred, J C; Carlsson, M; Hawley, S L; Abbett, William P.; Allred, Joel C.; Carlsson, Mats; Hawley, Suzanne L.
2006-01-01
We report on radiative hydrodynamic simulations of M dwarf stellar flares and compare the model predictions to observations of several flares. The flares were simulated by calculating the hydrodynamic response of a model M dwarf atmosphere to a beam of non-thermal electrons. Radiative backwarming through numerous soft X-ray, extreme ultraviolet, and ultraviolet transitions are also included. The equations of radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium are treated in non-LTE for many transitions of hydrogen, helium and the Ca II ion allowing the calculation of detailed line profiles and continuum radiation. Two simulations were carried out, with electron beam fluxes corresponding to moderate and strong beam heating. In both cases we find the dynamics can be naturally divided into two phases: an initial gentle phase in which hydrogen and helium radiate away much of the beam energy, and an explosive phase characterized by large hydrodynamic waves. During the initial phase, lower chromospheric material is evap...
Heltemes, T A; Prochaska, A E; Moses, G A, E-mail: taheltemes@wisc.ed [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison WI 53706 (United States)
2010-08-01
The BUCKY 1-D radiation hydrodynamics code has been used to simulate the dynamic thermo-mechanical interaction between a xenon gas-filled chamber and tungsten first-wall armor with an indirect-drive laser fusion target for the LIFE reactor design. Two classes of simulations were performed: (1) short-time (0-2 ms) simulations to fully capture the hydrodynamic effects of the introduction of the LIFE indirect-drive target x-ray and ion threat spectra and (2) long-time (2-70 ms) simulations starting with quiescent chamber conditions characteristic of those at 2 ms to estimate xenon plasma cooling between target implosions at 13 Hz. The short-time simulation results reported are: (1) the plasma hydrodynamics of the xenon in the chamber, (2) dynamic overpressure on the tungsten armor, and (3) time-dependent temperatures in the tungsten armor. The ramifications of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) vs. non-LTE opacity models are also addressed.
Lyman α radiation hydrodynamics of galactic winds before cosmic reionization
Smith, Aaron; Bromm, Volker; Loeb, Abraham
2017-01-01
The dynamical impact of Lyman α (Lyα) radiation pressure on galaxy formation depends on the rate and duration of momentum transfer between Lyα photons and neutral hydrogen gas. Although photon trapping has the potential to multiply the effective force, ionizing radiation from stellar sources may relieve the Lyα pressure before appreciably affecting the kinematics of the host galaxy or efficiently coupling Lyα photons to the outflow. We present self-consistent Lyα radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of high-z galaxy environments by coupling the Cosmic Lyα Transfer code (COLT) with spherically symmetric Lagrangian frame hydrodynamics. The accurate but computationally expensive Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations are feasible under the one-dimensional approximation. The initial starburst drives an expanding shell of gas from the centre and in certain cases, Lyα feedback significantly enhances the shell velocity. Radiative feedback alone is capable of ejecting baryons into the intergalactic medium (IGM) for protogalaxies with a virial mass of Mvir ≲ 108 M⊙. We compare the Lyα signatures of Population III stars with 105 K blackbody emission to that of direct collapse black holes with a non-thermal Compton-thick spectrum and find substantial differences if the Lyα spectra are shaped by gas pushed by Lyα radiation-driven winds. For both sources, the flux emerging from the galaxy is reprocessed by the IGM such that the observed Lyα luminosity is reduced significantly and the time-averaged velocity offset of the Lyα peak is shifted redward.
Dust Attenuation in Hydrodynamic Simulations of Spiral Galaxies
Rocha, M; Primack, J R; Cox, T J; Rocha, Miguel; Jonsson, Patrik; Primack, Joel R.
2007-01-01
We study the effects of dust in hydrodynamic simulations of spiral galaxies when different radial metallicity gradients are assumed. SUNRISE, a Monte-Carlo radiative-transfer code, is used to make detailed calculations of the internal extinction of disk galaxies caused by their dust content. SUNRISE is used on eight different Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of isolated spiral galaxies. These galaxies vary mainly in mass and hence luminosity, spanning a range in luminosities from -16 to -22 magnitudes in the B band. We focus on the attenuation in different wavelength bands as a function of the disk inclination and the luminosity of the models, and compare this to observations. Observations suggest different metallicity gradients for galaxies of different luminosities. These metallicity gradients were explored in our different models, finding that the resulting dust attenuation matches observations for edge-on galaxies, but do not show a linear behaviour in log axis ratio as some observations ha...
Radiation Hydrodynamic Parameter Study of Inertial Fusion Energy Reactor Chambers
Sacks, Ryan; Moses, Gregory
2014-10-01
Inertial fusion energy reactors present great promise for the future as they are capable of providing baseline power with no carbon footprint. Simulation work regarding the chamber response and first wall insult is performed with the 1-D radiation hydrodynamics code BUCKY. Simulation with differing chamber parameters are implemented to study the effect of gas fill, gas mixtures and chamber radii. Xenon and argon gases are of particular interest as shielding for the first wall due to their high opacity values and ready availability. Mixing of the two gases is an attempt to engineer a gas cocktail to provide the maximum amount of shielding with the least amount of cost. A parameter study of different chamber radii shows a consistent relationship with that of first wall temperature (~1/r2) and overpressure (~1/r3). This work is performed under collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Machine Learning and Cosmological Simulations II: Hydrodynamical Simulations
Kamdar, Harshil M; Brunner, Robert J
2015-01-01
We extend a machine learning (ML) framework presented previously to model galaxy formation and evolution in a hierarchical universe using N-body + hydrodynamical simulations. In this work, we show that ML is a promising technique to study galaxy formation in the backdrop of a hydrodynamical simulation. We use the Illustris Simulation to train and test various sophisticated machine learning algorithms. By using only essential dark matter halo physical properties and no merger history, our model predicts the gas mass, stellar mass, black hole mass, star formation rate, $g-r$ color, and stellar metallicity fairly robustly. Our results provide a unique and powerful phenomenological framework to explore the galaxy-halo connection that is built upon a solid hydrodynamical simulation. The promising reproduction of the listed galaxy properties demonstrably place ML as a promising and a significantly more computationally efficient tool to study small-scale structure formation. We find that ML mimics a full-blown hydro...
Testing hydrodynamics schemes in galaxy disc simulations
Few, C. G.; Dobbs, C.; Pettitt, A.; Konstandin, L.
2016-08-01
We examine how three fundamentally different numerical hydrodynamics codes follow the evolution of an isothermal galactic disc with an external spiral potential. We compare an adaptive mesh refinement code (RAMSES), a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (SPHNG), and a volume-discretized mesh-less code (GIZMO). Using standard refinement criteria, we find that RAMSES produces a disc that is less vertically concentrated and does not reach such high densities as the SPHNG or GIZMO runs. The gas surface density in the spiral arms increases at a lower rate for the RAMSES simulations compared to the other codes. There is also a greater degree of substructure in the SPHNG and GIZMO runs and secondary spiral arms are more pronounced. By resolving the Jeans length with a greater number of grid cells, we achieve more similar results to the Lagrangian codes used in this study. Other alterations to the refinement scheme (adding extra levels of refinement and refining based on local density gradients) are less successful in reducing the disparity between RAMSES and SPHNG/GIZMO. Although more similar, SPHNG displays different density distributions and vertical mass profiles to all modes of GIZMO (including the smoothed particle hydrodynamics version). This suggests differences also arise which are not intrinsic to the particular method but rather due to its implementation. The discrepancies between codes (in particular, the densities reached in the spiral arms) could potentially result in differences in the locations and time-scales for gravitational collapse, and therefore impact star formation activity in more complex galaxy disc simulations.
MUFASA: galaxy formation simulations with meshless hydrodynamics
Davé, Romeel; Thompson, Robert; Hopkins, Philip F.
2016-11-01
We present the MUFASA suite of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, which employs the GIZMO meshless finite mass (MFM) code including H2-based star formation, nine-element chemical evolution, two-phase kinetic outflows following scalings from the Feedback in Realistic Environments zoom simulations, and evolving halo mass-based quenching. Our fiducial (50 h-1 Mpc)3 volume is evolved to z = 0 with a quarter billion elements. The predicted galaxy stellar mass functions (GSMFs) reproduces observations from z = 4 → 0 to ≲ 1.2σ in cosmic variance, providing an unprecedented match to this key diagnostic. The cosmic star formation history and stellar mass growth show general agreement with data, with a strong archaeological downsizing trend such that dwarf galaxies form the majority of their stars after z ˜ 1. We run 25 and 12.5 h-1 Mpc volumes to z = 2 with identical feedback prescriptions, the latter resolving all hydrogen-cooling haloes, and the three runs display fair resolution convergence. The specific star formation rates broadly agree with data at z = 0, but are underpredicted at z ˜ 2 by a factor of 3, re-emphasizing a longstanding puzzle in galaxy evolution models. We compare runs using MFM and two flavours of smoothed particle hydrodynamics, and show that the GSMF is sensitive to hydrodynamics methodology at the ˜×2 level, which is sub-dominant to choices for parametrizing feedback.
Monte Carlo Radiation Hydrodynamics: Methods, Tests and Application to Supernova Type Ia Ejecta
Noebauer, U M; Kromer, M; Röpke, F K; Hillebrandt, W
2012-01-01
In astrophysical systems, radiation-matter interactions are important in transferring energy and momentum between the radiation field and the surrounding material. This coupling often makes it necessary to consider the role of radiation when modelling the dynamics of astrophysical fluids. During the last few years, there have been rapid developments in the use of Monte Carlo methods for numerical radiative transfer simulations. Here, we present an approach to radiation hydrodynamics that is based on coupling Monte Carlo radiative transfer techniques with finite-volume hydrodynamical methods in an operator-split manner. In particular, we adopt an indivisible packet formalism to discretize the radiation field into an ensemble of Monte Carlo packets and employ volume-based estimators to reconstruct the radiation field characteristics. In this paper the numerical tools of this method are presented and their accuracy is verified in a series of test calculations. Finally, as a practical example, we use our approach...
Walder, R; Ott, C D; Livne, E; Jarrah, M
2004-01-01
Using the 2D multi-group, flux-limited diffusion version of the code VULCAN/2D, that also incorporates rotation, we have calculated the collapse, bounce, shock formation, and early post-bounce evolutionary phases of a core-collapse supernova for a variety of initial rotation rates. This is the first series of such multi-group calculations undertaken in supernova theory with fully multi-D tools. We find that though rotation generates pole-to-equator angular anisotropies in the neutrino radiation fields, the magnitude of the asymmetries is not as large as previously estimated. Moreover, we find that the radiation field is always more spherically symmetric than the matter distribution, with its plumes and convective eddies. We present the dependence of the angular anisotropy of the neutrino fields on neutrino species, neutrino energy, and initial rotation rate. Only for our most rapidly rotating model do we start to see qualitatively different hydrodynamics, but for the lower rates consistent with the pre-collap...
Hydrodynamic simulations of the core helium flash
Mocak, M; Weiss, A; Kifonidis, K; 10.1017/S1743921308022813
2009-01-01
We describe and discuss hydrodynamic simulations of the core helium flash using an initial model of a 1.25 M_sol star with a metallicity of 0.02 near at its peak. Past research concerned with the dynamics of the core helium flash is inconclusive. Its results range from a confirmation of the standard picture, where the star remains in hydrostatic equilibrium during the flash (Deupree 1996), to a disruption or a significant mass loss of the star (Edwards 1969; Cole & Deupree 1980). However, the most recent multidimensional hydrodynamic study (Dearborn 2006) suggests a quiescent behavior of the core helium flash and seems to rule out an explosive scenario. Here we present partial results of a new comprehensive study of the core helium flash, which seem to confirm this qualitative behavior and give a better insight into operation of the convection zone powered by helium burning during the flash. The hydrodynamic evolution is followed on a computational grid in spherical coordinates using our new version of th...
Machine learning and cosmological simulations - II. Hydrodynamical simulations
Kamdar, Harshil M.; Turk, Matthew J.; Brunner, Robert J.
2016-04-01
We extend a machine learning (ML) framework presented previously to model galaxy formation and evolution in a hierarchical universe using N-body + hydrodynamical simulations. In this work, we show that ML is a promising technique to study galaxy formation in the backdrop of a hydrodynamical simulation. We use the Illustris simulation to train and test various sophisticated ML algorithms. By using only essential dark matter halo physical properties and no merger history, our model predicts the gas mass, stellar mass, black hole mass, star formation rate, g - r colour, and stellar metallicity fairly robustly. Our results provide a unique and powerful phenomenological framework to explore the galaxy-halo connection that is built upon a solid hydrodynamical simulation. The promising reproduction of the listed galaxy properties demonstrably place ML as a promising and a significantly more computationally efficient tool to study small-scale structure formation. We find that ML mimics a full-blown hydrodynamical simulation surprisingly well in a computation time of mere minutes. The population of galaxies simulated by ML, while not numerically identical to Illustris, is statistically robust and physically consistent with Illustris galaxies and follows the same fundamental observational constraints. ML offers an intriguing and promising technique to create quick mock galaxy catalogues in the future.
Particle Mesh Hydrodynamics for Astrophysics Simulations
Chatelain, Philippe; Cottet, Georges-Henri; Koumoutsakos, Petros
We present a particle method for the simulation of three dimensional compressible hydrodynamics based on a hybrid Particle-Mesh discretization of the governing equations. The method is rooted on the regularization of particle locations as in remeshed Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (rSPH). The rSPH method was recently introduced to remedy problems associated with the distortion of computational elements in SPH, by periodically re-initializing the particle positions and by using high order interpolation kernels. In the PMH formulation, the particles solely handle the convective part of the compressible Euler equations. The particle quantities are then interpolated onto a mesh, where the pressure terms are computed. PMH, like SPH, is free of the convection CFL condition while at the same time it is more efficient as derivatives are computed on a mesh rather than particle-particle interactions. PMH does not detract from the adaptive character of SPH and allows for control of its accuracy. We present simulations of a benchmark astrophysics problem demonstrating the capabilities of this approach.
Testing Hydrodynamics Schemes in Galaxy Disc Simulations
Few, C G; Pettitt, A; Konstandin, L
2016-01-01
We examine how three fundamentally different numerical hydrodynamics codes follow the evolution of an isothermal galactic disc with an external spiral potential. We compare an adaptive mesh refinement code (RAMSES), a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (sphNG), and a volume-discretised meshless code (GIZMO). Using standard refinement criteria, we find that RAMSES produces a disc that is less vertically concentrated and does not reach such high densities as the sphNG or GIZMO runs. The gas surface density in the spiral arms increases at a lower rate for the RAMSES simulations compared to the other codes. There is also a greater degree of substructure in the sphNG and GIZMO runs and secondary spiral arms are more pronounced. By resolving the Jeans' length with a greater number of grid cells we achieve more similar results to the Lagrangian codes used in this study. Other alterations to the refinement scheme (adding extra levels of refinement and refining based on local density gradients) are less successful i...
A mathematical model for radiation hydrodynamics
Sebastiano Pennisi
1990-11-01
Full Text Available We adopt here the idea of describing a radiation field by means of the radiation energy density E and the radiative flux vector F which must satisfy a set of evolution equations; in these equations an unknown tensorial function P(E,F appears that is determined by the methods of extended thermodynamics.
Modelling neutral hydrogen in galaxies using cosmological hydrodynamical simulations
Duffy, Alan R; Battye, Richard A; Booth, C M; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Schaye, Joop
2011-01-01
The characterisation of the atomic and molecular hydrogen content of high-redshift galaxies is a major observational challenge that will be addressed over the coming years with a new generation of radio telescopes. We investigate this important issue by considering the states of hydrogen across a range of structures within high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Additionally, our simulations allow us to investigate the sensitivity of our results to numerical resolution and to sub-grid baryonic physics (especially feedback from supernovae and active galactic nuclei). We find that the most significant uncertainty in modelling the neutral hydrogen distribution arises from our need to model a self-shielding correction in moderate density regions. Future simulations incorporating radiative transfer schemes will be vital to improve on our empirical self-shielding threshold. Irrespective of the exact nature of the threshold we find that while the atomic hydrogen mass function evolves only mildly fro...
Computer simulation of the fire-tube boiler hydrodynamics
Khaustov Sergei A.; Zavorin Alexander S.; Buvakov Konstantin V.; Sheikin Vyacheslav A.
2015-01-01
Finite element method was used for simulating the hydrodynamics of fire-tube boiler with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Hydrodynamic structure and volumetric temperature distribution were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. Complete geometric model of the fire-tube boiler based on boiler drawings was considered. Obtained results are suitable for qualitative analysis of hydrodynamics and singularities identification in fire-tube boiler water shell.
Computer simulation of the fire-tube boiler hydrodynamics
Khaustov Sergei A.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Finite element method was used for simulating the hydrodynamics of fire-tube boiler with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Hydrodynamic structure and volumetric temperature distribution were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. Complete geometric model of the fire-tube boiler based on boiler drawings was considered. Obtained results are suitable for qualitative analysis of hydrodynamics and singularities identification in fire-tube boiler water shell.
Baryon Census in Hydrodynamical Simulations of Galaxy Clusters
Planelles, Susana; Dolag, Klaus; Ettori, Stefano; Fabjan, Dunja; Murante, Giuseppe; Tornatore, Luca
2012-01-01
We carry out an analysis of a set of cosmological SPH hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters and groups aimed at studying the total baryon budget in clusters, and how this budget is shared between the hot diffuse component and the stellar component. Using the TreePM+SPH GADGET-3 code, we carried out one set of non-radiative simulations, and two sets of simulations including radiative cooling, star formation and feedback from supernovae (SN), one of which also accounting for the effect of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). The analysis is carried out with the twofold aim of studying the implication of stellar and hot gas content on the relative role played by SN and AGN feedback, and to calibrate the cluster baryon fraction and its evolution as a cosmological tool. We find that both radiative simulation sets predict a trend of stellar mass fraction with cluster mass that tends to be weaker than the observed one. However this tension depends on the particular set of observational data considered...
Gusti, T. P.; Hertanti, D. R.; Bahsan, E.; Soeryantono, H.
2013-12-01
Particle-based numerical methods, such as Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), may be able to simulate some hydrodynamic and morphodynamic behaviors better than grid-based numerical methods. This study simulates hydrodynamics in meanders and advection and turbulent diffusion in straight river channels using Microsoft Excel and Visual Basic. The simulators generate three-dimensional data for hydrodynamics and one-dimensional data for advection-turbulent diffusion. Fluid at rest, sloshing, and helical flow are simulated in the river meanders. Spill loading and step loading are done to simulate concentration patterns associated with advection-turbulent diffusion. Results indicate that helical flow is formed due to disturbance in morphology and particle velocity in the stream and the number of particles does not have a significant effect on the pattern of advection-turbulent diffusion concentration.
Lyman-alpha radiation hydrodynamics of galactic winds before cosmic reionization
Smith, Aaron; Loeb, Abraham
2016-01-01
The dynamical impact of Lyman-alpha (Ly{\\alpha}) radiation pressure on galaxy formation depends on the rate and duration of momentum transfer between Ly{\\alpha} photons and neutral hydrogen gas. Although photon trapping has the potential to multiply the effective force, ionizing radiation from stellar sources may relieve the Ly{\\alpha} pressure before appreciably affecting the kinematics of the host galaxy or efficiently coupling Ly{\\alpha} photons to the outflow. We present self-consistent Ly{\\alpha} radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of high-$z$ galaxy environments by coupling the Cosmic Ly{\\alpha} Transfer code (COLT) with spherically symmetric Lagrangian frame hydrodynamics. The accurate but computationally expensive Monte-Carlo radiative transfer calculations are feasible under the one-dimensional approximation. In certain cases Ly{\\alpha} feedback significantly enhances the velocity of the shell of gas expanding around a central source. Radiative feedback alone is capable of ejecting baryons into the i...
SPHRAY: A Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Ray Tracer for Radiative Transfer
Altay, Gabriel; Pelupessy, Inti
2008-01-01
We introduce SPHRAY, a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) ray tracer designed to solve the 3D, time dependent, radiative transfer (RT) equations for arbitrary density fields. The SPH nature of SPHRAY makes the incorporation of separate hydrodynamics and gravity solvers very natural. SPHRAY relies on a Monte Carlo (MC) ray tracing scheme that does not interpolate the SPH particles onto a grid but instead integrates directly through the SPH kernels. Given initial conditions and a description of the sources of ionizing radiation, the code will calculate the non-equilibrium ionization state (HI, HII, HeI, HeII, HeIII, e) and temperature (internal energy/entropy) of each SPH particle. The sources of radiation can include point like objects, diffuse recombination radiation, and a background field from outside the computational volume. The MC ray tracing implementation allows for the quick introduction of new physics and is parallelization friendly. A quick Axis Aligned Bounding Box (AABB) test taken from compute...
Axisymmetric Simulations of Hot Jupiter-Stellar Wind Hydrodynamic Interaction
Christie, Duncan; Li, Zhi-Yun
2016-01-01
Gas giant exoplanets orbiting at close distances to the parent star are subjected to large radiation and stellar wind fluxes. In this paper, hydrodynamic simulations of the planetary upper atmosphere and its interaction with the stellar wind are carried out to understand the possible flow regimes and how they affect the Lyman-alpha transmission spectrum. Following Tremblin and Chiang, charge exchange reactions are included to explore the role of energetic atoms as compared to thermal particles. In order to understand the role of the tail as compared to the leading edge of the planetary gas, the simulations were carried out under axisymmetry, and photoionization and stellar wind electron impact ionization reactions were included to limit the extent of the neutrals away from the planet. By varying the planetary gas temperature, two regimes are found. At high temperature, a supersonic planetary wind is found, which is turned around by the stellar wind and forms a tail behind the planet. At lower temperatures, th...
Hydrodynamic Simulations of Unevenly Irradiated Jovian Planets
Langton, Jonathan
2007-01-01
We employ a two-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamic model to simulate upper atmospheric dynamics on extrasolar giant planets. Our model is well-suited to simulate the dynamics of the atmospheres of planets with high orbital eccentricity that are subject to widely-varying irradiation conditions. We identify six such planets, with eccentricities between $e=0.28$ and $e=0.93$ and semimajor axes ranging from $a=0.0508$ A.U. to $a=0.432$ A.U., as particularly interesting objects for study. For each of these planets, we determine the temperature profile and resulting infrared light curves in the 8-$\\mu$m Spitzer bands. Especially notable are the results for HD 80606b, which has the largest eccentricity ($e=0.9321$) of any known planet, and HAT-P-2b, which transits its parent star, so that its physical properties are well-constrained. Despite the variety of orbital parameters, the atmospheric dynamics of these eccentric planets display a number of interesting common properties. In all cases, the atmospheric response...
MUFASA: Galaxy Formation Simulations With Meshless Hydrodynamics
Davé, Romeel; Hopkins, Philip F
2016-01-01
We present the MUFASA suite of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, which employs the GIZMO meshless finite mass (MFM) code including H2-based star formation, nine-element chemical evolution, two-phase kinetic outflows following scalings from the Feedback in Realistic Environments zoom simulations, and evolving halo mass-based quenching. Our fiducial (50 Mpc/h)^3 volume is evolved to z=0 with a quarter billion particles, The predicted galaxy stellar mass functions (GSMF) reproduce observations from z=4-0 to <1.2sigma in cosmic variance, providing an unprecedented match to this key diagnostic. The cosmic star formation history and stellar mass growth show general agreement with data, with a strong archaeological downsizing trend such that dwarf galaxies form the majority of their stars after z~1. We run 25 Mpc/h and 12.5 Mpc/h volumes to z=2 with identical feedback prescriptions, the latter resolving all hydrogen-cooling halos, and the three runs display fair resolution convergence. The specific star form...
Simulating frictional contact in smoothed particle hydrodynamics
WANG; Jian; WU; Hao; GU; ChongShi; HUA; Hui
2013-01-01
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a powerful tool for large deformation computation of soil flow. However, the method to simulate frictional contact in the framework of SPH is still absent and needs to be developed. This paper presents an algorithm to simulate frictional contact between soil and rigid or deformable structure in the framework of SPH. In this algo-rithm, the computational domain is divided into several sub-domains according to the existing contact boundaries, and contact forces are used as bridges of these sub-domains to fulfill problem solving. In the process of the SPH discretization for govern-ing equation of each sub-domain, the inherent problem of boundary deficiency of SPH is handled properly. Therefore, the par-ticles located at contact boundary can have precise acceleration, which is critical for contact detection. Then, based on the as-sumption that the SPH particle of soil can slightly penetrate into the structure, the contact forces along normal and tangential directions of the contact surface are computed by momentum principle, and the frictional force is modified if sliding occurs.Compared with previous methods, in which only particle-to-particle contact is considered or frictional sliding is just ignored,the method proposed in this study is more efficient and accurate, and is suitable for simulating interaction between soft materi-als and rigid or deformable structures, which are very common in geotechnical engineering. A number of numerical tests have been carried out to verify the accuracy and stability of the proposed algorithm, and the results have been compared with ana-lytical solutions or FEM results. The consistency obtained from these comparisons indicates that the algorithm is robust and can enhance the computing capability of SPH.
A modified Henyey method for computing radiative transfer hydrodynamics
Karp, A. H.
1975-01-01
The implicit hydrodynamic code of Kutter and Sparks (1972), which is limited to optically thick regions and employs the diffusion approximation for radiative transfer, is modified to include radiative transfer effects in the optically thin regions of a model star. A modified Henyey method is used to include the solution of the radiative transfer equation in this implicit code, and the convergence properties of this method are proven. A comparison is made between two hydrodynamic models of a classical Cepheid with a 12-day period, one of which was computed with the diffusion approximation and the other with the modified Henyey method. It is found that the two models produce nearly identical light and velocity curves, but differ in the fact that the former never has temperature inversions in the atmosphere while the latter does when sufficiently strong shocks are present.
Hydrodynamic simulations on a moving Voronoi mesh
Springel, Volker
2011-01-01
At the heart of any method for computational fluid dynamics lies the question of how the simulated fluid should be discretized. Traditionally, a fixed Eulerian mesh is often employed for this purpose, which in modern schemes may also be adaptively refined during a calculation. Particle-based methods on the other hand discretize the mass instead of the volume, yielding an approximately Lagrangian approach. It is also possible to achieve Lagrangian behavior in mesh-based methods if the mesh is allowed to move with the flow. However, such approaches have often been fraught with substantial problems related to the development of irregularity in the mesh topology. Here we describe a novel scheme that eliminates these weaknesses. It is based on a moving unstructured mesh defined by the Voronoi tessellation of a set of discrete points. The mesh is used to solve the hyperbolic conservation laws of ideal hydrodynamics with a finite volume approach, based on a second-order Godunov scheme with an exact Riemann solver. A...
Radiation-Hydrodynamical Collapse of Pregalactic Clouds in the Ultraviolet Background
Kitayama, T; Umemura, M; Susa, H; Ikeuchi, S
2000-01-01
To elucidate the effects of the UV background radiation on the collapse of pregalactic clouds, we implement a radiation-hydrodynamical calculation, combining one-dimensional spherical hydrodynamics with an accurate treatment of the radiative transfer of ionizing photons. Both absorption and scattering of UV photons are explicitly taken into account. It turns out that a gas cloud contracting within the dark matter potential does not settle into hydrostatic equilibrium, but undergoes run-away collapse even under the presence of the external UV field. The cloud center is shown to become self-shielded against ionizing photons by radiative transfer effects before shrinking to the rotation barrier. Based on our simulation results, we further discuss the possibility of H2 cooling and subsequent star formation in a run-away collapsing core. The present results are closely relevant to the survival of subgalactic Population III objects as well as to metal injection into intergalactic space.
Multigroup radiation hydrodynamics with flux-limited diffusion and adaptive mesh refinement
González, Matthias; Commerçon, Benoît; Masson, Jacques
2015-01-01
Radiative transfer plays a key role in the star formation process. Due to a high computational cost, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations performed up to now have mainly been carried out in the grey approximation. In recent years, multi-frequency radiation-hydrodynamics models have started to emerge, in an attempt to better account for the large variations of opacities as a function of frequency. We wish to develop an efficient multigroup algorithm for the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES which is suited to heavy proto-stellar collapse calculations. Due to prohibitive timestep constraints of an explicit radiative transfer method, we constructed a time-implicit solver based on a stabilised bi-conjugate gradient algorithm, and implemented it in RAMSES under the flux-limited diffusion approximation. We present a series of tests which demonstrate the high performance of our scheme in dealing with frequency-dependent radiation-hydrodynamic flows. We also present a preliminary simulation of a three-dimensional p...
NUMERICAL PREDICTION OF SUBMARINE HYDRODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS USING CFD SIMULATION
PAN Yu-cun; ZHANG Huai-xin; ZHOU Qi-dou
2012-01-01
The submarine Hydrodynamic coefficients are predicted by numerical simulations.Steady and unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are carried out to numerically simulate the oblique towing experiment and the Planar Motion Mechanism (PMM) experiment performed on the SUBOFF submarine model.The dynamic mesh method is adopted to simulate the maneuvering motions of pure heaving,pure swaying,pure pitching and pure yawing.The hydrodynamic forces and moments acting on the maneuvering submarine are obtained.Consequently,by analyzing these results,the hydrodynamic coefficients of the submarine maneuvering motions can be determined.The computational results are verified by comparison with experimental data,which show that this method can be used to estimate the hydrodynamic derivatives of a fully appended submarine.
The baryon fraction in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters
Ettori, S; Borgani, S; Murante, G
2006-01-01
We study the baryon mass fraction in a set of hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters performed using the Tree+SPH code GADGET-2. We investigate the dependence of the baryon fraction upon the radiative cooling, star formation, feedback through galactic winds, conduction and redshift. Both the cold stellar component and the hot X-ray emitting gas have narrow distributions that, at large cluster-centric distances r>R500, are nearly independent of the physics included in the simulations. Only the non-radiative runs reproduce the gas fraction inferred from observations of the inner regions (r ~ R2500) of massive clusters. When cooling is turned on, the excess star formation is mitigated by the action of galactic winds, but yet not by the amount required by observational data. The baryon fraction within a fixed overdensity increases slightly with redshift, independent of the physical processes involved in the accumulation of baryons in the cluster potential well. In runs with cooling and feedback, the increa...
Hydrodynamic simulations with the Godunov SPH
Murante, Giuseppe; Brunino, Riccardo; Cha, Suneg-Hoon
2011-01-01
We present results based on an implementation of the Godunov Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (GSPH), originally developed by Inutsuka (2002), in the GADGET-3 hydrodynamic code. We first review the derivation of the GSPH discretization of the equations of moment and energy conservation, starting from the convolution of these equations with the interpolating kernel. The two most important aspects of the numerical implementation of these equations are (a) the appearance of fluid velocity and pressure obtained from the solution of the Riemann problem between each pair of particles, and (b the absence of an artificial viscosity term. We carry out three different controlled hydrodynamical three-dimensional tests, namely the Sod shock tube, the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in a shear flow test, and the "blob" test describing the evolution of a cold cloud moving against a hot wind. The results of our tests confirm and extend in a number of aspects those recently obtained by Cha (2010): (i) GSPH provi...
Radiation Hydrodynamics Modeling of Hohlraum Energetics
Patel, Mehul V.; Mauche, Christopher W.; Jones, Ogden S.; Scott, Howard A.
2015-11-01
Attempts to model the energetics in NIF Hohlraums have been made with varying degrees of success, with discrepancies of 0-25% being reported for the X-ray flux (10-25% for the NIC ignition platform hohlraums). To better understand the cause(s) of these discrepancies, the effects of uncertainties in modeling thermal conduction, laser-plasma interactions, atomic mixing at interfaces, and NLTE kinetics of the high-Z wall plasma must be quantified. In this work we begin by focusing on the NLTE kinetics component. We detail a simulation framework for developing an integrated HYDRA hohlraum model with predefined tolerances for energetics errors due to numerical discretization errors or statistical fluctuations. Within this framework we obtain a model for a converged 1D spherical hohlraum which is then extended to 2D. The new model is used to reexamine physics sensitivities and improve estimates of the energetics discrepancy. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
SPHRAY: A Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Ray Tracer for Radiative Transfer
Altay, Gabriel; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Pelupessy, Inti
2011-03-01
SPHRAY, a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) ray tracer, is designed to solve the 3D, time dependent, radiative transfer (RT) equations for arbitrary density fields. The SPH nature of SPHRAY makes the incorporation of separate hydrodynamics and gravity solvers very natural. SPHRAY relies on a Monte Carlo (MC) ray tracing scheme that does not interpolate the SPH particles onto a grid but instead integrates directly through the SPH kernels. Given initial conditions and a description of the sources of ionizing radiation, the code will calculate the non-equilibrium ionization state (HI, HII, HeI, HeII, HeIII, e) and temperature (internal energy/entropy) of each SPH particle. The sources of radiation can include point like objects, diffuse recombination radiation, and a background field from outside the computational volume. The MC ray tracing implementation allows for the quick introduction of new physics and is parallelization friendly. A quick Axis Aligned Bounding Box (AABB) test taken from computer graphics applications allows for the acceleration of the raytracing component. We present the algorithms used in SPHRAY and verify the code by performing all the test problems detailed in the recent Radiative Transfer Comparison Project of Iliev et. al. The Fortran 90 source code for SPHRAY and example SPH density fields are made available online.
Numeric spectral radiation hydrodynamic calculations of supernova shock breakouts
Sapir, Nir
2014-01-01
We present here an efficient numerical scheme for solving the non-relativistic 1D radiation-hydrodynamics equations including inelastic Compton scattering, which is not included in most codes and is crucial for solving problems such as shock breakout. The devised code is applied to the problems of a steady-state planar radiation mediated shock (RMS) and RMS breakout from a stellar envelope. The results are in agreement with those of a previous work on shock breakout \\citep{Sapir13}, in which Compton equilibrium between matter and radiation was assumed and the "effective photon" approximation was used to describe the radiation spectrum. In particular, we show that the luminosity and its temporal dependence, the peak temperature at breakout, and the universal shape of the spectral fluence derived in this earlier work are all accurate. Although there is a discrepancy between the spectral calculations and the effective photon approximation due to the inaccuracy of the effective photon approximation estimate of th...
3D hydrodynamical and radiative transfer modeling of Eta Carinae's colliding winds
Madura, Thomas I; Gull, Theodore R; Kruip, Chael J H; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Icke, Vincent
2015-01-01
We present results of full 3D hydrodynamical and radiative transfer simulations of the colliding stellar winds in the massive binary system Eta Carinae. We accomplish this by applying the SimpleX algorithm for 3D radiative transfer on an unstructured Voronoi-Delaunay grid to recent 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the binary colliding winds. We use SimpleX to obtain detailed ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium, in 3D, at the resolution of the original SPH simulations. We investigate several computational domain sizes and Luminous Blue Variable primary star mass-loss rates. We furthermore present new methods of visualizing and interacting with output from complex 3D numerical simulations, including 3D interactive graphics and 3D printing. While we initially focus on Eta Car, the methods employed can be applied to numerous other colliding wind (WR 140, WR 137, WR 19) and dusty 'pinwheel' (WR 104, WR 98a) binary systems. Coupled with 3D hydrodynamical simulations, SimpleX simulatio...
Magneto-hydrodynamics Simulation in Astrophysics
Pang, Bijia
2011-08-01
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) studies the dynamics of an electrically conducting fluid under the influence of a magnetic field. Many astrophysical phenomena are related to MHD, and computer simulations are used to model these dynamics. In this thesis, we conduct MHD simulations of non-radiative black hole accretion as well as fast magnetic reconnection. By performing large scale three dimensional parallel MHD simulations on supercomputers and using a deformed-mesh algorithm, we were able to conduct very high dynamical range simulations of black hole accretion of Sgr A* at the Galactic Center. We find a generic set of solutions, and make specific predictions for currently feasible observations of rotation measure (RM). The magnetized accretion flow is subsonic and lacks outward convection flux, making the accretion rate very small and having a density slope of around -1. There is no tendency for the flows to become rotationally supported, and the slow time variability of th! e RM is a key quantitative signature of this accretion flow. We also provide a constructive numerical example of fast magnetic reconnection in a three-dimensional periodic box. Reconnection is initiated by a strong, localized perturbation to the field lines and the solution is intrinsically three-dimensional. Approximately 30% of the magnetic energy is released in an event which lasts about one Alfvén time, but only after a delay during which the field lines evolve into a critical configuration. In the co-moving frame of the reconnection regions, reconnection occurs through an X-like point, analogous to the Petschek reconnection. The dynamics appear to be driven by global flows rather than local processes. In addition to issues pertaining to physics, we present results on the acceleration of MHD simulations using heterogeneous computing systems te{shan2006heterogeneous}. We have implemented the MHD code on a variety of heterogeneous and multi-core architectures (multi-core x86, Cell, Nvidia and
Implementing Molecular Hydrogen in Hydrodynamic Simulations of Galaxy Formation
Christensen, Charlotte; Governato, Fabio; Stilp, Adrienne; Shen, Sijing; Wadsley, James
2012-01-01
Motivated by the observed connection between molecular hydrogen (H2) and star formation, we present a method for tracking the non-equilibrium abundance and cooling processes of H2 and H2-based star formation in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic simulations. The local abundances of H2 are calculated by integrating over the hydrogen chemical network. This calculation includes the gas-phase and dust grain formation of H2, shielding of HI and H2, and photodissociation of H2 by Lyman-Werner radiation from nearby stellar populations. Because this model does not assume equilibrium abundances, it is particularly well suited for simulations that model low-metallicity environments, such as dwarf galaxies and the early Universe. We further introduce an explicit link between star formation and local H2 abundance. This link limits star formation to "star-forming regions," represented by areas with abundant H2. With this implementation, we determine the effect of H2 on star formation in a cosmological simulation of a dwarf ga...
Modeling High Resolution Flare Spectra Using Hydrodynamic Simulations
Warren, Harry; Doschek, G.
2006-06-01
Understanding the hydrodynamic response of the solar atmosphere to the release of energy during a flare has been a long standing problem in solar physics. Early time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations were able to reproduce the high temperatures and densities observed in solar flares, but were not able to model the observations in any detail. For example, these simulations could not account for the relatively slow decay of the observed emission or the absence of blueshifts in high spectral resolution line profiles at flare onset. We have found that by representing the flare as a succession of independently heated filaments it is possible to reproduce both the evolution of line intensity and the shape of the line profile using hydrodynamic simulations. Here we present detailed comparisons between our simulation results and several flares observed with the Yohkoh Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS). Comparisons with 3D MHD simulations will also be discussed.
Local Radiative Hydrodynamic and Magnetohydrodynamic Instabilities in Optically Thick Media
Blaes, Omer M; Blaes, Omer; Socrates, Aristotle
2003-01-01
We examine the local conditions for radiative damping and driving of short wavelength, propagating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in static, optically thick, stratified equilibria. We show that so-called strange modes in stellar oscillation theory and magnetic photon bubbles are intimately related and are both fundamentally driven by the background radiation pressure acting on density and opacity fluctuations in compressible waves. We identify the necessary criteria for unstable driving of these waves, and show that this driving can exist in both gas and radiation pressure dominated media, as well as pure Thomson scattering media in the MHD case. We discuss the physical origin of these instabilities, and briefly describe the conditions under which they might be manifested in both stellar envelopes and accretion disks.
Annual Report 2006 for Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications
R. Paul Drake
2007-04-05
We report the ongoing work of our group in hydrodynamics and radiation hydrodynamics with astrophysical applications. During the period of the existing grant, we have carried out two types of experiments at the Omega laser. One set of experiments has studied radiatively collapsing shocks, obtaining data using a backlit pinhole with a 100 ps backlighter and beginning to develop the ability to look into the shock tube with optical or x-ray diagnostics. Other experiments have studied the deeply nonlinear development of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability from complex initial conditions, using dual-axis radiographic data with backlit pinholes and ungated detectors to complete the data set for a Ph.D. student. We lead a team that is developing a proposal for experiments at the National Ignition Facility and are involved in experiments at NIKE and LIL. All these experiments have applications to astrophysics, discussed in the corresponding papers. We assemble the targets for the experiments at Michigan, where we also prepare many of the simple components. We also have several projects underway in our laboratory involving our x-ray source. The above activities, in addition to a variety of data analysis and design projects, provide good experience for graduate and undergraduates students. In the process of doing this research we have built a research group that uses such work to train junior scientists.
Star Formation History of Dwarf Galaxies in Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations
Kentaro Nagamine
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We examine the past and current work on the star formation (SF histories of dwarf galaxies in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The results obtained from different numerical methods are still somewhat mixed, but the differences are understandable if we consider the numerical and resolution effects. It remains a challenge to simulate the episodic nature of SF history in dwarf galaxies at late times within the cosmological context of a cold dark matter model. More work is needed to solve the mysteries of SF history of dwarf galaxies employing large-scale hydrodynamic simulations on the next generation of supercomputers.
Dorodnitsyn, Anton; Kallman, Tim; Bisno\\vatyiI-Kogan, Gennadyi
2011-01-01
We explore a detailed model in which the active galactic nucleus (AGN) obscuration results from the extinction of AGN radiation in a global ow driven by the pressure of infrared radiation on dust grains. We assume that external illumination by UV and soft X-rays of the dusty gas located at approximately 1pc away from the supermassive black hole is followed by a conversion of such radiation into IR. Using 2.5D, time-dependent radiation hydrodynamics simulations in a ux-limited di usion approximation we nd that the external illumination can support a geometrically thick obscuration via out ows driven by infrared radiation pressure in AGN with luminosities greater than 0:05 L(sub edd) and Compton optical depth, Tau(sub T) approx > & 1.
AXISYMMETRIC SIMULATIONS OF HOT JUPITER–STELLAR WIND HYDRODYNAMIC INTERACTION
Christie, Duncan; Arras, Phil; Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)
2016-03-20
Gas giant exoplanets orbiting at close distances to the parent star are subjected to large radiation and stellar wind fluxes. In this paper, hydrodynamic simulations of the planetary upper atmosphere and its interaction with the stellar wind are carried out to understand the possible flow regimes and how they affect the Lyα transmission spectrum. Following Tremblin and Chiang, charge exchange reactions are included to explore the role of energetic atoms as compared to thermal particles. In order to understand the role of the tail as compared to the leading edge of the planetary gas, the simulations were carried out under axisymmetry, and photoionization and stellar wind electron impact ionization reactions were included to limit the extent of the neutrals away from the planet. By varying the planetary gas temperature, two regimes are found. At high temperature, a supersonic planetary wind is found, which is turned around by the stellar wind and forms a tail behind the planet. At lower temperatures, the planetary wind is shut off when the stellar wind penetrates inside where the sonic point would have been. In this regime mass is lost by viscous interaction at the boundary between planetary and stellar wind gases. Absorption by cold hydrogen atoms is large near the planetary surface, and decreases away from the planet as expected. The hot hydrogen absorption is in an annulus and typically dominated by the tail, at large impact parameter, rather than by the thin leading edge of the mixing layer near the substellar point.
Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of L2 Puppis
Chen, Zhuo; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G
2016-01-01
Recent observations of the L2 Puppis system suggest that the Mira-like variable may be in the early stages of forming a bipolar planetary nebula (PN). As one of nearest and brightest AGB stars, and due to its status as a binary, L2 Puppis serves as a benchmark object for studying the late-stages of stellar evolution. We perform global, three-dimensional, adaptive-mesh-refinement hydrodynamic simulations of the L2 Puppis system with AstroBEAR. The broad-band spectral-energy-distribution (SED) and synthetic observational images are post-processed from our simulations using the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D. Given the reported binary parameters, we are able to reproduce the current observational data if a short pulse of dense material is released from the AGB star with a velocity sufficient to escape the primary but not the binary. Such a situation could emanate from a thermal pulse, be induced by a periastron passage of the secondary, or could be launched if the primary ingests a planet.
Launch Environment Water Flow Simulations Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
Vu, Bruce T.; Berg, Jared J.; Harris, Michael F.; Crespo, Alejandro C.
2015-01-01
This paper describes the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate the water flow from the rainbird nozzle system used in the sound suppression system during pad abort and nominal launch. The simulations help determine if water from rainbird nozzles will impinge on the rocket nozzles and other sensitive ground support elements.
Hydrodynamical Adaptive Mesh Refinement Simulations of Disk Galaxies
Gibson, Brad K; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia; Teyssier, Romain; House, Elisa L; Brook, Chris B; Kawata, Daisuke
2008-01-01
To date, fully cosmological hydrodynamic disk simulations to redshift zero have only been undertaken with particle-based codes, such as GADGET, Gasoline, or GCD+. In light of the (supposed) limitations of traditional implementations of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), or at the very least, their respective idiosyncrasies, it is important to explore complementary approaches to the SPH paradigm to galaxy formation. We present the first high-resolution cosmological disk simulations to redshift zero using an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR)-based hydrodynamical code, in this case, RAMSES. We analyse the temporal and spatial evolution of the simulated stellar disks' vertical heating, velocity ellipsoids, stellar populations, vertical and radial abundance gradients (gas and stars), assembly/infall histories, warps/lopsideness, disk edges/truncations (gas and stars), ISM physics implementations, and compare and contrast these properties with our sample of cosmological SPH disks, generated with GCD+. These prelim...
Flare loop radiative hydrodynamics. III - Nonlocal radiative transfer effects
Canfield, R. C.; Fisher, G. H.; Mcclymont, A. N.
1983-01-01
The study has three goals. The first is to demonstrate that processes exist whose intrinsic nonlocal nature cannot be represented by local approximations. The second is to elucidate the physical nature and origins of these nonlocal processes. The third is to suggest that the methods and results described here may prove useful in constructing semiempirical models of the chromosphere by means more efficient than trial and error. Matrices are computed that describe the effect of a temperature perturbation at an arbitrary point in the loop on density, hydrogen ionized fraction, total radiative loss rate, and radiative loss rate of selected hydrogen lines and continua at all other points. It is found that the dominant nonlocal radiative transfer effects can be separated into flux divergence coefficient effects and upper level population effects. The former are most important when the perturbation takes place in a region of significant opacity. Upper level population effects arise in both optically thick and thin regions in response to nonlocal density, ionization, and interlocking effects.
Radiation hydrodynamical models of the inner rim in protoplanetary disks
Flock, M; Turner, N J; Benisty, M
2016-01-01
Many stars host planets orbiting within a few astronomical units (AU). The occurrence rate and distributions of masses and orbits vary greatly with the host stars mass. These close planets origins are a mystery that motivates investigating protoplanetary disks central regions. A key factor governing the conditions near the star is the silicate sublimation front, which largely determines where the starlight is absorbed, and which is often called the inner rim. We present the first radiation hydrodynamical modeling of the sublimation front in the disks around the young intermediate-mass stars called Herbig Ae stars. The models are axisymmetric, and include starlight heating, silicate grains sublimating and condensing to equilibrium at the local, time-dependent temperature and density, and accretion stresses parametrizing the results of MHD magneto-rotational turbulence models. The results compare well with radiation hydrostatic solutions, and prove to be dynamically stable. Passing the model disks into Monte Ca...
Variability and Stability in Radiation Hydrodynamic Accretion Flows
Miller, G S; Miller, Guy S.; Park, Myeong-Gu
1997-01-01
In this paper we examine time-dependent and three-dimensional perturbations of spherical accretion flow onto a neutron star close to its Eddington limit. Our treatment assumes a Schwarzschild geometry for the spacetime outside the neutron star and is fully general relativistic. At all the accretion rates studied, the response of the accretion flow to perturbations includes weakly damped oscillatory modes. At sufficiently high luminosities --- but still well below the Eddington limit --- the flows become unstable to aspherical perturbations. These unstable radiation hydrodynamic modes resemble the onset of convection, and allow accretion to occur preferentially through more rapidly descending columns of gas, while the radiation produced escapes through neighboring columns in which the gas descends more slowly.
Roedig, C.; Zanotti, O.; Alic, D.
2012-10-01
We present the implementation of an implicit-explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta numerical scheme for general relativistic (GR) hydrodynamics coupled to an optically thick radiation field in two existing GR-(magneto)hydrodynamics codes. We argue that the necessity of such an improvement arises naturally in most astrophysically relevant regimes where the optical thickness is high as the equations become stiff. By performing several simple 1D tests, we verify the codes' new ability to deal with this stiffness and show consistency. Then, still in one spatial dimension, we compute a luminosity versus accretion rate diagram for the set-up of spherical accretion on to a Schwarzschild black hole and find good agreement with previous work which included more radiation processes than we currently have available. Lastly, we revisit the supersonic Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton (BHL) accretion in two dimensions where we can now present simulations of realistic temperatures, down to T ˜ 106 K or less. Here we find that radiation pressure plays an important role, but also that these highly dynamical set-ups push our approximate treatment towards the limit of physical applicability. The main features of radiation hydrodynamics BHL flows manifest as (i) an effective adiabatic index approaching γeff ˜ 4/3; (ii) accretion rates two orders of magnitude lower than without radiation pressure, but still super-Eddington; (iii) luminosity estimates around the Eddington limit, hence with an overall radiative efficiency as small as ηBHL˜10-2; (iv) strong departures from thermal equilibrium in shocked regions; (v) no appearance of the flip-flop instability. We conclude that the current optically thick approximation to the radiation transfer does give physically substantial improvements over the pure hydro also in set-ups departing from equilibrium, and, once accompanied by an optically thin treatment, is likely to provide a fundamental tool for investigating accretion flows in a large variety of
Simulations of Astrophysical Hydrodynamics: Supernova Remnant Evolution and Star Formation
Truelove, John Kelly
Many problems in astrophysical hydrodynamics are analytically intractable. In such cases, numerical simulation can provide valuable insight into the nature of the solution. We consider two such problems: the interaction of stellar ejecta and ambient gas in an evolving supernova remnant (SNR), and the collapse and fragmentation of molecular clouds to form stars. We first study the dynamics of SNR evolution from the ejecta-dominated stage through the Sedov-Taylor stage, the stages which precede the onset of dynamically significant radiative losses. We emphasize that all nonradiative SNRs of a given power-law structure evolve according to a unified solution, and we discuss this general property in detail. We present 1-D numerical simulations of the flow and use these to aid the development of approximate analytic solutions for the motions of the SNR shocks. We elucidate the dependence of the evolution on the ejecta power-law index n by developing a general trajectory for all n and explaining its relation to the solutions of Chevalier (1982) & Nadyozhin (1985) for n > 5 and Hamilton & Sarazin (1984) for n = 0. These solutions should be valuable in describing relatively young SNRs at intermediate points of nonradiative evolution. We then turn to 3-D simulation of star formation using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). We demonstrate that perturbations arising from discretization of the equations of self-gravitational hydrodynamics can grow into artificial fragments. This can be avoided by ensuring the ratio of cell size to Jeans length, which we call the Jeans number, J ≡Δ x/λJ, is kept below 0.25. We refer to the constraint that λJ be resolved as the Jeans condition. We find that it is not possible a priori to have confidence that results of calculations which employ artificial viscosity to halt collapse are relevant to the astrophysical problem. Finally, we describe our new AMR code in detail. This code employs multiple grids at multiple levels of resolution and
Radiation in Particle Simulations
More, R; Graziani, F; Glosli, J; Surh, M
2010-11-19
Hot dense radiative (HDR) plasmas common to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and stellar interiors have high temperature (a few hundred eV to tens of keV), high density (tens to hundreds of g/cc) and high pressure (hundreds of megabars to thousands of gigabars). Typically, such plasmas undergo collisional, radiative, atomic and possibly thermonuclear processes. In order to describe HDR plasmas, computational physicists in ICF and astrophysics use atomic-scale microphysical models implemented in various simulation codes. Experimental validation of the models used to describe HDR plasmas are difficult to perform. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the many-body interactions of plasmas is a promising approach to model validation but, previous work either relies on the collisionless approximation or ignores radiation. We present four methods that attempt a new numerical simulation technique to address a currently unsolved problem: the extension of molecular dynamics to collisional plasmas including emission and absorption of radiation. The first method applies the Lienard-Weichert solution of Maxwell's equations for a classical particle whose motion is assumed to be known. The second method expands the electromagnetic field in normal modes (planewaves in a box with periodic boundary-conditions) and solves the equation for wave amplitudes coupled to the particle motion. The third method is a hybrid molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo (MD/MC) method which calculates radiation emitted or absorbed by electron-ion pairs during close collisions. The fourth method is a generalization of the third method to include small clusters of particles emitting radiation during close encounters: one electron simultaneously hitting two ions, two electrons simultaneously hitting one ion, etc. This approach is inspired by the virial expansion method of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Using a combination of these methods we believe it is possible to do atomic-scale particle
Radiation hydrodynamics of triggered star formation: the effect of the diffuse radiation field
Haworth, Thomas J
2011-01-01
We investigate the effect of including diffuse field radiation when modelling the radiatively driven implosion of a Bonnor-Ebert sphere (BES). Radiation-hydrodynamical calculations are performed by using operator splitting to combine Monte Carlo photoionization with grid-based Eulerian hydrodynamics that includes self-gravity. It is found that the diffuse field has a significant effect on the nature of radiatively driven collapse which is strongly coupled to the strength of the driving shock that is established before impacting the BES. This can result in either slower or more rapid star formation than expected using the on-the-spot approximation depending on the distance of the BES from the source object. As well as directly compressing the BES, stronger shocks increase the thickness and density in the shell of accumulated material, which leads to short, strong, photo-evaporative ejections that reinforce the compression whenever it slows. This happens particularly effectively when the diffuse field is includ...
3D radiation hydrodynamics: Interacting photo-evaporating clumps
Lim, A. J.; Mellema, G.
2003-07-01
We present the results of a new radiation hydrodynamics code called Maartje. This code describes the evolution of a flow in three spatial dimensions using an adaptive mesh, and contains a combination of a ray tracer and an atomic physics module to describe the effects of ionizing radiation. The code is parallelized using a custom threadpool library. We present an application in which we follow the ionization of two dense spherical clumps which are exposed to an ionizing radiation field from a 50 000 K black body. We study various configurations in which one of the clumps shields the other from the ionizing photons. We find that relatively long-lived filamentary structures with narrow tails are formed. This raises the possibility that cometary knots (such as are found in the Helix Nebula) may be the result of the interaction of an ionizing radiation field with an ensemble of clumps, as opposed to the identification of a single knot with a single clump. Movies are available at http://www.edpsciences.org
Alignments of galaxies and halos in hydrodynamical simulations
Pahwa, Isha; Libeskind, Noam I.
2016-10-01
We use a 200 h -1Mpc cosmological hydrodynamical simulation to examine the alignments of galaxies with respect to the host halo. We do separate study for the different components of the halo, such as stars, gas and dark matter. We show that angular momentum of gas is more aligned with the angular momentum of host halo compared with the stellar component.
Galaxy Formation and Chemical Evolution in Hierarchical Hydrodynamical Simulations
Cora, S A; Tissera, P B; Lambas, D G
2000-01-01
We report first results of an implementation of a chemical model in a cosmological code, based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) technique. We show that chemical SPH simulations are a promising tool to provide clues for the understanding of the chemical properties of galaxies in relation to their formation and evolution in a cosmological framework.
Steffen, W.; Koning, N.
2017-07-01
We demonstrate the potential for research and outreach of mixed polygon and hydrodynamic modeling and multi-waveband rendering in the interactive 3-D astrophysical virtual laboratory Shape. In 3-D special effects and animation software for the mass media, computer graphics techniques that mix polygon and numerical hydrodynamics have become common place. In astrophysics, however, interactive modeling with polygon structures has only become available with the software Shape. Numerical hydrodynamic simulations and their visualization are usually separate, while in Shape it is integrated with the polygon modeling approach that requires no programming by the user. With two generic examples, we demonstrate that research and outreach modeling can be achieved with techniques similar to those used in the media industry with the added capability for physical rendering at any wavelength band, yielding more realistic radiation modeling. Furthermore, we show how the hydrodynamics and the polygon mesh modeling can be mixed to achieve results that are superior to those obtained using either one of these modeling techniques alone.
HYDRODYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF A SWIMMING BIONIC ROBOT TUNA
无
2007-01-01
A dynamic model for undulatory locomotion was proposed to study the swimming mechanism of a developed bionic robot tuna. On the basis of inviscid hydrodynamics and rigid-body dynamics, the momentum and propulsive force required for propelling the swimming robot tuna's flexible body was calculated. By solving the established dynamic equations and efficiency formula, the swimming velocity and propulsive efficiency of the bionic robot tuna were obtained. The relationship between the kinematic parameters of the robot tuna's body curve and the hydrodynamic performances was established and discussed after hydrodynamic simulations. The results presented in this article can be used to increase the swimming speed, propulsive thrust, and the efficiency of underwater vehicles effectively.
Radiation in Particle Simulations
More, R M; Graziani, F R; Glosli, J; Surh, M
2009-06-15
Hot dense radiative (HDR) plasmas common to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and stellar interiors have high temperature (a few hundred eV to tens of keV), high density (tens to hundreds of g/cc) and high pressure (hundreds of Megabars to thousands of Gigabars). Typically, such plasmas undergo collisional, radiative, atomic and possibly thermonuclear processes. In order to describe HDR plasmas, computational physicists in ICF and astrophysics use atomic-scale microphysical models implemented in various simulation codes. Experimental validation of the models used to describe HDR plasmas are difficult to perform. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the many-body interactions of plasmas is a promising approach to model validation but, previous work either relies on the collisionless approximation or ignores radiation. We present four methods that attempt a new numerical simulation technique to address a currently unsolved problem: the extension of molecular dynamics to collisional plasmas including emission and absorption of radiation. The first method applies the Lienard-Weichert solution of Maxwell's equations for a classical particle whose motion is assumed to be known (section 3). The second method expands the electromagnetic field in normal modes (plane-waves in a box with periodic boundary-conditions) and solves the equation for wave amplitudes coupled to the particle motion (section 4). The third method is a hybrid MD/MC (molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo) method which calculates radiation emitted or absorbed by electron-ion pairs during close collisions (section 5). The fourth method is a generalization of the third method to include small clusters of particles emitting radiation during close encounters: one electron simultaneously hitting two ions, two electrons simultaneously hitting one ion, etc.(section 6). This approach is inspired by the Virial expansion method of equilibrium statistical mechanics.
Towards hydrodynamic simulations of wet particle systems
Roy, S.; Luding, S.; Weinhart, T.
2015-01-01
This paper presents the rheology of weakly wetted granular materials in the slow frictional regime, using Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations. In a split-bottom ring shear cell geometry a slow, quasi-static deformation leads to wide shear bands away from the walls. Dry non-cohesive and cohesiv
Multigroup radiation transport in one-dimensional Lagrangian radiation-hydrodynamics codes
Rottler, J.S.
1987-01-01
A new treatment of radiation transport has been added to the Lagrangian radiation-hydrodynamics code CHARTD. The new energy flow model was derived based on the assumption that the directional dependence of the radiation energy density can be represented by the first two terms of a spherical harmonic expansion, and that the photon energy spectrum can be partitioned into energy groups. The time derivative in the second moment equation, which is usually neglected, is retained in this implementation of the multigroup P-1 approximation. An accelerated iterative scheme is used to solve the difference equations. The new energy flow model and the iterative scheme will be described.
Min, Qi; Su, Maogen; Cao, Shiquan; Sun, Duixiong; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Dong, Chenzhong
2016-11-15
We present a simplified radiation hydrodynamic model based on the fluid dynamic equations and the radiative transfer equation, which can be used to investigate the radiation properties and dynamics evolution of highly charged ions in a laser-produced plasma in vacuum. The outputs of the model consist of the evolution of the electron temperature, atom, and ion density, and the temporal and spatial evolution of various transient particles in plasma, as well as the simulated spectrum related to certain experimental conditions in a specified spectral window. In order to test the model and provide valuable experimental feedback, a series of EUV emission spectra of silicon plasmas have been measured using the spatio-temporally resolved laser produced plasma technique. The temporal and spatial evolution of the plasma is reliably reconstructed by using this model.
Self-Consistent Modeling of Reionization in Cosmological Hydrodynamical Simulations
Oñorbe, Jose; Lukić, Zarija
2016-01-01
The ultraviolet background (UVB) emitted by quasars and galaxies governs the ionization and thermal state of the intergalactic medium (IGM), regulates the formation of high-redshift galaxies, and is thus a key quantity for modeling cosmic reionization. The vast majority of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations implement the UVB via a set of spatially uniform photoionization and photoheating rates derived from UVB synthesis models. We show that simulations using canonical UVB rates reionize, and perhaps more importantly, spuriously heat the IGM, much earlier z ~ 15 than they should. This problem arises because at z > 6, where observational constraints are non-existent, the UVB amplitude is far too high. We introduce a new methodology to remedy this issue, and generate self-consistent photoionization and photoheating rates to model any chosen reionization history. Following this approach, we run a suite of hydrodynamical simulations of different reionization scenarios, and explore the impact of the timing of ...
Simulation of Tailrace Hydrodynamics Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Models
Cook, Christopher B.; Richmond, Marshall C.
2001-05-01
This report investigates the feasibility of using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools to investigate hydrodynamic flow fields surrounding the tailrace zone below large hydraulic structures. Previous and ongoing studies using CFD tools to simulate gradually varied flow with multiple constituents and forebay/intake hydrodynamics have shown that CFD tools can provide valuable information for hydraulic and biological evaluation of fish passage near hydraulic structures. These studies however are incapable of simulating the rapidly varying flow fields that involving breakup of the free-surface, such as those through and below high flow outfalls and spillways. Although the use of CFD tools for these types of flow are still an active area of research, initial applications discussed in this report show that these tools are capable of simulating the primary features of these highly transient flow fields.
An improved treatment of radiation energy flow in the radiation-hydrodynamics code CHARTD
Rottler, J.S.
1987-05-01
An improved treatment of radiation transport has been added to the energy flow model in CHARTD. The new energy flow model was derived based on the assumption that the directional dependence of the radiation energy density can be represented by the first two terms of a spherical harmonic expansion, and that the photon energy spectrum can be partitioned into energy groups. This treatment of radiation transport is called the multigroup P-1 approximation, and is an effective description of radiation transport for a broad class of radiation-hydrodynamics problems. A synthetic acceleration scheme is used to solve the differenced multigroup P-1 equations. The coupling between the material field and the radiation field is fully explicit. This report describes the new energy flow model and the acceleration scheme used to solve the difference equations. 15 refs.
Simulating radiative shocks in nozzle shock tubes
van der Holst, B.; Tóth, G.; Sokolov, I. V.; Daldorff, L. K. S.; Powell, K. G.; Drake, R. P.
2012-06-01
We use the recently developed Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) code to numerically simulate laser-driven radiative shock experiments. These shocks are launched by an ablated beryllium disk and are driven down xenon-filled plastic tubes. The simulations are initialized by the two-dimensional version of the Lagrangian Hyades code which is used to evaluate the laser energy deposition during the first 1.1 ns. Later times are calculated with the CRASH code. CRASH solves for the multi-material hydrodynamics with separate electron and ion temperatures on an Eulerian block-adaptive-mesh and includes a multi-group flux-limited radiation diffusion and electron thermal heat conduction. The goal of the present paper is to demonstrate the capability to simulate radiative shocks of essentially three-dimensional experimental configurations, such as circular and elliptical nozzles. We show that the compound shock structure of the primary and wall shock is captured and verify that the shock properties are consistent with order-of-magnitude estimates. The synthetic radiographs produced can be used for comparison with future nozzle experiments at high-energy-density laser facilities.
Simulating radiative shocks in nozzle shock tubes
van der Holst, B; Sokolov, I V; Daldorff, L K S; Powell, K G; Drake, R P
2011-01-01
We use the recently developed Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) code to numerically simulate laser-driven radiative shock experiments. These shocks are launched by an ablated beryllium disk and are driven down xenon-filled plastic tubes. The simulations are initialized by the two-dimensional version of the Lagrangian Hyades code which is used to evaluate the laser energy deposition during the first 1.1ns. The later times are calculated with the CRASH code. This code solves for the multi-material hydrodynamics with separate electron and ion temperatures on an Eulerian block-adaptive-mesh and includes a multi-group flux-limited radiation diffusion and electron thermal heat conduction. The goal of the present paper is to demonstrate the capability to simulate radiative shocks of essentially three-dimensional experimental configurations, such as circular and elliptical nozzles. We show that the compound shock structure of the primary and wall shock is captured and verify that the shock properties a...
Zingale, M; Howell, L H
2010-03-17
The motivation for this work is to gain experience in the methodology of verification and validation (V&V) of astrophysical radiation hydrodynamics codes. In the first period of this work, we focused on building the infrastructure to test a single astrophysical application code, Castro, developed in collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). We delivered several hydrodynamic test problems, in the form of coded initial conditions and documentation for verification, routines to perform data analysis, and a generalized regression test suite to allow for continued automated testing. Astrophysical simulation codes aim to model phenomena that elude direct experimentation. Our only direct information about these systems comes from what we observe, and may be transient. Simulation can help further our understanding by allowing virtual experimentation of these systems. However, to have confidence in our simulations requires us to have confidence in the tools we use. Verification and Validation is a process by which we work to build confidence that a simulation code is accurately representing reality. V&V is a multistep process, and is never really complete. Once a single test problem is working as desired (i.e. that problem is verified), one wants to ensure that subsequent code changes do not break that test. At the same time, one must also search for new verification problems that test the code in a new way. It can be rather tedious to manually retest each of the problems, so before going too far with V&V, it is desirable to have an automated test suite. Our project aims to provide these basic tools for astrophysical radiation hydrodynamics codes.
Sijoy, C. D.; Chaturvedi, S.
2016-06-01
Higher-order cell-centered multi-material hydrodynamics (HD) and parallel node-centered radiation transport (RT) schemes are combined self-consistently in three-temperature (3T) radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) code TRHD (Sijoy and Chaturvedi, 2015) developed for the simulation of intense thermal radiation or high-power laser driven RHD. For RT, a node-centered gray model implemented in a popular RHD code MULTI2D (Ramis et al., 2009) is used. This scheme, in principle, can handle RT in both optically thick and thin materials. The RT module has been parallelized using message passing interface (MPI) for parallel computation. Presently, for multi-material HD, we have used a simple and robust closure model in which common strain rates to all materials in a mixed cell is assumed. The closure model has been further generalized to allow different temperatures for the electrons and ions. In addition to this, electron and radiation temperatures are assumed to be in non-equilibrium. Therefore, the thermal relaxation between the electrons and ions and the coupling between the radiation and matter energies are required to be computed self-consistently. This has been achieved by using a node-centered symmetric-semi-implicit (SSI) integration scheme. The electron thermal conduction is calculated using a cell-centered, monotonic, non-linear finite volume scheme (NLFV) suitable for unstructured meshes. In this paper, we have described the details of the 2D, 3T, non-equilibrium, multi-material RHD code developed with a special attention to the coupling of various cell-centered and node-centered formulations along with a suite of validation test problems to demonstrate the accuracy and performance of the algorithms. We also report the parallel performance of RT module. Finally, in order to demonstrate the full capability of the code implementation, we have presented the simulation of laser driven shock propagation in a layered thin foil. The simulation results are found to be in good
Lyman-alpha radiation hydrodynamics of galactic winds before cosmic reionization
Smith, Aaron; Bromm, Volker; Loeb, Abraham
2017-01-01
Radiation from the first stars and galaxies initiated the dramatic phase transition marking an end to the cosmic dark ages. The emission and absorption signatures from the Lyman-alpha transition of neutral hydrogen have been indispensable in extending the observational frontier for high-redshift galaxies into the epoch of reionization. Lyman-alpha radiative transfer provides clues about the processes leading to Lyman-alpha escape from individual galaxies and the subsequent transmission through the intergalactic medium. Cosmological simulations incorporating Lyman-alpha radiative transfer enhance our understanding of fundamental physics by supplying the inferred spectra and feedback on the gas. We discuss the dynamical impact of Lyman-alpha radiation pressure on galaxy formation throughout cosmic reionization with the first fully coupled Lyman-alpha radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. We self-consistently follow the chemistry, cooling, self-gravity, and ionizing radiation in protogalaxies and find that Lyman-alpha radiation pressure turns out to be dynamically important in several spherically symmetric simulations. As a case in point we apply our model to the COSMOS redshift 7 (CR7) galaxy at z = 6.6, which exhibits a +160 km/s velocity offset between the Lyman-alpha and HeII line peaks. We find that a massive black hole with a nonthermal Compton-thick spectrum is able to reproduce the observed Lyman-alpha signatures as a result of higher photon trapping and longer potential lifetime. We conclude with a general discussion of Lyman-alpha radiation in the first galaxies by considering simulations that cover the expected range of halo and source properties.
Radiation-hydrodynamical modelling of underluminous Type II plateau supernovae
Pumo, M. L.; Zampieri, L.; Spiro, S.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Manicò, G.; Turatto, M.
2017-01-01
With the aim of improving our knowledge about the nature of the progenitors of low-luminosity Type II plateau supernovae (LL SNe IIP), we made radiation-hydrodynamical models of the well-sampled LL SNe IIP 2003Z, 2008bk and 2009md. For these three SNe, we infer explosion energies of 0.16-0.18 foe, radii at explosion of 1.8-3.5 × 1013 cm and ejected masses of 10-11.3 M⊙. The estimated progenitor mass on the main sequence is in the range ˜13.2-15.1 M⊙ for SN 2003Z and ˜11.4-12.9 M⊙ for SNe 2008bk and 2009md, in agreement with estimates from observations of the progenitors. These results together with those for other LL SNe IIP modelled in the same way enable us also to conduct a comparative study on this SN sub-group. The results suggest that (a) the progenitors of faint SNe IIP are slightly less massive and have less energetic explosions than those of intermediate-luminosity SNe IIP; (b) both faint and intermediate-luminosity SNe IIP originate from low-energy explosions of red (or yellow) supergiant stars of low to intermediate mass; (c) some faint objects may also be explained as electron-capture SNe from massive super-asymptotic giant branch stars; and (d) LL SNe IIP form the underluminous tail of the SNe IIP family, where the main parameter `guiding' the distribution seems to be the ratio of the total explosion energy to the ejected mass. Further hydrodynamical studies should be performed and compared to a more extended sample of LL SNe IIP before drawing any conclusion on the relevance of fall-back to this class of events.
Detecting shock waves in cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations
Pfrommer, C; Ensslin, T A; Jubelgas, M; Pfrommer, Christoph; Springel, Volker; Ensslin, Torsten A.; Jubelgas, Martin
2006-01-01
We develop a formalism for the identification and accurate estimation of the strength of structure formation shocks during cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. Shocks not only play a decisive role for the thermalization of gas in virialising structures but also for the acceleration of relativistic cosmic rays (CRs) through diffusive shock acceleration. Our formalism is applicable both to ordinary non-relativistic thermal gas, and to plasmas composed of CRs and thermal gas. To this end, we derive an analytical solution to the one-dimensional Riemann shock tube problem for a composite plasma of CRs and thermal gas. We apply our methods to study the properties of structure formation shocks in high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of the LCDM model. We find that most of the energy is dissipated in weak internal shocks with Mach numbers M~2 which are predominantly central flow shocks or merger shock waves traversing halo centres. Collapsed cosmological structures are surrounded by external ...
Hydrodynamics in adaptive resolution particle simulations: Multiparticle collision dynamics
Alekseeva, Uliana, E-mail: Alekseeva@itc.rwth-aachen.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre (JSC), Institute for Advanced Simulation (IAS), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); German Research School for Simulation Sciences (GRS), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Winkler, Roland G., E-mail: r.winkler@fz-juelich.de [Theoretical Soft Matter and Biophysics, Institute for Advanced Simulation (IAS), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Sutmann, Godehard, E-mail: g.sutmann@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre (JSC), Institute for Advanced Simulation (IAS), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); ICAMS, Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)
2016-06-01
A new adaptive resolution technique for particle-based multi-level simulations of fluids is presented. In the approach, the representation of fluid and solvent particles is changed on the fly between an atomistic and a coarse-grained description. The present approach is based on a hybrid coupling of the multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC) method and molecular dynamics (MD), thereby coupling stochastic and deterministic particle-based methods. Hydrodynamics is examined by calculating velocity and current correlation functions for various mixed and coupled systems. We demonstrate that hydrodynamic properties of the mixed fluid are conserved by a suitable coupling of the two particle methods, and that the simulation results agree well with theoretical expectations.
Cosmological structure formation shocks and cosmic rays in hydrodynamical simulations
Pfrommer, C; Ensslin, T A; Jubelgas, M; Pfrommer, Christoph; Springel, Volker; Ensslin, Torsten A.; Jubelgas, Martin
2006-01-01
Cosmological shock waves during structure formation not only play a decisive role for the thermalization of gas in virializing structures but also for the acceleration of relativistic cosmic rays (CRs) through diffusive shock acceleration. We discuss a novel numerical treatment of the physics of cosmic rays in combination with a formalism for identifying and measuring the shock strength on-the-fly during a smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation. In our methodology, the non-thermal CR population is treated self-consistently in order to assess its dynamical impact on the thermal gas as well as other implications on cosmological observables. Using this formalism, we study the history of the thermalization process in high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of the Lambda cold dark matter model. Collapsed cosmological structures are surrounded by shocks with high Mach numbers up to 1000, but they play only a minor role in the energy balance of thermalization. However, this finding has important consequences fo...
3-D hydrodynamic simulations of convection in A stars
Kochukhov, O; Piskunov, N; Steffen, M
2006-01-01
Broadening and asymmetry of spectral lines in slowly rotating late A-type stars provide evidence for high-amplitude convective motions. The properties of turbulence observed in the A-star atmospheres are not understood theoretically and contradict results of previous numerical simulations of convection. Here we describe an ongoing effort to understand the puzzling convection signatures of A stars with the help of 3-D hydrodynamic simulations. Our approach combines realistic spectrum synthesis and non-grey hydrodynamic models computed with the CO5BOLD code. We discuss these theoretical predictions and confront them with high-resolution spectra of A stars. Our models have, for the first time, succeeded in reproducing the observed profiles of weak spectral lines without introducing fudge broadening parameters.
Simulation and visualization of coupled hydrodynamical, chemical and biological models
Dag Slagstad
1997-04-01
Full Text Available This paper briefly describes the principles of hydrodynamical and ecological modelling of marine systems and how model results are presented by use of MATLAB. Two application examples are shown. One refers to modelling and simulation of the carbon vertical transport in the Greenland Sea and the other is a study on the effect of wind pattern for the invasion success of zooplankton from the Norwegian Sea into the North Sea by use of particle tracking.
Kinetic and radiation-hydrodynamic modeling of x-ray heating in laboratory photoionized plasmas
Mancini, Roberto
2017-06-01
In experiments performed at the Z facility of Sandia National Laboratories a cm-scale cell filled with neon gas was driven by the burst of broadband x-rays emitted at the collapse of a wire-array z-pinch turning the gas into a photoionized plasma. Transmission spectroscopy of a narrowband portion of the x-ray flux was used to diagnose the plasma. The data show a highly-ionized neon plasma with a rich line absorption spectrum that permits the extraction of the ionization distribution among Be-, Li-, He- and H-like ions. Analysis of the spectra produced atomic ground and low excited state areal densities in these ions, and from the ratio of first-excited to ground state populations in Li-like neon a temperature of 19±4eV was extracted to characterize the x-ray heating of the plasma. To interpret this observation, we have performed data-constrained view-factor calculations of the spectral distribution of the x-ray drive, self-consistent modeling of electron and atomic kinetics, and radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. For the conditions of the experiment, the electron distribution thermalizes quickly, has a negligible high-energy tail, and is very well approximated by a single Maxwellian distribution. Radiation-hydrodynamic simulations with either LTE or NLTE (i.e. non-equilibrium) atomic physics provide a more complete modeling of the experiment. We found that in order to compute electron temperatures consistent with observation inline non-equilibrium collisional-radiative neon atomic kinetics needs to be taken into account. We discuss the details of LTE and NLTE simulations, and the impact of atomic physics on the radiation heating and cooling rates that determine the plasma temperature. This work was sponsored in part by DOE Office of Science Grant DE-SC0014451, and the Z Facility Fundamental Science Program of SNL.
Guidi, Giovanni; Ascasibar, Yago; Galbany, Lluis; Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia; Sánchez, Sebastian F; Rosales-Ortega, F Fabián; Scannapieco, Cecilia
2016-01-01
In this work we present a set of synthetic observations that mimic the properties of the Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) survey CALIFA, generated using radiative transfer techniques applied to hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies in a cosmological context. The simulated spatially-resolved spectra include stellar and nebular emission, kinematic broadening of the lines, and dust extinction and scattering. The results of the radiative transfer simulations have been post-processed to reproduce the main properties of the CALIFA V500 and V1200 observational setups. The data has been further formatted to mimic the CALIFA survey in terms of field of view size, spectral range and sampling. We have included the effect of the spatial and spectral Point Spread Functions affecting CALIFA observations, and added detector noise after characterizing it on a sample of 20 galaxies. The simulated datacubes are suited to be analyzed by the same algorithms used on real IFS data. In order to provide a benchmark to compare the ...
Generating optimal initial conditions for smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations
Diehl, Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rockefeller, Gabriel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
We present a new optimal method to set up initial conditions for Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Simulations, which may also be of interest for N-body simulations. This new method is based on weighted Voronoi tesselations (WVTs) and can meet arbitrarily complex spatial resolution requirements. We conduct a comprehensive review of existing SPH setup methods, and outline their advantages, limitations and drawbacks. A serial version of our WVT setup method is publicly available and we give detailed instruction on how to easily implement the new method on top of an existing parallel SPH code.
Radiation-hydrodynamical modelling of underluminous type II plateau Supernovae
Pumo, M L; Spiro, S; Pastorello, A; Benetti, S; Cappellaro, E; Manicò, G; Turatto, M
2016-01-01
With the aim of improving our knowledge about the nature of the progenitors of low-luminosity Type II plateau supernovae (LL SNe IIP), we made radiation-hydrodynamical models of the well-sampled LL SNe IIP 2003Z, 2008bk and 2009md. For these three SNe we infer explosion energies of $0.16$-$0.18$ foe, radii at explosion of $1.8$-$3.5 \\times 10^{13}$ cm, and ejected masses of $10$-$11.3$\\Msun. The estimated progenitor mass on the main sequence is in the range $\\sim 13.2$-$15.1$\\Msun\\, for SN 2003Z and $\\sim 11.4$-$12.9$\\Msun\\, for SNe 2008bk and 2009md, in agreement with estimates from observations of the progenitors. These results together with those for other LL SNe IIP modelled in the same way, enable us also to conduct a comparative study on this SN sub-group. The results suggest that: a) the progenitors of faint SNe IIP are slightly less massive and have less energetic explosions than those of intermediate-luminosity SNe IIP, b) both faint and intermediate-luminosity SNe IIP originate from low-energy explo...
SPHGal: Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics with improved accuracy for Galaxy simulations
Hu, Chia-Yu; Walch, Stefanie; Moster, Benjamin P; Oser, Ludwig
2014-01-01
We present the smoothed-particle hydrodynamics implementation SPHGal which incorporates several recent developments into the GADGET code. This includes a pressure-entropy formulation of SPH with a Wendland kernel, a higher order estimate of velocity gradients, a modified artificial viscosity switch with a strong limiter, and artificial conduction of thermal energy. We conduct a series of idealized hydrodynamic tests and show that while the pressure-entropy formulation is ideal for resolving fluid mixing at contact discontinuities, it performs conspicuously worse when strong shocks are involved due to the large entropy discontinuities. Including artificial conduction at shocks greatly improves the results. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability can be resolved properly and dense clouds in the blob test dissolve qualitatively in agreement with other improved SPH implementations. We further perform simulations of an isolated Milky Way like disk galaxy and find a feedback-induced instability developing if too much arti...
Cross, J. E.; Gregori, G. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Reville, B., E-mail: j.e.cross@physics.ox.ac.uk [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)
2014-11-01
We introduce the equations of magneto-quantum-radiative hydrodynamics. By rewriting them in a dimensionless form, we obtain a set of parameters that describe scale-dependent ratios of characteristic hydrodynamic quantities. We discuss how these dimensionless parameters relate to the scaling between astrophysical observations and laboratory experiments.
Cross, J. E.; Reville, B.; Gregori, G.
2014-11-01
We introduce the equations of magneto-quantum-radiative hydrodynamics. By rewriting them in a dimensionless form, we obtain a set of parameters that describe scale-dependent ratios of characteristic hydrodynamic quantities. We discuss how these dimensionless parameters relate to the scaling between astrophysical observations and laboratory experiments.
Radiation hydrodynamics of triggered star formation: the effect of the diffuse radiation field
Haworth, Thomas J.; Harries, Tim J.
2012-02-01
We investigate the effect of including diffuse field radiation when modelling the radiatively driven implosion of a Bonnor-Ebert sphere (BES). Radiation-hydrodynamical calculations are performed by using operator splitting to combine Monte Carlo photoionization with grid-based Eulerian hydrodynamics that includes self-gravity. It is found that the diffuse field has a significant effect on the nature of radiatively driven collapse which is strongly coupled to the strength of the driving shock that is established before impacting the BES. This can result in either slower or more rapid star formation than expected using the on-the-spot approximation depending on the distance of the BES from the source object. As well as directly compressing the BES, stronger shocks increase the thickness and density in the shell of accumulated material, which leads to short, strong, photoevaporative ejections that reinforce the compression whenever it slows. This happens particularly effectively when the diffuse field is included as rocket motion is induced over a larger area of the shell surface. The formation and evolution of 'elephant trunks' via instability is also found to vary significantly when the diffuse field is included. Since the perturbations that seed instabilities are smeared out elephant trunks form less readily and, once formed, are exposed to enhanced thermal compression.
Premaratne, Pavithra Dhanuka
Disruption and fragmentation of an asteroid using nuclear explosive devices (NEDs) is a highly complex yet a practical solution to mitigating the impact threat of asteroids with short warning time. A Hypervelocity Asteroid Intercept Vehicle (HAIV) concept, developed at the Asteroid Deflection Research Center (ADRC), consists of a primary vehicle that acts as kinetic impactor and a secondary vehicle that houses NEDs. The kinetic impactor (lead vehicle) strikes the asteroid creating a crater. The secondary vehicle will immediately enter the crater and detonate its nuclear payload creating a blast wave powerful enough to fragment the asteroid. The nuclear subsurface explosion modeling and hydrodynamic simulation has been a challenging research goal that paves the way an array of mission critical information. A mesh-free hydrodynamic simulation method, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) was utilized to obtain both qualitative and quantitative solutions for explosion efficiency. Commercial fluid dynamics packages such as AUTODYN along with the in-house GPU accelerated SPH algorithms were used to validate and optimize high-energy explosion dynamics for a variety of test cases. Energy coupling from the NED to the target body was also examined to determine the effectiveness of nuclear subsurface explosions. Success of a disruption mission also depends on the survivability of the nuclear payload when the secondary vehicle approaches the newly formed crater at a velocity of 10 km/s or higher. The vehicle may come into contact with debris ejecting the crater which required the conceptual development of a Whipple shield. As the vehicle closes on the crater, its skin may also experience extreme temperatures due to heat radiated from the crater bottom. In order to address this thermal problem, a simple metallic thermal shield design was implemented utilizing a radiative heat transfer algorithm and nodal solutions obtained from hydrodynamic simulations.
da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Petrosian, Vahe'; Carlsson, Mats
2015-01-01
Solar flares involve complex processes that are coupled together and span a wide range of temporal, spatial, and energy scales. Modeling such processes self-consistently has been a challenge in the past. Here we present such a model to simulate the coupling of high-energy particle kinetics with hydrodynamics of the atmospheric plasma. We combine the Stanford unified Fokker-Planck code that models particle acceleration, transport, and bremsstrahlung radiation with the RADYN hydrodynamic code that models the atmospheric response to collisional heating by non-thermal electrons through detailed radiative transfer calculations. We perform simulations using different injection electron spectra, including an {\\it ad hoc} power law and more realistic spectra predicted by the stochastic acceleration model due to turbulence or plasma waves. Surprisingly, stochastically accelerated electrons, even with energy flux $\\ll 10^{10}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$, cause "explosive" chromospheric evaporation and drive stronger up- an...
Su, M. G.; Min, Q.; Cao, S. Q.; Sun, D. X.; Hayden, P.; O’Sullivan, G.; Dong, C. Z.
2017-01-01
One of fundamental aims of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is to maximize brightness or conversion efficiency of laser energy to radiation at specific wavelengths from laser produced plasmas (LPPs) of specific elements for matching to available multilayer optical systems. Tin LPPs have been chosen for operation at a wavelength of 13.5 nm. For an investigation of EUV radiation of laser-produced tin plasmas, it is crucial to study the related atomic processes and their evolution so as to reliably predict the optimum plasma and experimental conditions. Here, we present a simplified radiation hydrodynamic model based on the fluid dynamic equations and the radiative transfer equation to rapidly investigate the evolution of radiation properties and dynamics in laser-produced tin plasmas. The self-absorption features of EUV spectra measured at an angle of 45° to the direction of plasma expansion have been successfully simulated and explained, and the evolution of some parameters, such as the plasma temperature, ion distribution and density, expansion size and velocity, have also been evaluated. Our results should be useful for further understanding of current research on extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray source development for applications such as lithography, metrology and biological imaging. PMID:28332621
Roedig, Constanze; Alic, Daniela
2012-01-01
We present the implementation of an implicit-explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta numerical scheme for general relativistic hydrodynamics coupled to an optically thick radiation field in two existing GR-hydrodynamics codes. We argue that the necessity of such an improvement arises naturally in astrophysically relevant regimes where the optical thickness is high as the equations become stiff. By performing several 1D tests we verify the codes' new ability to deal with this stiffness and show consistency. Then, still in 1D, we compute a luminosity versus accretion rate diagram for the setup of spherical accretion onto a Schwarzschild black hole and find good agreement with previous work. Lastly, we revisit the supersonic Bondi Hoyle Lyttleton (BHL) accretion in 2D where we can now present simulations of realistic temperatures, down to T~10^6 K. Here we find that radiation pressure plays an important role, but also that these highly dynamical set-ups push our approximate treatment towards the limit of physical applicabil...
Hydrodynamic Simulations of Galaxy Clusters: Scaling Relations and Evolution
Truong, N; Mazzotta, P; Planelles, S; Biffi, V; Fabjan, D; Beck, A M; Borgani, S; Dolag, K; Granato, G L; Murante, G; Ragone-Figueroa, C; Steinborn, L K
2016-01-01
We analyze hydrodynamical and cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters to study scaling relations between the cluster total masses and observable quantities such as gas luminosity, gas mass, temperature, and YX , i.e., the product of the last two properties. Our simulations are performed with the Smoothed-Particle-Hydrodynamic GADGET-3 code and include different physical processes. The twofold aim of our study is to compare our simulated scaling relations with observations at low (z~0) and intermediate (z~0.5) redshifts and to explore their evolution over the redshift range z=0-2. The result of the comparative study shows a good agreement between our numerical models and real data. We find that AGN feedback significantly affects low-mass haloes at the highest redshifts resulting in a reduction of the slope of the mass-gas mass relation (~13%) and the mass-YX relation (~10%) at z=2 in comparison to z=0. The drop of the slope of the mass-temperature relation at z=2 (~14%) is, instead, caused by early mergers...
CHOLLA: A New Massively Parallel Hydrodynamics Code for Astrophysical Simulation
Schneider, Evan E.; Robertson, Brant E.
2015-04-01
We present Computational Hydrodynamics On ParaLLel Architectures (Cholla ), a new three-dimensional hydrodynamics code that harnesses the power of graphics processing units (GPUs) to accelerate astrophysical simulations. Cholla models the Euler equations on a static mesh using state-of-the-art techniques, including the unsplit Corner Transport Upwind algorithm, a variety of exact and approximate Riemann solvers, and multiple spatial reconstruction techniques including the piecewise parabolic method (PPM). Using GPUs, Cholla evolves the fluid properties of thousands of cells simultaneously and can update over 10 million cells per GPU-second while using an exact Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction. Owing to the massively parallel architecture of GPUs and the design of the Cholla code, astrophysical simulations with physically interesting grid resolutions (≳2563) can easily be computed on a single device. We use the Message Passing Interface library to extend calculations onto multiple devices and demonstrate nearly ideal scaling beyond 64 GPUs. A suite of test problems highlights the physical accuracy of our modeling and provides a useful comparison to other codes. We then use Cholla to simulate the interaction of a shock wave with a gas cloud in the interstellar medium, showing that the evolution of the cloud is highly dependent on its density structure. We reconcile the computed mixing time of a turbulent cloud with a realistic density distribution destroyed by a strong shock with the existing analytic theory for spherical cloud destruction by describing the system in terms of its median gas density.
Hydrodynamic Simulations and Tomographic Reconstructions of the Intergalactic Medium
Stark, Casey William
The Intergalactic Medium (IGM) is the dominant reservoir of matter in the Universe from which the cosmic web and galaxies form. The structure and physical state of the IGM provides insight into the cosmological model of the Universe, the origin and timeline of the reionization of the Universe, as well as being an essential ingredient in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Our primary handle on this information is a signal known as the Lyman-alpha forest (or Ly-alpha forest) -- the collection of absorption features in high-redshift sources due to intervening neutral hydrogen, which scatters HI Ly-alpha photons out of the line of sight. The Ly-alpha forest flux traces density fluctuations at high redshift and at moderate overdensities, making it an excellent tool for mapping large-scale structure and constraining cosmological parameters. Although the computational methodology for simulating the Ly-alpha forest has existed for over a decade, we are just now approaching the scale of computing power required to simultaneously capture large cosmological scales and the scales of the smallest absorption systems. My thesis focuses on using simulations at the edge of modern computing to produce precise predictions of the statistics of the Ly-alpha forest and to better understand the structure of the IGM. In the first part of my thesis, I review the state of hydrodynamic simulations of the IGM, including pitfalls of the existing under-resolved simulations. Our group developed a new cosmological hydrodynamics code to tackle the computational challenge, and I developed a distributed analysis framework to compute flux statistics from our simulations. I present flux statistics derived from a suite of our large hydrodynamic simulations and demonstrate convergence to the per cent level. I also compare flux statistics derived from simulations using different discretizations and hydrodynamic schemes (Eulerian finite volume vs. smoothed particle hydrodynamics) and
nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations II: radiative models
Sembolini, F
2016-04-01
Full Text Available We have simulated the formation of a massive galaxy cluster (M(supcrit)(sub200) = 1.1×10(sup15)h(sup-1)M) in a CDM universe using 10 different codes (RAMSES, 2 incarnations of AREPO and 7 of GADGET), modeling hydrodynamics with full radiative...
3D hydrodynamic simulations of carbon burning in massive stars
Cristini, A.; Meakin, C.; Hirschi, R.; Arnett, D.; Georgy, C.; Viallet, M.; Walkington, I.
2017-10-01
We present the first detailed 3D hydrodynamic implicit large eddy simulations of turbulent convection of carbon burning in massive stars. Simulations begin with radial profiles mapped from a carbon-burning shell within a 15 M⊙ 1D stellar evolution model. We consider models with 1283, 2563, 5123, and 10243 zones. The turbulent flow properties of these carbon-burning simulations are very similar to the oxygen-burning case. We performed a mean field analysis of the kinetic energy budgets within the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes framework. For the upper convective boundary region, we find that the numerical dissipation is insensitive to resolution for linear mesh resolutions above 512 grid points. For the stiffer, more stratified lower boundary, our highest resolution model still shows signs of decreasing sub-grid dissipation suggesting it is not yet numerically converged. We find that the widths of the upper and lower boundaries are roughly 30 per cent and 10 per cent of the local pressure scaleheights, respectively. The shape of the boundaries is significantly different from those used in stellar evolution models. As in past oxygen-shell-burning simulations, we observe entrainment at both boundaries in our carbon-shell-burning simulations. In the large Péclet number regime found in the advanced phases, the entrainment rate is roughly inversely proportional to the bulk Richardson number, RiB (∝RiB-α, 0.5 ≲ α ≲ 1.0). We thus suggest the use of RiB as a means to take into account the results of 3D hydrodynamics simulations in new 1D prescriptions of convective boundary mixing.
Introducing CoDa (Cosmic Dawn): Radiation-Hydrodynamics of Galaxy Formation in the Early Universe
Ocvirk, Pierre; Gillet, Nicolas; Shapiro, Paul; Aubert, Dominique; Iliev, Ilian; Romain, Teyssier; Yepes, Gustavo; Choi, Jun-hwan; Sullivan, David; Knebe, Alexander; Gottloeber, Stefan; D'Aloisio, Anson; Park, Hyunbae; Hoffman, Yehuda
2015-08-01
CoDa (Cosmic Dawn) is the largest fully coupled radiation hydrodynamics simulation of the reionization of the local Universe to date. It was performed using RAMSES-CUDATON running on 8192 nodes (i.e. 8192 GPUs) on the titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to simulate a 64 h-1Mpc side box down to z=4.23. In this simulation, reionization proceeds self-consistently, driven by stellar radiation. We compare the simulation's reionization history, ionizing flux density, the cosmic star formation history and the CMB Thompson scattering optical depth with their observational values. Luminosity functions are also in rather good agreement with high redshift observations, although very bright objects (MAB1600 gas filaments present a sheathed structure, with a hot envelope surrounding a cooler core. They are however not able to self-shield, while regions denser than 10^-4.5 H atoms per comoving h^-3cm^3 are. Haloes below M ˜ 3.10^9 M⊙ are severely affected by the expanding, rising UV background: their ISM is quickly photo-heated to temperatures above our star formation threshold and therefore stop forming stars after local reionization has occured. Overall, the haloes between 10^(10-11) M⊙ dominate the star formation budget of the box for most of the Epoch of Reionization. Several additional studies will follow, looking for instance at environmental effects on galaxy properties, and the regimes of accretion.
MULTI2D - a computer code for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics
Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Ramírez, J.
2009-06-01
Simulation of radiation hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions is developed, having in mind, in particular, target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement energy (IFE) and the interpretation of related experiments. Intense radiation pulses by laser or particle beams heat high-Z target configurations of different geometries and lead to a regime which is optically thick in some regions and optically thin in others. A diffusion description is inadequate in this situation. A new numerical code has been developed which describes hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions (cylindrical R-Z geometry) and radiation transport along rays in three dimensions with the 4 π solid angle discretized in direction. Matter moves on a non-structured mesh composed of trilateral and quadrilateral elements. Radiation flux of a given direction enters on two (one) sides of a triangle and leaves on the opposite side(s) in proportion to the viewing angles depending on the geometry. This scheme allows to propagate sharply edged beams without ray tracing, though at the price of some lateral diffusion. The algorithm treats correctly both the optically thin and optically thick regimes. A symmetric semi-implicit (SSI) method is used to guarantee numerical stability. Program summaryProgram title: MULTI2D Catalogue identifier: AECV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 151 098 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 889 622 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: PC (32 bits architecture) Operating system: Linux/Unix RAM: 2 Mbytes Word size: 32 bits Classification: 19.7 External routines: X-window standard library (libX11.so) and corresponding heading files (X11/*.h) are
3D Gray Radiative Properties of a Radiation Hydrodynamic Model of a YSO Accretion Shock
Ibgui, L.; de Sá, L.; Stehlé, C.; Chièze, J.-P.; Orlando, S.; Hubeny, I.; Lanz, T.; Matsakos, T.; González, M.; Bonito, R.
2014-09-01
We present preliminary results of radiative properties of a 1D gray radiation hydrodynamic (RHD) model of an accretion shock on a young stellar object (YSO). This model takes into account the transition between the collisional equilibrium regime (local thermodynamic equilibrium, LTE), and the coronal equilibrium regime. Based on the 1D planar structure, we built a 3D cylindrical one. Most notably, the post-shock region obtained in our case is far less extended (by a factor of 10 000) than the typical one obtained with models that assume gray optically thin radiative losses. Moreover, we find that the column is optically thin in its longitudinal dimension, and in the transverse dimension, except over an extremely narrow region (≲ 700 m). Consequently, still under the gray assumption, the photons emitted by the hot slab can propagate through the column and escape freely in all directions, including towards the chromosphere. The radiation flux has therefore components that are perpendicular to the accretion column, which demonstrates that a multidimensional (2D or 3D) radiative model is necessary for such a cylindrical structure. This study needs to be taken forward and expanded, by improving the radiative treatment of the RHD model, through relaxation of both the gray and the LTE approximations for the calculation of opacities, in order to clarify the structure of the post-shock region, which is a major source of emission probed by observations.
Theoretical Description and Numerical Simulation of the Hydrodynamic Coupling
V. O. Lomakin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The article’s subject is to study and describe the processes in the hydrodynamic coupling during its operation. The hydrodynamic coupling is a type of hydrodynamic transmission that provides a flexible connection between the input and output shafts, in contrast to the mechanical coupling. Currently, the fluid couplings are widely used and the theoretical description of their operation has been given long before. However, in Russia these units are not produced, the theoretical model is very simple while the experimental data are scattered and non-systematized. So the problem is relevant and requires consideration.The research objective is to complement the existing theoretical model for better describing the fluid coupling operation as well as to compare the results, based on its using, with the numerical simulation results. The main part of the article contains these sections.The mathematical model shows: the equations used for theoretical description of the fluid coupling operation, the basic hydrodynamic equations converted to solve the problem in a stationary setting, and the applied turbulence model (k-ω. The author backslides from the standard jet theory in which the calculation is performed at an average trickle in order to take into consideration the non-uniformity of the velocity distribution in the fluid coupling.The article also raised the issue on the applicability of the stationary formulation of the problem for the numerical simulation. The study revealed that the solutions obtained under stationary and non-stationary calculations practically match. The verification was conducted by three points of characteristic of the hydraulic coupling.The article gives the fluid coupling dimensions, represents an image of its threedimensional model and of the computational grid. It also shows some figures to illustrate the processes in a fluid coupling obtained by its numerical modeling.During the study it was found out that the proposed
Hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability of black holes with radiative transfer
Roger Blandford; Jonathan C Mckinney; Nadia Zakamska
2011-07-01
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (Chandra) was just eight years old when the ﬁrst astrophysical jet was discovered in M87. Since then, jets have been uncovered with a wide variety of sources including accretion disks orbiting stellar and massive black holes, neutron stars, isolated pulsars, -ray bursts, protostars and planetary nebulae. This talk will be primarily concerned with collimated hydromagnetic outﬂows associated with spinning, massive black holes in active galactic nuclei. Jets exhibit physical processes central to three of the major research themes in Chandrasekhar’s research career – radiative transfer, magnetohydrodynamics and black holes. Relativistic jets can be thought of as `exhausts’ from both the hole and its orbiting accretion disk, carrying away the energy liberated by the rotating spacetime and the accreting gas that is not radiated. However, no aspect of jet formation, propagation and radiation can be regarded as understood in detail. The combination of new -ray, radio and optical observations together with impressive advances in numerical simulation make this a good time to settle some long-standing debates.
Numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic instability experiments and flow mixing
BAI JingSong; WANG Tao; LI Ping; ZOU LiYong; LIU CangLi
2009-01-01
Based on the numerical methods of volume of fluid (VOF) and piecewise parabolic method (PPM) and parallel circumstance of Message Passing Interface (MPI), a parallel multi-viscosity-fluid hydrodynamic code MVPPM (Multi-Viscosity-Fluid Piecewise Parabolic Method) is developed and performed to study the hydrodynamic instability and flow mixing. Firstly, the MVPPM code is verified and validated by simulating three instability cases: The first one is a Riemann problem of viscous flow on the shock tube;the second one is the hydrodynamic instability and mixing of gaseous flows under re-shocks; the third one is a half height experiment of interfacial instability, which is conducted on the AWE's shock tube. By comparing the numerical results with experimental data, good agreement is achieved. Then the MVPPM code is applied to simulate the two cases of the interfacial instabilities of jelly models accelerated by explosion products of a gaseous explosive mixture (GEM), which are adopted in our experiments. The first is implosive dynamic interfacial instability of cylindrical symmetry and mixing. The evolving process of inner and outer interfaces, and the late distribution of mixing mass caused by Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in the center of different radius are given. The second is jelly layer experiment which is initialized with one periodic perturbation with different amplitude and wave length. It reveals the complex processes of evolution of interface, and presents the displacement of front face of jelly layer, bubble head and top of spike relative to initial equilibrium position vs. time. The numerical results are in excellent agreement with that experimental images, and show that the amplitude of initial perturbations affects the evolvement of fluid mixing zone (FMZ) growth rate extremely, especially at late times.
Numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic instability experiments and flow mixing
无
2009-01-01
Based on the numerical methods of volume of fluid (VOF) and piecewise parabolic method (PPM) and parallel circumstance of Message Passing Interface (MPI),a parallel multi-viscosity-fluid hydrodynamic code MVPPM (Multi-Viscosity-Fluid Piecewise Parabolic Method) is developed and performed to study the hydrodynamic instability and flow mixing. Firstly,the MVPPM code is verified and validated by simulating three instability cases:The first one is a Riemann problem of viscous flow on the shock tube; the second one is the hydrodynamic instability and mixing of gaseous flows under re-shocks; the third one is a half height experiment of interfacial instability,which is conducted on the AWE’s shock tube. By comparing the numerical results with experimental data,good agreement is achieved. Then the MVPPM code is applied to simulate the two cases of the interfacial instabilities of jelly models acceler-ated by explosion products of a gaseous explosive mixture (GEM),which are adopted in our experi-ments. The first is implosive dynamic interfacial instability of cylindrical symmetry and mixing. The evolving process of inner and outer interfaces,and the late distribution of mixing mass caused by Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in the center of different radius are given. The second is jelly layer ex-periment which is initialized with one periodic perturbation with different amplitude and wave length. It reveals the complex processes of evolution of interface,and presents the displacement of front face of jelly layer,bubble head and top of spike relative to initial equilibrium position vs. time. The numerical results are in excellent agreement with that experimental images,and show that the amplitude of initial perturbations affects the evolvement of fluid mixing zone (FMZ) growth rate extremely,especially at late times.
Outflows Driven by Quasars in High-Redshift Galaxies with Radiation Hydrodynamics
Bieri, Rebekka; Rosdahl, Joakim; Wagner, Alexander Y; Silk, Joseph; Mamon, Gary A
2016-01-01
The quasar mode of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the high-redshift Universe is routinely observed in gas-rich galaxies together with large-scale AGN-driven winds. It is crucial to understand how photons emitted by the central AGN source couple to the ambient interstellar-medium to trigger large-scale outflows. By means of radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of idealised galactic discs, we study the coupling of photons with the multiphase galactic gas, and how it varies with gas cloud sizes, and the radiation bands included in the simulations, which are ultraviolet (UV), optical, and infrared (IR). We show how a quasar with a luminosity of $10^{46}$ erg/s can drive large-scale winds with velocities of $10^2-10^3$ km/s and mass outflow rates around $10^3$ M$_\\odot$/yr for times of order a few million years. Infrared radiation is necessary to efficiently transfer momentum to the gas via multi-scattering on dust in dense clouds. However, IR multi-scattering, despite being extremely important at early times, qu...
Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of OMEGA implosions
Igumenshchev, I. V.; Michel, D. T.; Shah, R. C.; Campbell, E. M.; Epstein, R.; Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F. J.; McCrory, R. L.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S.
2017-05-01
The effects of large-scale (with Legendre modes ≲ 10) asymmetries in OMEGA direct-drive implosions caused by laser illumination nonuniformities (beam-power imbalance and beam mispointing and mistiming), target offset, and variation in target-layer thickness were investigated using the low-noise, three-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamic code ASTER. Simulations indicate that these asymmetries can significantly degrade the implosion performance. The most important sources of the asymmetries are the target offsets ( ˜10 to 20 μm), beam-power imbalance ( σrms˜10 %), and variations ( ˜5 %) in target-layer thickness. Large-scale asymmetries distort implosion cores, resulting in a reduced hot-spot confinement and an increased residual kinetic energy of implosion targets. The ion temperature inferred from the width of simulated neutron spectra is influenced by bulk fuel motion in the distorted hot spot and can result in up to an ˜1 -keV increase in apparent temperature. Similar temperature variations along different lines of sight are observed. Demonstrating hydrodynamic equivalence to ignition designs on OMEGA requires a reduction in large-scale target and laser-imposed nonuniformities, minimizing target offset, and employing highly efficient mid-adiabat (α = 4) implosion designs, which mitigate cross-beam energy transfer and suppress short-wavelength Rayleigh-Taylor growth.
The Nature of the Radiative Hydrodynamic Instabilities in Radiatively Supported Thomson Atmospheres
Shaviv, N J
2001-01-01
Atmospheres having a significant radiative support are shown to be intrinsically unstable at luminosities above a critical fraction Gamma_crit ~ 0.5-0.85 of the Eddington limit, with the exact value depending on the boundary conditions. Two different types of absolute radiation-hydrodynamic instabilities of acoustic waves are found to take place even in the electron scattering dominated limit. Both instabilities grow over dynamical time scales and both operate on non radial modes. One is stationary and arises only after the effects of the boundary conditions are taken into account, while the second is a propagating wave and is insensitive to the boundary conditions. Although a significant wind can be generated by these instabilities even below the classical Eddington luminosity limit, quasi-stable configurations can exist beyond the Eddington limit due to the generally reduced effective opacity. The study is done using a rigorous numerical linear analysis of a gray plane parallel atmosphere under the Eddingto...
Bacterial swarmer cells in confinement: A mesoscale hydrodynamic simulation study
Eisenstecken, Thomas; Winkler, Roland G
2016-01-01
A wide spectrum of Peritrichous bacteria undergo considerable physiological changes when they are inoculated onto nutrition-rich surfaces and exhibit a rapid and collective migration denoted as swarming. Thereby, the length of such swarmer cells and their number of flagella increases substantially. In this article, we investigated the properties of individual E. coli-type swarmer cells confined between two parallel walls via mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations, combining molecular dynamics simulations of the swarmer cell with the multiparticle particle collision dynamics approach for the embedding fluid. E. coli-type swarmer cells are three-times longer than their planktonic counter parts, but their flagella density is comparable. By varying the wall separation, we analyze the confinement effect on the flagella arrangement, on the distribution of cells in the gap between the walls, and on the cell dynamics. We find only a weak dependence of confinement on the bundle structure and dynamics. The distribution of ...
3D Hydrodynamic Simulation of Classical Novae Explosions
Kendrick, Coleman J.
2015-01-01
This project investigates the formation and lifecycle of classical novae and determines how parameters such as: white dwarf mass, star mass and separation affect the evolution of the rotating binary system. These parameters affect the accretion rate, frequency of the nova explosions and light curves. Each particle in the simulation represents a volume of hydrogen gas and are initialized randomly in the outer shell of the companion star. The forces on each particle include: gravity, centrifugal, coriolis, friction, and Langevin. The friction and Langevin forces are used to model the viscosity and internal pressure of the gas. A velocity Verlet method with a one second time step is used to compute velocities and positions of the particles. A new particle recycling method was developed which was critical for computing an accurate and stable accretion rate and keeping the particle count reasonable. I used C++ and OpenCL to create my simulations and ran them on two Nvidia GTX580s. My simulations used up to 1 million particles and required up to 10 hours to complete. My simulation results for novae U Scorpii and DD Circinus are consistent with professional hydrodynamic simulations and observed experimental data (light curves and outburst frequencies). When the white dwarf mass is increased, the time between explosions decreases dramatically. My model was used to make the first prediction for the next outburst of nova DD Circinus. My simulations also show that the companion star blocks the expanding gas shell leading to an asymmetrical expanding shell.
Hayes, J C; Norman, M
1999-10-28
This report details an investigation into the efficacy of two approaches to solving the radiation diffusion equation within a radiation hydrodynamic simulation. Because leading-edge scientific computing platforms have evolved from large single-node vector processors to parallel aggregates containing tens to thousands of individual CPU's, the ability of an algorithm to maintain high compute efficiency when distributed over a large array of nodes is critically important. The viability of an algorithm thus hinges upon the tripartite question of numerical accuracy, total time to solution, and parallel efficiency.
Outflows Driven by Quasars in High-Redshift Galaxies with Radiation Hydrodynamics
Bieri, Rebekka; Dubois, Yohan; Rosdahl, Joakim; Wagner, Alexander; Silk, Joseph; Mamon, Gary A.
2016-09-01
The quasar mode of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the high-redshift Universe is routinely observed in gas-rich galaxies together with large-scale AGN-driven winds. It is crucial to understand how photons emitted by the central AGN source couple to the ambient interstellar-medium to trigger large-scale outflows. By means of radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of idealised galactic discs, we study the coupling of photons with the multiphase galactic gas, and how it varies with gas cloud sizes, and the radiation bands included in the simulations, which are ultraviolet (UV), optical, and infrared (IR). We show how a quasar with a luminosity of 146 erg s-1 can drive large-scale winds with velocities of 102 - 103 km s-1 and mass outflow rates around 10^3 M_⊙ yr^{-1} for times of order a few million years. Infrared radiation is necessary to efficiently transfer momentum to the gas via multi-scattering on dust in dense clouds. However, IR multi-scattering, despite being extremely important at early times, quickly declines as the central gas cloud expands and breaks up, allowing the radiation to escape through low gas density channels. The typical number of multi-scattering events for an IR photon is only about a quarter of the mean optical depth from the center of the cloud. Our models account for the observed outflow rates of ˜ 500-1000 M_{⊙} {yr}^{-1} and high velocities of ˜ 10^3 km s^{-1}, favouring winds that are energy-driven via extremely fast nuclear outflows, interpreted here as being IR-radiatively-driven winds.
Suzuki, Akihiro; Shigeyama, Toshikazu
2016-01-01
A two-dimensional special relativistic radiation-hydrodynamics code is developed and applied to numerical simulations of supernova shock breakout in bipolar explosions of a blue supergiant. Our calculations successfully simulate the dynamical evolution of a blast wave in the star and its emergence from the surface. Results of the model with spherical energy deposition show a good agreement with previous simulations. Furthermore, we calculate several models with bipolar energy deposition and compare their results with the spherically symmetric model. The bolometric light curves of the shock breakout emission are calculated by a ray-tracing method. Our radiation-hydrodynamic models indicate that the early part of the shock breakout emission can be used to probe the geometry of the blast wave produced as a result of the gravitational collapse of the iron core.
The giant impact simulations with density independent smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Hosono, Natsuki; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Makino, Junichiro; Genda, Hidenori; Ida, Shigeru
2016-06-01
At present, the giant impact (GI) is the most widely accepted model for the origin of the Moon. Most of the numerical simulations of GI have been carried out with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. Recently, however, it has been pointed out that standard formulation of SPH (SSPH) has difficulties in the treatment of a contact discontinuity such as a core-mantle boundary and a free surface such as a planetary surface. This difficulty comes from the assumption of differentiability of density in SSPH. We have developed an alternative formulation of SPH, density independent SPH (DISPH), which is based on differentiability of pressure instead of density to solve the problem of a contact discontinuity. In this paper, we report the results of the GI simulations with DISPH and compare them with those obtained with SSPH. We found that the disk properties, such as mass and angular momentum produced by DISPH is different from that of SSPH. In general, the disks formed by DISPH are more compact: while formation of a smaller mass moon for low-oblique impacts is expected with DISPH, inhibition of ejection would promote formation of a larger mass moon for high-oblique impacts. Since only the improvement of core-mantle boundary significantly affects the properties of circumplanetary disks generated by GI and DISPH has not been significantly improved from SSPH for a free surface, we should be very careful when some conclusions are drawn from the numerical simulations for GI. And it is necessary to develop the numerical hydrodynamical scheme for GI that can properly treat the free surface as well as the contact discontinuity.
Cosmological Structure Formation Shocks and Cosmic Rays in Hydrodynamical Simulations
Pfrommer, C.; Springel, V.; Enβlin, T. A.; Jubelgas, M.
Cosmological shock waves during structure formation not only play a decisive role for the thermalization of gas in virializing structures but also for the acceleration of relativistic cosmic rays (CRs) through diffusive shock acceleration. We discuss a novel numerical treatment of the physics of cosmic rays in combination with a formalism for identifying and measuring the shock strength on-the-fly during a smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation. In our methodology, the non-thermal CR population is treated self-consistently in order to assess its dynamical impact on the thermal gas as well as other implications on cosmological observables. Using this formalism, we study the history of the thermalization process in high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of the Lambda cold dark matter model. Collapsed cosmological structures are surrounded by shocks with high Mach numbers up to 1000, but they play only a minor role in the energy balance of thermalization. However, this finding has important consequences for our understanding of the spatial distribution of CRs in the large-scale structure. In high resolution simulations of galaxy clusters, we find a low contribution of the averaged CR pressure, due to the small acceleration efficiency of lower Mach numbers of flow shocks inside halos and the softer adiabatic index of CRs. These effects disfavour CRs when a composite of thermal gas and CRs is adiabatically compressed. However, within cool core regions, the CR pressure reaches equipartition with the thermal pressure leading, to a lower effective adiabatic index and thus to an enhanced compressibility of the central intracluster medium. This effect increases the central density and pressure of the cluster, and thus the resulting X-ray emission and the central Sunyaev-Zel'dovich flux decrement. The integrated Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, however, is only slightly changed.
Hydrodynamical Simulations of Colliding Jets: Modeling 3C 75
Molnar, S. M.; Schive, H.-Y.; Birkinshaw, M.; Chiueh, T.; Musoke, G.; Young, A. J.
2017-01-01
Radio observations suggest that 3C 75, located in the dumbbell shaped galaxy NGC 1128 at the center of Abell 400, hosts two colliding jets. Motivated by this source, we perform three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations using a modified version of the GPU-accelerated Adaptive-MEsh-Refinement hydrodynamical parallel code (GAMER) to study colliding extragalactic jets. We find that colliding jets can be cast into two categories: (1) bouncing jets, in which case the jets bounce off each other keeping their identities, and (2) merging jets, when only one jet emerges from the collision. Under some conditions the interaction causes the jets to break up into oscillating filaments of opposite helicity, with consequences for their downstream stability. When one jet is significantly faster than the other and the impact parameter is small, the jets merge; the faster jet takes over the slower one. In the case of merging jets, the oscillations of the filaments, in projection, may show a feature that resembles a double helix, similar to the radio image of 3C 75. Thus we interpret the morphology of 3C 75 as a consequence of the collision of two jets with distinctly different speeds at a small impact parameter, with the faster jet breaking up into two oscillating filaments.
Hydrodynamical simulations of a compact source scenario for G2
Ballone, A; Burkert, A; Gillessen, S; Genzel, R; Fritz, T K; Eisenhauer, F; Pfuhl, O; Ott, T
2013-01-01
The origin of the dense gas cloud G2 discovered in the Galactic Center (Gillessen et al. 2012) is still a debated puzzle. G2 might be a diffuse cloud or the result of an outflow from an invisible star embedded in it. We present here detailed simulations of the evolution of winds on G2's orbit. We find that the hydrodynamic interaction with the hot atmosphere present in the Galactic Center and the extreme gravitational field of the supermassive black hole must be taken in account when modeling such a source scenario. We find that the hydrodynamic interaction with the hot atmosphere present in the Galactic Center and the extreme gravitational field of the supermassive black hole must be taken in account when modeling such a source scenario. We also find that in this scenario most of the Br\\gamma\\ luminosity is expected to come from the highly filamentary densest shocked wind material. G2's observational properties can be used to constrain the properties of the outflow and our best model has a mass outflow rate ...
Simulation of hydrodynamically interacting particles confined by a spherical cavity
Aponte-Rivera, Christian; Zia, Roseanna N.
2016-06-01
We present a theoretical framework to model the behavior of a concentrated colloidal dispersion confined inside a spherical cavity. Prior attempts to model such behavior were limited to a single enclosed particle and attempts to enlarge such models to two or more particles have seen limited success owing to the challenges of accurately modeling many-body and singular hydrodynamic interactions. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed a set of hydrodynamic mobility functions that couple particle motion with hydrodynamic traction moments that, when inverted and combined with near-field resistance functions, form a complete coupling tensor that accurately captures both the far-field and near-field physics and is valid for an arbitrary number of spherical particles enclosed by a spherical cavity of arbitrary relative size a /R , where a and R are the particle and cavity size, respectively. This framework is then utilized to study the effect of spherical confinement on the self- and entrained motion of the colloids, for a range of particle-to-cavity size ratios. The self-motion of a finite-size enclosed particle is studied first, recovering prior results published in the literature: The hydrodynamic mobility of the particle is greatest at the center of the cavity and decays as (a /R ) /(1 -y2) , where y is the particle distance to the cavity center. Near the cavity wall, the no-slip surfaces couple strongly and mobility along the cavity radius vanishes as ξ ≡R -(a +y ) , where y is center-to-center distance from particle to cavity. Corresponding motion transverse to the cavity radius vanishes as [ln(1/ξ ) ] -1. The effect of confinement on entrainment of a particle in the flow created by the motion of others is also studied, where we find that confinement exerts a qualitative effect on the strength and anisotropy of entrainment of a passive particle dragged by the flow of a forced particle. As expected, entrainment strength decays with increased distance
A radiation-hydrodynamics model of accretion columns for ultra-luminous X-ray pulsars
Kawashima, Tomohisa; Mineshige, Shin; Ohsuga, Ken; Ogawa, Takumi
2016-10-01
Prompted by the recent discovery of pulsed emission from an ultra-luminous X-ray source, M 82 X-2 ("ULX-pulsar"), we perform a two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulation of a supercritical accretion flow onto a neutron star through a narrow accretion column. We set an accretion column with a cone shape filled with tenuous gas with the density of 10-4 g cm-3 above a neutron star and solve the two-dimensional gas motion and radiative transfer within the column. The side boundaries are set such that radiation can freely escape, but gas cannot. Since the initial gas layer is not in a hydrostatic balance, the column gas falls onto the neutron-star surface, and thereby a shock is generated. As a result, the accretion column is composed of two regions: an upper, nearly free-fall region and a lower settling region, as noted by Basko and Sunyaev (1976, MNRAS, 175, 395). The average accretion rate is very high; dot{M}˜ 10^{2{-}3} L_E/c2 (with LE being the Eddington luminosity), and so radiation energy dominates over gas internal energy entirely within the column. Despite the high accretion rate, the radiation flux in the laboratory frame is kept barely below LE/(4πr2) at a distance r in the settling region so that matter can slowly accrete. This adjustment is made possible, since a large amount of photons produced via dissipation of kinetic energy of matter can escape through the side boundaries. The total luminosity can greatly exceed LE by several orders of magnitude, whereas the apparent luminosity observed from the top of the column is much less. Due to such highly anisotropic radiation fields, the observed flux should exhibit periodic variations with the rotation period, provided that the rotation and magnetic axes are misaligned.
Simulating deposition of high density tailings using smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Babaoglu, Yagmur; Simms, Paul H.
2017-08-01
Tailings are a slurry of silt-sized residual material derived from the milling of rock. High density (HD) tailings are tailings that have been sufficiently dewatered to a point where they exhibit a yield stress upon deposition. They form gently sloped stacks on the surface when deposited; this eliminates or minimizes the need for dams or embankments for containment. Understanding the flow behaviour of high density tailings is essential for estimating the final stack geometry and overall slope angle. This paper focuses on modelling the flow behaviour of HD tailings using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method incorporating a `bi-viscosity' model to simulate the non-Newtonian behaviour. The model is validated by comparing the numerical results with bench scale experiments simulating single or multi-layer deposits in two-dimensions. The results indicate that the model agreed fairly well with the experimental work, excepting some repulsion of particles away from the bottom boundary closer to the toe of the deposits. Novel aspects of the work, compared to other simulation of Bingham fluids by SPH, are the simulation of multilayer deposits and the use of a stopping criteria to characterize the rest state.
A radiation-hydrodynamic model of accretion columns for ultra-luminous X-ray pulsars
Kawashima, Tomohisa; Ohsuga, Ken; Ogawa, Takumi
2016-01-01
Prompted by the recent discovery of pulsed emission from an ultra-luminous X-ray source, M82 X-2 ("ULX-pulsar"), we perform a two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulation of a super-critical accretion flow onto a neutron star through a narrow accretion column. We set an accretion column with a cone shape filled with tenuous gas with density of $10^{-4} {\\rm g}~ {\\rm cm}^{-3}$ above a neutron star and solve the two dimensional gas motion and radiative transfer within the column. The side boundaries are set such that radiation can freely escape, while gas cannot. Since the initial gas layer is not in a hydrostatic balance, the column gas falls onto the neutron-star surface, thereby a shock being generated. As a result, the accretion column is composed of two regions: an upper, nearly free-fall region and a lower settling region, as was noted by Basko \\& Sunyaev (1976). The average accretion rate is very high; ${\\dot M}\\sim 10^{2-3} L_{\\rm E}/c^2$ (with $L_{\\rm E}$ being the Eddington luminosity), and s...
Metal diffusion in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of dwarf galaxies
Williamson, David John; Kawata, Daisuke
2016-01-01
We perform a series of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies to compare different metal mixing models. In particular, we examine the role of diffusion in the production of enriched outflows, and in determining the metallicity distributions of gas and stars. We investigate different diffusion strengths, by changing the pre-factor of the diffusion coefficient, by varying how the diffusion coefficient is calculated from the local velocity distribution, and by varying whether the speed of sound is included as a velocity term. Stronger diffusion produces a tighter [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] distribution in the gas, and cuts off the gas metallicity distribution function at lower metallicities. Diffusion suppresses the formation of low-metallicity stars, even with weak diffusion, and also strips metals from enriched outflows. This produces a remarkably tight correlation between "metal mass-loading" (mean metal outflow rate divided by mean metal production rate) and the strength of diffusion, even...
Simulations of dolphin kick swimming using smoothed particle hydrodynamics.
Cohen, Raymond C Z; Cleary, Paul W; Mason, Bruce R
2012-06-01
In competitive human swimming the submerged dolphin kick stroke (underwater undulatory swimming) is utilized after dives and turns. The optimal dolphin kick has a balance between minimizing drag and maximizing thrust while also minimizing the physical exertion required of the swimmer. In this study laser scans of athletes are used to provide realistic swimmer geometries in a single anatomical pose. These are rigged and animated to closely match side-on video footage. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) fluid simulations are performed to evaluate variants of this swimming stroke technique. This computational approach provides full temporal and spatial information about the flow moving around the deforming swimmer model. The effects of changes in ankle flexibility and stroke frequency are investigated through a parametric study. The results suggest that the net streamwise force on the swimmer is relatively insensitive to ankle flexibility but is strongly dependent on kick frequency.
Efficient numerical simulation of ocean hydrodynamics by a splitting procedure
Hans Berntsen
1981-10-01
Full Text Available A splitting algorithm for fast and slow modes of ocean hydrodynamics is presented. The purpose of the splitting is to reduce the large amount of computational work needed for simulating long real-time periods. The essential point of the splitting is that the external gravity wave terms are extracted from the fully three-dimensional equations of horizontal motion, allowing the reduced equations to be integrated with a larger time step than the original model. The fast external gravity waves are traced by a depth integrated system which is weakly coupled to the reduced three-dimensional momentum equations. The split model shows a radical decrease in computational time and the accuracy is of the same order as in the non-split case.
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics method from a large eddy simulation perspective
Di Mascio, A.; Antuono, M.; Colagrossi, A.; Marrone, S.
2017-03-01
The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method, often used for the modelling of the Navier-Stokes equations by a meshless Lagrangian approach, is revisited from the point of view of Large Eddy Simulation (LES). To this aim, the LES filtering procedure is recast in a Lagrangian framework by defining a filter that moves with the positions of the fluid particles at the filtered velocity. It is shown that the SPH smoothing procedure can be reinterpreted as a sort of LES Lagrangian filtering, and that, besides the terms coming from the LES convolution, additional contributions (never accounted for in the SPH literature) appear in the equations when formulated in a filtered fashion. Appropriate closure formulas are derived for the additional terms and a preliminary numerical test is provided to show the main features of the proposed LES-SPH model.
SWIFT: task-based hydrodynamics and gravity for cosmological simulations
Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Gonnet, Pedro
2015-01-01
Simulations of galaxy formation follow the gravitational and hydrodynamical interactions between gas, stars and dark matter through cosmic time. The huge dynamic range of such calculations severely limits strong scaling behaviour of the community codes in use, with load-imbalance, cache inefficiencies and poor vectorisation limiting performance. The new swift code exploits task-based parallelism designed for many-core compute nodes interacting via MPI using asynchronous communication to improve speed and scaling. A graph-based domain decomposition schedules interdependent tasks over available resources. Strong scaling tests on realistic particle distributions yield excellent parallel efficiency, and efficient cache usage provides a large speed-up compared to current codes even on a single core. SWIFT is designed to be easy to use by shielding the astronomer from computational details such as the construction of the tasks or MPI communication. The techniques and algorithms used in SWIFT may benefit other compu...
Structure of the solar photosphere studied from the radiation hydrodynamics code ANTARES
Leitner, P.; Lemmerer, B.; Hanslmeier, A.; Zaqarashvili, T.; Veronig, A.; Grimm-Strele, H.; Muthsam, H. J.
2017-09-01
The ANTARES radiation hydrodynamics code is capable of simulating the solar granulation in detail unequaled by direct observation. We introduce a state-of-the-art numerical tool to the solar physics community and demonstrate its applicability to model the solar granulation. The code is based on the weighted essentially non-oscillatory finite volume method and by its implementation of local mesh refinement is also capable of simulating turbulent fluids. While the ANTARES code already provides promising insights into small-scale dynamical processes occurring in the quiet-Sun photosphere, it will soon be capable of modeling the latter in the scope of radiation magnetohydrodynamics. In this first preliminary study we focus on the vertical photospheric stratification by examining a 3-D model photosphere with an evolution time much larger than the dynamical timescales of the solar granulation and of particular large horizontal extent corresponding to 25''×25'' on the solar surface to smooth out horizontal spatial inhomogeneities separately for up- and downflows. The highly resolved Cartesian grid thereby covers ˜4 Mm of the upper convection zone and the adjacent photosphere. Correlation analysis, both local and two-point, provides a suitable means to probe the photospheric structure and thereby to identify several layers of characteristic dynamics: The thermal convection zone is found to reach some ten kilometers above the solar surface, while convectively overshooting gas penetrates even higher into the low photosphere. An ≈145 km wide transition layer separates the convective from the oscillatory layers in the higher photosphere.
Brown Dwarf Model Atmospheres Based on Multi-Dimensional Radiation Hydrodynamics
Allard, France; Freytag, Bernd
2010-11-01
The atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs (BDs) are the site of molecular opacities and cloud formation, and control their cooling rate, radius and brightness evolution. Brown dwarfs evolve from stellar-like properties (magnetic activity, spots, flares, mass loss) to planet-like properties (electron degeneracy of the interior, cloud formation, dynamical molecular transport) while retaining, due to their fully convective interior, larger rotational velocities (≤ 30 km/s i.e. P objects. While the pure gas-phase based NextGen model atmospheres (Allard et al. 1997, Hauschildt et al. 1999) have allowed the understanding of the several populations of Very Low Mass Stars (VLMs), the AMES-Dusty models (Allard et al. 2001) based on equilibrium chemistry have reproduced some near-IR photometric properties of M and L-type brown dwarfs, and played a key role in the determination of the mass of brown dwarfs and Planetary Mass Objects (PMOs) in the eld and in young stellar clusters. In this paper, we present a new model atmosphere grid for VLMs, BDs, PMOs named BT-Settl, which includes a cloud model and dynamical molecular transport based on mixing information from 2D Radiation Hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations (Freytag et al. 2009). We also present the status of our 3D RHD simulations including rotation (Coriolis forces) of a cube on the surface of a brown dwarf. The BT-Settl model atmosphere grid will be available shortly via the Phoenix web simulator (http://phoenix.ens-lyon.fr/simulator/).
MODA: a new algorithm to compute optical depths in multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations
Perego, A; Cabezon, R; Rosswog, S; Liebendoerfer, M
2014-01-01
We introduce a new algorithm for the calculation of multidimensional optical depths in approximate radiative transport schemes, equally applicable to neutrinos and photons. Motivated by (but not limited to) neutrino transport in three-dimensional simulations of core-collapse supernovae and neutron star mergers, our method makes no assumptions about the geometry of the matter distribution, apart from expecting optically transparent boundaries. Based on local information about opacities, the algorithm figures out an escape route that tends to minimize the optical depth without assuming any pre-defined paths for radiation. Its adaptivity makes it suitable for a variety of astrophysical settings with complicated geometry (e.g., core-collapse supernovae, compact binary mergers, tidal disruptions, star formation, etc.). We implement the MODA algorithm into both a Eulerian hydrodynamics code with a fixed, uniform grid and into an SPH code where we make use a tree structure that is otherwise used for searching neighb...
Entropy-based artificial viscosity stabilization for non-equilibrium Grey Radiation-Hydrodynamics
Delchini, Marc O., E-mail: delchinm@email.tamu.edu; Ragusa, Jean C., E-mail: jean.ragusa@tamu.edu; Morel, Jim, E-mail: jim.morel@tamu.edu
2015-09-01
The entropy viscosity method is extended to the non-equilibrium Grey Radiation-Hydrodynamic equations. The method employs a viscous regularization to stabilize the numerical solution. The artificial viscosity coefficient is modulated by the entropy production and peaks at shock locations. The added dissipative terms are consistent with the entropy minimum principle. A new functional form of the entropy residual, suitable for the Radiation-Hydrodynamic equations, is derived. We demonstrate that the viscous regularization preserves the equilibrium diffusion limit. The equations are discretized with a standard Continuous Galerkin Finite Element Method and a fully implicit temporal integrator within the MOOSE multiphysics framework. The method of manufactured solutions is employed to demonstrate second-order accuracy in both the equilibrium diffusion and streaming limits. Several typical 1-D radiation-hydrodynamic test cases with shocks (from Mach 1.05 to Mach 50) are presented to establish the ability of the technique to capture and resolve shocks.
Hydrodynamic simulations of He-shell flash convection
Herwig, F; Hückstädt, R M; Timmes, F X; Freytag, Bernd; Herwig, Falk; Hueckstaedt, Robert M.; Timmes, Francis X.
2006-01-01
We present the first hydrodynamic, multi-dimensional simulations of He-shell flash convection. Specifically, we investigate the properties of shell convection at a time immediately before the He- luminosity peak during the 15th thermal pulse of a stellar evolution track with initially two solar masses and metallicity Z=0.01. This choice is a representative example of a low-mass asymptotic giant branch thermal pulse. We construct the initial vertical stratification with a set of polytropes to resemble the stellar evolution structure. Convection is driven by a constant volume heating in a thin layer at the bottom of the unstable layer. We calculate a grid of 2D simulations with different resolutions and heating rates. Our set of simulations includes one low-resolution 3D run. The computational domain includes 11.4 pressure scale heights. He-shell flash convection is dominated by large convective cells that are centered in the lower half of the convection zone. Convective rolls have an almost circular appearance...
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics for the Simulation of Laser Produced Plasmas
Griffith, Alec; Holladay, Tyler; Murillo, Michael S.
2016-10-01
To address the design and interpretation of experiments at next generation light sources such as at the SLAC LCLS and the LANL proposed MaRIE a simulation of the laser produced plasma targets has been developed. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics is used to capture the full experimental time and length scales, large degrees of deformation, and the experimental environment's open boundary conditions. Additionally the model incorporates plasma transport with thermal conduction, the electric potential, and a two species model of the electrons and ions. The electron and ion particle representations in SPH allow for time dependent ionization and recombination while addressing the disparate masses of the two species. To gain computational speedup our simulation takes advantage of parallelism, and to reduce computational cost we have explored using data structures such as the linked cell list and octree as well as algorithmic techniques such as the fast mutipole method. We will discuss the results of simulating several possible experimental configurations using our model. This work was supported by the Los Alamos National Laboratory computational physics workshop.
3D Hydrodynamic Simulations of Carbon Burning in Massive Stars
Cristini, Andrea; Hirschi, Raphael; Arnett, David; Georgy, Cyril; Viallet, Maxime
2016-01-01
We present the first detailed three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic implicit large eddy simulations of turbulent convection of carbon burning in massive stars. The simulations start with initial radial profiles mapped from a carbon burning shell within a 15$\\,\\textrm{M}_\\odot$ 1D stellar evolution model. We consider 4 resolutions from $128^3$ to $1024^3$ zones. The turbulent flow properties of these carbon burning simulations are very similar to the oxygen burning case. We performed a mean field analysis of the kinetic energy budgets within the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes framework. For the upper convective boundary region, we find that the inferred numerical dissipation is insensitive to resolution for linear mesh resolutions between 512 and 1,024 grid points. For the stiffer and more stratified lower boundary, our highest resolution model still shows signs of decreasing dissipation suggesting that it is not yet fully resolved numerically. We estimate the widths of the upper and lower boundaries to be roug...
Properties of the galaxy population in hydrodynamical simulations of clusters
Saro, A.; Borgani, S.; Tornatore, L.; Dolag, K.; Murante, G.; Biviano, A.; Calura, F.; Charlot, S.
2006-11-01
We present a study of the galaxy population predicted by hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters. These simulations, which are based on the GADGET-2 TREE + SPH code, include gas cooling, star formation, a detailed treatment of stellar evolution and chemical enrichment, as well as supernova energy feedback in the form of galactic winds. As such, they can be used to extract the spectrophotometric properties of the simulated galaxies, which are identified as clumps in the distribution of star particles. Simulations have been carried out for a representative set of 19 cluster-sized haloes, having mass M200 in the range 5 × 1013-1.8 × 1015h-1Msolar. All simulations have been performed for two choices of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), namely using a standard Salpeter IMF with power-law index x = 1.35, and a top-heavy IMF with x = 0.95. In general, we find that several of the observational properties of the galaxy population in nearby clusters are reproduced fairly well by simulations. A Salpeter IMF is successful in accounting for the slope and the normalization of the colour-magnitude relation for the bulk of the galaxy population. In contrast, the top-heavy IMF produces too red galaxies, as a consequence of their exceedingly large metallicity. Simulated clusters have a relation between mass and optical luminosity, which generally agrees with observations, both in normalization and in slope. Also in keeping with observational results, galaxies are generally bluer, younger and more star forming in the cluster outskirts. However, we find that our simulated clusters have a total number of galaxies which is significantly smaller than the observed one, falling short by about a factor of 2-3. We have verified that this problem does not have an obvious numerical origin, such as lack of mass and force resolution. Finally, the brightest cluster galaxies are always predicted to be too massive and too blue, when compared to observations. This is due to gas
Revealing the Physics of Galactic Winds Through Massively-Parallel Hydrodynamics Simulations
Schneider, Evan Elizabeth
This thesis documents the hydrodynamics code Cholla and a numerical study of multiphase galactic winds. Cholla is a massively-parallel, GPU-based code designed for astrophysical simulations that is freely available to the astrophysics community. A static-mesh Eulerian code, Cholla is ideally suited to carrying out massive simulations (> 20483 cells) that require very high resolution. The code incorporates state-of-the-art hydrodynamics algorithms including third-order spatial reconstruction, exact and linearized Riemann solvers, and unsplit integration algorithms that account for transverse fluxes on multidimensional grids. Operator-split radiative cooling and a dual-energy formalism for high mach number flows are also included. An extensive test suite demonstrates Cholla's superior ability to model shocks and discontinuities, while the GPU-native design makes the code extremely computationally efficient - speeds of 5-10 million cell updates per GPU-second are typical on current hardware for 3D simulations with all of the aforementioned physics. The latter half of this work comprises a comprehensive study of the mixing between a hot, supernova-driven wind and cooler clouds representative of those observed in multiphase galactic winds. Both adiabatic and radiatively-cooling clouds are investigated. The analytic theory of cloud-crushing is applied to the problem, and adiabatic turbulent clouds are found to be mixed with the hot wind on similar timescales as the classic spherical case (4-5 t cc) with an appropriate rescaling of the cloud-crushing time. Radiatively cooling clouds survive considerably longer, and the differences in evolution between turbulent and spherical clouds cannot be reconciled with a simple rescaling. The rapid incorporation of low-density material into the hot wind implies efficient mass-loading of hot phases of galactic winds. At the same time, the extreme compression of high-density cloud material leads to long-lived but slow-moving clumps
Pace, Francesco
2013-01-01
The impacts of Compton scattering of hot cosmic gas with the cosmic microwave background radiation (Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, SZ) are consistently quantified in Gaussian and non-Gaussian scenarios, by means of 3D numerical, N-body, hydrodynamic simulations, including cooling, star formation, stellar evolution and metal pollution (He, C, O, Si, Fe, S, Mg, etc.) from different stellar phases, according to proper yields for individual metal species and mass-dependent stellar lifetimes. Light cones are built through the simulation outputs and samples of one hundred maps for the resulting temperature fluctuations are derived for both Gaussian and non-Gaussian primordial perturbations. From them, we estimate the possible changes due to early non-Gaussianities on: SZ maps, probability distribution functions, angular power spectra and corresponding bispectra. We find that the different growth of structures in the different cases induces significant spectral distortions only in models with large non-Gaussian paramete...
Simulating Magnetized Laboratory Plasmas with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
Johnson, Jeffrey N. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
2009-01-01
The creation of plasmas in the laboratory continues to generate excitement in the physics community. Despite the best efforts of the intrepid plasma diagnostics community, the dynamics of these plasmas remains a difficult challenge to both the theorist and the experimentalist. This dissertation describes the simulation of strongly magnetized laboratory plasmas with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), a method born of astrophysics but gaining broad support in the engineering community. We describe the mathematical formulation that best characterizes a strongly magnetized plasma under our circumstances of interest, and we review the SPH method and its application to astrophysical plasmas based on research by Phillips [1], Buerve [2], and Price and Monaghan [3]. Some modifications and extensions to this method are necessary to simulate terrestrial plasmas, such as a treatment of magnetic diffusion based on work by Brookshaw [4] and by Atluri [5]; we describe these changes as we turn our attention toward laboratory experiments. Test problems that verify the method are provided throughout the discussion. Finally, we apply our method to the compression of a magnetized plasma performed by the Compact Toroid Injection eXperiment (CTIX) [6] and show that the experimental results support our computed predictions.
Hydrodynamic Simulations of the Interaction between Giant Stars and Planets
Staff, Jan E; Wood, Peter; Galaviz, Pablo; Passy, Jean-Claude
2016-01-01
We present the results of hydrodynamic simulations of the interaction between a 10 Jupiter mass planet and a red or asymptotic giant branch stars, both with a zero-age main sequence mass of 3.5 $M_\\odot$. Dynamic in-spiral timescales are of the order of few years and a few decades for the red and asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. The planets will eventually be destroyed at a separation from the core of the giants smaller than the resolution of our simulations, either through evaporation or tidal disruption. As the planets in-spiral, the giant stars' envelopes are somewhat puffed up. Based on relatively long timescales and even considering the fact that further in-spiral should take place before the planets are destroyed, we predict that the merger would be difficult to observe, with only a relatively small, slow brightening. Very little mass is unbound in the process. These conclusions may change if the planet's orbit enhances the star's main pulsation modes. Based on the angular momentum transfer,...
The Neutral Hydrogen Content of Galaxies in Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations
Davé, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D; Kollmeier, Juna A; Weinberg, David H
2013-01-01
We examine the global HI properties of galaxies in quarter-billion particle cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, focusing on how our main adjustable physical process, galactic outflows, impacts HI content. In addition to the three outflow models considered in our earlier papers, we present a new one (ezw) motivated by high resolution interstellar medium simulations, in which the scalings of wind speeds and mass loading factors follow those expected for momentum-driven outflows for larger galaxies, and energy-driven outflows for dwarfs (sigma<75 km/s). To obtain predicted HI masses, we employ a simple but effective local correction for particle self-shielding, as well as an observationally-constrained transition from neutral to molecular hydrogen. We find that our ezw model produces an HI mass function whose shape agrees well with observations from the ALFALFA survey, having a low mass end slope of -1.3, while other models agree less well. Outflows critically govern the HI content in low-mass galaxies, wi...
Stellar feedback from HMXBs in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations
Artale, M C; Pellizza, L J
2015-01-01
We explored the role of X-ray binaries composed by a black hole and a massive stellar companion (BHXs) as sources of kinetic feedback by using hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. Following previous results, our BHX model selects low metal-poor stars ($Z = [0,10^{-4}]$) as possible progenitors. The model that better reproduces observations assumes that a $\\sim 20\\%$ fraction of low-metallicity black holes are in binary systems which produce BHXs. These sources are estimated to deposit $\\sim 10^{52}$ erg of kinetic energy per event. With these parameters and in the simulated volume, we find that the energy injected by BHXs represents $\\sim 30\\%$ of the total energy released by SNII and BHX events at redshift $z\\sim7$ and then decreases rapidly as baryons get chemically enriched. Haloes with virial masses smaller than $\\sim 10^{10} \\,M_{\\odot}$ (or $T_{\\rm vir} \\lesssim 10^5 $ K) are the most directly affected ones by BHX feedback. These haloes host galaxies with stellar masses in the range $10^7 - 10^8$ M$...
Highly stable and routinely convergent 2-dimensional hydrodynamic device simulation
Lin, Qi; Goldsman, Neil; Tai, Gwo-Chung
1994-02-01
This paper presents a new method for solving the hydrodynamic (HD) model in submicron semiconductor device simulation. The main feature of this method is that the Poisson, current-continuity and energy-balance equations in the HD model are all expressed in self-adjoint forms through a set of new Slotboom-like variables. As a consequence, the discretization results in a system of finite-difference equations with a diagonally dominant coefficient matrix for each HD equation. The simultaneous HD equations are decoupled by using the Gummel block iteration method. To solve each equation, a fixed-point iteration technique is employed which explicitly updates the state variables at each spatial mesh-point. In addition to avoiding direct solution of large matrix equations, the diagonal dominance guarantees that each HD equation will converge for any initial value. We demonstrate the method by simulating a 2-D submicron MOSFET, and by comparison with Monte Carlo calculations. Excellent numerical convergence, stability, and efficiency are observed.
Hydrodynamical Simulations of the Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 1097
Lin, Lien-Hsuan; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Taam, Ronald E; Yang, Chao-Chin; Yen, David C C
2013-01-01
NGC 1097 is a nearby barred spiral galaxy believed to be interacting with the elliptical galaxy NGC 1097A located to its northwest. It hosts a Seyfert 1 nucleus surrounded by a circumnuclear starburst ring. Two straight dust lanes connected to the ring extend almost continuously out to the bar. The other ends of the dust lanes attach to two main spiral arms. To provide a physical understanding of its structural and kinematical properties, two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations have been carried out. Numerical calculations reveal that many features of the gas morphology and kinematics can be reproduced provided that the gas flow is governed by a gravitational potential associated with a slowly rotating strong bar. By including the self-gravity of the gas disk in our calculation, we have found the starburst ring to be gravitationally unstable which is consistent with the observation in \\citet{hsieh11}. Our simulations show that the gas inflow rate is 0.17 M$_\\sun$ yr$^{-1}$ into the region within the starbu...
The Giant Impact Simulations with Density Independent Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
Hosono, Natsuki; Makino, Junichiro; Genda, Hidenori; Ida, Shigeru
2016-01-01
At present, the giant impact (GI) is the most widely accepted model for the origin of the Moon. Most of the numerical simulations of GI have been carried out with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. Recently, however, it has been pointed out that standard formulation of SPH (SSPH) has difficulties in the treatment of a contact discontinuity such as a core-mantle boundary and a free surface such as a planetary surface. This difficulty comes from the assumption of differentiability of density in SSPH. We have developed an alternative formulation of SPH, density independent SPH (DISPH), which is based on differentiability of pressure instead of density to solve the problem of a contact discontinuity. In this paper, we report the results of the GI simulations with DISPH and compare them with those obtained with SSPH. We found that the disk properties, such as mass and angular momentum produced by DISPH is different from that of SSPH. In general, the disks formed by DISPH are more compact: while form...
Hydrodynamic simulations of the interaction between giant stars and planets
Staff, Jan E.; De Marco, Orsola; Wood, Peter; Galaviz, Pablo; Passy, Jean-Claude
2016-05-01
We present the results of hydrodynamic simulations of the interaction between a 10 Jupiter mass planet and a red or asymptotic giant branch stars, both with a zero-age main sequence mass of 3.5 M⊙. Dynamic in-spiral time-scales are of the order of few years and a few decades for the red and asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. The planets will eventually be destroyed at a separation from the core of the giants smaller than the resolution of our simulations, either through evaporation or tidal disruption. As the planets in-spiral, the giant stars' envelopes are somewhat puffed up. Based on relatively long time-scales and even considering the fact that further in-spiral should take place before the planets are destroyed, we predict that the merger would be difficult to observe, with only a relatively small, slow brightening. Very little mass is unbound in the process. These conclusions may change if the planet's orbit enhances the star's main pulsation modes. Based on the angular momentum transfer, we also suspect that this star-planet interaction may be unable to lead to large-scale outflows via the rotation-mediated dynamo effect of Nordhaus and Blackman. Detectable pollution from the destroyed planets would only result for the lightest, lowest metallicity stars. We furthermore find that in both simulations the planets move through the outer stellar envelopes at Mach-3 to Mach-5, reaching Mach-1 towards the end of the simulations. The gravitational drag force decreases and the in-spiral slows down at the sonic transition, as predicted analytically.
Xu, Heming; Rodgers, Arthur J.; Lomov, Ilya N.; Vorobiev, Oleg Y.
2014-03-01
, Maryland, 1994). For all buried explosions, the region of permanent deformation and material damage is not spherical but extends along the free surface above and away from the source. The effect of damage induced by a normally buried nuclear explosion on seismic radiation is explored by comparing the motions from hydrodynamic simulations with those for point-source elastic Green's functions. Results show that radiation emerging at downward takeoff angles appears to be dominated by the expected isotropic source contribution, while at shallower angles the motions are complicated by near-surface damage and cannot be represented with the addition of a simple secondary compensated linear vector dipole point source above the shot point. The agreement and differences of simulated source spectra with the MM71 and DJ91 models motivates the use of numerical simulations to understand observed motions and investigate seismic source features for underground explosions in various emplacement media and conditions, including non-linear rheological effects such as material strength and porosity.
Madura, Thomas I; Okazaki, Atsuo T; Russell, Christopher M P; Owocki, Stanley P; Groh, Jose H; Corcoran, Michael F; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Teodoro, Mairan
2013-01-01
Recent work suggests that the mass-loss rate of the primary star (Eta A) in the massive colliding wind binary Eta Carinae dropped by a factor of 2-3 between 1999 and 2010. We present results from large- (r=1545au) and small- (r=155au) domain, 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations of Eta Car's colliding winds for 3 Eta A mass-loss rates (2.4, 4.8, and 8.5 x 10^-4 M_sun/yr), investigating the effects on the dynamics of the binary wind-wind collision (WWC). These simulations include orbital motion, optically thin radiative cooling, and radiative forces. We find that Eta A's mass-loss rate greatly affects the time-dependent hydrodynamics at all spatial scales investigated. The simulations also show that the post-shock wind of the companion star (Eta B) switches from the adiabatic to the radiative-cooling regime during periastron passage. The SPH simulations together with 1D radiative transfer models of Eta A's spectra reveal that a factor of 2 or more drop in Eta A's mass-loss rate should lead to su...
Metal Diffusion in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulations of Dwarf Galaxies
Williamson, David; Martel, Hugo; Kawata, Daisuke
2016-05-01
We perform a series of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies to compare different metal mixing models. In particular, we examine the role of diffusion in the production of enriched outflows and in determining the metallicity distributions of gas and stars. We investigate different diffusion strengths by changing the pre-factor of the diffusion coefficient, by varying how the diffusion coefficient is calculated from the local velocity distribution, and by varying whether the speed of sound is included as a velocity term. Stronger diffusion produces a tighter [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] distribution in the gas and cuts off the gas metallicity distribution function at lower metallicities. Diffusion suppresses the formation of low-metallicity stars, even with weak diffusion, and also strips metals from enriched outflows. This produces a remarkably tight correlation between “metal mass-loading” (mean metal outflow rate divided by mean metal production rate) and the strength of diffusion, even when the diffusion coefficient is calculated in different ways. The effectiveness of outflows at removing metals from dwarf galaxies and the metal distribution of the gas is thus dependent on the strength of diffusion. By contrast, we show that the metallicities of stars are not strongly dependent on the strength of diffusion, provided that some diffusion is present.
Simulating transitional hydrodynamics of the cerebrospinal fluid at extreme scale
Jain, Kartik; Roller, Sabine; Mardal, Kent-Andre
Chiari malformation type I is a disorder characterized by the herniation of cerebellar tonsils into the spinal canal through the foramen magnum resulting in obstruction to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow. The flow of pulsating bidirectional CSF is of acutely complex nature due to the anatomy of the conduit containing it - the subarachnoid space. We report lattice Boltzmann method based direct numerical simulations on patient specific cases with spatial resolution of 24 μm amounting meshes of up to 2 billion cells conducted on 50000 cores of the Hazelhen supercomputer in Stuttgart. The goal is to characterize intricate dynamics of the CSF at resolutions that are of the order of Kolmogorov microscales. Results unfold velocity fluctuations up to ~ 10 KHz , turbulent kinetic energy ~ 2 times of the mean flow energy in Chiari patients whereas the flow remains laminar in a control subject. The fluctuations confine near the cranio-vertebral junction and are commensurate with the extremeness of pathology and the extent of herniation. The results advocate that the manifestation of pathological conditions like Chiari malformation may lead to transitional hydrodynamics of the CSF, and a prudent calibration of numerical approach is necessary to avoid overlook of such phenomena.
Numerical Simulation for Hydrodynamic Characteristics of A Bionic Flapping Hydrofoil
SU Yu-min; WANG Zhao-li; ZHANG Xi; GUO Bing-jie
2012-01-01
In order to study the propulsion mechanism of the bionic flapping hydrofoil (BFH),a 2-DoF (heave and pitch)motion model is formulated.The hydrodynamic performance of BFH with a series of kinematical parameters is explored via numerical simulation based on FLUENT.The calculated result is compared with the experimental value of MIT and that by the panel method.Moreover,the effect of inlet velocity,the angle of attack,the heave amplitude,the pitch amplitude,the phase difference,the heave biased angle,the pitch biased angle and the oscillating frequency are investigated.The study is useful for guiding the design of bionic underwater vehicle based on flapping propulsion.It is indicated that the optimal parameters combination is v =0.5 m/s,φ0 =40°,θ0 =30°,ψ =90°,φbias =0°,θbias =0°and f =0.5 Hz.
Barred galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation
Algorry, David G; Abadi, Mario G; Sales, Laura V; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Frenk, Carlos S; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom
2016-01-01
We examine the properties of barred disc galaxies in a LCDM cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE project. Our study follows the formation of 269 discs identified at z = 0 in the stellar mass range 10.6 < log Mstr /M < 11. These discs show a wide range of bar strengths, from unbarred discs to weak bars to strongly barred systems (= 20%). Bars in these systems develop after redshift = 1.3, on timescales that depend sen- sitively on the strength of the pattern. Strong bars develop relatively quickly (in a few Gyr, = 10 disc rotation periods) in systems that are disc dominated, gas poor, and have declining rotation curves. Weak bars develop more slowly in systems where the disc is less gravitation- ally important, and are still growing at z = 0. Unbarred galaxies are comparatively gas-rich discs whose rotation speeds do not exceed the maximum circular velocity of the halos they inhabit. Bar lengths compare favourably with observations, ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 times the radius containing 90%...
The chemical enrichment of the ICM from hydrodynamical simulations
Borgani, S; Tornatore, L; Schindler, S; Dolag, K; Diaferio, A
2008-01-01
The study of the metal enrichment of the intra-cluster and inter-galactic media (ICM and IGM) represents a direct means to reconstruct the past history of star formation, the role of feedback processes and the gas-dynamical processes which determine the evolution of the cosmic baryons. In this paper we review the approaches that have been followed so far to model the enrichment of the ICM in a cosmological context. While our presentation will be focused on the role played by hydrodynamical simulations, we will also discuss other approaches based on semi-analytical models of galaxy formation, also critically discussing pros and cons of the different methods. We will first review the concept of the model of chemical evolution to be implemented in any chemo-dynamical description. We will emphasise how the predictions of this model critically depend on the choice of the stellar initial mass function, on the stellar life-times and on the stellar yields. We will then overview the comparisons presented so far betwee...
Metallicity and colours in galaxy pairs in chemical hydrodynamical simulations
Pérez, J; Lambas, D G; Scannapieco, C; Perez, Josefa; Tissera, Patricia; Lambas, Diego Garcia; Scannapieco, Cecilia
2005-01-01
Using chemical hydrodynamical simulations consistent with a Lambda-CDM model, we study the role played by mergers and interactions in the regulation of the star formation activity, colours and the chemical properties of galaxies in pairs. A statistical analysis of the orbital parameters in galaxy pairs (r <100 kpc/h) shows that the star formation (SF) activity correlates strongly with the relative separation and weakly with the relative velocity, indicating that close encounters (r <30 kpc/h) can increase the SF activity to levels higher than that exhibit in galaxies without a close companion. Analysing the internal properties of interacting systems, we find that their stability properties also play a role in the regulation the SF activity (Perez et al 2005a). Particularly, we find that the passive star forming galaxies in pairs are statistically more stable with deeper potential wells and less leftover gas than active star forming pairs. In order to compare our results with observations, we also build ...
Cen, Renyue
2016-01-01
Utilizing high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations we investigate various ultra-violet absorption lines in the circumgalactic medium of star forming galaxies at low redshift, in hopes of checking and alleviating the claimed observational conundrum of the ratio of NV to OVI absorbers, among others. We find a satisfactory agreement between simulations and extant observational data with respect to the ratios of the following four line pairs examined, NV/OVI, SiIV/OVI, NIII/OVI and NII/OVI. For the pairs involving nitrogen lines, we examine two cases of nitrogen abundance, one with constant N/O ratio and the other with varying N/O ratio, with the latter motivated by theoretical considerations of two different synthetic sources of nitrogen that is empirically verified independently. Along a separate vector, for all line pairs, we examine two cases of radiation field, one with the Haardt-Madau background radiation field and the other with an additional local radiation field sourced by hot gas in the ho...
Numerical simulation of hydrodynamic wave loading by a compressible two-phase flow method
Wemmenhove, Rik; Luppes, Roelf; Veldman, Arthur; Bunnik, Tim
2015-01-01
Hydrodynamic wave loading on and in offshore structures is studied by carrying out numerical simulations. Particular attention is paid to complex hydrodynamic phenomena such as wave breaking and air entrapment. The applied CFD method, ComFLOW, solves the Navier–Stokes equations with an improved Volu
A. Marcello Anile
2002-01-01
Full Text Available To accurately describe non-stationary carrier transport in GaAs devices, it is necessary to use Monte Carlo methods or hydrodynamical (or energy transport models which incorporate population transfer between valleys.We present here simulations of Gunn oscillations in a GaAs diode based on two-valley hydrodynamical models: the classic Bløtekjær model and two recently developed moment expansion models. Scattering parameters within the models are obtained from homogeneous Monte Carlo simulations, and these are compared against expressions in the literature. Comparisons are made between our hydrodynamical results, existing work, and direct Monte Carlo simulations of the oscillator device.
How AGN Jets Heat the Intracluster Medium -- Insights from Hydrodynamic Simulations
Yang, H -Y K
2016-01-01
Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is believed to prevent catastrophic cooling in galaxy clusters. However, how the feedback energy is transformed into heat, and how the AGN jets heat the intracluster medium (ICM) isotropically, still remain elusive. In this work, we gain insights into the relative importance of different heating mechanisms using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations including cold gas accretion and momentum-driven jet feedback, which are the most successful models to date in terms reproducing the properties of cool cores. We find that there is net heating within two `jet cones' (within ~30 degrees from the axis of jet precession) where the ICM gains entropy by shock heating and mixing with the hot thermal gas within bubbles. Outside the jet cones, the ambient gas is heated by weak shocks, but not enough to overcome radiative cooling, therefore forming a `reduced' cooling flow. Consequently, the cluster core is in a process of `gentle circulation' over billions of years. Within t...
Hayek, W; Carlsson, M; Trampedach, R; Collet, R; Gudiksen, B V; Hansteen, V H; Leenaarts, J
2010-01-01
We present the implementation of a radiative transfer solver with coherent scattering in the new BIFROST code for radiative magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of stellar surface convection. The code is fully parallelized using MPI domain decomposition, which allows for large grid sizes and improved resolution of hydrodynamical structures. We apply the code to simulate the surface granulation in a solar-type star, ignoring magnetic fields, and investigate the importance of coherent scattering for the atmospheric structure. A scattering term is added to the radiative transfer equation, requiring an iterative computation of the radiation field. We use a short-characteristics-based Gauss-Seidel acceleration scheme to compute radiative flux divergences for the energy equation. The effects of coherent scattering are tested by comparing the temperature stratification of three 3D time-dependent hydrodynamical atmosphere models of a solar-type star: without scattering, with continuum scattering only, and with bo...
Cross, Joseph E
2014-01-01
The relevant equations of magneto-quantum-radiative hydrodynamics are introduced and then written in a dimensionless form in order to extract a set of dimensionless parameters that describe scale-dependent ratios of all the characteristic hydrodynamic variables. Under the conditions where such dimensionless number are all large, the equations reduce to the usual ideal magnetohydrodynamics and thus they are scale invariant. We discuss this property with regards to the similarity between astrophysical observations and laboratory experiments. These similarity properties have been successfully exploited in a variety of laboratory experiments where radiative processes can be neglected. On the other hand, when radiation is important, laboratory experiments are much more difficult to scale to the corresponding astrophysical objects. As an example, a recent experiment related to break out shocks in supernova explosions is discussed.
Estabrook, K; Farley, D; Glendinning, S G; Remington, B A; Stone, J; Turner, N
1999-09-22
Recent shock tube experiments using the Nova laser facility have demonstrated that strong shocks and highly supersonic flows similar to those encountered in astrophysical jets can be studied in detail through carefully controlled experiment. We propose the use of high power lasers such as Nova, Omega, and NIF to perform experiments on radiation hydrodynamic problems such as jets involving the multidimensional dynamics of strong shocks. High power lasers are the only experimental facilities that can reach the very high Mach number regime. The experiments will serve both as diagnostics of astrophysically interesting gas dynamic problems, and could also form the basis of test problems for numerical algorithms for astrophysical radiation hydrodynamic codes, The potential for experimentally achieving a strongly radiative jet seems very good.
Planelles, S.
2015-05-01
Modern cosmological simulations represent a powerful means to analyse and interpret the formation and evolution of cosmic structures. The first attempts to perform such simulations, dated back to 1960-1970, consisted in N-body collisionless computations with few point masses. Since then, cosmological simulations have experienced a great progress and have increased significantly in scale and complexity. A relevant effort has been done to properly model the hydrodynamical mechanisms shaping the observational properties of galaxies and galaxy clusters. Despite the significant improvements of the last years, results from current simulations still show important deviations from observations, especially within the core regions of galaxy clusters and within the framework of galaxy formation. In this contribution, I will briefly review the current numerical methods employed in large-scale cosmological simulations. A special emphasis will be put on the effects that the inclusion of different baryonic processes, such as radiative cooling, star formation or AGN feedback, has on the physical properties of the hot intra-cluster medium of massive galaxy clusters. In addition, some of the technical and computational challenges that numerical cosmology has to overcome in the near future will be outlined.
2D hydrodynamic simulation of a line-focused plasma in Ni-like Ag x-ray laser research
Zheng Wu-Di; Zhang Guo-Ping
2007-01-01
In most collisional schemes of x-ray laser (XRL) experiments, a bow-like intensity distribution of XRL is often observed, and it is generally ascribed to the two-dimensional hydrodynamic behaviour of expanding plasma. In order to better understand its essence in physics, a newly developed two-dimensional non-equilibrium radiation hydrodynamic code XRL2D is used to simulate a quasi-steady state Ni-like Ag XRL experiment on ShenGuang-II facility. The simulation results show that the bow-like distribution of Ni-like ions caused by over-ionization in the central area of plasma is responsible for the bow-like shape of the XRL intensity distribution observed.
Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei
2015-01-01
We present a new multi-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code for massive stellar core-collapse in full general relativity (GR). Employing an M1 analytical closure scheme, we solve spectral neutrino transport of the radiation energy and momentum based on a truncated moment formalism. Regarding neutrino opacities, we take into account the so-called standard set in state-of-the-art simulations, in which inelastic neutrino-electron scattering, thermal neutrino production via pair annihilation and nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung are included. In addition to gravitational redshift and Doppler effects, these energy-coupling reactions are incorporated in the moment equations in a covariant form. While the Einstein field equations and the spatial advection terms in the radiation-hydrodynamics equations are evolved explicitly, the source terms due to neutrino-matter interactions and energy shift in the radiation moment equations are integrated implicitly by an iteration method. To verify our code, we conduct several ...
Perez Beaupuits, J.P.; Wada, K.; Spaans, M.
2011-01-01
Several attempts have been made to model the mass distribution and dynamical evolution of the circumnuclear gas in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, chemical evolution is not included in detail in three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic simulations. The X-ray radiation from the AGN can drive the g
Pérez-Beaupuits, J. P.; Wada, K.; Spaans, M.
2011-01-01
Several attempts have been made to model the mass distribution and dynamical evolution of the circumnuclear gas in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, chemical evolution is not included in detail in three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic simulations. The X-ray radiation from the AGN can drive the g
MODA: a new algorithm to compute optical depths in multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations
Perego, Albino; Gafton, Emanuel; Cabezón, Rubén; Rosswog, Stephan; Liebendörfer, Matthias
2014-08-01
Aims: We introduce the multidimensional optical depth algorithm (MODA) for the calculation of optical depths in approximate multidimensional radiative transport schemes, equally applicable to neutrinos and photons. Motivated by (but not limited to) neutrino transport in three-dimensional simulations of core-collapse supernovae and neutron star mergers, our method makes no assumptions about the geometry of the matter distribution, apart from expecting optically transparent boundaries. Methods: Based on local information about opacities, the algorithm figures out an escape route that tends to minimize the optical depth without assuming any predefined paths for radiation. Its adaptivity makes it suitable for a variety of astrophysical settings with complicated geometry (e.g., core-collapse supernovae, compact binary mergers, tidal disruptions, star formation, etc.). We implement the MODA algorithm into both a Eulerian hydrodynamics code with a fixed, uniform grid and into an SPH code where we use a tree structure that is otherwise used for searching neighbors and calculating gravity. Results: In a series of numerical experiments, we compare the MODA results with analytically known solutions. We also use snapshots from actual 3D simulations and compare the results of MODA with those obtained with other methods, such as the global and local ray-by-ray method. It turns out that MODA achieves excellent accuracy at a moderate computational cost. In appendix we also discuss implementation details and parallelization strategies.
Hu, Haoyue; Eberhard, Peter
2016-10-01
Process simulations of conduction mode laser welding are performed using the meshless Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. The solid phase is modeled based on the governing equations in thermoelasticity. For the liquid phase, surface tension effects are taken into account to simulate the melt flow in the weld pool, including the Marangoni force caused by a temperature-dependent surface tension gradient. A non-isothermal solid-liquid phase transition with the release or absorption of additional energy known as the latent heat of fusion is considered. The major heat transfer through conduction is modeled, whereas heat convection and radiation are neglected. The energy input from the laser beam is modeled as a Gaussian heat source acting on the initial material surface. The developed model is implemented in Pasimodo. Numerical results obtained with the model are presented for laser spot welding and seam welding of aluminum and iron. The change of process parameters like welding speed and laser power, and their effects on weld dimensions are investigated. Furthermore, simulations may be useful to obtain the threshold for deep penetration welding and to assess the overall welding quality. A scalability and performance analysis of the implemented SPH algorithm in Pasimodo is run in a shared memory environment. The analysis reveals the potential of large welding simulations on multi-core machines.
Numerical Convergence of Physical Variables in Hydrodynamical Simulations of Cooling Clusters
Valdarnini, R.
2002-03-01
Results from smoothed particle hydrodynamical (SPH) simulations of galaxy clusters are used to investigate the dependence of the final cluster X-ray properties on the numerical resolution and the assumed models for the physical gas processes. Two different spatially flat cosmological models have been considered: a low-density cold dark matter universe with a vacuum energy density ΩΛ=0.7 (ΛCDM) and a cold+hot dark matter model (CHDM). For each of these models two different clusters have been extracted from a cosmological N-body simulation. A series of hydrodynamical simulations has then been performed for each of them using a TREESPH code. These simulations first include radiative cooling and then also conversion of cold gas particles into stars; because of supernova explosions these particles can release energy in the form of thermal energy to the surrounding intracluster gas. For a specific treatment for the thermal state of the gas, simulation runs have been performed with different numerical resolutions. This is in order to disentangle in the final results for the cluster profiles, the effects of the resolution from those due to the assumed model for the gas thermal evolution. The numerical resolution of the simulation is controlled by the number of gas particles Ng and the chosen value for the gas gravitational softening parameter ɛg. The latter is proportional to the minimum SPH smoothing length and therefore sets a maximum spatial resolution for the simulations. For the cooling runs, final X-ray luminosities have been found to be diverging according to LX~1/ɛ~5g. The gas density profiles are also diverging at the cluster center. This is in agreement with previous findings. When cold gas particles are allowed to convert into stars, the divergences are removed. The final gas profiles show a well-defined core radius, and the temperature profiles are nearly flat. For the most massive test cluster in the ΛCDM model, these simulations show a prominent cooling
Dorodnitsyn, A.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan. G. S.; Kallman, T.
2011-01-01
We construct a radiation-hydrodynamics model for the obscuring toroidal structure in active galactic nuclei. In this model the obscuration is produced at parsec scale by a dense, dusty wind which is supported by infrared radiation pressure on dust grains. To find the distribution of radiation pressure, we numerically solve the 2D radiation transfer problem in a flux limited diffusion approximation. We iteratively couple the solution with calculations of stationary 1D models for the wind, and obtain the z-component of the velocity. Our results demonstrate that for AGN luminosities greater than 0.1 L(sub edd) external illumination can support a geometrically thick obscuration via outflows driven by infrared radiation pressure. The terminal velocity of marginally Compton-thin models (0.2 AGN torus problem and AGN unification models. Such winds can also provide an important channel for AGN feedback.
nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations II: radiative models
Sembolini, Federico; Pearce, Frazer R; Power, Chris; Knebe, Alexander; Kay, Scott T; Cui, Weiguang; Yepes, Gustavo; Beck, Alexander M; Borgani, Stefano; Cunnama, Daniel; Davé, Romeel; February, Sean; Huang, Shuiyao; Katz, Neal; McCarthy, Ian G; Murante, Giuseppe; Newton, Richard D A; Perret, Valentin; Saro, Alexandro; Schaye, Joop; Teyssier, Romain
2015-01-01
We have simulated the formation of a massive galaxy cluster (M$_{200}^{\\rm crit}$ = 1.1$\\times$10$^{15}h^{-1}M_{\\odot}$) in a $\\Lambda$CDM universe using 10 different codes (RAMSES, 2 incarnations of AREPO and 7 of GADGET), modeling hydrodynamics with full radiative subgrid physics. These codes include Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), spanning traditional and advanced SPH schemes, adaptive mesh and moving mesh codes. Our goal is to study the consistency between simulated clusters modeled with different radiative physical implementations - such as cooling, star formation and AGN feedback. We compare images of the cluster at $z=0$, global properties such as mass, and radial profiles of various dynamical and thermodynamical quantities. We find that, with respect to non-radiative simulations, dark matter is more centrally concentrated, the extent not simply depending on the presence/absence of AGN feedback. The scatter in global quantities is substantially higher than for non-radiative runs. Intriguingly, a...
An explicit-implicit solution of the hydrodynamic and radiation equations
Sahota, Manjit S.
A solution of the coupled radiation-hydrodynamic equations on a median mesh is presented for a transient, three-dimensional, compressible, multimaterial, free-Lagrangian code. The code uses fixed-mass particles surrounded by median Lagrangian cells. These cells are free to change connectivity, which ensures accuracy in the differencing of equations and allows the code to handle extreme distortions. All calculations are done on a median Lagrangian mesh that is constructed from the Delaunay tetrahedral mesh using the Voronoi connection algorithm. Because each tetrahedron volume is shared equally by the four mass points (computational cells) located at the tetrahedron vertices, calculations are done at a tetrahedron level for enhanced computational efficiency, and the rate-of-change data are subsequently accumulated at mass points from these tetrahedral contributions. The hydrodynamic part of the calculations is done using an explicit time-advancement technique, and the radiation calculations are done using a hybrid explicit-implicit time-advancement scheme in the equilibrium-diffusion limit. An explicit solution of the radiation-diffusion equation is obtained for cells that meet the current time-step criterion imposed by the hydrodynamic solution, and a fully implicit point-relaxation solution is obtained elsewhere without defining an inversion matrix. The approach has a distinct advantage over the conventional matrix-inversion approaches, because defining such a matrix for an unstructured grid is both cumbersome and computationally intensive. The new algorithm runs >20 times faster than a matrix-solver approach using the conjugate-gradient technique, and is easily parallelizable on the Cray family of supercomputers. With the new algorithm, the radiation-diffusion part of the calculation runs about twice as fast as the hydrodynamic part of the calculation. The code conserves mass, momentum, and energy exactly, except in some pathological situations.
nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations - II. Radiative models
Sembolini, Federico; Elahi, Pascal Jahan; Pearce, Frazer R.; Power, Chris; Knebe, Alexander; Kay, Scott T.; Cui, Weiguang; Yepes, Gustavo; Beck, Alexander M.; Borgani, Stefano; Cunnama, Daniel; Davé, Romeel; February, Sean; Huang, Shuiyao; Katz, Neal; McCarthy, Ian G.; Murante, Giuseppe; Newton, Richard D. A.; Perret, Valentin; Puchwein, Ewald; Saro, Alexandro; Schaye, Joop; Teyssier, Romain
2016-07-01
We have simulated the formation of a massive galaxy cluster (M_{200}^crit = 1.1 × 1015 h-1 M⊙) in a Λ cold dark matter universe using 10 different codes (RAMSES, 2 incarnations of AREPO and 7 of GADGET), modelling hydrodynamics with full radiative subgrid physics. These codes include smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH), spanning traditional and advanced SPH schemes, adaptive mesh and moving mesh codes. Our goal is to study the consistency between simulated clusters modelled with different radiative physical implementations - such as cooling, star formation and thermal active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback. We compare images of the cluster at z = 0, global properties such as mass, and radial profiles of various dynamical and thermodynamical quantities. We find that, with respect to non-radiative simulations, dark matter is more centrally concentrated, the extent not simply depending on the presence/absence of AGN feedback. The scatter in global quantities is substantially higher than for non-radiative runs. Intriguingly, adding radiative physics seems to have washed away the marked code-based differences present in the entropy profile seen for non-radiative simulations in Sembolini et al.: radiative physics + classic SPH can produce entropy cores, at least in the case of non cool-core clusters. Furthermore, the inclusion/absence of AGN feedback is not the dividing line -as in the case of describing the stellar content - for whether a code produces an unrealistic temperature inversion and a falling central entropy profile. However, AGN feedback does strongly affect the overall stellar distribution, limiting the effect of overcooling and reducing sensibly the stellar fraction.
Offner, S S R
2013-01-01
We investigate protostellar outflow evolution, gas entrainment, and star formation efficiency using radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of isolated, turbulent low-mass cores. We adopt an X-wind launching model, in which the outflow rate is coupled to the instantaneous protostellar accretion rate and evolution. We vary the outflow collimation angle from $\\theta$=0.01-0.1 and find that even well collimated outflows effectively sweep up and entrain significant core mass. The Stage 0 lifetime ranges from 0.14-0.19 Myr, which is similar to the observed Class 0 lifetime. The star formation efficiency of the cores spans 0.41-0.51. In all cases, the outflows drive strong turbulence in the surrounding material. Although the initial core turbulence is purely solenoidal by construction, the simulations converge to approximate equipartition between solenoidal and compressive motions due to a combination of outflow driving and collapse. When compared to a simulation of a cluster of protostars, which is not gravitationally ...
X-ray mass proxies from hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy clusters (paper I)
Fabjan, D; Rasia, E; Bonafede, A; Dolag, K; Murante, G; Tornatore, L
2011-01-01
We present a detailed study of scaling relations between total cluster mass and three mass proxies based on X-ray observables: temperature of the intra-cluster medium, gas mass and the product of the two, Y_X. Our analysis is based on two sets of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations performed with the TreePM-SPH GADGET code. The first set includes about 140 clusters with masses above 5x10^13 M_sun/h (30 having mass above 10^15 M_sun/h), that have been simulated with (i) non-radiative physics and including (ii) cooling, star formation, chemical enrichment and the effect of supernova feedback triggering galactic ejecta. This large statistics is used to quantify the robustness of the scaling relations, to determine their redshift evolution and to calibrate their intrinsic scatter and its distribution. We use a smaller set of clusters including 18 halos with masses above 5x10^13 M_sun/h to test the robustness of mass proxies against changing the physical processes included in simulations (thermal conduction...
Malygin, M. G.; Klahr, H.; Semenov, D.; Henning, Th.; Dullemond, C. P.
2017-09-01
Context. Hydrodynamic, non-magnetic instabilities can provide turbulent stress in the regions of protoplanetary discs, where the magneto-rotational instability can not develop. The induced motions influence the grain growth, from which formation of planetesimals begins. Thermal relaxation of the gas constrains origins of the identified hydrodynamic sources of turbulence in discs. Aims: We aim to estimate the radiative relaxation timescale of temperature perturbations in protoplanetary discs. We study the dependence of the thermal relaxation on the perturbation wavelength, the location within the disc, the disc mass, and the dust-to-gas mass ratio. We then apply thermal relaxation criteria to localise modes of the convective overstability, the vertical shear instability, and the zombie vortex instability. Methods: For a given temperature perturbation, we estimated two timescales: the radiative diffusion timescale tthick and the optically thin emission timescale tthin. The longest of these timescales governs the relaxation: trelax = max (tthick, tthin). We additionally accounted for the collisional coupling to the emitting species. Our calculations employed the latest tabulated dust and gas mean opacities. Results: The relaxation criterion defines the bulk of a typical T Tauri disc as unstable to the development of linear hydrodynamic instabilities. The midplane is unstable to the convective overstability from at most 2au and up to 40au, as well as beyond 140au. The vertical shear instability can develop between 15au and 180au. The successive generation of (zombie) vortices from a seeded noise can work within the inner 0.8au. Conclusions: A map of relaxation timescale constrains the origins of the identified hydrodynamic turbulence-driving mechanisms in protoplanetary discs. Dynamic disc modelling with the evolution of dust and gas opacities is required to clearly localise the hydrodynamic turbulence, and especially its non-linear phase.
The core helium flash revisited. II. Two and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations
Mocák, M.; Müller, E.; Weiss, A.; Kifonidis, K.
2009-07-01
Context: We study turbulent convection during the core helium flash close to its peak by comparing the results of two and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. Aims: In a previous study we found that the temporal evolution and the properties of the convection inferred from two-dimensional hydrodynamic studies are similar to those predicted by quasi-hydrostatic stellar evolutionary calculations. However, as vorticity is conserved in axisymmetric flows, two-dimensional simulations of convection are characterized by incorrect dominant spatial scales and exaggerated velocities. Here, we present three-dimensional simulations that eliminate the restrictions and flaws of two-dimensional models and that provide a geometrically unbiased insight into the hydrodynamics of the core helium flash. In particular, we study whether the assumptions and predictions of stellar evolutionary calculations based on the mixing-length theory can be confirmed by hydrodynamic simulations. Methods: We used a multidimensional Eulerian hydrodynamics code based on state-of-the-art numerical techniques to simulate the evolution of the helium core of a 1.25 M⊙ Pop I star. Results: Our three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of a star during the peak of the core helium flash do not show any explosive behavior. The convective flow patterns developing in the three-dimensional models are structurally different from those of the corresponding two-dimensional models, and the typical convective velocities are lower than those found in their two-dimensional counterparts. Three-dimensional models also tend to agree more closely with the predictions of mixing length theory. Our hydrodynamic simulations show the turbulent entrainment that leads to a growth of the convection zone on a dynamic time scale. In contrast to mixing length theory, the outer part of the convection zone is characterized by a subadiabatic temperature gradient.
Wang, Xu; Ding, Jie; Guo, Wan-Qian; Ren, Nan-Qi
2010-12-01
Investigating how a bioreactor functions is a necessary precursor for successful reactor design and operation. Traditional methods used to investigate flow-field cannot meet this challenge accurately and economically. Hydrodynamics model can solve this problem, but to understand a bioreactor in sufficient depth, it is often insufficient. In this paper, a coupled hydrodynamics-reaction kinetics model was formulated from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to simulate a gas-liquid-solid three-phase biotreatment system for the first time. The hydrodynamics model is used to formulate prediction of the flow field and the reaction kinetics model then portrays the reaction conversion process. The coupled model is verified and used to simulate the behavior of an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor for biohydrogen production. The flow patterns were visualized and analyzed. The coupled model also demonstrates a qualitative relationship between hydrodynamics and biohydrogen production. The advantages and limitations of applying this coupled model are discussed.
Coupling hydrodynamics and radiation calculations for star-jet interactions in AGN
de la Cita, Víctor M; Paredes-Fortuny, Xavier; Khangulyan, Dmitry; Perucho, Manel
2016-01-01
Stars and their winds can contribute to the non-thermal (NT) emission in extragalactic jets. Given the complexity of jet-star interactions, the properties of the resulting emission are strongly linked to those of the emitting flows. We simulate the interaction between a stellar wind and a relativistic extragalactic jet and use the hydrodynamic results to compute the NT emission under different conditions. We perform relativistic axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations of a relativistic jet interacting with a supersonic, non-relativistic stellar wind. We compute the corresponding streamlines out of the simulation results, and calculate the injection, evolution, and emission of NT particles accelerated in the jet shock, focusing on electrons or $e^\\pm$-pairs. Several cases are explored, considering different jet-star interaction locations, magnetic fields and observer lines of sight. The jet luminosity and star properties are fixed, but the results are easily scalable under changes of these parameters. Individu...
Numerical Simulation of the Hydrodynamical Combustion to Strange Quark Matter
Niebergal, Brian; Jaikumar, Prashanth
2010-01-01
We present results from a numerical solution to the burning of neutron matter inside a cold neutron star into stable (u,d,s) quark matter. Our method solves hydrodynamical flow equations in 1D with neutrino emission from weak equilibrating reactions, and strange quark diffusion across the burning front. We also include entropy change due to heat released in forming the stable quark phase. Our numerical results suggest burning front laminar speeds of 0.002-0.04 times the speed of light, much faster than previous estimates derived using only a reactive-diffusive description. Analytic solutions to hydrodynamical jump conditions with a temperature dependent equation of state agree very well with our numerical findings for fluid velocities. The most important effect of neutrino cooling is that the conversion front stalls at lower density (below approximately 2 times saturation density). In a 2-dimensional setting, such rapid speeds and neutrino cooling may allow for a flame wrinkle instability to develop, possibly...
Numerical simulation of hydrodynamic flows in the jet electric
Sarychev, V. D.; Granovskii, A. Yu; Nevskii, S. A.
2016-02-01
On the basis of concepts from magnetic hydrodynamics the mathematical model of hydrodynamic flows in the stream of electric arc plasma, obtained between the rod electrode and the target located perpendicular to the flat conductive, was developed. The same phenomenon occurs in the welding arc, arc plasma and other injection sources of charged particles. The model is based on the equations of magnetic hydrodynamics with special boundary conditions. The obtained system of equations was solved by the numerical method of finite elements with an automatic selection of the time step. Calculations were carried out with regard to the normal plasma inleakage on the solid conducting surface and the surface with the orifice. It was found that the solid surface facilitates three swirling zones. Interaction of these zones leads to the formation of two stable swirling zones, one of which is located at a distance of two radii from the axis and midway between the electrodes, another is located in the immediate vicinity of the continuous electrode. In this zone plasma backflow scattering fine particles is created. Swirling zones are not formed by using the plane electrode with an orifice. Thus, the fine particles can pass through it and consolidate.
A detailed framework to incorporate dust in hydrodynamical simulations
Grassi, T; Haugboelle, T; Schleicher, D R G
2016-01-01
Dust plays a key role in the evolution of the ISM and its correct modelling in numerical simulations is therefore fundamental. We present a new and self-consistent model that treats grain thermal coupling with the gas, radiation balance, and surface chemistry for molecular hydrogen. This method can be applied to any dust distribution with an arbitrary number of grain types without affecting the overall computational cost. In this paper we describe in detail the physics and the algorithm behind our approach, and in order to test the methodology, we present some examples of astrophysical interest, namely (i) a one-zone collapse with complete gas chemistry and thermochemical processes, (ii) a 3D model of a low-metallicity collapse of a minihalo starting from cosmological initial conditions, and (iii) a turbulent molecular cloud with H-C-O chemistry (277 reactions), together with self-consistent cooling and heating solved on the fly. Although these examples employ the publicly available code KROME, our approach c...
Granato, Gian Luigi; Dominguez-Tenreiro, Rosa; Obreja, Aura; Borgani, Stefano; De Lucia, Gabriella; Murante, Giuseppe
2014-01-01
We compute and study the infrared and sub-mm properties of high redshift (z>1) simulated clusters and proto-clusters, by coupling the results of a large set of hydro-dynamical zoom-in simulations including active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback (Ragone-Figueroa et al. 2013), with the recently developed radiative transfer code GRASIL3D (Dominguez-Tenreiro et al. 2014), which accounts for the effect of dust reprocessing in an arbitrary geometry, and we customized for the present purpose. While this field is in its infancy from the observational point of view, a rapid development is expected in the near future, thanks to observations performed in the far IR and sub-mm bands. Notably, we find that in this spectral regime our prediction are little affected by the assumption required by this post-processing, and the emission is mostly powered by star formation rather than accretion onto super massive black hole (SMBH). The comparison with the little observational information available so far, highlights that the sim...
Bournaud, F; Weiss, A; Renaud, F; Mastropietro, C; Teyssier, R
2014-01-01
We model the intensity of emission lines from the CO molecule, based on hydrodynamic simulations of spirals, mergers, and high-redshift galaxies with very high resolutions (3pc and 10^3 Msun) and detailed models for the phase-space structure of the interstellar gas including shock heating, stellar feedback processes and galactic winds. The simulations are analyzed with a Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) model to compute the local emission in various molecular lines in each resolution element, radiation transfer and opacity effects, and the intensity emerging from galaxies, to generate synthetic spectra for various transitions of the CO molecule. This model reproduces the known properties of CO spectra and CO-to-H2 conversion factors in nearby spirals and starbursting major mergers. The high excitation of CO lines in mergers is dominated by an excess of high-density gas, and the high turbulent velocities and compression that create this dense gas excess result in broad linewidths and low CO intensity-to-H2 mass r...
On the mass assembly of low-mass galaxies in hydrodynamical simulations of structure formation
De Rossi, Maria E; Tissera, Patricia B; Gonzalez-Samaniego, Alejandro; Pedrosa, Susana
2013-01-01
Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations are studied in order to analyse generic trends for the stellar, baryonic and halo mass assembly of low-mass galaxies (M_* 2, the overall properties of simulated galaxies are not in large disagreement with those derived from observations.
Numerical Simulation of Failure during Cylindrical CupHydrodynamic Deep Drawing
无
2001-01-01
In this paper, a method to combine the mathematical analytic equation and general FEM software has been applied in the simulation of hydrodynamic deep drawing (HDD) cylindrical cup, also the failure types such as fracture and wrinkling are studied and solved. The simulated results are coincided with experimental results.
E pur si muove: Galiliean-invariant cosmological hydrodynamical simulations on a moving mesh
Springel, Volker
2009-01-01
Hydrodynamic cosmological simulations at present usually employ either the Lagrangian SPH technique, or Eulerian hydrodynamics on a Cartesian mesh with adaptive mesh refinement. Both of these methods have disadvantages that negatively impact their accuracy in certain situations. We here propose a novel scheme which largely eliminates these weaknesses. It is based on a moving unstructured mesh defined by the Voronoi tessellation of a set of discrete points. The mesh is used to solve the hyperbolic conservation laws of ideal hydrodynamics with a finite volume approach, based on a second-order unsplit Godunov scheme with an exact Riemann solver. The mesh-generating points can in principle be moved arbitrarily. If they are chosen to be stationary, the scheme is equivalent to an ordinary Eulerian method with second order accuracy. If they instead move with the velocity of the local flow, one obtains a Lagrangian formulation of hydrodynamics that does not suffer from the mesh distortion limitations inherent in othe...
Three-dimensional simulations of ablative hydrodynamic instabilities in indirectly driven targets
Marinak, M.M.; Tipton, R.E.; Remington, B.A. [and others
1996-06-01
To model ignition in a National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsule implosion, the authors must understand the behavior of instabilities that can cause breakup of the pellet shell. During a capsule implosion, shocks that transit the shell cause growth of perturbations at the surface or at an interface because of a Richtmyer-Meshkov type of instability. Following shock breakout, or earlier for a shaped pulse, the low-density ablated plasma accelerates the pusher, and the ablation front is Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) unstable. Ablation and finite density gradients have the effect of stabilizing the short wavelength modes. Unstable modes present on the outer surface grow and feed through to the inner surface. Once the shell encounters the rebounding shock from the capsule center, it decelerates and the inner surface becomes RT unstable. If perturbations grow large enough, pusher material mixes into the core, degrading implosion performance. Capsule designs for the NIF depend on ablative stabilization and saturation to prevent perturbations initially present on the capsule surface from growing large enough to quench ignition. Here, the authors examine the first simulations and experiments to study the effect of 3-D perturbation shape on instability growth and saturation in indirectly driven targets. The first section discusses HYDRA, the radiation hydrodynamics code developed for these simulations. The subsequent section examines 3-D shape effects in single-mode perturbations in planar foil simulations and experiments. A discussion of the evolution of multimode perturbations on planar foils is followed by a discussion of 3-D simulations of instability growth in Nova capsule implosions.
Miao, Linling; Young, Charles D.; Sing, Charles E.
2017-07-01
Brownian Dynamics (BD) simulations are a standard tool for understanding the dynamics of polymers in and out of equilibrium. Quantitative comparison can be made to rheological measurements of dilute polymer solutions, as well as direct visual observations of fluorescently labeled DNA. The primary computational challenge with BD is the expensive calculation of hydrodynamic interactions (HI), which are necessary to capture physically realistic dynamics. The full HI calculation, performed via a Cholesky decomposition every time step, scales with the length of the polymer as O(N3). This limits the calculation to a few hundred simulated particles. A number of approximations in the literature can lower this scaling to O(N2 - N2.25), and explicit solvent methods scale as O(N); however both incur a significant constant per-time step computational cost. Despite this progress, there remains a need for new or alternative methods of calculating hydrodynamic interactions; large polymer chains or semidilute polymer solutions remain computationally expensive. In this paper, we introduce an alternative method for calculating approximate hydrodynamic interactions. Our method relies on an iterative scheme to establish self-consistency between a hydrodynamic matrix that is averaged over simulation and the hydrodynamic matrix used to run the simulation. Comparison to standard BD simulation and polymer theory results demonstrates that this method quantitatively captures both equilibrium and steady-state dynamics after only a few iterations. The use of an averaged hydrodynamic matrix allows the computationally expensive Brownian noise calculation to be performed infrequently, so that it is no longer the bottleneck of the simulation calculations. We also investigate limitations of this conformational averaging approach in ring polymers.
A new GPU-accelerated hydrodynamical code for numerical simulation of interacting galaxies
Igor, Kulikov
2013-01-01
In this paper a new scalable hydrodynamic code GPUPEGAS (GPU-accelerated PErformance Gas Astrophysic Simulation) for simulation of interacting galaxies is proposed. The code is based on combination of Godunov method as well as on the original implementation of FlIC method, specially adapted for GPU-implementation. Fast Fourier Transform is used for Poisson equation solution in GPUPEGAS. Software implementation of the above methods was tested on classical gas dynamics problems, new Aksenov's test and classical gravitational gas dynamics problems. Collisionless hydrodynamic approach was used for modelling of stars and dark matter. The scalability of GPUPEGAS computational accelerators is shown.
Maccio, A V; Stadel, J; Diemand, J; Maccio', Andrea V.; Moore, Ben; Stadel, Joachim; Diemand, Juerg
2006-01-01
We analyse the number density and radial distribution of substructures and satellite galaxies using cosmological simulations that follow the gas dynamics of a baryonic component, including shock heating, radiative cooling and star formation within the hierarchical concordance LCDM model. We find that the dissipation of the baryons greatly enhances the survival of subhaloes, expecially in the galaxy core, resulting in a radial distribution of satellite galaxies that closely follows the overall mass distribution. Hydrodynamical simulations are necessary to resolve the adiabatic contraction and dense cores of galaxies, resulting in a total number of satellites a factor of two larger than found in pure dark matter simulation. Convergence tests show that the cored distribution found by previous authors was due to physical overmerging of dark matter only structures. We proceed to use a ray-shooting technique in order to study the impact of these additional substructures on the number of violations of the cusp caust...
Simulating sympathetic detonation using the hydrodynamic models and constitutive equations
Kim, Bo Hoon; Kim, Min Sung; Yoh, Jack J. [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Tae Boo [Hanwha Corporation Defense Rand D Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-12-15
A Sympathetic detonation (SD) is a detonation of an explosive charge by a nearby explosion. Most of times it is unintended while the impact of blast fragments or strong shock waves from the initiating donor explosive is the cause of SD. We investigate the SD of a cylindrical explosive charge (64 % RDX, 20 % Al, 16 % HTPB) contained in a steel casing. The constitutive relations for high explosive are obtained from a thermo-chemical code that provides the size effect data without the rate stick data typically used for building the rate law and equation of state. A full size SD test of eight pallet-packaged artillery shells is performed that provides the pressure data while the hydrodynamic model with proper constitutive relations for reactive materials and the fragmentation model for steel casing is conducted to replicate the experimental findings. The work presents a novel effort to accurately model and reproduce the sympathetic detonation event with a reduced experimental effort.
Cosmic ray feedback in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation
Jubelgas, M; Pfrommer, C; Springel, V; Ensslin, Torsten A.; Jubelgas, Martin; Pfrommer, Christoph; Springel, Volker
2006-01-01
It is well known that cosmic rays (CRs) contribute significantly to the pressure of the interstellar medium in our own Galaxy, suggesting that they may play an important role in regulating star formation during the formation and evolution of galaxies. We here discuss a novel numerical treatment of the physics of CRs and its implementation in the parallel smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GADGET-2. In our methodology, the non-thermal CR population of each gaseous fluid element is approximated by a simple power law spectrum in particle momentum, characterized by an amplitude, a cut-off, and a fixed slope. Adiabatic compression, and a number of physical source and sink terms are modelled which modify the CR pressure of each particle. The most important sources considered are injection by supernovae and diffusive shock acceleration, while the primary sinks are thermalization by Coulomb interactions, and catastrophic losses by hadronic interactions. We also include diffusion of CRs. Our scheme allows us to carr...
Non-Parabolic Hydrodynamic Formulations for the Simulation of Inhomogeneous Semiconductor Devices
Smith, A. W.; Brennan, K. F.
1996-01-01
Hydrodynamic models are becoming prevalent design tools for small scale devices and other devices in which high energy effects can dominate transport. Most current hydrodynamic models use a parabolic band approximation to obtain fairly simple conservation equations. Interest in accounting for band structure effects in hydrodynamic device simulation has begun to grow since parabolic models cannot fully describe the transport in state of the art devices due to the distribution populating non-parabolic states within the band. This paper presents two different non-parabolic formulations or the hydrodynamic model suitable for the simulation of inhomogeneous semiconductor devices. The first formulation uses the Kane dispersion relationship ((hk)(exp 2)/2m = W(1 + alphaW). The second formulation makes use of a power law ((hk)(exp 2)/2m = xW(exp y)) for the dispersion relation. Hydrodynamic models which use the first formulation rely on the binomial expansion to obtain moment equations with closed form coefficients. This limits the energy range over which the model is valid. The power law formulation readily produces closed form coefficients similar to those obtained using the parabolic band approximation. However, the fitting parameters (x,y) are only valid over a limited energy range. The physical significance of the band non-parabolicity is discussed as well as the advantages/disadvantages and approximations of the two non-parabolic models. A companion paper describes device simulations based on the three dispersion relationships; parabolic, Kane dispersion and power law dispersion.
Non-Parabolic Hydrodynamic Formulations for the Simulation of Inhomogeneous Semiconductor Devices
Smith, A. W.; Brennan, K. F.
1996-01-01
Hydrodynamic models are becoming prevalent design tools for small scale devices and other devices in which high energy effects can dominate transport. Most current hydrodynamic models use a parabolic band approximation to obtain fairly simple conservation equations. Interest in accounting for band structure effects in hydrodynamic device simulation has begun to grow since parabolic models cannot fully describe the transport in state of the art devices due to the distribution populating non-parabolic states within the band. This paper presents two different non-parabolic formulations or the hydrodynamic model suitable for the simulation of inhomogeneous semiconductor devices. The first formulation uses the Kane dispersion relationship ((hk)(exp 2)/2m = W(1 + alphaW). The second formulation makes use of a power law ((hk)(exp 2)/2m = xW(exp y)) for the dispersion relation. Hydrodynamic models which use the first formulation rely on the binomial expansion to obtain moment equations with closed form coefficients. This limits the energy range over which the model is valid. The power law formulation readily produces closed form coefficients similar to those obtained using the parabolic band approximation. However, the fitting parameters (x,y) are only valid over a limited energy range. The physical significance of the band non-parabolicity is discussed as well as the advantages/disadvantages and approximations of the two non-parabolic models. A companion paper describes device simulations based on the three dispersion relationships; parabolic, Kane dispersion and power law dispersion.
A Two-moment Radiation Hydrodynamics Module in Athena Using a Time-explicit Godunov Method
Skinner, M Aaron
2013-01-01
We describe a module for the Athena code that solves the gray equations of radiation hydrodynamics (RHD), based on the first two moments of the radiative transfer equation. We use a combination of explicit Godunov methods to advance the gas and radiation variables including the non-stiff source terms, and a local implicit method to integrate the stiff source terms. We adopt the M1 closure relation and include all leading source terms. We employ the reduced speed of light approximation (RSLA) with subcycling of the radiation variables in order to reduce computational costs. Our code is dimensionally unsplit in one, two, and three space dimensions and is parallelized using MPI. The streaming and diffusion limits are well-described by the M1 closure model, and our implementation shows excellent behavior for a problem with a concentrated radiation source containing both regimes simultaneously. Our operator-split method is ideally suited for problems with a slowly varying radiation field and dynamical gas flows, i...
Helium Reionization Simulations. I. Modeling Quasars as Radiation Sources
La Plante, Paul
2015-01-01
We introduce a new project to understand helium reionization using fully coupled $N$-body, hydrodynamics, and radiative transfer simulations. This project aims to capture correctly the thermal history of the intergalactic medium (IGM) as a result of reionization and make predictions about the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest and baryon temperature-density relation. The dominant sources of radiation for this transition are quasars, so modeling the source population accurately is very important for making reliable predictions. In this first paper, we present a new method for populating dark matter halos with quasars. Our set of quasar models include two different light curves, a lightbulb (simple on/off) and symmetric exponential model, and luminosity-dependent quasar lifetimes. Our method self-consistently reproduces an input quasar luminosity function (QLF) given a halo catalog from an $N$-body simulation, and propagates quasars through the merger history of halo hosts. After calibrating quasar clustering using measurem...
Bellos, Vasilis; Tsakiris, George
2016-09-01
The study presents a new hybrid method for the simulation of flood events in small catchments. It combines a physically-based two-dimensional hydrodynamic model and the hydrological unit hydrograph theory. Unit hydrographs are derived using the FLOW-R2D model which is based on the full form of two-dimensional Shallow Water Equations, solved by a modified McCormack numerical scheme. The method is tested at a small catchment in a suburb of Athens-Greece for a storm event which occurred in February 2013. The catchment is divided into three friction zones and unit hydrographs of 15 and 30 min are produced. The infiltration process is simulated by the empirical Kostiakov equation and the Green-Ampt model. The results from the implementation of the proposed hybrid method are compared with recorded data at the hydrometric station at the outlet of the catchment and the results derived from the fully hydrodynamic model FLOW-R2D. It is concluded that for the case studied, the proposed hybrid method produces results close to those of the fully hydrodynamic simulation at substantially shorter computational time. This finding, if further verified in a variety of case studies, can be useful in devising effective hybrid tools for the two-dimensional flood simulations, which are lead to accurate and considerably faster results than those achieved by the fully hydrodynamic simulations.
Heavy Dust Obscuration of z = 7 Galaxies in a Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulation
Kimm, Taysun; Cen, Renyue
2013-10-01
Hubble Space Telescope observations with the Wide Field Camera 3/Infrared reveal that galaxies at z ~ 7 have very blue ultraviolet (UV) colors, consistent with these systems being dominated by young stellar populations with moderate or little attenuation by dust. We investigate UV and optical properties of the high-z galaxies in the standard cold dark matter model using a high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. For this purpose, we perform panchromatic three-dimensional dust radiative transfer calculations on 198 galaxies of stellar mass 5 × 108-3 × 1010 M ⊙ with three parameters: the dust-to-metal ratio, the extinction curve, and the fraction of directly escaped light from stars (f esc). Our stellar mass function is found to be in broad agreement with Gonzalez et al., independent of these parameters. We find that our heavily dust-attenuated galaxies (AV ~ 1.8) can also reasonably match modest UV-optical colors, blue UV slopes, as well as UV luminosity functions, provided that a significant fraction (~10%) of light directly escapes from them. The observed UV slope and scatter are better explained with a Small-Magellanic-Cloud-type extinction curve, whereas a Milky-Way-type curve also predicts blue UV colors due to the 2175 Å bump. We expect that upcoming observations by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array will be able to test this heavily obscured model.
Heavy dust obscuration of z=7 galaxies in a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation
Kimm, Taysun
2013-01-01
Hubble Space Telescope observations with Wide Field Camera 3/IR reveal that galaxies at z~7 have very blue ultraviolet (UV) colors, consistent with these systems being dominated by young stellar populations with moderate or little attenuation by dust. We investigate UV and optical properties of the high-z galaxies in the standard cold dark matter model using a high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. For this purpose, we perform panchromatic three-dimensional dust radiative transfer calculations on 198 galaxies of stellar mass 5x10^8-3x10^{10} Msun with three parameters, the dust-to-metal ratio, the extinction curve, and the fraction of directly escaped light from stars (\\fesc). Our stellar mass function is found to be in broad agreement with Gonzalez et al., independent of these parameters. We find that our heavily dust-attenuated galaxies (A_V~1.8) can also reasonably match modest UV-optical colors, blue UV slopes, as well as UV luminosity functions, provided that a sig...
Dynamical simulation of fluidized beds - hydrodynamically interacting granular particles
Ichiki, K; Ichiki, Kengo; Hayakawa, Hisao
1995-01-01
A numerical simulation of a gas-fluidized bed is performed without introduction of any empirical parameters. Realistic bubbles and slugs are observed in our simulation. It is found that the convective motion of particles is important for the bubbling phase and there is no convection in the slugging phase. From the simulation results, non-Gaussian distributions are found in the particle velocities and the relation between the deviation from Gaussian and the local density of particles is suggested. It is also shown that the power spectra of particle velocities obey power laws. A brief explanation on the relationship between the simulation results and the Kolmogorov scaling argument is discussed.
Popov, V. N.; Kovalev, O. B.; Smirnova, E. M.
2012-03-01
Numerical simulation of metal surface alloying with impulse laser radiation has been performed. Impulse intensity influence on melt hydrodynamics and alloying substance distribution has been evaluated. For substance material, the authors used data on iron including dependence of surface tension on melt temperature and admixture concentration.
Understanding Accretion Disks through Three Dimensional Radiation MHD Simulations
Jiang, Yan-Fei
I study the structures and thermal properties of black hole accretion disks in the radiation pressure dominated regime. Angular momentum transfer in the disk is provided by the turbulence generated by the magneto-rotational instability (MRI), which is calculated self-consistently with a recently developed 3D radiation magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) code based on Athena. This code, developed by my collaborators and myself, couples both the radiation momentum and energy source terms with the ideal MHD equations by modifying the standard Godunov method to handle the stiff radiation source terms. We solve the two momentum equations of the radiation transfer equations with a variable Eddington tensor (VET), which is calculated with a time independent short characteristic module. This code is well tested and accurate in both optically thin and optically thick regimes. It is also accurate for both radiation pressure and gas pressure dominated flows. With this code, I find that when photon viscosity becomes significant, the ratio between Maxwell stress and Reynolds stress from the MRI turbulence can increase significantly with radiation pressure. The thermal instability of the radiation pressure dominated disk is then studied with vertically stratified shearing box simulations. Unlike the previous results claiming that the radiation pressure dominated disk with MRI turbulence can reach a steady state without showing any unstable behavior, I find that the radiation pressure dominated disks always either collapse or expand until we have to stop the simulations. During the thermal runaway, the heating and cooling rates from the simulations are consistent with the general criterion of thermal instability. However, details of the thermal runaway are different from the predictions of the standard alpha disk model, as many assumptions in that model are not satisfied in the simulations. We also identify the key reasons why previous simulations do not find the instability. The thermal
Commercon, Benoit; Audit, Edouard; Hennebelle, Patrick; Chabrier, Gilles
2011-01-01
Radiative transfer has a strong impact on the collapse and the fragmentation of prestellar dense cores. We present the radiation-hydrodynamics solver we designed for the RAMSES code. The method is designed for astrophysical purposes, and in particular for protostellar collapse. We present the solver, using the co-moving frame to evaluate the radiative quantities. We use the popular flux limited diffusion approximation, under the grey approximation (one group of photon). The solver is based on the second-order Godunov scheme of RAMSES for its hyperbolic part, and on an implicit scheme for the radiation diffusion and the coupling between radiation and matter. We report in details our methodology to integrate the RHD solver into RAMSES. We test successfully the method against several conventional tests. For validation in 3D, we perform calculations of the collapse of an isolated 1 M_sun prestellar dense core, without rotation. We compare successfully the results with previous studies using different models for r...
A Two-moment Radiation Hydrodynamics Module in Athena Using a Time-explicit Godunov Method
Skinner, M. Aaron; Ostriker, Eve C.
2013-06-01
We describe a module for the Athena code that solves the gray equations of radiation hydrodynamics (RHD), based on the first two moments of the radiative transfer equation. We use a combination of explicit Godunov methods to advance the gas and radiation variables including the non-stiff source terms, and a local implicit method to integrate the stiff source terms. We adopt the M 1 closure relation and include all leading source terms to {O}(β τ). We employ the reduced speed of light approximation (RSLA) with subcycling of the radiation variables in order to reduce computational costs. Our code is dimensionally unsplit in one, two, and three space dimensions and is parallelized using MPI. The streaming and diffusion limits are well described by the M 1 closure model, and our implementation shows excellent behavior for a problem with a concentrated radiation source containing both regimes simultaneously. Our operator-split method is ideally suited for problems with a slowly varying radiation field and dynamical gas flows, in which the effect of the RSLA is minimal. We present an analysis of the dispersion relation of RHD linear waves highlighting the conditions of applicability for the RSLA. To demonstrate the accuracy of our method, we utilize a suite of radiation and RHD tests covering a broad range of regimes, including RHD waves, shocks, and equilibria, which show second-order convergence in most cases. As an application, we investigate radiation-driven ejection of a dusty, optically thick shell in the ISM. Finally, we compare the timing of our method with other well-known iterative schemes for the RHD equations. Our code implementation, Hyperion, is suitable for a wide variety of astrophysical applications and will be made freely available on the Web.
Numerical Simulation of Hydrodynamic Wave Loading by a Compressible Two-Phase Model
Wemmenhove, R.; Loots, G.E.; Veldman, A.E.P.
2006-01-01
The numerical simulation of hydrodynamic wave loading on different types of offshore structures is important to predict forces on and water motion around these structures. This paper presents a numerical study of the effects of two-phase flow on an offshore structure subject to breaking waves. The
The core helium flash revisited: II. Two and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations
Mocak, M; Weiss, A; Kifonidis, K
2008-01-01
We study turbulent convection during the core helium flash close to its peak by comparing the results of two and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. We use a multidimensional Eulerian hydrodynamics code based on state-of-the-art numerical techniques to simulate the evolution of the helium core of a $1.25 M_{\\odot}$ Pop I star. Our three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of a star during the peak of the core helium flash do not show any explosive behavior. The convective flow patterns developing in the three-dimensional models are structurally different from those of the corresponding two-dimensional models, and the typical convective velocities are smaller than those found in their two-dimensional counterparts. Three-dimensional models also tend to agree better with the predictions of mixing length theory. Our hydrodynamic simulations show the presence of turbulent entrainment that results in a growth of the convection zone on a dynamic time scale. Contrary to mixing length theory,...
Hubber, D A; Dale, J
2015-01-01
Ionising feedback from massive stars dramatically affects the interstellar medium local to star forming regions. Numerical simulations are now starting to include enough complexity to produce morphologies and gas properties that are not too dissimilar from observations. The comparison between the density fields produced by hydrodynamical simulations and observations at given wavelengths relies however on photoionisation/chemistry and radiative transfer calculations. We present here an implementation of Monte Carlo radiation transport through a Voronoi tessellation in the photoionisation and dust radiative transfer code MOCASSIN. We show for the first time a synthetic spectrum and synthetic emission line maps of an hydrodynamical simulation of a molecular cloud affected by massive stellar feedback. We show that the approach on which previous work is based, which remapped hydrodynamical density fields onto Cartesian grids before performing radiative transfer/photoionisation calculations, results in significant ...
nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations I: dark matter & non-radiative models
Sembolini, Federico; Pearce, Frazer R; Knebe, Alexander; Kay, Scott T; Power, Chris; Cui, Weiguang; Beck, Alexander M; Borgani, Stefano; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Davé, Romeel; Elahi, Pascal Jahan; February, Sean; Huang, Shuiyao; Hobbs, Alex; Katz, Neal; Lau, Erwin; McCarthy, Ian G; Murante, Giuseppe; Nagai, Daisuke; Nelson, Kaylea; Newton, Richard D A; Puchwein, Ewald; Read, Justin I; Saro, Alexandro; Schaye, Joop; Thacker, Robert J
2015-01-01
We have simulated the formation of a galaxy cluster in a $\\Lambda$CDM universe using twelve different codes modeling only gravity and non-radiative hydrodynamics (\\art, \\arepo, \\hydra\\ and 9 incarnations of GADGET). This range of codes includes particle based, moving and fixed mesh codes as well as both Eulerian and Lagrangian fluid schemes. The various GADGET implementations span traditional and advanced smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) schemes. The goal of this comparison is to assess the reliability of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of clusters in the simplest astrophysically relevant case, that in which the gas is assumed to be non-radiative. We compare images of the cluster at $z=0$, global properties such as mass, and radial profiles of various dynamical and thermodynamical quantities. The underlying gravitational framework can be aligned very accurately for all the codes allowing a detailed investigation of the differences that develop due to the various gas physics implementations employ...
Hydrodynamical Simulations of the Formation of the Circumnuclear Disk
Coker, R. F.; Stolovy, S. R.; Christopher, M. H.; Scoville, N. Z.
2002-05-01
The ``circumnuclear disk'' (CND) is a dense, clumpy, asymmetric ring-like feature centered on Sgr A*, the putative black hole in the center of the Galaxy. The outer edge of the CND is not distinct but extends for more than 7 pc; the distinct inner edge, at a radius of ~= 1.5 pc, surrounds the ``mini-spiral'' of the HII region, Sgr A West. We present 3D hydrodynamical models of the formation of the CND from multiple self-gravitating infalling clouds. We assume the clouds are initially Bonner-Ebert spheres, in equilibrium with a hot confining inter-cloud medium. We include the gravitational potential due to the point-mass of Sgr A* as well as the extended mass distribution of the underlying stellar population. The sum of the point-mass potential and a flat (ρ r-1.75) power-law for the stellar distribution results in a minimum in the Keplerian velocity at ~= 4 pc. Cloud-cloud collisions serve to circularize the clouds' orbits so that a significant fraction of the cloud gas ends up on orbits near this radius. We find that a single cloud cannot reproduce the clumpy morphology of the CND. Rather, multiple clouds on diverse trajectories are required. Low density clumps are disrupted before reaching the inner CND radius, forming short-lived arcs. The outer parts of more massive clumps get tidally stripped, forming long-lived low-density arcs, while their cores undergo gravitational collapse. By collapsing quickly enough so that their core density exceeds the Roche limit at their final radius, clouds which initially exceed their Jeans mass can survive intact at small radii. Thus, we predict that clumps within the CND are sites of present or future star formation. However, in order for the CND to be a long-lived object, it must be continually fed by additional infalling clouds. This work was supported in part by UK PPARC and DOE.
Testing Subhalo Abundance Matching in Cosmological Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulations
Simha, Vimal; Dave, Romeel; Fardal, Mark; Katz, Neal; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D
2010-01-01
Subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) is a technique for populating simulated dark matter distributions with galaxies, assuming a monotonic relation between a galaxy's stellar mass or luminosity and the mass of its parent dark matter halo or subhalo. We examine the accuracy of SHAM in two cosmological SPH simulations, one of which includes momentum-driven winds. The SPH simulations indeed show a nearly monotonic relation between stellar mass and halo mass provided that, for satellite galaxies, we use the mass of the subhalo at the epoch when it became a satellite. In each simulation, the median relation for central and satellite galaxies is nearly identical, though a somewhat larger fraction of satellites are outliers. SHAM-assigned masses (at z=0-2), luminosities (R-band at z=0), or star formation rates (at z=2) have a 68% scatter of 0.09-0.15 dex relative to the true simulation values. When we apply SHAM to the subhalo population of collisionless N-body simulation with the same initial conditions as the SPH run...
Mininni, P; Dmitruk, P; Odier, P; Pinton, J-F; Plihon, N; Verhille, G; Volk, R; Bourgoin, M
2014-05-01
We analyze time series stemming from experiments and direct numerical simulations of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Simulations are done in periodic boxes, but with a volumetric forcing chosen to mimic the geometry of the flow in the experiments, the von Kármán swirling flow between two counterrotating impellers. Parameters in the simulations are chosen to (within computational limitations) allow comparisons between the experiments and the numerical results. Conducting fluids are considered in all cases. Two different configurations are considered: a case with a weak externally imposed magnetic field and a case with self-sustained magnetic fields. Evidence of long-term memory and 1/f noise is observed in experiments and simulations, in the case with weak magnetic field associated with the hydrodynamic behavior of the shear layer in the von Kármán flow, and in the dynamo case associated with slow magnetohydrodynamic behavior of the large-scale magnetic field.
Mininni, Pablo; Odier, Philippe; Pinton, Jean-François; Plihon, Nicolas; Verhille, Gautier; Volk, Romain; Bourgoin, Mickael
2014-01-01
We analyze time series stemming from experiments and direct numerical simulations of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Simulations are done in periodic boxes, but with a volumetric forcing chosen to mimic the geometry of the flow in the experiments, the von K\\'arm\\'an swirling flow between two counter-rotating impellers. Parameters in the simulations are chosen to (within computational limitations) allow comparisons between the experiments and the numerical results. Conducting fluids are considered in all cases. Two different configurations are considered: a case with a weak externally imposed magnetic field, and a case with self-sustained magnetic fields. Evidence of long-term memory and $1/f$ noise is observed in experiments and simulations, in the case with weak magnetic field associated with the hydrodynamic behavior of the shear layer in the von K\\'arm\\'an flow, and in the dynamo case associated with slow magnetohydrodynamic behavior of the large scale magnetic field.
无
2001-01-01
In order to improve the anti-jamming performance of a vortex precession meter, the disciplinarian of the vortex precession and the mechanism of hydrodynamic oscillation inside the vortex precession meter are numerically investigated by using the large eddy simulation. The results show that the periodical eccentric motion of the vortexes initiates a hydrodynamic oscillation inside the vortex precession meter. The visualized time dependent flow fields indicate that the pressures at axisymmetric points oscillate with a same intensity and frequency but 180° phase shift. By using differential sensing technique,a new prototype of double-sensor vortex precession meter,aimed to improve measurement accuracy, is developed.
Kulikov, Igor; Chernykh, Igor; Tutukov, Alexander
2016-05-01
This paper presents a new hydrodynamic model of interacting galaxies based on the joint solution of multicomponent hydrodynamic equations, first moments of the collisionless Boltzmann equation and the Poisson equation for gravity. Using this model, it is possible to formulate a unified numerical method for solving hyperbolic equations. This numerical method has been implemented for hybrid supercomputers with Intel Xeon Phi accelerators. The collision of spiral and disk galaxies considering the star formation process, supernova feedback and molecular hydrogen formation is shown as a simulation result.
Simulation of the mixing process in FCIs with hydrodynamic fragmentation model
LIN Qian; CAO Xuewu
2007-01-01
Fuel Coolant Interactions (FCIs) are important issues in nuclear reactor severe accident analysis. In FCIs,fragmentation model of molten droplets is a key factor to estimate degree of possible damage. In this paper, the mixing process in FCIs is studied by the simulation of MIXA experiment with hydrodynamic fragmentation model. The result shows that hydrodynamic fragmentation model underestimates the fragmentation rate of high temperature molten droplets under the condition of low Weber numbers. It is concluded that models based on thermal fragmentation mechanism should be adopted to analyze the FCI process and its consequence.
Helium Reionization Simulations. I. Modeling Quasars as Radiation Sources
La Plante, Paul; Trac, Hy
2016-09-01
We introduce a new project to understand helium reionization using fully coupled N-body, hydrodynamics, and radiative transfer simulations. This project aims to capture correctly the thermal history of the intergalactic medium as a result of reionization and make predictions about the Lyα forest and baryon temperature-density relation. The dominant sources of radiation for this transition are quasars, so modeling the source population accurately is very important for making reliable predictions. In this first paper, we present a new method for populating dark matter halos with quasars. Our set of quasar models includes two different light curves, a lightbulb (simple on/off) and symmetric exponential model, and luminosity-dependent quasar lifetimes. Our method self-consistently reproduces an input quasar luminosity function given a halo catalog from an N-body simulation, and propagates quasars through the merger history of halo hosts. After calibrating quasar clustering using measurements from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, we find that the characteristic mass of quasar hosts is {M}h˜ 2.5× {10}12 {h}-1 {M}⊙ for the lightbulb model, and {M}h˜ 2.3× {10}12 {h}-1 {M}⊙ for the exponential model. In the latter model, the peak quasar luminosity for a given halo mass is larger than that in the former, typically by a factor of 1.5-2. The effective lifetime for quasars in the lightbulb model is 59 Myr, and in the exponential case, the effective time constant is about 15 Myr. We include semi-analytic calculations of helium reionization, and discuss how to include these quasars as sources of ionizing radiation for full hydrodynamics with radiative transfer simulations in order to study helium reionization.
How AGN Jets Heat the Intracluster Medium—Insights from Hydrodynamic Simulations
Yang, H.-Y. Karen; Reynolds, Christopher S.
2016-10-01
Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is believed to prevent catastrophic cooling in galaxy clusters. However, how the feedback energy is transformed into heat, and how the AGN jets heat the intracluster medium (ICM) isotropically, still remain elusive. In this work, we gain insights into the relative importance of different heating mechanisms using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations including cold gas accretion and momentum-driven jet feedback, which are the most successful models to date in terms of reproducing the properties of cool cores. We find that there is net heating within two “jet cones” (within ∼30° from the axis of jet precession) where the ICM gains entropy by shock heating and mixing with the hot thermal gas within bubbles. Outside the jet cones, the ambient gas is heated by weak shocks, but not enough to overcome radiative cooling, therefore, forming a “reduced” cooling flow. Consequently, the cluster core is in a process of “gentle circulation” over billions of years. Within the jet cones, there is significant adiabatic cooling as the gas is uplifted by buoyantly rising bubbles; outside the cones, energy is supplied by the inflow of already-heated gas from the jet cones as well as adiabatic compression as the gas moves toward the center. In other words, the fluid dynamics self-adjusts such that it compensates and transports the heat provided by the AGN, and hence no fine-tuning of the heating profile of any process is necessary. Throughout the cluster evolution, turbulent energy is only at the percent level compared to gas thermal energy, and thus turbulent heating is not the main source of heating in our simulation.
Magneto Hydrodynamic Simulations of a Magnetic Flux Compression Generator Using ALE3D
2017-07-13
ARL-TR-8055 ● JULY 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Magneto-Hydrodynamic Simulations of a Magnetic Flux Compression Generator...Simulations of a Magnetic Flux Compression Generator Using ALE3D by George B Vunni Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL... a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE HYDRODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF AN UNSYMMETRICAL FLAPPING CAUDAL FIN
ZHANG Xi; SU Yu-min; WANG Zhao-li
2012-01-01
A comprehensive numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic performance of a caudal fin with unsymmetric flapping motion is carried out.The unsymmetrical motion is induced by adding a pitch bias or a heave bias.A numerical simulation program based on the unsteady panel method is developed to simulate the hydrodynamics of an unsymmetrical flapping caudal fin.A CFD code based on Navier-Stokes equations is used to analyze the flow field.Computational results of both the panel method and the CFD method indicate that the hydrodynamics are greatly affected by the pitch bias and the heave bias.The mean lateral force coefficient is not zero as in contrast with the symmetrical flapping motion.By increasing the pitch bias angle,the mean thrust force coefficient is reduced rapidly.By adding a heave bias,the hydrodynamic coefficients are separated as two parts:in one part,the amplitude is the heave amplitude plus the bias and in the other part,it is the heave amplitude minus the bias.Analysis of the flow field shows that the vortex distribution is not symmetrical,which generates the non-zero mean lateral force coefficient.
Relevance of angular momentum conservation in mesoscale hydrodynamics simulations.
Götze, Ingo O; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard
2007-10-01
The angular momentum is conserved in fluids with a few exceptions such as ferrofluids. However, it can be violated locally in fluid simulations to reduce computational costs. The effects of this violation are investigated using a particle-based simulation method, multiparticle collision dynamics, which can switch on or off angular-momentum conservation. To this end, we study circular Couette flows between concentric and eccentric cylinders, where nonphysical torques due to the lack of the angular-momentum conservation are found whereas the velocity field is not affected. In addition, in simulations of fluids with different viscosities in contact and star polymers in solvent, incorrect angular velocities occur. These results quantitatively agree with the theoretical predictions based on the macroscopic stress tensor.
Cholla : A New Massively-Parallel Hydrodynamics Code For Astrophysical Simulation
Schneider, Evan E
2014-01-01
We present Cholla (Computational Hydrodynamics On ParaLLel Architectures), a new three-dimensional hydrodynamics code that harnesses the power of graphics processing units (GPUs) to accelerate astrophysical simulations. Cholla models the Euler equations on a static mesh using state-of-the-art techniques, including the unsplit Corner Transport Upwind (CTU) algorithm, a variety of exact and approximate Riemann solvers, and multiple spatial reconstruction techniques including the piecewise parabolic method (PPM). Cholla performs all hydrodynamical calculations in a massively-parallel manner, using GPUs to evolve the fluid properties of thousands of cells simultaneously while leaving the power of central processing units (CPUs) available for modeling additional physics. On current hardware, Cholla can update more than ten million cells per GPU-second while using an exact Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction with the CTU algorithm. Owing to the massively-parallel architecture of GPUs and the design of the Cholla ...
Deirdre R. Meldrum
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Single-cell studies of phenotypic heterogeneity reveal more information about pathogenic processes than conventional bulk-cell analysis methods. By enabling high-resolution structural and functional imaging, a single-cell three-dimensional (3D imaging system can be used to study basic biological processes and to diagnose diseases such as cancer at an early stage. One mechanism that such systems apply to accomplish 3D imaging is rotation of a single cell about a fixed axis. However, many cell rotation mechanisms require intricate and tedious microfabrication, or fail to provide a suitable environment for living cells. To address these and related challenges, we applied numerical simulation methods to design new microfluidic chambers capable of generating fluidic microvortices to rotate suspended cells. We then compared several microfluidic chip designs experimentally in terms of: (1 their ability to rotate biological cells in a stable and precise manner; and (2 their suitability, from a geometric standpoint, for microscopic cell imaging. We selected a design that incorporates a trapezoidal side chamber connected to a main flow channel because it provided well-controlled circulation and met imaging requirements. Micro particle-image velocimetry (micro-PIV was used to provide a detailed characterization of flows in the new design. Simulated and experimental results demonstrate that a trapezoidal side chamber represents a viable option for accomplishing controlled single cell rotation. Further, agreement between experimental and simulated results confirms that numerical simulation is an effective method for chamber design.
Butler, Jason E.; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.
2005-01-01
Using methods adapted from the simulation of suspension dynamics, we have developed a Brownian dynamics algorithm with multibody hydrodynamic interactions for simulating the dynamics of polymer molecules. The polymer molecule is modeled as a chain composed of a series of inextensible, rigid rods with constraints at each joint to ensure continuity of the chain. The linear and rotational velocities of each segment of the polymer chain are described by the slender-body theory of Batchelor [J. Fluid Mech. 44, 419 (1970)]. To include hydrodynamic interactions between the segments of the chain, the line distribution of forces on each segment is approximated by making a Legendre polynomial expansion of the disturbance velocity on the segment, where the first two terms of the expansion are retained in the calculation. Thus, the resulting linear force distribution is specified by a center of mass force, couple, and stresslet on each segment. This method for calculating the hydrodynamic interactions has been successfully used to simulate the dynamics of noncolloidal suspensions of rigid fibers [O. G. Harlen, R. R. Sundararajakumar, and D. L. Koch, J. Fluid Mech. 388, 355 (1999); J. E. Butler and E. S. G. Shaqfeh, J. Fluid Mech. 468, 204 (2002)]. The longest relaxation time and center of mass diffusivity are among the quantities calculated with the simulation technique. Comparisons are made for different levels of approximation of the hydrodynamic interactions, including multibody interactions, two-body interactions, and the "freely draining" case with no interactions. For the short polymer chains studied in this paper, the results indicate a difference in the apparent scaling of diffusivity with polymer length for the multibody versus two-body level of approximation for the hydrodynamic interactions.
Simulation and Modeling of Submicron Semiconductor Devices by a New Hydrodynamic Method.
Lin, Qi.
Robust numerical methods for the solution of the hydrodynamic model are developed and implemented for the simulation of submicron semiconductor devices. The hydrodynamic equations are reformulated into readily solvable self-adjoint forms with the aid of newly defined HD-Slotboom state variables. A new discretization strategy is developed to resolve the rapid variation in the carrier densities and carrier temperatures. The approach also yields a coefficient matrix for each discretized hydrodynamic equation, which is guaranteed to be diagonally dominant. The hydrodynamic equations are decoupled by using a Gummel block iteration method. A fixed-point iteration technique is employed to solve the discretized equations, which guarantees that each decoupled equation converges for any starting value. Furthermore, the decoupling of equations and use of the fixed-point iteration scheme obviate the need for direct solutions of large matrix equations, and thereby eliminate the need for large memory allocations. The algorithm is inherently parallel, so it can be readily implemented on parallel machines to increase computation speed. Using these methods, several simulation packages are developed for the analysis of one-dimensional (1-D) n^+-n-n^+ devices, and square electric fields, two-dimensional (2-D) & three-dimensional (3-D) MOSFET's, and two-dimensional SOI MOSFET's. Various simulation results for these devices are presented. Some one-dimensional simulation results are compared with Monte Carlo calculations, and a good agreement is observed. Also convergence, stability, and efficiency of the methods are examined by a set of numerical experiments. The device simulators are applied to investigate the hot-electron induced degradation in submicron SOI devices and EPROM's. The impact of localized interface charge on device characteristics is studied. Some measured results are used to calibrate the process parameters in the simulators so that the simulators can predict device
Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Corcoran, M. F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Teodoro, M.
2013-01-01
Recent work suggests that the mass-loss rate of the primary star Eta-A in the massive colliding wind binary Eta Carinae dropped by a factor of 2-3 between 1999 and 2010. We present result from large- (+/- 1545 au) and small- (+/- 155 au) domain, 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of Eta Car's colliding winds for three Eta-A mass-loss rates ( (dot-M(sub Eta-A) = 2.4, 4.8 and 8.5 × 10(exp -4) M(solar)/ yr), investigating the effects on the dynamics of the binary wind-wind collision (WWC). These simulations include orbital motion, optically thin radiative cooling and radiative forces. We find that dot-M Eta-A greatly affects the time-dependent hydrodynamics at all spatial scales investigated. The simulations also show that the post-shock wind of the companion star Eta-B switches from the adiabatic to the radiative-cooling regime during periastron passage (Phi approx.= 0.985-1.02). This switchover starts later and ends earlier the lower the value of dot-M Eta-A and is caused by the encroachment of the wind of Eta-A into the acceleration zone of Eta-B's wind, plus radiative inhibition of Eta-B's wind by Eta-A. The SPH simulations together with 1D radiative transfer models of Eta-A's spectra reveal that a factor of 2 or more drop in dot-M EtaA should lead to substantial changes in numerous multiwavelength observables. Recent observations are not fully consistent with the model predictions, indicating that any drop in dot- M Eta-A was likely by a factor of approx. decrease in dot-M Eta-A may be responsible, but changes in the wind/stellar parameter of Eta-B, while less likely, cannot yet be fully ruled out. We suggest observations during Eta-Car's next periastron in 2014 to further test for decreases in dot-M Eta-A. If dot-M Eta-A is declining and continues to do so, the 2014 X-ray minimum should be even shorter than that of 2009.
Photon Scattering in 3D Radiative MHD Simulations
Hayek, Wolfgang
2009-09-01
Recent results from 3D time-dependent radiative hydrodynamic simulations of stellar atmospheres are presented, which include the effects of coherent scattering in the radiative transfer treatment. Rayleigh scattering and electron scattering are accounted for in the source function, requiring an iterative solution of the transfer equation. Opacities and scattering coefficients are treated in the multigroup opacity approximation. The impact of scattering on the horizontal mean temperature structure is investigated, which is an important diagnostic for model atmospheres, with implications for line formation and stellar abundance measurements. We find that continuum scattering is not important for the atmosphere of a metal-poor Sun with metailicity [Fe/H] = -3.0, similar to the previously investigated photosphere at solar metallicity.
Effect of angular momentum conservation on hydrodynamic simulations of colloids.
Yang, Mingcheng; Theers, Mario; Hu, Jinglei; Gompper, Gerhard; Winkler, Roland G; Ripoll, Marisol
2015-07-01
In contrast to most real fluids, angular momentum is not a locally conserved quantity in some mesoscopic simulation methods. Here we quantify the importance of this conservation in the flow fields associated with different colloidal systems. The flow field is analytically calculated with and without angular momentum conservation for the multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC) method, and simulations are performed to verify the predictions. The flow field generated around a colloidal particle moving under an external force with slip boundary conditions depends on the conservation of angular momentum, and the amplitude of the friction force is substantially affected. Interestingly, no dependence on the angular momentum conservation is found for the flow fields generated around colloids under the influence of phoretic forces. Moreover, circular Couette flow between a no-slip and a slip cylinder is investigated, which allows us to validate one of the two existing expressions for the MPC stress tensor.
Properties of galaxies reproduced by a hydrodynamic simulation
Vogelsberger, Mark; Springel, Volker; Torrey, Paul; Sijacki, Debora; Xu, Dandan; Snyder, Gregory F; Bird, Simeon; Nelson, Dylan; Hernquist, Lars
2014-01-01
Previous simulations of the growth of cosmic structures have broadly reproduced the 'cosmic web' of galaxies that we see in the Universe, but failed to create a mixed population of elliptical and spiral galaxies due to numerical inaccuracies and incomplete physical models. Moreover, because of computational constraints, they were unable to track the small scale evolution of gas and stars to the present epoch within a representative portion of the Universe. Here we report a simulation that starts 12 million years after the Big Bang, and traces 13 billion years of cosmic evolution with 12 billion resolution elements in a volume of $(106.5\\,{\\rm Mpc})^3$. It yields a reasonable population of ellipticals and spirals, reproduces the distribution of galaxies in clusters and statistics of hydrogen on large scales, and at the same time the metal and hydrogen content of galaxies on small scales.
Temperature dependence of protein hydration hydrodynamics by molecular dynamics simulations.
Lau, E Y; Krishnan, V V
2007-07-18
The dynamics of water molecules near the protein surface are different from those of bulk water and influence the structure and dynamics of the protein itself. To elucidate the temperature dependence hydration dynamics of water molecules, we present results from the molecular dynamic simulation of the water molecules surrounding two proteins (Carboxypeptidase inhibitor and Ovomucoid) at seven different temperatures (T=273 to 303 K, in increments of 5 K). Translational diffusion coefficients of the surface water and bulk water molecules were estimated from 2 ns molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. Temperature dependence of the estimated bulk water diffusion closely reflects the experimental values, while hydration water diffusion is retarded significantly due to the protein. Protein surface induced scaling of translational dynamics of the hydration waters is uniform over the temperature range studied, suggesting the importance protein-water interactions.
Fyta, Maria; Succi, Sauro; Kaxiras, Efthimios
2008-01-01
We investigate the process of biopolymer translocation through a narrow pore using a multiscale approach which explicitly accounts for the hydrodynamic interactions of the molecule with the surrounding solvent. The simulations confirm that the coupling of the correlated molecular motion to hydrodynamics results in significant acceleration of the translocation process. Based on these results, we construct a phenomenological model which incorporates the statistical and dynamical features of the translocation process and predicts a power law dependence of the translocation time on the polymer length with an exponent $\\alpha$ $\\approx 1.2$. The actual value of the exponent from the simulations is $\\alpha = 1.28 \\pm 0.01$, which is in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of DNA translocation through a nanopore, and is not sensitive to the choice of parameters in the simulation. The mechanism behind the emergence of such a robust exponent is related to the interplay between the longitudinal and transv...
Jones, Samuel; Pakmor, Ruediger; Seitenzahl, Ivo R; Ohlmann, Sebastian T; Edelmann, Philipp V F
2016-01-01
In the classical picture, electron-capture supernovae and the accretion-induced collapse of oxygen-neon white dwarfs undergo an oxygen deflagration phase before gravitational collapse produces a neutron star. Such core collapse events are postulated to explain several astronomical phenomena. In this work, the oxygen deflagration phase is simulated for the first time using multidimensional hydrodynamics. By simulating the oxygen deflagration with multidimensional hydrodynamics and a level-set based flame approach, new insights can be gained into the explosive deaths of 8--10 solar-mass stars and oxygen-neon white dwarfs accreting material from a binary companion star. The main aim is to determine whether these events are thermonuclear or core-collapse supernova explosions, and hence whether neutron stars are formed by such phenomena. The oxygen deflagration is simulated in oxygen-neon cores with three different central ignition densities. The intermediate density case is perhaps the most realistic based on rec...
NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF HYDRODYNAMIC BEHAVIORS IN CONICAL SPOUTED BEDS
Z.; G.; Wang; H.; T.; Bi; C.; J.; Lim
2006-01-01
The axial and radial distributions of static pressures and vertical particle velocities of conical spouted beds have been simulated and compared with experimental data. Simulation results show that, among all factors investigated, the Actual Pressure Gradient (the APG term) in conical spouted beds, introduced as the default gravity term plus an empirical axial solid phase source term, has the most significant influence on static pressure profiles, followed by the restitution coefficient and frictional viscosity, while other factors almost have no effect. Apart from the solid bulk viscosity, almost all other factors affect the radial distribution of the axial particle velocity, although the influence of the APG term is less significant. For complex systems such as conical spouted beds where a fluidized spout region and a defluidized annulus region co-exist, the new term introduced in this work can improve the CFD simulation. Furthermore, for other systems with the Actual Pressure Gradient different from either fluidized beds or packed beds, the new approach can also be applied.
Hydrodynamic simulations of gaseous Argon shock compression experiments
Garcia, Daniel B.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Sheffield, Stephen A.; Morris, John S.; Gustavsen, Richard L.; Burkett, Michael W.
2017-01-01
The lack of published Ar gas shock data motivated an evaluation of the Ar Equation of State (EOS) in gas phase initial density regimes. In particular, these regimes include initial pressures in the range of 13.8 - 34.5 bar (0.025 - 0.056 g/ cm3) and initial shock velocities around 0.2 cm/μs. The objective of the numerical evaluation was to develop a physical understanding of the EOS behavior of shocked and subsequently multiply re-shocked Ar gas through Pagosa numerical simulations utilizing the SESAME equation of state. Pagosa is a Los Alamos National Laboratory 2-D and 3-D Eulerian continuum dynamics code capable of modeling high velocity compressible flow with multiple materials. The approach involved the use of gas gun experiments to evaluate the shock and multiple re-shock behavior of pressurized Ar gas to validate Pagosa simulations and the SESAME EOS. Additionally, the diagnostic capability within the experiments allowed for the EOS to be fully constrained with measured shock velocity, particle velocity and temperature. The simulations demonstrate excellent agreement with the experiments in the shock velocity/particle velocity space, and reasonable comparisons for the ionization temperatures.
Wang, LiFeng; Ye, WenHua; He, XianTu; Wu, JunFeng; Fan, ZhengFeng; Xue, Chuang; Guo, HongYu; Miao, WenYong; Yuan, YongTeng; Dong, JiaQin; Jia, Guo; Zhang, Jing; Li, YingJun; Liu, Jie; Wang, Min; Ding, YongKun; Zhang, WeiYan
2017-05-01
Inertial fusion energy (IFE) has been considered a promising, nearly inexhaustible source of sustainable carbon-free power for the world's energy future. It has long been recognized that the control of hydrodynamic instabilities is of critical importance for ignition and high-gain in the inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) hot-spot ignition scheme. In this mini-review, we summarize the progress of theoretical and simulation research of hydrodynamic instabilities in the ICF central hot-spot implosion in our group over the past decade. In order to obtain sufficient understanding of the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities in ICF, we first decompose the problem into different stages according to the implosion physics processes. The decomposed essential physics pro- cesses that are associated with ICF implosions, such as Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI), Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI), Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI), convergent geometry effects, as well as perturbation feed-through are reviewed. Analyti- cal models in planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries have been established to study different physical aspects, including density-gradient, interface-coupling, geometry, and convergent effects. The influence of ablation in the presence of preheating on the RTI has been extensively studied by numerical simulations. The KHI considering the ablation effect has been discussed in detail for the first time. A series of single-mode ablative RTI experiments has been performed on the Shenguang-II laser facility. The theoretical and simulation research provides us the physical insights of linear and weakly nonlinear growths, and nonlinear evolutions of the hydrodynamic instabilities in ICF implosions, which has directly supported the research of ICF ignition target design. The ICF hot-spot ignition implosion design that uses several controlling features, based on our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities, to address shell implosion stability, has
Numerical Simulation of Hydrodynamic Behaviors of Gravity Cage in Waves
ZHAO Yun-peng; LI Yu-cheng; DONG Guo-hai; GUI Fu-kun
2007-01-01
This paper aims at investigation of the dynamic properties of gravity cage exposed to waves by use of a numerical model. The numerical model is developed, based on lumped mass method to set up the equations of motion of the whole cage; meanwhile the solutions of equations are solved by the Runge-Kutta-Verner fifth-order and sixth-order method. Physical model tests have been carried out to examine the validity of the numerical model. The results by the numerical simulation agree well with the experimental data.
Hydrodynamical Simulations of the Lyman $\\alpha$ Forest Model Comparisons
Machacek, M E; Meiksin, A; Anninos, P; Thayer, D; Norman, M L; Zhang, Y
1999-01-01
We investigate the properties of the Lyman alpha forest as predicted by numerical simulations for a range of currently viable cosmological models. This is done in order to understand the dependencies of the forest on cosmological parameters. Focusing on the redshift range from two to four, we show that: (1) most of the evolution in the distributions of optical depth, flux and column density can be understood by simple scaling relations, (2) the shape of optical depth distribution is a sensitive probe of the amplitude of density fluctuations on scales of a few hundred kpc, (3) the mean of the b distribution (a measure of the width of the absorption lines) is also very sensitive to fluctuations on these scales, and decreases as they increase. We perform a preliminary comparison to observations, where available. A number of other properties are also examined, including the evolution in the number of lines, the two-point flux distribution and the HeII opacity.
Hydrodynamics of Hypersonic Jets: Experiments and Numerical Simulations
Belan, Marco; Tordella, Daniela; Massaglia, Silvano; Ferrari, Attilio; Mignone, Andrea; Bodenschatz, Eberhard
2011-01-01
Stars form in regions of the galaxy that are denser and cooler than the mean interstellar medium. These regions are called Giant Molecular Clouds. At the beginning of their life, up to $10^5-10^6$ years, stars accrete matter from their rich surrounding environment and are origin of a peculiar phenomenon that is the jet emission. Jets from Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) are intensively studied by the astrophysical community by observations at different wavelengths, analytical and numerical modeling and laboratory experiments. Indications about the jet propagation and its resulting morphologies are here obtained by means of a combined study of hypersonic jets carried out both in the laboratory and by numerical simulations.
Gontijo, R. G.; Cunha, F. R.
2017-06-01
This work describes a numerical model to compute the translational and rotational motion of N spherical magnetic particles settling in a quiescent viscous fluid under creeping flow condition. The motion of the particles may be produced by the action of gravitational forces, Brownian thermal fluctuations, magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, external magnetic field, and hydrodynamic interactions. In order to avoid particle overlap, we consider a repulsive force based on a variation of a screened-Coulomb potential mixed with Hertz contact forces. The inertia of the particles is neglected so that a mobility approach to describe the hydrodynamic interactions is used. The magnetic dipoles are fixed with respect to the particles themselves. Thus they can only interact magnetically between them and with an external applied magnetic field. Therefore the effect of magnetic field moment rotation relative to the particle as a consequence of a finite amount of particle anisotropy is neglected in this work. On the other hand, the inclusion of particle viscous hydrodynamic interactions and dipolar interactions is considered in our model. Both long-range hydrodynamic and magnetic interactions are accounted by a sophisticated technique of lattice sums. This work considers several possibilities of periodic and non-periodic particle interaction schemes. This paper intends to show the benefits and disadvantages of the different approaches, including a hybrid possibility of computing periodic and non-periodic particle interactions. The well-known mean sedimentation velocity and the equilibrium magnetization of the suspension are computed to validate the numerical scheme. The comparison is performed with the existent theoretical models valid for dilute suspensions and several empirical correlations available in the current literature. In the presence of dipole-dipole particle interactions, the simulations show a non-monotonic behavior of the mean sedimentation velocity as the particle
2015-05-15
1 COMPARING TWO NUMERICAL MODELS IN SIMULATING HYDRODYNAMICS AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AT A DUAL INLET SYSTEM, WEST-CENTRAL FLORIDA PING WANG1...numerical modeling systems, CMS and DELFT3D, in simulating the hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes. The model results are compared with...Introduction Simulating complex fields of wave, current, sediment transport , and morphology change in the vicinity of tidal inlets is a
de Buyl, Pierre; Deprez, Laurens
2016-01-01
The RMPCDMD software package performs hybrid Molecular Dynamics simulations, coupling Multiparticle Collision Dynamics to model the solvent and Molecular Dynamics to model suspended colloids, including hydrodynamics, thermal fluctuations, and chemically active solvent particles and catalytic colloids. The main usage of RMPCDMD is the simulation of chemically powered nanomotors, but other setups are considered: colloids in the presence of a thermal gradients or forced flows. RMPCDMD is developed in Fortran 2008 with OpenMP for multithreaded operation and uses the HDF5-based H5MD file format for storing data. RMPCDMD comes with documentation and a tutorial for the simulation of chemically powered nanomotors.
Data-driven Radiative Hydrodynamic Modeling of the 2014 March 29 X1.0 Solar Flare
da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Petrosian, Vahe'; Liu, Wei; Allred, Joel C
2016-01-01
Spectroscopic observations of solar flares provide critical diagnostics of the physical conditions in the flaring atmosphere. Some key features in observed spectra have not yet been accounted for in existing flare models. Here we report a data-driven simulation of the well-observed X1.0 flare on 2014 March 29 that can reconcile some well-known spectral discrepancies. We analyzed spectra of the flaring region from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) in MgII h&k, the Interferometric BIdimensional Spectropolarimeter at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST/IBIS) in H$\\alpha$ 6563 {\\AA} and CaII 8542 {\\AA}, and the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager (RHESSI) in hard X-rays. We constructed a multi-threaded flare loop model and used the electron flux inferred from RHESSI data as the input to the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN to simulate the atmospheric response. We then synthesized various chromospheric emission lines and compared them with the IRIS and IBIS observations. In general, t...
Fujibayashi, Sho; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kiuchi, Kenta; Shibata, Masaru
2017-09-01
We performed general relativistic, long-term, axisymmetric neutrino radiation hydrodynamics simulations for the remnant formed after a binary neutron star merger, which consists of a massive neutron star and a torus surrounding it. As an initial condition, we employ the result derived in a three-dimensional, numerical relativity simulation for the binary neutron star merger. We investigate the properties of neutrino-driven ejecta. Due to the pair-annihilation heating, the dynamics of the neutrino-driven ejecta are significantly modified. The kinetic energy of the ejecta is about two times larger than that in the absence of pair-annihilation heating. This suggests that the pair-annihilation heating plays an important role in the evolution of merger remnants. The relativistic outflow, which is required for driving gamma-ray bursts, is not observed because the specific heating rate around the rotational axis is not sufficiently high, due to the baryon loading caused by the neutrino-driven ejecta from the massive neutron star. We discuss the condition for launching the relativistic outflow and the nucleosynthesis in the ejecta.
GenASiS: General Astrophysical Simulation System. II. Nonrelativistic Hydrodynamics
Cardall, Christian Y; Endeve, Eirik; Mezzacappa, Anthony
2012-01-01
In this paper, the second in a series, we document the algorithms and solvers for compressible nonrelativistic hydrodynamics implemented in GenASiS (General Astrophysical Simulation System)---a new code being developed initially and primarily, though by no means exclusively, for the simulation of core-collapse supernovae. In the Mathematics division of GenASiS we introduce Solvers, which includes finite-volume updates for generic hyperbolic BalanceEquations and ordinary differential equation integration Steps. We also introduce the Physics division of GenASiS; this extends the Manifolds division of Mathematics into physical Spaces, defines StressEnergies, and combines these into Universes. We benchmark the hydrodynamics capabilities of GenASiS against many standard test problems; the results illustrate the basic competence of our implementation, demonstrate the manifest superiority of the HLLC over the HLL Riemann solver in a number of interesting cases, and provide preliminary indications of the code's abili...
Three-fluid hydrodynamics based event simulation for collisions at NICA and FAIR energies
Batyuk, P; Bleicher, M; Ivanov, Yu B; Karpenko, Iu; Merts, S; Nahrgang, M; Petersen, H; Rogachevsky, O
2016-01-01
We present a new event generator based on the three-fluid hydrodynamics approach for the early stage of the collision, followed by a particlization at the hydrodynamic decoupling surface to join to a microscopic transport model, UrQMD, to account for hadronic final state interactions. We present first results for nuclear collisions of the FAIR/NICA energy scan program (Au+Au collisions, $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=4-11$ GeV). We address the directed flow of protons and pions as well as the proton rapidity distribution for two model EoS, one with a first order phase transition the other with a crossover type softening at high densities. The new simulation program has the unique feature that it can describe a hadron-to-quark matter transition which proceeds in the baryon stopping regime that is not accessible to previous simulation programs designed for higher energies.
GPU-accelerated simulation of colloidal suspensions with direct hydrodynamic interactions
Kopp, Michael
2012-01-01
Solvent-mediated hydrodynamic interactions between colloidal particles can significantly alter their dynamics. We discuss the implementation of Stokesian dynamics in leading approximation for streaming processors as provided by the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) of recent graphics processors (GPUs). Thereby, the simulation of explicit solvent particles is avoided and hydrodynamic interactions can easily be accounted for in already available, highly accelerated molecular dynamics simulations. Special emphasis is put on efficient memory access and numerical stability. The algorithm is applied to the periodic sedimentation of a cluster of four suspended particles. Finally, we investigate the runtime performance of generic memory access patterns of complexity $O(N^2)$ for various GPU algorithms relying on either hardware cache or shared memory.
Cholla: 3D GPU-based hydrodynamics code for astrophysical simulation
Schneider, Evan E.; Robertson, Brant E.
2016-07-01
Cholla (Computational Hydrodynamics On ParaLLel Architectures) models the Euler equations on a static mesh and evolves the fluid properties of thousands of cells simultaneously using GPUs. It can update over ten million cells per GPU-second while using an exact Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction, allowing computation of astrophysical simulations with physically interesting grid resolutions (>256^3) on a single device; calculations can be extended onto multiple devices with nearly ideal scaling beyond 64 GPUs.
Three-Dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulation for Liquid Droplet with Surface Tension
Terissa, Hanifa; Barecasco, Agra; Naa, Christian Fredy
2013-01-01
We provide a basic method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate liquid droplet with surface tension in three dimensions. Liquid droplet is a simple case for surface tension modeling. Surface tension works only on fluid surface. In SPH method, we simply apply the surface tension on the boundary particles of liquid. The particle on the 3D boundary was detected dynamically using Free-Surface Detection algorithm. The normal vector and curvature of the boundary surface were calculat...
Method of internal 3D flow field numerical simulation for hydrodynamic torque converter
Tao SHANG; Dingxuan ZHAO; Yuankun ZHANG; Xiangen GUO; Xiangzhong SHI
2008-01-01
To enhance the performance of a hydrody-namic torque converter and thoroughly understand the trait of inside flow, a numerical simulation method of internal 3D flow for the three-element centrifugal hydrodynamic torque converter was systematically researched and expatiated in this paper. First, the internal flow field of each impeller was calculated. The curves that illustrate the relationships between the pressure differences of the inlet and outlet versus flux were drawn. Second, the concurrent working point of each impeller was approximately estimated. Finally, a calculation was performed considering the influence on each impeller. The flow field of a working point was solved by multiple calculations and the actual working condition was gradually determined. The pressure and velocity distributions of the flow field were proposed. The performance parameters of the hydrodynamic torque converter were predicted. The calculation method, and the proposed pressure and velocity distribution of the flow field, have practical significance for the design and improvement of a hydrodynamic torque converter.
Experimental and Simulation Studies of Hydrodynamic Tunneling of Ultra-Relativistic Protons
Burkart, Florian; Schmidt, Ruediger; Shutov, Alexander; Tahir, Naeem; Wollmann, Daniel; Zerlauth, Markus
2015-01-01
The expected damage due to the release of the full LHC beam energy at a single aperture bottleneck has been studied. These studies have shown that the range of the 7 TeV LHC proton beam is significantly extended compared to that of a single proton due to hydrodynamic tunneling effect. For instance, it was evaluated that the protons and their showers will penetrate up to a length of 25 m in solid carbon compared to a static range of around 3 m. To check the validity of these simulations, beam- target heating experiments using the 440 GeV proton beam generated by the SPS were performed at the HiRadMat test facility at CERN. Solid copper targets were facially irradiated by the beam and measurements confirmed hydrodynamic tunneling of the protons and their showers. Simulations have been done by running the energy deposition code FLUKA and the 2D hydrodynamic code, BIG2, iteratively. Very good agreement has been found between the simulations and the experimental results providing confidence in the validity of the ...
The core helium flash revisited: I. One and two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations
Mocak, M; Weiss, A; Kifonidis, K
2008-01-01
We investigate the hydrodynamics of the core helium flash near its peak. Past research concerned with the dynamics of this event is inconclusive. However, the most recent multidimensional hydrodynamic studies suggest a quiescent behavior and seem to rule out an explosive scenario. Previous work indicated, that depending on initial conditions, employed turbulence models, grid resolution, and dimensionality of the simulation, the core helium flash leads either to the disruption of a low-mass star or to a quiescent quasi-hydrostatic evolution. We try to clarify this issue by simulating the evolution with advanced numerical methods and detailed microphysics. Assuming spherical or axial symmetry, we simulate the evolution of the helium core of a $1.25 M_{\\odot}$ star with a metallicity Z=0.02 during the core helium flash at its peak with a grid-based hydrodynamics code. We find that the core helium flash neither rips the star apart, nor that it significantly alters its structure, as convection plays a crucial role...
The EAGLE simulations of galaxy formation: the importance of the hydrodynamics scheme
Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Bower, Richard G; Theuns, Tom; Crain, Robert A; Furlong, Michelle; McCarthy, Ian G
2015-01-01
We present results from a subset of simulations from the "Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments" (EAGLE) suite in which the formulation of the hydrodynamics scheme is varied. We compare simulations that use the same subgrid models without re-calibration of the parameters but employing the standard GADGET flavour of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) instead of the more recent state-of-the-art ANARCHY formulation of SPH that was used in the fiducial EAGLE runs. We find that the properties of most galaxies, including their masses and sizes, are not significantly affected by the details of the hydrodynamics solver. However, the star formation rates of the most massive objects are affected by the lack of phase mixing due to spurious surface tension in the simulation using standard SPH. This affects the efficiency with which AGN activity can quench star formation in these galaxies and it also leads to differences in the intragroup medium that affect the X-ray emission from these objects. The...
Data-driven Radiative Hydrodynamic Modeling of the 2014 March 29 X1.0 Solar Flare
Rubio da Costa, Fatima; Kleint, Lucia; Petrosian, Vahé; Liu, Wei; Allred, Joel C.
2016-08-01
Spectroscopic observations of solar flares provide critical diagnostics of the physical conditions in the flaring atmosphere. Some key features in observed spectra have not yet been accounted for in existing flare models. Here we report a data-driven simulation of the well-observed X1.0 flare on 2014 March 29 that can reconcile some well-known spectral discrepancies. We analyzed spectra of the flaring region from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) in Mg ii h&k, the Interferometric BIdimensional Spectropolarimeter at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST/IBIS) in Hα 6563 Å and Ca ii 8542 Å, and the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager (RHESSI) in hard X-rays. We constructed a multithreaded flare loop model and used the electron flux inferred from RHESSI data as the input to the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN to simulate the atmospheric response. We then synthesized various chromospheric emission lines and compared them with the IRIS and IBIS observations. In general, the synthetic intensities agree with the observed ones, especially near the northern footpoint of the flare. The simulated Mg ii line profile has narrower wings than the observed one. This discrepancy can be reduced by using a higher microturbulent velocity (27 km s-1) in a narrow chromospheric layer. In addition, we found that an increase of electron density in the upper chromosphere within a narrow height range of ≈800 km below the transition region can turn the simulated Mg ii line core into emission and thus reproduce the single peaked profile, which is a common feature in all IRIS flares.
Development of a radiative-hydrodynamics testbed using the petawatt laser facility
Koch, J A; Bell, P M; Brown, C; Budil, K S; Estabrook, K G; Gold, D M; Hatchett, S P; Kane, J; Key, M H; Pennington, D M; Perry, M D; Remington, B A
1998-08-27
achieved in order to validate the models of the expanding blast wave launched by a supernova in both of its phases of evolution. We report on a new experiment designed to follow the propagation of a strong blast wave launched by the interaction of an intense short pulse laser with a solid target. This blast wave is generated by the irradiation of the front surface of a layered, solid target with N 400 J of 1 pm laser radiation in a 20 ps pulse focused to a N 50 ,um diameter spot, which produces an intensity in excess of 10^{18} W/cm². These conditions approximate a point explosion and a blast wave is predicted to be generated with an initial pressure of several hundred megabars which decays as it travels approximately radially outward from the interaction region. We have utilized streaked optical pyrometry of the blast front to determine its time of arrival at the rear surface of the target. Applications of a self-similar Taylor-Sedov blast wave solution allows the amount of energy deposited to be estimated. By varying the parameters of the laser pulse which impinges on the target, pressures on the order of 1 Gbar with initial temperatures in excess of 1 kev are achievable. At these temperatures and densities radiative processes are coupled to the hydrodynamic evolution of the system. Short pulse lasers produce a unique environment for the study of coupled radiation-hydrodynamics in a laboratory setting.
Numerical Modeling of Imploding Plasma liners Using the 1D Radiation-Hydrodynamics Code HELIOS
Davis, J. S.; Hanna, D. S.; Awe, T. J.; Hsu, S. C.; Stanic, M.; Cassibry, J. T.; Macfarlane, J. J.
2010-11-01
The Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is attempting to form imploding plasma liners to reach 0.1 Mbar upon stagnation, via 30--60 spherically convergent plasma jets. PLX is partly motivated by the desire to develop a standoff driver for magneto-inertial fusion. The liner density, atomic makeup, and implosion velocity will help determine the maximum pressure that can be achieved. This work focuses on exploring the effects of atomic physics and radiation on the 1D liner implosion and stagnation dynamics. For this reason, we are using Prism Computational Science's 1D Lagrangian rad-hydro code HELIOS, which has both equation of state (EOS) table-lookup and detailed configuration accounting (DCA) atomic physics modeling. By comparing a series of PLX-relevant cases proceeding from ideal gas, to EOS tables, to DCA treatments, we aim to identify how and when atomic physics effects are important for determining the peak achievable stagnation pressures. In addition, we present verification test results as well as brief comparisons to results obtained with RAVEN (1D radiation-MHD) and SPHC (smoothed particle hydrodynamics).
Models of the SL9 Impacts II. Radiative-hydrodynamic Modeling of the Plume Splashback
Deming, D; Deming, Drake; Harrington, Joseph
2001-01-01
We model the plume "splashback" phase of the SL9 collisions with Jupiter using the ZEUS-3D hydrodynamic code. We modified the Zeus code to include gray radiative transport, and we present validation tests. We couple the infalling mass and momentum fluxes of SL9 plume material (from paper I) to a jovian atmospheric model. A strong and complex shock structure results. The modeled shock temperatures agree well with observations, and the structure and evolution of the modeled shocks account for the appearance of high excitation molecular line emission after the peak of the continuum light curve. The splashback region cools by radial expansion as well as by radiation. The morphology of our synthetic continuum light curves agree with observations over a broad wavelength range (0.9 to 12 microns). A feature of our ballistic plume is a shell of mass at the highest velocities, which we term the "vanguard". Portions of the vanguard ejected on shallow trajectories produce a lateral shock front, whose initial expansion a...
Remeshed smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation of the mechanical behavior of human organs.
Hieber, Simone E; Walther, Jens H; Koumoutsakos, Petros
2004-01-01
In computer aided surgery the accurate simulation of the mechanical behavior of human organs is essential for the development of surgical simulators. In this paper we introduce particle based simulations of two different human organ materials modeled as linear viscoelastic solids. The constitutive equations for the material behavior are discretized using a particle approach based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method while the body surface is tracked using level sets. A key aspect of this approach is its flexibility which allows the simulation of complex time varying topologies with large deformations. The accuracy of the original formulation is significantly enhanced by using a particle reinitialization technique resulting in remeshed Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (rSPH). The mechanical parameters of the systems used in the simulations are derived from experimental measurements on human cadaver organs. We compare the mechanical behavior of liver- and kidney-like materials based on the dynamic simulations of a tensile test case. Moreover, we present a particle based reconstruction of the liver topology and its strain distribution under a small local load. Finally, we demonstrate a unified formulation of fluid structure interaction based on particle methods.
Cooper, Andrew P; Frenk, Carlos S; Bret, Theo Le; Pontzen, Andrew
2016-01-01
Particle tagging is an efficient, but approximate, technique for using cosmological N-body simulations to model the phase space evolution of the stellar populations predicted, for example, by a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. We test the technique developed by Cooper et al. (which we call STINGS here) by comparing particle tags with stars in a smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulation. We focus on the spherically averaged density profile of stars accreted from satellite galaxies in a Milky Way-like system. The stellar profile in the SPH simulation can be recovered accurately by tagging dark matter particles in the same simulation according to a prescription based on the rank order of particle binding energy. Applying the same prescription to an N-body version of this simulation produces very similar results. This confirms that particle tagging can provide a faithful and robust approximation to a self-consistent hydrodynamical simulation in this regime (in contradiction to previous claims in the l...
2015-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of large dust grains in massive lopsided transition discs via 2D hydrodynamical simulations including both gas and dust. Our simulations adopt a ring-like gas density profile that becomes unstable against the Rossby-wave instability and forms a large crescent-shaped vortex. When gas self-gravity is discarded, but the indirect force from the displacement of the star by the vortex is included, we confirm that dust grains with stopping times of order the orbital time,...
Somasundaram, Deepak S [UNLV; Trabia, Mohamed [UNLV; O' Toole, Brendan [UNLV; Hixson, Robert S [NSTec
2014-01-23
This paper describes our work to characterize the variables affecting the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method in the LS-DYNA package for simulating high-velocity flyer plate impact experiments. LS-DYNA simulations are compared with one-dimensional experimental data of an oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper flyer plate impacting another plate of the same material. The comparison is made by measuring the velocity of a point on the back surface of the impact plate using the velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) technique.
Numerical simulation of shock wave phenomena in hydrodynamic model of semiconductor devices
XU Ning; YANG Geng
2007-01-01
We propose a finite element method to investigate the phenomena of shock wave and to simulate the hydrodynamic model in semiconductor devices. An introduction of this model is discussed first. Then some scaling factors and a relationship between the changing variables are discussed. And then, we use a finite element method (P1-iso-P2 element) to discrete the equations. Some boundary conditions are also discussed. Finally,a sub-micron n+-n-n+ silicon diode and Si MESFET device are simulated and the results are analyzed. Numerical results show that electronic fluids are transonic under some conditions.
Constraints on Physical Properties of z~6 Galaxies Using Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations
Finlator, K; Oppenheimer, B
2006-01-01
We introduce SPOC, a new code for constraining the physical properties of observed galaxies through a Bayesian likelihood comparison with galaxies drawn from simulations. SPOC inputs an object's photometry and outputs probability distributions of stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), age, metallicity, dust extinction, and redshift (if none is given) for that galaxy. We apply SPOC, employing model galaxies drawn from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, to Abell 2218 KESR (z~6.7) and five other z>5.5 galaxies for which published rest-frame ultraviolet and optical measurements are available. We compare the outcome of using our simulated galaxies' star formation histories (SFHs) versus using simple one-parameter SFHs such as constant, exponentially-decaying, and rising (a new form we introduce motivated by typical SFHs seen in our simulated galaxies). We show that simulated galaxies match these observations at least as well as simple SFHs, with similar favored values obtained for the intrinsic physical para...
Hydrodynamic moving-mesh simulations of the common envelope phase in binary stellar systems
Ohlmann, Sebastian T; Pakmor, Ruediger; Springel, Volker
2015-01-01
The common envelope (CE) phase is an important stage in binary stellar evolution. It is needed to explain many close binary stellar systems, such as cataclysmic variables, Type Ia supernova progenitors, or X-ray binaries. To form the resulting close binary, the initial orbit has to shrink, thereby transferring energy to the primary giant's envelope that is hence ejected. The details of this interaction, however, are still not understood. Here, we present new hydrodynamic simulations of the dynamical spiral-in forming a CE system. We apply the moving-mesh code AREPO to follow the interaction of a $1M_\\odot$ compact star with a $2M_\\odot$ red giant possessing a $0.4M_\\odot$ core. The nearly Lagrangian scheme combines advantages of smoothed particle hydrodynamics and traditional grid-based hydrodynamic codes and allows us to capture also small flow features at high spatial resolution. Our simulations reproduce the initial transfer of energy and angular momentum from the binary core to the envelope by spiral shoc...
A New Two-fluid Radiation-hydrodynamical Model for X-Ray Pulsar Accretion Columns
West, Brent F.; Wolfram, Kenneth D.; Becker, Peter A.
2017-02-01
Previous research centered on the hydrodynamics in X-ray pulsar accretion columns has largely focused on the single-fluid model, in which the super-Eddington luminosity inside the column decelerates the flow to rest at the stellar surface. This type of model has been relatively successful in describing the overall properties of the accretion flows, but it does not account for the possible dynamical effect of the gas pressure. On the other hand, the most successful radiative transport models for pulsars generally do not include a rigorous treatment of the dynamical structure of the column, instead assuming an ad hoc velocity profile. In this paper, we explore the structure of X-ray pulsar accretion columns using a new, self-consistent, “two-fluid” model, which incorporates the dynamical effect of the gas and radiation pressures, the dipole variation of the magnetic field, the thermodynamic effect of all of the relevant coupling and cooling processes, and a rigorous set of physical boundary conditions. The model has six free parameters, which we vary in order to approximately fit the phase-averaged spectra in Her X-1, Cen X-3, and LMC X-4. In this paper, we focus on the dynamical results, which shed new light on the surface magnetic field strength, the inclination of the magnetic field axis relative to the rotation axis, the relative importance of gas and radiation pressures, and the radial variation of the ion, electron, and inverse-Compton temperatures. The results obtained for the X-ray spectra are presented in a separate paper.
Chiavassa, A; Casagrande, L; Asplund, M
2010-01-01
Context. Theoretical predictions from models of red giant branch stars are a valuable tool for various applications in astrophysics ranging from galactic chemical evolution to studies of exoplanetary systems. Aims. We use the radiative transfer code OPTIM3D and realistic 3D radiative-hydrodynamical (RHD) surface convection simulations of red giants to explore the impact of granulation on interferometric observables. Methods. We compute intensity maps for the 3D simulation snapshots in two filters: in the optical at 5000 \\pm 300 {\\AA} and in the K band 2.14 $\\pm$ 0.26 {\\mu}m FLUOR filter, corresponding to the wavelength-range of instruments mounted on the CHARA interferometer. From the intensity maps, we construct images of the stellar disks, accounting for center-to-limb variations. We then derive interferometric visibility amplitudes and phases. We study their behavior with position angle and wavelength. Results. We provide average limb-darkening coefficients for different metallicities and wavelength-ranges...
Raskin, Cody; Owen, J. Michael
2016-11-01
We discuss a generalization of the classic Keplerian disk test problem allowing for both pressure and rotational support, as a method of testing astrophysical codes incorporating both gravitation and hydrodynamics. We argue for the inclusion of pressure in rotating disk simulations on the grounds that realistic, astrophysical disks exhibit non-negligible pressure support. We then apply this test problem to examine the performance of various smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods incorporating a number of improvements proposed over the years to address problems noted in modeling the classical gravitation-only Keplerian disk. We also apply this test to a newly developed extension of SPH based on reproducing kernels called CRKSPH. Counterintuitively, we find that pressure support worsens the performance of traditional SPH on this problem, causing unphysical collapse away from the steady-state disk solution even more rapidly than the purely gravitational problem, whereas CRKSPH greatly reduces this error.
Raskin, Cody
2016-01-01
We discuss a generalization of the classic Keplerian disk test problem allowing for both pressure and rotational support, as a method of testing astrophysical codes incorporating both gravitation and hydrodynamics. We argue for the inclusion of pressure in rotating disk simulations on the grounds that realistic, astrophysical disks exhibit non-negligible pressure support. We then apply this test problem to examine the performance of various smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods incorporating a number of improvements proposed over the years to help SPH better address problems noted in modeling the classical gravitation only Keplerian disk. We also apply this test to a newly developed extension of SPH based on reproducing kernels called CRKSPH. Counterintuitively, we find that pressure support worsens the performance of traditional SPH on this problem, causing unphysical collapse away from the steady-state disk solution even more rapidly than the purely gravitational problem, whereas CRKSPH greatly redu...
Analysis of the Space Shuttle Orbiter skin panels under simulated hydrodynamic loads
Carden, Huey D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jones, Lisa E.
1988-01-01
The Space Shuttle orbiter skin panels were analyzed under pressure loads simulating hydrodynamic loads to determine their capability to sustain a potential ditching and to determine pressures that typically would produce failures. Two Dynamic Crash Analysis of Structures (DYCAST) finite element models were used. One model was used to represent skin panels (bays) in the center body, while a second model was used to analyze a fuselage bay in the wing region of the orbiter. From an assessment of the DYCAST nonlinear computer results, it is concluded that the probability is extremely high that most, if not all, of the lower skin panels would rupture under ditching conditions. Extremely high pressure loads which are produced under hydrodynamic planning conditions far exceed the very low predicted failure pressures for the skin panels. Consequently, a ditching of the orbiter is not considered to have a high probability of success and should not be considered a means of emergency landing unless no other option exists.
Liu, Yao; Liu, Baoliang; Lei, Jilin; Guan, Changtao; Huang, Bin
2016-07-01
A three-dimensional numerical model was established to simulate the hydrodynamics within an octagonal tank of a recirculating aquaculture system. The realizable k-ɛ turbulence model was applied to describe the flow, the discrete phase model (DPM) was applied to generate particle trajectories, and the governing equations are solved using the finite volume method. To validate this model, the numerical results were compared with data obtained from a full-scale physical model. The results show that: (1) the realizable k-ɛ model applied for turbulence modeling describes well the flow pattern in octagonal tanks, giving an average relative error of velocities between simulated and measured values of 18% from contour maps of velocity magnitudes; (2) the DPM was applied to obtain particle trajectories and to simulate the rate of particle removal from the tank. The average relative error of the removal rates between simulated and measured values was 11%. The DPM can be used to assess the self-cleaning capability of an octagonal tank; (3) a comprehensive account of the hydrodynamics within an octagonal tank can be assessed from simulations. The velocity distribution was uniform with an average velocity of 15 cm/s; the velocity reached 0.8 m/s near the inlet pipe, which can result in energy losses and cause wall abrasion; the velocity in tank corners was more than 15 cm/s, which suggests good water mixing, and there was no particle sedimentation. The percentage of particle removal for octagonal tanks was 90% with the exception of a little accumulation of ≤ 5 mm particle in the area between the inlet pipe and the wall. This study demonstrated a consistent numerical model of the hydrodynamics within octagonal tanks that can be further used in their design and optimization as well as promote the wide use of computational fluid dynamics in aquaculture engineering.
Mozena, Mark; Faber, S. M.; Primack, J. R.; Dekel, A.; Ceverino, D.; Koo, D. C.; Fumagalli, M.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D. J.; Lai, K.; Kocevski, D. D.; McGrath, E. J.; Trump, J. R.; CANDELS
2011-01-01
The first data from the HST Multi-Cycle Treasury CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near Infra-red Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey - candels.ucolick.org) are producing images of thousands of z 2 galaxies in observed optical (ACS) and NIR (WFC3) bands. We have developed a new visual classification scheme for z 2 galaxies which is motivated by the significant population of galaxies that are dominated by giant clumps in the HST images, and by the theoretical predictions for clumpy galaxies based on analytic studies and zoom-in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. This classification method was developed using about a thousand z 2 galaxies in the GOODS-S Early Release Survey (ERS) region imaged with ACS and WFC3. The ERS data have been observed in a way similar to the CANDELS observations. I will also discuss the latest cosmologically motivated ART hydrodynamical simulations by Ceverino, Dekel, and Primack. We render these simulated z 2 galaxies to mimic our HST ACS and WFC3 images and visually classify their stellar structure to compare them with the galaxies observed in ERS. We have compared the effects of dust extinction due to the complex clumpy distribution of gas within these simulations. Comparing the visual classification of the HST observations with the simulations provides new clues to galaxy assembly.
Kowalski, Adam F; Carlsson, Mats; Allred, Joel C; Uitenbroek, Han; Osten, Rachel A; Holman, Gordon
2015-01-01
(abridged) The heating mechanism at high densities during M dwarf flares is poorly understood. Spectra of M dwarf flares in the optical and near-ultraviolet wavelength regimes have revealed three continuum components during the impulsive phase: 1) an energetically dominant blackbody component with a color temperature of T $\\sim$ 10,000 K in the blue-optical, 2) a smaller amount of Balmer continuum emission in the near-ultraviolet at lambda $<$ 3646 Angstroms and 3) an apparent pseudo-continuum of blended high-order Balmer lines. These properties are not reproduced by models that employ a typical "solar-type" flare heating level in nonthermal electrons, and therefore our understanding of these spectra is limited to a phenomenological interpretation. We present a new 1D radiative-hydrodynamic model of an M dwarf flare from precipitating nonthermal electrons with a large energy flux of $10^{13}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. The simulation produces bright continuum emission from a dense, hot chromospheric condensat...
Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke
2016-01-01
We perform neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics simulations for the merger of asymmetric binary neutron stars in numerical relativity. Neutron stars are modeled by soft and moderately stiff finite-temperature equations of state (EOS). We find that the properties of the dynamical ejecta such as the total mass, neutron richness profile, and specific entropy profile depend on the mass ratio of the binary systems for a given EOS in a unique manner. For the soft EOS (SFHo), the total ejecta mass depends weakly on the mass ratio, but the average of electron number per baryon ($Y_e$) and specific entropy ($s$) of the ejecta decreases significantly with the increase of the degree of mass asymmetry. For the stiff EOS (DD2), with the increase of the mass asymmetry degree, the total ejecta mass significantly increases while the average of $Y_e$ and $s$ moderately decreases. We find again that only for the soft EOS (SFHo), the total ejecta mass exceeds $0.01M_\\odot$ irrespective of the mass ratio chosen in this paper. The ej...
Botelho, D A; Barry, M E; Collecutt, G C; Brook, J; Wiltshire, D
2013-01-01
A desalination plant is proposed to be the major water supply to the Olympic Dam Expansion Mining project. Located in the Upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia, the site was chosen due to the existence of strong currents and their likely advantages in terms of mixing and dilution of discharged return water. A high-resolution hydrodynamic model (Estuary, Lake and Coastal Ocean Model, ELCOM) was constructed and, through a rigorous review process, was shown to reproduce the intricate details of the Spencer Gulf dynamics, including those characterising the discharge site. Notwithstanding this, it was found that deploying typically adopted 'direct insertion' techniques to simulate the brine discharge within the hydrodynamic model was problematic. Specifically, it was found that in this study the direct insertion technique delivered highly conservative brine dilution predictions in and around the proposed site, and that these were grid and time-step dependent. To improve the predictive capability, a strategy to link validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions to hydrodynamic simulations was devised. In this strategy, environmental conditions from ELCOM were used to produce boundary conditions for execution of a suite of CFD simulations. In turn, the CFD simulations provided the brine dilutions and flow rates to be applied in ELCOM. In order to conserve mass in a system-wide sense, artificial salt sinks were introduced to the ELCOM model such that salt quantities were conserved. As a result of this process, ELCOM predictions were naturally very similar to CFD predictions near the diffuser, whilst at the same time they produced an area of influence (further afield) comparable to direct insertion methods. It was concluded that the linkage of the models, in comparison to direct insertion methods, constituted a more realistic and defensible alternative to predict the far-field dispersion of outfall discharges, particularly with regards to the estimation of brine
Zhao, Tongyang; Wang, Xiaogong, E-mail: wxg-dce@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jiang, Lei [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Larson, Ronald G., E-mail: rlarson@umich.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)
2014-07-01
We examine the accuracy of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations of polymers in dilute solutions with hydrodynamic interaction (HI), at the theta point, modeled by setting the DPD conservative interaction between beads to zero. We compare the first normal-mode relaxation time extracted from the DPD simulations with theoretical predictions from a normal-mode analysis for theta chains. We characterize the influence of bead inertia within the coil by a ratio L{sub m}/R{sub g}, where L{sub m} is the ballistic distance over which bead inertia is lost, and R{sub g} is the radius of gyration of the polymer coil, while the HI strength per bead h* is determined by the ratio of bead hydrodynamic radius (r{sub H}) to the equilibrium spring length. We show how to adjust h* through the spring length and monomer mass, and how to optimize the accuracy of DPD for fixed h* by increasing the friction coefficient (γ ≥ 9) and by incorporating a nonlinear distance dependence into the frictional interaction. Even with this optimization, DPD simulations exhibit deviations of over 20% from the theoretical normal-mode predictions for high HI strength with h* ≥ 0.20, for chains with as many as 100 beads, which is a larger deviation than is found for Stochastic rotation dynamics simulations for similar chains lengths and values of h*.
Cooper, Andrew P.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.; Le Bret, Theo; Pontzen, Andrew
2017-08-01
Particle tagging is an efficient, but approximate, technique for using cosmological N-body simulations to model the phase-space evolution of the stellar populations predicted, for example, by a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. We test the technique developed by Cooper et al. (which we call stings here) by comparing particle tags with stars in a smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulation. We focus on the spherically averaged density profile of stars accreted from satellite galaxies in a Milky Way (MW)-like system. The stellar profile in the SPH simulation can be recovered accurately by tagging dark matter (DM) particles in the same simulation according to a prescription based on the rank order of particle binding energy. Applying the same prescription to an N-body version of this simulation produces a density profile differing from that of the SPH simulation by ≲10 per cent on average between 1 and 200 kpc. This confirms that particle tagging can provide a faithful and robust approximation to a self-consistent hydrodynamical simulation in this regime (in contradiction to previous claims in the literature). We find only one systematic effect, likely due to the collisionless approximation, namely that massive satellites in the SPH simulation are disrupted somewhat earlier than their collisionless counterparts. In most cases, this makes remarkably little difference to the spherically averaged distribution of their stellar debris. We conclude that, for galaxy formation models that do not predict strong baryonic effects on the present-day DM distribution of MW-like galaxies or their satellites, differences in stellar halo predictions associated with the treatment of star formation and feedback are much more important than those associated with the dynamical limitations of collisionless particle tagging.
Radiative hydrodynamic modelling and observations of the X-class solar flare on 2011 March 9
Kennedy, Michael B; Allred, Joel C; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P
2015-01-01
We investigated the response of the solar atmosphere to non-thermal electron beam heating using the radiative transfer and hydrodynamics modelling code RADYN. The temporal evolution of the parameters that describe the non-thermal electron energy distribution were derived from hard X-ray observations of a particular flare, and we compared the modelled and observed parameters. The evolution of the non-thermal electron beam parameters during the X1.5 solar flare on 2011 March 9 were obtained from analysis of RHESSI X-ray spectra. The RADYN flare model was allowed to evolve for 110 seconds, after which the electron beam heating was ended, and was then allowed to continue evolving for a further 300s. The modelled flare parameters were compared to the observed parameters determined from extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy. The model produced a hotter and denser flare loop than that observed and also cooled more rapidly, suggesting that additional energy input in the decay phase of the flare is required. In the explosi...
3D Hydrodynamic & Radiative Transfer Models of X-ray Emission from Colliding Wind Binaries
Russell, Christopher M P; Owocki, Stanley P; Corcoran, Michael F; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Sugawara, Yasuharu
2014-01-01
Colliding wind binaries (CWBs) are unique laboratories for X-ray astrophysics. The massive stars in these systems possess powerful stellar winds with speeds up to $\\sim$3000 km s$^{-1}$, and their collision leads to hot plasma (up to $\\sim10^8$K) that emit thermal X-rays (up to $\\sim$10 keV). Many X-ray telescopes have observed CWBs, including Suzaku, and our work aims to model these X-ray observations. We use 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to model the wind-wind interaction, and then perform 3D radiative transfer to compute the emergent X-ray flux, which is folded through X-ray telescopes' response functions to compare directly with observations. In these proceedings, we present our models of Suzaku observations of the multi-year-period, highly eccentric systems $\\eta$ Carinae and WR 140. The models reproduce the observations well away from periastron passage, but only $\\eta$ Carinae's X-ray spectrum is reproduced at periastron; the WR 140 model produces too much flux during this more complicated p...
Coherent Synchrotron Radiation: Theory and Simulations.
Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC
2012-03-29
The physics of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by ultra-relativistic electron bunches, known since the last century, has become increasingly important with the development of high peak current free electron lasers and shorter bunch lengths in storage rings. Coherent radiation can be described as a low frequency part of the familiar synchrotron radiation in bending magnets. As this part is independent of the electron energy, the fields of different electrons of a short bunch can be in phase and the total power of the radiation will be quadratic with the number of electrons. Naturally the frequency spectrum of the longitudinal electron distribution in a bunch is of the same importance as the overall electron bunch length. The interest in the utilization of high power radiation from the terahertz and far infrared region in the field of chemical, physical and biological processes has led synchrotron radiation facilities to pay more attention to the production of coherent radiation. Several laboratories have proposed the construction of a facility wholly dedicated to terahertz production using the coherent radiation in bending magnets initiated by the longitudinal instabilities in the ring. Existing synchrotron radiation facilities also consider such a possibility among their future plans. There is a beautiful introduction to CSR in the 'ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter' N 35 (Editor C. Biscari). In this paper we recall the basic properties of CSR from the theory and what new effects, we can get from the precise simulations of the coherent radiation using numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations. In particular, transverse variation of the particle energy loss in a bunch, discovered in these simulations, explains the slice emittance growth in bending magnets of the bunch compressors and transverse de-coherence in undulators. CSR may play same the role as the effect of quantum fluctuations of synchrotron radiation in damping rings. It can limit
Shestakov, A I; Offner, S R
2006-09-21
We present a scheme to solve the nonlinear multigroup radiation diffusion (MGD) equations. The method is incorporated into a massively parallel, multidimensional, Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The patch-based AMR algorithm refines in both space and time creating a hierarchy of levels, coarsest to finest. The physics modules are time-advanced using operator splitting. On each level, separate 'level-solve' packages advance the modules. Our multigroup level-solve adapts an implicit procedure which leads to a two-step iterative scheme that alternates between elliptic solves for each group with intra-cell group coupling. For robustness, we introduce pseudo transient continuation ({Psi}tc). We analyze the magnitude of the {Psi}tc parameter to ensure positivity of the resulting linear system, diagonal dominance and convergence of the two-step scheme. For AMR, a level defines a subdomain for refinement. For diffusive processes such as MGD, the refined level uses Dirichet boundary data at the coarse-fine interface and the data is derived from the coarse level solution. After advancing on the fine level, an additional procedure, the sync-solve (SS), is required in order to enforce conservation. The MGD SS reduces to an elliptic solve on a combined grid for a system of G equations, where G is the number of groups. We adapt the 'partial temperature' scheme for the SS; hence, we reuse the infrastructure developed for scalar equations. Results are presented. We consider a multigroup test problem with a known analytic solution. We demonstrate utility of {Psi}tc by running with increasingly larger timesteps. Lastly, we simulate the sudden release of energy Y inside an Al sphere (r = 15 cm) suspended in air at STP. For Y = 11 kT, we find that gray radiation diffusion and MGD produce similar results. However, if Y = 1 MT, the two packages yield different results. Our large Y simulation contradicts a long-standing theory
Radiative Transfer in 3D Numerical Simulations
Stein, R; Stein, Robert; Nordlund, Aake
2002-01-01
We simulate convection near the solar surface, where the continuum optical depth is of order unity. Hence, to determine the radiative heating and cooling in the energy conservation equation, we must solve the radiative transfer equation (instead of using the diffusion or optically thin cooling approximations). A method efficient enough to calculate the radiation for thousands of time steps is needed. We assume LTE and a non-gray opacity grouped into 4 bins according to strength. We perform a formal solution of the Feautrier equation along a vertical and four straight, slanted, rays (at four azimuthal angles which are rotated 15 deg. every time step). We present details of our method. We also give some results: comparing simulated and observed line profiles for the Sun, showing the importance of 3D transfer for the structure of the mean atmosphere and the eigenfrequencies of p-modes, illustrating Stokes profiles for micropores, and analyzing the effect of radiation on p-mode asymmetries.
Simulating Nonequilibrium Radiation via Orthogonal Polynomial Refinement
2015-01-07
from data bases which are derived from quantum physics and transmit across the two different coordinates by a nearest neighbor search algorithm [7,8...complex radiative simulation must be built on the interaction of quantum physics, chemical kinetics, aerodynamics, and radiation transfer. The most...created a space partition algorithm for the nearest neighbor search optimization on both structured/unstructured grids and integrated with the high
Coupled discrete element and smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of the die filling process
Breinlinger, Thomas; Kraft, Torsten
2016-11-01
Die filling is an important part of the powder compaction process chain, where defects in the final part can be introduced—or prevented. Simulation of this process is therefore a goal for many part producers and has been studied by some researchers already. In this work, we focus on the influence of the surrounding air on the powder flow. We demonstrate the implementing and coupling of the discrete element method for the granular powder and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method for the gas flow. Application of the method to the die filling process is demonstrated.
姜昭阳; 梁振林; 唐衍力; 黄六一; 于定勇; 姜曼松
2010-01-01
The hydrodynamic forces and flow field of artificial reef models in steady flow were numerically investigated using the RNG k–εturbulent model.The numerical simulation results are consistent with results observed by experimental means.A comparative study indicates that the corresponding errors of forces between calculated values and values observed in the experiment vary in the range of 2.3%–11.2%and that the corresponding errors of velocities vary in the range of 1.3%–15.8%. The flow field numerical result...
Simulating Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability using PPM hydrodynamics @scale on Roadrunner (u)
Woodward, Paul R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimonte, Guy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rockefeller, Gabriel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimonte, Guy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dai, W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kares, R. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2011-01-05
The effect of initial conditions on the self-similar growth of the RT instability is investigated using a hydrodynamics code based on the piecewise-parabolic-method (PPM). The PPM code was converted to the hybrid architecture of Roadrunner in order to perform the simulations at extremely high speed and spatial resolution. This paper describes the code conversion to the Cell processor, the scaling studies to 12 CU's on Roadrunner and results on the dependence of the RT growth rate on initial conditions. The relevance of the Roadrunner implementation of this PPM code to other existing and anticipated computer architectures is also discussed.
A New Way to Conserve Total Energy for Eulerian Hydrodynamic Simulations with Self-Gravity
Jiang, Yan-Fei; Goodman, Jeremy; Stone, James M
2012-01-01
We propose a new method to conserve the total energy to round-off error in grid-based codes for hydrodynamic simulations with self-gravity. A formula for the energy flux due to the work done by the the self-gravitational force is given, so the change in total energy can be written in conservative form. Numerical experiments with the code Athena show that the total energy is indeed conserved with our new algorithm and the new algorithm is second order accurate. We have performed a set of tests that show the numerical errors in the traditional, non-conservative algorithm can affect the dynamics of the system. The new algorithm only requires one extra solution of the Poisson equation, as compared to the traditional algorithm which includes self-gravity as a source term. If the Poisson solver takes a negligible fraction of the total simulation time, such as when FFTs are used, the new algorithm is almost as efficient as the original method. This new algorithm is useful in Eulerian hydrodynamic simulations with se...
The Distribution of Satellites Around Central Galaxies in a Cosmological Hydrodynamical Simulation
Dong, Xuce; Kang, Xi; Wang, Yang O; Dutton, Aaron A; Macciò, Andrea V
2014-01-01
Observations have shown that the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies is not random, but rather, it is aligned with the major axes of central galaxies. The strength of the alignment is dependent on the properties of both satellites and centrals. Theoretical studies using dissipationless N-body simulations are limited by their inability to directly predict the shape of central galaxies. Using hydrodynamical simulations including gas cooling, star formation and feedback, we carry out a study of galaxy alignment and its dependence on galaxy properties predicted directly from the simulations. We found that the observed alignment signal is well produced, as is the color dependence: red satellites and red centrals both show stronger alignments than their blue counterparts. The reason for the stronger alignment of red satellites is that most of them stay in the inner region of the dark matter halo, where the shape of central galaxy traces better the dark matter distribution. The dependence of alignment on the ...
The clustering of baryonic matter. II: halo model and hydrodynamic simulations
Fedeli, C; Velliscig, M; Van Daalen, M; Schaye, J; Hoekstra, H
2014-01-01
We recently developed a generalization of the halo model in order to describe the spatial clustering properties of each mass component in the Universe, including hot gas and stars. In this work we discuss the complementarity of the model with respect to a set of cosmological simulations including hydrodynamics of different kinds. We find that the mass fractions and density profiles measured in the simulations do not always succeed in reproducing the simulated matter power spectra, the reason being that the latter encode information from a much larger range in masses than that accessible to individually resolved structures. In other words, this halo model allows one to extract information on the growth of structures from the spatial clustering of matter, that is complementary with the information coming from the study of individual objects. We also find a number of directions for improvement of the present implementation of the model, depending on the specific application one has in mind. The most relevant one...
Testing the accuracy of radiative cooling approximations in SPH simulations
Wilkins, Daniel R
2011-01-01
Hydrodynamical simulations of star formation have stimulated a need to develop fast and robust algorithms for evaluating radiative cooling. Here we undertake a critical evaluation of what is currently a popular method for prescribing cooling in SPH simulations, i.e. the polytropic cooling due originally to Stamatellos et al. This method uses the local density and potential to estimate the column density and optical depth to each particle and then uses these quantities to evaluate an approximate expression for the net radiative cooling. We evaluate the algorithm by considering both spherical and disc-like systems with analytic density and temperature structures. In spherical systems, the total cooling rate computed by the method is within around 20 for the astrophysically relevant case of opacity dominated by ice grains and is correct to within a factor of order unity for a range of opacity laws. In disc geometry, however, the method systematically under-estimates the cooling by a large factor at all heights i...
辐射流体力学计算结果的可视化处理%VISUALISATION TREATMENT OF CALCULATION RESULTS FOR RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS
彭国华; 王波兴; 黄运保
2015-01-01
We give a general description aiming at the numerical simulation on main physical process of laser inertial confinement fusion including the phenomena of electron heat conduction and radiation transport.For the issue of post-treatment in regard to numerical simulation results of radiation hydrodynamics,we use the method of scientific calculation visualisation and implement the visualised display of numerical simulation of results of radiation fluid dynamics through C ++and Matlab mixed language programming technique.It has the positive significance to raising the analysis efficiency of numerical calculation results and improving the work environment of analysis and calculation.%针对激光惯性约束核聚变主要物理过程，其中包括电子热传导、辐射输送等现象的数值模拟作了概括性描述。对辐射流体力学数值模拟结果的后处理问题，采用科学计算可视化的方法，通过C＋＋与Matlab混合语言编程技术实现对辐射流体动力学数值模拟结果的可视化显示。对提高数值计算结果的分析效率，改善分析计算的工作环境有积极的意义。
Guidi, Giovanni; Scannapieco, Cecilia; Walcher, Jakob; Gallazzi, Anna
2016-10-01
We study the effects of applying observational techniques to derive the properties of simulated galaxies, with the aim of making an unbiased comparison between observations and simulations. For our study, we used 15 galaxies simulated in a cosmological context using three different feedback and chemical enrichment models, and compared their z = 0 properties with data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We show that the physical properties obtained directly from the simulations without post-processing can be very different from those obtained mimicking observational techniques. In order to provide simulators a way to reliably compare their galaxies with SDSS data, for each physical property that we studied - colours, magnitudes, gas and stellar metallicities, mean stellar ages and star formation rates - we give scaling relations that can be easily applied to the values extracted from the simulations; these scalings have in general a high correlation, except for the gas oxygen metallicities. Our simulated galaxies are photometrically similar to galaxies in the blue sequence/green valley, but in general they appear older, passive and with lower metal content compared to most of the spirals in SDSS. As a careful assessment of the agreement/disagreement with observations is the primary test of the baryonic physics implemented in hydrodynamical codes, our study shows that considering the observational biases in the derivation of the galaxies' properties is of fundamental importance to decide on the failure/success of a galaxy formation model.
Testing core creation in hydrodynamical simulations using the HI kinematics of field dwarfs
Papastergis, Emmanouil
2016-01-01
The majority of recent hydrodynamical simulations indicate the creation of central "cores" in the mass profiles of low-mass halos, a process that is attributed to star formation-related baryonic feedback. Core creation is regarded as one of the most promising solutions to potential issues faced by LambdaCDM cosmology on small scales. For example, the reduced dynamical mass enclosed by cores can explain the low rotational velocities measured for nearby dwarf galaxies, thus possibly lifting the seeming contradiction with the LambdaCDM expectations (the so-called "too big to fail" problem). Here we test core creation as a solution of cosmological issues by using a sample of dwarfs with measurements of their atomic hydrogen (HI) kinematics extending to large radii. Using the NIHAO hydrodynamical simulation as an example, we show that core creation can successfully reproduce the kinematics of dwarfs with small kinematic radii, R <~ 1.5 kpc. However, the agreement with observations becomes poor once galaxies wit...
Alexander J. Werth
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Predator/prey interactions between copepods and balaenid (bowhead and right whales were studied with controlled lab experiments using moving baleen in still water and motionless baleen in flowing water to simulate zooplankton passage toward, into, and through the balaenid oral cavity. Copepods showed a lesser escape response to baleen and to a model head simulating balaenid oral hydrodynamics than to other objects. Copepod escape response increased as water flow and body size increased and was greatest at distances ≥10 cm from baleen and at copepod density = 10,000 m−3. Data from light/dark experiments suggest that escape is based on mechanoreception, not vision. The model head captured 88% of copepods. Results support previous research showing hydrodynamic effects within a whale’s oral cavity create slight suction pressures to draw in prey or at least preclude formation of an anterior compressive bow wave that could scatter or alert prey to the presence of the approaching whale.
Hydrodynamical Simulations of the Stream-Core Interaction in the Slow Merger of Massive Stars
Ivanova, N; Spruit, H; Podsiadlowski, Ph.
2002-01-01
We present detailed simulations of the interaction of a stream emanating from a mass-losing secondary with the core of a massive supergiant in the slow merger of the two stars inside a common envelope. The dynamics of the stream can be divided into a ballistic phase, starting at the L_1 point, and a hydrodynamical phase where the stream interacts strongly with the core. Considering the merger of a 1 and 5Msun star with a 20Msun evolved supergiant, we present two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations using the PROMETHEUS code to demonstrate how the penetration depth and post-impact conditions depend on the initial properties of stream material (e.g. entropy, angular momentum, stream width) and the properties of the core (e.g. density structure and rotation rate). Using these results, we present a fitting formula for the entropy generated in the stream--core interaction and a recipe for the determination of the penetration depth based on a modified Bernoulli integral.
General Relativistic Hydrodynamic Simulation of Accretion Flow from a Stellar Tidal Disruption
Shiokawa, Hotaka; Cheng, Roseanne M; Piran, Tsvi; Noble, Scott C
2015-01-01
We study how the matter dispersed when a supermassive black hole tidally disrupts a star joins an accretion flow. Combining a relativistic hydrodynamic simulation of the stellar disruption with a relativistic hydrodynamics simulation of the tidal debris motion, we track such a system until ~80% of the stellar mass bound to the black hole has settled into an accretion flow. Shocks near the stellar pericenter and also near the apocenter of the most tightly-bound debris dissipate orbital energy, but only enough to make the characteristic radius comparable to the semi-major axis of the most-bound material, not the tidal radius as previously thought. The outer shocks are caused by post-Newtonian effects, both on the stellar orbit during its disruption and on the tidal forces. Accumulation of mass into the accretion flow is non-monotonic and slow, requiring ~3--10x the orbital period of the most tightly-bound tidal streams, while the inflow time for most of the mass may be comparable to or longer than the mass accu...
Numerical Simulation of Interacting Stellar Winds Model Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)
Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Li, P. S.; Kwok, S.
1997-12-01
In the past decade, the Interacting Stellar Winds (ISW) model has been shown to be successful in explaining the formation of planetary nebulae, Wolf-Rayet nebulae, slow novae, and supernovae. Since analytical methods applied to the ISW model have been limited to the spherical symmetric (1D) geometry, numerical methods are necessary for axisymmetric (2D) or arbitrary (3D) geometries, such as the study of formation and evolution of planetary nebulae, and for symbiotic nova outbursts. The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) algorithm has been developed to study hydrodynamics using the particle method. This algorithm has been applied in many different fields successfully. In this paper, we apply the SPH algorithm using the TREE code to the problem of interacting winds dynamics. We present three simulations: (1) the interaction of two winds in spherical symmetry to demonstrate the validity of the algorithm in dealing with ISW modeling, (2) the formation and evolution of an axisymmetric nebula in the first 500 years, and (3) the interacting-colliding winds caused by a slow nova outburst in a symbiotic system. It is the first time that the SPH algorithm has been applied to an ISW simulation. The SPH algorithm is proved to be an accurate and powerful tool in studying ISW model. This work is supported by NASA's US ISO program and the University of Calgary.
Saeed Akram Malik
2013-05-01
Full Text Available In this study, a method for obtaining of hydrodynamic derivatives by numerically replicating the Planar Motion Mechanism (PMM tests of an axisymmetric submersible model is demonstrated. The numerical simulations of PMM tests are regarded as transient due to the movement of the model in the discretized computational domain thus causing mesh deformation. To accommodate the sway and yaw oscillation motions of the model, the entire computational domain is divided into three zones namely rotating, inner and outer zone. Multi-block structured grid is generated with finer resolution in the proximity of the model to capture the boundary-layer flows. Non-conformal fluid interfaces are used to connect the three zones. Commercial CFD Solver FLUENT is used to simulate the flow characteristics while the dynamic mesh capability included in the software is applied to handle the mesh deformation during the movement of the model. In order to verify the CFD method, 6:1 prolate spheroid is used as it can be idealized as an axisymmetric submersible model. The CFD results of added mass derivatives of the model show very close agreement when compared with the theoretical values. The present study is an attempt towards developing an economical CFD method for evaluating the hydrodynamic derivatives of submersible platforms such as submarines, torpedoes and autonomous underwater vehicles during early design stages.
Ameglio, S; Diaferio, A; Dolag, K
2005-01-01
The angular-diameter distance D_A of a galaxy cluster can be measuread by combining its X-ray emission with the cosmic microwave background fluctution due to the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. The application of this distance indicator usually assumes that the cluster is spherically symmetric, the gas is distributed according to the isothermal beta-model, and the X-ray temperature is an unbiased measure of the electron temperature. We test these assumptions with galaxy clusters extracted from an extended set of cosmological N-body/hydrodynamical simulations of a LCDM concordance cosmology, which include the effect of radiative cooling, star formation and energy feedback from supernovae. We find that, due to the steep temperature gradients which are present in the central regions of simulated clusters, the assumption of isothermal gas leads to a significant underestimate of D_A. This bias is efficiently corrected by using the polytropic version of the beta-model to account for the presence of temperature gradients....
Sim, S A; Miller, L; Long, K S; Turner, T J
2010-01-01
We perform multi-dimensional radiative transfer simulations to compute spectra for a hydrodynamical simulation of a line-driven accretion disk wind from an active galactic nucleus. The synthetic spectra confirm expectations from parameterized models that a disk wind can imprint a wide variety of spectroscopic signatures including narrow absorption lines, broad emission lines and a Compton hump. The formation of these features is complex with contributions originating from many of the different structures present in the hydrodynamical simulation. In particular, spectral features are shaped both by gas in a successfully launched outflow and in complex flows where material is lifted out of the disk plane but ultimately falls back. We also confirm that the strong Fe Kalpha line can develop a weak, red-skewed line wing as a result of Compton scattering in the outflow. In addition, we demonstrate that X-ray radiation scattered and reprocessed in the flow has a pivotal part in both the spectrum formation and determi...
Stute, Matthias
2007-01-01
In papers I and II in this series, we presented hydrodynamical simulations of jet models with parameters representative of the symbiotic system MWC 560. These were simulations of a pulsed, initially underdense jet in a high density ambient medium. Since the pulsed emission of the jet creates internal shocks and since the jet velocity is very high, the jet bow shock and the internal shocks are heated to high temperatures and should therefore emit X-ray radiation. In this paper, we investigate in detail the X-ray properties of the jets in our models. We have focused our study on the total X-ray luminosity and its temporal variability, the resulting spectra and the spatial distribution of the emission. Temperature and density maps from our hydrodynamical simulations with radiative cooling presented in the second paper are used together with emissivities calculated with the atomic database ATOMDB. The jets in our models show extended and variable X-ray emission which can be characterized as a sum of hot and warm ...
Online Simulation of Radiation Track Structure Project
Plante, Ianik
2015-01-01
Space radiation comprises protons, helium and high charged and energy (HZE) particles. High-energy particles are a concern for human space flight, because they are no known options for shielding astronauts from them. When these ions interact with matter, they damage molecules and create radiolytic species. The pattern of energy deposition and positions of the radiolytic species, called radiation track structure, is highly dependent on the charge and energy of the ion. The radiolytic species damage biological molecules, which may lead to several long-term health effects such as cancer. Because of the importance of heavy ions, the radiation community is very interested in the interaction of HZE particles with DNA, notably with regards to the track structure. A desktop program named RITRACKS was developed to simulate radiation track structure. The goal of this project is to create a web interface to allow registered internal users to use RITRACKS remotely.
Numerical simulation of liquid jet breakup using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)
Pourabdian, Majid; Morad, Mohammad Reza
2016-01-01
In this paper, breakup of liquid jet is simulated using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) which is a meshless Lagrangian numerical method. For this aim, flow governing equations are discretized based on SPH method. In this paper, SPHysics open source code has been utilized for numerical solutions. Therefore, the mentioned code has been developed by adding the surface tension effects. The proposed method is then validated using dam break with obstacle problem. Finally, simulation of twodimensional liquid jet flow is carried out and its breakup behavior considering one-phase flow is investigated. Length of liquid breakup in Rayleigh regime is calculated for various flow conditions such as different Reynolds and Weber numbers and the results are validated by an experimental correlation. The whole numerical solutions are accomplished for both Wendland and cubic spline kernel functions and Wendland kernel function gave more accurate results. The results are compared to MPS method for inviscid liquid as well. T...
L. Alfonso
2010-03-01
Full Text Available The kinetic collection equation (KCE has been widely used to describe the evolution of the average droplet spectrum due to the collection process that leads to the development of precipitation in warm clouds. This deterministic, integro-differential equation only has analytic solution for very simple kernels. For more realistic kernels, the KCE needs to be integrated numerically. In this study, the validity time of the KCE for the hydrodynamic kernel is estimated by a direct comparison of Monte Carlo simulations with numerical solutions of the KCE. The simulation results show that when the largest droplet becomes separated from the smooth spectrum, the total mass calculated from the numerical solution of the KCE is not conserved and, thus, the KCE is no longer valid. This result confirms the fact that for realistic kernels appropriate for precipitation development within warm clouds, the KCE can only be applied to the continuous portion of the mass distribution.
Inogamov, N. A.; Zhakhovsky, V. V.; Hasegawa, N.; Nishikino, M.; Yamagiwa, M.; Ishino, M.; Agranat, M. B.; Ashitkov, S. I.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Khokhlov, V. A.; Ilnitsky, D. K.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Migdal, K. P.; Pikuz, T. A.; Takayoshi, S.; Eyama, T.; Kakimoto, N.; Tomita, T.; Baba, M.; Minami, Y.; Suemoto, T.; Kawachi, T.
2015-06-01
Spatial structures of ablative mass flow produced by femtosecond laser pulses are studied. In experiments with a gold film, the Ti:sapp laser pulse having a focal size of 100 microns on a target was used, while a soft X-ray probe pulse was utilized for diagnostics. The experimental data are compared with simulated mass flows obtained by two-temperature hydrodynamics and molecular dynamics methods. Simulation shows evolution of a thin surface layer pressurized after electron-ion thermalization, which leads to melting, cavitation and formation of spallation liquid layer. The calculated asymptotic surface velocity of this layer as a function of fluence is in reasonably good agreement with experimental data.
High-resolution Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations of the merger of binary white dwarfs
Lorén-Aguilar, P; García-Berro, E
2009-01-01
We present the results of a set of high-resolution simulations of the merging process of two white dwarfs. In order to do so, we use an up-to-date Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code which incorporates very detailed input physics and an improved treatment of the artificial viscosity. Our simulations have been done using a large number of particles (4x10^5) and cover the full range of masses and chemical compositions of the coalescing white dwarfs. We also compare the time evolution of the system during the first phases of the coalescence with that obtained using a simplified treatment of mass transfer, we discuss in detail the characteristics of the final configuration, we assess the possible observational signatures of the merger, like the associated gravitational waveforms and the fallback X-ray flares, and we study the long-term evolution of the coalescence.
Domínguez-Tenreiro, R; Saiz, A
1998-01-01
We report results on the formation of disk-like structures in two cosmological hydrodynamical simulations in a hierarchical clustering scenario, sharing the same initial conditions. In the first one, a simple and generic implementation of star formation has allowed galaxy-like objects with stellar bulges and extended, populated disks to form. Gas in the disk comes from both, particles that survive mergers keeping in part their angular momentum content, and new gas supply by infall, once the merger process is over, with global specific angular momentum conservation. The stellar bulge forms from gas that has lost most of its angular momentum. In the second simulation, no star formation has been included. In this case, objects consist of an overpopulated central gas concentration, and an extended, underpopulated disk. The central concentration forms from particles that suffer an important angular momentum loss in violent events, and it often contains more than 70% of the object's baryonic mass. The external disk...
Center-to-Limb Variation of Solar 3-D Hydrodynamical Simulations
Koesterke, L; Lambert, D L
2008-01-01
We examine closely the solar Center-to-Limb variation of continua and lines and compare observations with predictions from both a 3-D hydrodynamic simulation of the solar surface (provided by M. Asplund and collaborators) and 1-D model atmospheres. Intensities from the 3-D time series are derived by means of the new synthesis code ASSET, which overcomes limitations of previously available codes by including a consistent treatment of scattering and allowing for arbitrarily complex line and continuum opacities. In the continuum, we find very similar discrepancies between synthesis and observation for both types of model atmospheres. This is in contrast to previous studies that used a ``horizontally'' and time averaged representation of the 3-D model and found a significantly larger disagreement with observations. The presence of temperature and velocity fields in the 3-D simulation provides a significant advantage when it comes to reproduce solar spectral line shapes. Nonetheless, a comparison of observed and s...
Three-Dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulation for Liquid Droplet with Surface Tension
Terissa, Hanifa; Naa, Christian Fredy
2013-01-01
We provide a basic method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate liquid droplet with surface tension in three dimensions. Liquid droplet is a simple case for surface tension modeling. Surface tension works only on fluid surface. In SPH method, we simply apply the surface tension on the boundary particles of liquid. The particle on the 3D boundary was detected dynamically using Free-Surface Detection algorithm. The normal vector and curvature of the boundary surface were calculated simultaneously with 3D boundary surface reconstruction using Moving Least-Squares (MLS) method. Before the reconstruction, the coordinate system was transformed into a local coordinate system. Afterwards, the surface tension force which depends on curvature of the surface, was calculated and applied on the boundary particles of the droplet. We present the simulation result of droplet motion with gravity force. By using the basic method of SPH for fluid modeling, and a combination of 3D Free-Surface Detection algorithm ...
郭春雨; 赵大刚; 孙瑜
2014-01-01
In order to study hydrodynamic performance of a propeller in the free surface, the numerical simulation and open-water experiments are carried out with varying shaft depths of propeller. The influences of shaft depths of a propeller on thrust and torque coefficient in calm water are mainly studied. Meanwhile, this paper also studies the propeller air-ingestion under special working conditions by experiment and theoretical calculation method, and compares the calculation results and experimental results. The results prove that the theoretical calculation model used in this paper can imitate the propeller air-ingestion successfully. The successful phenomenon simulation provides an essential theoretical basis to understand the physical essence of the propeller air-ingestion.
Cosmological Simulations with Scale-Free Initial Conditions; 1, Adiabatic Hydrodynamics
Owen, J M; Evrard, A E; Hernquist, L E; Katz, N; Weinberg, David H.; Evrard, August E.; Hernquist, Lars; Katz, Neal
1997-01-01
We analyze hierarchical structure formation based on scale-free initial conditions in an Einstein-de Sitter universe, including a baryonic component. We present three independent, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, performed with two different SPH codes (TreeSPH and P3MSPH) at two resolutions. Each simulation is based upon identical initial conditions, which consist of Gaussian distributed initial density fluctuations that have an n=-1 power spectrum. The baryonic material is modeled as an ideal gas subject only to shock heating and adiabatic heating and cooling. The evolution is expected to be self-similar in time, and under certain restrictions we identify the expected scalings for many properties of the distribution of collapsed objects in all three realizations. The distributions of dark matter masses, baryon masses, and mass and emission weighted temperatures scale quite reliably. However, the density estimates in the central regions of these structures are determined by the degree of num...
Simulating pH effects in an algal-growth hydrodynamics model(1).
James, Scott C; Janardhanam, Vijayasarathi; Hanson, David T
2013-06-01
Models and numerical simulations are relatively inexpensive tools that can be used to enhance economic competitiveness through operation and system optimization to minimize energy and resource consumption, while maximizing algal oil yield. This work uses modified versions of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) in conjunction with the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers' water-quality code (CE-QUAL) to simulate flow hydrodynamics coupled to algal growth kinetics. The model allows the flexibility of manipulating a host of variables associated with algal growth such as temperature, light intensity, and nutrient availability. pH of the medium is a newly added operational parameter governing algal growth that affects algal photosynthesis, differential availability of inorganic forms of carbon, enzyme activity in algae cell walls, and oil production rates. A single-layer algal-growth/hydrodynamic model without pH limitation was verified by comparing solution curves of algal biomass and phosphorus concentrations to an analytical solution. Media pH, now included in the model as a growth-limiting factor, can be entered as a measured value or calculated based on CO2 concentrations. Upon adding the ability to limit growth due to pH, physically reasonable results have been obtained from the model both with and without pH limitation. When the model was used to simulate algal growth from a pond experiment in the greenhouse, a least-squares fitting technique yielded a maximum algal production (subsequently modulated by limitation factors) of 1.05 d(-1) . Overall, the measured and simulated biomass concentrations in the greenhouse pond were in close agreement. © 2013 Phycological Society of America.
Petkova, Margarita
2010-01-01
We carry out hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation that simultaneously follow radiative transfer of hydrogen-ionising photons, based on the optically-thin variable Eddinton tensor approximation as implemented in the {\\small GADGET} code. We consider only star-forming galaxies as sources and examine to what extent they can yield a reasonable reionisation history and thermal state of the intergalactic medium at redshifts around $z\\sim 3$. This serves as an important benchmark for our self-consistent methodology to simulate galaxy formation and reionisation, and for future improvements through accounting of other sources and other wavelength ranges. We find that star formation alone is sufficient for reionising the Universe by redshift $z\\sim6$. For a suitable choice of the escape fraction and the heating efficiency, our models are approximately able to account at the same time for the one-point function and the power spectrum of the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest. The radiation field has an important impact on ...
Radiation simulations of the CMS detector
Stoddard, Graham J.
This thesis presents results of recent radiation simulations for the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN performed using the Monte Carlo simulation package FLUKA. High statistics simulations with a fine granularity in the detector were carried out using the Condor batch system at the Fermilab LHC Physics Center. In addition, an existing web tool for accessing and displaying simulation data was upgraded. The FLUKA data and previously generated MARS Monte Carlo data can be plotted using 1-D or 2-D plotting functionalities along R and Z, the transverse distance from the beamline and the distance along the beamline, respectively. Comparisons between the data sets have been carried out; the effect of particle transport thresholds in both packages was explored, comparisons with zero magnetic field in the CMS solenoid and full field are made, a model of non-ionizing energy losses is examined, and sensitive areas of interest within the simulation are identified.
Benchapattarapong, N; Anderson, W A; Bai, F; Moo-Young, M
2005-07-01
A physico-chemical, two phase simulated pseudoplastic fermentation (SPF) broth was investigated in which Solka Floc cellulose fibre was used to simulate the filamentous biomass, and a mixture of 0.1% (w/v) carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and 0.15 M aqueous sodium chloride was used to simulate the liquid fraction of the fermentation broth. An investigation of the rheological behaviour and hydrodynamic properties of the SPF broth was carried out, and compared to both a fungal Tolypocladium inflatum fermentation broth and a CMC solution in a 50 L stirred tank bioreactor equipped with conventional Rushton turbines. The experimental data confirmed the ability of the two phase SPF broth to mimic both the T. inflatum broth bulk rheology as well as the mixing and mass transfer behaviour. In contrast, using a homogeneous CMC solution with a similar bulk rheology to simulate the fermentation resulted in a significant underestimation of the mass transfer and mixing times. The presence of the solid phase and its microstructure in the SPF broth appear to play a significant role in gas holdup and bubble size, thus leading to the different behaviours. The SPF broth seems to be a more accurate simulation fluid that can be used to predict the bioreactor mixing and mass transfer performance in filamentous fermentations, in comparison with CMC solutions used in some previous studies.
Lovell, Mark R; Boyarsky, Alexey; Crain, Robert A; Frenk, Carlos S; Hellwing, Wojciech A; Ludlow, Aaron D; Navarro, Julio F; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Sawala, Till; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom
2016-01-01
We study galaxy formation in sterile neutrino dark matter models that differ significantly from both cold and from `warm thermal relic' models. We use the EAGLE code to carry out hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of pairs of galaxies chosen to resemble the Local Group, as part of the APOSTLE simulations project. We compare cold dark matter (CDM) with two sterile neutrino models with 7 keV mass: one, the warmest among all models of this mass (LA120) and the other, a relatively cold case (LA10). We show that the lower concentration of sterile neutrino subhalos compared to their CDM counterparts makes the inferred inner dark matter content of galaxies like Fornax (or Magellanic Clouds) less of an outlier in the sterile neutrino cosmologies. In terms of the galaxy number counts the LA10 simulations are \\emph{indistinguishable} from CDM when one takes into account halo-to-halo (or `simulation-to-simulation') scatter. In order for the LA120 model to match the number of Local Group dwarf galaxies, a higher f...
McCarthy, Leonard G; Kosiol, Carolin; Healy, Anne Marie; Bradley, Geoff; Sexton, James C; Corrigan, Owen I
2003-01-01
The objective of this work was to examine the feasibility of developing a high-performance computing software system to simulate the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) dissolution apparatus 2 (paddle apparatus) and thus aid in characterizing the fluid hydrodynamics in the method. The USP apparatus was modeled using the hydrodynamic package Fluent. The Gambit program was used to create a "wireframe" of the apparatus and generate the 3-dimensional grids for the computational fluid dynamics solver. The Fluent solver was run on an IBM RS/6000 SP distributed memory parallel processor system, using 8 processors. Configurations with and without a tablet present were developed and examined. Simulations for a liquid-filled vessel at a paddle speed of 50 rpm were generated. Large variations in fluid velocity magnitudes with position in the vessel were evident. Fluid velocity predictions were in good agreement with those previously published, using laser Doppler velocity measurements. A low-velocity domain was evident directly below the center of the rotating paddle. The model was extended to simulate the impact of the presence of a cylindrical tablet in the base of the dissolution vessel. The presence of the tablet complicated the local fluid flow, and large fluid shear rates were evident at the base of the compact. Fluid shear rates varied depending on the tablet surface and the location on the surface and were consistent with the reported asymmetrical dissolution of model tablets. The approach has the potential to explain the variable dissolution results reported and to aid in the design/prediction of optimal dissolution conditions for in vitro--in vivo correlations.
Heat Transfer and hydrodynamics in Annular Chromatography：CFD—Simulation and Experiments
Hans－JoergBart; JorgBrozio; 等
2000-01-01
Continuous annular chromatography(CAC) is a separation process for multicomponent liquid mixtures.The performance of the apparatus can be seriously decreased by temperature gradients inside the adsorbent bed.It is shown.that the temperature gradients can be significantly reduced by a pre-heating of the entering liquid in the apparatus itself.Heat transfer and hydrodynamics in the porous media are described by two different modlelling approaches.Both are based on a pseudo-homogeneous model for heat transfer with temperature dependent fluid viscosities,The first model considers one-dimensional fiud flow and two-dimensional heat transfer,The second,ore rigorous one is a three-dimensional model for heat transfer and hydrodynamics.The simulation results obtained with both models are in good agreement with experimental results.The experiments have been performed with glass beads as the stationary phase and water as the liquid phase under different boundary conditions.The temparature profiles inside the packed bed have been measured with thermocouples.
When Microquasar Jets and Supernova Collide: Hydrodynamically Simulating the SS433-W50 Interaction
Goodall, Paul T; Blundell, Katherine M
2011-01-01
We present investigations of the interaction between the relativistic, precessing jets of the microquasar SS433 with the surrounding, expanding Supernova Remnant (SNR) shell W50, and the consequent evolution in the inhomogeneous Interstellar Medium (ISM). We model their evolution using the hydrodynamic FLASH code, which uses adaptive mesh refinement. We show that the peculiar morphology of the entire nebula can be reproduced to a good approximation, due to the combined effects of: (i) the evolution of the SNR shell from the free-expansion phase through the Sedov blast wave in an exponential density profile from the Milky Way disc, and (ii) the subsequent interaction of the relativistic, precessing jets of SS 433. Our simulations reveal: (1) Independent measurement of the Galaxy scale-height and density local to SS433 (as n_0 = 0.2 cm^{-3}, Z_d = 40 pc), with this scale-height being in excellent agreement with the work of Dehnen & Binney. (2) A new mechanism for hydrodynamic refocusing of conical jets. (3)...
Three-dimensional Hybrid Continuum-Atomistic Simulations for Multiscale Hydrodynamics
Wijesinghe, S; Hornung, R; Garcia, A; Hadjiconstantinou, N
2004-04-15
We present an adaptive mesh and algorithmic refinement (AMAR) scheme for modeling multi-scale hydrodynamics. The AMAR approach extends standard conservative adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithms by providing a robust flux-based method for coupling an atomistic fluid representation to a continuum model. The atomistic model is applied locally in regions where the continuum description is invalid or inaccurate, such as near strong flow gradients and at fluid interfaces, or when the continuum grid is refined to the molecular scale. The need for such ''hybrid'' methods arises from the fact that hydrodynamics modeled by continuum representations are often under-resolved or inaccurate while solutions generated using molecular resolution globally are not feasible. In the implementation described herein, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) provides an atomistic description of the flow and the compressible two-fluid Euler equations serve as our continuum-scale model. The AMR methodology provides local grid refinement while the algorithm refinement feature allows the transition to DSMC where needed. The continuum and atomistic representations are coupled by matching fluxes at the continuum-atomistic interfaces and by proper averaging and interpolation of data between scales. Our AMAR application code is implemented in C++ and is built upon the SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure) framework developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. SAMRAI provides the parallel adaptive gridding algorithm and enables the coupling between the continuum and atomistic methods.
LUO Yun-ju; LIU Dong-yan; LIU Xin-rong
2006-01-01
The Nanwenquan (South Hot Spring) and Xiao quan (Small Hot Spring) in the Nanwenquan anticline are well-known attraction for their geothermal water, but currently, the two natural hot springs have hot flow naturally. In order to protect the geothermal water resource, the evolution of hydrodynamic field must be researched for the causation of the hydrodynamic field destroyed. The finite element numerical simulation was adopted and quantitative study on the geothermal water hydrodynamic field. The finite element model was set up to simulate the research sites, the simulated water level was compared with the actual water level, the feasibility of this model was proved when the simulated water level is approximate to actual one, and an applicable finite element model was obtained. The finite element model was used to simulate the evolution of the hydrodynamic field. This paper supplies a basis to exploit adequately and protect effectively the geothermal water resource, at the same time it is proved feasible in practice to apply finite element numerical simulation to quantitative study of the geothermal water.
Rosen, A. L.; Krumholz, M. R.; Oishi, J. S.; Lee, A. T.; Klein, R. I.
2017-02-01
We present a highly-parallel multi-frequency hybrid radiation hydrodynamics algorithm that combines a spatially-adaptive long characteristics method for the radiation field from point sources with a moment method that handles the diffuse radiation field produced by a volume-filling fluid. Our Hybrid Adaptive Ray-Moment Method (HARM2) operates on patch-based adaptive grids, is compatible with asynchronous time stepping, and works with any moment method. In comparison to previous long characteristics methods, we have greatly improved the parallel performance of the adaptive long-characteristics method by developing a new completely asynchronous and non-blocking communication algorithm. As a result of this improvement, our implementation achieves near-perfect scaling up to O (103) processors on distributed memory machines. We present a series of tests to demonstrate the accuracy and performance of the method.
Rosen, Anna L; Oishi, Jeffrey S; Lee, Aaron T; Klein, Richard I
2016-01-01
We present a highly-parallel multi-frequency hybrid radiation hydrodynamics algorithm that combines a spatially-adaptive long characteristics method for the radiation field from point sources with a moment method that handles the diffuse radiation field produced by a volume-filling fluid. Our Hybrid Adaptive Ray-Moment Method (HARM$^2$) operates on patch-based adaptive grids, is compatible with asynchronous time stepping, and works with any moment method. In comparison to previous long characteristics methods, we have greatly improved the parallel performance of the adaptive long-characteristics method by developing a new completely asynchronous and non-blocking communication algorithm. As a result of this improvement, our implementation achieves near-perfect scaling up to $\\mathcal{O}(10^3)$ processors on distributed memory machines. We present a series of tests to demonstrate the accuracy and performance of the method.
Cosmic evolution of the C IV in high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations
Tescari, E.; Viel, M.; D'Odorico, V.; Cristiani, S.; Calura, F.; Borgani, S.; Tornatore, L.
2011-02-01
We investigate the properties of triply ionized carbon (C IV) in the intergalactic medium (IGM) using a set of high resolution and large box size cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of a Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model. We rely on a modification of the publicly available TreeSPH code GADGET-2 that self-consistently follows the metal enrichment mechanism by means of a detailed chemical evolution model. We focus on several numerical implementations of galactic feedback: galactic winds in the energy-driven and momentum-driven prescriptions, galactic winds hydrodynamically coupled to the surrounding gas and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) powered by gas accretion on to massive black holes. Furthermore, our results are compared to a run in which galactic feedback is not present and we also explore different initial stellar mass function. After having addressed some global properties of the simulated volume like the impact on the star formation rate and the content in carbon and C IV, we extract mock IGM transmission spectra in neutral hydrogen (H I) and C IV and perform Voigt profile fitting. The results are then compared with high-resolution quasar (QSO) spectra obtained with the Ultraviolet Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrograph (HIRES) at Keck. We find that feedback has little impact on statistics related to the neutral hydrogen, while C IV is more affected by galactic winds and/or AGN feedback. The feedback schemes investigated have a different strength and redshift evolution with a general tendency for AGN feedback to be more effective at lower redshift than galactic winds. When the same analysis is performed over observed and simulated C IV lines, we find a reasonably good agreement between data and simulations over the column density range NC IV= 1012.5-15 cm-2. Also the C IV linewidth distribution appears to be in agreement with the observed values, while the H I Doppler parameters, bH I
Identifying and analysing protostellar disc fragments in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations
Hall, Cassandra; Forgan, Duncan; Rice, Ken
2017-09-01
We present a new method of identifying protostellar disc fragments in a simulation based on density derivatives, and analyse our data using this and the existing CLUMPFIND method, which is based on an ordered search over all particles in gravitational potential energy. Using smoothed particle hydrodynamics, we carry out nine simulations of a 0.25 M⊙ disc around a 1 M⊙ star, all of which fragment to form at least two bound objects. We find that when using all particles ordered in gravitational potential space, only fragments that survive the duration of the simulation are detected. When we use the density derivative method, all fragments are detected, so the two methods are complementary, as using the two methods together allows us to identify all fragments, and to then determine those that are likely to be destroyed. We find a tentative empirical relationship between the dominant azimuthal wavenumber in the disc m and the maximum semimajor axis a fragment may achieve in a simulation, such that amax∝1/m. We find the fragment destruction rate to be around half that predicted from population synthesis models. This is due to fragment-fragment interactions in the early gas phase of the disc, which can cause scattering and eccentricity pumping on short time-scales, and affects the fragment's internal structure. We therefore caution that measurements of eccentricity as a function of semimajor axis may not necessarily constrain the formation mechanism of giant planets and brown dwarfs.
Where do galaxies end? A study of hydrodynamic-simulation galaxies and their integrated properties
Stevens, Adam R H; Croton, Darren J; Feng, Yu
2014-01-01
Many techniques have been used in the literature for determining which particles or cells in a hydrodynamic simulation are attached to a galaxy. Often these invoke a spherical aperture that defines the boundary between the galaxy and the rest of its parent (sub)halo, sometimes coupled with, or alternatively involving, the use of a subhalo finder and gas property restrictions. Using the suite of high-resolution zoom re-simulations of individual haloes by Martig et al., and the large-scale simulation MassiveBlack-II, we examine the differences in measured galaxy properties from techniques with various aperture definitions. We perform techniques popular in the literature and present a new technique of our own, based on the baryonic mass profiles of simulated (sub)haloes. For the average Milky-Way-mass system, we find the two most popular techniques in the literature return differences of order 30 per cent for stellar mass, a factor of 3 for gas mass, 40 per cent for star formation rate, and factors of several fo...
3D Simulation of Dam-break effect on a Solid Wall using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
Suprijadi,; Naa, Christian; Putra, Anggy Trisnawan
2013-01-01
Dam is built for water supply, water flow or flooding control and electricity energy storage, but in other hand, dam is one of the most dangerous natural disaster in many countries including in Indonesia. The impact of dam break in neighbour area and is huge and many flooding in remote area, as happen in Dam Situ Gintung in Tangerang (close to Jakarta) in 2009. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), is one of numerical method based on Lagrangian grid which is ap- plied in astrophysical simulation may be used to solve the simulation on dam break effect. The development of SPH methods become alternative methods to solving Navier Stokes equation, which is main key in fluid dynamic simulation. In this paper, SPH is developed for supporting solid par- ticles in use for 3D dam break effect (3D-DBE) simulation. Solid particle have been treated same as fluid particles with additional calculation for converting gained position became translation and rotation of solid object in a whole body. With this capability, the r...
The Launching of Cold Clouds by Galaxy Outflows I: Hydrodynamic Interactions with Radiative Cooling
Scannapieco, Evan
2015-01-01
To better understand the nature of the multiphase material found in outflowing galaxies, we study the evolution of cold clouds embedded in flows of hot and fast material. Using a suite of adaptive-mesh refinement simulations that include radiative cooling, we investigate both cloud mass loss and cloud acceleration under the full range of conditions observed in galaxy outflows. The simulations are designed to track the cloud center of mass, enabling us to study the cloud evolution at long disruption times. For supersonic flows, a Mach cone forms around the cloud, which damps the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability but also establishes a streamwise pressure gradient that stretches the cloud apart. If time is expressed in units of the cloud crushing time, both the cloud lifetime and the cloud acceleration rate are independent of cloud radius, and we find simple scalings for these quantities as a function of the Mach number of the external medium. A resolution study suggests that our simulations have sufficient resoluti...
Simulation of radiation-induced defects
AUTHOR|(CDS)2081367
2015-01-01
Mainly due to their outstanding performance the position sensitive silicon detectors are widely used in the tracking systems of High Energy Physics experiments such as the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb at LHC, the world's largest particle physics accelerator at CERN, Geneva. The foreseen upgrade of the LHC to its high luminosity (HL) phase (HL-LHC scheduled for 2023), will enable the use of maximal physics potential of the facility. After 10 years of operation the expected fluence will expose the tracking systems at HL-LHC to a radiation environment that is beyond the capacity of the present system design. Thus, for the required upgrade of the all-silicon central trackers extensive measurements and simulation studies for silicon sensors of different designs and materials with sufficient radiation tolerance have been initiated within the RD50 Collaboration. Supplementing measurements, simulations are in vital role for e.g. device structure optimization or predicting the electric fields and trapping in the silicon...
Danilewicz Andrzej
2015-02-01
Full Text Available A theoretical base of SPH method, including the governing equations, discussion of importance of the smoothing function length, contact formulation, boundary treatment and finally utilization in hydrocode simulations are presented. An application of SPH to a real case of large penetrations (crater creating into the soil caused by falling mass in Dynamic Replacement Method is discussed. An influence of particles spacing on method accuracy is presented. An example calculated by LS-DYNA software is discussed. Chronological development of Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics is presented. Theoretical basics of SPH method stability and consistency in SPH formulation, artificial viscosity and boundary treatment are discussed. Time integration techniques with stability conditions, SPH+FEM coupling, constitutive equation and equation of state (EOS are presented as well.
Long-term and Large-scale Hydrodynamical Simulations of Migrating Planets
Benítez-Llambay, Pablo; Ramos, Ximena S.; Beaugé, Cristian; Masset, Frédéric S.
2016-07-01
We present a new method that allows for long-term and large-scale hydrodynamical simulations of migrating planets over a grid-based Eulerian code. This technique, which consists of a remapping of the disk by tracking the planetary migration, enables runs of migrating planets over a time comparable to the age of protoplanetary disks. This method also has the potential to address efficiency problems related to the migration of multi-planet systems in gaseous disks and to improve the current results of the migration of massive planets by including global viscous evolution as well as detailed studies of the co-orbital region during migration. We perform different tests using the public code FARGO3D to validate this method and compare its results with those obtained using a classical fixed grid.
Long-term and large-scale hydrodynamical simulations of migrating planets
Benítez-Llambay, Pablo; Beaugé, Cristian; Masset, Frédéric
2016-01-01
We present a new method that allows long-term and large-scale hydrodynamical simulations of migrating planets over a grid-based Eulerian code. This technique, which consists in a remapping of the disk by tracking the planetary migration, enables runs of migrating planets over a time comparable to the age of protoplanetary disks. This method also has the potential to address efficiently problems related with migration of multi-planet systems in gaseous disks, and to improve current results of migration of massive planets by including global viscous evolution as well as detailed studies of the co-orbital region during migration. We perform different tests using the public code FARGO3D to validate this method and compare its results with those obtained using a classical fixed grid.
Protein Simulations in Fluids: Coupling the OPEP Coarse-Grained Force Field with Hydrodynamics.
Sterpone, Fabio; Derreumaux, Philippe; Melchionna, Simone
2015-04-14
A novel simulation framework that integrates the OPEP coarse-grained (CG) model for proteins with the Lattice Boltzmann (LB) methodology to account for the fluid solvent at mesoscale level is presented. OPEP is a very efficient, water-free and electrostatic-free force field that reproduces at quasi-atomistic detail processes like peptide folding, structural rearrangements, and aggregation dynamics. The LB method is based on the kinetic description of the solvent in order to solve the fluid mechanics under a wide range of conditions, with the further advantage of being highly scalable on parallel architectures. The capabilities of the approach are presented, and it is shown that the strategy is effective in exploring the role of hydrodynamics on protein relaxation and peptide aggregation. The end result is a strategy for modeling systems of thousands of proteins, such as in the case of dense protein suspensions. The future perspectives of the multiscale approach are also discussed.
Linear Simulations of the Cylindrical Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability in Hydrodynamics and MHD
Gao, Song
2013-05-01
The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability occurs when density-stratified interfaces are impulsively accelerated, typically by a shock wave. We present a numerical method to simulate the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in cylindrical geometry. The ideal MHD equations are linearized about a time-dependent base state to yield linear partial differential equations governing the perturbed quantities. Convergence tests demonstrate that second order accuracy is achieved for smooth flows, and the order of accuracy is between first and second order for flows with discontinuities. Numerical results are presented for cases of interfaces with positive Atwood number and purely azimuthal perturbations. In hydrodynamics, the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability growth of perturbations is followed by a Rayleigh-Taylor growth phase. In MHD, numerical results indicate that the perturbations can be suppressed for sufficiently large perturbation wavenumbers and magnetic fields.
Losing track of the time: the chemical clock of prestellar core evolution in hydrodynamic simulation
Szucs, L.; Glover, S.; Caselli, P.
2016-05-01
The ortho:para ratio of H2D+ is a proposed observational indicator of prestellar core ages, and thus a possible tool to determine the typical star formation time scale. The conversion of the measured ratio to an age estimate requires modelling of the chemical evolution. Such models usually consider static, one zone models of physical conditions. The relevant chemical time scales, however, are comparable to the dynamic time scale, therefore the history of gas might affect the ratio. To investigate the significance of gas dynamics and history on the spin-state ratio, we analyse prestellar cores formed in various environment in a hydrodynamic simulation. The fully time dependent, spatially resolved chemical evolution of the cores are computed using a state-of-art ortho:para and deuteration chemical network. The true ages are compared to the once indicated by the ortho:para ratio.
The BAHAMAS project: Calibrated hydrodynamical simulations for large-scale structure cosmology
McCarthy, Ian G; Bird, Simeon; Brun, Amandine M C Le
2016-01-01
The evolution of the large-scale distribution of matter is sensitive to a variety of fundamental parameters that characterise the dark matter, dark energy, and other aspects of our cosmological framework. Since the majority of the mass density is in the form of dark matter that cannot be directly observed, to do cosmology with large-scale structure one must use observable (baryonic) quantities that trace the underlying matter distribution in a (hopefully) predictable way. However, recent numerical studies have demonstrated that the mapping between observable and total mass, as well as the total mass itself, are sensitive to unresolved feedback processes associated with galaxy formation, motivating explicit calibration of the feedback efficiencies. Here we construct a new suite of large-volume cosmological hydrodynamical simulations (called BAHAMAS, for BAryons and HAloes of MAssive Systems) where subgrid models of stellar and Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) feedback have been calibrated to reproduce the present...
Dynamic simulation of hydrodynamic model of drum level wave action and sloshing
无
2007-01-01
In order to build the model of the drum level wave action and sloshing, based on the method of modularization modeling,the hydrodynamic model of drum level wave action and sloshing was developed, and dynamic simulation researches were carried out based on the model. The results indicate that both drum level and drum length have functional relations with period of drum level wave action and sloshing. When the drum level decreases or drum length increases, the period of drum level wave action and sloshing increases, density of liquid and number of sub-module division have little influence on the period of drum level wave action and sloshing. The model was validated by the analytical solution theory of liquid's wave action and sloshing in cuboid container, and the 3D graphics of drum level wave action and sloshing was also obtained. The model can dynamically reflect the rules of wave action and sloshing of water in the container exactly.
Numerical simulation of hydrodynamics and bank erosion in a river bend
Rinaldi, Massimo; Mengoni, Beatrice; Luppi, Laura; Darby, Stephen E.; Mosselman, Erik
2008-09-01
We present an integrated analysis of bank erosion in a high-curvature bend of the gravel bed Cecina River (central Italy). Our analysis combines a model of fluvial bank erosion with groundwater flow and bank stability analyses to account for the influence of hydraulic erosion on mass failure processes, the key novel aspect being that the fluvial erosion model is parameterized using outputs from detailed hydrodynamic simulations. The results identify two mechanisms that explain how most bank retreat usually occurs after, rather than during, flood peaks. First, in the high curvature bend investigated here the maximum flow velocity core migrates away from the outer bank as flow discharge increases, reducing sidewall boundary shear stress and fluvial erosion at peak flow stages. Second, bank failure episodes are triggered by combinations of pore water and hydrostatic confining pressures induced in the period between the drawdown and rising phases of multipeaked flow events.
Zhengzheng CHEN; Xiao juan CHAI; Wenjuan WANG
2016-01-01
This paper is concerned with a singular limit for the one-dimensional compress-ible radiation hydrodynamics model. The singular limit we consider corresponds to the phys-ical problem of letting the Bouguer number infinite while keeping the Boltzmann number constant. In the case when the corresponding Euler system admits a contact discontinuity wave, Wang and Xie (2011) [12] recently verified this singular limit and proved that the so-lution of the compressible radiation hydrodynamics model converges to the strong contact discontinuity wave in the L∞-norm away from the discontinuity line at a rate of ε14 , as the reciprocal of the Bouguer number tends to zero. In this paper, Wang and Xie's convergence rate is improved to ε78 by introducing a new a priori assumption and some refined energy estimates. Moreover, it is shown that the radiation flux q tends to zero in the L∞-norm away from the discontinuity line, at a convergence rate as the reciprocal of the Bouguer number tends to zero.
Sigalotti, Leonardo Di G.; Troconis, Jorge; Sira, Eloy; Peña-Polo, Franklin; Klapp, Jaime
2015-07-01
The rapid evaporation and explosive boiling of a van der Waals (vdW) liquid drop in microgravity is simulated numerically in two-space dimensions using the method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The numerical approach is fully adaptive and incorporates the effects of surface tension, latent heat, mass transfer across the interface, and liquid-vapor interface dynamics. Thermocapillary forces are modeled by coupling the hydrodynamics to a diffuse-interface description of the liquid-vapor interface. The models start from a nonequilibrium square-shaped liquid of varying density and temperature. For a fixed density, the drop temperature is increased gradually to predict the point separating normal boiling at subcritical heating from explosive boiling at the superheat limit for this vdW fluid. At subcritical heating, spontaneous evaporation produces stable drops floating in a vapor atmosphere, while at near-critical heating, a bubble is nucleated inside the drop, which then collapses upon itself, leaving a smaller equilibrated drop embedded in its own vapor. At the superheat limit, unstable bubble growth leads to either fragmentation or violent disruption of the liquid layer into small secondary drops, depending on the liquid density. At higher superheats, explosive boiling occurs for all densities. The experimentally observed wrinkling of the bubble surface driven by rapid evaporation followed by a Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the thin liquid layer and the linear growth of the bubble radius with time are reproduced by the simulations. The predicted superheat limit (Ts≈0.96 ) is close to the theoretically derived value of Ts=1 at zero ambient pressure for this vdW fluid.
Sigalotti, Leonardo Di G; Troconis, Jorge; Sira, Eloy; Peña-Polo, Franklin; Klapp, Jaime
2015-07-01
The rapid evaporation and explosive boiling of a van der Waals (vdW) liquid drop in microgravity is simulated numerically in two-space dimensions using the method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The numerical approach is fully adaptive and incorporates the effects of surface tension, latent heat, mass transfer across the interface, and liquid-vapor interface dynamics. Thermocapillary forces are modeled by coupling the hydrodynamics to a diffuse-interface description of the liquid-vapor interface. The models start from a nonequilibrium square-shaped liquid of varying density and temperature. For a fixed density, the drop temperature is increased gradually to predict the point separating normal boiling at subcritical heating from explosive boiling at the superheat limit for this vdW fluid. At subcritical heating, spontaneous evaporation produces stable drops floating in a vapor atmosphere, while at near-critical heating, a bubble is nucleated inside the drop, which then collapses upon itself, leaving a smaller equilibrated drop embedded in its own vapor. At the superheat limit, unstable bubble growth leads to either fragmentation or violent disruption of the liquid layer into small secondary drops, depending on the liquid density. At higher superheats, explosive boiling occurs for all densities. The experimentally observed wrinkling of the bubble surface driven by rapid evaporation followed by a Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the thin liquid layer and the linear growth of the bubble radius with time are reproduced by the simulations. The predicted superheat limit (T(s)≈0.96) is close to the theoretically derived value of T(s)=1 at zero ambient pressure for this vdW fluid.
RICH: Open-source Hydrodynamic Simulation on a Moving Voronoi Mesh
Yalinewich, Almog; Steinberg, Elad; Sari, Re'em
2015-02-01
We present here RICH, a state-of-the-art two-dimensional hydrodynamic code based on Godunov’s method, on an unstructured moving mesh (the acronym stands for Racah Institute Computational Hydrodynamics). This code is largely based on the code AREPO. It differs from AREPO in the interpolation and time-advancement schemeS as well as a novel parallelization scheme based on Voronoi tessellation. Using our code, we study the pros and cons of a moving mesh (in comparison to a static mesh). We also compare its accuracy to other codes. Specifically, we show that our implementation of external sources and time-advancement scheme is more accurate and robust than is AREPO when the mesh is allowed to move. We performed a parameter study of the cell rounding mechanism (Lloyd iterations) and its effects. We find that in most cases a moving mesh gives better results than a static mesh, but it is not universally true. In the case where matter moves in one way and a sound wave is traveling in the other way (such that relative to the grid the wave is not moving) a static mesh gives better results than a moving mesh. We perform an analytic analysis for finite difference schemes that reveals that a Lagrangian simulation is better than a Eulerian simulation in the case of a highly supersonic flow. Moreover, we show that Voronoi-based moving mesh schemes suffer from an error, which is resolution independent, due to inconsistencies between the flux calculation and the change in the area of a cell. Our code is publicly available as open source and designed in an object-oriented, user-friendly way that facilitates incorporation of new algorithms and physical processes.
Using 3D Voronoi grids in radiative transfer simulations
Camps, Peter; Saftly, Waad
2013-01-01
Probing the structure of complex astrophysical objects requires effective three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation of the relevant radiative transfer (RT) processes. As with any numerical simulation code, the choice of an appropriate discretization is crucial. Adaptive grids with cuboidal cells such as octrees have proven very popular, however several recently introduced hydrodynamical and RT codes are based on a Voronoi tessellation of the spatial domain. Such an unstructured grid poses new challenges in laying down the rays (straight paths) needed in RT codes. We show that it is straightforward to implement accurate and efficient RT on 3D Voronoi grids. We present a method for computing straight paths between two arbitrary points through a 3D Voronoi grid in the context of a RT code. We implement such a grid in our RT code SKIRT, using the open source library Voro++ to obtain the relevant properties of the Voronoi grid cells based solely on the generating points. We compare the results obtained through t...
Edwards, J. D.; Dreike, P.; Smith, M. W.; Clemenson, M. D.; Zollweg, J. D.
2015-12-01
We describe developments to a 1-D cylindrical, radiation-hydrodynamics model of a lightning return stroke that simulates lighting spectra with 1 Angstrom resolution in photon wavelength. In previous calculations we assumed standard density air in the return stroke channel and the resulting optical spectrum was that of an optically thick emitter, unlike measured spectra that are optically thin. In this work, we improve our model by initializing our simulation assuming that the leader-heated channel is pre-expanded to a density of 0.01-0.05 ambient and near pressure equilibrium with the surrounding ambient air and by implementing a time-dependent, external heat source to incorporate the effects of continuing current. By doing so, our simulated spectra, illustrated in the attached figure, show strong spectral emission characteristics at wavelengths similar to spectra measured by Orville (1968). In this poster, we describe our model and compare our simulated results with spectra measured by Orville (1968) and Smith (2015). We also use spectroscopic methods to compute physical properties of the plasma channel, e.g. temperature, from Smith's measurements and compare these with our simulated results.
Simulation of central sloshing experiments with smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method
Vorobyev, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.vorobyev@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344 (Germany); Kriventsev, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.kriventsev@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344 (Germany); Maschek, Werner, E-mail: werner.maschek@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344 (Germany)
2011-08-15
Highlights: > Central sloshing experiments are simulated with meshless SPH-based method. > Presence of obstacles and asymmetries on the central peak formation are studied. > The high central peak is observed only in strongly symmetrical geometry. > Results are compared with sloshing simulations by 3D reactor code SIMMER-IV. - Abstract: Liquid sloshing phenomena can be observed whenever a liquid in a container has an unrestrained surface and can be excited. A particular type of sloshing motion can occur during the core meltdown of a liquid metal cooled reactor (LMR) and can lead to a compaction of the fuel in the center of the core possibly resulting in energetic nuclear power excursions. This phenomenon was studied in series of 'centralized sloshing' experiments with a central water column collapsing inside the surrounding cylindrical tank. These experiments provide data for a benchmark exercise for accident analysis codes. To simulate 'centralized sloshing' phenomena, a numerical method should be capable to predict the motion of the free surface of a liquid, wave propagation and reflection from the walls. In this study, a meshless method based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) for the simulation of a 3D free surface liquid motion has been developed. The proposed method is applied to the simulation of 'centralized sloshing' experiments. Simulation results are compared with the experimental results as well as with results of computations performed with the 3D code SIMMER-IV which is an advanced reactor safety analysis code that implements the traditional mesh-based numerical method. In a series of numerical calculations it is shown that overall motion of the liquid is in a good agreement with experimental observations. Dependence on the initial and geometrical symmetry is studied and compared with experimental data.
Noel, C; Papalexandris, M V; Deledicque, V; Messoudi, A El
2007-01-01
Aims. This work presents a new hydrodynamical algorithm to study astrophysical detonations. A prime motivation of this development is the description of a carbon detonation in conditions relevant to superbursts, which are thought to result from the propagation of a detonation front around the surface of a neutron star in the carbon layer underlying the atmosphere. Methods. The algorithm we have developed is a finite-volume method inspired by the original MUSCL scheme of van Leer (1979). The algorithm is of second-order in the smooth part of the flow and avoids dimensional splitting. It is applied to some test cases, and the time-dependent results are compared to the corresponding steady state solution. Results. Our algorithm proves to be robust to test cases, and is considered to be reliably applicable to astrophysical detonations. The preliminary one-dimensional calculations we have performed demonstrate that the carbon detonation at the surface of a neutron star is a multiscale phenomenon. The length scale ...
The Making of FR Is I. Numerical Hydrodynamic 3D Simulations of Low Power Jets
Massaglia, S; Rossi, P; Capetti, S; Mignone, A
2016-01-01
Extragalactic radiosources have been classified in two classes, Fanaroff-Riley I and II, which differ in morphology and radio power. Strongly emitting sources belong to the edge brightened FR II class while the weak ones to the edge darkened FR I class. The origin of this dichotomy is not yet fully understood. Numerical simulations are successful in generating FR~II morphologies but they fail to reproduce the diffuse structure of FR Is. By means of hydro-dynamical 3D simulations of supersonic jets, we investigate how the displayed morphologies depend on the jet parameters. Bow shocks and Mach disks at the jet's head, likely responsible for the presence of hot spots in the FR II sources, disappear for a jet kinetic power less than 10^43 erg/s. This threshold compares favorably with the luminosity at which the FR~I/FR~II transition is observed. The problem is addressed by numerical means carrying out three-dimensional HD simulations of supersonic jets that propagate in a non homogeneous medium with the ambient ...
Xu Li
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH, as a Lagrangian, meshfree method, is supposed to be useful in solving acoustic problems, such as combustion noise, bubble acoustics, etc., and has been gradually used in sound wave computation. However, unphysical oscillations in the sound wave simulation cannot be ignored. In this paper, an artificial viscosity term is added into the standard SPH algorithm used for solving linearized acoustic wave equations. SPH algorithms with or without artificial viscosity are both built to compute sound propagation and interference in the time domain. Then, the effects of the smoothing kernel function, particle spacing and Courant number on the SPH algorithms of sound waves are discussed. After comparing SPH simulation results with theoretical solutions, it is shown that the result of the SPH algorithm with the artificial viscosity term added attains good agreement with the theoretical solution by effectively reducing unphysical oscillations. In addition, suitable computational parameters of SPH algorithms are proposed through analyzing the sound pressure errors for simulating sound waves.
The clustering of baryonic matter. II: halo model and hydrodynamic simulations
Fedeli, C. [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Semboloni, E.; Velliscig, M.; Daalen, M. Van; Schaye, J.; Hoekstra, H., E-mail: cosimo.fedeli@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: sembolon@strw.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: velliscig@strw.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: daalen@strw.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: schaye@strw.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: hoekstra@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)
2014-08-01
We recently developed a generalization of the halo model in order to describe the spatial clustering properties of each mass component in the Universe, including hot gas and stars. In this work we discuss the complementarity of the model with respect to a set of cosmological simulations including hydrodynamics of different kinds. We find that the mass fractions and density profiles measured in the simulations do not always succeed in reproducing the simulated matter power spectra, the reason being that the latter encode information from a much larger range in masses than that accessible to individually resolved structures. In other words, this halo model allows one to extract information on the growth of structures from the spatial clustering of matter, that is complementary with the information coming from the study of individual objects. We also find a number of directions for improvement of the present implementation of the model, depending on the specific application one has in mind. The most relevant one is the necessity for a scale dependence of the bias of the diffuse gas component, which will be interesting to test with future detections of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium. This investigation confirms the possibility to gain information on the physics of galaxy and cluster formation by studying the clustering of mass, and our next work will consist of applying the halo model to use future high-precision cosmic shear surveys to this end.
Maschberger, Th; Clarke, C J; Moraux, E
2013-01-01
We analyse a hydrodynamical simulation of star formation. Sink particles in the simulations which represent stars show episodic growth, which is presumably accretion from a core that can be regularly replenished in response to the fluctuating conditions in the local environment. The accretion rates follow $\\dot{m} \\propto m^{2/3}$, as expected from accretion in a gas-dominated potential, but with substantial variations over-laid on this. The growth times follow an exponential distribution which is tapered at long times due to the finite length of the simulation. The initial collapse masses have an approximately lognormal distribution with already an onset of a power-law at large masses. The sink particle mass function can be reproduced with a non-linear stochastic process, with fluctuating accretion rates $\\propto m^{2/3}$, a distribution of seed masses and a distribution of growth times. All three factors contribute equally to the form of the final sink mass function. We find that the upper power law tail of...
Hummels, Cameron; Smith, Britton; Turk, Matthew
2012-01-01
Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy evolution are increasingly able to produce realistic galaxies, but the largest hurdle remaining is in constructing subgrid models that accurately describe the behavior of stellar feedback. As an alternate way to test and calibrate such models, we propose to focus on the circumgalactic medium. To do so, we generate a suite of adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR) simulations for a Milky-Way-massed galaxy run to z=0, systematically varying the feedback implementation. We then post-process the simulation data to compute the absorbing column density for a wide range of common atomic absorbers throughout the galactic halo, including H I, Mg II, Si II, Si III, Si IV, C IV, N V, O VI, and O VII. The radial profiles of these atomic column densities are compared against several quasar absorption line studies, to determine if one feedback prescription is favored. We find that although our models match some of the observations (specifically those ions with lower ionization stre...
Hydrodynamic Simulations of the Central Molecular Zone with a Realistic Galactic Potential
Shin, Jihye; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Baba, Junichi; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Hwang, Jeong-Sun; Chun, Kyungwon; Hozumi, Shunsuke
2017-06-01
We present hydrodynamic simulations of gas clouds inflowing from the disk to a few hundred parsec region of the Milky Way. A gravitational potential is generated to include realistic Galactic structures by using thousands of multipole expansions (MEs) that describe 6.4 million stellar particles of a self-consistent Galaxy simulation. We find that a hybrid ME model, with two different basis sets and a thick-disk correction, accurately reproduces the overall structures of the Milky Way. Through non-axisymmetric Galactic structures of an elongated bar and spiral arms, gas clouds in the disk inflow to the nuclear region and form a central molecular zone-like nuclear ring. We find that the size of the nuclear ring evolves into ˜ 240 {pc} at T˜ 1500 {Myr}, regardless of the initial size. For most simulation runs, the rate of gas inflow to the nuclear region is equilibrated to ˜ 0.02 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. The nuclear ring is off-centered, relative to the Galactic center, by the lopsided central mass distribution of the Galaxy model, and thus an asymmetric mass distribution of the nuclear ring arises accordingly. The vertical asymmetry of the Galaxy model also causes the nuclear ring to be tilted along the Galactic plane. During the first ˜100 Myr, the vertical frequency of the gas motion is twice that of the orbital frequency, thus the projected nuclear ring shows a twisted, ∞ -like shape.
Intrinsic alignments of galaxies in the Horizon-AGN cosmological hydrodynamical simulation
Chisari, Nora Elisa; Laigle, Clotilde; Dubois, Yohan; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Miller, Lance; Gavazzi, Raphael; Benabed, Karim
2015-01-01
The intrinsic alignments of galaxies are recognised as a contaminant to weak gravitational lensing measurements. In this work, we study the alignment of galaxy shapes and spins at low redshift (z~0.5) in Horizon-AGN, an adaptive-mesh-refinement hydrodynamical cosmological simulation box of 100 Mpc/h a side with AGN feedback implementation. We find that spheroidal galaxies in the simulation show a tendency to be aligned radially towards over-densities in the dark matter density field and other spheroidals. This trend is in agreement with observations, but the amplitude of the signal depends strongly on how shapes are measured and how galaxies are selected in the simulation. Disc galaxies show a tendency to be oriented tangentially around spheroidals in three-dimensions. While this signal seems suppressed in projection, this does not guarantee that disc alignments can be safely ignored in future weak lensing surveys. The shape alignments of luminous galaxies in Horizon-AGN are in agreement with observations and...
Brownian dynamics simulations of lipid bilayer membrane with hydrodynamic interactions in LAMMPS
Fu, Szu-Pei; Young, Yuan-Nan; Peng, Zhangli; Yuan, Hongyan
2016-11-01
Lipid bilayer membranes have been extensively studied by coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. Numerical efficiencies have been reported in the cases of aggressive coarse-graining, where several lipids are coarse-grained into a particle of size 4 6 nm so that there is only one particle in the thickness direction. Yuan et al. proposed a pair-potential between these one-particle-thick coarse-grained lipid particles to capture the mechanical properties of a lipid bilayer membrane (such as gel-fluid-gas phase transitions of lipids, diffusion, and bending rigidity). In this work we implement such interaction potential in LAMMPS to simulate large-scale lipid systems such as vesicles and red blood cells (RBCs). We also consider the effect of cytoskeleton on the lipid membrane dynamics as a model for red blood cell (RBC) dynamics, and incorporate coarse-grained water molecules to account for hydrodynamic interactions. The interaction between the coarse-grained water molecules (explicit solvent molecules) is modeled as a Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential. We focus on two sets of LAMMPS simulations: 1. Vesicle shape transitions with varying enclosed volume; 2. RBC shape transitions with different enclosed volume. This work is funded by NSF under Grant DMS-1222550.
Simulation of river stage using artificial neural network and MIKE 11 hydrodynamic model
Panda, Rabindra K.; Pramanik, Niranjan; Bala, Biplab
2010-06-01
Simulation of water levels at different sections of a river using physically based flood routing models is quite cumbersome, because it requires many types of data such as hydrologic time series, river geometry, hydraulics of existing control structures and channel roughness coefficients. Normally in developing countries like India it is not easy to collect these data because of poor monitoring and record keeping. Therefore, an artificial neural network (ANN) technique is used as an effective alternative in hydrologic simulation studies. The present study aims at comparing the performance of the ANN technique with a widely used physically based hydrodynamic model in the MIKE 11 environment. The MIKE 11 hydrodynamic model was calibrated and validated for the monsoon periods (June-September) of the years 2006 and 2001, respectively. Feed forward neural network architecture with Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) back propagation training algorithm was used to train the neural network model using hourly water level data of the period June-September 2006. The trained ANN model was tested using data for the same period of the year 2001. Simulated water levels by the MIKE 11HD were compared with the corresponding water levels predicted by the ANN model. The results obtained from the ANN model were found to be much better than that of the MIKE 11HD results as indicated by the values of the goodness of fit indices used in the study. The Nash-Sutcliffe index ( E) and root mean square error (RMSE) obtained in case of the ANN model were found to be 0.8419 and 0.8939 m, respectively, during model testing, whereas in case of MIKE 11HD, the values of E and RMSE were found to be 0.7836 and 1.00 m, respectively, during model validation. The difference between the observed and simulated peak water levels obtained from the ANN model was found to be much lower than that of MIKE 11HD. The study reveals that the use of Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm with eight hidden neurons in the hidden layer
Skinner, M Aaron
2015-01-01
Radiation feedback from young star clusters embedded in giant molecular clouds (GMCs) is believed to be important to the control of star formation. For the most massive and dense clouds, including those in which super star clusters (SSCs) are born, pressure from reprocessed radiation exerted on dust grains may disperse a significant portion of the cloud mass back into the interstellar medium (ISM). Using our radiaton hydrodynamics (RHD) code, Hyperion, we conduct a series of numerical simulations to test this idea. Our models follow the evolution of self-gravitating, strongly turbulent clouds in which collapsing regions are replaced by radiating sink particles representing stellar clusters. We evaluate the dependence of the star formation efficiency (SFE) on the size and mass of the cloud and $\\kappa$, the opacity of the gas to infrared (IR) radiation. We find that the single most important parameter determining the evolutionary outcome is $\\kappa$, with $\\kappa \\gtrsim 15 \\text{ cm}^2 \\text{ g}^{-1}$ needed ...
Simulation of photoconductive antennas for terahertz radiation
C. A. Criollo
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Simulation of terahertz (THz emission based on PC antennas imposes a challenge to couple the semiconductor carrier phenomena, optical transport and the THz energy transport. In this paper a Multi-physics simulation for coupling these phenomena using COMSOL Multi-physics 4.3b is introduced. The main parameters of THz photoconductive (PC antenna as THz emitter have been reviewed and discussed. The results indicate the role of each parameter in the resulting photocurrent waveform and THz frequency: The radiated THz photocurrent waveform is determined by the photoconductive gap (the separation between the metallic electrodes, the incident laser illumination and the DC excitation voltage; while the THz frequency depends on the dipole length. The optimization of these parameters could enhance the emission. The simulations extend the advance of compact and cost-effective THz emitters.
nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations - I. Dark matter and non-radiative models
Sembolini, Federico; Yepes, Gustavo; Pearce, Frazer R.; Knebe, Alexander; Kay, Scott T.; Power, Chris; Cui, Weiguang; Beck, Alexander M.; Borgani, Stefano; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Davé, Romeel; Elahi, Pascal Jahan; February, Sean; Huang, Shuiyao; Hobbs, Alex; Katz, Neal; Lau, Erwin; McCarthy, Ian G.; Murante, Guiseppe; Nagai, Daisuke; Nelson, Kaylea; Newton, Richard D. A.; Perret, Valentin; Puchwein, Ewald; Read, Justin I.; Saro, Alexandro; Schaye, Joop; Teyssier, Romain; Thacker, Robert J.
2016-04-01
We have simulated the formation of a galaxy cluster in a Λ cold dark matter universe using 13 different codes modelling only gravity and non-radiative hydrodynamics (RAMSES, ART, AREPO, HYDRA and nine incarnations of GADGET). This range of codes includes particle-based, moving and fixed mesh codes as well as both Eulerian and Lagrangian fluid schemes. The various GADGET implementations span classic and modern smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) schemes. The goal of this comparison is to assess the reliability of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of clusters in the simplest astrophysically relevant case, that in which the gas is assumed to be non-radiative. We compare images of the cluster at z = 0, global properties such as mass and radial profiles of various dynamical and thermodynamical quantities. The underlying gravitational framework can be aligned very accurately for all the codes allowing a detailed investigation of the differences that develop due to the various gas physics implementations employed. As expected, the mesh-based codes RAMSES, ART and AREPO form extended entropy cores in the gas with rising central gas temperatures. Those codes employing classic SPH schemes show falling entropy profiles all the way into the very centre with correspondingly rising density profiles and central temperature inversions. We show that methods with modern SPH schemes that allow entropy mixing span the range between these two extremes and the latest SPH variants produce gas entropy profiles that are essentially indistinguishable from those obtained with grid-based methods.
Shestakov, A I
2007-01-01
We present a scheme to solve the nonlinear multigroup radiation diffusion (MGD) equations. The method is incorporated into a massively parallel, multidimensional, Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The patch-based AMR algorithm refines in both space and time creating a hierarchy of levels, coarsest to finest. The physics modules are time-advanced using operator splitting. On each level, separate level-solve packages advance the modules. Our multigroup level-solve adapts an implicit procedure which leads to a two-step iterative scheme that alternates between elliptic solves for each group with intra-cell group coupling. For robustness, we introduce pseudo transient continuation (PTC). We analyze the magnitude of the PTC parameter to ensure positivity of the resulting linear system, diagonal dominance and convergence of the two-step scheme. For AMR, a level defines a subdomain for refinement. For diffusive processes such as MGD, the refined level uses Dirichet boundary dat...
Price, Daniel J
2015-01-01
We describe a simple method for simulating the dynamics of small grains in a dusty gas, relevant to micron-sized grains in the interstellar medium and grains of centimetre size and smaller in protoplanetary discs. The method involves solving one extra diffusion equation for the dust fraction in addition to the usual equations of hydrodynamics. This "diffusion approximation for dust" is valid when the dust stopping time is smaller than the computational timestep. We present a numerical implementation using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) that is conservative, accurate and fast. It does not require any implicit timestepping and can be straightforwardly ported into existing 3D codes.
Orban, Chris; Chawla, Sugreev; Wilks, Scott C; Lamb, Donald Q
2013-01-01
The potential for laser-produced plasmas to yield fundamental insights into high energy density physics (HEDP) and deliver other useful applications can sometimes be frustrated by uncertainties in modeling the properties and expansion of these plasmas using radiation-hydrodynamics codes. In an effort to overcome this and to corroborate the accuracy of the HEDP capabilities recently added to the publicly available FLASH radiation-hydrodynamics code, we present detailed comparisons of FLASH results to new and previously published results from the HYDRA code used extensively at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We focus on two very different problems of interest: (1) an Aluminum slab irradiated by 15.3 and 76.7 mJ of "pre-pulse" laser energy and (2) a mm-long triangular groove cut in an Aluminum target irradiated by a rectangular laser beam. Because this latter problem bears a resemblance to astrophysical jets, Grava et al., Phys. Rev. E, 78, (2008) performed this experiment and compared detailed x-ray int...
A heterogeneous and parallel computing framework for high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations
Smith, Luke; Liang, Qiuhua
2015-04-01
Shock-capturing hydrodynamic models are now widely applied in the context of flood risk assessment and forecasting, accurately capturing the behaviour of surface water over ground and within rivers. Such models are generally explicit in their numerical basis, and can be computationally expensive; this has prohibited full use of high-resolution topographic data for complex urban environments, now easily obtainable through airborne altimetric surveys (LiDAR). As processor clock speed advances have stagnated in recent years, further computational performance gains are largely dependent on the use of parallel processing. Heterogeneous computing architectures (e.g. graphics processing units or compute accelerator cards) provide a cost-effective means of achieving high throughput in cases where the same calculation is performed with a large input dataset. In recent years this technique has been applied successfully for flood risk mapping, such as within the national surface water flood risk assessment for the United Kingdom. We present a flexible software framework for hydrodynamic simulations across multiple processors of different architectures, within multiple computer systems, enabled using OpenCL and Message Passing Interface (MPI) libraries. A finite-volume Godunov-type scheme is implemented using the HLLC approach to solving the Riemann problem, with optional extension to second-order accuracy in space and time using the MUSCL-Hancock approach. The framework is successfully applied on personal computers and a small cluster to provide considerable improvements in performance. The most significant performance gains were achieved across two servers, each containing four NVIDIA GPUs, with a mix of K20, M2075 and C2050 devices. Advantages are found with respect to decreased parametric sensitivity, and thus in reducing uncertainty, for a major fluvial flood within a large catchment during 2005 in Carlisle, England. Simulations for the three-day event could be performed
Stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion systems: A fluctuating-hydrodynamics approach
Kim, Changho; Nonaka, Andy; Bell, John B.; Garcia, Alejandro L.; Donev, Aleksandar
2017-03-01
We develop numerical methods for stochastic reaction-diffusion systems based on approaches used for fluctuating hydrodynamics (FHD). For hydrodynamic systems, the FHD formulation is formally described by stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs). In the reaction-diffusion systems we consider, our model becomes similar to the reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) description when our SPDEs are spatially discretized and reactions are modeled as a source term having Poisson fluctuations. However, unlike the RDME, which becomes prohibitively expensive for an increasing number of molecules, our FHD-based description naturally extends from the regime where fluctuations are strong, i.e., each mesoscopic cell has few (reactive) molecules, to regimes with moderate or weak fluctuations, and ultimately to the deterministic limit. By treating diffusion implicitly, we avoid the severe restriction on time step size that limits all methods based on explicit treatments of diffusion and construct numerical methods that are more efficient than RDME methods, without compromising accuracy. Guided by an analysis of the accuracy of the distribution of steady-state fluctuations for the linearized reaction-diffusion model, we construct several two-stage (predictor-corrector) schemes, where diffusion is treated using a stochastic Crank-Nicolson method, and reactions are handled by the stochastic simulation algorithm of Gillespie or a weakly second-order tau leaping method. We find that an implicit midpoint tau leaping scheme attains second-order weak accuracy in the linearized setting and gives an accurate and stable structure factor for a time step size of an order of magnitude larger than the hopping time scale of diffusing molecules. We study the numerical accuracy of our methods for the Schlögl reaction-diffusion model both in and out of thermodynamic equilibrium. We demonstrate and quantify the importance of thermodynamic fluctuations to the formation of a two
Saro, A.; De Lucia, G.; Borgani, S.; Dolag, K.
2010-08-01
We present a detailed comparison between the galaxy populations within a massive cluster, as predicted by hydrodynamical smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations and by a semi-analytic model (SAM) of galaxy formation. Both models include gas cooling and a simple prescription of star formation, which consists in transforming instantaneously any cold gas available into stars, while neglecting any source of energy feedback. This simplified comparison is thus not meant to be compared with observational data, but is aimed at understanding the level of agreement, at the stripped-down level considered, between two techniques that are widely used to model galaxy formation in a cosmological framework and which present complementary advantages and disadvantages. We find that, in general, galaxy populations from SAMs and SPH have similar statistical properties, in agreement with previous studies. However, when comparing galaxies on an object-by-object basis, we find a number of interesting differences: (i) the star formation histories of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) from SAM and SPH models differ significantly, with the SPH BCG exhibiting a lower level of star formation activity at low redshift, and a more intense and shorter initial burst of star formation with respect to its SAM counterpart; (ii) while all stars associated with the BCG were formed in its progenitors in the SAM used here, this holds true only for half of the final BCG stellar mass in the SPH simulation, the remaining half being contributed by tidal stripping of stars from the diffuse stellar component associated with galaxies accreted on the cluster halo; (iii) SPH satellites can lose up to 90 per cent of their stellar mass at the time of accretion, due to tidal stripping, a process not included in the SAM used in this paper; (iv) in the SPH simulation, significant cooling occurs on the most massive satellite galaxies and this lasts for up to 1 Gyr after accretion. This physical process is
Pace, Francesco; Maio, Umberto
2014-01-01
The impacts of Compton scattering of hot cosmic gas with the cosmic microwave background radiation [Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect] are consistently quantified in Gaussian and non-Gaussian scenarios, by means of 3D numerical, N-body, hydrodynamic simulations, including cooling, star formation, stellar evolution and metal pollution (He, C, O, Si, Fe, S, Mg, etc.) from different stellar phases, according to proper yields for individual metal species and mass-dependent stellar lifetimes. Light cones are built through the simulation outputs and samples of 100 maps for the resulting temperature fluctuations are derived for both Gaussian and non-Gaussian primordial perturbations. From them, we estimate the possible changes due to early non-Gaussianities on SZ maps, probability distribution functions, angular power spectra and corresponding bispectra. We find that the different growth of structures in the different cases induces significant spectral distortions only in models with large non-Gaussian parameters, fNL. In general, the overall trends are covered by the non-linear, baryonic evolution, whose feedback mechanisms tend to randomize the gas behaviour and homogenize its statistical features, quite independently from the background matter distribution. Deviations due to non-Gaussianity are almost undistinguishable for fNL ≲ 100, remaining always at few per cent level, within the error bars of the Gaussian scenario. Rather extreme models with fNL ˜ 1000 present more substantial deviations from the Gaussian case, overcoming baryon contaminations and showing discrepancies up to a factor of a few in the spectral properties.
Studies on CFD simulation of hydrodynamic phenomena with vortex flow around the bow of a blunt ship
上浦, 鉄平
2014-01-01
In the present studies, hydrodynamic phenomena with vortex flow around the bow of a blunt ship are simulated by using various CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes. In the conventional experimental studies, some flow properties in front of the bow beneath the free surface have been found out and reported; for example, a necklace vortex based on the wave breaking phenomena is the typical one. In CFD simulations, however, reliable results have not been obtained yet.In this study, the authors...
Hallo, L.; Olazabal-Loumé, M.; Maire, P. H.; Breil, J.; Morse, R.-L.; Schurtz, G.
2006-06-01
This paper deals with ablation front instabilities simulations in the context of direct drive ICF. A simplified DT target, representative of realistic target on LIL is considered. We describe here two numerical approaches: the linear perturbation method using the perturbation codes Perle (planar) and Pansy (spherical) and the direct simulation method using our Bi-dimensional hydrodynamic code Chic. Numerical solutions are shown to converge, in good agreement with analytical models.
Ostriker, J P; Ostriker, Jeremiah P; Cen, Renyue
1996-01-01
We compute, including a current state-of-the-art treatment of hydrodynamical processes, heating and cooling, a variety of cosmological models into the extreme nonlinear phase to enable comparisons with observations. First, we note the common, model independent results. All have a mean (z=0) temperature of 10^{4.5}-10^{5.5}\\Kel, set essentially by photoheating processes. Most gas is in one of two components: either at the photoheating floor 10^{4.5}\\Kel and primarily in low density regions or else shock heated to 10^5-10^6\\Kel and in regions of moderate overdensity (in caustics and near groups and clusters). It presents a major observational challenge to observationally detect this second, abundant component as it is neither an efficient radiator nor absorber. About 2\\% to 10\\% of the baryons cool and collapse into galaxies forming on caustics and migrating to clusters. About 1\\%-2\\% of baryons are in the very hot X-ray emitting gas near cluster cores, in good agreement with observations. These correspondances...
Vlasov-Fokker-Planck simulations of fast-electron transport with hydrodynamic plasma response
Kingham, R J; Sherlock, M; Ridgers, C P; Evans, R G, E-mail: rj.kingham@imperial.ac.u [Plasma Physics Group, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2010-08-01
We report on kinetic simulations of the transport of laser-produced relativistic electron beams (REB) through solid-density plasma, including the hydrodynamic response of the plasma. We consider REBs with parameters relevant to fast-ignition of compressed inertial confinement fusion capsules. We show that over the 10-20ps timescales required for fast-ignition, thermal pressure (from Ohmic heating) can significantly modify the density which in turn strongly affects the propagation of injected fast-electrons; it allows them to re-collimate into a narrow, intense beam under conditions where they initially undergo beam-hollowing. Similar static-density calculations do not show re-collimation. The re-collimation effect is attributed to PdV cooling in the pressure-induced density-channel, which in turn suppresses defocusing magnetic fields generated by resistivity gradients. These simulations have been carried out using the new 2D-3V Vlasov-Fokker-Planck (VFP) code FIDO running in hybrid mode.
Molteni, Diego; Battaglia, Onofrio Rosario
2016-01-01
We study the phenomenon of the "walking droplet", by means of numerical fluid dynamics simulations using a standard version of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method. The phenomenon occurs when a millimetric drop is released on the surface of an oil of the same composition contained in a container subjected to vertical oscillations of frequency and amplitude close to the Faraday instability threshold. At appropriate values of the parameters of the system under study, the liquid drop jumps permanently on the surface of the vibrating fluid forming a localized wave-particle system, reminding the behavior of a wave particle quantum system as suggested by de Broglie. In the simulations, the drop and the wave travel at nearly constant speed, as observed in experiments. In our study we made relevant simplifying assumptions, however we observe that the wave-drop coupling is easily obtained. This fact suggests that the phenomenon may occur in many contexts and opens the possibility to study the phenomenon in an ex...
Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Simulation of Micro-Cup-Extrusion Using a Graphit-ic Coating
Li Shi-Cheng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Microextrusion is becoming increasingly important for the manufacturing of microcomponents. However, this reduction in scale to a microlevel means that the influence of friction and the need for suitable lubrication are greatly increased. This study therefore looks at the use of a low-friction and highly wear resistant Graphit-ic coating on the mold-forming section of a microextrusion mold, this coating being applied by a closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating technique. A microcup of CuZn33 brass alloy was then extruded, with a wall thickness of 0.45 mm, outside diameter of 2.9 mm, and an internal diameter of 2 mm. The experimental results in which extrusion uses the mold coating with Graphit-ic film are compared against the experimental results in which extrusion uses the mold uncoating with Graphit-ic film. This showed that the load was decreased a lot and the self-lubricating solid coating facilitates a smooth extrusion process. As the extrusion rate was quite high, smoothed particle hydrodynamics method simulations of the extrusion process were conducted, these being then compared with the experimental results. These result showed that the SPH simulation can be applied to show the deformation of materials and predict the load trend.
CFD SIMULATION OF THE HYDRODYNAMICS AND MIXING TIME IN A STIRRED TANK
AOYI OCHIENG
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Hydrodynamics and mixing efficiency in stirred tanks influence power draw and are therefore important for the design of many industrial processes. In the present study, both experimental and simulation methods were employed to determine the flow fields in different mixing tank configurations in a single phase system. Laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV and computational fluid dynamics (CFD techniques were used to determine the flow fields in systems with and without a draft tube. There was reasonable agreement between the simulation and experimental results. It was shown that the use of a draft tube with a Rushton turbine and hydrofoil impeller resulted in a reduction in the homogenization energy by 19.2 and 17.7%, respectively. This indicates that a reduction in the operating cost can be achieved with the use of a draft tube in a stirred tank and there would be a greater cost reduction in a system stirred by the Rushton turbine compared to that stirred by a propeller.
Galaxies in the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation and in the Durham and Munich semi-analytical models
Guo, Quan; Guo, Qi; Schaller, Matthieu; Furlong, Michelle; Bower, Richard G; Cole, Shaun; Crain, Robert A; Frenk, Carlos S; Helly, John C; Lacey, Cedric G; Lagos, Claudia del P; Mitchell, Peter; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom
2015-01-01
We compare global predictions from the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation, and two semi-analytic (SA) models of galaxy formation, L-GALAXIES and GALFORM. All three models include the key physical processes considered to be essential for the formation and evolution of galaxies and their parameters are calibrated against a small number of observables at $z\\approx 0$. The two SA models have been applied to merger trees constructed from the EAGLE dark matter only simulation. GALFORM has been run with two prescriptions for the ram pressure stripping of hot gas from satellites: instantaneous or gradual stripping. We find that at $z\\leq 2$, both the galaxy stellar mass functions for stellar masses $M_{*} 10^{9.5} {\\rm M}_{\\odot}$ differ in some instances by an order of magnitude, while the stellar mass-size relation in EAGLE is a factor of $\\approx 2$ tighter than for the two SA models. Our results suggest the need for a revision of the galactic wind treatment in SA models and of the effect that the baryonic self-grav...
Ji, Zhe; Xu, Fei; Takahashi, Akiyuki; Sun, Yu
2016-12-01
In this paper, a Weakly Compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (WCSPH) framework is presented utilizing the parallel architecture of single- and multi-GPU (Graphic Processing Unit) platforms. The program is developed for water entry simulations where an efficient potential based contact force is introduced to tackle the interaction between fluid and solid particles. The single-GPU SPH scheme is implemented with a series of optimization to achieve high performance. To go beyond the memory limitation of single GPU, the scheme is further extended to multi-GPU platform basing on an improved 3D domain decomposition and inter-node data communication strategy. A typical benchmark test of wedge entry is investigated in varied dimensions and scales to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the program. The results of 2D and 3D benchmark tests manifest great consistency with the experiment and better accuracy than other numerical models. The performance of the single-GPU code is assessed by comparing with serial and parallel CPU codes. The improvement of the domain decomposition strategy is verified, and a study on the scalability and efficiency of the multi-GPU code is carried out as well by simulating tests with varied scales in different amount of GPUs. Lastly, the single- and multi-GPU codes are further compared with existing state-of-the-art SPH parallel frameworks for a comprehensive assessment.
Nishiura, Daisuke; Furuichi, Mikito; Sakaguchi, Hide
2015-09-01
The computational performance of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation is investigated for three types of current shared-memory parallel computer devices: many integrated core (MIC) processors, graphics processing units (GPUs), and multi-core CPUs. We are especially interested in efficient shared-memory allocation methods for each chipset, because the efficient data access patterns differ between compute unified device architecture (CUDA) programming for GPUs and OpenMP programming for MIC processors and multi-core CPUs. We first introduce several parallel implementation techniques for the SPH code, and then examine these on our target computer architectures to determine the most effective algorithms for each processor unit. In addition, we evaluate the effective computing performance and power efficiency of the SPH simulation on each architecture, as these are critical metrics for overall performance in a multi-device environment. In our benchmark test, the GPU is found to produce the best arithmetic performance as a standalone device unit, and gives the most efficient power consumption. The multi-core CPU obtains the most effective computing performance. The computational speed of the MIC processor on Xeon Phi approached that of two Xeon CPUs. This indicates that using MICs is an attractive choice for existing SPH codes on multi-core CPUs parallelized by OpenMP, as it gains computational acceleration without the need for significant changes to the source code.
Valdez-Balderas, Daniel; Rogers, Benedict D; Crespo, Alejandro J C
2012-01-01
Starting from the single graphics processing unit (GPU) version of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code DualSPHysics, a multi-GPU SPH program is developed for free-surface flows. The approach is based on a spatial decomposition technique, whereby different portions (sub-domains) of the physical system under study are assigned to different GPUs. Communication between devices is achieved with the use of Message Passing Interface (MPI) application programming interface (API) routines. The use of the sorting algorithm radix sort for inter-GPU particle migration and sub-domain halo building (which enables interaction between SPH particles of different subdomains) is described in detail. With the resulting scheme it is possible, on the one hand, to carry out simulations that could also be performed on a single GPU, but they can now be performed even faster than on one of these devices alone. On the other hand, accelerated simulations can be performed with up to 32 million particles on the current architec...
Hojjati, Alireza; Harnois-Deraps, Joachim; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Hinshaw, Gary; Brun, Amandine M C Le
2014-01-01
We use the cosmo-OWLS suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, which includes different galactic feedback models, to predict the cross-correlation signal between weak gravitational lensing and the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) $y$-parameter. The predictions are compared to the recent detection reported by van Waerbeke and collaborators. The simulations reproduce the weak lensing-tSZ cross-correlation, $\\xi_{y\\kappa}(\\theta)$, well. The uncertainty arising from different possible feedback models appears to be important on small scales only ($\\theta \\lesssim 10$ arcmin), while the amplitude of the correlation on all scales is sensitive to cosmological parameters that control the growth rate of structure (such as $\\sigma_8$, $\\Omega_m$ and $\\Omega_b$). This study confirms our previous claim (in Ma et al.) that a significant proportion of the signal originates from the diffuse gas component in low-mass ($M_{\\rm{halo}} \\lesssim 10^{14} M_{\\odot}$) clusters as well as from the region beyond the virial ra...
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations of white dwarf collisions and close encounters
Lorén-Aguilar, P; García-Berro, E
2010-01-01
The collision of two white dwarfs is a quite frequent event in dense stellar systems, like globular clusters and galactic nuclei. In this paper we present the results of a set of simulations of the close encounters and collisions of two white dwarfs. We use an up- to-date smoothed particle hydrodynamics code that incorporates very detailed input physics and an improved treatment of the artificial viscosity. Our simulations have been done using a large number of particles (~ 4 \\times 10^5) and covering a wide range of velocities and initial distances of the colliding white dwarfs. We discuss in detail when the initial eccentric binary white dwarf survives the closest approach, when a lateral collision in which several mass transfer episodes occur is the outcome of the newly formed binary system, and which range of input parameters leads to a direct collision, in which only one mass transfer episode occurs. We also discuss the characteristics of the final configuration and we assess the possible observational s...
Constraining the dark matter content of NGC 1291 using hydrodynamic gas response simulations
Fragkoudi, F; Bosma, A
2016-01-01
We present a pilot study on the nearby massive barred galaxy NGC 1291, in which we use dynamical modelling to constrain the disc mass-to-light ratio (M/L), thus breaking the degeneracy between the baryonic and dark matter in its central regions. We use the gas, specifically the morphology of the dust lanes on the leading side of the bar, as a tracer of the underlying gravitational potential. We run a large number of hydrodynamic gas response simulations, in potentials obtained directly from near-infrared images of the galaxy, which have three free parameters: the M/L, the bar pattern speed and the height function. We explore the three-dimensional parameter space, by comparing the morphology of the shocks created in the gas response simulations with those of the observed dust lanes, and find the best-fitting models; these suggest that the M/L of NGC 1291 agrees with that predicted by stellar population synthesis models in the near-infrared ($\\approx$0.6\\,$M_{\\odot}/L_{\\odot}$), which leads to a borderline maxi...
Baruteau, Clément
2015-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of large dust grains in massive lopsided transition discs via 2D hydrodynamical simulations including both gas and dust. Our simulations adopt a ring-like gas density profile that becomes unstable against the Rossby-wave instability and forms a large crescent-shaped vortex. When gas self-gravity is discarded, but the indirect force from the displacement of the star by the vortex is included, we confirm that dust grains with stopping times of order the orbital time, which should be typically a few centimetres in size, are trapped ahead of the vortex in the azimuthal direction, while the smallest and largest grains concentrate towards the vortex centre. We obtain maximum shift angles of about 25 degrees. Gas self-gravity accentuates the concentration differences between small and large grains. At low to moderate disc masses, the larger the grains, the farther they are trapped ahead of the vortex. Shift angles up to 90 degrees are reached for 10 cm-sized grains, and we show that such ...
Breaking the disc-halo degeneracy in NGC 1291 using hydrodynamic simulations
Fragkoudi, F; Bosma, A
2016-01-01
We present a pilot study on the nearby massive galaxy NGC 1291, in which we aim to constrain the dark matter in the inner regions, by obtaining a dynamical determination of the disc mass-to-light ratio (M/L). To this aim, we model the bar-induced dust lanes in the galaxy, using hydrodynamic gas response simulations. The models have three free parameters, the M/L of the disc, the bar pattern speed and the disc height function. We explore the parameter space to find the best fit models, i.e. those in which the morphology of the shocks in the gas simulations matches the observed dust lanes. The best-fit models suggest that the M/L of NGC 1291 agrees with that predicted by stellar population synthesis models in the near-infrared ($\\approx$0.6\\,$M_{\\odot}/L_{\\odot}$), which leads to a borderline maximum disc for this galaxy. The bar rotates fast, with corotation radius $\\leq$ 1.4 times the bar length. Additionally, we find that the height function has a significant effect on the results, and can bias them towards ...
Investigating Galaxy-Filament Alignments in Hydrodynamic Simulations using Density Ridges
Chen, Yen-Chi; Tenneti, Ananth; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Croft, Rupert; DiMatteo, Tiziana; Freeman, Peter E; Genovese, Christopher R; Wasserman, Larry
2015-01-01
In this paper, we study the filamentary structures and the galaxy alignment along filaments at redshift $z=0.06$ in the MassiveBlack-II simulation, a state-of-the-art, high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulation which includes stellar and AGN feedback in a volume of (100 Mpc$/h$)$^3$. The filaments are constructed using the subspace constrained mean shift (SCMS; Ozertem & Erdogmus (2011) and Chen et al. (2015a)). First, we show that reconstructed filaments using galaxies and reconstructed filaments using dark matter particles are similar to each other; over $50\\%$ of the points on the galaxy filaments have a corresponding point on the dark matter filaments within distance $0.13$ Mpc$/h$ (and vice versa) and this distance is even smaller at high-density regions. Second, we observe the alignment of the major principal axis of a galaxy with respect to the orientation of its nearest filament and detect a $2.5$ Mpc$/h$ critical radius for filament's influence on the alignment when the subhalo mass o...
Hughes, Anna; Boley, Aaron C.
2016-10-01
The growth and migration of planetesimals in young protoplanetary disks are fundamental to the planet formation process. A number of mechanisms seemingly inhibit small grains from growing to sizes much larger than a centimeter, limiting planetesimal growth. In spite of this, the meteoritic record, abundance of exoplanets, and the lifetimes of disks considered altogether indicate that growth must be rapid and common. If a small number of 100-km sized planetesimals do form by some method such as the streaming instability, then gas drag effects could enable those objects to accrete small solids efficiently. In particular, accretion rates for such planetesimals could be higher or lower than rates based on the geometric cross-section and gravitational focusing alone. The local gas conditions and properties of accreting bodies select a locally optimal accretion size for the pebbles. As planetesimals accrete pebbles, they feel an additional angular momentum exchange - causing the planetesimal to slowly drift inward, which becomes significant at short orbital periods. We present self-consistent hydrodynamic simulations with direct particle integration and gas-drag coupling to evaluate the rate of planetesimal growth due to pebble accretion. We explore a range of particle sizes, planetesimal properties, and disk conditions using wind tunnel simulations. These results are followed by numerical analysis of planetesimal drift rates at a variety of stellar distances.
Cosmic ray feedback in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy and galaxy cluster formation
Pfrommer, C; Jubelgas, M; Ensslin, T A; Pfrommer, Christoph; Springel, Volker; Jubelgas, Martin; Ensslin, Torsten A.
2006-01-01
It is well known that cosmic rays (CRs) contribute significantly to the pressure of the interstellar medium in our own Galaxy, suggesting that they may play an important role in regulating star formation during the formation and evolution of galaxies. We will present a novel numerical treatment of the physics of CRs and its implementation in the parallel smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET-2. In our methodology, the non-thermal CR population is treated self-consistently in order to assess its dynamical impact on the thermal gas as well as other implications on cosmological observables. In simulations of galaxy formation, we find that CRs can significantly reduce the star formation efficiencies of small galaxies. This effect becomes progressively stronger towards low mass scales. In cosmological simulations of the formation of dwarf galaxies at high redshift, we find that the total mass-to-light ratio of small halos and the faint-end of the luminosity function are affected. In high resolution sim...
The BAHAMAS project: calibrated hydrodynamical simulations for large-scale structure cosmology
McCarthy, Ian G.; Schaye, Joop; Bird, Simeon; Le Brun, Amandine M. C.
2017-03-01
The evolution of the large-scale distribution of matter is sensitive to a variety of fundamental parameters that characterize the dark matter, dark energy, and other aspects of our cosmological framework. Since the majority of the mass density is in the form of dark matter that cannot be directly observed, to do cosmology with large-scale structure, one must use observable (baryonic) quantities that trace the underlying matter distribution in a (hopefully) predictable way. However, recent numerical studies have demonstrated that the mapping between observable and total mass, as well as the total mass itself, are sensitive to unresolved feedback processes associated with galaxy formation, motivating explicit calibration of the feedback efficiencies. Here, we construct a new suite of large-volume cosmological hydrodynamical simulations (called BAHAMAS, for BAryons and HAloes of MAssive Systems), where subgrid models of stellar and active galactic nucleus feedback have been calibrated to reproduce the present-day galaxy stellar mass function and the hot gas mass fractions of groups and clusters in order to ensure the effects of feedback on the overall matter distribution are broadly correct. We show that the calibrated simulations reproduce an unprecedentedly wide range of properties of massive systems, including the various observed mappings between galaxies, hot gas, total mass, and black holes, and represent a significant advance in our ability to mitigate the primary systematic uncertainty in most present large-scale structure tests.
Galaxies in the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation and in the Durham and Munich semi-analytical models
Guo, Quan; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Guo, Qi; Schaller, Matthieu; Furlong, Michelle; Bower, Richard G.; Cole, Shaun; Crain, Robert A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helly, John C.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Mitchell, Peter; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom
2016-10-01
We compare global predictions from the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation, and two semi-analytic (SA) models of galaxy formation, L-GALAXIES and GALFORM. All three models include the key physical processes for the formation and evolution of galaxies and their parameters are calibrated against a small number of observables at z ≈ 0. The two SA models have been applied to merger trees constructed from the EAGLE dark matter only simulation. We find that at z ≤ 2, both the galaxy stellar mass functions for stellar masses M* EAGLE and L-GALAXIES there are more central passive galaxies with M* EAGLE is a factor of ≈1.5 steeper than for the two SA models. The median sizes for galaxies with M* > 109.5 M⊙ differ in some instances by an order of magnitude, while the stellar mass-size relation in EAGLE is a factor of ≈2 tighter than for the two SA models. Our results suggest the need for a revision of how SA models treat the effect of baryonic self-gravity on the underlying dark matter. The treatment of gas flows in the models needs to be revised based on detailed comparison with observations to understand in particular the evolution of the stellar mass-metallicity relation.
Hydrodynamic simulations of moonlet induced propellers and the size of Blériot
Seiss, Martin; Albers, Nicole; Sremcevic, Miodrag; Schmidt, Jürgen; Salo, Heikki; Hoffmann, Holger; Spahn, Frank
2016-10-01
Small moons embedded in Saturn's rings can cause S-shaped density structures in their close vicinity called propellers. These structures have been predicted on base of a combined model involving gravitational scattering of test particles (creating the structure) and diffusion (smearing out the structure, see Spahn and Sremčević (2000, Astron. Astrophys.) and Sremčević et al. (2002,MNRAS)). The propeller model was confirmed later by N-body simulations, which additionally show the appearance of moonlet wakes adjacent to the S-shaped gaps (Seiß et al., 2005, GRL; Lewis and Stewart, 2009, Astron. J.). It was a great success of the Cassini mission when propellers were detected in the data of the ISS (Tiscareno et al., 2006, Nature; Sremčević et al., 2007, Nature; Tiscareno et al., 2008, Astron. J. and 2010, ApJL) and UVIS (Baillié et al., 2013) instruments.Here we present isothermal hydrodynamic simulations of propellers as a further development of the original model (Spahn and Sremčević, 2000, Astron. Astrophys.) where gravitational scattering and diffusion had to be treated separately. We confirm the correctness of the predicted scaling laws for the radial and azimuthal extent of propellers and show that the analytical solution by Sremčević et al. (2002, MNRAS) can be fitted to the azimuthal profile. Furthermore, we show that this new approach is in a good agreement with N-body simulations performed with parameters suitable for the A-ring. Finally, we present simulation results of the giant propeller Blériot and fit them to optical depth profiles gathered by the UVIS experiment aboard of the spacecraft Cassini. The fits are consistent using 600 m for the Hill radius of the moonlet and 350 cm2/s for the kinematic shear viscosity.
Hoda, Nazish; Kumar, Satish
2007-12-21
The adsorption of single polyelectrolyte molecules in shear flow is studied using Brownian dynamics simulations with hydrodynamic interaction (HI). Simulations are performed with bead-rod and bead-spring chains, and electrostatic interactions are incorporated through a screened Coulombic potential with excluded volume accounted for by the repulsive part of a Lennard-Jones potential. A correction to the Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa tensor is derived that accounts for the presence of a planar wall. The simulations show that migration away from an uncharged wall, which is due to bead-wall HI, is enhanced by increases in the strength of flow and intrachain electrostatic repulsion, consistent with kinetic theory predictions. When the wall and polyelectrolyte are oppositely charged, chain behavior depends on the strength of electrostatic screening. For strong screening, chains get depleted from a region close to the wall and the thickness of this depletion layer scales as N(1/3)Wi(2/3) at high Wi, where N is the chain length and Wi is the Weissenberg number. At intermediate screening, bead-wall electrostatic attraction competes with bead-wall HI, and it is found that there is a critical Weissenberg number for desorption which scales as N(-1/2)kappa(-3)(l(B)|sigmaq|)(3/2), where kappa is the inverse screening length, l(B) is the Bjerrum length, sigma is the surface charge density, and q is the bead charge. When the screening is weak, adsorbed chains are observed to align in the vorticity direction at low shear rates due to the effects of repulsive intramolecular interactions. At higher shear rates, the chains align in the flow direction. The simulation method and results of this work are expected to be useful for a number of applications in biophysics and materials science in which polyelectrolyte adsorption plays a key role.
Simulation of radiation damage in gadolinium pyrochlores
Todorov, Ilian T.; Purton, John A.; Allan, Neil L.; Dove, Martin T.
2006-02-01
We report molecular dynamics simulations of the production of radiation cascades in pyrochlores. We consider the apparently similar systems Gd2Ti2O7, Gd2Zr2O7 and Gd2Pb2O7, the first two of which have been put forward as potential materials for high-level radioactive waste storage. The effects of changing the mass of the 'primary knock-on' atom are also examined and we investigate whether the change in behaviour from Ti to Zr to Pb is largely due to the mass or the size difference between the elements. Problems associated with analysing the cascades and the damage created are discussed. There are clear differences between the three compounds. The simulations see no direct amorphization but rather a transition to the fluorite structure which is more pronounced for the Zr and Pb compounds than the Ti system. Underlying chemical trends are examined.
Simulating radiation damage in {delta}-plutonium
Robinson, M. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.robinson@lboro.ac.uk; Kenny, S.D.; Smith, R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Storr, M.T.; McGee, E. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)
2009-09-15
Radiation events in {delta}-Pu (fcc) have been simulated in an attempt to understand the fundamental mechanisms that contribute to the Pu ageing process. The Pu interactions are modelled using a potential based on the modified embedded atom method (MEAM). The energetics of point defects have been investigated using static calculations together with molecular dynamics (MD) to simulate radiation events. All MD simulations were carried out with Pu initially in the face-centred-cubic (fcc) structure, although this is not the lowest energy configuration for the pure metal. The point defect study suggests that the mono-vacancy has the lowest formation energy (0.46 eV), with interstitial defects favouring the <100> - split orientation over occupation of the native fcc octahedral site. Displacement threshold energy calculations at room temperature give a minimum value of between 5 and 6 eV, increasing to 8-14 eV along the major crystallographic directions. Low energy collision cascades, initiated with energies in the range of 0.4-1 keV, show that the cascades form in a similar manner to other fcc metals with a vacancy rich zone at the cascade core, surrounded by isolated interstitial defects. Higher energy cascades show similar features but with occasional channelling of energetic atoms and sub-cascade branching which significantly reduces defect production. A common trait observed across all the cascades was the relatively slow annealing period, compared to cascades in other fcc metals, with simulations at energies above 5 keV requiring many 10's of picoseconds before the ballistic phase was completed.
Research on fast rise time EMP radiating-wave simulator
Fan, Lisi; Liu, Haitao; Wang, Yun
2013-03-01
This paper presents an antenna of High altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) radiating-wave simulator which expands the testing zone larger than the traditional transmission line simulator. The numerical results show that traverse electramagnetic (TEM) antenna can be used to radiate HEMP simulation radiating wave, but in low frequency band the emissive capability is poor. The experiment proves the numerical model is valid. The results of this paper show that TEM antenna can be used to HEMP radiating-wave simulator, and can prove the low frequency radiation capability through resistance loaded method.
The formation of entropy cores in non-radiative galaxy cluster simulations: SPH versus AMR
Power, C; Hobbs, A
2013-01-01
Abridged: We simulate a massive galaxy cluster in a LCDM Universe using three different approaches to solving the equations of non-radiative hydrodynamics: `classic' Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH); a novel SPH with a higher order dissipation switch (SPHS); and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). We find that SPHS and AMR are in excellent agreement, with both forming a well-defined entropy core that rapidly converges with increasing mass and force resolution. By contrast, SPH exhibits rather different behaviour. At low redshift, entropy decreases systematically with decreasing cluster-centric radius, converging on ever lower central values with increasing resolution. At higher redshift, SPH is in better agreement with SPHS and AMR but shows much poorer numerical convergence. We trace these discrepancies to artificial surface tension in SPH at phase boundaries. At early times, the passage of massive substructures close to the cluster centre stirs and shocks gas to build an entropy core. At later times, artif...
Stute, Matthias; Sahai, Raghvendra
2007-01-01
In Papers I and II in this series, we presented hydrodynamical simulations of jet models with parameters representative of the symbiotic system MWC 560. These were simulations of a pulsed, initially underdense jet in a high-density ambient medium. Since the pulsed emission of the jet creates internal shocks and since the jet velocity is very high, the jet bow shock and the internal shocks are heated to high temperatures and should therefore emit X-ray radiation. In this paper, we investigate in detail the X-ray properties of the jets in our models. We have focused our study on the total X-ray luminosity and its temporal variability, the resulting spectra, and the spatial distribution of the emission. Temperature and density maps from our hydrodynamical simulations with radiative cooling presented in the second paper are used, together with emissivities calculated with the atomic database ATOMDB. The jets in our models show extended and variable X-ray emission, which can be characterized as a sum of hot and warm components with temperatures that are consistent with observations of CH Cyg and R Aqr. The X-ray spectra of our model jets show emission-line features that correspond to observed features in the spectra of CH Cyg. The innermost parts of our pulsed jets show iron line emission in the 6.4-6.7 keV range, which may explain such emission from the central source in R Aqr. We conclude that MWC 560 should be detectable with Chandra or XMM-Newton, and such X-ray observations will prove crucial for understanding jets in symbiotic stars.
Validity of Hydrostatic Equilibrium in Galaxy Clusters from Cosmological Hydrodynamical Simulations
Suto, Daichi; Kitayama, Tetsu; Sasaki, Shin; Suto, Yasushi; Cen, Renyue
2013-01-01
We examine the validity of the hydrostatic equilibrium (HSE) assumption for galaxy clusters using one of the highest-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. We define and evaluate several effective mass terms corresponding to the Euler equations of the gas dynamics, and quantify the degree of the validity of HSE in terms of the mass estimate. We find that the mass estimated under the HSE assumption (the HSE mass) deviates from the true mass by up to ~ 30 %. This level of departure from HSE is consistent with the previous claims, but our physical interpretation is rather different. We demonstrate that the inertial term in the Euler equations makes a negligible contribution to the total mass, and the overall gravity of the cluster is balanced by the thermal gas pressure gradient and the gas acceleration term. Indeed the deviation from the HSE mass is well explained by the acceleration term at almost all radii. We also clarify the confusion of previous work due to the inappropriate application of the...
Protein simulations in fluids: coupling the OPEP coarse-grained force field with hydrodynamics
Sterpone, Fabio; Derreumaux, Philippe; Melchionna, Simone
2017-01-01
A novel simulation framework that integrates the OPEP coarse-grained (CG) model for proteins with the Lattice Boltzmann (LB) methodology to account for the fluid solvent at mesoscale level, is presented. OPEP is a very efficient, water-free and electrostatic-free force field that reproduces at quasi-atomistic detail processes like peptide folding, structural rearrangements and aggregation dynamics. The LB method is based on the kinetic description of the solvent in order to solve the fluid mechanics under a wide range of conditions, with the further advantage of being highly scalable on parallel architectures. The capabilities of the approach are presented and it is shown that the strategy is effective in exploring the role of hydrodynamics on protein relaxation and peptide aggregation. The end result is a strategy for modelling systems made up to thousands of proteins, such as in the case of dense protein suspensions. The future perspectives of the multi-scale approach are also discussed. PMID:26574390
Carlesi, Edoardo; Lewis, Geraint F; Wales, Scott; Yepes, Gustavo
2014-01-01
We present the results of a series of adiabatic hydrodynamical simulations of several quintessence models (both with a free and an interacting scalar field) in comparison to a standard \\LCDM\\ cosmology. For each we use $2\\times1024^3$ particles in a $250$\\hMpc\\ periodic box assuming WMAP7 cosmology. In this work we focus on the properties of haloes in the cosmic web at $z=0$. The web is classified into \\emph{voids}, \\emph{sheets}, \\emph{filaments} and \\emph{knots} depending on the eigenvalues of the velocity shear tensor, which are an excellent proxy for the underlying overdensity distribution. We find that the properties of objects classified according to their surrounding environment shows a substantial dependence on the underlying cosmology; for example, while $V_{\\rm max}$ shows average deviations of $\\approx5$ per cent across the different models when considering the full halo sample, comparing objects classified according to their environment, the size of the deviation can be as large as $20$ per cent. ...
The impact of environment and mergers on the HI content of galaxies in hydrodynamic simulations
Rafieferantsoa, Mika; Anglés-Alcazar, Daniel; Katz, Neal; Kollmeier, Juna A; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D
2014-01-01
We quantitatively examine the effects of accretion and environment on the HI content of galaxies within a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation that reproduces basic observed trends of HI in galaxies. We show that our model broadly reproduces the observed scatter in HI at a given stellar mass as quantified by the HI mass function in bins of stellar mass, as well as the HI richness versus local galaxy density. This shows that the predicted HI fluctuations and environmental effects are roughly consistent with data with few minor discrepancies. For satellite galaxies in >= 10^12M_* halos, the HI richness distribution is bimodal and drops towards the largest halo masses. The depletion rate of HI once a galaxy enters a more massive halo is more rapid at higher halo mass, in contrast to the specific star formation rate which shows much less variation in the attenuation rate versus halo mass. This suggests that, up to halo mass scales probed here (<= 10^14M_*), star formation is mainly attenuated by starvation, bu...
The fundamental plane of star formation in galaxies revealed by the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulations
Lagos, Claudia del P; Schaye, Joop; Furlong, Michelle; Bower, Richard G; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A; Trayford, James W; Matthee, Jorryt
2015-01-01
We investigate correlations between different physical properties of star-forming galaxies in the "Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments" (EAGLE) cosmological hydrodynamical simulation suite over the redshift range $0\\le z\\le 4.5$. A principal component analysis reveals that neutral gas fraction ($f_{\\rm gas, neutral}$), stellar mass ($M_{\\rm stellar}$) and star formation rate (SFR) account for most of the variance seen in the population, with galaxies tracing a two-dimensional, nearly flat, surface in the three-dimensional space of $f_{\\rm gas, neutral}-M_{\\rm stellar}-\\rm SFR$ with little scatter. The location of this plane varies little with redshift, whereas galaxies themselves move along the plane as their $f_{\\rm gas, neutral}$ and SFR drop with redshift. The positions of galaxies along the plane are highly correlated with gas metallicity. The metallicity can therefore be robustly predicted from $f_{\\rm gas, neutral}$, or from the $M_{\\rm stellar}$ and SFR. We argue that the appearan...
Miranda, Ryan; Lai, Dong
2016-01-01
Circumbinary discs are found in a variety of astrophysical contexts, including around young stellar binaries and supermassive black hole binaries. We carry out a suite of numerical simulations of circumbinary discs, solving the viscous hydrodynamics equations on a polar grid covering an extended disc outside the binary co-orbital region. We use carefully controlled outer boundary conditions and long-term integrations to ensure that the disc reaches a quasi-steady state, in which the time-averaged mass accretion rate onto the binary, $\\langle\\dot{M}\\rangle$, matches the mass supply rate at the outer disc. We focus on binaries with comparable masses, but with a wide range of eccentricities ($e_\\mathrm{B}$). For $e_\\mathrm{B} \\lesssim 0.05$, the mass accretion rate of the binary is modulated with a period of about $5$ times the binary period; otherwise it is modulated at the binary period. The inner part of the circumbinary disc generally becomes coherently eccentric. For low and high $e_\\mathrm{B}$, the disc li...
Sanchez, N Nicole; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Tremmel, Michael; Brooks, Alyson; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Tom; Volonteri, Marta; Wadsley, James
2016-01-01
Using a new, high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulation of a Milky Way-type (MW-type) galaxy, we explore how a merger-rich assembly history affects the mass budget of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). We examine a MW-mass halo at the present epoch whose evolution is characterized by several major mergers to isolate the importance of merger history on black hole accretion. This study is an extension of Bellovary et. al. 2013, which analyzed the accretion of high mass, high redshift galaxies and their central black holes, and found that the gas content of the central black hole reflects what is accreted by the host galaxy halo. In this study, we find that a merger-rich galaxy will have a central SMBH preferentially fed by merger gas. Moreover, we find that nearly 30$\\%$ of the accreted mass budget of the SMBH enters the galaxy through the two major mergers in its history, which may account for the increase of merger-gas fueling the SMBH. Through an investigation of the angular momentum of th...
Bu, De-Fu; Gan, Zhao-Ming; Yang, Xiao-hong
2015-01-01
In previous works, it has been shown that strong winds exist in hot accretion flows around black holes. Those works focus only on the region close to the black hole thus it is unknown whether or where the wind production stops at large radii. In this paper, we investigate this problem based on hydrodynamical numerical simulations. For this aim, we have taken into account the gravity of both the central black hole and the nuclear star clusters. When calculating the latter, we assume that the velocity dispersion of stars is a constant and the gravitational potential of the nuclear star cluster $\\propto \\sigma^2 \\ln (r)$, where $\\sigma$ is the velocity dispersion of stars and $r$ is the distance from the center of the galaxy. Different from previous works, we focus on the region where the gravitational potential is dominated by the star cluster. We find that, same as the accretion flow at small radii, the mass inflow rate decreases inward and the flow is convectively unstable. However, trajectory analysis has sh...
Bournaud, Frederic; Teyssier, Romain; Block, David L; Puerari, Ivanio
2010-01-01
We study the properties of ISM substructure and turbulence in hydrodynamic (AMR) galaxy simulations with resolutions up to 0.8 pc and 5x10^3 Msun. We analyse the power spectrum of the density distribution, and various components of the velocity field. We show that the disk thickness is about the average Jeans scale length, and is mainly regulated by gravitational instabilities. From this scale of energy injection, a turbulence cascade towards small-scale is observed, with almost isotropic small-scale motions. On scales larger than the disk thickness, density waves are observed, but there is also a full range of substructures with chaotic and strongly non-isotropic gas velocity dispersions. The power spectrum of vorticity in an LMC-sized model suggests that an inverse cascade of turbulence might be present, although energy input over a wide range of scales in the coupled gaseous+stellar fluid could also explain this quasi-2D regime on scales larger than the disk scale height. Similar regimes of gas turbulence ...
Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulations of Accretion in Short Period Algols
Raymer, Eric
2012-01-01
Recent observations have shown that the direct-impact Algol systems U CrB and RS Vul possess gas located outside of the orbital plane, including a tilted accretion disc in U CrB. Observations of circumstellar gas surrounding the mass donor in RS Vul suggest magnetic effects could be responsible for deflecting the accretion stream out of the orbital plane, resulting in a tilted disc. To determine whether a tilted disc is possible due to a deflected stream, we use three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the mass transfer process in RS Vul. By deflecting the stream 45 degrees out of the orbital plane and boosting the magnitude of the stream's velocity to Mach 30, we mimic the effects of magnetic activity near L1. We find that the modified stream parameters change the direct-impact nature of the system. The stream misses the surface of the star, and a slightly warped accretion disc forms with no more than 3 degrees of disc tilt. The stream-disc interaction for the deflected stream forces a large degree of m...
An alternative smooth particle hydrodynamics formulation to simulate chemotaxis in porous media.
Avesani, Diego; Dumbser, Michael; Chiogna, Gabriele; Bellin, Alberto
2016-08-27
Chemotaxis, the microorganisms autonomous motility along or against the concentration gradients of a chemical species, is an important, yet often neglected factor controlling the transport of bacteria through saturated porous media. For example, chemotactic bacteria could enhance bioremediation by directing their own motion to residual contaminants trapped in low hydraulic conductive zones of contaminated aquifers. The aim of the present work is to develop an accurate numerical scheme to model chemotaxis in saturated porous media and other advective dominating flow systems. We propose to model chemotaxis by using a new class of meshless Lagrangian particle methods we recently developed for applications in fluid mechanics. The method is based on the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) formulation of (Ben Moussa et al., Int Ser Numer Math, 13(1):29-62, 2006), combined with a new Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) reconstruction technique on moving point clouds in multiple space dimensions. The purpose of this new numerical scheme is to fully exploit the advantages of SPH among traditional mesh-based and mesh-free schemes and to overcome drawbacks related to the use of standard SPH for modeling chemotaxis in porous media. First, we test the new scheme against analytical reference solutions. Then, under the assumption of complete mixing at the Darcy scale, we perform two-dimensional conservative solute transport simulations under steady-state flow conditions, to show the capability of the proposed new scheme to model chemotaxis.
An analysis of the evolving comoving number density of galaxies in hydrodynamical simulations
Torrey, Paul; Machado, Francisco; Griffen, Brendan; Nelson, Dylan; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; McKinnon, Ryan; Pillepich, Annalisa; Ma, Chung-Pei; Vogelsberger, Mark; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars
2015-01-01
The cumulative comoving number-density of galaxies as a function of stellar mass or central velocity dispersion is commonly used to link galaxy populations across different epochs. By assuming that galaxies preserve their number-density in time, one can infer the evolution of their properties, such as masses, sizes, and morphologies. However, this assumption does not hold in the presence of galaxy mergers or when rank ordering is broken owing to variable stellar growth rates. We present an analysis of the evolving comoving number density of galaxy populations found in the Illustris cosmological hydrodynamical simulation focused on the redshift range $0\\leq z \\leq 3$. Our primary results are as follows: 1) The inferred average stellar mass evolution obtained via a constant comoving number density assumption is systematically biased compared to the merger tree results at the factor of $\\sim$2(4) level when tracking galaxies from redshift $z=0$ out to redshift $z=2(3)$; 2) The median number density evolution for...
Numerical simulation of hydro-elastic problems with smoothed particle hydro-dynamics method
刘谋斌; 邵家儒; 李慧琦
2013-01-01
Violent free surface flows with strong fluid-solid interactions can produce a tremendous pressure load on structures, resu-lting in elastic and even plastic deformations. Modeling hydro-elastic problems with structure deformations and a free surface break-up is difficult by using routine numerical methods. This paper presents an improved Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method for modeling hydro-elastic problems. The fluid particles are used to model the free surface flows governed by Navier-Stokes equations, and the solid particles are used to model the dynamic movement and deformation of the elastic solid objects. The impro-ved SPH method employs a Kernel Gradient Correction (KGC) technique to improve the computational accuracy and a Fluid-Solid Interface Treatment (FSIT) algorithm with the interface fluid and solid particles being treated as the virtual particles against their counterparts and a soft repulsive force to prevent the penetration and a corrective density approximation scheme to remove the nume-rical oscillations. Three typical numerical examples are simulated, including a head-on collision of two rubber rings, the dam break with an elastic gate and the water impact onto a forefront elastic plate. The obtained SPH results agree well with experimental obse-rvations and numerical results from other sources.
Cosmic evolution of the CIV in high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations
Tescari, E; D'Odorico, V; Cristiani, S; Calura, F; Borgani, S; Tornatore, L
2010-01-01
We investigate the properties of triply ionized Carbon (CIV) in the Intergalactic Medium using a set of high-resolution and large box-size cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of a $\\Lambda$CDM model. We rely on a modification of the GADGET-2 code that self-consistently follows the metal enrichment mechanism by means of a detailed chemical evolution model. We focus on several numerical implementations of galactic feedback: galactic winds in the energy driven and momentum driven prescriptions and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) powered by gas accretion onto massive black holes. We extract mock IGM transmission spectra in neutral hydrogen (HI) and CIV and perform Voigt profile fitting. The results are then compared with high-resolution quasar (QSO) spectra obtained with the UVES spectrograph at the VLT and the HIRES spectrograph at Keck. We find that feedback has little impact on statistics related to the neutral hydrogen, while CIV is more affected by galactic winds and/or AGN feedback. When the same analysis is...
The Fundamental Plane of star formation in galaxies revealed by the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulations
Lagos, Claudia del P.; Theuns, Tom; Schaye, Joop; Furlong, Michelle; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Trayford, James W.; Matthee, Jorryt
2016-07-01
We investigate correlations between different physical properties of star-forming galaxies in the `Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments' (EAGLE) cosmological hydrodynamical simulation suite over the redshift range 0 ≤ z ≤ 4.5. A principal component analysis reveals that neutral gas fraction (fgas,neutral), stellar mass (Mstellar) and star formation rate (SFR) account for most of the variance seen in the population, with galaxies tracing a two-dimensional, nearly flat, surface in the three-dimensional space of fgas, neutral-Mstellar-SFR with little scatter. The location of this plane varies little with redshift, whereas galaxies themselves move along the plane as their fgas, neutral and SFR drop with redshift. The positions of galaxies along the plane are highly correlated with gas metallicity. The metallicity can therefore be robustly predicted from fgas, neutral, or from the Mstellar and SFR. We argue that the appearance of this `Fundamental Plane of star formation' is a consequence of self-regulation, with the plane's curvature set by the dependence of the SFR on gas density and metallicity. We analyse a large compilation of observations spanning the redshift range 0 ≲ z ≲ 3, and find that such a plane is also present in the data. The properties of the observed Fundamental Plane of star formation are in good agreement with EAGLE's predictions.
Linking 1D evolutionary to 3D hydrodynamical simulations of massive stars
Cristini, A.; Meakin, C.; Hirschi, R.; Arnett, D.; Georgy, C.; Viallet, M.
2016-03-01
Stellar evolution models of massive stars are important for many areas of astrophysics, for example nucleosynthesis yields, supernova progenitor models and understanding physics under extreme conditions. Turbulence occurs in stars primarily due to nuclear burning at different mass coordinates within the star. The understanding and correct treatment of turbulence and turbulent mixing at convective boundaries in stellar models has been studied for decades but still lacks a definitive solution. This paper presents initial results of a study on convective boundary mixing (CBM) in massive stars. The ‘stiffness’ of a convective boundary can be quantified using the bulk Richardson number ({{Ri}}{{B}}), the ratio of the potential energy for restoration of the boundary to the kinetic energy of turbulent eddies. A ‘stiff’ boundary ({{Ri}}{{B}}˜ {10}4) will suppress CBM, whereas in the opposite case a ‘soft’ boundary ({{Ri}}{{B}}˜ 10) will be more susceptible to CBM. One of the key results obtained so far is that lower convective boundaries (closer to the centre) of nuclear burning shells are ‘stiffer’ than the corresponding upper boundaries, implying limited CBM at lower shell boundaries. This is in agreement with 3D hydrodynamic simulations carried out by Meakin and Arnett (2007 Astrophys. J. 667 448-75). This result also has implications for new CBM prescriptions in massive stars as well as for nuclear burning flame front propagation in super-asymptotic giant branch stars and also the onset of novae.
Hu, S. X.; Michel, D. T.; Edgell, D. H.; Froula, D. H.; Follett, R. K.; Goncharov, V. N.; Myatt, J. F.; Skupsky, S.; Yaakobi, B. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 E. River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)
2013-03-15
Direct-drive-ignition designs with plastic CH ablators create plasmas of long density scale lengths (L{sub n} {>=} 500 {mu}m) at the quarter-critical density (N{sub qc}) region of the driving laser. The two-plasmon-decay (TPD) instability can exceed its threshold in such long-scale-length plasmas (LSPs). To investigate the scaling of TPD-induced hot electrons to laser intensity and plasma conditions, a series of planar experiments have been conducted at the Omega Laser Facility with 2-ns square pulses at the maximum laser energies available on OMEGA and OMEGA EP. Radiation-hydrodynamic simulations have been performed for these LSP experiments using the two-dimensional hydrocode draco. The simulated hydrodynamic evolution of such long-scale-length plasmas has been validated with the time-resolved full-aperture backscattering and Thomson-scattering measurements. draco simulations for CH ablator indicate that (1) ignition-relevant long-scale-length plasmas of L{sub n} approaching {approx}400 {mu}m have been created; (2) the density scale length at N{sub qc} scales as L{sub n}({mu}m) Asymptotically-Equal-To (R{sub DPP} Multiplication-Sign I{sup 1/4}/2); and (3) the electron temperature T{sub e} at N{sub qc} scales as T{sub e}(keV) Asymptotically-Equal-To 0.95 Multiplication-Sign {radical}(I), with the incident intensity (I) measured in 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} for plasmas created on both OMEGA and OMEGA EP configurations with different-sized (R{sub DPP}) distributed phase plates. These intensity scalings are in good agreement with the self-similar model predictions. The measured conversion fraction of laser energy into hot electrons f{sub hot} is found to have a similar behavior for both configurations: a rapid growth [f{sub hot} Asymptotically-Equal-To f{sub c} Multiplication-Sign (G{sub c}/4){sup 6} for G{sub c} < 4] followed by a saturation of the form, f{sub hot} Asymptotically-Equal-To f{sub c} Multiplication-Sign (G{sub c}/4){sup 1.2} for G{sub c} {>=} 4, with the
Constructing a Mass-Current Radiation-Reaction Force For Numerical Simulations
Rezzolla, L; Asada, H; Baumgarte, T W; Shapiro, S L
1999-01-01
We present a new set of 3.5 Post-Newtonian equations in which Newtonian hydrodynamics is coupled to the nonconservative effects of gravitational radiation emission. Our formalism differs in two significant ways from a similar 3.5 Post-Newtonian approach proposed by Blanchet (1993, 1997). Firstly we concentrate only on the radiation-reaction effects produced by a time-varying mass-current quadrupole $S_{ij}$. Secondly, we adopt a gauge in which the radiation-reaction force densities depend on the fourth time derivative of $S_{ij}$, rather than on the fifth, as in Blanchet's approach. This difference makes our formalism particularly well-suited to numerical implementation and could prove useful in performing fully numerical simulations of the recently discovered $r$-mode instability for rotating neutron stars subject to axial perturbations.
Edelmann, P. V. F.; Röpke, F. K.; Hirschi, R.; Georgy, C.; Jones, S.
2017-07-01
Context. The treatment of mixing processes is still one of the major uncertainties in 1D stellar evolution models. This is mostly due to the need to parametrize and approximate aspects of hydrodynamics in hydrostatic codes. In particular, the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities in rotating stars, for example, dynamical shear instability, evades consistent description. Aims: We intend to study the accuracy of the diffusion approximation to dynamical shear in hydrostatic stellar evolution models by comparing 1D models to a first-principle hydrodynamics simulation starting from the same initial conditions. Methods: We chose an initial model calculated with the stellar evolution code GENEC that is just at the onset of a dynamical shear instability but does not show any other instabilities (e.g., convection). This was mapped to the hydrodynamics code SLH to perform a 2D simulation in the equatorial plane. We compare the resulting profiles in the two codes and compute an effective diffusion coefficient for the hydro simulation. Results: Shear instabilities develop in the 2D simulation in the regions predicted by linear theory to become unstable in the 1D stellar evolution model. Angular velocity and chemical composition is redistributed in the unstable region, thereby creating new unstable regions. After a period of time, the system settles in a symmetric, steady state, which is Richardson stable everywhere in the 2D simulation, whereas the instability remains for longer in the 1D model due to the limitations of the current implementation in the 1D code. A spatially resolved diffusion coefficient is extracted by comparing the initial and final profiles of mean atomic mass. Conclusions: The presented simulation gives a first insight on hydrodynamics of shear instabilities in a real stellar environment and even allows us to directly extract an effective diffusion coefficient. We see evidence for a critical Richardson number of 0.25 as regions above this threshold remain
Numerical simulation of flow hydrodynamics of struvite pellets in a liquid-solid fluidized bed.
Ye, Xin; Chu, Dongyuan; Lou, Yaoyin; Ye, Zhi-Long; Wang, Ming Kuang; Chen, Shaohua
2017-07-01
Phosphorus recovery in the form of struvite has been aroused in recent decades for its dual advantages in eutrophication control and resource protection. The usage of the struvite products is normally determined by the size which is largely depended on the hydrodynamics. In this study, flow behavior of struvite pellets was simulated by means of Eulerian-Eulerian two-fluid model combining with kinetic theory of granular flow in a liquid-solid fluidized bed reactor (FBR). A parametric study including the mesh size, time step, discretization strategy, turbulent model and drag model was first developed, followed by the evaluations of crucial operational conditions, particle characteristics and reactor shapes. The results showed that a cold model with the mesh resolution of 16×240, default time step of 0.001sec and first order discretization scheme was accurate enough to describe the fluidization. The struvite holdup profile using Syamlal-O'Brien drag model was best fitted to the experimental data as compared with other drag models and the empirical Richardson-Zaki equation. Regarding the model evaluation, it showed that liquid velocity and particle size played important roles on both solid holdups and velocities. The reactor diameter only influenced the solid velocity while the static bed height almost took no effect. These results are direct and can be applied to guide the operation and process control of the struvite fluidization. Moreover, the model parameters can also be used as the basic settings in further crystallization simulations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sevink, G J A; Schmid, F; Kawakatsu, T; Milano, G
2017-02-22
We have extended an existing hybrid MD-SCF simulation technique that employs a coarsening step to enhance the computational efficiency of evaluating non-bonded particle interactions. This technique is conceptually equivalent to the single chain in mean-field (SCMF) method in polymer physics, in the sense that non-bonded interactions are derived from the non-ideal chemical potential in self-consistent field (SCF) theory, after a particle-to-field projection. In contrast to SCMF, however, MD-SCF evolves particle coordinates by the usual Newton's equation of motion. Since collisions are seriously affected by the softening of non-bonded interactions that originates from their evaluation at the coarser continuum level, we have devised a way to reinsert the effect of collisions on the structural evolution. Merging MD-SCF with multi-particle collision dynamics (MPCD), we mimic particle collisions at the level of computational cells and at the same time properly account for the momentum transfer that is important for a realistic system evolution. The resulting hybrid MD-SCF/MPCD method was validated for a particular coarse-grained model of phospholipids in aqueous solution, against reference full-particle simulations and the original MD-SCF model. We additionally implemented and tested an alternative and more isotropic finite difference gradient. Our results show that efficiency is improved by merging MD-SCF with MPCD, as properly accounting for hydrodynamic interactions considerably speeds up the phase separation dynamics, with negligible additional computational costs compared to efficient MD-SCF. This new method enables realistic simulations of large-scale systems that are needed to investigate the applications of self-assembled structures of lipids in nanotechnologies.
Qian, Tiezheng
2009-10-29
This paper starts with an introduction to the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation which governs the optimal paths of deviation and restoration to equilibrium. Then there is a review of the variational approach to moving contact line hydrodynamics. To demonstrate the validity of our continuum hydrodynamic model, numerical results from model calculations and molecular dynamics simulations are presented for immiscible Couette and Poiseuille flows past homogeneous solid surfaces, with remarkable overall agreement. Our continuum model is also used to study the contact line motion on surfaces patterned with stripes of different contact angles (i.e. surfaces of varying wettability). Continuum calculations predict the stick-slip motion for contact lines moving along these patterned surfaces, in quantitative agreement with molecular dynamics simulation results. This periodic motion is tunable through pattern period (geometry) and contrast in wetting property (chemistry). The consequence of stick-slip contact line motion on energy dissipation is discussed. © 2009 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Qian Tiezheng; Wu Congmin; Lei Siu Long; Wang Xiaoping [Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Sheng Ping, E-mail: maqian@ust.h [Department of Physics and William Mong Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)
2009-11-18
This paper starts with an introduction to the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation which governs the optimal paths of deviation and restoration to equilibrium. Then there is a review of the variational approach to moving contact line hydrodynamics. To demonstrate the validity of our continuum hydrodynamic model, numerical results from model calculations and molecular dynamics simulations are presented for immiscible Couette and Poiseuille flows past homogeneous solid surfaces, with remarkable overall agreement. Our continuum model is also used to study the contact line motion on surfaces patterned with stripes of different contact angles (i.e. surfaces of varying wettability). Continuum calculations predict the stick-slip motion for contact lines moving along these patterned surfaces, in quantitative agreement with molecular dynamics simulation results. This periodic motion is tunable through pattern period (geometry) and contrast in wetting property (chemistry). The consequence of stick-slip contact line motion on energy dissipation is discussed.
Qian, Tiezheng; Wu, Congmin; Lei, Siu Long; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Sheng, Ping
2009-11-18
This paper starts with an introduction to the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation which governs the optimal paths of deviation and restoration to equilibrium. Then there is a review of the variational approach to moving contact line hydrodynamics. To demonstrate the validity of our continuum hydrodynamic model, numerical results from model calculations and molecular dynamics simulations are presented for immiscible Couette and Poiseuille flows past homogeneous solid surfaces, with remarkable overall agreement. Our continuum model is also used to study the contact line motion on surfaces patterned with stripes of different contact angles (i.e. surfaces of varying wettability). Continuum calculations predict the stick-slip motion for contact lines moving along these patterned surfaces, in quantitative agreement with molecular dynamics simulation results. This periodic motion is tunable through pattern period (geometry) and contrast in wetting property (chemistry). The consequence of stick-slip contact line motion on energy dissipation is discussed.
Merlin, Emiliano; Grassi, Tommaso; Piovan, Lorenzo; Chiosi, Cesare
2009-01-01
We present EvoL, the new release of the Padova N-body code for cosmological simulations of galaxy formation and evolution. In this paper, the basic Tree + SPH code is presented and analysed, together with an overview on the software architectures. EvoL is a flexible parallel Fortran95 code, specifically designed for simulations of cosmological structure formation on cluster, galactic and sub-galactic scales. EvoL is a fully Lagrangian self-adaptive code, based on the classical Oct-tree and on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics algorithm. It includes special features such as adaptive softening lengths with correcting extra-terms, and modern formulations of SPH and artificial viscosity. It is designed to be run in parallel on multiple CPUs to optimize the performance and save computational time. We describe the code in detail, and present the results of a number of standard hydrodynamical tests.
Shetty, Rahul [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ostriker, Eve C., E-mail: R.Shetty@.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: ostriker@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2012-07-20
We explore the self-regulation of star formation using a large suite of high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, focusing on molecule-dominated regions (galactic centers and [U]LIRGS) where feedback from star formation drives highly supersonic turbulence. In equilibrium, the total midplane pressure, dominated by turbulence, must balance the vertical weight of the interstellar medium. Under self-regulation, the momentum flux injected by feedback evolves until it matches the vertical weight. We test this flux balance in simulations spanning a wide range of parameters, including surface density {Sigma}, momentum injected per stellar mass formed (p{sub *}/m{sub *}), and angular velocity. The simulations are two-dimensional radial-vertical slices, and include both self-gravity and an external potential that helps to confine gas to the disk midplane. After the simulations reach a steady state in all relevant quantities, including the star formation rate {Sigma}{sub SFR}, there is remarkably good agreement between the vertical weight, the turbulent pressure, and the momentum injection rate from supernovae. Gas velocity dispersions and disk thicknesses increase with p{sub *}/m{sub *}. The efficiency of star formation per free-fall time at the midplane density, {epsilon}{sub ff}(n{sub 0}), is insensitive to the local conditions and to the star formation prescription in very dense gas. We measure {epsilon}{sub ff}(n{sub 0}) {approx} 0.004-0.01, consistent with low and approximately constant efficiencies inferred from observations. For {Sigma} in (100-1000) M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}, we find {Sigma}{sub SFR} in (0.1-4) M{sub Sun} kpc{sup -2} yr{sup -1}, generally following a {Sigma}{sub SFR} {proportional_to} {Sigma}{sup 2} relationship. The measured relationships agree very well with vertical equilibrium and with turbulent energy replenishment by feedback within a vertical crossing time. These results, along with the observed {Sigma}-{Sigma}{sub SFR} relation in high
Zhang, X; Zhang, Xiao-he; Sutherland, Peter
1993-01-01
A new, fully dynamic and self-consistent radiation hydrodynamics code, suitable for the calculation of supernovae light curves and continuum spectra, is described. It is a multigroup (frequency-dependent) code and includes all important $O(v/c)$ effects. It is applied to the model W7 of Nomoto, Thielemann, \\& Yokoi (1984) for supernovae of type Ia. Radioactive energy deposition is incorporated through use of tables based upon Monte Carlo results. Effects of line opacity (both static or line blanketing and expansion or line blocking) are neglected, although these may prove to be important. At maximum light, models based upon different treatments of the opacity lead to values for $M_{B,max}$ in the range of -19.0 to -19.4. This range falls between the values for observed supernova claimed by Leibundgut \\& Tammann (1990) and by Pierce, Ressler, \\& Shure (1992).
Self-consistent modelling of line-driven hot-star winds with Monte Carlo radiation hydrodynamics
Noebauer, U M
2015-01-01
Radiative pressure exerted by line interactions is a prominent driver of outflows in astrophysical systems, being at work in the outflows emerging from hot stars or from the accretion discs of cataclysmic variables, massive young stars and active galactic nuclei. In this work, a new radiation hydrodynamical approach to model line-driven hot-star winds is presented. By coupling a Monte Carlo radiative transfer scheme with a finite-volume fluid dynamical method, line-driven mass outflows may be modelled self-consistently, benefiting from the advantages of Monte Carlo techniques in treating multi-line effects, such as multiple scatterings, and in dealing with arbitrary multidimensional configurations. In this work, we introduce our approach in detail by highlighting the key numerical techniques and verifying their operation in a number of simplified applications, specifically in a series of self-consistent, one-dimensional, Sobolev-type, hot-star wind calculations. The utility and accuracy of our approach is dem...
Costa, G.; Orlando, S.; Peres, G.; Argiroffi, C.; Bonito, R.
2017-01-01
Context. It is generally accepted that, in classical T Tauri stars, the plasma from the circumstellar disc accretes onto the stellar surface with free-fall velocity and the impact generates a shock. The impact region is expected to contribute to emission in different spectral bands; many studies have confirmed that the X-rays arise from the post-shock plasma but, otherwise, there are no studies in the literature investigating the origin of the observed UV emission which is apparently correlated to accretion. Aims: We investigated the effect of radiative heating of the infalling material by the post-shock plasma at the base of the accretion stream, with the aim to identify in which region a significant part of the UV emission originates. Methods: We developed a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model describing the impact of an accretion stream onto the stellar surface; the model takes into account the gravity, the radiative cooling of an optically thin plasma, the thermal conduction, and the heating due to absorption of X-ray radiation. The latter term represents the heating of the infalling plasma due to the absorption of X-rays emitted from the post-shock region. Results: We found that the radiative heating of the pre-shock plasma plays a non-negligible role in the accretion phenomenon. In particular, the dense and cold plasma of the pre-shock accretion column is gradually heated up to a few 105K due to irradiation of X-rays arising from the shocked plasma at the impact region. This heating mechanism does not affect significantly the dynamics of the post-shock plasma. On the other hand, a region of radiatively heated gas (that we consider a precursor) forms in the unshocked accretion column and contributes significantly to UV emission. Our model naturally reproduces the luminosity of UV emission lines correlated to accretion and shows that most of the UV emission originates from the precursor.
Ciotti, L; Negri, A; Ostriker, J P
2016-01-01
We present 2D hydrodynamical simulations for the evolution of early-type galaxies containing central massive black holes (MBHs), starting at age 2 Gyr. The code contains accurate and physically consistent radiative and mechanical AGN wind feedback, with parsec-scale central resolution. Mass input comes from stellar evolution; energy input includes Type Ia and II supernova and stellar heating; star-formation is included. Realistic, axisymmetric dynamical models for the galaxies are built solving the Jeans' equations. The lowest mass models (Mstar = 8 10^{10}Msun) develop global outflows sustained by SNIa's heating, ending with a significantly lower amount of hot gas and new stars. In more massive models, nuclear outbursts last to the present epoch, with large and frequent fluctuations in nuclear emission and from the gas (Lx). Each burst last ~ 10^{7.5} yr, during which (for r 0.1. The duty-cycle of AGN activity approximates 4% (Abridged).
Matha, D.; Schlipf, M.; Cordle, A.; Pereira, R.; Jonkman, J.
2011-10-01
This paper presents the current major modeling challenges for floating offshore wind turbine design tools and describes aerodynamic and hydrodynamic effects due to rotor and platform motions and usage of non-slender support structures.
Hahn, Philipp; Leibacher, Ivo; Baasch, Thierry; Dual, Jurg
2015-11-21
The numerical prediction of acoustofluidic particle motion is of great help for the design, the analysis, and the physical understanding of acoustofluidic devices as it allows for a simple and direct comparison with experimental observations. However, such a numerical setup requires detailed modeling of the acoustofluidic device with all its components and thorough understanding of the acoustofluidic forces inducing the particle motion. In this work, we present a 3D trajectory simulation setup that covers the full spectrum, comprising a time-harmonic device model, an acoustic streaming model of the fluid cavity, a radiation force simulation, and the calculation of the hydrodynamic drag. In order to make quantitatively accurate predictions of the device vibration and the acoustic field, we include the viscous boundary layer damping. Using a semi-analytical method based on Nyborg's calculations, the boundary-driven acoustic streaming is derived directly from the device simulation and takes into account cavity wall vibrations which have often been neglected in the literature. The acoustic radiation forces and the hydrodynamic drag are calculated numerically to handle particles of arbitrary shape, structure, and size. In this way, complex 3D particle translation and rotation inside experimental microdevices can be predicted. We simulate the rotation of a microfiber in an amplitude-modulated 2D field and analyze the results with respect to experimental observations. For a quantitative verification, the motion of an alumina microdisk is compared to a simple experiment. Demonstrating the potential of the simulation setup, we compute the trajectory of a red blood cell inside a realistic microdevice under the simultaneous effects of acoustic streaming and radiation forces.
A general hybrid radiation transport scheme for star formation simulations on an adaptive grid
Klassen, Mikhail; Pudritz, Ralph E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University 1280 Main Street W, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Kuiper, Rolf [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Peters, Thomas [Institut für Computergestützte Wissenschaften, Universität Zürich Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Banerjee, Robi; Buntemeyer, Lars, E-mail: klassm@mcmaster.ca [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)
2014-12-10
Radiation feedback plays a crucial role in the process of star formation. In order to simulate the thermodynamic evolution of disks, filaments, and the molecular gas surrounding clusters of young stars, we require an efficient and accurate method for solving the radiation transfer problem. We describe the implementation of a hybrid radiation transport scheme in the adaptive grid-based FLASH general magnetohydrodyanmics code. The hybrid scheme splits the radiative transport problem into a raytracing step and a diffusion step. The raytracer captures the first absorption event, as stars irradiate their environments, while the evolution of the diffuse component of the radiation field is handled by a flux-limited diffusion solver. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method through a variety of benchmark tests including the irradiation of a static disk, subcritical and supercritical radiative shocks, and thermal energy equilibration. We also demonstrate the capability of our method for casting shadows and calculating gas and dust temperatures in the presence of multiple stellar sources. Our method enables radiation-hydrodynamic studies of young stellar objects, protostellar disks, and clustered star formation in magnetized, filamentary environments.
A General Hybrid Radiation Transport Scheme for Star Formation Simulations on an Adaptive Grid
Klassen, Mikhail; Kuiper, Rolf; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Peters, Thomas; Banerjee, Robi; Buntemeyer, Lars
2014-12-01
Radiation feedback plays a crucial role in the process of star formation. In order to simulate the thermodynamic evolution of disks, filaments, and the molecular gas surrounding clusters of young stars, we require an efficient and accurate method for solving the radiation transfer problem. We describe the implementation of a hybrid radiation transport scheme in the adaptive grid-based FLASH general magnetohydrodyanmics code. The hybrid scheme splits the radiative transport problem into a raytracing step and a diffusion step. The raytracer captures the first absorption event, as stars irradiate their environments, while the evolution of the diffuse component of the radiation field is handled by a flux-limited diffusion solver. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method through a variety of benchmark tests including the irradiation of a static disk, subcritical and supercritical radiative shocks, and thermal energy equilibration. We also demonstrate the capability of our method for casting shadows and calculating gas and dust temperatures in the presence of multiple stellar sources. Our method enables radiation-hydrodynamic studies of young stellar objects, protostellar disks, and clustered star formation in magnetized, filamentary environments.
Hydrodynamical simulations of the tidal stripping of binary stars by massive black holes
Mainetti, Deborah; Lupi, Alessandro; Campana, Sergio; Colpi, Monica
2016-04-01
In a galactic nucleus, a star on a low angular momentum orbit around the central massive black hole can be fully or partially disrupted by the black hole tidal field, lighting up the compact object via gas accretion. This phenomenon can repeat if the star, not fully disrupted, is on a closed orbit. Because of the multiplicity of stars in binary systems, also binary stars may experience in pairs such a fate, immediately after being tidally separated. The consumption of both the binary components by the black hole is expected to power a double-peaked flare. In this paper, we perform for the first time, with GADGET2, a suite of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of binary stars around a galactic central black hole in the Newtonian regime. We show that accretion luminosity light curves from double tidal disruptions reveal a more prominent knee, rather than a double peak, when decreasing the impact parameter of the encounter and when elevating the difference between the mass of the star which leaves the system after binary separation and the mass of the companion. The detection of a knee can anticipate the onset of periodic accretion luminosity flares if one of the stars, only partially disrupted, remains bound to the black hole after binary separation. Thus knees could be precursors of periodic flares, which can then be predicted, followed up and better modelled. Analytical estimates in the black hole mass range 105-108 M⊙ show that the knee signature is enhanced in the case of black holes of mass 106-107 M⊙.
First Constraints on Fuzzy Dark Matter from Lyman-α Forest Data and Hydrodynamical Simulations
Iršič, Vid; Viel, Matteo; Haehnelt, Martin G.; Bolton, James S.; Becker, George D.
2017-07-01
We present constraints on the masses of extremely light bosons dubbed fuzzy dark matter (FDM) from Lyman-α forest data. Extremely light bosons with a de Broglie wavelength of ˜1 kpc have been suggested as dark matter candidates that may resolve some of the current small scale problems of the cold dark matter model. For the first time, we use hydrodynamical simulations to model the Lyman-α flux power spectrum in these models and compare it to the observed flux power spectrum from two different data sets: the XQ-100 and HIRES/MIKE quasar spectra samples. After marginalization over nuisance and physical parameters and with conservative assumptions for the thermal history of the intergalactic medium (IGM) that allow for jumps in the temperature of up to 5000 K, XQ-100 provides a lower limit of 7.1 ×10-22 eV , HIRES/MIKE returns a stronger limit of 14.3 ×10-22 eV , while the combination of both data sets results in a limit of 20 ×10-22 eV (2 σ C.L.). The limits for the analysis of the combined data sets increases to 37.5 ×10-22 eV (2 σ C.L.) when a smoother thermal history is assumed where the temperature of the IGM evolves as a power law in redshift. Light boson masses in the range 1 - 10 ×10-22 eV are ruled out at high significance by our analysis, casting strong doubts that FDM helps solve the "small scale crisis" of the cold dark matter models.
Miranda, Ryan; Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong
2017-04-01
We carry out numerical simulations of circumbinary discs, solving the viscous hydrodynamics equations on a polar grid covering an extended disc outside the binary co-orbital region. We use carefully controlled outer boundary conditions and long-term integrations to ensure that the disc reaches a quasi-steady state, in which the time-averaged mass accretion rate on to the binary, , matches the mass supply rate at the outer disc. We focus on binaries with comparable masses and a wide range of eccentricities (eB). For eB ≲ 0.05, the mass accretion rate of the binary is modulated at about five times the binary period; otherwise, it is modulated at the binary period. The inner part of the circumbinary disc (r ≲ 6aB) generally becomes coherently eccentric. For low and high eB, the disc line of apsides precesses around the binary, but for intermediate eB (0.2-0.4), it instead becomes locked with that of the binary. By considering the balance of angular momentum transport through the disc by advection, viscous stress and gravitational torque, we determine the time-averaged net angular momentum transfer rate to the binary, . The specific angular momentum, l_0 = /, depends non-monotonically on eB. Contrary to previous claims, we find that l0 is positive for most eB, implying that the binary receives net angular momentum, which may cause its separation to grow with time. The minimum l0 occurs at intermediate eB (0.2-0.4), corresponding to the regime where the inner eccentric disc is apsidally aligned with the binary.
Radiative transfer simulations of magnetar flare beaming
van Putten, T; Baring, M G; Wijers, R A M J
2016-01-01
Magnetar giant flares show oscillatory modulations in the tails of their light curves, which can only be explained via some form of beaming. The fireball model for magnetar bursts has been used successfully to fit the phase-averaged light curves of the tails of giant flares, but so far no attempts have been made to fit the pulsations. We present a relatively simple numerical model to simulate beaming of magnetar flare emission. In our simulations, radiation escapes from the base of a fireball trapped in a dipolar magnetic field, and is scattered through the optically thick magnetosphere of the magnetar until it escapes. Beaming is provided by the presence of a relativistic outflow, as well as by the geometry of the system. We find that a simple picture for the relativistic outflow is enough to create the pulse fraction and sharp peaks observed in pulse profiles of magnetar flares, while without a relativistic outflow the beaming is insufficient to explain giant flare rotational modulations.
Radiative transfer simulations of magnetar flare beaming
van Putten, T.; Watts, A. L.; Baring, M. G.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.
2016-09-01
Magnetar giant flares show oscillatory modulations in the tails of their light curves, which can only be explained via some form of beaming. The fireball model for magnetar bursts has been used successfully to fit the phase-averaged light curves of the tails of giant flares, but so far no attempts have been made to fit the pulsations. We present a relatively simple numerical model to simulate beaming of magnetar flare emission. In our simulations, radiation escapes from the base of a fireball trapped in a dipolar magnetic field, and is scattered through the optically thick magnetosphere of the magnetar until it escapes. Beaming is provided by the presence of a relativistic outflow, as well as by the geometry of the system. We find that a simple picture for the relativistic outflow is enough to create the pulse fraction and sharp peaks observed in pulse profiles of magnetar flares, while without a relativistic outflow the beaming is insufficient to explain giant flare rotational modulations.
Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Dyre, Jeppe C.; Daivis, Peter J.;
2011-01-01
We show by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations that the Navier-Stokes equation does not correctly describe water flow in a nanoscale geometry. It is argued that this failure reflects the fact that the coupling between the intrinsic rotational and translational degrees of freedom becomes...... important for nanoflows. The coupling is correctly accounted for by the extended Navier-Stokes equations that include the intrinsic angular momentum as an independent hydrodynamic degree of freedom. © 2011 American Physical Society....
Hallo, L.; Olazabal-Loume, M.; Maire, P.H.; Breil, J.; Schurtz, G. [CELIA, 33 - Talence (France); Morse, R.L. [Arizona Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Tucson (United States)
2006-06-15
This paper deals with ablation front instabilities simulations in the context of direct drive inertial confinement fusion. A simplified deuterium-tritium target, representative of realistic target on LIL (laser integration line at Megajoule laser facility) is considered. We describe here two numerical approaches: the linear perturbation method using the perturbation codes Perle (planar) and Pansy (spherical) and the direct simulation method using our bi-dimensional hydrodynamic code Chic. Our work shows a good behaviour of all methods even for large wavenumbers during the acceleration phase of the ablation front. We also point out a good agreement between model and numerical predictions at ablation front during the shock wave transit.
A high resolution hydrodynamic 3-D model simulation of the malta shelf area
A. F. Drago
Full Text Available The seasonal variability of the water masses and transport in the Malta Channel and proximity of the Maltese Islands have been simulated by a high resolution (1.6 km horizontal grid on average, 15 vertical sigma layers eddy resolving primitive equation shelf model (ROSARIO-I. The numerical simulation was run with climatological forcing and includes thermohaline dynamics with a turbulence scheme for the vertical mixing coefficients on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM. The model has been coupled by one-way nesting along three lateral boundaries (east, south and west to an intermediate coarser resolution model (5 km implemented over the Sicilian Channel area. The fields at the open boundaries and the atmospheric forcing at the air-sea interface were applied on a repeating "perpetual" year climatological cycle.
The ability of the model to reproduce a realistic circulation of the Sicilian-Maltese shelf area has been demonstrated. The skill of the nesting procedure was tested by model-modelc omparisons showing that the major features of the coarse model flow field can be reproduced by the fine model with additional eddy space scale components. The numerical results included upwelling, mainly in summer and early autumn, along the southern coasts of Sicily and Malta; a strong eastward shelf surface flow along shore to Sicily, forming part of the Atlantic Ionian Stream, with a presence throughout the year and with significant seasonal modulation, and a westward winter intensified flow of LIW centered at a depth of around 280 m under the shelf break to the south of Malta. The seasonal variability in the thermohaline structure of the domain and the associated large-scale flow structures can be related to the current knowledge on the observed hydrography of the area. The level of mesoscale resolution achieved by the model allowed the spatial and temporal evolution of the changing flow patterns, triggered by
Mereghetti, Paolo; Wade, Rebecca C.
2012-07-26
High macromolecular concentrations are a distinguishing feature of living organisms. Understanding how the high concentration of solutes affects the dynamic properties of biological macromolecules is fundamental for the comprehension of biological processes in living systems. In this paper, we describe the implementation of mean field models of translational and rotational hydrodynamic interactions into an atomically detailed many-protein brownian dynamics simulation method. Concentrated solutions (30-40% volume fraction) of myoglobin, hemoglobin A, and sickle cell hemoglobin S were simulated, and static structure factors, oligomer formation, and translational and rotational self-diffusion coefficients were computed. Good agreement of computed properties with available experimental data was obtained. The results show the importance of both solvent mediated interactions and weak protein-protein interactions for accurately describing the dynamics and the association properties of concentrated protein solutions. Specifically, they show a qualitative difference in the translational and rotational dynamics of the systems studied. Although the translational diffusion coefficient is controlled by macromolecular shape and hydrodynamic interactions, the rotational diffusion coefficient is affected by macromolecular shape, direct intermolecular interactions, and both translational and rotational hydrodynamic interactions.
Hydrodynamic Simulation of the Columbia River, Hanford Reach, 1940--2004
Waichler, Scott R.; Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.
2005-06-15
Many hydrological and biological problems in the Columbia River corridor through the Hanford Site require estimates of river stage (water surface elevation) or river flow and velocity. Systematic collection of river stage data at locations in the Hanford Reach began in 1991, but many environmental projects need river stage information at unmeasured locations or over longer time periods. The Modular Aquatic Simulation System 1D (MASS1), a one-dimensional, unsteady hydrodynamic and water quality model, was used to simulate the Columbia River from Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam from 1940 to 2004, providing estimates of water surface elevation, volumetric flow rate, and flow velocity at 161 locations on the Hanford Reach. The primary input data were bathymetric/topographic cross sections of the Columbia River channel, flow rates at Priest Rapids Dam, and stage at McNary Dam. Other inputs included Yakima River and Snake River inflows. Available flow data at a gaging station just below Priest Rapids Dam was mean daily flow from 1940 to 1986 and hourly thereafter. McNary dam was completed in 1957, and hourly stage data are available beginning in 1975. MASS1 was run at an hourly timestep and calibrated and tested using 1991--2004 river stage data from six Hanford Reach locations (areas 100B, 100N, 100D, 100H, 100F, and 300). Manning's roughness coefficient in the Reach above each river recorder location was adjusted using an automated genetic algorithm and gradient search technique in three separate calibrations, corresponding to different data subsets, with minimization of mean absolute error as the objective. The primary calibration was based on 1999, a representative year, and included all locations. The first alternative calibration also used all locations but was limited in time to a high-flow period during spring and early summer of 1997. The second alternative calibration was based on 1999 and included only 300 Area stage data. Model goodness-of-fit for all
RANS SIMULATION OF HYDROFOIL EFFECTS ON HYDRODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS OF A PLANING CATAMARAN
Amin Najafi
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Determination of high-speed crafts’ hydrodynamic coefficients will help to analyze the dynamics of these kinds of vessels and the factors affecting their dynamic stabilities. Also, it can be useful and effective in controlling the vessel instabilities. The main purpose of this study is to determine the coefficients of longitudinal motions of a planing catamaran with and without a hydrofoil using RANS method to evaluate the foil effects on them. Determination of hydrodynamic coefficients by experimental approach is costly, and requires meticulous laboratory equipment; therefore, utilizing numerical methods and developing a virtual laboratory seems highly efficient. In the present study, the numerical results for hydrodynamic coefficients of a high-speed craft are verified against Troesch’s (1992 experimental results. In the following, after determination of hydrodynamic coefficients of a planing catamaran with and without foil, the foil effects on its hydrodynamic coefficients are evaluated. The results indicate that most of the coefficients are frequency independent especially at high frequencies.
Costa, G; Peres, G; Argiroffi, C; Bonito, R
2016-01-01
Context. It is generally accepted that, in Classical T Tauri Stars, the plasma from the circumstellar disc accretes onto the stellar surface with free fall velocity, and the impact generates a shock. The impact region is expected to contribute to emission in different spectral bands; many studies have confirmed that the X-rays arise from the post-shock plasma but, otherwise, there are no studies in the literature investigating the origin of the observed UV emission which is apparently correlated to accretion. Aims. We investigated the effect of radiative heating of the infalling material by the post-shock plasma at the base of the accretion stream with the aim to identify in which region a significant part of the UV emission originates. Methods. We developed a 1D hydrodynamic model describing the impact of an accretion stream onto the stellar surface; the model takes into account the gravity, the radiative cooling of an optically thin plasma, the thermal conduction, and the heating due to absorption of X-ray ...
LI Xue-yan; REN Bing; WANG Guo Yu; WANG Yong-xue
2011-01-01
In the present study,a new algorithm based on the Volume Of Fluid (vOF) method is developed to simulate the hydrodynamic characteristics on an arc crown wall.Structured grids are generated by the coordinate transform method in an arbitrary complex region.The Navier-Stokes equations for two-dimensional incompressible viscous flows are discretized in the Body Fitted Coordinate (BFC) system.The transformed SIMPLE algorithm is proposed to modify the pressure-velocity field and a transformed VOF method is used to trace the free surface.Hydrodynamic characteristics on an arc crown wall are obtained by the improved numerical model based on the BFC system (BFC model).The velocity field,the pressure field and the time profiles of the water surface near the arc crown wall obtained by using the BFC model and the Cartesian model are compared.The BFC model is verified by experimental results.
Alejandro Acevedo-Malavé
2012-06-01
Full Text Available In this study, the SPH method is applied to simulate for the first time the multiple hydrodynamics collisions and the formation of clusters of equally sized liquid drops in three-dimensional space. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics is a Lagrangian mesh-free formalism and has been useful to model continuous fluid. This formalism is employed to solve the Navier-Stokes equations by replacing the fluid with a set of particles. These particles are interpolation points from which properties of the fluid can be determined. We observe that when the velocity of collision varies between 0.2 mm/ms and 30.0 mm/ms different results may arise, such as: coalescence, fragmentation and formation of clusters of liquid drops. The velocity vector fields formed inside the drops during the collision process are shown.
Alejandro Acevedo-Malavé
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH is a Lagrangian mesh-free formalism and has been useful to model continuous fluid. This formalism is employed to solve the Navier-Stokes equations by replacing the fluid with a set of particles. These particles are interpolation points from which properties of the fluid can be determined. In this study, the SPH method is applied to simulate the hydrodynamics interaction of many drops, showing some settings for the coalescence, fragmentation and flocculation problem of equally sized liquid drops in three-dimensional spaces. For small velocities the drops interact only through their deformed surfaces and the flocculation of the droplets arises. This result is very different if the collision velocity is large enough for the fragmentation of droplets takes place. We observe that for velocities around 15 mm/ms the coalescence of droplets occurs. The velocity vector fields formed inside the drops during the collision process are shown.
Wind-driven gas networks and star formation in galaxies: reaction-advection hydrodynamic simulations
Chappell, David; Scalo, John
2001-07-01
The effects of wind-driven star formation feedback on the spatio-temporal organization of stars and gas in galaxies is studied using two-dimensional intermediate-representational quasi-hydrodynamical simulations. The model retains only a reduced subset of the physics, including mass and momentum conservation, fully non-linear fluid advection, inelastic macroscopic interactions, threshold star formation, and momentum forcing by winds from young star clusters on the surrounding gas. Expanding shells of swept-up gas evolve through the action of fluid advection to form a `turbulent' network of interacting shell fragments which have the overall appearance of a web of filaments (in two dimensions). A new star cluster is formed whenever the column density through a filament exceeds a critical threshold based on the gravitational instability criterion for an expanding shell, which then generates a new expanding shell after some time delay. A filament-finding algorithm is developed to locate the potential sites of new star formation. The major result is the dominance of multiple interactions between advectively distorted shells in controlling the gas and star morphology, gas velocity distribution and mass spectrum of high mass density peaks, and the global star formation history. The gas morphology strongly resembles the model envisioned by Norman & Silk, and observations of gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)Q1 and local molecular clouds. The dependence of the frequency distribution of present-to-past average global star formation rate on a number of parameters is investigated. Bursts of star formation only occur when the time-averaged star formation rate per unit area is low, or the system is small. Percolation does not play a role. The broad distribution observed in late-type galaxies can be understood as a result of either small size or small metallicity, resulting in larger shell column densities required for gravitational instability. The star formation rate
Pannala, S; D' Azevedo, E; Zacharia, T
2002-02-26
The goal of the radiation modeling effort was to develop and implement a radiation algorithm that is fast and accurate for the underhood environment. As part of this CRADA, a net-radiation model was chosen to simulate radiative heat transfer in an underhood of a car. The assumptions (diffuse-gray and uniform radiative properties in each element) reduce the problem tremendously and all the view factors for radiation thermal calculations can be calculated once and for all at the beginning of the simulation. The cost for online integration of heat exchanges due to radiation is found to be less than 15% of the baseline CHAD code and thus very manageable. The off-line view factor calculation is constructed to be very modular and has been completely integrated to read CHAD grid files and the output from this code can be read into the latest version of CHAD. Further integration has to be performed to accomplish the same with STAR-CD. The main outcome of this effort is to obtain a highly scalable and portable simulation capability to model view factors for underhood environment (for e.g. a view factor calculation which took 14 hours on a single processor only took 14 minutes on 64 processors). The code has also been validated using a simple test case where analytical solutions are available. This simulation capability gives underhood designers in the automotive companies the ability to account for thermal radiation - which usually is critical in the underhood environment and also turns out to be one of the most computationally expensive components of underhood simulations. This report starts off with the original work plan as elucidated in the proposal in section B. This is followed by Technical work plan to accomplish the goals of the project in section C. In section D, background to the current work is provided with references to the previous efforts this project leverages on. The results are discussed in section 1E. This report ends with conclusions and future scope of
Movahed, Pooya
High-speed flows are prone to hydrodynamic interfacial instabilities that evolve to turbulence, thereby intensely mixing different fluids and dissipating energy. The lack of knowledge of these phenomena has impeded progress in a variety of disciplines. In science, a full understanding of mixing between heavy and light elements after the collapse of a supernova and between adjacent layers of different density in geophysical (atmospheric and oceanic) flows remains lacking. In engineering, the inability to achieve ignition in inertial fusion and efficient combustion constitute further examples of this lack of basic understanding of turbulent mixing. In this work, my goal is to develop accurate and efficient numerical schemes and employ them to study compressible turbulence and mixing generated by interactions between shocked (Richtmyer-Meshkov) and accelerated (Rayleigh-Taylor) interfaces, which play important roles in high-energy-density physics environments. To accomplish my goal, a hybrid high-order central/discontinuity-capturing finite difference scheme is first presented. The underlying principle is that, to accurately and efficiently represent both broadband motions and discontinuities, non-dissipative methods are used where the solution is smooth, while the more expensive and dissipative capturing schemes are applied near discontinuous regions. Thus, an accurate numerical sensor is developed to discriminate between smooth regions, shocks and material discontinuities, which all require a different treatment. The interface capturing approach is extended to central differences, such that smooth distributions of varying specific heats ratio can be simulated without generating spurious pressure oscillations. I verified and validated this approach against a stringent suite of problems including shocks, interfaces, turbulence and two-dimensional single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability simulations. The three-dimensional code is shown to scale well up to 4000 cores