WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiative flux predictions

  1. Flux-limited diffusion models in radiation hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomraning, G.C.; Szilard, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    The authors discuss certain flux-limited diffusion theories which approximately describe radiative transfer in the presence of steep spatial gradients. A new formulation is presented which generalizes a flux-limited description currently in widespread use for large radiation hydrodynamic calculations. This new formation allows more than one Case discrete mode to be described by a flux-limited diffusion equation. Such behavior is not extant in existing formulations. Numerical results predicted by these flux-limited diffusion models are presented for radiation penetration into an initially cold halfspace. 37 refs., 5 figs

  2. Mathematical model and simulations of radiation fluxes from buried radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Saat

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model and a simple Monte Carlo simulations were developed to predict radiation fluxes from buried radionuclides. The model and simulations were applied to measured (experimental) data. The results of the mathematical model showed good acceptable order of magnitude agreement. A good agreement was also obtained between the simple simulations and the experimental results. Thus, knowing the radionuclide distribution profiles in soil from a core sample, it can be applied to the model or simulations to estimate the radiation fluxes emerging from the soil surface. (author)

  3. Radiative flux calculations at UV and visible wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.S.; Grant, K.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    A radiative transfer model to calculate the short wavelength fluxes at altitudes between 0 and 80 km has been developed at LLNL. The wavelength range extends from 175--735 nm. This spectral range covers the UV-B wavelength region, 250--350 nm, with sufficient resolution to allow comparison of UV-B measurements with theoretical predictions. Validation studies for the model have been made for both UV-B ground radiation calculations and tropospheric solar radiative forcing calculations for various ozone distributions. These studies indicate that the model produces results which agree well with respect to existing UV calculations from other published models

  4. Radiation flux measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, E.; Maitra, P.

    1977-01-01

    A radiation flux measuring device is described which employs a differential pair of transistors, the output of which is maintained constant, connected to a radiation detector. Means connected to the differential pair produce a signal representing the log of the a-c component of the radiation detector, thereby providing a signal representing the true root mean square logarithmic output. 3 claims, 2 figures

  5. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  6. Evaluation of Deep Learning Models for Predicting CO2 Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Nguyen, P.; Frankel, D.

    2017-12-01

    Artificial neural networks have been employed to calculate surface flux measurements from station data because they are able to fit highly nonlinear relations between input and output variables without knowing the detail relationships between the variables. However, the accuracy in performing neural net estimates of CO2 flux from observations of CO2 and other atmospheric variables is influenced by the architecture of the neural model, the availability, and complexity of interactions between physical variables such as wind, temperature, and indirect variables like latent heat, and sensible heat, etc. We evaluate two deep learning models, feed forward and recurrent neural network models to learn how they each respond to the physical measurements, time dependency of the measurements of CO2 concentration, humidity, pressure, temperature, wind speed etc. for predicting the CO2 flux. In this paper, we focus on a) building neural network models for estimating CO2 flux based on DOE data from tower Atmospheric Radiation Measurement data; b) evaluating the impact of choosing the surface variables and model hyper-parameters on the accuracy and predictions of surface flux; c) assessing the applicability of the neural network models on estimate CO2 flux by using OCO-2 satellite data; d) studying the efficiency of using GPU-acceleration for neural network performance using IBM Power AI deep learning software and packages on IBM Minsky system.

  7. Transfer matrix method for four-flux radiative transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovick, Brian; Flom, Zachary; Zipp, Lucas; Krishnamurthy, Srini

    2017-07-20

    We develop a transfer matrix method for four-flux radiative transfer, which is ideally suited for studying transport through multiple scattering layers. The model predicts the specular and diffuse reflection and transmission of multilayer composite films, including interface reflections, for diffuse or collimated incidence. For spherical particles in the diffusion approximation, we derive closed-form expressions for the matrix coefficients and show remarkable agreement with numerical Monte Carlo simulations for a range of absorption values and film thicknesses, and for an example multilayer slab.

  8. Influences of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages on the land surface fluxes and radiative temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lianhong; Meyers, Tilden; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hanson, Paul J.; Yang, Bai; Heuer, Mark; Hosman, Kevin P.; Liu, Qing; Riggs, Jeffery S.; Sluss, Dan; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2007-01-01

    The interest of this study was to develop an initial assessment on the potential importance of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages for land-atmosphere interactions, an issue that has been largely neglected so far. We conducted flux tower observations and model simulations at a temperate deciduous forest site in central Missouri in the summer of 2004. The model used was the comprehensive terrestrial ecosystem Fluxes and Pools Integrated Simulator (FAPIS). We first examined FAPIS performance by testing its predictions with and without the representation of biomass energy storages against measurements of surface energy and CO2 fluxes. We then evaluated the magnitudes and temporal patterns of the biomass energy storages calculated by FAPIS. Finally, the effects of biomass energy storages on land-atmosphere exchanges of sensible and latent heat fluxes and variations of land surface radiative temperature were investigated by contrasting FAPIS simulations with and without these storage terms. We found that with the representation of the two biomass energy storage terms, FAPIS predictions agreed with flux tower measurements fairly well; without the representation, however, FAPIS performance deteriorated for all predicted surface energy flux terms although the effect on the predicted CO2 flux was minimal. In addition, we found that the biomass heat storage and biochemical energy storage had clear diurnal patterns with typical ranges from -50 to 50 and -3 to 20 W m-2, respectively; these typical ranges were exceeded substantially when there were sudden changes in atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, FAPIS simulations without the energy storages produced larger sensible and latent heat fluxes during the day but smaller fluxes (more negative values) at night as compared with simulations with the energy storages. Similarly, without-storage simulations had higher surface radiative temperature during the day but lower radiative temperature at night, indicating that the

  9. Prediction of radiant heat flux from horizontal propane jet fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Kuibin; Liu, Jiaoyan; Jiang, Juncheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Line source model for the radiant heat flux from horizontal jet fire is proposed. • A review on the difference between horizontal and vertical jet fires is conducted. • Effects of lift-off distance and flame shape are discussed for the line source model. • Line source model gives encouraging results relative to the validity of model system. - Abstract: Jet fires are often reported to occur in process industry with lots of hazardous heat energy released. A line source model describing the flame emissive power and subsequent heat flux radiated from a horizontal propane jet fire is evaluated through a testing against experimental fire data and comparison against other models. By a review on the jet flame behavior, the correlations of the lift-off distance, flame length and radiative fraction are proposed to close the line source model in theory. It is found that the fuel jet direction holds a considerable effect on the flame behavior by comparison between horizontal and vertical jet fires. Results indicate that the lift-off distance and the flame shape influence the model prediction to some extent. Comparison of model predictions against data collected in the near field and predictions from the point source model and multipoint source model gives encouraging results relative to the validity of model system.

  10. Linearized Flux Evolution (LiFE): A technique for rapidly adapting fluxes from full-physics radiative transfer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Crisp, David

    2018-05-01

    Solar and thermal radiation are critical aspects of planetary climate, with gradients in radiative energy fluxes driving heating and cooling. Climate models require that radiative transfer tools be versatile, computationally efficient, and accurate. Here, we describe a technique that uses an accurate full-physics radiative transfer model to generate a set of atmospheric radiative quantities which can be used to linearly adapt radiative flux profiles to changes in the atmospheric and surface state-the Linearized Flux Evolution (LiFE) approach. These radiative quantities describe how each model layer in a plane-parallel atmosphere reflects and transmits light, as well as how the layer generates diffuse radiation by thermal emission and by scattering light from the direct solar beam. By computing derivatives of these layer radiative properties with respect to dynamic elements of the atmospheric state, we can then efficiently adapt the flux profiles computed by the full-physics model to new atmospheric states. We validate the LiFE approach, and then apply this approach to Mars, Earth, and Venus, demonstrating the information contained in the layer radiative properties and their derivatives, as well as how the LiFE approach can be used to determine the thermal structure of radiative and radiative-convective equilibrium states in one-dimensional atmospheric models.

  11. The HIRLAM fast radiation scheme for mesoscale numerical weather prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontu, Laura; Gleeson, Emily; Räisänen, Petri; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Savijärvi, Hannu; Hansen Sass, Bent

    2017-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the HLRADIA shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) broadband radiation schemes used in the HIRLAM numerical weather prediction (NWP) model and available in the HARMONIE-AROME mesoscale NWP model. The advantage of broadband, over spectral, schemes is that they can be called more frequently within the model, without compromising on computational efficiency. In mesoscale models fast interactions between clouds and radiation and the surface and radiation can be of greater importance than accounting for the spectral details of clear-sky radiation; thus calling the routines more frequently can be of greater benefit than the deterioration due to loss of spectral details. Fast but physically based radiation parametrizations are expected to be valuable for high-resolution ensemble forecasting, because as well as the speed of their execution, they may provide realistic physical perturbations. Results from single-column diagnostic experiments based on CIRC benchmark cases and an evaluation of 10 years of radiation output from the FMI operational archive of HIRLAM forecasts indicate that HLRADIA performs sufficiently well with respect to the clear-sky downwelling SW and longwave LW fluxes at the surface. In general, HLRADIA tends to overestimate surface fluxes, with the exception of LW fluxes under cold and dry conditions. The most obvious overestimation of the surface SW flux was seen in the cloudy cases in the 10-year comparison; this bias may be related to using a cloud inhomogeneity correction, which was too large. According to the CIRC comparisons, the outgoing LW and SW fluxes at the top of atmosphere are mostly overestimated by HLRADIA and the net LW flux is underestimated above clouds. The absorption of SW radiation by the atmosphere seems to be underestimated and LW absorption seems to be overestimated. Despite these issues, the overall results are satisfying and work on the improvement of HLRADIA for the use in HARMONIE-AROME NWP system

  12. Study on radiation flux of the receiver with a parabolic solar concentrator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Qianjun; Shuai, Yong; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The idea of integral dish and multi-dishes in a parabolic solar collector has been proposed. • The impacts of three factors of the receiver have been investigated. • The radiation flux distribution can benefit from a large system error. - Abstract: The solar receiver plays a key role in the performance of a solar dish electric generator. Its radiation flux distribution can directly affect the efficiency of the parabolic solar concentrator system. In this paper, radiation flux distribution of the receiver is simulated successfully using MCRT method. The impacts of incident solar irradiation, aspect ratio (the ratio of the receiver height to the receiver diameter), and system error on the radiation flux of the receiver are investigated. The parameters are studied in the following ranges: incident solar irradiation from 100 to 1100 W/m 2 , receiver aspect ratio from 0.5 to 1.5, and the system error from 0 to 10 mrad. A non-dimensional parameter Θ is defined to represent the ratio of radiation flux to incident solar irradiation. The results show that the maximum of Θ is about 200 in simulation conditions. The aspect ratio and system error have a significant impact on the radiation flux. The optimal receiver aspect ratio is 1.5 at a constant incident solar irradiation, and the maximum of radiation flux increases with decreasing system error, however, the radiation flux distribution can benefit from a large system error. Meanwhile, effects of integral dish and multi-dishes on the radiation flux distribution have been investigated. The results show that the accuracy of two cases can be ignored within the same parameters

  13. Effects of radiation and high heat flux on the performance of first-wall components. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfer, W.G.

    1985-10-01

    The performance of high-heat-flux components in present and future fusion devices is strongly affected by materials properties and their changes with radiation exposure and helium content. In addition, plasma disruptions and thermal fatigue are major life-limiting aspects. A multidisciplinary approach is therefore required in the performance analysis, and the following results have been accomplished. An equation of state for helium has been derived and applied to helium bubble formation by various growth processes. Models for various radiation effects have been developed and perfected to analyze radiation-induced swelling and embrittlement for high-heat flux materials. Computer codes have been developed to predict melting, evaporation, and melt-layer stability during plasma disruptions. A structural analysis code was perfected to evaluate the stress distribution and crack propagation in a high-heat-flux component or first wall. This code was applied to a duplex structure consisting of a beryllium coating on a copper substrate. It was also used to compare the lifetimes of a first wall in a tokamak reactor made of ferritic or austenitic steel

  14. Prediction of LDEF exposure to the ionizing radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, J. W.; Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    Predictions of the LDEF mission's trapped proton and electron and galactic cosmic ray proton exposures have been made using the currently accepted models with improved resolution near mission end and better modeling of solar cycle effects. An extension of previous calculations, to provide a more definitive description of the LDEF exposure to ionizing radiation, is represented by trapped proton and electron flux as a function of mission time, presented considering altitude and solar activity variation during the mission and the change in galactic cosmic ray proton flux over the mission. Modifications of the AP8MAX and AP8MIN fluence led to a reduction of fluence by 20%. A modified interpolation model developed by Daly and Evans resulted in 30% higher dose and activation levels, which better agreed with measured values than results predicted using the Vette model.

  15. Neutrino Flux Prediction for the NuMI Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soplin, Leonidas Aliaga [Coll. William and Mary

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the neutrino flux in any conventional neutrino beam presents a challenge for the current and future short and long baseline neutrino experiments. The uncertainties associated with the production and attenuation of the hadrons in the beamline materials along with those associated with the beam optics have a big effect in the flux spectrum knowledge. For experiments like MINERvA, understanding the flux is crucial since it enters directly into every neutrino-nucleus cross-sections measurements. The foundation of this work is predicting the neutrino flux at MINERvA using dedicated measurements of hadron production in hadron-nucleus collisions and incorporating in-situ MINERvA data that can provide additional constraints. This work also includes the prospect for predicting the flux at other detectors like the NOvA Near detector. The procedure and conclusions of this thesis will have a big impact on future hadron production experiments and on determining the flux for the upcoming DUNE experiment.

  16. Spatial variability of shortwave radiative fluxes in the context of snowmelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Ma, Yingtao; Hinkelman, Laura; Lundquist, Jessica

    2014-05-01

    Snow-covered mountain ranges are a major source of water supply for run-off and groundwater recharge. Snowmelt supplies as much as 75% of surface water in basins of the western United States. Factors that affect the rate of snow melt include incoming shortwave and longwave radiation, surface albedo, snow emissivity, snow surface temperature, sensible and latent heat fluxes, ground heat flux, and energy transferred to the snowpack from deposited snow or rain. The net radiation generally makes up about 80% of the energy balance and is dominated by the shortwave radiation. Complex terrain poses a great challenge for obtaining the needed information on radiative fluxes from satellites due to elevation issues, spatially-variable cloud cover, rapidly changing surface conditions during snow fall and snow melt, lack of high quality ground truth for evaluation of the satellite based estimates, as well as scale issues between the ground observations and the satellite footprint. In this study we utilize observations of high spatial resolution (5-km) as available from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) to derive surface shortwave radiative fluxes in complex terrain, with attention to the impact of slopes on the amount of radiation received. The methodology developed has been applied to several water years (January to July during 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2009) over the western part of the United States, and the available information was used to derive metrics on spatial and temporal variability in the shortwave fluxes. It is planned to apply the findings from this study for testing improvements in Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) estimates.

  17. Prediction of metabolic flux distribution from gene expression data based on the flux minimization principle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Seob Song

    Full Text Available Prediction of possible flux distributions in a metabolic network provides detailed phenotypic information that links metabolism to cellular physiology. To estimate metabolic steady-state fluxes, the most common approach is to solve a set of macroscopic mass balance equations subjected to stoichiometric constraints while attempting to optimize an assumed optimal objective function. This assumption is justifiable in specific cases but may be invalid when tested across different conditions, cell populations, or other organisms. With an aim to providing a more consistent and reliable prediction of flux distributions over a wide range of conditions, in this article we propose a framework that uses the flux minimization principle to predict active metabolic pathways from mRNA expression data. The proposed algorithm minimizes a weighted sum of flux magnitudes, while biomass production can be bounded to fit an ample range from very low to very high values according to the analyzed context. We have formulated the flux weights as a function of the corresponding enzyme reaction's gene expression value, enabling the creation of context-specific fluxes based on a generic metabolic network. In case studies of wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and wild-type and mutant Escherichia coli strains, our method achieved high prediction accuracy, as gauged by correlation coefficients and sums of squared error, with respect to the experimentally measured values. In contrast to other approaches, our method was able to provide quantitative predictions for both model organisms under a variety of conditions. Our approach requires no prior knowledge or assumption of a context-specific metabolic functionality and does not require trial-and-error parameter adjustments. Thus, our framework is of general applicability for modeling the transcription-dependent metabolism of bacteria and yeasts.

  18. Evaluation of radiative fluxes over the north Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Kumar, M. R.; Pinker, Rachel T.; Mathew, Simi; Venkatesan, R.; Chen, W.

    2018-05-01

    Radiative fluxes are a key component of the surface heat budget of the oceans. Yet, observations over oceanic region are sparse due to the complexity of radiation measurements; moreover, certain oceanic regions are substantially under-sampled, such as the north Indian Ocean. The National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai, India, under its Ocean Observation Program has deployed an Ocean Moored Network for the Northern Indian Ocean (OMNI) both in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. These buoys are equipped with sensors to measure radiation and rainfall, in addition to other basic meteorological parameters. They are also equipped with sensors to measure sub-surface currents, temperature, and conductivity from the surface up to a depth of 500 m. Observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) AQUA and TERRA satellites have been used to infer surface radiation over the north Indian Ocean. In this study, we focus only on the shortwave (SW↓) fluxes. The evaluations of the MODIS-based SW↓ fluxes against the RAMA observing network have shown a very good agreement between them, and therefore, we use the MODIS-derived fluxes as a reference for the evaluation of the OMNI observations. In an early deployment of the OMNI buoys, the radiation sensors were placed at 2 m above the sea surface; subsequently, the height of the sensors was raised to 3 m. In this study, we show that there was a substantial improvement in the agreement between the buoy observations and the satellite estimates, once the sensors were raised to higher levels. The correlation coefficient increased from 0.87 to 0.93, and both the bias and standard deviations decreased substantially.

  19. Neutrino Flux Prediction for the NuMI Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliaga Soplin, Leonidas [William-Mary Coll.

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the neutrino flux in any conventional neutrino beam presents a challenge for the current and future short and long baseline neutrino experiments. The uncertainties associated with the production and attenuation of the hadrons in the beamline materials along with those associated with the beam optics have a big effect in the flux spectrum knowledge. For experiments like MINERvA, understanding the flux is crucial since it enters directly into every neutrino-nucleus cross-sections measurements. The foundation of this work is predicting the neutrino flux at MINERvA using dedicated measurements of hadron production in hadron-nucleus collisions and incorporating in-situ MINERvA data that can provide additional constraints. This work also includes the prospect for predicting the flux at other detectors like the NOvA Near detector. The procedure and conclusions of this thesis will have a big impact on future hadron production experiments and on determining the fl ux for the upcoming DUNE experiment.

  20. On the determination of the overall heat transmission coefficient and soil heat flux for a fog cooled, naturally ventilated greenhouse: Analysis of radiation and convection heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghany, Ahmed M.; Kozai, Toyoki

    2006-01-01

    A physical model for analyzing the radiative and convective heat transfer in a fog cooled, naturally ventilated greenhouse was developed for estimating the overall heat transmission coefficient based on the conduction, convection and thermal radiation heat transfer coefficients and for predicting the soil heat flux. The contribution of the water vapor of the inside air to the emission and absorption of thermal radiation was determined. Measurements of the outside and inside greenhouse environments to be used in the analysis were conducted around solar noon (12:19-13:00) on a hot sunny day to provide the maximum solar radiation transmission into the greenhouse. The net solar radiation flux measured at the greenhouse floor showed a reasonable agreement with the predicted value. The net fluxes were estimated around noon. The average net radiation (solar and thermal) at the soil surface was 220.0 W m -2 , the average soil heat flux was 155.0 W m -2 and the average contribution of the water vapor of the inside air to the thermal radiation was 22.0 W m -2 . The average overall heat transmission coefficient was 4.0 W m -2 C -1 and was in the range between 3.0 W m -2 C -1 and 6.0 W m -2 C -1 under the different hot summer conditions between the inside and outside of the naturally ventilated, fog cooled greenhouse

  1. Radon flux maps for the Netherlands and Europe using terrestrial gamma radiation derived from soil radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, S. N.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Herber, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive noble gas, radon (222Rn) is a valuable tracer to study atmospheric processes and to validate global chemical transport models. However, the use of radon as a proxy in atmospheric and climate research is limited by the uncertainties in the magnitude and distribution of the radon flux density over the Earth's surface. Terrestrial gamma radiation is a useful proxy for generating radon flux maps. A previously reported radon flux map of Europe used terrestrial gamma radiation extracted from automated radiation monitoring networks. This approach failed to account for the influence of local artificial radiation sources around the detector, leading to under/over estimation of the reported radon flux values at different locations. We present an alternative approach based on soil radionuclides which enables us to generate accurate radon flux maps with good confidence. Firstly, we present a detailed comparison between the terrestrial gamma radiation obtained from the National Radiation Monitoring network of the Netherlands and the terrestrial gamma radiation calculated from soil radionuclides. Extending further, we generated radon flux maps of the Netherlands and Europe using our proposed approach. The modelled flux values for the Netherlands agree reasonably well with the two observed direct radon flux measurements (within 2σ level). On the European scale, we find that the observed radon flux values are higher than our modelled values and we introduce a correction factor to account for this difference. Our approach discussed in this paper enables us to develop reliable and accurate radon flux maps in countries with little or no information on radon flux values.

  2. Coordinates for Representing Radiation Belt Particle Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Juan G.; Lejosne, Solène

    2018-02-01

    Fifty years have passed since the parameter "L-star" was introduced in geomagnetically trapped particle dynamics. It is thus timely to review the use of adiabatic theory in present-day studies of the radiation belts, with the intention of helping to prevent common misinterpretations and the frequent confusion between concepts like "distance to the equatorial point of a field line," McIlwain's L-value, and the trapped particle's adiabatic L* parameter. And too often do we miss in the recent literature a proper discussion of the extent to which some observed time and space signatures of particle flux could simply be due to changes in magnetospheric field, especially insofar as off-equatorial particles are concerned. We present a brief review on the history of radiation belt parameterization, some "recipes" on how to compute adiabatic parameters, and we illustrate our points with a real event in which magnetospheric disturbance is shown to adiabatically affect the particle fluxes measured onboard the Van Allen Probes.

  3. An experimental study of radiative fluxes in the south Bay of Bengal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Time series measurements of radiative fluxes were made onboard INS Sagardhwani (SD) in the south Bay of Bengal near DS3 (13°N and 87°E) during the BOBMEX field experiment. An inter- comparison experiment conducted at DS3 showed that the radiative fluxes measured by Kipp and Zonen, Albedo meter and net ...

  4. Effects of high altitude clouds on the earth's infrared radiation flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.-C.; Kaplan, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    Attention is given to the results of a study of cirrus cloud properties which employed the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences' general circulation model and concentrated on the effects of the nonblackness of high clouds on the IR radiation flux. Although the thermal radiation flux is very sensitive to the treatment of cirrus optical properties in the IR, a more realistic assessment will depend on better parameterizations for cirrus cloud formation, persistence, and dissipation.

  5. SPACETRAN, Radiation Leakage from Cylinder with ANISN Flux Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.; Solomito, M.

    1974-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: SPACETRAN is designed to calculate the energy-dependent total flux or some proportional quantity such as kerma, due to the radiation leakage from the surface of a right-circular cylinder at detector positions located at arbitrary distances from the surface. The assumptions are made that the radiation emerging from the finite cylinder has no spatial dependence and that a vacuum surrounds the cylinder. 2 - Method of solution: There are three versions of the program in the code package. SPACETRAN-I uses the surface angular fluxes calculated by the discrete ordinates SN code ANISN, as input. SPACETRAN-II assumes that the surface angular flux for all energies can be represented as a function (Cos(PHI))**N, where PHI is the angle between surface outward normal and radiation direction, and N is an integer specified by the user. For both versions the energy group structure and the number and location of detectors is arbitrary. The flux (or response function) for a given energy group at some detection point is computed by summing the contributions from each surface area element over the entire surface. The surface area elements are defined by input data. SPACETRAN-III uses surface angular fluxes from DOT-3. SPACETRAN-I handles contributions either from a cylinder 'end' or 'side', so the total contributions must be obtained by adding the results of separate end and side runs. ANISN angular fluxes are specified for discrete directions. In general, the direction between the detector and contributing area will not exactly coincide with one of these discrete directions. In this case, the ANISN angular flux for the 'closest' discrete direction is used to approximate the contribution to the detector. SPACETRAN-II handles contributions from both the side and end of a cylinder in a single run. Since the assumed angular distribution is specified by a continuous function, it is not necessary to perform the angle selection described above. For

  6. User-Friendly Predictive Modeling of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Fluxes and Carbon Storage in Tidal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaq, K. S.; Abdul-Aziz, O. I.

    2015-12-01

    We developed user-friendly empirical models to predict instantaneous fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from coastal wetlands based on a small set of dominant hydro-climatic and environmental drivers (e.g., photosynthetically active radiation, soil temperature, water depth, and soil salinity). The dominant predictor variables were systematically identified by applying a robust data-analytics framework on a wide range of possible environmental variables driving wetland greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The method comprised of a multi-layered data-analytics framework, including Pearson correlation analysis, explanatory principal component and factor analyses, and partial least squares regression modeling. The identified dominant predictors were finally utilized to develop power-law based non-linear regression models to predict CO2 and CH4 fluxes under different climatic, land use (nitrogen gradient), tidal hydrology and salinity conditions. Four different tidal wetlands of Waquoit Bay, MA were considered as the case study sites to identify the dominant drivers and evaluate model performance. The study sites were dominated by native Spartina Alterniflora and characterized by frequent flooding and high saline conditions. The model estimated the potential net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) both in gC/m2 and metric tonC/hectare by up-scaling the instantaneous predicted fluxes to the growing season and accounting for the lateral C flux exchanges between the wetlands and estuary. The entire model was presented in a single Excel spreadsheet as a user-friendly ecological engineering tool. The model can aid the development of appropriate GHG offset protocols for setting monitoring plans for tidal wetland restoration and maintenance projects. The model can also be used to estimate wetland GHG fluxes and potential carbon storage under various IPCC climate change and sea level rise scenarios; facilitating an appropriate management of carbon stocks in tidal wetlands and their incorporation into a

  7. Radiation budget, soil heat flux and latent heat flux at the forest floor in warm, temperate mixed forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, K.; Abe, T.; Araki, M.; Ito, H.

    1998-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the radiation budget and soil heat flux of a forest floor were measured in a mixed forest located in Kyoto, Japan. The basal area at breast height in the survey forest was about 15·82 m 2 ha −1 , for evergreen trees, and 12·46 m 2 ha −1 , for deciduous trees. The sky view factor was 16 and 22% at the survey site in the foliate and defoliate seasons, respectively. The small difference between the sky view factor in the two seasons was reflected in the seasonal change in the radiation budget of the forest floor. Namely, the net long-wave radiation changed rapidly in leafing and falling days, and the rate of net short-wave radiation was highest in April. The distinctive characteristic of the radiation budget was that the rates of available radiation in the daytime and at night were almost equal in September and October. Latent heat flux at the forest floor was estimated to be around 94 MJ m −2 annually, from our measurement with the simulation model. (author)

  8. Surface radiation fluxes in transient climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.; O'Brien, D. M.; Dix, M. R.; Murphy, J. M.; Stephens, G. L.; Wild, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transient CO 2 experiments from five coupled climate models, in which the CO 2 concentration increases at rates of 0.6-1.1% per annum for periods of 75-200 years, are used to document the responses of surface radiation fluxes, and associated atmospheric properties, to the CO 2 increase. In all five models, the responses of global surface temperature and column water vapour are non-linear and fairly tightly constrained. Thus, global warming lies between 1.9 and 2.7 K at doubled, and between 3.1 and 4.1 K at tripled, CO 2, whilst column water vapour increases by between 3.5 and 4.5 mm at doubled, and between 7 and 8 mm at tripled, CO 2. Global cloud fraction tends to decrease by 1-2% out to tripled CO 2, mainly the result of decreases in low cloud. Global increases in column water, and differences in these increases between models, are mainly determined by the warming of the tropical oceans relative to the middle and high latitudes; these links are emphasised in the zonal profiles of warming and column water vapour increase, with strong water vapour maxima in the tropics. In all models the all-sky shortwave flux to the surface S↓ (global, annual average) changes by less than 5 W m -2 out to tripled CO 2, in some cases being essentially invariant in time. In contrast, the longwave flux to the surface L↓ increases significantly, by 25 W m -2 typically at tripled CO 2. The variations of S↓ and L↓ (clear-sky and all-sky fluxes) with increase in CO 2 concentration are generally non-linear, reflecting the effects of ocean thermal inertia, but as functions of global warming are close to linear in all five models. This is best illustrated for the clear-sky downwelling fluxes, and the net radiation. Regionally, as illustrated in zonal profiles and global distributions, greatest changes in both S↓ and L↓ are the result primarily of local maxima in warming and column water vapour increases.

  9. Proton flux under radiation belts: near-equatorial zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, O.R.; Panasyuk, M.I.; Petrov, A.N.; Kudela, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the features of low-energy proton flux increases in near-equatorial region (McIlvein parameter L th the proton flux (with energy from tens keV up to several MeV) increases are registering regularly. However modern proton flux models (for example AP8 model) works at L>1.15 only and does not take into account near-equatorial protons. These fluxes are not too big, but the investigation of this phenomenon is important in scope of atmosphere-ionosphere connections and mechanisms of particles transport in magnetosphere. In according to double charge-exchange model the proton flux in near-equatorial region does not depend on geomagnetic local time (MLT) and longitude. However the Azur satellite data and Kosmos-484, MIR station and Active satellite data revealed the proton flux dependence on longitude. The other feature of near-equatorial proton flux is the dependence on geomagnetic local time revealed in the Sampex satellite experiment and other experiments listed above. In this work the dependences on MLT and longitude are investigated using the Active satellite (30-500 keV) and Sampex satellite (>800 keV). This data confirms that main sources of near-equatorial protons are radiation belts and ring current. The other result is that near-equatorial protons are quasi-trapped. The empirical proton flux dependences on L, B at near-equatorial longitudes are presented. (author)

  10. Prediction of critical heat flux in vertical pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, S.; Healzer, J.M.; Abdollahian, D.

    1981-01-01

    A previously developed semi-empirical model for adiabatic two-phase annular flow ix extended to predict the critical heat flux (CHF) in a vertical pipe. The model exhibits a sharply declining curve of CHF versus steam quality (X) at low X, and is relatively independent of the heat flux distribution. In this region, vaporization of the liquid film controls. At high X, net deposition upon the liquid film becomes important and CHF versus X flattens considerably. In this zone, CHF is dependent upon the heat flux distribution. Model predictions are compared to test data and an empirical correlation. The agreement is generally good if one employs previously reported mass transfer coefficients. (orig.)

  11. MeV proton flux predictions near Saturn's D ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, P; Roussos, E; Kotova, A; Cooper, J F; Mitchell, D G; Krupp, N; Paranicas, C

    2015-10-01

    Radiation belts of MeV protons have been observed just outward of Saturn's main rings. During the final stages of the mission, the Cassini spacecraft will pass through the gap between the main rings and the planet. Based on how the known radiation belts of Saturn are formed, it is expected that MeV protons will be present in this gap and also bounce through the tenuous D ring right outside the gap. At least one model has suggested that the intensity of MeV protons near the planet could be much larger than in the known belts. We model this inner radiation belt using a technique developed earlier to understand Saturn's known radiation belts. We find that the inner belt is very different from the outer belts in the sense that its intensity is limited by the densities of the D ring and Saturn's upper atmosphere, not by radial diffusion and satellite absorption. The atmospheric density is relatively well constrained by EUV occultations. Based on that we predict an intensity in the gap region that is well below that of the known belts. It is more difficult to do the same for the region magnetically connected to the D ring since its density is poorly constrained. We find that the intensity in this region can be comparable to the known belts. Such intensities pose no hazard to the mission since Cassini would only experience these fluxes on timescales of minutes but might affect scientific measurements by decreasing the signal-to-contamination ratio of instruments.

  12. A Mechanistically Informed User-Friendly Model to Predict Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Fluxes and Carbon Storage from Coastal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, O. I.; Ishtiaq, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    We present a user-friendly modeling tool on MS Excel to predict the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and estimate potential carbon sequestration from the coastal wetlands. The dominant controls of wetland GHG fluxes and their relative mechanistic linkages with various hydro-climatic, sea level, biogeochemical and ecological drivers were first determined by employing a systematic data-analytics method, including Pearson correlation matrix, principal component and factor analyses, and exploratory partial least squares regressions. The mechanistic knowledge and understanding was then utilized to develop parsimonious non-linear (power-law) models to predict wetland carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes based on a sub-set of climatic, hydrologic and environmental drivers such as the photosynthetically active radiation, soil temperature, water depth, and soil salinity. The models were tested with field data for multiple sites and seasons (2012-13) collected from the Waquoit Bay, MA. The model estimated the annual wetland carbon storage by up-scaling the instantaneous predicted fluxes to an extended growing season (e.g., May-October) and by accounting for the net annual lateral carbon fluxes between the wetlands and estuary. The Excel Spreadsheet model is a simple ecological engineering tool for coastal carbon management and their incorporation into a potential carbon market under a changing climate, sea level and environment. Specifically, the model can help to determine appropriate GHG offset protocols and monitoring plans for projects that focus on tidal wetland restoration and maintenance.

  13. Evaluating Surface Radiation Fluxes Observed From Satellites in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, R. T.; Zhang, B.; Weller, R. A.; Chen, W.

    2018-03-01

    This study is focused on evaluation of current satellite and reanalysis estimates of surface radiative fluxes in a climatically important region. It uses unique observations from the STRATUS Ocean Reference Station buoy in a region of persistent marine stratus clouds 1,500 km off northern Chile during 2000-2012. The study shows that current satellite estimates are in better agreement with buoy observations than model outputs at a daily time scale and that satellite data depict well the observed annual cycle in both shortwave and longwave surface radiative fluxes. Also, buoy and satellite estimates do not show any significant trend over the period of overlap or any interannual variability. This verifies the stability and reliability of the satellite data and should make them useful to examine El Niño-Southern Oscillation variability influences on surface radiative fluxes at the STRATUS site for longer periods for which satellite record is available.

  14. Spectral Cauchy characteristic extraction of strain, news and gravitational radiation flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handmer, Casey J; Szilágyi, Béla; Winicour, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    We present a new approach for the Cauchy-characteristic extraction (CCE) of gravitational radiation strain, news function, and the flux of the energy–momentum, supermomentum and angular momentum associated with the Bondi–Metzner–Sachs asymptotic symmetries. In CCE, a characteristic evolution code takes numerical data on an inner worldtube supplied by a Cauchy evolution code, and propagates it outwards to obtain the space–time metric in a neighborhood of null infinity. The metric is first determined in a scrambled form in terms of coordinates determined by the Cauchy formalism. In prior treatments, the waveform is first extracted from this metric and then transformed into an asymptotic inertial coordinate system. This procedure provides the physically proper description of the waveform and the radiated energy but it does not generalize to determine the flux of angular momentum or supermomentum. Here we formulate and implement a new approach which transforms the full metric into an asymptotic inertial frame and provides a uniform treatment of all the radiation fluxes associated with the asymptotic symmetries. Computations are performed and calibrated using the spectral Einstein code. (paper)

  15. Modeling hemispherical and directional radiative fluxes in regular-clumped canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begue, A.

    1992-01-01

    A model of radiative transfer in regular-clumped canopies is presented. The canopy is approximated by an array of porous cylinders located at the vertices of equilateral triangles. The model is split into two submodels, each describing a different level of structure: 1) The macrostructure submodel is based on Brown and Pandolfo (1969), who applied geometrical optics theory to an array of opaque cylinders. This model is adapted for porous cylinders and is used to derive expressions for directional interception efficiency as a function of height, radius, spacing and porosity of the cylinders. 2) The microstructure submodel makes use of the average canopy transmittance theory, applied to a cylinder, to compute the porosity of the clumps as a function of the leaf area density, the leaf inclination distribution function, the dimensions of the cylinder (height and radius), and the transmittance of green leaves in the appropriate spectral band. It is shown that, in the case of erectophile plant stands, the daily porosity of the cylinder can be approximated by the porosity calculated using the extinction coefficient of diffuse radiation. Directional interception efficiency, geometric conditions (incidence/viewing), and landscape component reflectances are used to compute hemispherical (interception, absorption, and reflectance) and directional (reflectance) radiative fluxes from simple analytical formulae. This model is validated against a data set of biological, radiative (PAR region) and radiometric (SPOT channels) measurements, collected in Niger on pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides). The model fits the data quite well in terms of hourly and daily single-band or combined (NDVI) radiative fluxes. Close correspondence to measured fluxes, using few parameters, and the possibility of inversion makes the present model a valuable tool for the study of radiative transfer in discontinuous canopies. (author)

  16. Ecosystem carbon and radiative fluxes: a global synthesis based on the FLUXNET network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescatti, A.

    2009-04-01

    Solar radiation is the most important environmental factor driving the temporal and spatial variability of the gross primary productivity (GPP) in terrestrial ecosystems. At the ecosystem scale, the light use efficiency (LUE) depends not only on radiation quantity but also on radiation "quality" both in terms of spectral composition and angular distribution. The day-to-day variations in LUE are largely determined by changes in the ratio of diffuse to total radiation. The relative importance of the concurrent variation in total incoming radiation and in LUE is essential to estimate the sign and the magnitude of the GPP sensitivity to radiation. Despite the scientific relevance of this issue, a global assessment on the sensitivity of GPP to the variations of Phar is still missing. Such an analysis is needed to improve our understanding of the current and future impacts of aerosols and cloud cover on the spatio-temporal variability of GPP. The current availability of ecosystem carbon fluxes, together with separate measurements of incoming direct and diffuse Phar at a large number of flux sites, offers the unique opportunity to extend the previous investigation, both in terms of ecosystem, spatial and climate coverage, and to address questions about the internal (e.g. leaf area index, canopy structure) and external (e.g. cloudiness, covarying meteorology) factors affecting the ecosystem sensitivity to radiation geometry. For this purpose half-hourly measurements of carbon fluxes and radiation have been analyzed at about 220 flux sites for a total of about 660 site-years. This analysis demonstrates that the sensitivity of GPP to incoming radiation varies across the different plant functional types and is correlated with the leaf area index and the local climatology. In particular, the sensitivity of GPP to changes in incoming diffuse light maximizes for the broadleaved forests of the Northern Hemisphere.

  17. The Global Character of the Flux of Downward Longwave Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; Wild, Martin; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Kato, Seiji; Henderson, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Four different types of estimates of the surface downwelling longwave radiative flux (DLR) are reviewed. One group of estimates synthesizes global cloud, aerosol, and other information in a radiation model that is used to calculate fluxes. Because these synthesis fluxes have been assessed against observations, the global-mean values of these fluxes are deemed to be the most credible of the four different categories reviewed. The global, annual mean DLR lies between approximately 344 and 350 W/sq m with an error of approximately +/-10 W/sq m that arises mostly from the uncertainty in atmospheric state that governs the estimation of the clear-sky emission. The authors conclude that the DLR derived from global climate models are biased low by approximately 10 W/sq m and even larger differences are found with respect to reanalysis climate data. The DLR inferred from a surface energy balance closure is also substantially smaller that the range found from synthesis products suggesting that current depictions of surface energy balance also require revision. The effect of clouds on the DLR, largely facilitated by the new cloud base information from the CloudSat radar, is estimated to lie in the range from 24 to 34 W/sq m for the global cloud radiative effect (all-sky minus clear-sky DLR). This effect is strongly modulated by the underlying water vapor that gives rise to a maximum sensitivity of the DLR to cloud occurring in the colder drier regions of the planet. The bottom of atmosphere (BOA) cloud effect directly contrast the effect of clouds on the top of atmosphere (TOA) fluxes that is maximum in regions of deepest and coldest clouds in the moist tropics.

  18. Radiation damage in molybdenum and tungsten in high neutron fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veljkovic, S.; Milasin, N.

    1964-01-01

    The effects of radiation on molybdenum and tungsten in high neutron fluxes are presented. The changes induced, particularly defects with a high migration activation energy, are analyzed. The correlation of these changes with the basic concepts of radiation damage in solids is considered. An attempt is made to relate the defects studied with the changes in macroscopic properties (author)

  19. Radiation damage in molybdenum and tungsten in high neutron fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veljkovic, S; Milasin, N [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Department of Reactor Materials, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-04-15

    The effects of radiation on molybdenum and tungsten in high neutron fluxes are presented. The changes induced, particularly defects with a high migration activation energy, are analyzed. The correlation of these changes with the basic concepts of radiation damage in solids is considered. An attempt is made to relate the defects studied with the changes in macroscopic properties (author)

  20. Losses in magnetic flux compression generators: Part 2, Radiation losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.M.

    1988-06-01

    This is the second monograph devoted to the analysis of flux losses in explosive driven magnetic flux compression generators. In the first monograph, flux losses from magnetic field penetration into conductor walls was studied by conventional diffusion theory. In the present report flux loss by radiation from the outer conductor walls is treated. Flux leakage rates through walls of finite thickness are first obtained by diffusion theory. It is shown, for normal wall thicknesses, that flux leakage is determined essentially by the wall conductance, defined as the product of wall thickness and wall conductivity. This remains true when the wall thickness is reduced to zero at unchanged conductance. In this case the wall is said to be coalesced. Solutions for a cavity bounded by a perfect conductor on one side and a coalesced wall on the other are then obtained using the complete Maxwell wave equations in both the cavity and free space beyond the coalesced wall. Several anomalies, noted earlier, that arise from diffusion analysis are resolved by the wave treatment. Conditions for the validity of the diffusion treatment are noted, and an expression is obtained within the framework of diffusion theory for energy radiated into space from the cavity walls. The free space wave equations are solved by using the method of characteristics in both the cavity and free space regions. An extension of the characteristic method to situations where the constitutive relations are non-linear is outlined in an appendix. For a special class of these relations, Riemann-like invariants are determined explicitly and used to solve a particular example

  1. Study on the radiation flux and temperature distributions of the concentrator-receiver system in a solar dish/Stirling power facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhigang; Tang Dawei; Du Jinglong; Li Tie

    2011-01-01

    Uniform heater temperature and high optical-thermal efficiency are crucial for the reliable and economical operation of a Solar Dish/Stirling engine facility. The Monte-Carlo ray-tracing method is utilized to predict the radiation flux distributions of the concentrator-receiver system. The ray-tracing method is first validated by experiment, then the radiation flux profiles on the solar receiver surface for faceted real concentrator and ideal paraboloidal concentrator, irradiated by Xe-arc lamps and real sun, for different aperture positions and receiver shapes are analyzed, respectively. The resulted radiation flux profiles are subsequently transferred to a CFD code as boundary conditions to numerically simulate the fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer in the receiver cavity by coupling the radiation, natural convection and heat conduction together, and the CFD method is also validated through experiment. The results indicate that a faceted concentrator in combination with a solar simulator composed of 12 Xe-arc lamps is advantageous to drive the solar Stirling engine for all-weather indoor tests. Based on the simulation results, a solar receiver-Stirling heater configuration is designed to achieve a considerably uniform temperature distribution on the heater head tubes while maintaining a high efficiency of 60.7%. - Highlights: → Radiation flux in Dish/Stirling system is analyzed by validated ray-tracing method. → Temperature field on the solar receiver is analyzed by a validated CFD method. → Effects of Xe-arc lamp solar simulator and faceted real concentrator are analyzed. → Effects of different receiver positions and receiver shapes are investigated. → A Stirling heater configuration is presented with uniform temperature field.

  2. Interpreting expression data with metabolic flux models: predicting Mycobacterium tuberculosis mycolic acid production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Colijn

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism is central to cell physiology, and metabolic disturbances play a role in numerous disease states. Despite its importance, the ability to study metabolism at a global scale using genomic technologies is limited. In principle, complete genome sequences describe the range of metabolic reactions that are possible for an organism, but cannot quantitatively describe the behaviour of these reactions. We present a novel method for modeling metabolic states using whole cell measurements of gene expression. Our method, which we call E-Flux (as a combination of flux and expression, extends the technique of Flux Balance Analysis by modeling maximum flux constraints as a function of measured gene expression. In contrast to previous methods for metabolically interpreting gene expression data, E-Flux utilizes a model of the underlying metabolic network to directly predict changes in metabolic flux capacity. We applied E-Flux to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB. Key components of mycobacterial cell walls are mycolic acids which are targets for several first-line TB drugs. We used E-Flux to predict the impact of 75 different drugs, drug combinations, and nutrient conditions on mycolic acid biosynthesis capacity in M. tuberculosis, using a public compendium of over 400 expression arrays. We tested our method using a model of mycolic acid biosynthesis as well as on a genome-scale model of M. tuberculosis metabolism. Our method correctly predicts seven of the eight known fatty acid inhibitors in this compendium and makes accurate predictions regarding the specificity of these compounds for fatty acid biosynthesis. Our method also predicts a number of additional potential modulators of TB mycolic acid biosynthesis. E-Flux thus provides a promising new approach for algorithmically predicting metabolic state from gene expression data.

  3. Predicting flux decline of reverse osmosis membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, J.C.; Hanemaayer, J.H.; Smolders, C.A.; Kostense, A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model predicting flux decline of reverse osmosis membranes due to colloidal fouling has been verified. This mathema- tical model is based on the theory of cake or gel filtration and the Modified Fouling Index (MFI). Research was conducted using artificial colloidal solutions and a

  4. The Eddington approximation calculation of radiation flux in the atmosphere–ocean system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Chong; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2015-01-01

    An analytical approximation method is presented to calculate the radiation flux in the atmosphere–ocean system using the Eddington approximation when the upwelling radiation from the ocean body is negligibly small. Numerical experiments were carried out to investigate the feasibility of the method in two cases: flat and rough ocean surfaces. The results show good consistency for the reflectivity at the top of atmosphere and transmissivity just above the ocean surface, in comparison with the exact values calculated by radiative transfer models in each case. Moreover, an obvious error might be introduced for the calculation of radiation flux at larger solar zenith angles when the roughness of the ocean surface is neglected. - Highlights: • The Eddington approximation method is extended to the atmosphere–ocean system. • The roughness of ocean surface cannot be neglected at lager solar zenith angles. • Unidirectional reflectivity for rough ocean surface is proposed

  5. Top-down and bottom-up aerosol-cloud closure: towards understanding sources of uncertainty in deriving cloud shortwave radiative flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Kevin J.; Roberts, Gregory C.; Calmer, Radiance; Nicoll, Keri; Hashimshoni, Eyal; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Preissler, Jana; Ceburnis, Darius; O'Dowd, Colin; Russell, Lynn M.

    2017-08-01

    Top-down and bottom-up aerosol-cloud shortwave radiative flux closures were conducted at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station in Galway, Ireland, in August 2015. This study is part of the BACCHUS (Impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding) European collaborative project, with the goal of understanding key processes affecting aerosol-cloud shortwave radiative flux closures to improve future climate predictions and develop sustainable policies for Europe. Instrument platforms include ground-based unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)1 and satellite measurements of aerosols, clouds and meteorological variables. The ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosol size distributions and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration were used to initiate a 1-D microphysical aerosol-cloud parcel model (ACPM). UAVs were equipped for a specific science mission, with an optical particle counter for aerosol distribution profiles, a cloud sensor to measure cloud extinction or a five-hole probe for 3-D wind vectors. UAV cloud measurements are rare and have only become possible in recent years through the miniaturization of instrumentation. These are the first UAV measurements at Mace Head. ACPM simulations are compared to in situ cloud extinction measurements from UAVs to quantify closure in terms of cloud shortwave radiative flux. Two out of seven cases exhibit sub-adiabatic vertical temperature profiles within the cloud, which suggests that entrainment processes affect cloud microphysical properties and lead to an overestimate of simulated cloud shortwave radiative flux. Including an entrainment parameterization and explicitly calculating the entrainment fraction in the ACPM simulations both improved cloud-top radiative closure. Entrainment reduced the difference between simulated and observation-derived cloud-top shortwave radiative flux (δRF) by between 25 and 60 W m-2. After accounting for entrainment

  6. The radiation budget of stratocumulus clouds measured by tethered balloon instrumentation: Variability of flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, David P.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Cox, Stephen K.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of longwave and shortwave radiation were made using an instrument package on the NASA tethered balloon during the FIRE Marine Stratocumulus experiment. Radiation data from two pairs of pyranometers were used to obtain vertical profiles of the near-infrared and total solar fluxes through the boundary layer, while a pair of pyrgeometers supplied measurements of the longwave fluxes in the cloud layer. The radiation observations were analyzed to determine heating rates and to measure the radiative energy budget inside the stratocumulus clouds during several tethered balloon flights. The radiation fields in the cloud layer were also simulated by a two-stream radiative transfer model, which used cloud optical properties derived from microphysical measurements and Mie scattering theory.

  7. Radiation induced defect flux behaviors at zirconium based component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Il; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kwon, Jun Hyun; Lee, Gyeong Geun

    2013-01-01

    In commercial reactor core, structure materials are located in high temperature and high pressure environment. Therefore, main concern of structure materials is corrosion and mechanical properties change than radiation effects on materials. However, radiation effects on materials become more important phenomena because research reactor condition is different from commercial reactor. The temperature is lower than 100 .deg. C and radiation dose is much higher than that of commercial reactor. Among the radiation effect on zirconium based metal, radiation induced growth (RIG), known as volume conservative distortion, is one of the most important phenomena. Recently, theoretical RIG modeling based on radiation damage theory (RDT) and balance equation are developed. However, these growth modeling have limited framework of single crystal and high temperature. To model theoretical RIG in research reactor, qualitative mechanism must be set up. Therefore, this paper intent is establishing defect flux mechanism of zirconium base metal in research reactor for RIG modeling. After than theoretical RIG work will be expanded to research reactor condition

  8. NuMI Flux Predictions for NOvA and MINERvA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga Soplin, Leonidas; Nova Collaboration; Minerva Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The determination of the neutrino flux in any conventional neutrino beam presents a challenge for the current and future short and long baseline neutrino experiments. The uncertainties associated with the production and attenuation of the hadrons in the beamline materials along with those associated with the beam optics have a big effect in the knowledge of the flux. For experiments like MINERvA and NOvA, understanding the flux is crucial since it enters directly into every neutrino-nucleus cross-section measurement. The majority of this work involves predicting the neutrino flux using dedicated hadron production measurements from hadron-nucleus collisions. The predictions at the MINERvA and NOvA near detectors are presented as well as the results of incorporating in-situ MINERvA data that can provide additional constraints. These results have been fully implemented in MINERvA and they are currently use for its cross-section analysis. The implementation for NoVA is underway. The procedure and conclusions of this work will have a big impact on future hadron production experiments and on determining the flux for the upcoming DUNE experiment.

  9. Monitoring of dose rates and radiation flux density in working rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajtor, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    The problems of determining the neutron field characteristics (dose equivalent rate and flux density) in relation to the environmental monitoring by radiation protection services. The measurement devices used for measuring dose equivalent rate and neutron flux density RUS-U8 multi-purpose scintillation radiometer and RUP-1 multi-purpose transportable radiometer as well as measurement technique are described. Recommendations are given for checking measuring devices calibration, registering measurement results [ru

  10. Single-flux-quantum circuit technology for superconducting radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimaki, Akira; Onogi, Masashi; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Sekiya, Akito; Hayakawa, Hisao; Yorozu, Shinichi; Terai, Hirotaka; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the application of the single-flux-quantum (SFQ) logic circuits to multi superconducting radiation detectors system. The SFQ-based analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) have the advantage in current sensitivity, which can reach less than 10 nA in a well-tuned ADC. We have also developed the design technology of the SFQ circuits. We demonstrate high-speed operation of large-scale integrated circuits such as a 2x2 cross/bar switch, arithmetic logic unit, indicating that our present SFQ technology is applicable to the multi radiation detectors system. (author)

  11. An intercomparison and validation of satellite-based surface radiative energy flux estimates over the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihelä, Aku; Key, Jeffrey R.; Meirink, Jan Fokke; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Palo, Timo; Karlsson, Karl-Göran

    2017-05-01

    Accurate determination of radiative energy fluxes over the Arctic is of crucial importance for understanding atmosphere-surface interactions, melt and refreezing cycles of the snow and ice cover, and the role of the Arctic in the global energy budget. Satellite-based estimates can provide comprehensive spatiotemporal coverage, but the accuracy and comparability of the existing data sets must be ascertained to facilitate their use. Here we compare radiative flux estimates from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Synoptic 1-degree (SYN1deg)/Energy Balanced and Filled, Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) surface energy budget, and our own experimental FluxNet / Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring cLoud, Albedo and RAdiation (CLARA) data against in situ observations over Arctic sea ice and the Greenland Ice Sheet during summer of 2007. In general, CERES SYN1deg flux estimates agree best with in situ measurements, although with two particular limitations: (1) over sea ice the upwelling shortwave flux in CERES SYN1deg appears to be underestimated because of an underestimated surface albedo and (2) the CERES SYN1deg upwelling longwave flux over sea ice saturates during midsummer. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-based GEWEX and FluxNet-CLARA flux estimates generally show a larger range in retrieval errors relative to CERES, with contrasting tendencies relative to each other. The largest source of retrieval error in the FluxNet-CLARA downwelling shortwave flux is shown to be an overestimated cloud optical thickness. The results illustrate that satellite-based flux estimates over the Arctic are not yet homogeneous and that further efforts are necessary to investigate the differences in the surface and cloud properties which lead to disagreements in flux retrievals.

  12. Influence of crystal shapes on radiative fluxes in visible wavelength: ice crystals randomly oriented in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chervet

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiative properties of cirrus clouds are one of the major unsolved problems in climate studies and global radiation budget. These clouds are generally composed of various ice-crystal shapes, so we tried to evaluate effects of the ice-crystal shape on radiative fluxes. We calculated radiative fluxes of cirrus clouds with a constant geometrical depth, composed of ice crystals with different shapes (hexagonal columns, bullets, bullet-rosettes, sizes and various concentrations. We considered ice particles randomly oriented in space (3D case and their scattering phase functions were calculated by a ray-tracing method. We calculated radiative fluxes for cirrus layers for different microphysical characteristics by using a discrete-ordinate radiative code. Results showed that the foremost effect of the ice-crystal shape on radiative properties of cirrus clouds was that on the optical thickness, while the variation of the scattering phase function with the ice shape remained less than 3% for our computations. The ice-water content may be a better choice to parameterize the optical properties of cirrus, but the shape effect must be included.

  13. Dynamic ignition regime of condensed system by radiate heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, V A; Zolotorev, N N; Korotkikh, A G; Kuznetsov, V T

    2017-01-01

    The main ignition characteristics of high-energy materials are the ignition time and critical heat flux allowing evaluation of the critical conditions for ignition, fire and explosive safety for the test solid propellants. The ignition process is typically studied in stationary conditions of heat input at constant temperature of the heating surface, environment or the radiate heat flux on the sample surface. In real conditions, ignition is usually effected at variable time-dependent values of the heat flux. In this case, the heated layer is formed on the sample surface in dynamic conditions and significantly depends on the heat flux change, i.e. increasing or decreasing falling heat flux in the reaction period of the propellant sample. This paper presents a method for measuring the ignition characteristics of a high-energy material sample in initiation of the dynamic radiant heat flux, which includes the measurement of the ignition time when exposed to a sample time varying radiant heat flux given intensity. In case of pyroxyline containing 1 wt. % of soot, it is shown that the ignition times are reduced by 20–50 % depending on the initial value of the radiant flux density in initiation by increasing or decreasing radiant heat flux compared with the stationary conditions of heat supply in the same ambient conditions. (paper)

  14. A new method for simultaneous measurement of convective and radiative heat flux in car underhood applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaled, M; Garnier, B; Peerhossaini, H; Harambat, F

    2010-01-01

    A new experimental technique is presented that allows simultaneous measurement of convective and radiative heat flux in the underhood. The goal is to devise an easily implemented and accurate experimental method for application in the vehicle underhood compartment. The new method is based on a technique for heat-flux measurement developed by the authors (Heat flow (flux) sensors for measurement of convection, conduction and radiation heat flow 27036-2, © Rhopoint Components Ltd, Hurst Green, Oxted, RH8 9AX, UK) that uses several thermocouples in the thickness of a thermal resistive layer (foil heat-flux sensor). The method proposed here uses a pair of these thermocouples with different radiative properties. Measurements validating this novel technique are carried out on a flat plate with a prescribed constant temperature in both natural- and forced-convection flow regimes. The test flat plate is instrumented by this new technique, and also with a different technique that is intrusive but very accurate, used as reference here (Bardon J P and Jarny Y 1994 Procédé et dispositif de mesure transitoire de température et flux surfacique Brevet n°94.011996, 22 February). Discrepancies between the measurements by the two techniques are less than 10% for both convective and radiative heat flux. Error identification and sensitivity analysis of the new method are also presented

  15. Top-down and bottom-up aerosol–cloud closure: towards understanding sources of uncertainty in deriving cloud shortwave radiative flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Sanchez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Top-down and bottom-up aerosol–cloud shortwave radiative flux closures were conducted at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station in Galway, Ireland, in August 2015. This study is part of the BACCHUS (Impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding European collaborative project, with the goal of understanding key processes affecting aerosol–cloud shortwave radiative flux closures to improve future climate predictions and develop sustainable policies for Europe. Instrument platforms include ground-based unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs1 and satellite measurements of aerosols, clouds and meteorological variables. The ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosol size distributions and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentration were used to initiate a 1-D microphysical aerosol–cloud parcel model (ACPM. UAVs were equipped for a specific science mission, with an optical particle counter for aerosol distribution profiles, a cloud sensor to measure cloud extinction or a five-hole probe for 3-D wind vectors. UAV cloud measurements are rare and have only become possible in recent years through the miniaturization of instrumentation. These are the first UAV measurements at Mace Head. ACPM simulations are compared to in situ cloud extinction measurements from UAVs to quantify closure in terms of cloud shortwave radiative flux. Two out of seven cases exhibit sub-adiabatic vertical temperature profiles within the cloud, which suggests that entrainment processes affect cloud microphysical properties and lead to an overestimate of simulated cloud shortwave radiative flux. Including an entrainment parameterization and explicitly calculating the entrainment fraction in the ACPM simulations both improved cloud-top radiative closure. Entrainment reduced the difference between simulated and observation-derived cloud-top shortwave radiative flux (δRF by between 25 and 60 W m−2. After

  16. A multigrid Newton-Krylov method for flux-limited radiation diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rider, W.J.; Knoll, D.A.; Olson, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The authors focus on the integration of radiation diffusion including flux-limited diffusion coefficients. The nonlinear integration is accomplished with a Newton-Krylov method preconditioned with a multigrid Picard linearization of the governing equations. They investigate the efficiency of the linear and nonlinear iterative techniques

  17. Potential effects of ultraviolet radiation reduction on tundra nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in maritime Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Zhu, Renbin; Wang, Pei; Ye, Wenjuan; Ma, Dawei; Xu, Hua

    2018-02-27

    Stratospheric ozone has begun to recover in Antarctica since the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. However, the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on tundra greenhouse gas fluxes are rarely reported for Polar Regions. In the present study, tundra N 2 O and CH 4 fluxes were measured under the simulated reduction of UV radiation in maritime Antarctica over the last three-year summers. Significantly enhanced N 2 O and CH 4 emissions occurred at tundra sites under the simulated reduction of UV radiation. Compared with the ambient normal UV level, a 20% reduction in UV radiation increased tundra emissions by an average of 8 μg N 2 O m -2 h -1 and 93 μg CH 4 m -2 h -1 , whereas a 50% reduction in UV radiation increased their emissions by an average of 17 μg N 2 O m -2 h -1 and 128 μg CH 4 m -2 h -1 . No statistically significant correlation (P > 0.05) was found between N 2 O and CH 4 fluxes and soil temperature, soil moisture, total carbon, total nitrogen, NO 3 - -N and NH 4 + -N contents. Our results confirmed that UV radiation intensity is an important factor affecting tundra N 2 O and CH 4 fluxes in maritime Antarctica. Exclusion of the effects of reduced UV radiation might underestimate their budgets in Polar Regions with the recovery of stratospheric ozone.

  18. Thermotronics: Towards Nanocircuits to Manage Radiative Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2017-02-01

    The control of electric currents in solids is at the origin of the modern electronics revolution that has driven our daily life since the second half of 20th century. Surprisingly, to date, there is no thermal analogue for a control of heat flux. Here, we summarise the very last developments carried out in this direction to control heat exchanges by radiation both in near and far-field in complex architecture networks.

  19. Thermotronics. Towards nanocircuits to manage radiative heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Sherbrooke Univ., PQ; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2017-01-01

    The control of electric currents in solids is at the origin of the modern electronics revolution that has driven our daily life since the second half of 20 th century. Surprisingly, to date, there is no thermal analogue for a control of heat flux. Here, we summarise the very last developments carried out in this direction to control heat exchanges by radiation both in near and far-field in complex architecture networks.

  20. Thermotronics. Towards nanocircuits to manage radiative heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe [Univ. Paris-Sud 11, Palaiseau (France). Lab. Charles Fabry; Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Biehs, Svend-Age [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2017-05-01

    The control of electric currents in solids is at the origin of the modern electronics revolution that has driven our daily life since the second half of 20{sup th} century. Surprisingly, to date, there is no thermal analogue for a control of heat flux. Here, we summarise the very last developments carried out in this direction to control heat exchanges by radiation both in near and far-field in complex architecture networks.

  1. Solar Modulation of Inner Trapped Belt Radiation Flux as a Function of Atmospheric Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, M. A. K.

    2005-01-01

    No simple algorithm seems to exist for calculating proton fluxes and lifetimes in the Earth's inner, trapped radiation belt throughout the solar cycle. Most models of the inner trapped belt in use depend upon AP8 which only describes the radiation environment at solar maximum and solar minimum in Cycle 20. One exception is NOAAPRO which incorporates flight data from the TIROS/NOAA polar orbiting spacecraft. The present study discloses yet another, simple formulation for approximating proton fluxes at any time in a given solar cycle, in particular between solar maximum and solar minimum. It is derived from AP8 using a regression algorithm technique from nuclear physics. From flux and its time integral fluence, one can then approximate dose rate and its time integral dose.

  2. Consideration of critical heat flux margin prediction by subcooled or low quality critical heat flux correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejzlar, P.; Todreas, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The accurate prediction of the critical heat flux (CHF) margin which is a key design parameter in a variety of cooling and heating systems is of high importance. These margins are, for the low quality region, typically expressed in terms of critical heat flux ratios using the direct substitution method. Using a simple example of a heated tube, it is shown that CHF correlations of a certain type often used to predict CHF margins, expressed in this manner, may yield different results, strongly dependent on the correlation in use. It is argued that the application of the heat balance method to such correlations, which leads to expressing the CHF margins in terms of the critical power ratio, may be more appropriate. (orig.)

  3. Prediction of Neutrino Fluxes in the NOMAD Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Astier, P.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, Barry J.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; Di Lella, L.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, Malcolm; Feldman, G.J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrere, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Gosset, J.; Gossling, C.; Gouanere, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hong, T.M.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Lachaud, C.; Lakic, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubicic, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Mechain, X.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Meyer, J.P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S.R.; Moorhead, G.F.; Nedelec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L.S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sevior, M.; Shih, D.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipcevic, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G.N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.M.; Tovey, S.N.; Tran, M.T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K.E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F.V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F.F.; Winton, L.J.; Yabsley, Bruce D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.

    2003-01-01

    The method developed for the calculation of the flux and composition of the West Area Neutrino Beam used by NOMAD in its search for neutrino oscillations is described. The calculation is based on particle production rates computed using a recent version of FLUKA and modified to take into account the cross sections measured by the SPY and NA20 experiments. These particles are propagated through the beam line taking into account the material and magnetic fields they traverse. The neutrinos produced through their decays are tracked to the NOMAD detector. The fluxes of the four neutrino flavours at NOMAD are predicted with an uncertainty of about 8% for nu(mu) and nu(e), 10% for antinu(mu), and 12% for antinu(e). The energy-dependent uncertainty achieved on the R(e, mu) prediction needed for a nu(mu)->nu(e) oscillation search ranges from 4% to 7%, whereas the overall normalization uncertainty on this ratio is 4.2%.

  4. Optical design of a high radiative flux solar furnace for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros-Rosas, D.; Perez-Rabago, C.A.; Arancibia-Bulnes, C.A.; Jaramillo, O.A.; Estrada, C.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Av. Xochicalco s/n, A.P. 34, Temixco, 62580 Morelos (Mexico); Herrera-Vazquez, J.; Vazquez-Montiel, S.; Granados-Agustin, F. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, A.P. 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sanchez-Gonzalez, M. [Centro Nacional de Energias Renovables, Calle Somera 7-9, 28026 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In the present work, the optical design of a new high radiative flux solar furnace is described. Several optical configurations for the concentrator of the system have been considered. Ray tracing simulations were carried out in order to determine the concentrated radiative flux distributions in the focal zone of the system, for comparing the different proposals. The best configuration was chosen in terms of maximum peak concentration, but also in terms of economical and other practical considerations. It consists of an arrangement of 409 first surface spherical facets with hexagonal shape, mounted on a spherical frame. The individual orientation of the facets is corrected in order to compensate for aberrations. The design considers an intercepted power of 30 kW and a target peak concentration above 10,000 suns. The effect of optical errors was also considered in the simulations. (author)

  5. Prediction of soot and thermal radiation in a model gas turbine combustor burning kerosene fuel spray at different swirl levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Prakash; Patra, Jitendra; Datta, Amitava; Mukhopadhyay, Achintya

    2016-05-01

    Combustion of kerosene fuel spray has been numerically simulated in a laboratory scale combustor geometry to predict soot and the effects of thermal radiation at different swirl levels of primary air flow. The two-phase motion in the combustor is simulated using an Eulerian-Lagragian formulation considering the stochastic separated flow model. The Favre-averaged governing equations are solved for the gas phase with the turbulent quantities simulated by realisable k-ɛ model. The injection of the fuel is considered through a pressure swirl atomiser and the combustion is simulated by a laminar flamelet model with detailed kinetics of kerosene combustion. Soot formation in the flame is predicted using an empirical model with the model parameters adjusted for kerosene fuel. Contributions of gas phase and soot towards thermal radiation have been considered to predict the incident heat flux on the combustor wall and fuel injector. Swirl in the primary flow significantly influences the flow and flame structures in the combustor. The stronger recirculation at high swirl draws more air into the flame region, reduces the flame length and peak flame temperature and also brings the soot laden zone closer to the inlet plane. As a result, the radiative heat flux on the peripheral wall decreases at high swirl and also shifts closer to the inlet plane. However, increased swirl increases the combustor wall temperature due to radial spreading of the flame. The high incident radiative heat flux and the high surface temperature make the fuel injector a critical item in the combustor. The injector peak temperature increases with the increase in swirl flow mainly because the flame is located closer to the inlet plane. On the other hand, a more uniform temperature distribution in the exhaust gas can be attained at the combustor exit at high swirl condition.

  6. An evaluation of multigroup flux predictions in the EBR-II core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Fanning, T.H.; Finck, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The unique physics characteristics of EBR-II which are difficult to model with conventional neutronic methodologies are identified; the high neutron leakage fraction and importance of neutron reflection cause errors when conventional calculational approximations are utilized. In this paper, various conventional and higher-order group constant evaluations and flux computation methods are compared for a simplified R-Z model of the EBR-II system. Although conventional methods do provide adequate predictions of the flux in the core region, significant mispredictions are observed in the reflector and radial blanket regions. Calculational comparisons indicate that a fine energy group structure is required for accurate predictions of the eigenvalue and flux distribution; greater detail is needed in the iron resonance scattering treatment. Calculational comparisons also indicate that transport theory with detailed anisotropic scattering treatment is required

  7. An evaluation of multigroup flux predictions in the EBR-II core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.N.; Fanning, T.H.; Finck, P.J.

    1991-12-31

    The unique physics characteristics of EBR-II which are difficult to model with conventional neutronic methodologies are identified; the high neutron leakage fraction and importance of neutron reflection cause errors when conventional calculational approximations are utilized. In this paper, various conventional and higher-order group constant evaluations and flux computation methods are compared for a simplified R-Z model of the EBR-II system. Although conventional methods do provide adequate predictions of the flux in the core region, significant mispredictions are observed in the reflector and radial blanket regions. Calculational comparisons indicate that a fine energy group structure is required for accurate predictions of the eigenvalue and flux distribution; greater detail is needed in the iron resonance scattering treatment. Calculational comparisons also indicate that transport theory with detailed anisotropic scattering treatment is required.

  8. An evaluation of multigroup flux predictions in the EBR-II core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.N.; Fanning, T.H.; Finck, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The unique physics characteristics of EBR-II which are difficult to model with conventional neutronic methodologies are identified; the high neutron leakage fraction and importance of neutron reflection cause errors when conventional calculational approximations are utilized. In this paper, various conventional and higher-order group constant evaluations and flux computation methods are compared for a simplified R-Z model of the EBR-II system. Although conventional methods do provide adequate predictions of the flux in the core region, significant mispredictions are observed in the reflector and radial blanket regions. Calculational comparisons indicate that a fine energy group structure is required for accurate predictions of the eigenvalue and flux distribution; greater detail is needed in the iron resonance scattering treatment. Calculational comparisons also indicate that transport theory with detailed anisotropic scattering treatment is required.

  9. Spectral estimates of net radiation and soil heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughtry, C.S.T.; Kustas, W.P.; Moran, M.S.; Pinter, P.J. Jr.; Jackson, R.D.; Brown, P.W.; Nichols, W.D.; Gay, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional methods of measuring surface energy balance are point measurements and represent only a small area. Remote sensing offers a potential means of measuring outgoing fluxes over large areas at the spatial resolution of the sensor. The objective of this study was to estimate net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux (G) using remotely sensed multispectral data acquired from an aircraft over large agricultural fields. Ground-based instruments measured Rn and G at nine locations along the flight lines. Incoming fluxes were also measured by ground-based instruments. Outgoing fluxes were estimated using remotely sensed data. Remote Rn, estimated as the algebraic sum of incoming and outgoing fluxes, slightly underestimated Rn measured by the ground-based net radiometers. The mean absolute errors for remote Rn minus measured Rn were less than 7%. Remote G, estimated as a function of a spectral vegetation index and remote Rn, slightly overestimated measured G; however, the mean absolute error for remote G was 13%. Some of the differences between measured and remote values of Rn and G are associated with differences in instrument designs and measurement techniques. The root mean square error for available energy (Rn - G) was 12%. Thus, methods using both ground-based and remotely sensed data can provide reliable estimates of the available energy which can be partitioned into sensible and latent heat under non advective conditions

  10. Prediction of critical heat flux using ANFIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaferanlouei, Salman, E-mail: zaferanlouei@gmail.co [Nuclear Engineering and Physics Department, Faculty of Nuclear Engineering, Center of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rostamifard, Dariush; Setayeshi, Saeed [Nuclear Engineering and Physics Department, Faculty of Nuclear Engineering, Center of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The prediction of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is essential for water cooled nuclear reactors since it is an important parameter for the economic efficiency and safety of nuclear power plants. Therefore, in this study using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), a new flexible tool is developed to predict CHF. The process of training and testing in this model is done by using a set of available published field data. The CHF values predicted by the ANFIS model are acceptable compared with the other prediction methods. We improve the ANN model that is proposed by to avoid overfitting. The obtained new ANN test errors are compared with ANFIS model test errors, subsequently. It is found that the ANFIS model with root mean square (RMS) test errors of 4.79%, 5.04% and 11.39%, in fixed inlet conditions and local conditions and fixed outlet conditions, respectively, has superior performance in predicting the CHF than the test error obtained from MLP Neural Network in fixed inlet and outlet conditions, however, ANFIS also has acceptable result to predict CHF in fixed local conditions.

  11. Prediction of critical heat flux using ANFIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaferanlouei, Salman; Rostamifard, Dariush; Setayeshi, Saeed

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is essential for water cooled nuclear reactors since it is an important parameter for the economic efficiency and safety of nuclear power plants. Therefore, in this study using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), a new flexible tool is developed to predict CHF. The process of training and testing in this model is done by using a set of available published field data. The CHF values predicted by the ANFIS model are acceptable compared with the other prediction methods. We improve the ANN model that is proposed by to avoid overfitting. The obtained new ANN test errors are compared with ANFIS model test errors, subsequently. It is found that the ANFIS model with root mean square (RMS) test errors of 4.79%, 5.04% and 11.39%, in fixed inlet conditions and local conditions and fixed outlet conditions, respectively, has superior performance in predicting the CHF than the test error obtained from MLP Neural Network in fixed inlet and outlet conditions, however, ANFIS also has acceptable result to predict CHF in fixed local conditions.

  12. A formal approach for the prediction of the critical heat flux in subcooled water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, C. [Polytechnic of Milan (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    The critical heat flux (CHF) in subcooled water at high mass fluxes are not yet satisfactory correlated. For this scope a formal approach is here followed, which is based on an extension of the parameters and the correlation used for the dryout prediction for medium high quality mixtures. The obtained correlation, in spite of its simplicity and its explicit form, yields satisfactory predictions, also when applied to more conventional CHF data at low-medium mass fluxes and high pressures. Further improvements are possible, if a more complete data bank will be available. The main and general open item is the definition of a criterion, depending only on independent parameters, such as mass flux, pressure, inlet subcooling and geometry, to predict whether the heat transfer crisis will result as a DNB or a dryout phenomenon.

  13. A formal approach for the prediction of the critical heat flux in subcooled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, C.

    1995-01-01

    The critical heat flux (CHF) in subcooled water at high mass fluxes are not yet satisfactory correlated. For this scope a formal approach is here followed, which is based on an extension of the parameters and the correlation used for the dryout prediction for medium high quality mixtures. The obtained correlation, in spite of its simplicity and its explicit form, yields satisfactory predictions, also when applied to more conventional CHF data at low-medium mass fluxes and high pressures. Further improvements are possible, if a more complete data bank will be available. The main and general open item is the definition of a criterion, depending only on independent parameters, such as mass flux, pressure, inlet subcooling and geometry, to predict whether the heat transfer crisis will result as a DNB or a dryout phenomenon

  14. Critical heat flux predictions for the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.V.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1994-08-01

    This study provides best estimate predictions of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) and the Critical Heat Flux Ratio (CHFR) to support the proposed upgrade of the Annual Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) from its present value of 2 MWt to 4 MWt. These predictions are based on the University of New Mexico (UNM) - CHF correlation, originally developed for uniformly heated vertical annuli. The UNM-CHF correlation is applicable to low-flow and low-pressure conditions, which are typical of those in the ACRR. The three hypotheses that examined the effect of the nonuniform axial heat flux distribution in the ACRR core are (1) the local conditions hypotheses, (2) the total power hypothesis, and (3) the global conditions hypothesis. These hypotheses, in conjunction with the UNM-CHF correlation, are used to estimate the CHF and CHFR in the ACRR. Because the total power hypothesis predictions of power per rod at CHF are approximately 15%-20% lower than those corresponding to saturation exit conditions, it can be concluded that the total power hypothesis considerably underestimates the CHF for nonuniformly heated geometries. This conclusion is in agreement with previous experimental results. The global conditions hypothesis, which is more conservative and more accurate of the other two, provides the most reliable predictions of CHF/CHFR for the ACRR. The global conditions hypothesis predictions of CHFR varied between 2.1 and 3.9, with the higher value corresponding to the lower water inlet temperature of 20 degrees C

  15. Sweat Rate Prediction Equations for Outdoor Exercise with Transient Solar Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    AD] 15 Interchangeable variables gSL W/m2 Global solar load Direct weather station data; pyranometer values 25 Direct measurement from weather station... pyranometer (to measure short-wave radiation fluxes) and pyrgeometer (to measure long-wave radiation fluxes). Normally, the value of the solar load...as described below. During field operations, Rsol (W/m2) can be calculated from 0.835 ·ERF. If Rsol (in W/m2) is known by direct pyranometer mea

  16. Fixed-target particle fluxes and radiation levels at SSC energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, E.C.

    1993-01-01

    The author calculates the charged particle fluxes and radiation doses from minimum ionizing particles (MIP), electromagnetic showers, and hadronic showers, in a fixed-target experiment at the SSC. This work follows the work of Groom, essentially boosting his results into the laboratory frame. The radiation in dense matter, such as a calorimeter, is produced by several sources: electromagnetic showers, hadronic showers, and minimum ionizing particles. The author does not consider other sources of radiation such as beam halo, a dependent effects, and low energy neutrons from secondary sources. Nor does he consider the effects of magnetic fields. Low energy neutrons have been shown to be an important source of radiation for collider experiments at the SSC. In fixed-target experiments, where the spectrometer is more open and where most detector elements are far away from secondary particle dumps, these sources are not as important. They are also very much detector and experimental hall dependent. Hence the results presented here are only a lower limit of the estimated radiation dose

  17. Explosive mechanism of metal destruction by intense electromagnetic radiation flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynyuk, M.M.

    1977-01-01

    The metal destruction by a powerful flux of electromagnetic radiation is considered on the basis of thermodynamics and kinetics of the transition of molten metal to vapour during its rapid heating. The possibility is discussed of obtaining a metastable liquid-metal phase and of its explosion transition to a stable two-phase state (phase explosion of metastable liquid). It has been shown that at densities of radiation beam ensuring the heating of the metal to the spinodal point Tsub(s) during a time tsub(s)=10 -5 -10 -7 s the vaporization of the matter from the surface of the liquid is negligible, and the main mechanism of the metal destruction is the phase explosion of the metastable liquid-metal phase which originates in the Tsub(s) vicinity. The experimental data on the electric explosion of conductors for tsub(s)=10 -6 -10 -5 s has served as a basis for calculating the excess enthalpy and the proportion of the vapour phase formed in the phase explosion of Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Al, Pb, Zr, Nb, Mo, W, Pt and Re. The particularities of the phase explosion at flux densities corresponding to tsub(s)( -8 s are considered

  18. Benchmarking CCMI models' top-of-atmosphere flux in the 9.6-µm ozone band using AURA TES Instantaneous Radiative Kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, L.; Bowman, K. W.; Worden, H. M.; Paulot, F.; Paynter, D.; Oman, L.; Strode, S. A.; Rozanov, E.; Stenke, A.; Revell, L. E.; Plummer, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The estimated ozone radiative forcing (RF) from chemical-climate models range widely from +0.2 to +0.6 Wm-2. The reason has never been well understood. Since the ozone absorption in the 9.6 μm band contributes 97% of the O3 longwave RF, the variation of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) due to ozone is dominant by this band. The observed TOA flux over 9.6 µm ozone band by Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) shows the global distribution has unique spatial patterns. In addition, the simulated TOA fluxes over 9.6 µm ozone band by different models have never been evaluated against observations. The bias of TOA flux from model could be primarily contributed by the bias of temperature, water vapor and ozone. Furthermore, the sensitivity of TOA flux to tropospheric ozone (instantaneous radiative kernel, IRK) may also affected by these biases (Kuai et al., 2017). The bias in TOA flux would eventually propagate into model calculations of ozone RF and cause divergence of the predictions of future climate by models. In this study, we applied the observation-based IRK product by AURA TES to attribute the CCMI model bias in TOA flux over 9.6 µm ozone band to ozone, water vapor, air temperature, and surface temperature. The comparisons of the three CCMI models (AM3, SOCOL3 and GEOCCM) to TES observations suggest that 1) all models underestimate the TOA flux at tropics and subtropics. 2) The TOA flux bias is comparable similar by AM3 and GEOSCC (-0.2 to -0.3 W/m2) however is larger for the relative young model, SOCOL3 (-0.4 to -0.6 W/m2). 3) The contributions by surface temperature are similarly moderate (-0.2 W/m2). 4) The contribution of ozone is largest by SOCOL3 (-0.3 W/m2), smallest by GEOSCCM (less than 0.1 W/m2) and moderate by AM3 (-0.2 W/m2). 5) Overall, the contributions by atmospheric temperature are all small (less than 0.1 W/m2). 6) The contribution of water vapor is negative and small by both SOCOL3 and GEOSCCM (0.1 W/m2) however large and positive by AM3 (0

  19. Numerical prediction of dryout heat flux in vertical uniformly heated round tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okawa, Tomio; Kotani, Akio; Kataoka, Isao; Naito, Masanori

    2003-01-01

    Dryout heat fluxes in vertical uniformly heated round tubes were predicted using a film flow model. The correlations adopted in the present analysis were summarized as follows: (1) Entrainment rate and deposition rate were evaluated by the correlations whose validity was confirmed in wide range of thermal-hydraulic conditions. (2) In addition to the droplet entrainment due to interfacial shear force, the entrainment resulting from the boiling in liquid film was considered. (3) The vapor quality at the onset of annular flow was evaluated by the correlation based on the measurement of minimum droplet flowrate. (4) It was postulated that the droplet flowrate at the starting point of annular flow was to be approximated by that in equilibrium state. (5) The onset of critical heat flux condition was determined by the complete disappearance of liquid film. Though several assumptions were used in the present model, all the correlations adopted here were based on experimental data or considerations of the physical processes in annular flow. The resulting model required no parameters that should be adjusted from the measured data of critical heat flux. A number of experimental data of critical heat flux in forced flow of water in vertical uniformly heated round tubes were used to test the basic performance of the model. The comparisons between the calculated and measured critical heat fluxes showed that the predicted results by the present model agree with the experimental data fairly well if the flow pattern at burnout is considered annular flow. The predictive capability was not deteriorated even in the cases of small diameter tube, short length tube as well as low vapor quality at the onset of critical heat flux condition. (author)

  20. Neutral particle and radiation effects on Pfirsch - Schlueter fluxes near the edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catto, P.J.; Helander, P.; Connor, J.W.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The edge plasma of a tokamak is affected by atomic physics processes and can have density and temperature variations along the magnetic field that strongly modify edge transport. A closed system of equations in the Pfirsch - Schlueter regime is presented that can be solved for the radial and poloidal variation of the plasma density, electron and ion temperatures, and the electrostatic potential in the presence of neutrals and a poloidally asymmetric energy radiation sink due to inelastic electron collisions. Neutrals have a large diffusivity so their viscosity and heat flux can become important even when their density is not high, in which case the neutral viscosity alters the electrostatic potential at the edge by introducing strong radial variation. The strong parallel gradient in the electron temperature that can arise in the presence of a localized radiation sink drives a convective flow of particles and heat across the field. This plasma transport mechanism can balance the neutral influx and is particularly strong if multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE) occurs, since the electron temperature then varies substantially over the flux surface. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  1. Techniques for measurement of heat flux in furnace waterwalls of boilers and prediction of heat flux – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, G.; Chandrasekhara Rao, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Balasubramanian, K.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat flux measurement techniques applicable to boiler water wall are elaborated. • Applications involving heat flux measurement in boiler water wall are discussed. • Appropriate technique for usage in high ash Indian coal fired boilers is required. • Usage of chordal thermocouple is suggested for large scale heat flux measurements. - Abstract: Computation of metal temperatures in a furnace waterwall of a boiler is necessary for the proper selection of tube material and thickness. An adequate knowledge of the heat flux distribution in the furnace walls is a prerequisite for the computation of metal temperatures. Hence, the measurement of heat flux in a boiler waterwall is necessary to arrive at an optimum furnace design, especially for high ash Indian coal fired boilers. Also, a thoroughly validated furnace model will result in a considerable reduction of the quantum of experimentation to be carried out. In view of the above mentioned scenario, this paper reviews the research work carried out by various researchers by experimentation and numerical simulation in the below mentioned areas: (i) furnace modeling and heat flux prediction, (ii) heat flux measurement techniques and (iii) applications of heat flux measurements.

  2. Critical flux determination by flux-stepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2010-01-01

    In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step...... length, step height, and.flux start level. Filtrating 8 kg/m(3) yeast cell suspensions by a vibrating 0.45 x 10(-6) m pore size microfiltration hollow fiber module, critical fluxes from 5.6 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-5) m/s have been measured using various step lengths from 300 to 1200 seconds. Thus......, such values are more or less useless in itself as critical flux predictors, and constant flux verification experiments have to be conducted to check if the determined critical fluxes call predict sustainable flux regimes. However, it is shown that using the step-by-step predicted critical fluxes as start...

  3. Modeling the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols on carbon fluxes in the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Demerval S.; Longo, Karla M.; Freitas, Saulo R.; Yamasoe, Marcia A.; Mercado, Lina M.; Rosário, Nilton E.; Gloor, Emauel; Viana, Rosane S. M.; Miller, John B.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Wiedemann, Kenia T.; Domingues, Lucas K. G.; Correia, Caio C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Every year, a dense smoke haze covers a large portion of South America originating from fires in the Amazon Basin and central parts of Brazil during the dry biomass burning season between August and October. Over a large portion of South America, the average aerosol optical depth at 550 nm exceeds 1.0 during the fire season, while the background value during the rainy season is below 0.2. Biomass burning aerosol particles increase scattering and absorption of the incident solar radiation. The regional-scale aerosol layer reduces the amount of solar energy reaching the surface, cools the near-surface air, and increases the diffuse radiation fraction over a large disturbed area of the Amazon rainforest. These factors affect the energy and CO2 fluxes at the surface. In this work, we applied a fully integrated atmospheric model to assess the impact of biomass burning aerosols in CO2 fluxes in the Amazon region during 2010. We address the effects of the attenuation of global solar radiation and the enhancement of the diffuse solar radiation flux inside the vegetation canopy. Our results indicate that biomass burning aerosols led to increases of about 27 % in the gross primary productivity of Amazonia and 10 % in plant respiration as well as a decline in soil respiration of 3 %. Consequently, in our model Amazonia became a net carbon sink; net ecosystem exchange during September 2010 dropped from +101 to -104 TgC when the aerosol effects are considered, mainly due to the aerosol diffuse radiation effect. For the forest biome, our results point to a dominance of the diffuse radiation effect on CO2 fluxes, reaching a balance of 50-50 % between the diffuse and direct aerosol effects for high aerosol loads. For C3 grasses and savanna (cerrado), as expected, the contribution of the diffuse radiation effect is much lower, tending to zero with the increase in aerosol load. Taking all biomes together, our model shows the Amazon during the dry season, in the presence of high

  4. Modeling the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols on carbon fluxes in the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Moreira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Every year, a dense smoke haze covers a large portion of South America originating from fires in the Amazon Basin and central parts of Brazil during the dry biomass burning season between August and October. Over a large portion of South America, the average aerosol optical depth at 550 nm exceeds 1.0 during the fire season, while the background value during the rainy season is below 0.2. Biomass burning aerosol particles increase scattering and absorption of the incident solar radiation. The regional-scale aerosol layer reduces the amount of solar energy reaching the surface, cools the near-surface air, and increases the diffuse radiation fraction over a large disturbed area of the Amazon rainforest. These factors affect the energy and CO2 fluxes at the surface. In this work, we applied a fully integrated atmospheric model to assess the impact of biomass burning aerosols in CO2 fluxes in the Amazon region during 2010. We address the effects of the attenuation of global solar radiation and the enhancement of the diffuse solar radiation flux inside the vegetation canopy. Our results indicate that biomass burning aerosols led to increases of about 27 % in the gross primary productivity of Amazonia and 10 % in plant respiration as well as a decline in soil respiration of 3 %. Consequently, in our model Amazonia became a net carbon sink; net ecosystem exchange during September 2010 dropped from +101 to −104 TgC when the aerosol effects are considered, mainly due to the aerosol diffuse radiation effect. For the forest biome, our results point to a dominance of the diffuse radiation effect on CO2 fluxes, reaching a balance of 50–50 % between the diffuse and direct aerosol effects for high aerosol loads. For C3 grasses and savanna (cerrado, as expected, the contribution of the diffuse radiation effect is much lower, tending to zero with the increase in aerosol load. Taking all biomes together, our model shows the Amazon during the dry

  5. Predictive models for radial sap flux variation in coniferous, diffuse-porous and ring-porous temperate trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdanier, Aaron B; Miniat, Chelcy F; Clark, James S

    2016-08-01

    Accurately scaling sap flux observations to tree or stand levels requires accounting for variation in sap flux between wood types and by depth into the tree. However, existing models for radial variation in axial sap flux are rarely used because they are difficult to implement, there is uncertainty about their predictive ability and calibration measurements are often unavailable. Here we compare different models with a diverse sap flux data set to test the hypotheses that radial profiles differ by wood type and tree size. We show that radial variation in sap flux is dependent on wood type but independent of tree size for a range of temperate trees. The best-fitting model predicted out-of-sample sap flux observations and independent estimates of sapwood area with small errors, suggesting robustness in the new settings. We develop a method for predicting whole-tree water use with this model and include computer code for simple implementation in other studies. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Prediction of transient maximum heat flux based on a simple liquid layer evaporation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serizawa, A.; Kataoka, I.

    1981-01-01

    A model of liquid layer evaporation with considerable supply of liquid has been formulated to predict burnout characteristics (maximum heat flux, life, etc.) during an increase of the power. The analytical description of the model is built upon the visual and photographic observations of the boiling configuration at near peak heat flux reported by other investigators. The prediction compares very favourably with water data presently available. It is suggested from the work reported here that the maximum heat flux occurs because of a balance between the consumption of the liquid film on the heated surface and the supply of liquid. Thickness of the liquid film is also very important. (author)

  7. Prediction of flux loss in a Nd-Fe-B ring magnet considering magnetizing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, H; Koreeda, H; Yanai, T; Nakano, M; Yamashita, F

    2010-01-01

    We developed a technique to predict flux loss of a magnet with a complicated magnetization pattern using the finite element method. The developed method consists of four steps. At first, the distribution of magnetization under magnetizing field is analyzed (Step 1), and a demagnetization curve of each element is deduced from the result of the first step (Step 2). After removing the magnetizing field, the distributions of magnetization at room and elevated temperatures are analyzed by using demagnetization curves determined in Step 2 (Step 3). Based on a physical model, the distribution of flux loss due to exposure at the elevated temperature is predicted by using the result obtained in Step 3 (Step 4). We applied this technique to a ring magnet with 10 poles, and large flux loss values were predicted at the transition regions between magnetic poles.

  8. Longwave scattering effects on fluxes in broken cloud fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takara, E.E.; Ellingson, R.G. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The optical properties of clouds in the radiative energy balance are important. Most works on the effects of scattering have been in the shortwave; but longwave effects can be significant. In this work, the fluxes above and below a single cloud layer are presented, along with the errors in assuming flat black plate clouds or black clouds. The predicted fluxes are the averaged results of analysis of several fields with the same cloud amount.

  9. A benchmark analysis of radiation flux distribution for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of canine brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Jean M. [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly-heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This work describes a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador Retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador Retriever head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for the model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that the peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models.

  10. A benchmark analysis of radiation flux distribution for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of canine brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly-heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This work describes a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador Retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador Retriever head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for the model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that the peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models

  11. Top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes - Validation of ERBE scanner inversion algorithm using Nimbus-7 ERB data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttles, John T.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Vemury, Sastri

    1992-01-01

    The ERBE algorithm is applied to the Nimbus-7 earth radiation budget (ERB) scanner data for June 1979 to analyze the performance of an inversion method in deriving top-of-atmosphere albedos and longwave radiative fluxes. The performance is assessed by comparing ERBE algorithm results with appropriate results derived using the sorting-by-angular-bins (SAB) method, the ERB MATRIX algorithm, and the 'new-cloud ERB' (NCLE) algorithm. Comparisons are made for top-of-atmosphere albedos, longwave fluxes, viewing zenith-angle dependence of derived albedos and longwave fluxes, and cloud fractional coverage. Using the SAB method as a reference, the rms accuracy of monthly average ERBE-derived results are estimated to be 0.0165 (5.6 W/sq m) for albedos (shortwave fluxes) and 3.0 W/sq m for longwave fluxes. The ERBE-derived results were found to depend systematically on the viewing zenith angle, varying from near nadir to near the limb by about 10 percent for albedos and by 6-7 percent for longwave fluxes. Analyses indicated that the ERBE angular models are the most likely source of the systematic angular dependences. Comparison of the ERBE-derived cloud fractions, based on a maximum-likelihood estimation method, with results from the NCLE showed agreement within about 10 percent.

  12. Steady state ensembles of thermal radiation in a layered media with a constant heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budaev, Bair V.; Bogy, David B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes steady-state ensembles of thermally excited electromagnetic radiation in nano-scale layered media with a constant non-vanishing heat flux across the layers. It is shown that Planck's law of thermal radiation, the principle of equivalence, and the laws of wave propagation in layered media, imply that in order for the ensemble of thermally excited electromagnetic fields to exist in a medium consisting of a stack of layers between two half-space, the net heat flux across the layers must exceed a certain threshold that is determined by the temperatures of the half spaces and by the reflective properties of the entire structure. The obtained results provide a way for estimating the radiative heat transfer coefficient of nano-scale layered structures. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Circular heat and momentum flux radiated by magneto-optical nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, A.; Ben-Abdallah, P.; Biehs, S.-A.

    2018-05-01

    In the present article we investigate the heat and momentum fluxes radiated by a hot magneto-optical nanoparticle in its surroundings under the action of an external magnetic field. We show that the flux lines circulate in a confined region at a nanometric distance from the particle around the axis of the magnetic field in a vortexlike configuration. Moreover we prove that the spatial orientation of these vortices (clockwise or counterclockwise) is associated with the contribution of optical resonances with topological charges m =+1 or m =-1 to the thermal emission. This work paves the way for a geometric description of heat and momentum transport in lattices of magneto-optical particles. Moreover it could have important applications in the field of energy storage as well as in thermal management at nanoscale.

  14. Prediction of hourly solar radiation with multi-model framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ji; Chan, Chee Keong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel approach to predict solar radiation through the use of clustering paradigms. • Development of prediction models based on the intrinsic pattern observed in each cluster. • Prediction based on proper clustering and selection of model on current time provides better results than other methods. • Experiments were conducted on actual solar radiation data obtained from a weather station in Singapore. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel multi-model prediction framework for prediction of solar radiation is proposed. The framework started with the assumption that there are several patterns embedded in the solar radiation series. To extract the underlying pattern, the solar radiation series is first segmented into smaller subsequences, and the subsequences are further grouped into different clusters. For each cluster, an appropriate prediction model is trained. Hence a procedure for pattern identification is developed to identify the proper pattern that fits the current period. Based on this pattern, the corresponding prediction model is applied to obtain the prediction value. The prediction result of the proposed framework is then compared to other techniques. It is shown that the proposed framework provides superior performance as compared to others

  15. Genetic algorithm based adaptive neural network ensemble and its application in predicting carbon flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Y.; Liu, S.; Hu, Y.; Yang, J.; Chen, Q.

    2007-01-01

    To improve the accuracy in prediction, Genetic Algorithm based Adaptive Neural Network Ensemble (GA-ANNE) is presented. Intersections are allowed between different training sets based on the fuzzy clustering analysis, which ensures the diversity as well as the accuracy of individual Neural Networks (NNs). Moreover, to improve the accuracy of the adaptive weights of individual NNs, GA is used to optimize the cluster centers. Empirical results in predicting carbon flux of Duke Forest reveal that GA-ANNE can predict the carbon flux more accurately than Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN), Bagging NN ensemble, and ANNE. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  16. The transient transpiration heat flux meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, N.; Calisto, H.; Afgan, N.; Leontiev, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    A new heat flux measurement principle, based on the transient response of a transpiration radiometer, is proposed. The measurement principle of current transpiration radiometers is based on a steady-state temperature measurement in a porous element. Since it may typically take several seconds to reach these conditions, there are obvious benefits in reducing the instrument response time. This can be achieved through the analysis of its transient response in order to predict the incident heat flux. In addition, the proposed methodology enables the separate measurement of the radiative and convective components of incident heat fluxes, without compromising the known advantages of transpiration radiometers. The availability of such an instrument may enable the development of advanced monitoring, diagnostic and control systems for thermal equipment

  17. High flux and high resolution VUV beam line for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcke, H.; Boehmer, W.; Schwentner, N.

    1982-04-01

    A beam line has been optimized for high flux and high resolution in the wavelength range from 30 nm to 300 nm. Sample chambers for luminescence spectroscopy on gaseous, liquid and solid samples and for photoelectron spectroscopy have been integrated. The synchrotron radiation from the storage ring DORIS (at DESY, Hamburg) emitted into 50 mrad in horizontal and into 2.2 mrad in vertical direction is focused by a cylindrical and a plane elliptical mirror into the entrance slit of a 2m normal incidence monochromator. The light flux from the exit slit is focused by a rotational elliptic mirror onto the sample yielding a size of the light spot of 4 x 0.15 mm 2 . The light flux at the sample reaches 7 x 10 12 photons nm -1 s -1 at 8 eV photon energy for a current of 100 mA in DORIS. A resolution of 0.007 nm has been obtained. (orig.)

  18. On the predictability of land surface fluxes from meteorological variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, Ned; Abramowitz, Gab; Pitman, Andy J.

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has shown that land surface models (LSMs) are performing poorly when compared with relatively simple empirical models over a wide range of metrics and environments. Atmospheric driving data appear to provide information about land surface fluxes that LSMs are not fully utilising. Here, we further quantify the information available in the meteorological forcing data that are used by LSMs for predicting land surface fluxes, by interrogating FLUXNET data, and extending the benchmarking methodology used in previous experiments. We show that substantial performance improvement is possible for empirical models using meteorological data alone, with no explicit vegetation or soil properties, thus setting lower bounds on a priori expectations on LSM performance. The process also identifies key meteorological variables that provide predictive power. We provide an ensemble of empirical benchmarks that are simple to reproduce and provide a range of behaviours and predictive performance, acting as a baseline benchmark set for future studies. We reanalyse previously published LSM simulations and show that there is more diversity between LSMs than previously indicated, although it remains unclear why LSMs are broadly performing so much worse than simple empirical models.

  19. Predicted solar cell edge radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Cell Orbital Test (ASCOT) will test six types of solar cells in a high energy proton environment. During the design of the experiment a question was raised about the effects of proton radiation incident on the edge of the solar cells and whether edge radiation shielding was required. Historical geosynchronous data indicated that edge radiation damage is not detectable over the normal end of life solar cell degradation; however because the ASCOT radiation environment has a much higher and more energetic fluence of protons, considerably more edge damage is expected. A computer analysis of the problem was made by modeling the expected radiation damage at the cell edge and using a network model of small interconnected solar cells to predict degradation in the cell's electrical output. The model indicated that the deepest penetration of edge radiation was at the top of the cell near the junction where the protons have access to the cell through the low density cell/cover adhesive layer. The network model indicated that the cells could tolerate high fluences at their edge as long as there was high electrical resistance between the edge radiated region and the contact system on top of the cell. The predicted edge radiation related loss was less than 2% of maximum power for GaAs/Ge solar cells. As a result, no edge radiation protection was used for ASCOT

  20. Prediction of pool void fraction by new drift flux correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, I.; Ishii, M.

    1986-06-01

    A void fraction for a bubbling or boiling pool system is one of the important parameters in analyzing heat and mass transfer processes. Using the drift flux formulation, correlations for the pool void fraction have been developed in collaboration with a large number of experimental data. It has been found that the drift velocity in a pool system depends upon vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and fluid physical properties. The results show that the relative velocity and void fraction can be quite different from those predicted by conventional correlations. In terms of the rise velocity, four different regimes are identified. These are bubbly, churn-turbulent, slug and cap bubble regimes. The present correlations are shown to agree with the experimental data over wide ranges of parameters such as vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and physical properties. 39 refs., 41 figs

  1. Radiation amorphization of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Chernyaeva, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical research on radiation amorphization are presented in this analytical review. Mechanism and driving forces of radiation amorphization are described, kinetic and thermodynamic conditions of amorphization are formulated. Compositional criteria of radiation amorphization are presented, that allow to predict irradiation behaviour of materials, their tendency to radiation amorphization. Mechanism of transition from crystalline state to amorphous state are considered depending on dose, temperature, structure of primary radiation damage and flux level. (author). 134 refs., 4 tab., 25 fig

  2. T2K neutrino flux prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K.

    2013-01-02

    The Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) experiment studies neutrino oscillations using an off-axis muon neutrino beam with a peak energy of about 0.6 GeV that originates at the J-PARC accelerator facility. Interactions of the neutrinos are observed at near detectors placed at 280 m from the production target and at the far detector -- Super-Kamiokande (SK) -- located 295 km away. The flux prediction is an essential part of the successful prediction of neutrino interaction rates at the T2K detectors and is an important input to T2K neutrino oscillation and cross section measurements. A FLUKA and GEANT3 based simulation models the physical processes involved in the neutrino production, from the interaction of primary beam protons in the T2K target, to the decay of hadrons and muons that produce neutrinos. The simulation uses proton beam monitor measurements as inputs. The modeling of hadronic interactions is re-weighted using thin target hadron production data, including recent charged pion and kaon measurements from the NA...

  3. Numerical research of dynamic characteristics in tower solar cavity receiver based on step-change radiation flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhengwei; Wang, Yueshe; Hao, Yun; Wang, Qizhi

    2013-07-01

    The solar cavity receiver is an important light-energy to thermal-energy convector in the tower solar thermal power plant system. The heat flux in the inner surface of the cavity will show the characteristics of non-continuous step change especially in non-normal and transient weather conditions, which may result in a continuous dynamic variation of the characteristic parameters. Therefore, the research of dynamic characteristics of the receiver plays a very important role in the operation and the control safely in solar cavity receiver system. In this paper, based on the non-continuous step change of radiation flux, a non-linear dynamic model is put forward to obtain the effects of the non-continuous step change radiation flux and step change feed water flow on the receiver performance by sequential modular approach. The subject investigated in our study is a 1MW solar power station constructed in Yanqing County, Beijing. This study has obtained the dynamic responses of the characteristic parameters in the cavity receiver, such as drum pressure, drum water level, main steam flow and main steam enthalpy under step change radiation flux. And the influence law of step-change feed water flow to the dynamic characteristics in the receiver also has been analyzed. The results have a reference value for the safe operation and the control in solar cavity receiver system.

  4. Radiation Hardness tests with neutron flux on different Silicon photomultiplier devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, P. W.; Cervi, T.; Menegolli, A.; Oddone, M.; Prata, M.; Prata, M. C.; Rossella, M.

    2017-07-01

    Radiation hardness is an important requirement for solid state readout devices operating in high radiation environments common in particle physics experiments. The MEG II experiment, at PSI, Switzerland, investigates the forbidden decay μ+ → e+ γ. Exploiting the most intense muon beam of the world. A significant flux of non-thermal neutrons (kinetic energy Ek>= 0.5 MeV) is present in the experimental hall produced along the beam-line and in the hall itself. We present the effects of neutron fluxes comparable to the MEG II expected doses on several Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPMs). The tested models are: AdvanSiD ASD-NUV3S-P50 (used in MEG II experiment), AdvanSiD ASD-NUV3S-P40, AdvanSiD ASD-RGB3S-P40, Hamamatsu and Excelitas C30742-33-050-X. The neutron source is the thermal Sub-critical Multiplication complex (SM1) moderated with water, located at the University of Pavia (Italy). We report the change of SiPMs most important electric parameters: dark current, dark pulse frequency, gain, direct bias resistance, as a function of the integrated neutron fluency.

  5. Evaluation of HFIR [High Flux Isotope Reactor] pressure-vessel integrity considering radiation embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheverton, R.D.; Merkle, J.G.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1988-04-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) pressure vessel has been in service for 20 years, and during this time, radiation damage was monitored with a vessel-material surveillance program. In mid-November 1986, data from this program indicated that the radiation-induced reduction in fracture toughness was greater than expected. As a result, a reevaluation of vessel integrity was undertaken. Updated methods of fracture-mechanics analysis were applied, and an accelerated irradiations program was conducted using the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. Results of these efforts indicate that (1) the vessel life can be extended 10 years if the reactor power level is reduced 15% and if the vessel is subjected to a hydrostatic proof test each year; (2) during the 10-year life extension, significant radiation damage will be limited to a rather small area around the beam tubes; and (3) the greater-than-expected damage rate is the result of the very low neutron flux in the HFIR vessel relative to that in samples of material irradiated in materials-testing reactors (a factor of ∼10 4 less), that is, a rate effect

  6. Relating Radiative Fluxes on Arctic Sea Ice Area Using Arctic Observation and Reanalysis Integrated System (ArORIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledd, A.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    With Arctic sea ice declining rapidly and Arctic temperatures rising faster than the rest of the globe, a better understanding of the Arctic climate, and ice cover-radiation feedbacks in particular, is needed. Here we present the Arctic Observation and Reanalysis Integrated System (ArORIS), a dataset of integrated products to facilitate studying the Arctic using satellite, reanalysis, and in-situ datasets. The data include cloud properties, radiative fluxes, aerosols, meteorology, precipitation, and surface properties, to name just a few. Each dataset has uniform grid-spacing, time-averaging and naming conventions for ease of use between products. One intended use of ArORIS is to assess Arctic radiation and moisture budgets. Following that goal, we use observations from ArORIS - CERES-EBAF radiative fluxes and NSIDC sea ice fraction and area to quantify relationships between the Arctic energy balance and surface properties. We find a discernable difference between energy budgets for years with high and low September sea ice areas. Surface fluxes are especially responsive to the September sea ice minimum in months both leading up to September and the months following. In particular, longwave fluxes at the surface show increased sensitivity in the months preceding September. Using a single-layer model of solar radiation we also investigate the individual responses of surface and planetary albedos to changes in sea ice area. By partitioning the planetary albedo into surface and atmospheric contributions, we find that the atmospheric contribution to planetary albedo is less sensitive to changes in sea ice area than the surface contribution. Further comparisons between observations and reanalyses can be made using the available datasets in ArORIS.

  7. Investigation of intermittent magnetic flux in the auroral zones with kilometer radiation (AKR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.Q.; Li, X.Q.

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the nonlinear equations for self-generated magnetic fields, it is numerically shown that the magnetic fields self-generated are instable and may collapse, resulting in spatially highly intermittent flux fragment. Numerical results show that the enhanced magnetic flux has a strength about up to 10 -2 Gauss in range about around 250-350 km in auroral zones with kilometric radiation (AKR), which correspond to estimated values in both the strength and characteristic scale by Mckean et al. [J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans] 96, 21055 (1991)

  8. Comparison of radiation parametrizations within the HARMONIE-AROME NWP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontu, Laura; Lindfors, Anders V.

    2018-05-01

    Downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface (SWDS, global solar radiation flux), given by three different parametrization schemes, was compared to observations in the HARMONIE-AROME numerical weather prediction (NWP) model experiments over Finland in spring 2017. Simulated fluxes agreed well with each other and with the observations in the clear-sky cases. In the cloudy-sky conditions, all schemes tended to underestimate SWDS at the daily level, as compared to the measurements. Large local and temporal differences between the model results and observations were seen, related to the variations and uncertainty of the predicted cloud properties. The results suggest a possibility to benefit from the use of different radiative transfer parametrizations in a NWP model to obtain perturbations for the fine-resolution ensemble prediction systems. In addition, we recommend usage of the global radiation observations for the standard validation of the NWP models.

  9. Effects of tropospheric aerosols on radiative flux calculations at UV and visible wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.S.; Grant, K.E.

    1994-08-01

    The surface fluxes in the wavelength range 175 to 735nm have been calculated for an atmosphere which contains a uniformly mixed aerosol layer of thickness 1km at the earth's surface. Two different aerosol types were considered, a rural aerosol, and an urban aerosol. The visibility range for the aerosol layers was 95 to 15 km. Surface flux ratios (15km/95km) were in agreement with previously published results for the rural aerosol layer to within about 2%. The surface flux ratios vary from 7 to 14% for the rural aerosol layer and from 13 to 23% for the urban aerosol layer over the wavelength range. A tropospheric radiative forcing of about 1.3% of the total tropospheric flux was determined for the 95km to 15km visibility change in the rural aerosol layer, indicating the potential of tropospheric feedback effects on the surface flux changes. This effect was found to be negligible for the urban aerosol layer. Stratospheric layer heating rate changes due to visibility changes in either the rural or urban aerosol layer were found to be negligible

  10. Electron flux enhancement in the inner radiation belt during moderate magnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tadokoro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available During moderate magnetic storms, an electron channel (300–1100 keV of the NOAA satellite has shown sudden electron flux enhancements in the inner radiation belt. After examinating the possibility of contamination by different energetic particles, we conclude that these electron flux enhancements are reliable enough to be considered as natural phenomena, at least for the cases of small to moderate magnetic storms. Here, we define small and moderate storms to be those in which the minimum Dst ranges between −30 and −100 nT. The electron flux enhancements appear with over one order of magnitude at L~2 during these storms. The enhancement is not accompanied by any transport of electron flux from the outer belt. Statistical analysis shows that these phenomena have a duration of approximately 1 day during the period, starting with the main phase to the early recovery phase of the storms. The flux enhancement shows a dawn-dusk asymmetry; the amount of increased flux is larger in the dusk side. We suggest that this phenomenon could not be caused by the radial diffusion but would be due to pitch-angle scattering at the magnetic equator. The inner belt is not in a stationary state, as was previously believed, but is variable in response to the magnetic activity.

  11. A theoretical model for predicting neutron fluxes for cyclic Neutron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A theoretical model has been developed for prediction of thermal neutron fluxes required for cyclic irradiations of a sample to obtain the same activity previously used for the detection of any radionuclide of interest. The model is suitable for radiotracer production or for long-lived neutron activation products where the ...

  12. Combined conduction and radiation in a two-layer planar medium with flux boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C.H.; Ozisik, M.N.

    1987-01-01

    The interaction of conduction and radiation is investigated under both transient and steady-state conditions for an absorbing, emitting, and isotropically scattering two-layer slab having opaque coverings at both boundaries. The slab is subjected to an externally applied constant heat flux at one boundary surface and dissipates heat by radiation into external ambients from both boundary surfaces. An analytic approach is applied to solve the radiation part of the problem, and a finite-difference scheme is used to solve the conduction part. The effects of the conduction-to-radiation parameter, the single scattering albedo, the optical thickness, and the surface emissivity on the temperature distribution are examined

  13. On the Relationship Between High Speed Solar Wind Streams and Radiation Belt Electron Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua

    2011-01-01

    Both past and recent research results indicate that solar wind speed has a close connection to radiation belt electron fluxes [e.g., Paulikas and Blake, 1979; Reeves et aI., 2011]: a higher solar wind speed is often associated with a higher level of radiation electron fluxes. But the relationship can be very complex [Reeves et aI., 2011]. The study presented here provides further corroboration of this viewpoint by emphasizing the importance of a global perspective and time history. We find that all the events during years 2010 and 2011 where the >0.8 MeV integral electron flux exceeds 10(exp 5) particles/sq cm/sr/s (pfu) at GEO orbit are associated with the high speed streams (HSS) following the onset of the Stream Interaction Region (SIR), with most of them belonging to the long-lasting Corotating Interaction Region (CIR). Our preliminary results indicate that during HSS events, a maximum speed of 700 km/s and above is a sufficient but not necessary condition for the > 0.8 MeV electron flux to reach 10(exp 5) pfu. But in the exception cases of HSS events where the electron flux level exceeds the 10(exp 5) pfu value but the maximum solar wind speed is less than 700 km/s, a prior impact can be noted either from a CME or a transient SIR within 3-4 days before the arrival of the HSS - stressing the importance of time history. Through superposed epoch analysis and studies providing comparisons with the CME events and the HSS events where the flux level fails to reach the 10(exp 5) pfu, we will present the quantitative assessment of behaviors and relationships of various quantities, such as the time it takes to reach the flux threshold value from the stream interface and its dependence on different physical parameters (e.g., duration of the HSS event, its maximum or average of the solar wind speed, IMF Bz, Kp). The ultimate goal is to apply what is derived to space weather forecasting.

  14. Prediction of Experimental Surface Heat Flux of Thin Film Gauges using ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Shrutidhara; Sahoo, Niranjan; Unal, Aynur

    2018-05-01

    Precise quantification of surface heat fluxes in highly transient environment is of paramount importance from the design point of view of several engineering equipment like thermal protection or cooling systems. Such environments are simulated in experimental facilities by exposing the surface with transient heat loads typically step/impulsive in nature. The surface heating rates are then determined from highly transient temperature history captured by efficient surface temperature sensors. The classical approach is to use thin film gauges (TFGs) in which temperature variations are acquired within milliseconds, thereby allowing calculation of surface heat flux, based on the theory of one-dimensional heat conduction on a semi-infinite body. With recent developments in the soft computing methods, the present study is an attempt for the application of intelligent system technique, called adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to recover surface heat fluxes from a given temperature history recorded by TFGs without having the need to solve lengthy analytical equations. Experiments have been carried out by applying known quantity of `impulse heat load' through laser beam on TFGs. The corresponding voltage signals have been acquired and surface heat fluxes are estimated through classical analytical approach. These signals are then used to `train' the ANFIS model, which later predicts output for `test' values. Results from both methods have been compared and these surface heat fluxes are used to predict the non-linear relationship between thermal and electrical properties of the gauges that are exceedingly pertinent to the design of efficient TFGs. Further, surface plots have been created to give an insight about dimensionality effect of the non-linear dependence of thermal/electrical parameters on each other. Later, it is observed that a properly optimized ANFIS model can predict the impulsive heat profiles with significant accuracy. This paper thus shows the

  15. Prediction of the diffuse far-infrared flux from the galactic plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, G.G.; Stecker, F.W.

    1976-01-01

    A basic model and simple numerical relations useful for future far-infrared studies of the Galaxy are presented. Making use of recent CO and other galactic surveys, we then predict the diffuse far-infrared flux distribution from the galactic plane as a function of galactic longitude l for 4degree< or =l< or =90degree and the far-infrared emissivity as a function of galactocentric distance. Future measurements of the galactic far-infrared flux would yield valuable information on the physical properties and distribution of dust and molecular clouds in the Galaxy, particulary the inner region

  16. Inverse identification of intensity distributions from multiple flux maps in concentrating solar applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, Ben; Petrasch, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Radiative flux measurements at the focal plane of solar concentrators are typically performed using digital cameras in conjunction with Lambertian targets. To accurately predict flux distributions on arbitrary receiver geometries directional information about the radiation is required. Currently, the directional characteristics of solar concentrating systems are predicted via ray tracing simulations. No direct experimental technique to determine intensities of concentrating solar systems is available. In the current paper, multiple parallel flux measurements at varying distances from the focal plane together with a linear inverse method and Tikhonov regularization are used to identify the directional and spatial intensity distribution at the solution plane. The directional binning feature of an in-house Monte Carlo ray tracing program is used to provide a reference solution. The method has been successfully applied to two-dimensional concentrators, namely parabolic troughs and elliptical troughs using forward Monte Carlo ray tracing simulations that provide the flux maps as well as consistent, associated intensity distribution for validation. In the two-dimensional case, intensity distributions obtained from the inverse method approach the Monte Carlo forward solution. In contrast, the method has not been successful for three dimensional and circular symmetric concentrator geometries.

  17. Flooding Regime Impacts on Radiation, Evapotranspiration, and Latent Energy Fluxes over Groundwater-Dependent Riparian Cottonwood and Saltcedar Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Cleverly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation and energy balances are key drivers of ecosystem water and carbon cycling. This study reports on ten years of eddy covariance measurements over groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs in New Mexico, USA, to compare the role of drought and flooding on radiation, water, and energy budgets of forests differing in species composition (native cottonwood versus nonnative saltcedar and flooding regime. After net radiation (700–800 W m−2, latent heat flux was the largest energy flux, with annual values of evapotranspiration exceeding annual precipitation by 250–600%. Evaporative cooling dominated the energy fluxes of both forest types, although cottonwood generated much lower daily values of sensible heat flux (<−5 MJ m−2 d−1. Drought caused a reduction in evaporative cooling, especially in the saltcedar sites where evapotranspiration was also reduced, but without a substantial decline in depth-to-groundwater. Our findings have broad implications on water security and the management of native and nonnative vegetation within semiarid southwestern North America. Specifically, consideration of the energy budgets of GDEs as they respond to fluctuations in climatic conditions can inform the management options for reducing evapotranspiration and maintaining in-stream flow, which is legally mandated as part of interstate and international water resources agreements.

  18. Sound quality prediction for engine-radiated noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai; Zhang, Junhong; Guo, Peng; Bi, Fengrong; Yu, Hanzhengnan; Ni, Guangjian

    2015-05-01

    Diesel engine-radiated noise quality prediction is an important topic because engine noise has a significant impact on the overall vehicle noise. Sound quality prediction is based on subjective and objective evaluation of engine noise. The integrated satisfaction index (ISI) is proposed as a criterion for differentiate noise quality in the subjective evaluation, and five psychoacoustic parameters are selected for characterizing and analyzing the noise quality of the diesel engine objectively. The combination of support vector machines (SVM) and genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed in order to establish a model for predicting the diesel engine-radiated noise quality for all operation conditions. The performance of the GA-SVM model is compared with the BP neural network model, and the results show that the mean relative error of the GA-SVM model is smaller than the BP neural network model. The importance rank of the sound quality metrics to the ISI is indicated by the non-parametric correlation analysis. This study suggests that the GA-SVM model is very useful for accurately predicting the diesel engine-radiated noise quality.

  19. Top-down and Bottom-up aerosol-cloud-closure: towards understanding sources of unvertainty in deriving cloud radiative flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, K.; Roberts, G.; Calmer, R.; Nicoll, K.; Hashimshoni, E.; Rosenfeld, D.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Preissler, J.; Ceburnis, D.; O'Dowd, C. D. D.; Russell, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Top-down and bottom-up aerosol-cloud shortwave radiative flux closures were conducted at the Mace Head atmospheric research station in Galway, Ireland in August 2015. Instrument platforms include ground-based, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), and satellite measurements of aerosols, clouds and meteorological variables. The ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosol size distributions and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration were used to initiate a 1D microphysical aerosol-cloud parcel model (ACPM). UAVs were equipped for a specific science mission, with an optical particle counter for aerosol distribution profiles, a cloud sensor to measure cloud extinction, or a 5-hole probe for 3D wind vectors. These are the first UAV measurements at Mace Head. ACPM simulations are compared to in-situ cloud extinction measurements from UAVs to quantify closure in terms of cloud shortwave radiative flux. Two out of seven cases exhibit sub-adiabatic vertical temperature profiles within the cloud, which suggests that entrainment processes affect cloud microphysical properties and lead to an overestimate of simulated cloud shortwave radiative flux. Including an entrainment parameterization and explicitly calculating the entrainment fraction in the ACPM simulations both improved cloud-top radiative closure. Entrainment reduced the difference between simulated and observation-derived cloud-top shortwave radiative flux (δRF) by between 25 W m-2 and 60 W m-2. After accounting for entrainment, satellite-derived cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC) were within 30% of simulated CDNC. In cases with a well-mixed boundary layer, δRF is no greater than 20 W m-2 after accounting for cloud-top entrainment, and up to 50 W m-2 when entrainment is not taken into account. In cases with a decoupled boundary layer, cloud microphysical properties are inconsistent with ground-based aerosol measurements, as expected, and δRF is as high as 88 W m-2, even high (> 30 W m-2) after

  20. Radiative Heating in MSL Entry: Comparison of Flight Heating Discrepancy to Ground Test and Predictive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.; White, Todd R.; Mahzari, Milad; Bose, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    During the recent entry of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the heat shield was equipped with thermocouple stacks to measure in-depth heating of the thermal protection system (TPS). When only convective heating was considered, the derived heat flux from gauges in the stagnation region was found to be underpredicted by as much as 17 W/sq cm, which is significant compared to the peak heating of 32 W/sq cm. In order to quantify the contribution of radiative heating phenomena to the discrepancy, ground tests and predictive simulations that replicated the MSL entry trajectory were performed. An analysis is carried through to assess the quality of the radiation model and the impact to stagnation line heating. The impact is shown to be significant, but does not fully explain the heating discrepancy.

  1. High fidelity chemistry and radiation modeling for oxy -- combustion scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Sater, Hassan A.

    To account for the thermal and chemical effects associated with the high CO2 concentrations in an oxy-combustion atmosphere, several refined gas-phase chemistry and radiative property models have been formulated for laminar to highly turbulent systems. This thesis examines the accuracies of several chemistry and radiative property models employed in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of laminar to transitional oxy-methane diffusion flames by comparing their predictions against experimental data. Literature review about chemistry and radiation modeling in oxy-combustion atmospheres considered turbulent systems where the predictions are impacted by the interplay and accuracies of the turbulence, radiation and chemistry models. Thus, by considering a laminar system we minimize the impact of turbulence and the uncertainties associated with turbulence models. In the first section of this thesis, an assessment and validation of gray and non-gray formulations of a recently proposed weighted-sum-of-gray gas model in oxy-combustion scenarios was undertaken. Predictions of gas, wall temperatures and flame lengths were in good agreement with experimental measurements. The temperature and flame length predictions were not sensitive to the radiative property model employed. However, there were significant variations between the gray and non-gray model radiant fraction predictions with the variations in general increasing with decrease in Reynolds numbers possibly attributed to shorter flames and steeper temperature gradients. The results of this section confirm that non-gray model predictions of radiative heat fluxes are more accurate than gray model predictions especially at steeper temperature gradients. In the second section, the accuracies of three gas-phase chemistry models were assessed by comparing their predictions against experimental measurements of temperature, species concentrations and flame lengths. The chemistry was modeled employing the Eddy

  2. Prediction Model of the Outer Radiation Belt Developed by Chungbuk National University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Kyu Shin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s outer radiation belt often suffers from drastic changes in the electron fluxes. Since the electrons can be a potential threat to satellites, efforts have long been made to model and predict electron flux variations. In this paper, we describe a prediction model for the outer belt electrons that we have recently developed at Chungbuk National University. The model is based on a one-dimensional radial diffusion equation with observationally determined specifications of a few major ingredients in the following way. First, the boundary condition of the outer edge of the outer belt is specified by empirical functions that we determine using the THEMIS satellite observations of energetic electrons near the boundary. Second, the plasmapause locations are specified by empirical functions that we determine using the electron density data of THEMIS. Third, the model incorporates the local acceleration effect by chorus waves into the one-dimensional radial diffusion equation. We determine this chorus acceleration effect by first obtaining an empirical formula of chorus intensity as a function of drift shell parameter L*, incorporating it as a source term in the one-dimensional diffusion equation, and lastly calibrating the term to best agree with observations of a certain interval. We present a comparison of the model run results with and without the chorus acceleration effect, demonstrating that the chorus effect has been incorporated into the model to a reasonable degree.

  3. The ionizing radiation environment of LDEF prerecovery predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, John W., Jr.; Derrickson, James H.; Parnell, T. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Harmon, A.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Heinrich, Wolfgang

    1991-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was exposed to several sources of ionizing radiation while in orbit. The principal ones were trapped belt protons and electrons, galactic cosmic rays, and albedo particles (protons and neutrons) from the atmosphere. Large solar flares in 1989 may have caused a small contribution. Prior to the recovery of the spacecraft, a number of calculations and estimates were made to predict the radiation exposure of the spacecraft and experiments. These were made to assess whether measurable radiation effects might exist, and to plan the analysis of the large number of radiation measurements available on the LDEF. Calculations and estimates of total dose, particle fluences, linear energy transfer spectra, and induced radioactivity were made. The principal sources of radiation is described, and the preflight predictions are summarized.

  4. Systems with a constant heat flux with applications to radiative heat transport across nanoscale gaps and layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaev, Bair V.; Bogy, David B.

    2018-06-01

    We extend the statistical analysis of equilibrium systems to systems with a constant heat flux. This extension leads to natural generalizations of Maxwell-Boltzmann's and Planck's equilibrium energy distributions to energy distributions of systems with a net heat flux. This development provides a long needed foundation for addressing problems of nanoscale heat transport by a systematic method based on a few fundamental principles. As an example, we consider the computation of the radiative heat flux between narrowly spaced half-spaces maintained at different temperatures.

  5. The LMJ project - status of our knowledge in hohlraum energetics physics: production and control of the radiation flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattolo, E.

    2001-09-01

    CEA-DAM in France is working on Inertial controlled Fusion (ICF) since the beginning of nineties. In an indirect drive scheme, the laser light is converted in X-ray in a hohlraum made with an high-Z material. Part of this radiation flux is absorbed by a micro-balloon filled with DT, placed in the center of the hohlraum, and generates its implosion, ignition and burn. This paper gives the status of our knowledge and studies for production and control of the radiation flux in the hohlraum, in the perspective of the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ). (authors)

  6. General correlation for prediction of critical heat flux ratio in water cooled channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernica, R.; Cizek, J.

    1995-09-01

    The paper present the general empirical Critical Heat Flux Ration (CHFR) correlation which is valid for vertical water upflow through tubes, internally heated concentric annuli and rod bundles geometries with both wide and very tight square and triangular rods lattices. The proposed general PG correlation directly predicts the CHFR, it comprises axial and radial non-uniform heating, and is valid in a wider range of thermal hydraulic conditions than previously published critical heat flux correlations. The PG correlation has been developed using the critical heat flux Czech data bank which includes more than 9500 experimental data on tubes, 7600 data on rod bundles and 713 data on internally heated concentric annuli. Accuracy of the CHFR prediction, statistically assessed by the constant dryout conditions approach, is characterized by the mean value nearing 1.00 and the standard deviation less than 0.06. Moverover, a subchannel form of the PG correlations is statistically verified on Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering rod bundle data bases, i.e. more than 7000 experimental CHF points of Columbia University data bank were used.

  7. Seasonality of Overstory and Understory Fluxes in a Semi-Arid Oak Savanna: What can be Learned from Comparing Measured and Modeled Fluxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz-Yaseef, N.; Sonnentag, O.; Kobayashi, H.; Chen, J. M.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Ma, S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    Semi-arid climates experience large seasonal and inter-annual variability in radiation and precipitation, creating natural conditions adequate to study how year-to-year changes affect atmosphere-biosphere fluxes. Especially, savanna ecosystems, that combine tree and below-canopy components, create a unique environment in which phenology dramatically changes between seasons. We used a 10-year flux database in order to define seasonal and interannual variability of climatic inputs and fluxes, and evaluate model capability to reproduce observed variability. This is based on the perception that model capability to construct the deviation, and not the average, is important in order to correctly predict ecosystem sensitivity to climate change. Our research site is a low density and low LAI (0.8) semi-arid savanna, located at Tonzi Ranch, Northern California. In this system, trees are active during the warm season (Mar - Oct), and grasses are active during the wet season (Dec - May). Measurements of carbon and water fluxes above and below the tree canopy using eddy covariance and supplementary measurements have been made since 2001. Fluxes were simulated using bio-meteorological process-oriented ecosystem models: BEPS and 3D-CAONAK. Models were partly capable of reproducing fluxes on daily scales (R2=0.66). We then compared model outputs for different ecosystem components and seasons, and found distinct seasons with high correlations while other seasons were purely represented. Comparison was much higher for ET than for GPP. The understory was better simulated than the overstory. CANOAK overestimated spring understory fluxes, probably due to the capability to directly calculated 3D radiative transfer. BEPS underestimated spring understory fluxes, following the pre-description of grass die-off. Both models underestimated peak spring overstory fluxes. During winter tree dormant, modeled fluxes were null, but occasional high fluxes of both ET and GPP were measured following

  8. Maximum power flux of auroral kilometric radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.F.; Fainberg, J.

    1991-01-01

    The maximum auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) power flux observed by distant satellites has been increased by more than a factor of 10 from previously reported values. This increase has been achieved by a new data selection criterion and a new analysis of antenna spin modulated signals received by the radio astronomy instrument on ISEE 3. The method relies on selecting AKR events containing signals in the highest-frequency channel (1980, kHz), followed by a careful analysis that effectively increased the instrumental dynamic range by more than 20 dB by making use of the spacecraft antenna gain diagram during a spacecraft rotation. This analysis has allowed the separation of real signals from those created in the receiver by overloading. Many signals having the appearance of AKR harmonic signals were shown to be of spurious origin. During one event, however, real second harmonic AKR signals were detected even though the spacecraft was at a great distance (17 R E ) from Earth. During another event, when the spacecraft was at the orbital distance of the Moon and on the morning side of Earth, the power flux of fundamental AKR was greater than 3 x 10 -13 W m -2 Hz -1 at 360 kHz normalized to a radial distance r of 25 R E assuming the power falls off as r -2 . A comparison of these intense signal levels with the most intense source region values (obtained by ISIS 1 and Viking) suggests that multiple sources were observed by ISEE 3

  9. Predicting critical heat flux in slug flow regime of uniformly heated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical computation code (PWR-DNBP) has been developed to predict Critical Heat Flux (CHF) of forced convective flow of water in a vertical heated channel. The code was based on the liquid sub-layer model, with the assumption that CHF occurred when the liquid film thickness between the heated surface and vapour ...

  10. A prediction method of the effect of radial heat flux distribution on critical heat flux in CANDU fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Lan Qin; Yang, Jun; Harrison, Noel

    2014-01-01

    Fuel irradiation experiments to study fuel behaviors have been performed in the experimental loops of the National Research Universal (NRU) Reactor at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) in support of the development of new fuel technologies. Before initiating a fuel irradiation experiment, the experimental proposal must be approved to ensure that the test fuel strings put into the NRU loops meet safety margin requirements in critical heat flux (CHF). The fuel strings in irradiation experiments can have varying degrees of fuel enrichment and burnup, resulting in large variations in radial heat flux distribution (RFD). CHF experiments performed in Freon flow at CRL for full-scale bundle strings with a number of RFDs showed a strong effect of RFD on CHF. A prediction method was derived based on experimental CHF data to account for the RFD effect on CHF. It provides good CHF predictions for various RFDs as compared to the data. However, the range of the tested RFDs in the CHF experiments is not as wide as that required in the fuel irradiation experiments. The applicability of the prediction method needs to be examined for the RFDs beyond the range tested by the CHF experiments. The Canadian subchannel code ASSERT-PV was employed to simulate the CHF behavior for RFDs that would be encountered in fuel irradiation experiments. The CHF predictions using the derived method were compared with the ASSERT simulations. It was observed that the CHF predictions agree well with the ASSERT simulations in terms of CHF, confirming the applicability of the prediction method in fuel irradiation experiments. (author)

  11. Prediction of strongly-heated gas flows in a vertical tube using explicit algebraic stress/heat-flux models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seong Gu; Park, Seung O.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides the assessment of prediction performance of explicit algebraic stress and heat-flux models under conditions of mixed convective gas flows in a strongly-heated vertical tube. Two explicit algebraic stress models and four algebraic heat-flux models are selected for assessment. Eight combinations of explicit algebraic stress and heat-flux models are used in predicting the flows experimentally studied by Shehata and McEligot (IJHMT 41(1998) p.4333) in which property variation was significant. Among the various model combinations, the Wallin and Johansson (JFM 403(2000) p. 89) explicit algebraic stress model-Abe, Kondo, and Nagano (IJHFF 17(1996) p. 228) algebraic heat-flux model combination is found to perform best. We also found that the dimensionless wall distance y + should be calculated based on the local property rather than the property at the wall for property-variation flows. When the buoyancy or the property variation effects are so strong that the flow may relaminarize, the choice of the basic platform two-equation model is a most important factor in improving the predictions

  12. Prediction of soil CO2 flux in sugarcane management systems using the Random Forest approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Luiza Moraes Tavares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Random Forest algorithm is a data mining technique used for classifying attributes in order of importance to explain the variation in an attribute-target, as soil CO2 flux. This study aimed to identify prediction of soil CO2 flux variables in management systems of sugarcane through the machine-learning algorithm called Random Forest. Two different management areas of sugarcane in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were selected: burned and green. In each area, we assembled a sampling grid with 81 georeferenced points to assess soil CO2 flux through automated portable soil gas chamber with measuring spectroscopy in the infrared during the dry season of 2011 and the rainy season of 2012. In addition, we sampled the soil to evaluate physical, chemical, and microbiological attributes. For data interpretation, we used the Random Forest algorithm, based on the combination of predicted decision trees (machine learning algorithms in which every tree depends on the values of a random vector sampled independently with the same distribution to all the trees of the forest. The results indicated that clay content in the soil was the most important attribute to explain the CO2 flux in the areas studied during the evaluated period. The use of the Random Forest algorithm originated a model with a good fit (R2 = 0.80 for predicted and observed values.

  13. New Westinghouse correlation WRB-1 for predicting critical heat flux in rod bundles with mixing vane grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motley, F.E.; Hill, K.W.; Cadek, F.F.; Shefcheck, J.

    1976-07-01

    A new critical heat flux (CHF) correlation, based on local fluid conditions, has been developed from Westinghouse rod bundle data. This correlation applies to both 0.422 inch and 0.374 inch rod O.D. geometries. It accounts for typical cell and thimble cell effects, uniform and non-uniform heat flux profiles, variations in rod heated length and in grid spacing. The correlation predicts CHF for 1147 data points with a sample mean and standard deviation of measured-to-predicted heat flux ratio of 1.0043 and 0.0873, respectively. It was concluded that to meet the reactor design criterion the minimum DNBR should be 1.17

  14. Downwelling Longwave Fluxes at Continental Surfaces-A Comparison of Observations with GCM Simulations and Implications for the Global Land-Surface Radiation Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.; Prata, A. J.

    1996-03-01

    Previous work suggests that general circulation (global climate) models have excess net radiation at land surfaces, apparently due to overestimates in downwelling shortwave flux and underestimates in upwelling long-wave flux. Part of this excess, however, may be compensated for by an underestimate in downwelling longwave flux. Long term observations of the downwelling longwave component at several land stations in Europe, the United States, Australia, and Antarctica suggest that climate models (four are used, as in previous studies) underestimate this flux component on an annual basis by up to 10 W m2, yet with low statistical significance. It is probable that the known underestimate in boundary-layer air temperature contributes to this, as would low model cloudiness and neglect of minor gases such as methane, nitrogen oxide, and the freons. The bias in downwelling longwave flux, together with those found earlier for downwelling shortwave and upwlling long-wave fluxes, are consistent with the model bias found previously for net radiation. All annually averaged fluxes and biases are deduced for global land as a whole.

  15. Radiation transport modeling and assessment to better predict radiation exposure, dose, and toxicological effects to human organs on long duration space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkins, P.; Badhwar, G.; Obot, V.; Wilson, B.; Jejelewo, O.

    2001-01-01

    NASA is very interested in improving its ability to monitor and forecast the radiation levels that pose a health risk to space-walking astronauts as they construct the International Space Station and astronauts that will participate in long-term and deep-space missions. Human exploratory missions to the moon and Mars within the next quarter century, will expose crews to transient radiation from solar particle events which include high-energy galactic cosmic rays and high-energy protons. Because the radiation levels in space are high and solar activity is presently unpredictable, adequate shielding is needed to minimize the deleterious health effects of exposure to radiation. Today, numerous models have been developed and used to predict radiation exposure. Such a model is the Space Environment Information Systems (SPENVIS) modeling program, developed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronautics. SPENVIS, which has been assessed to be an excellent tool in characterizing the radiation environment for microelectronics and investigating orbital debris, is being evaluated for its usefulness with determining the dose and dose-equivalent for human exposure. Thus far. the calculations for dose-depth relations under varying shielding conditions have been in agreement with calculations done using HZETRN and PDOSE, which are well-known and widely used models for characterizing the environments for human exploratory missions. There is disagreement when assessing the impact of secondary radiation particles since SPENVIS does a crude estimation of the secondary radiation particles when calculating LET versus Flux. SPENVIS was used to model dose-depth relations for the blood-forming organs. Radiation sickness and cancer are life-threatening consequences resulting from radiation exposure. In space. exposure to radiation generally includes all of the critical organs. Biological and toxicological impacts have been included for discussion along with alternative risk mitigation

  16. Radiation transport modeling and assessment to better predict radiation exposure, dose, and toxicological effects to human organs on long duration space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkins, Pamela; Badhwar, Gautam; Obot, Victor; Wilson, Bobby; Jejelewo, Olufisayo

    2001-08-01

    NASA is very interested in improving its ability to monitor and forecast the radiation levels that pose a health risk to space-walking astronauts as they construct the International Space Station and astronauts that will participate in long-term and deep-space missions. Human exploratory missions to the moon and Mars within the next quarter century, will expose crews to transient radiation from solar particle events which include high-energy galactic cosmic rays and high-energy protons. Because the radiation levels in space are high and solar activity is presently unpredictable, adequate shielding is needed to minimize the deleterious health effects of exposure to radiation. Today, numerous models have been developed and used to predict radiation exposure. Such a model is the Space Environment Information Systems (SPENVIS) modeling program, developed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronautics. SPENVIS, which has been assessed to be an excellent tool in characterizing the radiation environment for microelectronics and investigating orbital debris, is being evaluated for its usefulness with determining the dose and dose-equivalent for human exposure. Thus far, the calculations for dose-depth relations under varying shielding conditions have been in agreement with calculations done using HZETRN and PDOSE, which are well-known and widely used models for characterizing the environments for human exploratory missions. There is disagreement when assessing the impact of secondary radiation particles since SPENVIS does a crude estimation of the secondary radiation particles when calculating LET versus Flux. SPENVIS was used to model dose-depth relations for the blood-forming organs. Radiation sickness and cancer are life-threatening consequences resulting from radiation exposure. In space, exposure to radiation generally includes all of the critical organs. Biological and toxicological impacts have been included for discussion along with alternative risk mitigation

  17. Simultaneously estimation for surface heat fluxes of steel slab in a reheating furnace based on DMC predictive control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanhao; Wang, Guangjun; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The predictive control theory is utilized for the research of a simultaneous estimation of heat fluxes through the upper, side and lower surface of a steel slab in a walking beam type rolling steel reheating furnace. An inverse algorithm based on dynamic matrix control (DMC) is established. That is, each surface heat flux of a slab is simultaneously estimated through rolling optimization on the basis of temperature measurements in selected points of its interior by utilizing step response function as predictive model of a slab's temperature. The reliability of the DMC results is enhanced without prior assuming specific functions of heat fluxes over a period of future time. The inverse algorithm proposed a respective regularization to effectively improve the stability of the estimated results by considering obvious strength differences between the upper as well as lower and side surface heat fluxes of the slab. - Highlights: • The predictive control theory is adopted. • An inversion scheme based on DMC is established. • Upper, side and lower surface heat fluxes of slab are estimated based DMC. • A respective regularization is proposed to improve the stability of results

  18. Physiological and pathological effects of thermal radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hymes, I.

    1983-09-15

    This report deals with man's response to abnormally high levels of thermal radiation. The early sections deal with the properties and biological roles of the skin in some detail as a basis for the definitions and descriptions of pathological damage. The estimation of hazard ranges in thermal radiation exposures requires a moderately accurate knowledge of the intensity and duration of the emitted flux. The (BLEVE) Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion fireball conveniently meets this requirement as well as having the capability to inflict severe burn injuries over considerable distances. Liquid Petroleum Gas fireballs have been used as the source term for the thermal radiation calculations which predict threshold lethality and various categories of burn injury. Inevitably there are areas of uncertainty in such calculations, some contributory factors being atmospheric conditions, fuel container rupture pattern, type of clothing worn etc. The sensitivity of the predicted hazard ranges to these influential parameters is exemplified in several of the graphs presented. The susceptibility of everyday clothing to ignite or melt in thermal fluxes greater than about 70 kW/m/sup 2/ is shown to be a matter of some gravity since burning clothing can thwart escape and inflict serious, if not fatal, burns quite apart from injuries directly received from the incident radiation. The various means by which incident heat fluxes can be reduced or their effects mitigated are reviewed. Two major BLEVE case histories are discussed in some detail and the circumstances compared with those predicted by the theoretical calculations. 38 refs., 36 figs.

  19. The excess flux in the cosmic submillimeter background radiation and the primordial deuterium abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermer, C.D.; Guessoum, N.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD

    1989-01-01

    Recent measurements of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) show an enhanced flux in the submillimeter regime, compared to the spectrum of a 2.7 K blackbody. Thermal Comptonization of the relic radiation by a hot nonrelativistic plasma has long been known to produce distortions in the CBR spectrum, similar to what has now been observed. Heating of the primeval plasma to temperatures T ∼ 10 6 - 10 8 K could result from the injection of subcosmic ray protons at epoch z ∼ 10--100. The intensity of the subcosmic ray flux that provide conditions needed to explain the submillimeter excess by thermal Comptonization also leads to the production of cosmologically significant amounts of deuterium in collisions between subcosmic ray protons and primordial protons and α-particles. However, the amount of lithium produced through α-α reactions is in conflict with the observed Li abundance. If lithium is depleted, for example, by processing through Population II stars, arguments for the baryon content of the universe based on primordial deuterium and He abundances are weakened. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. The FluxCompensator: Making Radiative Transfer Models of Hydrodynamical Simulations Directly Comparable to Real Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P.

    2017-11-01

    When modeling astronomical objects throughout the universe, it is important to correctly treat the limitations of the data, for instance finite resolution and sensitivity. In order to simulate these effects, and to make radiative transfer models directly comparable to real observations, we have developed an open-source Python package called the FluxCompensator that enables the post-processing of the output of 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer codes, such as Hyperion. With the FluxCompensator, realistic synthetic observations can be generated by modeling the effects of convolution with arbitrary point-spread functions, transmission curves, finite pixel resolution, noise, and reddening. Pipelines can be applied to compute synthetic observations that simulate observatories, such as the Spitzer Space Telescope or the Herschel Space Observatory. Additionally, this tool can read in existing observations (e.g., FITS format) and use the same settings for the synthetic observations. In this paper, we describe the package as well as present examples of such synthetic observations.

  1. The FluxCompensator: Making Radiative Transfer Models of Hydrodynamical Simulations Directly Comparable to Real Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P., E-mail: koepferl@usm.lmu.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-11-01

    When modeling astronomical objects throughout the universe, it is important to correctly treat the limitations of the data, for instance finite resolution and sensitivity. In order to simulate these effects, and to make radiative transfer models directly comparable to real observations, we have developed an open-source Python package called the FluxCompensator that enables the post-processing of the output of 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer codes, such as Hyperion. With the FluxCompensator, realistic synthetic observations can be generated by modeling the effects of convolution with arbitrary point-spread functions, transmission curves, finite pixel resolution, noise, and reddening. Pipelines can be applied to compute synthetic observations that simulate observatories, such as the Spitzer Space Telescope or the Herschel Space Observatory . Additionally, this tool can read in existing observations (e.g., FITS format) and use the same settings for the synthetic observations. In this paper, we describe the package as well as present examples of such synthetic observations.

  2. Measurement and Modeling of Vertically Resolved Aerosol Optical Properties and Radiative Fluxes Over the ARM SGP Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, B.; Arnott, P.; Bucholtz, A.; Colarco, P.; Covert, D.; Eilers, J.; Elleman, R.; Ferrare, R.; Flagan, R.; Jonsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    In order to meet one of its goals - to relate observations of radiative fluxes and radiances to the atmospheric composition - the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has pursued measurements and modeling activities that attempt to determine how aerosols impact atmospheric radiative transfer, both directly and indirectly. However, significant discrepancies between aerosol properties measured in situ or remotely remain. One of the objectives of the Aerosol Intensive Operational Period (TOP) conducted by ARM in May 2003 at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in north central Oklahoma was to examine and hopefully reduce these differences. The IOP involved airborne measurements from two airplanes over the heavily instrumented SGP site. We give an overview of airborne results obtained aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft. The Twin Otter performed 16 research flights over the SGP site. The aircraft carried instrumentation to perform in-situ measurements of aerosol absorption, scattering, extinction and particle size. This included such novel techniques as the photoacoustic and cavity ring-down methods for in-situ absorption (675 nm) and extinction (675 and 1550 nm) and a new multiwavelength, filter-based absorption photometer (467, 530, 660 nm). A newly developed instrument measured cloud condensation nucleus concentration (CCN) concentrations at two supersaturation levels. Aerosol optical depth and extinction (354-2139 nm) were measured with the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking 14-channel sunphotometer. Furthermore, up-and downwelling solar (broadband and spectral) and infrared radiation were measured using seven individual radiometers. Three up-looking radiometers werer mounted on a newly developed stabilized platform, keeping the instruments level up to aircraft pitch and roll angles of approximately 10(exp 0). This resulted in unprecedented continuous vertical profiles

  3. Role of electroweak radiation in predictions for dark matter indirect detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali Cavasonza, Leila; Pellen, Mathieu; Kraemer, Michael [RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    A very exciting challenge in particle and astroparticle physics is the exploration of the nature of dark matter. The evidences of the existence of dark matter are also the strongest phenomenological indications for physics beyond the Standard Model. A huge experimental effort is currently made at colliders and via astrophysical experiments to shed light on the nature of dark matter: dark matter may be produced at colliders or detected through direct and indirect detection experiments. The interplay and complementarity between these different approaches offers extraordinary opportunities to improve our understanding of the nature of dark matter or to set constraints on dark matter models. In indirect detection one searches for dark matter annihilation products, that produce secondary antimatter particles like positrons and antiprotons. Such antimatter particles propagate through the Galaxy and can be detected at Earth by astrophysical experiments. Particularly interesting is the importance of electroweak corrections to the predictions for the expected fluxes at Earth. The inclusion of EW radiation from the primary dark matter annihilation products can significantly affect the spectra of the secondary SM particles. The EW radiation can be described using fragmentation functions, as done for instance in QCD. We study the quality of this approximation in a simplified SUSY model and in a UED model.

  4. Using a spatially-distributed hydrologic biogeochemistry model with nitrogen transport to study the spatial variation of carbon stocks and fluxes in a Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Eissenstat, D. M.; He, Y.; Davis, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Most current biogeochemical models are 1-D and represent one point in space. Therefore, they cannot resolve topographically driven land surface heterogeneity (e.g., lateral water flow, soil moisture, soil temperature, solar radiation) or the spatial pattern of nutrient availability. A spatially distributed forest biogeochemical model with nitrogen transport, Flux-PIHM-BGC, has been developed by coupling a 1-D mechanistic biogeochemical model Biome-BGC (BBGC) with a spatially distributed land surface hydrologic model, Flux-PIHM, and adding an advection dominated nitrogen transport module. Flux-PIHM is a coupled physically based model, which incorporates a land-surface scheme into the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM). The land surface scheme is adapted from the Noah land surface model, and is augmented by adding a topographic solar radiation module. Flux-PIHM is able to represent the link between groundwater and the surface energy balance, as well as land surface heterogeneities caused by topography. In the coupled Flux-PIHM-BGC model, each Flux-PIHM model grid couples a 1-D BBGC model, while nitrogen is transported among model grids via surface and subsurface water flow. In each grid, Flux-PIHM provides BBGC with soil moisture, soil temperature, and solar radiation, while BBGC provides Flux-PIHM with spatially-distributed leaf area index. The coupled Flux-PIHM-BGC model has been implemented at the Susquehanna/Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory. The model-predicted aboveground vegetation carbon and soil carbon distributions generally agree with the macro patterns observed within the watershed. The importance of abiotic variables (including soil moisture, soil temperature, solar radiation, and soil mineral nitrogen) in predicting aboveground carbon distribution is calculated using a random forest. The result suggests that the spatial pattern of aboveground carbon is controlled by the distribution of soil mineral nitrogen. A Flux-PIHM-BGC simulation

  5. Prediction of critical heat flux by a new local condition hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, J. H.; Jun, K. D.; Sim, J. W.; Deng, Zhijian

    1998-01-01

    Critical Heat Flux(CHF) was predicted for uniformly heated vertical round tube by a new local condition hypothesis which incorporates a local true steam quality. This model successfully overcame the difficulties in predicted the subcooled and quality CHF by the thermodynamic equilibrium quality. The local true steam quality is a dependent variable of the thermodynamic equilibrium quality at the exit and the quality at the Onset of Significant Vaporization(OSV). The exit thermodynamic equilibrium quality was obtained from the heat balance, and the quality at OSV was obtained from the Saha-Zuber correlation. In the past CHF has been predicted by the experimental correlation based on local or non-local condition hypothesis. This preliminary study showed that all the available world data on uniform CHF could be predicted by the model based on the local condition hypothesis

  6. Energy exchanges in a Central Business District - Interpretation of Eddy Covariance and radiation flux measurements (London UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.

    2013-12-01

    Global urbanisation brings increasingly dense and complex urban structures. To manage cities sustainably and smartly, currently and into the future under changing climates, urban climate research needs to advance in areas such as Central Business Districts (CBD) where human interactions with the environment are particularly concentrated. Measurement and modelling approaches may be pushed to their limits in dense urban settings, but if urban climate research is to contribute to the challenges of real cities those limits have to be addressed. The climate of cities is strongly governed by surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy, moisture and momentum. Observations of the relevant fluxes provide important information for improvement and evaluation of modelling approaches. Due to the CBD's heterogeneity, a very careful analysis of observations is required to understand the relevant processes. Current approaches used to interpret observations and set them in a wider context may need to be adapted for use in these more complex areas. Here, we present long-term observations of the radiation balance components and turbulent fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat and momentum in the city centre of London. This is one of the first measurement studies in a CBD covering multiple years with analysis at temporal scales from days to seasons. Data gathered at two sites in close vicinity, but with different measurement heights, are analysed to investigate the influence of source area characteristics on long-term radiation and turbulent fluxes. Challenges of source area modelling and the critical aspect of siting in such a complex environment are considered. Outgoing long- and short-wave radiation are impacted by the anisotropic nature of the urban surface and the high reflectance materials increasingly being used as building materials. Results highlight the need to consider the source area of radiometers in terms of diffuse and direct irradiance. Sensible heat fluxes (QH) are positive

  7. Radiation effects on flow past an impulsively started vertical plate with variable temperature and mass flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is performed to study the thermal radiation effects on unsteady free convective flow over a moving vertical plate in the presence of variable temperature and uniform mass flux. The fluid considered here is a gray, absorbing-emitting radiation but a non-scattering medium. The temperature is raised linearly with time and the concentration level near the plate are raised linearly with time. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the Laplace transform technique. The velocity and skinfriction are studied for different parameters like the radiation parameter, Schmidt number, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number and time. It is observed that the velocity increases with decreasing radiation parameter.

  8. Thermal hydraulic test for reactor safety system - Critical heat flux experiment and development of prediction models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Soon Heung; Baek, Won Pil; Yang, Soo Hyung; No, Chang Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To acquire CHF data through the experiments and develop prediction models, research was conducted. Final objectives of research are as follows: 1) Production of tube CHF data for low and middle pressure and mass flux and Flow Boiling Visualization. 2) Modification and suggestion of tube CHF prediction models. 3) Development of fuel bundle CHF prediction methodology base on tube CHF prediction models. The major results of research are as follows: 1) Production of the CHF data for low and middle pressure and mass flux. - Acquisition of CHF data (764) for low and middle pressure and flow conditions - Analysis of CHF trends based on the CHF data - Assessment of existing CHF prediction methods with the CHF data 2) Modification and suggestion of tube CHF prediction models. - Development of a unified CHF model applicable for a wide parametric range - Development of a threshold length correlation - Improvement of CHF look-up table using the threshold length correlation 3) Development of fuel bundle CHF prediction methodology base on tube CHF prediction models. - Development of bundle CHF prediction methodology using correction factor. 11 refs., 134 figs., 25 tabs. (Author)

  9. Surface energy budget and turbulent fluxes at Arctic terrestrial sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, Andrey; Persson, Ola; Uttal, Taneil; Konopleva-Akish, Elena; Crepinsek, Sara; Cox, Christopher; Fairall, Christopher; Makshtas, Alexander; Repina, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Determination of the surface energy budget (SEB) and all SEB components at the air-surface interface are required in a wide variety of applications including atmosphere-land/snow simulations and validation of the surface fluxes predicted by numerical models over different spatial and temporal scales. Here, comparisons of net surface energy budgets at two Arctic sites are made using long-term near-continuous measurements of hourly averaged surface fluxes (turbulent, radiation, and soil conduction). One site, Eureka (80.0 N; Nunavut, Canada), is located in complex topography near a fjord about 200 km from the Arctic Ocean. The other site, Tiksi (71.6 N; Russian East Siberia), is located on a relatively flat coastal plain less than 1 km from the shore of Tiksi Bay, a branch of the Arctic Ocean. We first analyzed diurnal and annual cycles of basic meteorological parameters and key SEB components at these locations. Although Eureka and Tiksi are located on different continents and at different latitudes, the annual course of the surface meteorology and SEB components are qualitatively similar. Surface energy balance closure is a formulation of the conservation of energy principle. Our direct measurements of energy balance for both Arctic sites show that the sum of the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes and the ground (conductive) heat flux systematically underestimate the net radiation by about 25-30%. This lack of energy balance closure is a fundamental and pervasive problem in micrometeorology. We discuss a variety of factors which may be responsible for the lack of SEB closure. In particular, various storage terms (e.g., air column energy storage due to radiative and/or sensible heat flux divergence, ground heat storage above the soil flux plate, energy used in photosynthesis, canopy biomass heat storage). For example, our observations show that the photosynthesis storage term is relatively small (about 1-2% of the net radiation), but about 8-12% of the

  10. Nonlinear radiative heat flux and heat source/sink on entropy generation minimization rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Khan, M. Waleed Ahmed; Khan, M. Ijaz; Alsaedi, A.

    2018-06-01

    Entropy generation minimization in nonlinear radiative mixed convective flow towards a variable thicked surface is addressed. Entropy generation for momentum and temperature is carried out. The source for this flow analysis is stretching velocity of sheet. Transformations are used to reduce system of partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Total entropy generation rate is determined. Series solutions for the zeroth and mth order deformation systems are computed. Domain of convergence for obtained solutions is identified. Velocity, temperature and concentration fields are plotted and interpreted. Entropy equation is studied through nonlinear mixed convection and radiative heat flux. Velocity and temperature gradients are discussed through graphs. Meaningful results are concluded in the final remarks.

  11. Exact solution of thermal radiation on vertical oscillating plate with variable temperature and mass flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal radiation effects on unsteady flow past an infinite vertical oscillating plate in the presence of variable temperature and uniform mass flux is considered. The fluid considered here is a gray, absorbing-emitting radiation but a non-scattering medium. The plate temperature is raised linearly with time and the mass is diffused from the plate to the fluid at an uniform rate. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the Laplace transform technique. The velocity, concentration and temperature are studied for different physical parameters like the phase angle, radiation parameter, Schmidt number, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number and time. It is observed that the velocity increases with decreasing phase angle ωt.

  12. The Maximum Flux of Star-Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Roland M.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Thompson, Todd A.; Clutterbuck, Julie

    2018-04-01

    The importance of radiation pressure feedback in galaxy formation has been extensively debated over the last decade. The regime of greatest uncertainty is in the most actively star-forming galaxies, where large dust columns can potentially produce a dust-reprocessed infrared radiation field with enough pressure to drive turbulence or eject material. Here we derive the conditions under which a self-gravitating, mixed gas-star disc can remain hydrostatic despite trapped radiation pressure. Consistently taking into account the self-gravity of the medium, the star- and dust-to-gas ratios, and the effects of turbulent motions not driven by radiation, we show that galaxies can achieve a maximum Eddington-limited star formation rate per unit area \\dot{Σ }_*,crit ˜ 10^3 M_{⊙} pc-2 Myr-1, corresponding to a critical flux of F*, crit ˜ 1013L⊙ kpc-2 similar to previous estimates; higher fluxes eject mass in bulk, halting further star formation. Conversely, we show that in galaxies below this limit, our one-dimensional models imply simple vertical hydrostatic equilibrium and that radiation pressure is ineffective at driving turbulence or ejecting matter. Because the vast majority of star-forming galaxies lie below the maximum limit for typical dust-to-gas ratios, we conclude that infrared radiation pressure is likely unimportant for all but the most extreme systems on galaxy-wide scales. Thus, while radiation pressure does not explain the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, it does impose an upper truncation on it. Our predicted truncation is in good agreement with the highest observed gas and star formation rate surface densities found both locally and at high redshift.

  13. Numerical prediction of heat-flux to massive calorimeters engulfed in regulatory fires with the cask analysis fire environment (CAFE) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, Jorman A.; Suo-Antitla, Ahti; Kramer M, Alex; Greiner, Miles

    2000-01-01

    Recent observations show that the thermal boundary conditions within large-scale fires are significantly affected by the presence of thermally massive objects. These objects cool the soot and gas near their surfaces, and these effects reduce the incoming radiant heat-flux to values lower than the levels expected from simple σT fire 4 models. They also affect the flow and temperature fields in the fire far from their surfaces. The Cask Analysis Fire Environment (CAFE) code has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to provide an enhanced fire boundary condition for the design of radioactive material packages. CAFE is a set of computer subroutines that use computational fluid mechanics methods to predict convective heat transfer and mixing. It also includes models for fuel and oxygen transport, chemical reaction, and participating-media radiation heat transfer. This code uses two-dimensional computational models so that it has reasonably short turnaround times on standard workstations and is well suited for design and risk studies. In this paper, CAFE is coupled with a commercial finite-element program to model a large cylindrical calorimeter fully engulfed in a pool fire. The time-dependent heat-flux to the calorimeter and the calorimeter surface temperature are determined for several locations around the calorimeter circumference. The variation of heat-flux with location is determined for calorimeters with different diameters and wall thickness, and the observed effects discussed

  14. Aerosol-Induced Radiative Flux Changes Off the United States Mid-Atlantic Coast: Comparison of Values Calculated from Sunphotometer and In Situ Data with Those Measured by Airborne Pyranometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Hignett, P.; Kinne, S.; Wong, J.; Chien, A.; Bergstrom, R.; Durkee, P.; Hobbs, P. V.

    2000-01-01

    The Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) measured a variety of aerosol radiative effects (including flux changes) while simultaneously measuring the chemical, physical, and optical properties of the responsible aerosol particles. Here we use TARFOX-determined aerosol and surface properties to compute shortwave radiative flux changes for a variety of aerosol situations, with midvisible optical depths ranging from 0.06 to 0.55. We calculate flux changes by several techniques with varying degrees of sophistication, in part to investigate the sensitivity of results to computational approach. We then compare computed flux changes to those determined from aircraft measurements. Calculations using several approaches yield downward and upward flux changes that agree with measurements. The agreement demonstrates closure (i.e. consistency) among the TARFOX-derived aerosol properties, modeling techniques, and radiative flux measurements. Agreement between calculated and measured downward flux changes is best when the aerosols are modeled as moderately absorbing (midvisible single-scattering albedos between about 0.89 and 0.93), in accord with independent measurements of the TARPOX aerosol. The calculated values for instantaneous daytime upwelling flux changes are in the range +14 to +48 W/sq m for midvisible optical depths between 0.2 and 0.55. These values are about 30 to 100 times the global-average direct forcing expected for the global-average sulfate aerosol optical depth of 0.04. The reasons for the larger flux changes in TARFOX include the relatively large optical depths and the focus on cloud-free, daytime conditions over the dark ocean surface. These are the conditions that produce major aerosol radiative forcing events and contribute to any global-average climate effect.

  15. Fluctuations of radiative heat exchange between two bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehs, S.-A.; Ben-Abdallah, P.

    2018-05-01

    We present a theory to describe the fluctuations of nonequilibrium radiative heat transfer between two bodies both in the far- and near-field regimes. As predicted by the blackbody theory, in the far field, we show that the variance of radiative heat flux is of the same order of magnitude as its mean value. However, in the near-field regime, we demonstrate that the presence of surface polaritons makes this variance more than one order of magnitude larger than the mean flux. We further show that the correlation time of heat flux in this regime is comparable to the relaxation time of heat carriers in each medium. This theory could open the way to an experimental investigation of heat exchanges far from the thermal equilibrium condition.

  16. Relations between radiation fluxes of a greenhouse in semi-arid conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Riahi, M.; Al-Karaghouli, A.; Hasson, A.M.; Al-Kayssi, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of global radiation, reflected radiation and net total radiation inside and outside the greenhouse were conducted in Fudhiliyah Agrometeorological Research Station during the period from 1 January to 30 April, 1987. From these measurements, several relationships were established. Linear regressions of hourly values of global radiation inside the greenhouse on hourly global radiation outside the greenhouse were fitted for each month of the recording period. The degree of fit was generally good (r > 0.95). Net short-wave radiation inside the greenhouse showed strong dependence on the global inside radiation (r = 0.998), also the net total radiation and global radiation inside the greenhouse correlate very strongly. From the above-mentioned relationships, it was found that the global, net short-wave and net total radiation could be successfully predicted when only global outside radiation is available. Using the linear regression equations correlating the above radiation parameters, albedo and heating coefficient were derived. Albedo showed strong dependence on solar altitude angle and period of day (forenoon and afternoon). Heating coefficients were consistently positive and their values varied between 0.10 and 0.393. Monthly average values of mean hourly night-time net long-wave radiation inside the greenhouse were −31, −32, −38 and −42 W m −2 for the months of January, February, March and April, respectively

  17. Measurement of the unaccompanied pion-proton flux ratio at 2,900 meters using a transition radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellsworth, R.W.; Ito, A.S.; MacFall, J.R.; Siohan, F.; Streitmatter, R.E.; Tonwar, S.C.; Yodh, G.B.

    1975-01-01

    A transition radiation dedector and an ionization calorimeter have been used to measure the unaccompanied pion to proton flux ratio for energies greater than 400 and 600 GeV at an altitude of 2,900 meters. (orig./BJ) [de

  18. Evaluation of the DayCent model to predict carbon fluxes in French crop sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Kenji; Martin, Manuel P.; Zhang, Yao; Bernoux, Martial; Chapuis-Lardy, Lydie

    2017-04-01

    Croplands in temperate regions are an important component of the carbon balance and can act as a sink or a source of carbon, depending on pedoclimatic conditions and management practices. Therefore the evaluation of carbon fluxes in croplands by modelling approach is relevant in the context of global change. This study was part of the Comete-Global project funded by the multi-Partner call FACCE JPI. Carbon fluxes, net ecosystem exchange (NEE), leaf area index (LAI), biomass, and grain production were simulated at the site level in three French crop experiments from the CarboEurope project. Several crops were studied, like winter wheat, rapeseed, barley, maize, and sunflower. Daily NEE was measured with eddy covariance and could be partitioned between gross primary production (GPP) and total ecosystem respiration (TER). Measurements were compared to DayCent simulations, a process-based model predicting plant production and soil organic matter turnover at daily time step. We compared two versions of the model: the original one with a simplified plant module and a newer version that simulates LAI. Input data for modelling were soil properties, climate, and management practices. Simulations of grain yields and biomass production were acceptable when using optimized crop parameters. Simulation of NEE was also acceptable. GPP predictions were improved with the newer version of the model, eliminating temporal shifts that could be observed with the original model. TER was underestimated by the model. Predicted NEE was more sensitive to soil tillage and nitrogen applications than measured NEE. DayCent was therefore a relevant tool to predict carbon fluxes in French crops at the site level. The introduction of LAI in the model improved its performance.

  19. Predicting the Geothermal Heat Flux in Greenland: A Machine Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvanbehbahani, Soroush; Stearns, Leigh A.; Kadivar, Amir; Walker, J. Doug; van der Veen, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal heat flux (GHF) is a crucial boundary condition for making accurate predictions of ice sheet mass loss, yet it is poorly known in Greenland due to inaccessibility of the bedrock. Here we use a machine learning algorithm on a large collection of relevant geologic features and global GHF measurements and produce a GHF map of Greenland that we argue is within ˜15% accuracy. The main features of our predicted GHF map include a large region with high GHF in central-north Greenland surrounding the NorthGRIP ice core site, and hot spots in the Jakobshavn Isbræ catchment, upstream of Petermann Gletscher, and near the terminus of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden glacier. Our model also captures the trajectory of Greenland movement over the Icelandic plume by predicting a stripe of elevated GHF in central-east Greenland. Finally, we show that our model can produce substantially more accurate predictions if additional measurements of GHF in Greenland are provided.

  20. Couplings between the seasonal cycles of surface thermodynamics and radiative fluxes in the semi-arid Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, F.; Kergoat, L.; Mougin, E.; Timouk, F.; Bock, O.; Hiernaux, P.

    2009-04-01

    A good knowledge of surface fluxes and atmospheric low levels is central to improving our understanding of the West African monsoon. This study provides a quantitative analysis of the peculiar seasonal and diurnal cycles of surface thermodynamics and radiative fluxes encountered in Central Sahel. It is based on a multi-year dataset collected in the Malian Gourma over a sandy soil at 1.5°W-15.3°N (a site referred to as Agoufou) with an automated weather station and a sunphotometer (AERONET), complemented by observations from the AMMA field campaign. The seasonal cycle of this Tropical region is characterized by a broad maximum of temperature in May, following the first minimum of the solar zenith angle by a few weeks, when Agoufou lies within the West African Heat-Low, and a late summer maximum of equivalent potential temperature within the core of the monsoon season, around the second yearly maximum of solar zenith angle, as the temperature reaches its Summer minimum. More broadly, subtle balances between surface air temperature and moisture fields are found on a range of scales. For instance, during the monsoon, apart from August, their opposite daytime fluctuations (warming, drying) lead to an almost flat diurnal cycle of the equivalent potential temperature at the surface. This feature stands out in contrast to other more humid continental regions. Here, the strong dynamics associated with the transition from a drier hot Spring to a brief cooler wet tropical Summer climate involves very large transformations of the diurnal cycles. The Summer increase of surface net radiation, Rnet, is also strong; typically 10-day mean Rnet reaches about 5 times its Winter minimum (~30 W.m-2) in August (~150 W.m-2). A major feature revealed by observations is that this increase is mostly driven by modifications of the surface upwelling fluxes shaped by rainfall events and vegetation phenology (surface cooling and darkening), while the direct impact of atmospheric changes on

  1. Validation of Vegetation Index Time Series from Suomi NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Using Tower Radiation Flux Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, T.; Kato, A.; Wang, J.; Vargas, M.; Lindquist, M.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite vegetation index (VI) time series data serve as an important means to monitor and characterize seasonal changes of terrestrial vegetation and their interannual variability. It is, therefore, critical to ensure quality of such VI products and one method of validating VI product quality is cross-comparison with in situ flux tower measurements. In this study, we evaluated the quality of VI time series derived from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft by cross-comparison with in situ radiation flux measurements at select flux tower sites over North America and Europe. VIIRS is a new polar-orbiting satellite sensor series, slated to replace National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer in the afternoon overpass and to continue the highly-calibrated data streams initiated with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System. The selected sites covered a wide range of biomes, including croplands, grasslands, evergreen needle forest, woody savanna, and open shrublands. The two VIIRS indices of the Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the atmospherically-corrected, Top-of-Canopy (TOC) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) (daily, 375 m spatial resolution) were compared against the TOC NDVI and a two-band version of EVI (EVI2) calculated from tower radiation flux measurements, respectively. VIIRS and Tower VI time series showed comparable seasonal profiles across biomes with statistically significant correlations (> 0.60; p-value 0.95), with mean differences of 2.3 days and 5.0 days for the NDVI and the EVI, respectively. These results indicate that VIIRS VI time series can capture seasonal evolution of vegetated land surface as good as in situ radiometric measurements. Future studies that address biophysical or physiological interpretations

  2. Clinical impact of predictive assays for acute and late radiation morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budach, W.; Classen, J.; Belka, C.; Bamberg, M.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Clinically reliable predictive assays for normal tissue radiation sensitivity would help to avoid severe radiation induced morbidity and result in individualized dose prescriptions. Profound differences of individual fibroblast and lymphocyte radiation sensitivity in vitro have been documented in patients with certain genetic syndromes but also in patients without known genetic disorders. The following review evaluates whether fibroblast or lymphocyte radiation sensitivity measured in vitro correlates with the degree of acute and late radiation induced morbidity. Results: Acute radiation side effects and lymphocyte sensitivity has been investigated in 2 studies. One of them reported an insecure correlation, the other no correlation at all. Fibroblast radiation sensitivity and the extent of acute radiation induced side effects on skin and mucosal sites has been compared in a total of 5 studies. None of these studies found a consistent significant correlation. Lymphocyte radiation sensitivity and late effects have been studied by 2 institutions. Late radiation induced skin and mucosal changes did not correlate with lymphocyte sensitivity in head and neck cancer patients, whereas in breast cancer patients a weak (R 2 =0.06) correlation between the degree of late skin reactions and lymphocyte sensitivity was observed. Late skin or mucosal radiation reactions and fibroblast sensitivity were examined by 5 research groups. Data analysis revealed significant correlations or at least a trend towards a significant correlation in all studies. The quality of the reported correlations expressed as R 2 ranged from 0.13 to 0.60, indicating a low predictive value. Conclusions: Lymphocyte radiation sensitivity as measured by currently available assays does not or only poorly correlate with acute and late effects of radiation in patients, precluding predictive tests based on lymphocyte sensitivity. Fibroblast radiation sensitivity does not correlate with acute but

  3. Preliminary investigation of changes in x-ray multilayer optics subjected to high radiation flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockaday, M.P.; Blake, R.L.; Grosso, J.S.; Selph, M.M.; Klein, M.M.; Matuska, W. Jr.; Palmer, M.A.; Liefeld, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of metal multilayers was exposed to high x-ray flux using Sandia National Laboratories' PROTO II machine in the gas puff mode. Fluxes incident on the multilayers above 700 MW/cm 2 in total radiation, in nominal 20 ns pulses, were realized. The neon hydrogen- and helium-like resonance lines were used to probe the x-ray reflectivity properties of the multilayers as they underwent change of state during the heating pulse. A fluorescer-fiber optic-streak camera system was used to monitor the changes in x-ray reflectivity as a function of time and irradiance. Preliminary results are presented for a W/C multilayer. Work in progress to model the experiment is discussed. 13 refs., 4 figs

  4. Radiation damage prediction system using damage function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Mori, Seiji

    1979-01-01

    The irradiation damage analysis system using a damage function was investigated. This irradiation damage analysis system consists of the following three processes, the unfolding of a damage function, the calculation of the neutron flux spectrum of the object of damage analysis and the estimation of irradiation effect of the object of damage analysis. The damage function is calculated by applying the SAND-2 code. The ANISN and DOT3, 5 codes are used to calculate neutron flux. The neutron radiation and the allowable time of reactor operation can be estimated based on these calculations of the damage function and neutron flux. The flow diagram of the process of analyzing irradiation damage by a damage function and the flow diagram of SAND-2 code are presented, and the analytical code for estimating damage, which is determined with a damage function and a neutron spectrum, is explained. The application of the irradiation damage analysis system using a damage function was carried out to the core support structure of a fast breeder reactor for the damage estimation and the uncertainty evaluation. The fundamental analytical conditions and the analytical model for this work are presented, then the irradiation data for SUS304, the initial estimated values of a damage function, the error analysis for a damage function and the analytical results are explained concerning the computation of a damage function for 10% total elongation. Concerning the damage estimation of FBR core support structure, the standard and lower limiting values of damage, the permissible neutron flux and the allowable years of reactor operation are presented and were evaluated. (Nakai, Y.)

  5. Flux canceling in three-dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Irina; Spruit, H. C.

    2017-05-01

    We aim to study the processes involved in the disappearance of magnetic flux between regions of opposite polarity on the solar surface using realistic three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. "Retraction" below the surface driven by magnetic forces is found to be a very effective mechanism of flux canceling of opposite polarities. The speed at which flux disappears increases strongly with initial mean flux density. In agreement with existing inferences from observations we suggest that this is a key process of flux disappearance within active complexes. Intrinsic kG strength concentrations connect the surface to deeper layers by magnetic forces, and therefore the influence of deeper layers on the flux canceling process is studied. We do this by comparing simulations extending to different depths. For average flux densities of 50 G, and on length scales on the order of 3 Mm in the horizontal and 10 Mm in depth, deeper layers appear to have only a mild influence on the effective rate of diffusion.

  6. ECF2: A pulsed power generator based on magnetic flux compression for K-shell radiation production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Eplattenier, P.; Lassalle, F.; Mangeant, C.; Hamann, F.; Bavay, M.; Bayol, F.; Huet, D.; Morell, A.; Monjaux, P.; Avrillaud, G.; Lalle, B.

    2002-01-01

    The 3 MJ energy stored ECF2 generator is developed at Centre d'Etudes de Gramat, France, for K-shell radiation production. This generator is based on microsecond LTD stages as primary generators, and on the magnetic flux compression scheme for power amplification from the microsecond to the 100ns regime. This paper presents a general overview of the ECF2 generator. The flux compression stage, a key component, will be studied in details. We will present its advantages and drawbacks. We will then present the first experimental and numerical results which show the improvements that have already been made on this scheme

  7. Precipitated Fluxes of Radiation Belt Electrons via Injection of Whistler-Mode Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, P.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.

    2005-12-01

    Inan et al. (U.S. Inan et al., Controlled precipitation of radiation belt electrons, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 108 (A5), 1186, doi: 10.1029/2002JA009580, 2003.) suggested that the lifetime of energetic (a few MeV) electrons in the inner radiation belts may be moderated by in situ injection of whistler mode waves at frequencies of a few kHz. We use the Stanford 2D VLF raytracing program (along with an accurate estimation of the path-integrated Landau damping based on data from the HYDRA instrument on the POLAR spacecraft) to determine the distribution of wave energy throughout the inner radiation belts as a function of injection point, wave frequency and injection wave normal angle. To determine the total wave power injected and its initial distribution in k-space (i.e., wave-normal angle), we apply the formulation of Wang and Bell ( T.N.C. Wang and T.F. Bell, Radiation resistance of a short dipole immersed in a cold magnetoionic medium, Radio Science, 4 (2), 167-177, February 1969) for an electric dipole antenna placed at a variety of locations throughout the inner radiation belts. For many wave frequencies and wave normal angles the results establish that most of the radiated power is concentrated in waves whose wave normals are located near the resonance cone. The combined use of the radiation pattern and ray-tracing including Landau damping allows us to make quantitative estimates of the magnetospheric distribution of wave power density for different source injection points. We use these results to estimate the number of individual space-based transmitters needed to significantly impact the lifetimes of energetic electrons in the inner radiation belts. Using the wave power distribution, we finally determine the energetic electron pitch angle scattering and the precipitated flux signatures that would be detected.

  8. Prediction of critical heat flux in narrow rectangular channels using an artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lei; Yan Xiao; Huang Yanping; Xiao Zejun; Yu Jiyang

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Critical heat flux (CHF) and its importance are introduced and the meaning to research CHF in narrow rectangular channels independently is emphasized. This paper is the first effort to predict CHF in NRCs using aritificial neural network. The mathematical structure of the artificial neural network and the error back-propagation algorithm are introduced. To predict CHF, the four dimensionless groups are inputted to the neural network and the output is the dimensionless CHF. As the hidden nodes increased, the training error decreases while the testing error decreases firstly and then transition occurs. Based on this, the hidden nodes are set as 5 and the trained network predicts all of the training and testing data points with RMS=0.0016 and μ=1.0003, which is better than several well-known existing correlations. Based on the trained network, the effect of several parameters on CHF are simulated and discussed. CHF increases almost linearly as the inlet subcooling increases. And larger mass flux enhances the effect of the inlet subcooling. CHF increases with the mass flux increasing. And the effect seems to be a little stronger for relatively low system pressure. CHF decreases almost linearly as the system pressure increases for the fixed inlet condition. The slope of the curve also increases with higher mass flux. This observation is limited to the ranges of the experimental database. CHF decreases as the heated length is increased and the gradients of the curves become very sharp for relatively short channel. CHF increases slightly with the diameter increasing with the variance of the gap limited within 1 to 3 mm. For relatively low mass flux, the effect of the equivalent diameter on CHF is insignificant. As the width of the channel is large enough, the effect of the gap is quite the same as that of the equivalent diameter. A BPNN is successfully trained based on near 500 CHF data points in NRCs, which has much better performances than the

  9. High-flux normal incidence monochromator for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefers, F.; Peatman, W.; Eyers, A.; Heckenkamp, C.; Schoenhense, G.; Heinzmann, U.

    1986-01-01

    A 6.5-m normal incidence monochromator installed at the storage ring BESSY, which is optimized for a high throughput of circularly polarized off-plane radiation at moderate resolution is described. The monochromator employs two exit slits and is specially designed and used for low-signal experiments such as spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy on solids, adsorbates, free atoms, and molecules. The Monk--Gillieson mounting (plane grating in a convergent light beam) allows for large apertures with relatively little astigmatism. With two gratings, a flux of more than 10 11 photons s -1 bandwidth -1 (0.2--0.5 nm) with a circular polarization of more than 90% in the wavelength range from 35 to 675 nm is achieved

  10. Movie prediction of lung tumor for precise chasing radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhatkuli, Ritu Bhusal; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Kawai, Masaki; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, precision for radiation therapy is a major challenge in the field of cancer treatment. When it comes to a moving organ like lungs, limiting the radiation to the target and sparing the surrounding healthy tissue is always a concern. It can induce the limit in the accuracy of area irradiated during lung cancer radiation therapy. Many methods have been introduced to compensate the motion in order to reduce the effect of radiation to healthy tissue due to respiratory motion. The motion of lung along with the tumor makes it very difficult to spare the healthy tissue during radiation therapy. The fear of this unintended damage to the neighboring tissue often limits the dose that can be applied to the tumor. The purpose of this research is the prediction of future motion images for the improvement of tumor tracking method. We predict the motion images by using principal component analysis (PCA) and multi-channel singular spectral analysis (MSSA) method. Time series x-ray images are used as training images. The motion images were successfully predicted and verified using the developed algorithm. The real time implementation of this method in future is believed to be significant for higher level of real time tumor tracking during radiation therapy. (author)

  11. Integrating artificial neural networks and empirical correlations for the prediction of water-subcooled critical heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzola, A.

    1997-01-01

    The critical heat flux (CHF) is an important parameter for the design of nuclear reactors, heat exchangers and other boiling heat transfer units. Recently, the CHF in water-subcooled flow boiling at high mass flux and subcooling has been thoroughly studied in relation to the cooling of high-heat-flux components in thermonuclear fusion reactors. Due to the specific thermal-hydraulic situation, very few of the existing correlations, originally developed for operating conditions typical of pressurized water reactors, are able to provide consistent predictions of water-subcooled-flow-boiling CHF at high heat fluxes. Therefore, alternative predicting techniques are being investigated. Among these, artificial neural networks (ANN) have the advantage of not requiring a formal model structure to fit the experimental data; however, their main drawbacks are the loss of model transparency ('black-box' character) and the lack of any indicator for evaluating accuracy and reliability of the ANN answer when 'never-seen' patterns are presented. In the present work, the prediction of CHF is approached by a hybrid system which couples a heuristic correlation with a neural network. The ANN role is to predict a datum-dependent parameter required by the analytical correlation; ; this parameter was instead set to a constant value obtained by usual best-fitting techniques when a pure analytical approach was adopted. Upper and lower boundaries can be possibly assigned to the parameter value, thus avoiding the case of unexpected and unpredictable answer failure. The present approach maintains the advantage of the analytical model analysis, and it partially overcomes the 'black-box' character typical of the straight application of ANNs because the neural network role is limited to the correlation tuning. The proposed methodology allows us to achieve accurate results and it is likely to be suitable for thermal-hydraulic and heat transfer data processing. (author)

  12. On the use of flux limiters in the discrete ordinates method for 3D radiation calculations in absorbing and scattering media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, William F.; DesJardin, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    The application of flux limiters to the discrete ordinates method (DOM), S N , for radiative transfer calculations is discussed and analyzed for 3D enclosures for cases in which the intensities are strongly coupled to each other such as: radiative equilibrium and scattering media. A Newton-Krylov iterative method (GMRES) solves the final systems of linear equations along with a domain decomposition strategy for parallel computation using message passing libraries in a distributed memory system. Ray effects due to angular discretization and errors due to domain decomposition are minimized until small variations are introduced by these effects in order to focus on the influence of flux limiters on errors due to spatial discretization, known as numerical diffusion, smearing or false scattering. Results are presented for the DOM-integrated quantities such as heat flux, irradiation and emission. A variety of flux limiters are compared to 'exact' solutions available in the literature, such as the integral solution of the RTE for pure absorbing-emitting media and isotropic scattering cases and a Monte Carlo solution for a forward scattering case. Additionally, a non-homogeneous 3D enclosure is included to extend the use of flux limiters to more practical cases. The overall balance of convergence, accuracy, speed and stability using flux limiters is shown to be superior compared to step schemes for any test case.

  13. Effects of radiation and thermal diffusivity on heat transfer over a stretching surface with variable heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddeek, M.A.; Abdelmeguid, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of radiation and thermal diffusivity on heat transfer over a stretching surface with variable heat flux has been studied. The thermal diffusivity is assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. The governing partial differential equations have been transformed to ordinary differential equations. The exact analytical solution for the velocity and the numerical solution for the temperature field are given. Numerical solutions are obtained for different values of variable thermal diffusivity, radiation, temperature parameter and Prandtl number

  14. 5th International Congress on Energy Fluxes and Radiation Effects 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Special Issue of the Materials of the V International Congress on Energy Fluxes and Radiation Effects (Tomsk, Russia, 2016)Maksim Trigub, Georgiy Osokin, Alexander KonovodNational Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, Russiaemail: geosokin@tpu.ruThe present issue of the journal is based on the materials of the V International Congress on Energy Fluxes and Radiation Effects 2016 (EFRE 2016) that was held on October 2 to 7, 2016 in Tomsk (Russia). This large scientific forum gathers together scientists, developers and representatives of knowledge-intensive enterprises that have relevance to physics and technology. This year, the Congress was dedicated to the 120 th anniversary of the National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University.The history of the Congress as a joint scientific event dates back to 2000; it traditionally includes three conferences: International Symposium on High-Current Electronics (SHCE), International Conference on Radiation Physics and Chemistry of Condensed Matter (RPC) and International Conference on Modification of Materials with Particle Beams and Plasma Flows (CMM). However, each of these large conferences has its own lasting history.In 2016, the International Symposium on High-Current Electronics was arranged for the 19 th time. The participants have presented the results of fundamental studies and applied outcomes in the fields of high-power pulsed energy engineering and electronics (Pulsed Power), physics and application of high-power electron and ion beams, high- and low-temperature gas discharge plasma, physics of high-energy treatment and extreme states of matter, electric pulsed technologies. Noteworthy, the symposium took place in the year of the 40 th anniversary of USSR scientific discovery of explosive electron emission. This physical phenomenon—being one of the basics of high-current electronics—determines the processes in pulsed vacuum discharge, enables the operation of high-current electron

  15. Exact Jacobians of Roe-type flux difference splitting of the equations of radiation hydrodynamics (and Euler equations) for use in time-implicit higher-order Godunov schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balsara, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we analyze some of the numerical issues that are involved in making time-implicit higher-order Godunov schemes for the equations of radiation hydrodynamics (and the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations). This is done primarily with the intent of incorporating such methods in the author's RIEMANN code. After examining the issues it is shown that the construction of a time-implicit higher-order Godunov scheme for radiation hydrodynamics would be benefited by our ability to evaluate exact Jacobians of the numerical flux that is based on Roe-type flux difference splitting. In this paper we show that this can be done analytically in a form that is suitable for efficient computational implementation. It is also shown that when multiple fluid species are used or when multiple radiation frequencies are used the computational cost in the evaluation of the exact Jacobians scales linearly with the number of fluid species or the number of radiation frequencies. Connections are made to other types of numerical fluxes, especially those based on flux difference splittings. It is shown that the evaluation of the exact Jacobian for such numerical fluxes is also benefited by the present strategy and the results given here. It is, however, pointed out that time-implicit schemes that are based on the evaluation of the exact Jacobians for flux difference splittings using the methods developed here are both computationally more efficient and numerically more stable than corresponding time-implicit schemes that are based on the evaluation of the exact or approximate Jacobians for flux vector splittings. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Comparison of surface energy fluxes with satellite-derived surface energy flux estimates from a shrub-steppe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, R.R.

    1993-12-01

    This thesis relates the components of the surface energy balance (i.e., net radiation, sensible and latent heat flux densities, soil heat flow) to remotely sensed data for native vegetation in a semi-arid environment. Thematic mapper data from Landsat 4 and 5 were used to estimate net radiation, sensible heat flux (H), and vegetation amount. Several sources of ground truth were employed. They included soil water balance using the neutron thermalization method and weighing lysimeters, and the measurement of energy fluxes with the Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) technique. Sensible and latent heat flux were measured at four sites on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site using a weighing lysimeter and/or BREB stations. The objective was to calibrate an aerodynamic transport equation that related H to radiant surface temperature. The transport equation was then used with Landsat thermal data to generate estimates of H and compare these estimates against H values obtained with BREB/lysimeters at the time of overflight. Landsat and surface meteorologic data were used to estimate the radiation budget terms at the surface. Landsat estimates of short-wave radiation reflected from the surface correlate well with reflected radiation measured using inverted Eppley pyranometers. Correlation of net radiation estimates determined from satellite data, pyranometer, air temperature, and vapor pressure compared to net radiometer values obtained at time of overflight were excellent for a single image, but decrease for multiple images. Soil heat flux, G T , is a major component of the energy balance in arid systems and G T generally decreases as vegetation cover increases. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values generated from Landsat thermatic mapper data were representative of field observations of the presence of green vegetation, but it was not possible to determine a single relationship between NDVI and G T for all sites

  17. An introduction to the Australian and New Zealand flux tower network - OzFlux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Jason; Hutley, Lindsay B.; McHugh, Ian; Arndt, Stefan K.; Campbell, David; Cleugh, Helen A.; Cleverly, James; Resco de Dios, Víctor; Eamus, Derek; Evans, Bradley; Ewenz, Cacilia; Grace, Peter; Griebel, Anne; Haverd, Vanessa; Hinko-Najera, Nina; Huete, Alfredo; Isaac, Peter; Kanniah, Kasturi; Leuning, Ray; Liddell, Michael J.; Macfarlane, Craig; Meyer, Wayne; Moore, Caitlin; Pendall, Elise; Phillips, Alison; Phillips, Rebecca L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Rutledge, Susanna; Schroder, Ivan; Silberstein, Richard; Southall, Patricia; Yee, Mei Sun; Tapper, Nigel J.; van Gorsel, Eva; Vote, Camilla; Walker, Jeff; Wardlaw, Tim

    2016-10-01

    OzFlux is the regional Australian and New Zealand flux tower network that aims to provide a continental-scale national research facility to monitor and assess trends, and improve predictions, of Australia's terrestrial biosphere and climate. This paper describes the evolution, design, and current status of OzFlux as well as provides an overview of data processing. We analyse measurements from all sites within the Australian portion of the OzFlux network and two sites from New Zealand. The response of the Australian biomes to climate was largely consistent with global studies except that Australian systems had a lower ecosystem water-use efficiency. Australian semi-arid/arid ecosystems are important because of their huge extent (70 %) and they have evolved with common moisture limitations. We also found that Australian ecosystems had a similar radiation-use efficiency per unit leaf area compared to global values that indicates a convergence toward a similar biochemical efficiency. The two New Zealand sites represented extremes in productivity for a moist temperate climate zone, with the grazed dairy farm site having the highest GPP of any OzFlux site (2620 gC m-2 yr-1) and the natural raised peat bog site having a very low GPP (820 gC m-2 yr-1). The paper discusses the utility of the flux data and the synergies between flux, remote sensing, and modelling. Lastly, the paper looks ahead at the future direction of the network and concludes that there has been a substantial contribution by OzFlux, and considerable opportunities remain to further advance our understanding of ecosystem response to disturbances, including drought, fire, land-use and land-cover change, land management, and climate change, which are relevant both nationally and internationally. It is suggested that a synergistic approach is required to address all of the spatial, ecological, human, and cultural challenges of managing the delicately balanced ecosystems in Australasia.

  18. Space radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, H.B.

    1998-01-01

    Coupled with the increasing concern over trapped radiation effects on microelectronics, the availability of new data, long term changes in the Earth's magnetic field, and observed variations in the trapped radiation fluxes have generated the need for better, more comprehensive tools for modeling and predicting the Earth's trapped radiation environment and its effects on space systems. The objective of this report is to describe the current status of those efforts and review methods for attacking the issues associated with modeling the trapped radiation environment in a systematic, practical fashion. The ultimate goal will be to point the way to increasingly better methods of testing, designing, and flying reliable microelectronic systems in the Earth's radiation environment. The review will include a description of the principal models of the trapped radiation environment currently available--the AE8 and AP8 models. Recent results rom radiation experiments on spacecraft such as CRRES, SAMPEX, and CLEMENTINE will then be described. (author)

  19. Fast modeling of flux trapping cascaded explosively driven magnetic flux compression generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuwei; Zhang, Jiande; Chen, Dongqun; Cao, Shengguang; Li, Da; Liu, Chebo

    2013-01-01

    To predict the performance of flux trapping cascaded flux compression generators, a calculation model based on an equivalent circuit is investigated. The system circuit is analyzed according to its operation characteristics in different steps. Flux conservation coefficients are added to the driving terms of circuit differential equations to account for intrinsic flux losses. To calculate the currents in the circuit by solving the circuit equations, a simple zero-dimensional model is used to calculate the time-varying inductance and dc resistance of the generator. Then a fast computer code is programmed based on this calculation model. As an example, a two-staged flux trapping generator is simulated by using this computer code. Good agreements are achieved by comparing the simulation results with the measurements. Furthermore, it is obvious that this fast calculation model can be easily applied to predict performances of other flux trapping cascaded flux compression generators with complex structures such as conical stator or conical armature sections and so on for design purpose.

  20. Burnout in radiation therapists: the predictive value of selected stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akroyd, Duane; Caison, Amy; Adams, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: As cancer caregivers, radiation therapists experience a variety of stresses that may develop into burnout, which has been demonstrated to impact patient care, employee health, and organizational effectiveness. The purpose of the study was to assess the levels of radiation therapists' burnout at three stages. Additionally, the ability of selected workplace variables to predict each of the three stages of burnout was examined. Methods and Materials: We used descriptive and inferential statistical analyses on reliable and valid instruments, which measured stress, burnout, and social support. Results: Radiation therapists have high levels of the first two stages of burnout: emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Although personal stress, organizational stress, guidance, reassurance of worth, and work load predicted 50% or more of the variance in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, their predictive ability for personal accomplishment was low. Conclusion: Efforts to alleviate burnout among radiation therapists within an organization should have positive effects, including increased quality of patient care, improved quality of work life, higher levels of job satisfaction, and commitment and lower staff turnover

  1. An integrated artificial neural networks approach for predicting global radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Maghsoudi, A.; Sohrabkhani, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an integrated artificial neural network (ANN) approach for predicting solar global radiation by climatological variables. The integrated ANN trains and tests data with multi layer perceptron (MLP) approach which has the lowest mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The proposed approach is particularly useful for locations where no available measurement equipment. Also, it considers all related climatological and meteorological parameters as input variables. To show the applicability and superiority of the integrated ANN approach, monthly data were collected for 6 years (1995-2000) in six nominal cities in Iran. Separate model for each city is considered and the quantity of solar global radiation in each city is calculated. Furthermore an integrated ANN model has been introduced for prediction of solar global radiation. The acquired results of the integrated model have shown high accuracy of about 94%. The results of the integrated model have been compared with traditional angstrom's model to show its considerable accuracy. Therefore, the proposed approach can be used as an efficient tool for prediction of solar radiation in the remote and rural locations with no direct measurement equipment.

  2. Prediction of monthly average global solar radiation based on statistical distribution of clearness index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayodele, T.R.; Ogunjuyigbe, A.S.O.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, probability distribution of clearness index is proposed for the prediction of global solar radiation. First, the clearness index is obtained from the past data of global solar radiation, then, the parameters of the appropriate distribution that best fit the clearness index are determined. The global solar radiation is thereafter predicted from the clearness index using inverse transformation of the cumulative distribution function. To validate the proposed method, eight years global solar radiation data (2000–2007) of Ibadan, Nigeria are used to determine the parameters of appropriate probability distribution for clearness index. The calculated parameters are then used to predict the future monthly average global solar radiation for the following year (2008). The predicted values are compared with the measured values using four statistical tests: the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), MAE (Mean Absolute Error), MAPE (Mean Absolute Percentage Error) and the coefficient of determination (R"2). The proposed method is also compared to the existing regression models. The results show that logistic distribution provides the best fit for clearness index of Ibadan and the proposed method is effective in predicting the monthly average global solar radiation with overall RMSE of 0.383 MJ/m"2/day, MAE of 0.295 MJ/m"2/day, MAPE of 2% and R"2 of 0.967. - Highlights: • Distribution of clearnes index is proposed for prediction of global solar radiation. • The clearness index is obtained from the past data of global solar radiation. • The parameters of distribution that best fit the clearness index are determined. • Solar radiation is predicted from the clearness index using inverse transformation. • The method is effective in predicting the monthly average global solar radiation.

  3. Predicting diffuse radiation where only data on sunshine duration is available

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaquoi, J.G.M.

    1985-12-01

    In most locations there are no data on either global or diffuse radiation. Yet most of the existing correlations for predicting the latter require measured data on the former. This is because these correlations express the diffuse radiation as a function of the clearness index. To overcome this, one approach has been to develop correlations of diffuse radiation as a function of sunshine hours. This paper considers another approach: that of using predicted values of global radiation when measured values are not available. With this approach one could then use correlations of diffuse radiation as a function of clearness index. In this paper we have carried out a comparative assessment of the two approaches and reached the conclusion that the latter is more accurate. (author)

  4. Flux-probability distributions from the master equation for radiation transport in stochastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, Brian C.; Prinja, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    We present numerical investigations into the accuracy of approximations in the master equation for radiation transport in discrete binary random media. Our solutions of the master equation yield probability distributions of particle flux at each element of phase space. We employ the Levermore-Pomraning interface closure and evaluate the effectiveness of closures for the joint conditional flux distribution for estimating scattering integrals. We propose a parameterized model for this joint-pdf closure, varying between correlation neglect and a full-correlation model. The closure is evaluated for a variety of parameter settings. Comparisons are made with benchmark results obtained through suites of fixed-geometry realizations of random media in rod problems. All calculations are performed using Monte Carlo techniques. Accuracy of the approximations in the master equation is assessed by examining the probability distributions for reflection and transmission and by evaluating the moments of the pdfs. The results suggest the correlation-neglect setting in our model performs best and shows improved agreement in the atomic-mix limit. (author)

  5. Effect of the geometrical parameters of an optical integrator on the unformity of the radiation flux distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnyakova, T.P.; Klychev, Sh.I.

    1992-01-01

    The use of optical mixers in the optical irradiators of simulators of direct and concentrated solar radiation has been proposed. In this paper, the parameters of an optical mixer are calculated geometrically, and the effect of the parameters of the optical mixer on the unformity of the irradiance distribution η of the radiation flux on the detector is investigated. These investigations show that the light distribution from an optical mixer is close to the characteristics of an ideal uniform emitter within the region from 0 to the limit of α. 5 refs., 4 figs

  6. Thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD) exposed to high fluxes of gamma radiation, thermal neutrons and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambarini, G.; Martini, M.; Meinardi, F.; Raffaglio, C.; Salvadori, P.; Scacco, A.; Sichirollo, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD), widely experimented and utilized in personal dosimetry, have some advantageous characteristics which induce one to employ them also in radiotherapy. The new radiotherapy techniques are aimed at selectively depositing a high dose in cancerous tissues. This goal is reached by utilising both conventional and other more recently proposed radiation, such as thermal neutrons and heavy charged particles. In these inhomogeneous radiation fields a reliable mapping of the spatial distribution of absorbed dose is desirable, and the utilized dosemeters have to give such a possibility without notably perturbing the radiation field with the materials of the dosemeters themselves. TLDs, for their small dimension and their tissue equivalence for most radiation, give good support in the mapping of radiation fields. After exposure to the high fluxes of therapeutic beams, some commercial TL dosemeters have shown a loss of reliability. An investigation has therefore be performed, both on commercial and on laboratory made phosphors, in order to investigate their behaviour in such radiation fields. In particular the thermal neutron and gamma ray mixed field of the thermal column of a nuclear reactor, of interest for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (B.N.C.T.) and a proton beam, of interest for proton therapy, were considered. Here some results obtained with new TL phosphors exposed in such radiation fields are presented, after a short description of some radiation damage effect on commercial LiF TLDs exposed in the (n th ,γ) field of the thermal column of a reactor. (author)

  7. Predicting radon flux from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, is developing technology for the design of radon barriers for uranium mill tailings piles. To properly design a radon cover for a particular tailings pile, the radon flux emanating from the bare tailings must be known. The tailings characteristics required to calculate the radon flux include radium-226 content, emanating power, bulk density, and radon diffusivity. This paper presents theoretical and practical aspects of estimating the radon flux from an uranium tailings pile. Results of field measurements to verify the calculation methodology are also discussed. 24 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  8. Prediction of Ionizing Radiation Resistance in Bacteria Using a Multiple Instance Learning Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aridhi, Sabeur; Sghaier, Haïtham; Zoghlami, Manel; Maddouri, Mondher; Nguifo, Engelbert Mephu

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing-radiation-resistant bacteria (IRRB) are important in biotechnology. In this context, in silico methods of phenotypic prediction and genotype-phenotype relationship discovery are limited. In this work, we analyzed basal DNA repair proteins of most known proteome sequences of IRRB and ionizing-radiation-sensitive bacteria (IRSB) in order to learn a classifier that correctly predicts this bacterial phenotype. We formulated the problem of predicting bacterial ionizing radiation resistance (IRR) as a multiple-instance learning (MIL) problem, and we proposed a novel approach for this purpose. We provide a MIL-based prediction system that classifies a bacterium to either IRRB or IRSB. The experimental results of the proposed system are satisfactory with 91.5% of successful predictions.

  9. Gene expression signatures that predict radiation exposure in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly K Dressman

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to assess environmental inputs to biological phenotypes is limited by methods that can accurately and quantitatively measure these contributions. One such example can be seen in the context of exposure to ionizing radiation.We have made use of gene expression analysis of peripheral blood (PB mononuclear cells to develop expression profiles that accurately reflect prior radiation exposure. We demonstrate that expression profiles can be developed that not only predict radiation exposure in mice but also distinguish the level of radiation exposure, ranging from 50 cGy to 1,000 cGy. Likewise, a molecular signature of radiation response developed solely from irradiated human patient samples can predict and distinguish irradiated human PB samples from nonirradiated samples with an accuracy of 90%, sensitivity of 85%, and specificity of 94%. We further demonstrate that a radiation profile developed in the mouse can correctly distinguish PB samples from irradiated and nonirradiated human patients with an accuracy of 77%, sensitivity of 82%, and specificity of 75%. Taken together, these data demonstrate that molecular profiles can be generated that are highly predictive of different levels of radiation exposure in mice and humans.We suggest that this approach, with additional refinement, could provide a method to assess the effects of various environmental inputs into biological phenotypes as well as providing a more practical application of a rapid molecular screening test for the diagnosis of radiation exposure.

  10. Prediction of radiation-related small-bowel damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potish, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to predict which patients have a high risk for radiation-related small-bowel damage, the concept of the dose-response curve was applied to the predisposing factors (number of previous laparotomies, extent of surgery, thin physique, hypertension, age, cancer stage, number of treatment days, fractionation, and weight change during radiotherapy) present in 92 patients receiving identical radiation doses and volumes This analysis allows an estimate of the probability of complication to be assigned to individual patients. The utility and limitations of the dose-response concept are discussed

  11. Predictive modeling of terrestrial radiation exposure from geologic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Daniel A.

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials in an area by creating a model using geologic data, images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), geochemical data, and pre-existing low spatial resolution aerial surveys from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Survey. Using these data, geospatial areas, referred to as background radiation units, homogenous in terms of K, U, and Th are defined and the gamma ray exposure rate is predicted. The prediction is compared to data collected via detailed aerial survey by our partner National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), allowing for the refinement of the technique. High resolution radiation exposure rate models have been developed for two study areas in Southern Nevada that include the alluvium on the western shore of Lake Mohave, and Government Wash north of Lake Mead; both of these areas are arid with little soil moisture and vegetation. We determined that by using geologic units to define radiation background units of exposed bedrock and ASTER visualizations to subdivide radiation background units of alluvium, regions of homogeneous geochemistry can be defined allowing for the exposure rate to be predicted. Soil and rock samples have been collected at Government Wash and Lake Mohave as well as a third site near Cameron, Arizona. K, U, and Th concentrations of these samples have been determined using inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laboratory counting using radiation detection equipment. In addition, many sample locations also have

  12. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) and hybrid ARMA/ANN model to predict global radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voyant, Cyril; Muselli, Marc; Paoli, Christophe; Nivet, Marie-Laure

    2012-01-01

    We propose in this paper an original technique to predict global radiation using a hybrid ARMA/ANN model and data issued from a numerical weather prediction model (NWP). We particularly look at the multi-layer perceptron (MLP). After optimizing our architecture with NWP and endogenous data previously made stationary and using an innovative pre-input layer selection method, we combined it to an ARMA model from a rule based on the analysis of hourly data series. This model has been used to forecast the hourly global radiation for five places in Mediterranean area. Our technique outperforms classical models for all the places. The nRMSE for our hybrid model MLP/ARMA is 14.9% compared to 26.2% for the naïve persistence predictor. Note that in the standalone ANN case the nRMSE is 18.4%. Finally, in order to discuss the reliability of the forecaster outputs, a complementary study concerning the confidence interval of each prediction is proposed. -- Highlights: ► Time series forecasting with hybrid method based on the use of ALADIN numerical weather model, ANN and ARMA. ► Innovative pre-input layer selection method. ► Combination of optimized MLP and ARMA model obtained from a rule based on the analysis of hourly data series. ► Stationarity process (method and control) for the global radiation time series.

  13. Microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation with associated extremely low photon flux densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, A.; Jain, V. K.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation in extremely low flux density conditions. With wide deployment in mind, potential applications range from nuclear non-proliferation, to hospital radiation-safety. The daunting challenge is the low level of photon flux densities - emerging from a Scintillation Crystal (SC) on to a ~1 mm-square detector, which are a factor of 10000 or so lower than those acceptable to recently reported photonic chips (including `single-photon detection' chips), due to a combination of low Lux, small detector size, and short duration SC output pulses - on the order of 1 μs. These challenges are attempted to be overcome by the design of an innovative `System on a Chip' type microchip, with high detector sensitivity, and effective coupling from the SC to the photodetector. The microchip houses a tiny n+ diff p-epi photodiode (PD) as well as the associated analog amplification and other related circuitry, all fabricated in 0.5micron, 3-metal 2-poly CMOS technology. The amplification, together with pulse-shaping of the photocurrent-induced voltage signal, is achieved through a tandem of two capacitively coupled, double-cascode amplifiers. Included in the paper are theoretical estimates and experimental results.

  14. Radon flux measurement methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements

  15. Analytic solutions in the dyon black hole with a cosmic string: Scalar fields, Hawking radiation and energy flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, H.S., E-mail: horacio.santana.vieira@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Centro de Ciências, Tecnologia e Saúde, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, CEP 58233-000, Araruna, PB (Brazil); Bezerra, V.B., E-mail: valdir@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Silva, G.V., E-mail: gislainevs@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Charged massive scalar fields are considered in the gravitational and electromagnetic field produced by a dyonic black hole with a cosmic string along its axis of symmetry. Exact solutions of both angular and radial parts of the covariant Klein–Gordon equation in this background are obtained, and are given in terms of the confluent Heun functions. The role of the presence of the cosmic string in these solutions is showed up. From the radial solution, we obtain the exact wave solutions near the exterior horizon of the black hole, and discuss the Hawking radiation spectrum and the energy flux. -- Highlights: •A cosmic string is introduced along the axis of symmetry of the dyonic black hole. •The covariant Klein–Gordon equation for a charged massive scalar field in this background is analyzed. •Both angular and radial parts are transformed to a confluent Heun equation. •The resulting Hawking radiation spectrum and the energy flux are obtained.

  16. Impact of heat source/sink on radiative heat transfer to Maxwell nanofluid subject to revised mass flux condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M.; Irfan, M.; Khan, W. A.

    2018-06-01

    Nanofluids retain noteworthy structure that have absorbed attentions of numerous investigators because of their exploration in nanotechnology and nanoscience. In this scrutiny a mathematical computation of 2D flows of Maxwell nanoliquid influenced by a stretched cylinder has been established. The heat transfer structure is conceded out in the manifestation of thermal radiation and heat source/sink. Moreover, the nanoparticles mass flux condition is engaged in this exploration. This newly endorsed tactic is more realistic where the conjecture is made that the nanoparticle flux is zero and nanoparticle fraction regulates itself on the restrictions consequently. By utilizing apposite conversion the governing PDEs are transformed into ODEs and then tackled analytically via HAM. The attained outcomes are plotted and deliberated in aspect for somatic parameters. It is remarked that with an intensification in the Deborah number β diminish the liquid temperature while it boosts for radiation parameter Rd . Furthermore, the concentration of Maxwell liquid has conflicting impact for Brownian motion Nb and thermophoresis parameters Nt .

  17. Validation of Heat-Flux Predictions on the Outer Air Seal of a Transonic Turbine Blade (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clark, John P; Polanka, Marc D; Meininger, Matthew; Praisner, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    .... So, a set of predictions of the heat flux on the Blade Outer Air Seal (BOAS) of a transonic turbine is here validated with time-resolved measurements obtained in a single-stage high pressure turbine rig...

  18. A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variation in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling

  19. Predictions of the marviken subcooled critical mass flux using the critical flow scaling parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choon Kyung; Chun, Se Young; Cho, Seok; Yang, Sun Ku; Chung, Moon Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A total of 386 critical flow data points from 19 runs of 27 runs in the Marviken Test were selected and compared with the predictions by the correlations based on the critical flow scaling parameters. The results show that the critical mass flux in the very large diameter pipe can be also characterized by two scaling parameters such as discharge coefficient and dimensionless subcooling (C{sub d,ref} and {Delta}{Tau}{sup *} {sub sub}). The agreement between the measured data and the predictions are excellent. 8 refs., 8 figs. 1 tab. (Author)

  20. Predictions of the marviken subcooled critical mass flux using the critical flow scaling parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choon Kyung; Chun, Se Young; Cho, Seok; Yang, Sun Ku; Chung, Moon Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    A total of 386 critical flow data points from 19 runs of 27 runs in the Marviken Test were selected and compared with the predictions by the correlations based on the critical flow scaling parameters. The results show that the critical mass flux in the very large diameter pipe can be also characterized by two scaling parameters such as discharge coefficient and dimensionless subcooling (C{sub d,ref} and {Delta}{Tau}{sup *} {sub sub}). The agreement between the measured data and the predictions are excellent. 8 refs., 8 figs. 1 tab. (Author)

  1. Comparison of mesoscale model and tower measurements of surface fluxes during Winter Icing and Storms Program/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncley, S.P.; Dudhia, J.

    1994-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of the ability of the Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model (MM4) to determine surface fluxes to see if measured fluxes should be assimilated into model runs. Fluxes were compared from a high-resolution (5 km grid spacing) MM4 run during one day of the Winter Icing and Storms Programs/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (WISP/ARM) experiment (over NE Colorado in winter 1991) with direct flux measurements made from a tower over a representative site by a three-dimensional sonic anemometer and fast response temperature and humidity sensors. This tower was part of the NCAR Atmosphere-Surface Turbulent Exchange Research (ASTER) facility. Also, mean values were compared to check whether any differences were due to the model parameterization or model variables

  2. Flux and brightness calculations for various synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.M.; Hulbert, S.L.

    1991-11-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) storage rings are powerful scientific and technological tools. The first generation of storage rings in the US., e.g., SURF (Washington, D.C.), Tantalus (Wisconsin), SSRL (Stanford), and CHESS (Cornell), revolutionized VUV, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray science. The second (present) generation of storage rings, e.g. the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings and Aladdin (Wisconsin), have sustained the revolution by providing higher stored currents and up to a factor of ten smaller electron beam sizes than the first generation sources. This has made possible a large number of experiments that could not performed using first generation sources. In addition, the NSLS XRAY ring design optimizes the performance of wigglers (high field periodic magnetic insertion devices). The third generation storage rings, e.g. ALS (Berkeley) and APS (Argonne), are being designed to optimize the performance of undulators (low field periodic magnetic insertion devices). These extremely high brightness sources will further revolutionize x-ray science by providing diffraction-limited x-ray beams. The output of undulators and wigglers is distinct from that of bending magnets in magnitude, spectral shape, and in spatial and angular size. Using published equations, we have developed computer programs to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness output bending magnets and selected wigglers and undulators of the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings, the Advanced Light Source (ALS), and the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Following is a summary of the equations used, the graphs and data produced, and the computer codes written. These codes, written in the C programming language, can be used to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness curves for bending magnets and insertion devices on any storage ring

  3. Intense radiative heat transport across a nano-scale gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budaev, Bair V.; Ghafari, Amin; Bogy, David B.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the radiative heat transport in layered structures. The analysis is based on our prior description of the spectrum of thermally excited waves in systems with a heat flux. The developed method correctly predicts results for all known special cases for both large and closing gaps. Numerical examples demonstrate the applicability of our approach to the calculation of the radiative heat transport coefficient across various layered structures.

  4. Estimation of the soil heat flux/net radiation ratio based on spectral vegetation indexes in high-latitude Arctic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, A.; Hansen, B.U.

    1999-01-01

    The vegetation communities in the Arctic environment are very sensitive to even minor climatic variations and therefore the estimation of surface energy fluxes from high-latitude vegetated areas is an important subject to be pursued. This study was carried out in July-August and used micro meteorological data, spectral reflectance signatures, and vegetation biomass to establish the relation between the soil heat flux/net radiation (G / Rn) ratio and spectral vegetation indices (SVIs). Continuous measurements of soil temperature and soil heat flux were used to calculate the surface ground heat flux by use of conventional methods, and the relation to surface temperature was investigated. Twenty-seven locations were established, and six samples per location, including the measurement of the surface temperature and net radiation to establish the G/Rn ratio and simultaneous spectral reflectance signatures and wet biomass estimates, were registered. To obtain regional reliability, the locations were chosen in order to represent the different Arctic vegetation communities in the study area; ranging from dry tundra vegetation communities (fell fields and dry dwarf scrubs) to moist/wet tundra vegetation communities (snowbeds, grasslands and fens). Spectral vegetation indices, including the simple ratio vegetation index (RVI) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were calculated. A comparison of SVIs to biomass proved that RVI gave the best linear expression, and NDVI the best exponential expression. A comparison of SVIs and the surface energy flux ratio G / Rn proved that NDVI gave the best linear expression. SPOT HRV images from July 1989 and 1992 were used to map NDVI and G / Rn at a regional scale. (author)

  5. Spatial and Temporal Variabilities of Solar and Longwave Radiation Fluxes below a Coniferous Forest in the French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicart, J. E.; Ramseyer, V.; Lejeune, Y.; Essery, R.; Webster, C.; Rutter, N.

    2017-12-01

    At high altitudes and latitudes, snow has a large influence on hydrological processes. Large fractions of these regions are covered by forests, which have a strong influence on snow accumulation and melting processes. Trees absorb a large part of the incoming shortwave radiation and this heat load is mostly dissipated as longwave radiation. Trees shelter the snow surface from wind, so sub-canopy snowmelt depends mainly on the radiative fluxes: vegetation attenuates the transmission of shortwave radiation but enhances longwave irradiance to the surface. An array of 13 pyranometers and 11 pyrgeometers was deployed on the snow surface below a coniferous forest at the CEN-MeteoFrance Col de Porte station in the French Alps (1325 m asl) during the 2017 winter in order to investigate spatial and temporal variabilities of solar and infrared irradiances in different meteorological conditions. Sky view factors measured with hemispherical photographs at each radiometer location were in a narrow range from 0.2 to 0.3. The temperature of the vegetation was measured with IR thermocouples and an IR camera. In clear sky conditions, the attenuation of solar radiation by the canopy reached 96% and its spatial variability exceeded 100 W m-2. Longwave irradiance varied by 30 W m-2 from dense canopy to gap areas. In overcast conditions, the spatial variabilities of solar and infrared irradiances were reduced and remained closely related to the sky view factor. A simple radiative model taking into account the penetration through the canopy of the direct and diffuse solar radiation, and isotropic infrared emission of the vegetation as a blackbody emitter, accurately reproduced the dynamics of the radiation fluxes at the snow surface. Model results show that solar transmissivity of the canopy in overcast conditions is an excellent proxy of the sky view factor and the emitting temperature of the vegetation remained close to the air temperature in this typically dense Alpine forest.

  6. Response-driven imaging biomarkers for predicting radiation necrosis of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazem-Zadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Chapman, Christopher H; Lawrence, Theodore S; Ten Haken, Randall K; Tsien, Christina I; Cao, Yue; Chenevert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Radiation necrosis is an uncommon but severe adverse effect of brain radiation therapy (RT). Current predictive models based on radiation dose have limited accuracy. We aimed to identify early individual response biomarkers based upon diffusion tensor (DT) imaging and incorporated them into a response model for prediction of radiation necrosis. Twenty-nine patients with glioblastoma received six weeks of intensity modulated RT and concurrent temozolomide. Patients underwent DT-MRI scans before treatment, at three weeks during RT, and one, three, and six months after RT. Cases with radiation necrosis were classified based on generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) of whole brain and DT index early changes in the corpus callosum and its substructures. Significant covariates were used to develop normal tissue complication probability models using binary logistic regression. Seven patients developed radiation necrosis. Percentage changes of radial diffusivity (RD) in the splenium at three weeks during RT and at six months after RT differed significantly between the patients with and without necrosis (p = 0.05 and p = 0.01). Percentage change of RD at three weeks during RT in the 30 Gy dose–volume of the splenium and brain gEUD combined yielded the best-fit logistic regression model. Our findings indicate that early individual response during the course of RT, assessed by radial diffusivity, has the potential to aid the prediction of delayed radiation necrosis, which could provide guidance in dose-escalation trials. (paper)

  7. Divertor heat flux control and plasma-material interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yusuke; Nagata, Masayoshi; Sawada, Keiji; Takamura, Shuichi; Ueda, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Development of reliable radiative-cooling divertors is essential in DEMO reactor because it uses low-activation materials with low heat removal and the plasma heat flux exhausted from the confined region is 5 times as large as in ITER. It is important to predict precisely the heat and particle flux toward the divertor plate by simulation. In this present article, theoretical and experimental data of the reflection, secondary emission and surface recombination coefficients of the divertor plate by ion bombardment are given and their effects on the power transmission coefficient are discussed. In addition, some topics such as the erosion process of the divertor plate by ELM and the plasma disruption, the thermal shielding due to the vapor layer on the divertor plate and the formation of fuzz structure on W by helium plasma irradiation, are described. (author)

  8. Predicting SPE Fluxes: Coupled Simulations and Analysis Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorby, M.; Schwadron, N.; Linker, J.; Caplan, R. M.; Wijaya, J.; Downs, C.; Lionello, R.

    2017-12-01

    Presented here is a nuts-and-bolts look at the coupled framework of Predictive Science Inc's Magnetohydrodynamics Around a Sphere (MAS) code and the Energetic Particle Radiation Environment Module (EPREM). MAS simulated coronal mass ejection output from a variety of events can be selected as the MHD input to EPREM and a variety of parameters can be set to run against: bakground seed particle spectra, mean free path, perpendicular diffusion efficiency, etc.. A standard set of visualizations are produced as well as a library of analysis tools for deeper inquiries. All steps will be covered end-to-end as well as the framework's user interface and availability.

  9. A method for accounting for maintenance costs in flux balance analysis improves the prediction of plant cell metabolic phenotypes under stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, C Y Maurice; Williams, Thomas C R; Poolman, Mark G; Fell, David A; Ratcliffe, R George; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2013-09-01

    Flux balance models of metabolism generally utilize synthesis of biomass as the main determinant of intracellular fluxes. However, the biomass constraint alone is not sufficient to predict realistic fluxes in central heterotrophic metabolism of plant cells because of the major demand on the energy budget due to transport costs and cell maintenance. This major limitation can be addressed by incorporating transport steps into the metabolic model and by implementing a procedure that uses Pareto optimality analysis to explore the trade-off between ATP and NADPH production for maintenance. This leads to a method for predicting cell maintenance costs on the basis of the measured flux ratio between the oxidative steps of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis. We show that accounting for transport and maintenance costs substantially improves the accuracy of fluxes predicted from a flux balance model of heterotrophic Arabidopsis cells in culture, irrespective of the objective function used in the analysis. Moreover, when the new method was applied to cells under control, elevated temperature and hyper-osmotic conditions, only elevated temperature led to a substantial increase in cell maintenance costs. It is concluded that the hyper-osmotic conditions tested did not impose a metabolic stress, in as much as the metabolic network is not forced to devote more resources to cell maintenance. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Are Polar Field Magnetic Flux Concentrations Responsible for Missing Interplanetary Flux?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Jon A.; Downs, C.; Mikic, Z.; Riley, P.; Henney, C. J.; Arge, C. N.

    2012-05-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations are now routinely used to produce models of the solar corona and inner heliosphere for specific time periods. These models typically use magnetic maps of the photospheric magnetic field built up over a solar rotation, available from a number of ground-based and space-based solar observatories. The line-of-sight field at the Sun's poles is poorly observed, and the polar fields in these maps are filled with a variety of interpolation/extrapolation techniques. These models have been found to frequently underestimate the interplanetary magnetic flux (Riley et al., 2012, in press, Stevens et al., 2012, in press) near the minimum part of the cycle unless mitigating correction factors are applied. Hinode SOT observations indicate that strong concentrations of magnetic flux may be present at the poles (Tsuneta et al. 2008). The ADAPT flux evolution model (Arge et al. 2010) also predicts the appearance of such concentrations. In this paper, we explore the possibility that these flux concentrations may account for a significant amount of magnetic flux and alleviate discrepancies in interplanetary magnetic flux predictions. Research supported by AFOSR, NASA, and NSF.

  11. A simple formula for the net long-wave radiation flux in the southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zapadka

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses problems of estimating the net long-wave radiation flux at the sea surface on the basis of easily measurable meteorological quantities (air and sea surface temperatures, near-surface water vapour pressure, cloudiness. Empirical data and existing formulae are compared. Additionally, an improved formula for the southern Baltic region is introduced, with a systematic error of less than 1 W -2 and a statistical error of less than 20 W -2.

  12. An intercomparison of surface energy flux measurement systems used during FIFE 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, D.; Kanemasu, E.T.; Fritschen, L.J.; Weaver, H.L.; Smith, E.A.; Verma, S.B.; Field, R.T.; Kustas, W.P.; Stewart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    During FIFE 1987, surface energy fluxes were measured at 22 flux sites by nine groups of scientists using different measuring systems. A rover Bowen ratio station was taken to 20 of the flux stations to serve as a reference for estimating the instrument-related differences. The rover system was installed within a few meters from the host instrument of a site. Using linear regression analysis, net radiation, Bowen ratio, and latent heat fluxes were compared between the rover measurements and the host measurements. The average differences in net radiation, Bowen ratio, and latent heat flux from different types of instruments can be up to 10, 30, and 20 percent, respectively. The Didcot net radiometer gave higher net radiation while the Swissteco type showed lower values, as compared to the corrected radiation energy balance system (REBS) model. The four-way components method and the Thornthwaite type give similar values to the REBS. The surface energy radiation balance systems type Bowen ratio systems exhibit slightly lower Bowen ratios and thus higher latent heat fluxes, compared to the arid zone evapotranspiration systems. Eddy correlation systems showed slightly lower latent heat flux in comparison to the Bowen ratio systems. It is recommended that users of the flux data take these differences into account. 11 refs

  13. Compact neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavi, V.; Phatak, P.R.; Bahadur, C.; Bayala, A.K.; Jakati, R.K.; Sathian, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A compact size neutron flux monitor has been developed incorporating standard boards developed for smart radiation monitors. The sensitivity of the monitors is 0.4cps/nV. It has been tested up to 2075 nV flux with standard neutron sources. It shows convincing results even in high flux areas like 6m away from the accelerator in RMC (Parel) for 106/107 nV. These monitors have a focal and remote display, alarm function with potential free contacts for centralized control and additional provision of connectivity via RS485/Ethernet. This paper describes the construction, working and results of the above flux monitor

  14. Synchroton Radiation Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of light extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. It is an extremely important source of Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation. Brightness is defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle and is normally a more important quantity than flux alone particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. It is well known from classical theory of electricity and magnetism that accelerating charges emit electromagnetic radiation. In the case of synchrotron radiation, relativistic electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit and emit electromagnetic radiation in a broad spectral range. The visible portion of this spectrum was first observed on April 24, 1947 at General Electric's Schenectady facility by Floyd Haber, a machinist working with the synchrotron team, although the first theoretical predictions were by Lienard in the latter part of the 1800's. An excellent early history with references was presented by Blewett and a history covering the development of the utilization of synchrotron radiation was presented by Hartman. Synchrotron radiation covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared region through the visible, ultraviolet, and into the x-ray region up to energies of many 10's of kilovolts. If the charged particles are of low mass, such as electrons, and if they are traveling relativistically, the emitted radiation is very intense and highly collimated, with opening angles of the order of 1 milliradian. In electron storage rings there are three possible sources of synchrotron radiation; dipole (bending) magnets; wigglers, which act like a sequence of bending magnets with alternating polarities; and undulators, which are also multi-period alternating magnet systems but in which the beam deflections are small resulting in coherent interference of the emitted light

  15. A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variations in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  16. A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variations in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  17. Assessment of a non-uniform heat flux correction model to predicting CHF in PWR rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dae-Hyun, Hwang; Sung-Quun, Zee

    2001-01-01

    The full text follows. The prediction of CHF (critical heat flux) has been, in most cases, based on the empirical correlation. For PWR fuel assemblies the local parameter correlation requires the local thermal-hydraulic conditions usually calculated by a subchannel analysis code. The cross-sectional averaged fluid conditions of the subchannel, however, are not sufficient for determining CHF, especially for the cases of non-uniform axial heat flux distributions. Many investigators have studied the effect of the upstream heat flux on the CHF. In terms of the upstream memory effect, two different approaches have been considered as the limiting cases. The 'local conditions' hypothesis assumes that there is a unique relationship between the CHF and the local thermal-hydraulic conditions, and consequently there is no memory effect. In the 'overall power' hypothesis, on the other hand, it is assumed that the total power which can be fed into the tube with nonuniform heating will be the same as that for a uniformly heated tube of the same heated length with the same inlet conditions. Thus the CHF is totally influenced by the upstream heat flux distribution. In view of some experimental investigations such as the DeBortoli's test, it revealed that the two approaches are inadequate in general. It means that the local critical heat flux may be affected to some extent by the heat flux distribution upstream of the CHF location. Some correction-factor models have been suggested to take into account the upstream memory effect. Typically, Tong devised a correction factor on the basis of the heat balance of the superheated liquid layer that is spread underneath a highly viscous bubbly layer along the heated surface. His physical model suggested that the fluid enthalpy obtained from an energy balance of the superheated liquid layer is a representative quantity for the onset of DNB (departure nucleate boiling). A theoretically based correction factor model has been proposed by the

  18. Influence of the flux density on the radiation damage of bipolar silicon transistors by protons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, Y.; Gorin, B.; Kozhevnikov, V.; Mikhnovich, V.; Gusev, L.

    1981-01-01

    It was found experimentally that the radiation damage of bipolar n-p-n transistors increased by a factor of 8--12 when the proton flux density was reduced from 4.07 x 10 10 to 2.5 x 10 7 cm -2 sec -1 . In the case of p-n-p transistors the effect was opposite: there was a reduction in the radiation damage by a factor of 2--3 when the dose rate was lowered between the same limits. A similar effect was observed for electrons but at dose rates three orders of magnitude greater. The results were attributed to the dependences of the radiation defect-forming reactions on the charge state of defects which was influenced by the formation of disordered regions in the case of proton irradiation

  19. Predicting commuter flows in spatial networks using a radiation model based on temporal ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yihui; Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Wang, Pu; González, Marta C.; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2014-11-01

    Understanding network flows such as commuter traffic in large transportation networks is an ongoing challenge due to the complex nature of the transportation infrastructure and human mobility. Here we show a first-principles based method for traffic prediction using a cost-based generalization of the radiation model for human mobility, coupled with a cost-minimizing algorithm for efficient distribution of the mobility fluxes through the network. Using US census and highway traffic data, we show that traffic can efficiently and accurately be computed from a range-limited, network betweenness type calculation. The model based on travel time costs captures the log-normal distribution of the traffic and attains a high Pearson correlation coefficient (0.75) when compared with real traffic. Because of its principled nature, this method can inform many applications related to human mobility driven flows in spatial networks, ranging from transportation, through urban planning to mitigation of the effects of catastrophic events.

  20. Interaction between the radiative flux emitted by a corium melt and aerosols from corium/concrete interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabiego, M.; Cognet, G. [CEA-DRN/DER/SERA - CE Cadarache, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Henderson, D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    In this paper we present a one-dimensional numerical model that deals with radiative transfer in a medium where aerosols are present. This model is written with the aim of performing radiative transfer calculations in the framework of severe Pressurized Water Reactor accidents, especially during the last stage of such an accident Molten Core Concrete Interaction (MCCI) when aerosols are very numerous. We explain the theoretical basis of our model, writing the general radiative transfer equation, knowing that aerosol droplets participate in radiation transport. We then simplify this equation for a one-dimensional medium and we propose to solve it using the spherical harmonics approximation. This gives us the radiative intensity and we can then deduce the radiative flux. Aerosol optical properties (extinction and scattering coefficients) are also required in such a calculation. They are determined using Rayleigh or Mie theory, depending, depending on the aerosol size. In order to provide an example of results one can expect from such a calculation, we applied our model to a test problem with given aerosol size and concentration distributions. Our example does not model any experiment explicitly but the physical conditions used are very close to the L4 test from the Advanced Containment Experiment (ACE) program.

  1. Nonlinear radiated MHD flow of nanoliquids due to a rotating disk with irregular heat source and heat flux condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanthesh, B.; Gireesha, B. J.; Shehzad, S. A.; Rauf, A.; Kumar, P. B. Sampath

    2018-05-01

    This research is made to visualize the nonlinear radiated flow of hydromagnetic nano-fluid induced due to rotation of the disk. The considered nano-fluid is a mixture of water and Ti6Al4V or AA7072 nano-particles. The various shapes of nanoparticles like lamina, column, sphere, tetrahedron and hexahedron are chosen in the analysis. The irregular heat source and nonlinear radiative terms are accounted in the law of energy. We used the heat flux condition instead of constant surface temperature condition. Heat flux condition is more relativistic and according to physical nature of the problem. The problem is made dimensionless with the help of suitable similarity constraints. The Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg scheme is adopted to find the numerical solutions of governing nonlinear ordinary differential systems. The solutions are plotted by considering the various values of emerging physical constraints. The effects of various shapes of nanoparticles are drawn and discussed.

  2. Modeling and Predicting Carbon and Water Fluxes Using Data-Driven Techniques in a Forest Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming Dou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of carbon and water fluxes of forest ecosystems is of particular importance for addressing the problems originating from global environmental change, and providing helpful information about carbon and water content for analyzing and diagnosing past and future climate change. The main focus of the current work was to investigate the feasibility of four comparatively new methods, including generalized regression neural network, group method of data handling (GMDH, extreme learning machine and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS, for elucidating the carbon and water fluxes in a forest ecosystem. A comparison was made between these models and two widely used data-driven models, artificial neural network (ANN and support vector machine (SVM. All the models were evaluated based on the following statistical indices: coefficient of determination, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, root mean square error and mean absolute error. Results indicated that the data-driven models are capable of accounting for most variance in each flux with the limited meteorological variables. The ANN model provided the best estimates for gross primary productivity (GPP and net ecosystem exchange (NEE, while the ANFIS model achieved the best for ecosystem respiration (R, indicating that no single model was consistently superior to others for the carbon flux prediction. In addition, the GMDH model consistently produced somewhat worse results for all the carbon flux and evapotranspiration (ET estimations. On the whole, among the carbon and water fluxes, all the models produced similar highly satisfactory accuracy for GPP, R and ET fluxes, and did a reasonable job of reproducing the eddy covariance NEE. Based on these findings, it was concluded that these advanced models are promising alternatives to ANN and SVM for estimating the terrestrial carbon and water fluxes.

  3. Neutron flux measurements at the TRIGA reactor in Vienna for the prediction of the activation of the biological shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, Stefan; Djuricic, Mile; Villa, Mario; Boeck, Helmuth; Steinhauser, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The activation of the biological shield is an important process for waste management considerations of nuclear facilities. The final activity can be estimated by modeling using the neutron flux density rather than the radiometric approach of activity measurements. Measurement series at the TRIGA reactor Vienna reveal that the flux density next to the biological shield is in the order of 10 9 cm -2 s -1 at maximum power; but it is strongly influenced by reactor installations. The data allow the estimation of the final waste categorization of the concrete according to the Austrian legislation. - Highlights: → Neutron activation is an important process for the waste management of nuclear facilities. → Biological shield of the TRIGA reactor Vienna has been topic of investigation. → Flux values allow a categorization of the concrete concerning radiation protection legislation. → Reactor installations are of great importance as neutron sources into the biological shield. → Every installation shows distinguishable flux profiles.

  4. Modelling drug flux through microporated skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzhevskiy, Alexey S; Guy, Richard H; Anissimov, Yuri G

    2016-11-10

    A simple mathematical equation has been developed to predict drug flux through microporated skin. The theoretical model is based on an approach applied previously to water evaporation through leaf stomata. Pore density, pore radius and drug molecular weight are key model parameters. The predictions of the model were compared with results derived from a simple, intuitive method using porated area alone to estimate the flux enhancement. It is shown that the new approach predicts significantly higher fluxes than the intuitive analysis, with transport being proportional to the total pore perimeter rather than area as intuitively anticipated. Predicted fluxes were in good general agreement with experimental data on drug delivery from the literature, and were quantitatively closer to the measured values than those derived from the intuitive, area-based approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Classification and prediction of the critical heat flux using fuzzy theory and artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sang Ki; Chang, Soon Heung

    1994-01-01

    A new method to predict the critical heat flux (CHF) is proposed, based on the fuzzy clustering and artificial neural network. The fuzzy clustering classifies the experimental CHF data into a few data clusters (data groups) according to the data characteristics. After classification of the experimental data, the characteristics of the resulting clusters are discussed with emphasis on the distribution of the experimental conditions and physical mechanism. The CHF data in each group are trained in an artificial neural network to predict the CHF. The artificial neural network adjusts the weight so as to minimize the prediction error within the corresponding cluster. Application of the proposed method to the KAIST CHF data bank shows good prediction capability of the CHF, better than other existing methods. ((orig.))

  6. Towards prediction of heatwaves based on the complementary relationship between actual and potential evaporation - energy partitioning and hydrologic attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, D.; Aminzadeh, M.; Roderick, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Prediction of extreme climate events such as heatwaves that are characterized by prolonged periods of high air temperatures (accompanied by low precipitation and high radiation) provides an opportunity to potentially mitigate the associated environmental, social and economic impacts. Vegetation may respond to these extreme conditions by reducing evaporative flux either due to soil water depletion or inability to meet the atmospheric evaporative demand (high canopy resistance). We implement a newly generalized Complementary Relationship (CR) for spatially heterogeneous land surfaces to predict the actual evaporation from drying landscapes covered by different vegetation types (i.e., grassland and forest). A strong correlation between air temperature and sensible heat flux anomalies identified from FLUXNET network data suggests that abrupt changes in sensible heat flux above climatological means can serve as indicators for predicting the onset of a heatwave. We thus capitalize on the inherent coupling between evaporative and sensible heat fluxes linked to moisture availability within the CR framework to predict rapid increase in regional sensible heat flux associated with soil drying (low precipitation) or with extreme evaporative demand (high radiation) while soil moisture is not limiting. The proposed approach evaluated using FLUXNET datasets provides an energy constraint framework based on the CR concept to obtain new insights into the onset of heatwaves and climate extremes such as regional droughts.

  7. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) ER-2 Preflight Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Hsiang; Wilson, John W.; Maiden, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) produces chemically active radicals in biological tissues that alter the cell function or result in cell death. The AIR ER-2 flight measurements will enable scientists to study the radiation risk associated with the high-altitude operation of a commercial supersonic transport. The ER-2 radiation measurement flights will follow predetermined, carefully chosen courses to provide an appropriate database matrix which will enable the evaluation of predictive modeling techniques. Explicit scientific results such as dose rate, dose equivalent rate, magnetic cutoff, neutron flux, and air ionization rate associated with those flights are predicted by using the AIR model. Through these flight experiments, we will further increase our knowledge and understanding of the AIR environment and our ability to assess the risk from the associated hazard.

  8. Clustering of Emerging Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.

  9. Heat flux microsensor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, J. P.; Hager, J. M.; Onishi, S.; Diller, T. E.

    1992-01-01

    A thin-film heat flux sensor has been fabricated on a stainless steel substrate. The thermocouple elements of the heat flux sensor were nickel and nichrome, and the temperature resistance sensor was platinum. The completed heat flux microsensor was calibrated at the AEDC radiation facility. The gage output was linear with heat flux with no apparent temperature effect on sensitivity. The gage was used for heat flux measurements at the NASA Langley Vitiated Air Test Facility. Vitiated air was expanded to Mach 3.0 and hydrogen fuel was injected. Measurements were made on the wall of a diverging duct downstream of the injector during all stages of the hydrogen combustion tests. Because the wall and the gage were not actively cooled, the wall temperature reached over 1000 C (1900 F) during the most severe test.

  10. Performance analysis of tracked panel according to predicted global radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of a south facing single-axis tracked panel was analyzed according to global radiation predicted by empirical model. Mathematic expressions appropriate for single-axis tracking system were derived to calculate the radiation on it. Instantaneous increments of solar energy collected by the tracked panel relative to fixed panel are illustrated. The validity of the empirical model to Taiwan area will also be examined with the actual irradiation data observed in Taipei. The results are summarized as follows: the gains made by the tracked panel relative to a fixed panel are between 20.0% and 33.9% for four specified days of year, between 20.9% and 33.2% for the four seasons and 27.6% over the entire year. For latitudes below 65 deg., the yearly optimal tilt angle of a fixed panel is close to 0.8 times latitude, the irradiation ratio of the tracked panel to the fixed panel is about 1.3, which are smaller than the corresponding values calculated from extraterrestrial radiation, suggesting us that the installation angle should be adjusted toward a flatter angle and that the gain of the tracked panel will reduce while it works in cloudy climate or in air pollution environment. Although the captured radiation increases with the maximal rotation angle of panel, but the benefit on the global radiation case is still not so good as that on extraterrestrial radiation case. The irradiation data observed is much less than the data predicted by the empirical model, however the trend of fitting curve to the observed data is somewhat in agreement with that to the predicted one; the yearly gain is 14.3% when a tracked panel is employed throughout the year.

  11. The LMJ project - status of our knowledge in hohlraum energetics physics: production and control of the radiation flux; Projet laser megajoule - les etudes et activites dans le domaine de la physique de la cavite (hohlraum): production et controle du flux radiatif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattolo, E

    2001-09-01

    CEA-DAM in France is working on Inertial controlled Fusion (ICF) since the beginning of nineties. In an indirect drive scheme, the laser light is converted in X-ray in a hohlraum made with an high-Z material. Part of this radiation flux is absorbed by a micro-balloon filled with DT, placed in the center of the hohlraum, and generates its implosion, ignition and burn. This paper gives the status of our knowledge and studies for production and control of the radiation flux in the hohlraum, in the perspective of the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ). (authors)

  12. Sensitivity of modelled sulfate aerosol and its radiative effect on climate to ocean DMS concentration and air–sea flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-E. Tesdal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dimethylsulfide (DMS is a well-known marine trace gas that is emitted from the ocean and subsequently oxidizes to sulfate in the atmosphere. Sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere have direct and indirect effects on the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Thus, as a potential source of sulfate, ocean efflux of DMS needs to be accounted for in climate studies. Seawater concentration of DMS is highly variable in space and time, which in turn leads to high spatial and temporal variability in ocean DMS emissions. Because of sparse sampling (in both space and time, large uncertainties remain regarding ocean DMS concentration. In this study, we use an atmospheric general circulation model with explicit aerosol chemistry (CanAM4.1 and several climatologies of surface ocean DMS concentration to assess uncertainties about the climate impact of ocean DMS efflux. Despite substantial variation in the spatial pattern and seasonal evolution of simulated DMS fluxes, the global-mean radiative effect of sulfate is approximately linearly proportional to the global-mean surface flux of DMS; the spatial and temporal distribution of ocean DMS efflux has only a minor effect on the global radiation budget. The effect of the spatial structure, however, generates statistically significant changes in the global-mean concentrations of some aerosol species. The effect of seasonality on the net radiative effect is larger than that of spatial distribution and is significant at global scale.

  13. A dynamo theory prediction for solar cycle 22: Sunspot number, radio flux, exospheric temperature, and total density at 400 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, K. H.; Hedin, A. E.

    1986-01-01

    Using the dynamo theory method to predict solar activity, a value for the smoothed sunspot number of 109 + or - 20 is obtained for solar cycle 22. The predicted cycle is expected to peak near December, 1990 + or - 1 year. Concommitantly, F(10.7) radio flux is expected to reach a smoothed value of 158 + or - 18 flux units. Global mean exospheric temperature is expected to reach 1060 + or - 50 K and global total average total thermospheric density at 400 km is expected to reach 4.3 x 10 to the -15th gm/cu cm + or - 25 percent.

  14. A dynamo theory prediction for solar cycle 22 - Sunspot number, radio flux, exospheric temperature, and total density at 400 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, K. H.; Hedin, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    Using the 'dynamo theory' method to predict solar activity, a value for the smoothed sunspot number of 109 + or - 20 is obtained for solar cycle 22. The predicted cycle is expected to peak near December, 1990 + or - 1 year. Concommitantly, F(10.7) radio flux is expected to reach a smoothed value of 158 + or - 18 flux units. Global mean exospheric temperature is expected to reach 1060 + or - 50 K and global total average total thermospheric density at 400 km is expected to reach 4.3 x 10 to the -15th gm/cu cm + or - 25 percent.

  15. Groundwater fluxes in a shallow seasonal wetland pond: The effect of bathymetric uncertainty on predicted water and solute balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigg, Mark A.; Cook, Peter G.; Brunner, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The successful management of groundwater dependent shallow seasonal wetlands requires a sound understanding of groundwater fluxes. However, such fluxes are hard to quantify. Water volume and solute mass balance models can be used in order to derive an estimate of groundwater fluxes within such systems. This approach is particularly attractive, as it can be undertaken using measurable environmental variables, such as; rainfall, evaporation, pond level and salinity. Groundwater fluxes estimated from such an approach are subject to uncertainty in the measured variables as well as in the process representation and in parameters within the model. However, the shallow nature of seasonal wetland ponds means water volume and surface area can change rapidly and non-linearly with depth, requiring an accurate representation of the wetland pond bathymetry. Unfortunately, detailed bathymetry is rarely available and simplifying assumptions regarding the bathymetry have to be made. However, the implications of these assumptions are typically not quantified. We systematically quantify the uncertainty implications for eight different representations of wetland bathymetry for a shallow seasonal wetland pond in South Australia. The predictive uncertainty estimation methods provided in the Model-Independent Parameter Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis software (PEST) are used to quantify the effect of bathymetric uncertainty on the modelled fluxes. We demonstrate that bathymetry can be successfully represented within the model in a simple parametric form using a cubic Bézier curve, allowing an assessment of bathymetric uncertainty due to measurement error and survey detail on the derived groundwater fluxes compared with the fixed bathymetry models. Findings show that different bathymetry conceptualisations can result in very different mass balance components and hence process conceptualisations, despite equally good fits to observed data, potentially leading to poor management

  16. Mesoscale model parameterizations for radiation and turbulent fluxes at the lower boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somieski, F.

    1988-11-01

    A radiation parameterization scheme for use in mesoscale models with orography and clouds has been developed. Broadband parameterizations are presented for the solar and the terrestrial spectral ranges. They account for clear, turbid or cloudy atmospheres. The scheme is one-dimensional in the atmosphere, but the effects of mountains (inclination, shading, elevated horizon) are taken into account at the surface. In the terrestrial band, grey and black clouds are considered. Furthermore, the calculation of turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat and momentum at an inclined lower model boundary is described. Surface-layer similarity and the surface energy budget are used to evaluate the ground surface temperature. The total scheme is part of the mesoscale model MESOSCOP. (orig.) With 3 figs., 25 refs [de

  17. Techniques for predicting environment electromagnetic radiation at satellite ground station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Peiji

    1987-01-01

    The measurement theories, techniques, and calculation methods on public exposure level of electromagnetic radiation at satellite ground station are described for the purpose of enviroment protection and research of EM compatibility. According to the results of the measurement and calculation, it is possible to predict the effects of electromagnetic radiation to environment at satellite ground station

  18. New Temperature-based Models for Predicting Global Solar Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Gasser E.; Youssef, M. Elsayed; Mohamed, Zahraa E.; Ali, Mohamed A.; Hanafy, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New temperature-based models for estimating solar radiation are investigated. • The models are validated against 20-years measured data of global solar radiation. • The new temperature-based model shows the best performance for coastal sites. • The new temperature-based model is more accurate than the sunshine-based models. • The new model is highly applicable with weather temperature forecast techniques. - Abstract: This study presents new ambient-temperature-based models for estimating global solar radiation as alternatives to the widely used sunshine-based models owing to the unavailability of sunshine data at all locations around the world. Seventeen new temperature-based models are established, validated and compared with other three models proposed in the literature (the Annandale, Allen and Goodin models) to estimate the monthly average daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. These models are developed using a 20-year measured dataset of global solar radiation for the case study location (Lat. 30°51′N and long. 29°34′E), and then, the general formulae of the newly suggested models are examined for ten different locations around Egypt. Moreover, the local formulae for the models are established and validated for two coastal locations where the general formulae give inaccurate predictions. Mostly common statistical errors are utilized to evaluate the performance of these models and identify the most accurate model. The obtained results show that the local formula for the most accurate new model provides good predictions for global solar radiation at different locations, especially at coastal sites. Moreover, the local and general formulas of the most accurate temperature-based model also perform better than the two most accurate sunshine-based models from the literature. The quick and accurate estimations of the global solar radiation using this approach can be employed in the design and evaluation of performance for

  19. Comparisons of a Quantum Annealing and Classical Computer Neural Net Approach for Inferring Global Annual CO2 Fluxes over Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Radov, A.; Singh, D.

    2017-12-01

    Investigations of mid to high latitude atmospheric CO2 show growing amplitudes in seasonal variations over the past several decades. Recent high-resolution satellite measurements of CO2 concentration are now available for three years from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program of DOE has been making long-term CO2-flux measurements (in addition to CO2 concentration and an array of other meteorological quantities) at several towers and mobile sites located around the globe at half-hour frequencies. Recent papers have shown CO2 fluxes inferred by assimilating CO2 observations into ecosystem models are largely inconsistent with station observations. An investigation of how the biosphere has reacted to changes in atmospheric CO2 is essential to our understanding of potential climate-vegetation feedbacks. Thus, new approaches for calculating CO2-flux for assimilation into land surface models are necessary for improving the prediction of annual carbon uptake. In this study, we calculate and compare the predicted CO2 fluxes results employing a Feed Forward Backward Propagation Neural Network model on two architectures, (i) an IBM Minsky Computer node and (ii) a hybrid version of the ARC D-Wave quantum annealing computer. We compare the neural net results of predictions of CO2 flux from ARM station data for three different DOE ecosystem sites; an arid plains near Oklahoma City, a northern arctic site at Barrows AL, and a tropical rainforest site in the Amazon. Training times and predictive results for the calculating annual CO2 flux for the two architectures for each of the three sites are presented. Comparative results of predictions as measured by RMSE and MAE are discussed. Plots and correlations of observed vs predicted CO2 flux are also presented for all three sites. We show the estimated training times for quantum and classical calculations when extended to calculating global annual Carbon Uptake over land. We also

  20. Impact of melting heat transfer and nonlinear radiative heat flux mechanisms for the generalized Burgers fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Azeem Khan

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the analysis of melting heat and mass transfer characteristics in the stagnation point flow of an incompressible generalized Burgers fluid over a stretching sheet in the presence of non-linear radiative heat flux. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. The governing equations in dimensional form are reduced to a system of dimensionless expressions by implementation of suitable similarity transformations. The resulting dimensionless problem governing the generalized Burgers is solved analytically by using the homotopy analysis method (HAM. The effects of different flow parameters like the ratio parameter, magnetic parameter, Prandtl number, melting parameter, radiation parameter, temperature ratio parameter and Schmidt number on the velocity, heat and mass transfer characteristics are computed and presented graphically. Moreover, useful discussions in detail are carried out with the help of plotted graphs and tables. Keywords: Generalized Burgers fluid, Non-linear radiative flow, Magnetic field, Melting heat transfer

  1. Impact of ice particle shape on short-wave radiative forcing: A case study for an arctic ice cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahnert, Michael; Sandvik, Anne Dagrun; Biryulina, Marina; Stamnes, Jakob J.; Stamnes, Knut

    2008-01-01

    We used four different non-spherical particle models to compute optical properties of an arctic ice cloud and to simulate corresponding cloud radiative forcings and fluxes. One important finding is that differences in cloud forcing, downward flux at the surface, and absorbed flux in the atmosphere resulting from the use of the four different ice cloud particle models are comparable to differences in these quantities resulting from changing the surface albedo from 0.4 to 0.8, or by varying the ice water content (IWC) by a factor of 2. These findings show that the use of a suitable non-spherical ice cloud particle model is very important for a realistic assessment of the radiative impact of arctic ice clouds. The differences in radiative broadband fluxes predicted by the four different particle models were found to be caused mainly by differences in the optical depth and the asymmetry parameter. These two parameters were found to have nearly the same impact on the predicted cloud forcing. Computations were performed first by assuming a given vertical profile of the particle number density, then by assuming a given profile of the IWC. In both cases, the differences between the cloud radiative forcings computed with the four different non-spherical particle models were found to be of comparable magnitude. This finding shows that precise knowledge of ice particle number density or particle mass is not sufficient for accurate prediction of ice cloud radiative forcing. It is equally important to employ a non-spherical shape model that accurately reproduces the ice particle's dimension-to-volume ratio and its asymmetry parameter. The hexagonal column/plate model with air-bubble inclusions seems to offer the highest degree of flexibility

  2. Predicted radiation environment of the Saturn baseline diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbleib, J.A.; Lee, J.R.

    1987-09-01

    Coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo radiation transport was used to predict the radiation environment of the Saturn accelerator for the baseline diode design. The x-ray output has been calculated, as well as energy deposition in CaF 2 thermoluminescent dosimetry and silicon. It is found that the design criteria for the radiation environment will be met and that approximately 10 kJ of x rays will be available for simulation experiments, if the diode provides a nominal beam of 2.0-MeV electrons for 20 ns with a peak current of 12.5 MA. The penalty in dose and x-ray output for operating below the nominal energy in order to obtain a softer spectrum is quantified. The penalty for using excessive electron equilibration in the standard packaging of the thermoluminescent dosimeters is shown to be negligible. An intrinsic lack of electron equilibration for silicon elements of components and subsystems is verified for Saturn environments, demonstrating the ambiguity of design criteria based on silicon deposition. Validation of an efficient next-event-estimator method for predicting energy deposition in equilibrated detectors/dosimetry is confirmed. Finally, direct-electron depositions in excess of 1 kJ/g are shown to be easily achievable. 34 refs., 30 figs

  3. Explicit prediction of ice clouds in general circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Martin

    1999-11-01

    Although clouds play extremely important roles in the radiation budget and hydrological cycle of the Earth, there are large quantitative uncertainties in our understanding of their generation, maintenance and decay mechanisms, representing major obstacles in the development of reliable prognostic cloud water schemes for General Circulation Models (GCMs). Recognizing their relative neglect in the past, both observationally and theoretically, this work places special focus on ice clouds. A recent version of the UCLA - University of Utah Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) that includes interactive radiation is used to perform idealized experiments to study ice cloud maintenance and decay mechanisms under various conditions in term of: (1) background static stability, (2) background relative humidity, (3) rate of cloud ice addition over a fixed initial time-period and (4) radiation: daytime, nighttime and no-radiation. Radiation is found to have major effects on the life-time of layer-clouds. Optically thick ice clouds decay significantly slower than expected from pure microphysical crystal fall-out (taucld = 0.9--1.4 h as opposed to no-motion taumicro = 0.5--0.7 h). This is explained by the upward turbulent fluxes of water induced by IR destabilization, which partially balance the downward transport of water by snowfall. Solar radiation further slows the ice-water decay by destruction of the inversion above cloud-top and the resulting upward transport of water. Optically thin ice clouds, on the other hand, may exhibit even longer life-times (>1 day) in the presence of radiational cooling. The resulting saturation mixing ratio reduction provides for a constant cloud ice source. These CRM results are used to develop a prognostic cloud water scheme for the UCLA-GCM. The framework is based on the bulk water phase model of Ose (1993). The model predicts cloud liquid water and cloud ice separately, and which is extended to split the ice phase into suspended cloud ice (predicted

  4. Dark Radiation predictions from general Large Volume Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebecker, Arthur; Mangat, Patrick; Rompineve, Fabrizio; Witkowski, Lukas T.

    2014-09-01

    Recent observations constrain the amount of Dark Radiation (Δ N eff ) and may even hint towards a non-zero value of Δ N eff . It is by now well-known that this puts stringent constraints on the sequestered Large Volume Scenario (LVS), i.e. on LVS realisations with the Standard Model at a singularity. We go beyond this setting by considering LVS models where SM fields are realised on 7-branes in the geometric regime. As we argue, this naturally goes together with high-scale supersymmetry. The abundance of Dark Radiation is determined by the competition between the decay of the lightest modulus to axions, to the SM Higgs and to gauge fields, and leads to strict constraints on these models. Nevertheless, these constructions can in principle meet current DR bounds due to decays into gauge bosons alone. Further, a rather robust prediction for a substantial amount of Dark Radiation can be made. This applies both to cases where the SM 4-cycles are stabilised by D-terms and are small `by accident', i.e. tuning, as well as to fibred models with the small cycles stabilised by loops. In these constructions the DR axion and the QCD axion are the same field and we require a tuning of the initial misalignment to avoid Dark Matter overproduction. Furthermore, we analyse a closely related setting where the SM lives at a singularity but couples to the volume modulus through flavour branes. We conclude that some of the most natural LVS settings with natural values of model parameters lead to Dark Radiation predictions just below the present observational limits. Barring a discovery, rather modest improvements of present Dark Radiation bounds can rule out many of these most simple and generic variants of the LVS.

  5. Radiation-induced gene expression in human subcutaneous fibroblasts is predictive of radiation-induced fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødningen, Olaug Kristin; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Alsner, Jan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients show a large variation in normal tissue reactions after ionizing radiation (IR) therapy. One of the most common long-term adverse effects of ionizing radiotherapy is radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF), and several attempts have been made over the last...... years to develop predictive assays for RIF. Our aim was to identify basal and radiation-induced transcriptional profiles in fibroblasts from breast cancer patients that might be related to the individual risk of RIF in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fibroblast cell lines from 31 individuals......-treated fibroblasts. Transcriptional differences in basal and radiation-induced gene expression profiles were investigated using 15K cDNA microarrays, and results analyzed by both SAM and PAM. RESULTS: Sixty differentially expressed genes were identified by applying SAM on 10 patients with the highest risk of RIF...

  6. Photodiode array for position-sensitive detection using high X-ray flux provided by synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucha, A.; Bonin, D.; Dartyge, E.; Flank, A. M.; Fontaine, A.; Raoux, D.

    1984-09-01

    Synchrotron radiation provides a high intensity source over a large range of wavelengths. This is the prominent quality that has laid the foundations of the EXAFS development (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure). EXAFS data can be collected in different ways. A full scan requires 5 to 10 min, compared to the one-day data collection of a conventional Bremsstrahlung X-ray tube. Recently, by using the new photodiode array (R 1024 SFX) manufactured by Reticon, it has been possible to reduce the data collection time to less than 100 ms. The key elements of this new EXAFS method are a dispersive optics combined with a position sensitive detector able to work under very high flux conditions. The total aperture of 2500 μm × 25 μm for each pixel is well suited to spectroscopic applications. Besides its high dynamic range (> 10 4) and its linearity, the rapidity of the readout allows a flux of 10 9-10 10 photons/s over the 1024 sensing elements.

  7. Analysis and verification of a prediction model of solar energetic proton events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Zhong, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The solar energetic particle event can cause severe radiation damages near Earth. The alerts and summary products of the solar energetic proton events were provided by the Space Environment Prediction Center (SEPC) according to the flux of the greater than 10 MeV protons taken by GOES satellite in geosynchronous orbit. The start of a solar energetic proton event is defined as the time when the flux of the greater than 10 MeV protons equals or exceeds 10 proton flux units (pfu). In this study, a model was developed to predict the solar energetic proton events, provide the warning for the solar energetic proton events at least minutes in advance, based on both the soft X-ray flux and integral proton flux taken by GOES. The quality of the forecast model was measured against verifications of accuracy, reliability, discrimination capability, and forecast skills. The peak flux and rise time of the solar energetic proton events in the six channels, >1MeV, >5 MeV, >10 MeV, >30 MeV, >50 MeV, >100 MeV, were also simulated and analyzed.

  8. Flux-limited diffusion coefficients in reactor physics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pounders, J.; Rahnema, F.; Szilard, R.

    2007-01-01

    Flux-limited diffusion theory has been successfully applied to problems in radiative transfer and radiation hydrodynamics, but its relevance to reactor physics has not yet been explored. The current investigation compares the performance of a flux-limited diffusion coefficient against the traditionally defined transport cross section. A one-dimensional BWR benchmark problem is examined at both the assembly and full-core level with varying degrees of heterogeneity. (authors)

  9. Use of Plant Hydraulic Theory to Predict Ecosystem Fluxes Across Mountainous Gradients in Environmental Controls and Insect Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Reed, D. E.; Barnard, H. R.; Whitehouse, F.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Brooks, P. D.; Biederman, J. A.; Harpold, A. A.; Naithani, K. J.; Mitra, B.; Mackay, D. S.; Norton, U.; Borkhuu, B.

    2011-12-01

    While mountainous areas are critical for providing numerous ecosystem benefits at the regional scale, the strong gradients in environmental controls make predictions difficult. A key part of the problem is quantifying and predicting the feedback between mountain gradients and plant function which then controls ecosystem cycling. The emerging theory of plant hydraulics provides a rigorous yet simple platform from which to generate testable hypotheses and predictions of ecosystem pools and fluxes. Plant hydraulic theory predicts that plant controls over carbon, water, energy and nutrient fluxes can be derived from the limitation of plant water transport from the soil through xylem and out of stomata. In addition, the limit to plant water transport can be predicted by combining plant structure (e.g. xylem diameters or root-to-shoot ratios) and plant function (response of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit or root vulnerability to cavitation). We evaluate the predictions of the plant hydraulic theory by testing it against data from a mountain gradient encompassing sagebrush steppe through subalpine forests (2700 to 3400 m). We further test the theory by predicting the carbon, water and nutrient exchanges from several coniferous trees in the same gradient that are dying from xylem dysfunction caused by blue-stain fungi carried by bark beetles. The common theme of both of these data sets is a change in water limitation caused by either changing precipitation along the mountainous gradient or lack of access to soil water from xylem-occluding fungi. Across all of the data sets which range in scale from individual plants to hillslopes, the data fit the predictions of plant hydraulic theory. Namely, there was a proportional tradeoff between the reference canopy stomatal conductance to water vapor and the sensitivity of that conductance to vapor pressure deficit that quantitatively fits the predictions of plant hydraulic theory. Incorporating this result into

  10. Methyl halide fluxes from tropical plants under controlled radiation and temperature regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blei, Emanuel; Yokouchi, Yoko; Saito, Takuya; Nozoe, Susumu

    2015-04-01

    Methyl halides (CH3Cl, CH3Br, CH3I) contribute significantly to the halogen burden of the atmosphere and have the potential to influence the stratospheric ozone layer through their catalytic effect in the Chapman cycle. As such they have been studied over the years, and many plants and biota have been examined for their potential to act as a source of these gases. One of the potentially largest terrestrial sources identified was tropical vegetation such as tropical ferns and Dipterocarp trees. Most of these studies concentrated on the identification and quantification of such fluxes rather than their characteristics and often the chambers used in these studies were either opaque or only partially transparent to the full solar spectrum. Therefore it is not certain to which degree emissions of methyl halides are innate to the plants and how much they might vary due to radiation or temperature conditions inside the enclosures. In a separate development it had been proposed that UV-radiation could cause live plant materials to be become emitters of methane even under non-anoxic conditions. As methane is chemically very similar to methyl halides and had been proposed to be produced from methyl-groups ubiquitously found in plant cell material there is a relatively good chance that such a production mechanism would also apply to methyl halides. To test whether radiation can affect elevated emissions of methyl halides from plant materials and to distinguish this from temperature effects caused by heat build-up in chambers a set of controlled laboratory chamber enclosures under various radiation and temperature regimes was conducted on four different tropical plant species (Magnolia grandiflora, Cinnamonum camphora, Cyathea lepifera, Angiopteris lygodiifolia), the latter two of which had previously been identified as strong methyl halide emitters. Abscised leaf samples of these species were subjected to radiation treatments such UV-B, UV-A and broad spectrum radiation

  11. Design experience: CRBRP radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, R.K.; Chan, T.C.; Gallo, F.G.; Hedgecock, L.R.; McGinnis, C.A.; Wrights, G.N.

    1978-11-01

    The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) is being designed as a fast breeder demonstration project in the U.S. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program. Radiation shielding design of the facility consists of a comprehensive design approach to assure compliance with design and government regulatory requirements. Studies conducted during the CRBRP design process involved the aspects of radiation shielding dealing with protection of components, systems, and personnel from radiation exposure. Achievement of feasible designs, while considering the mechanical, structural, nuclear, and thermal performance of the component or system, has required judicious trade-offs in radiation shielding performance. Specific design problems which have been addressed are in-vessel radial shielding to protect permanent core support structures, flux monitor system shielding to isolate flux monitoring systems for extraneous background sources, reactor vessel support shielding to allow personnel access to the closure head during full power operation, and primary heat transport system pipe chaseway shielding to limit intermediate heat transport system sodium system coolant activation. The shielding design solutions to these problems defined a need for prototypic or benchmark experiments to provide assurance of the predicted shielding performance of selected design solutions and the verification of design methodology. Design activities of CRBRP plant components an systems, which have the potential for radiation exposure of plant personnel during operation or maintenance, are controlled by a design review process related to radiation shielding. The program implements design objectives, design requirements, and cost/benefit guidelines to assure that radiation exposures will be ''as low as reasonably achievable''

  12. Solar flux incident on an orbiting surface after reflection from a planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modest, M. F.

    1980-01-01

    Algorithms describing the solar radiation impinging on an infinitesimal surface after reflection from a gray and diffuse planet are derived. The following conditions apply: only radiation from the sunny half of the planet is taken into account; the radiation must fall on the top of the orbiting surface, and radiation must come from that part of the planet that can be seen from the orbiting body. A simple approximate formula is presented which displays excellent accuracy for all significant situations, with an error which is always less than 5% of the maximum possible reflected flux. Attention is also given to solar albedo flux on a surface directly facing the planet, the influence of solar position on albedo flux, and to solar albedo flux as a function of the surface-planet tilt angle.

  13. Transient radiative hydromagnetic free convection flow past an impulsively started vertical plate with uniform heat and mass flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Ramachandra V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of free convection with thermal radiation of viscous incompressible MHD unsteady flow past an impulsively started vertical plate with uniform heat and mass flux is analyzed. This type of problem finds application in many technological and engineering fields such as rocket propulsion systems, space craft re-entry aerothermodynamics, cosmical flight aerodynamics, plasma physics, glass production and furnace engineering .The Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat transfer in the limit of the optically thin fluid. The non-linear, coupled equations are solved using an implicit finite difference scheme of Crank-Nicolson type. Velocity, temperature and concentration of the flow have been presented for various parameters such as thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, Prandtl number, Schmidt number, radiation parameter and magnetic parameter. The local and average skin friction, Nusslet number and Sherwood number are also presented graphically. It is observed that, when the radiation parameter increases the velocity and temperature decrease in the boundary layer. .

  14. Heat Flux Inhibition by Whistlers: Experimental Confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, D.

    2002-01-01

    Heat flux in weakly magnetized collisionless plasma is, according to theoretical predictions, limited by whistler turbulence that is generated by heat flux instabilities near threshold. Observations of solar wind electrons by Gary and coworkers appear to confirm the limit on heat flux as being roughly the product of the magnetic energy density and the electron thermal velocity, in agreement with prediction (Pistinner and Eichler 1998)

  15. The radiation and variable viscosity effects on electrically conducting fluid over a vertically moving plate subjected to suction and heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, P., E-mail: malekzadeh@pgu.ac.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Computational Mechanics, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghimi, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Shaid Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nickaeen, M. [K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A new application of the differential quadrature method in thermo-fluid fields. {yields} Moving vertical plate with suction and heat flux is considered. {yields} Fluid with variable viscosity subjected to thermal radiation is studied. -- Abstract: In this paper, firstly, the applicability of the differential quadrature method (DQM) as an efficient and accurate numerical method for solving the problem of variable viscosity and thermally radiative unsteady magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) flow over a moving vertical plate with suction and heat flux is investigated. The spatial as well as the temporal domains are discretized using the DQM. The fast rate of convergence of the method is demonstrated and for the cases that a solution is available, comparison is done. Then, effects of the temperature dependence of viscosity and different fluid parameters on the velocity and temperature of transient MHD flow subjected to the above mentioned boundary condition are studied.

  16. Solid state radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A solid state radiation flux detector system utilizes a detector element, consisting of a bar of semiconductor having electrical conductance of magnitude dependent upon the magnitude of photon and charged particle flux impinging thereon, and negative feedback circuitry for adjusting the current flow through a light emitting diode to facilitate the addition of optical flux, having a magnitude decreasing in proportion to any increase in the magnitude of radiation (e.g. x-ray) flux incident upon the detector element, whereby the conductance of the detector element is maintained essentially constant. The light emitting diode also illuminates a photodiode to generate a detector output having a stable, highly linear response with time and incident radiation flux changes

  17. An Analytical Model for Prediction of Magnetic Flux Leakage from Surface Defects in Ferromagnetic Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an analytical model is proposed to predict magnetic flux leakage (MFL signals from the surface defects in ferromagnetic tubes. The analytical expression consists of elliptic integrals of first kind based on the magnetic dipole model. The radial (Bz component of leakage fields is computed from the cylindrical holes in ferromagnetic tubes. The effectiveness of the model has been studied by analyzing MFL signals as a function of the defect parameters and lift-off. The model predicted results are verified with experimental results and a good agreement is observed between the analytical and the experimental results. This analytical expression could be used for quick prediction of MFL signals and also input data for defect reconstructions in inverse MFL problem.

  18. Self-powered radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Playfoot, K.C.; Bauer, R.F.; Goldstein, N.P.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a self powered radiation detector requiring no excitation potential to generate a signal indicating a radiation flux. Such detectors comprise two electrically insulated electrodes, at a distance from each other. These electrodes are made of conducting materials having a different response for neutron and/or gamma ray radiation flux levels, as in nuclear power stations. This elongated detector generates an electric signal in terms of an incident flux of radiations cooperating with coaxial conductors insulated from each other and with different radiation reaction characteristics. The conductor with the greatest reaction to the radiations forms the central emitting electrode and the conductor with the least reaction to the radiations forms a tubular coaxial collecting electrode. The rhodium or cobalt tubular emitting electrode contains a ductile central conducting cable placed along the longitudinal axis of the detector. The latter is in high nickel steel with a low reaction to radiation [fr

  19. A new Predictive Model for Relativistic Electrons in Outer Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Relativistic electrons trapped in the Earth's outer radiation belt present a highly hazardous radiation environment for spaceborne electronics. These energetic electrons, with kinetic energies up to several megaelectron-volt (MeV), manifest a highly dynamic and event-specific nature due to the delicate interplay of competing transport, acceleration and loss processes. Therefore, developing a forecasting capability for outer belt MeV electrons has long been a critical and challenging task for the space weather community. Recently, the vital roles of electron resonance with waves (including such as chorus and electromagnetic ion cyclotron) have been widely recognized; however, it is still difficult for current diffusion radiation belt models to reproduce the behavior of MeV electrons during individual geomagnetic storms, mainly because of the large uncertainties existing in input parameters. In this work, we expanded our previous cross-energy cross-pitch-angle coherence study and developed a new predictive model for MeV electrons over a wide range of L-shells inside the outer radiation belt. This new model uses NOAA POES observations from low-Earth-orbits (LEOs) as inputs to provide high-fidelity nowcast (multiple hour prediction) and forecast (> 1 day prediction) of the energization of MeV electrons as well as the evolving MeV electron distributions afterwards during storms. Performance of the predictive model is quantified by long-term in situ data from Van Allen Probes and LANL GEO satellites. This study adds new science significance to an existing LEO space infrastructure, and provides reliable and powerful tools to the whole space community.

  20. Calculation of neutron and gamma-ray flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.G.; Lee, S.Y.; Yook, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors for neutrons and gamma rays based on the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) N666. These data are used to calculate the dose rate distribution of neutron and gamma ray in radiation fields. Neutron flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors for energies from 2.5 x 10 -8 to 20 MeV are presented; the corresponding energy range for gamma rays is 0.01 to 15 MeV. Flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors were calculated, under the assumption that radiation energy distribution has nonlinearity in the phantom, have different meaning from those values obtained by monoenergetic radiation. Especially, these values were determined with the cross section library. The flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors obtained in this work were in a good agreement to the values presented by ANSI. Those data will be useful for the radiation shielding analysis and the radiation dosimetry in the case of continuous energy distributions. (author)

  1. Toward a predictive model for water and carbon fluxes of non-native trees in urban habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, H. R.; Jenerette, G. D.; Pataki, D. E.

    2008-12-01

    There is considerable interest in estimating uptake of water and carbon by urban trees, in order to assess some of the major costs and benefits associated with maintaining or expanding urban tree cover. However, making large-scale estimates of water and carbon fluxes is challenging in urban ecosystems, where community composition and environmental conditions are highly altered and experimental data is sparse. This is particularly true in regions such as southern California, where few trees are native, yet many species can flourish given supplemental irrigation. In such scenarios one practical way to scale water and carbon fluxes may be to identify reliable traits which can be used to predict gas exchange when trees are transplanted to a new environment. To test this approach, leaf level gas exchange measurements were conducted on eight common urban tree species within the Los Angeles basin. The objective was to determine how well gas exchange parameters, including maximum photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and water use efficiency (WUE), can be predicted based on the native habitat and climate (temperature and precipitation) of each study species. All of the species studied naturally occur in humid tropical or subtropical climate zones where precipitation varies widely from ~400 - 3000 mm per year. We found Jacaranda (Jacaranda chelonia) and honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos) to have the highest photosynthesis and reference (at VPD=1 kPa) conductance, and to be most sensitive to VPD. WUE was found to be greatest in Indian laurel fig (Ficus microcarpa), rose gum (Eucalyptus grandis) and Queensland lacebark (Brachychiton discolor). The relative ordering of maximum photosynthesis and conductance across species was not entirely predictable based on our current knowledge of the native habitats of each species: several other species had similar native climates to Jacaranda and honey locust, yet

  2. Predicting Downward Longwave Radiation for Various Land Use in All-Sky Condition: Northeast Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Han Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimate of the surface longwave radiation is important for the surface radiation budget, which in turn controls evaporation and sensible heat fluxes. Regional land use changes can impact local weather conditions; for example, heterogeneous land use patterns and temporal changes in atmospheric circulation patterns would affect air temperature and water vapor pressure, which are more commonly used as inputs in existing models for estimating downward longwave radiation (LWd. In this study, first, we analyzed the cloud cover and land use covers impacts on LWd. Next, LWd on all-sky conditions were developed by using the existing land use-adapted model and cloud cover data from the region of Saint Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD, FL. The results show that factors, such as, seasonal effects, cloud cover, and land use, are of importance in the estimation of LWd and they cannot be ignored when developing a model for LWd prediction. The all-sky land use-adapted model with all factors taken into account performs better than other existing models statistically. The results of the statistical analyses indicated that the BIAS, RMSE, MAE, and PMRE are −0.18 Wm−2, 10.81 Wm−2, 8.00 Wm−2, and 2.30%; −2.61 Wm−2, 14.45 Wm−2, 10.64 Wm−2, and 3.19%; −0.07 Wm−2, 10.53 Wm−2, 8.03 Wm−2, and 2.27%; and −0.62 Wm−2, 13.97 Wm−2, 9.76 Wm−2, and 2.87% for urban, rangeland, agricultural, and wetland areas, respectively.

  3. Preliminary validation of computational model for neutron flux prediction of Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaibang, S.; Lekchaum, S.; Tipayakul, C.

    2015-05-01

    This study is a part of an on-going work to develop a computational model of Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) which is capable of accurately predicting the neutron flux level and spectrum. The computational model was created by MCNPX program and the CT (Central Thimble) in-core irradiation facility was selected as the location for validation. The comparison was performed with the typical flux measurement method routinely practiced at TRR-1/M1, that is, the foil activation technique. In this technique, gold foil is irradiated for a certain period of time and the activity of the irradiated target is measured to derive the thermal neutron flux. Additionally, the flux measurement with SPND (self-powered neutron detector) was also performed for comparison. The thermal neutron flux from the MCNPX simulation was found to be 1.79×1013 neutron/cm2s while that from the foil activation measurement was 4.68×1013 neutron/cm2s. On the other hand, the thermal neutron flux from the measurement using SPND was 2.47×1013 neutron/cm2s. An assessment of the differences among the three methods was done. The difference of the MCNPX with the foil activation technique was found to be 67.8% and the difference of the MCNPX with the SPND was found to be 27.8%.

  4. HZETRN radiation transport validation using balloon-based experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, James E.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2018-05-01

    The deterministic radiation transport code HZETRN (High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport) was developed by NASA to study the effects of cosmic radiation on astronauts and instrumentation shielded by various materials. This work presents an analysis of computed differential flux from HZETRN compared with measurement data from three balloon-based experiments over a range of atmospheric depths, particle types, and energies. Model uncertainties were quantified using an interval-based validation metric that takes into account measurement uncertainty both in the flux and the energy at which it was measured. Average uncertainty metrics were computed for the entire dataset as well as subsets of the measurements (by experiment, particle type, energy, etc.) to reveal any specific trends of systematic over- or under-prediction by HZETRN. The distribution of individual model uncertainties was also investigated to study the range and dispersion of errors beyond just single scalar and interval metrics. The differential fluxes from HZETRN were generally well-correlated with balloon-based measurements; the median relative model difference across the entire dataset was determined to be 30%. The distribution of model uncertainties, however, revealed that the range of errors was relatively broad, with approximately 30% of the uncertainties exceeding ± 40%. The distribution also indicated that HZETRN systematically under-predicts the measurement dataset as a whole, with approximately 80% of the relative uncertainties having negative values. Instances of systematic bias for subsets of the data were also observed, including a significant underestimation of alpha particles and protons for energies below 2.5 GeV/u. Muons were found to be systematically over-predicted at atmospheric depths deeper than 50 g/cm2 but under-predicted for shallower depths. Furthermore, a systematic under-prediction of alpha particles and protons was observed below the geomagnetic cutoff, suggesting that

  5. Burnout in a channel with non-uniform circumferential heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.H.

    1966-03-01

    Burnout experiments are reported for uniform flux and circumferential flux tilt (maximum/average flux about 1.25) with tubes and annuli, all the experiments having uniform axial heating. These show similar results, the burnout power with flux tilt being within 10% of that with uniform flux. For the same mean exit steam quality, the local maximum flux is higher than the predicted burnout value and generally a better prediction is obtained using the average flux. (author)

  6. Thermality of the Hawking flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Matt [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Operations Research,Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)

    2015-07-03

    Is the Hawking flux “thermal”? Unfortunately, the answer to this seemingly innocent question depends on a number of often unstated, but quite crucial, technical assumptions built into modern (mis-)interpretations of the word “thermal”. The original 1850’s notions of thermality — based on classical thermodynamic reasoning applied to idealized “black bodies” or “lamp black surfaces” — when supplemented by specific basic quantum ideas from the early 1900’s, immediately led to the notion of the black-body spectrum, (the Planck-shaped spectrum), but without any specific assumptions or conclusions regarding correlations between the quanta. Many (not all) modern authors (often implicitly and unintentionally) add an extra, quite unnecessary, assumption that there are no correlations in the black-body radiation; but such usage is profoundly ahistorical and dangerously misleading. Specifically, the Hawking flux from an evaporating black hole, (just like the radiation flux from a leaky furnace or a burning lump of coal), is only approximately Planck-shaped over an explicitly bounded range of frequencies. Standard physics (phase space and adiabaticity effects) explicitly bound the frequency range over which the Hawking flux is approximately Planck-shaped from both above and below — the Hawking flux is certainly not exactly Planckian, and there is no compelling physics reason to assume the Hawking photons are uncorrelated.

  7. Thermality of the Hawking flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Is the Hawking flux “thermal”? Unfortunately, the answer to this seemingly innocent question depends on a number of often unstated, but quite crucial, technical assumptions built into modern (mis-)interpretations of the word “thermal”. The original 1850’s notions of thermality — based on classical thermodynamic reasoning applied to idealized “black bodies” or “lamp black surfaces” — when supplemented by specific basic quantum ideas from the early 1900’s, immediately led to the notion of the black-body spectrum, (the Planck-shaped spectrum), but without any specific assumptions or conclusions regarding correlations between the quanta. Many (not all) modern authors (often implicitly and unintentionally) add an extra, quite unnecessary, assumption that there are no correlations in the black-body radiation; but such usage is profoundly ahistorical and dangerously misleading. Specifically, the Hawking flux from an evaporating black hole, (just like the radiation flux from a leaky furnace or a burning lump of coal), is only approximately Planck-shaped over an explicitly bounded range of frequencies. Standard physics (phase space and adiabaticity effects) explicitly bound the frequency range over which the Hawking flux is approximately Planck-shaped from both above and below — the Hawking flux is certainly not exactly Planckian, and there is no compelling physics reason to assume the Hawking photons are uncorrelated.

  8. Bayesian modeling and prediction of solar particles flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedecius, Kamil; Kalova, Jana

    2010-01-01

    An autoregression model was developed based on the Bayesian approach. Considering the solar wind non-homogeneity, the idea was applied of combining the pure autoregressive properties of the model with expert knowledge based on a similar behaviour of the various phenomena related to the flux properties. Examples of such situations include the hardening of the X-ray spectrum, which is often followed by coronal mass ejection and a significant increase in the particles flux intensity

  9. The Protein Cost of Metabolic Fluxes: Prediction from Enzymatic Rate Laws and Cost Minimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Noor

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial growth depends crucially on metabolic fluxes, which are limited by the cell's capacity to maintain metabolic enzymes. The necessary enzyme amount per unit flux is a major determinant of metabolic strategies both in evolution and bioengineering. It depends on enzyme parameters (such as kcat and KM constants, but also on metabolite concentrations. Moreover, similar amounts of different enzymes might incur different costs for the cell, depending on enzyme-specific properties such as protein size and half-life. Here, we developed enzyme cost minimization (ECM, a scalable method for computing enzyme amounts that support a given metabolic flux at a minimal protein cost. The complex interplay of enzyme and metabolite concentrations, e.g. through thermodynamic driving forces and enzyme saturation, would make it hard to solve this optimization problem directly. By treating enzyme cost as a function of metabolite levels, we formulated ECM as a numerically tractable, convex optimization problem. Its tiered approach allows for building models at different levels of detail, depending on the amount of available data. Validating our method with measured metabolite and protein levels in E. coli central metabolism, we found typical prediction fold errors of 4.1 and 2.6, respectively, for the two kinds of data. This result from the cost-optimized metabolic state is significantly better than randomly sampled metabolite profiles, supporting the hypothesis that enzyme cost is important for the fitness of E. coli. ECM can be used to predict enzyme levels and protein cost in natural and engineered pathways, and could be a valuable computational tool to assist metabolic engineering projects. Furthermore, it establishes a direct connection between protein cost and thermodynamics, and provides a physically plausible and computationally tractable way to include enzyme kinetics into constraint-based metabolic models, where kinetics have usually been ignored or

  10. Some Comparisons of Measured and Predicted Primary Radiation Levels in the Aagesta Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, E; Sandlin, R; Krell, Aa

    1968-05-15

    Neutron fluxes and gamma exposure rates in the primary shields of the Aagesta nuclear plant have been measured and the results compared with values predicted during shield design, and with values obtained later by the NRN bulk shielding code. The input data for the problems are given. The radial predictions are conservative by a factor of not more than 2 close to the reactor and by an unknown, higher factor further out. The conservatism is explainable by the differences between the true local conditions and core power distributions and those assumed in the predictions. The axial flux levels based on streaming calculations are found to agree quite well with the estimated values. The conservatism here is not so large and it seems to be necessary to be very careful when handling streaming problems. The experience gained shows that a power plant is less suitable for studying the accuracy of the shield design codes as such, but the practical results from the combined application of massive shield codes and void streaming predictions to complicated problems give information about the true degree of conservatism present.

  11. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOx from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Carslaw, David C; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D; Karl, Thomas G

    2016-07-18

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas. A footprint model was used to estimate the spatial area from which the measured emissions occurred. This allowed comparison of the flux measurements to the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for NOx, with scaling factors used to account for the actual time of day, day of week and month of year of the measurement. The comparison suggests significant underestimation of NOx emissions in London by the NAEI, mainly due to its under-representation of real world road traffic emissions. A comparison was also carried out with an enhanced version of the inventory using real world driving emission factors and road measurement data taken from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The measurement to inventory agreement was substantially improved using the enhanced version, showing the importance of fully accounting for road traffic, which is the dominant NOx emission source in London. In central London there was still an underestimation by the inventory of 30-40% compared with flux measurements, suggesting significant improvements are still required in the NOx emissions inventory.

  12. Fast pyrobolometers for measurements of plasma heat fluxes and radiation losses in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiksel, G.; Frank, J.; Holly, D.

    1993-01-01

    Two types of fast bolometers are described for the plasma energy transport study in the Madison Symmetric Torus plasma confinement device. Both types use pyrocrystals of LiTaO 3 or LiNbO 3 as the sensors. One type is used for measurements of the radiated heat losses and is situated at the vacuum shell inner surface. Another type is insertable in the plasma and measures the plasma particle heat flux. The frequency response of the bolometers is measured to be in the 150--200 kHz range. The range of the measured power fluxes is 0.1 W/cm 2 10 kW/cm 2 and can be adjusted by changing the size of the entrance aperture. The lower limit is determined by the amplifier noise and the frequency bandwidth, the higher limit by destruction of the bolometer sensor

  13. Carbon fluxes in ecosystems of Yellowstone National Park predicted from remote sensing data and simulation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Klooster, Steven; Crabtree, Robert; Huang, Shengli; Gross, Peggy; Genovese, Vanessa

    2011-08-11

    A simulation model based on remote sensing data for spatial vegetation properties has been used to estimate ecosystem carbon fluxes across Yellowstone National Park (YNP). The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model was applied at a regional scale to estimate seasonal and annual carbon fluxes as net primary production (NPP) and soil respiration components. Predicted net ecosystem production (NEP) flux of CO2 is estimated from the model for carbon sinks and sources over multi-year periods that varied in climate and (wildfire) disturbance histories. Monthly Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) image coverages from the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument (from 2000 to 2006) were direct inputs to the model. New map products have been added to CASA from airborne remote sensing of coarse woody debris (CWD) in areas burned by wildfires over the past two decades. Model results indicated that relatively cooler and wetter summer growing seasons were the most favorable for annual plant production and net ecosystem carbon gains in representative landscapes of YNP. When summed across vegetation class areas, the predominance of evergreen forest and shrubland (sagebrush) cover was evident, with these two classes together accounting for 88% of the total annual NPP flux of 2.5 Tg C yr-1 (1 Tg = 1012 g) for the entire Yellowstone study area from 2000-2006. Most vegetation classes were estimated as net ecosystem sinks of atmospheric CO2 on annual basis, making the entire study area a moderate net sink of about +0.13 Tg C yr-1. This average sink value for forested lands nonetheless masks the contribution of areas burned during the 1988 wildfires, which were estimated as net sources of CO2 to the atmosphere, totaling to a NEP flux of -0.04 Tg C yr-1 for the entire burned area. Several areas burned in the 1988 wildfires were estimated to be among the lowest in overall yearly NPP, namely the Hellroaring Fire, Mink Fire, and Falls Fire areas. Rates of

  14. Neutron flux enhancement at LASREF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, W.F.; Ferguson, P.D.; Wechsler, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The accelerator at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility produces a 1-mA beam of protons at an energy of 800 MeV. Since 1985, the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) has made use of the neutron flux that is generated as the incident protons interact with the nuclei in targets and a copper beam stop. A variety of basic and applied experiments in radiation damage and radiation effects have been completed. Recent studies indicate that the flux at LASREF can be increased by at least a factor of ten from the present level of about 5 E+17 m -2 s -1 . This requires changing the beam-stop material from Cu to W and optimizing the geometry of the beam-target interaction region. These studies are motivated by the need for a large volume, high energy, and high intensity neutron source in the development of materials for advanced energy concepts such as fusion reactors. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Neutron flux enhancement at LASREF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, W.F.; Ferguson, P.D.; Wechsler, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The accelerator at the Los Alamos Meson Physiscs Facility produces a 1 mA beam of protons at an energy of 800 MeV. Since 1985, the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) has made use of the neutron flux that is generated as the incident protons interact with the targets and a copper beam stop. A variety of basic and applied experiments in radiation damage and radiation effects have been completed. Recent studies indicate that the flux at LASREF can be increased by at least a factor of 10 from the present level of about 5 E + 17 m -2 s -1 . This requires changing the beam stop material from Cu to W and optimizing the geometry of the beam-target interaction region. These studies are motivated by the need for a large volume, high energy, and high intensity neutron source in the development of materials for advanced energy concepts such as fusion reactors. (orig.)

  16. Neutron flux enhancement at LASREF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, W.F. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Ferguson, P.D. (Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)); Wechsler, M.S. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    The accelerator at the Los Alamos Meson Physiscs Facility produces a 1 mA beam of protons at an energy of 800 MeV. Since 1985, the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) has made use of the neutron flux that is generated as the incident protons interact with the targets and a copper beam stop. A variety of basic and applied experiments in radiation damage and radiation effects have been completed. Recent studies indicate that the flux at LASREF can be increased by at least a factor of 10 from the present level of about 5 E + 17 m[sup -2] s[sup -1]. This requires changing the beam stop material from Cu to W and optimizing the geometry of the beam-target interaction region. These studies are motivated by the need for a large volume, high energy, and high intensity neutron source in the development of materials for advanced energy concepts such as fusion reactors. (orig.).

  17. Prediction of the strength of concrete radiation shielding based on LS-SVM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juncai, Xu; Qingwen, Ren; Zhenzhong, Shen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LS-SVM was introduced for prediction of the strength of RSC. • A model for prediction of the strength of RSC was implemented. • The grid search algorithm was used to optimize the parameters of the LS-SVM. • The performance of LS-SVM in predicting the strength of RSC was evaluated. - Abstract: Radiation-shielding concrete (RSC) and conventional concrete differ in strength because of their distinct constituents. Predicting the strength of RSC with different constituents plays a vital role in radiation shielding (RS) engineering design. In this study, a model to predict the strength of RSC is established using a least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) through grid search algorithm. The algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of the LS-SVM on the basis of traditional prediction methods for conventional concrete. The predicted results of the LS-SVM model are compared with the experimental data. The results of the prediction are stable and consistent with the experimental results. In addition, the studied parameters exhibit significant effects on the simulation results. Therefore, the proposed method can be applied in predicting the strength of RSC, and the predicted results can be adopted as an important reference for RS engineering design

  18. Flux shunts for undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1993-05-01

    Undulators for high-performance applications in synchrotron-radiation sources and periodic magnetic structures for free-electron lasers have stringent requirements on the curvature of the electron's average trajectory. Undulators using the permanent magnet hybrid configuration often have fields in their central region that produce a curved trajectory caused by local, ambient magnetic fields such as those of the earth. The 4.6 m long Advanced Light Source (ALS) undulators use flux shunts to reduce this effect. These flux shunts are magnetic linkages of very high permeability material connecting the two steel beams that support the magnetic structures. The shunts reduce the scalar potential difference between the supporting beams and carry substantial flux that would normally appear in the undulator gap. Magnetic design, mechanical configuration of the flux shunts and magnetic measurements of their effect on the ALS undulators are described

  19. Multiple Scattering of Gamma Radiation in a Spherical Concrete Wall Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leimdoerfer, M

    1962-12-15

    The Monte Carlo method has been applied for the calculation of the energy flux of scattered gamma radiation in a spherical room surrounded by an infinitely thick spherical wall and with a point source at the centre. Source energies were I, 2, 4, 6, and 10 MeV. The main investigation was carried out at a room radius of 500 cm but, for the 1 MeV source, the influence of varying the room radius down to 1 cm was analysed. The results contain energy distributions of the first four successive reflection components at the centre of the room and at the wall surface, as well as spatial distributions of the successive energy flux components. The neglect of reflection contributions of order five and higher was estimated to introduce an error of less than 0. 2 % of the total scattered energy flux. An analytical approximation is shown to produce a useful and easily applicable method of predicting the amount of scattered radiation in a spherical room.

  20. Multiple Scattering of Gamma Radiation in a Spherical Concrete Wall Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leimdoerfer, M.

    1962-12-01

    The Monte Carlo method has been applied for the calculation of the energy flux of scattered gamma radiation in a spherical room surrounded by an infinitely thick spherical wall and with a point source at the centre. Source energies were I, 2, 4, 6, and 10 MeV. The main investigation was carried out at a room radius of 500 cm but, for the 1 MeV source, the influence of varying the room radius down to 1 cm was analysed. The results contain energy distributions of the first four successive reflection components at the centre of the room and at the wall surface, as well as spatial distributions of the successive energy flux components. The neglect of reflection contributions of order five and higher was estimated to introduce an error of less than 0. 2 % of the total scattered energy flux. An analytical approximation is shown to produce a useful and easily applicable method of predicting the amount of scattered radiation in a spherical room

  1. Magnetogasdynamic spherical shock wave in a non-ideal gas under gravitational field with conductive and radiative heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, G.; Vishwakarma, J. P.

    2016-11-01

    Similarity solutions are obtained for the flow behind a spherical shock wave in a non-ideal gas under gravitational field with conductive and radiative heat fluxes, in the presence of a spatially decreasing azimuthal magnetic field. The shock wave is driven by a piston moving with time according to power law. The radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model and the heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law for heat conduction. Similarity solutions exist only when the surrounding medium is of constant density. The gas is assumed to have infinite electrical conductivity and to obey a simplified van der Waals equation of state. It is shown that an increase of the gravitational parameter or the Alfven-Mach number or the parameter of the non-idealness of the gas decreases the compressibility of the gas in the flow-field behind the shock, and hence there is a decrease in the shock strength. The pressure and density vanish at the inner surface (piston) and hence a vacuum is formed at the center of symmetry. The shock waves in conducting non-ideal gas under gravitational field with conductive and radiative heat fluxes can be important for description of shocks in supernova explosions, in the study of a flare produced shock in the solar wind, central part of star burst galaxies, nuclear explosion etc. The solutions obtained can be used to interpret measurements carried out by space craft in the solar wind and in neighborhood of the Earth's magnetosphere.

  2. Advantages and Limits of 4H-SIC Detectors for High- and Low-Flux Radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciuto, A.; Torrisi, L.; Cannavò, A.; Mazzillo, M.; Calcagno, L.

    2017-11-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) detectors based on Schottky diodes were used to monitor low and high fluxes of photons and ions. An appropriate choice of the epilayer thickness and geometry of the surface Schottky contact allows the tailoring and optimizing the detector efficiency. SiC detectors with a continuous front electrode were employed to monitor alpha particles in a low-flux regime emitted by a radioactive source with high energy (>5.0 MeV) or generated in an ion implanter with sub-MeV energy. An energy resolution value of 0.5% was measured in the high energy range, while, at energy below 1.0 MeV, the resolution becomes 10%; these values are close to those measured with a traditional silicon detector. The same SiC devices were used in a high-flux regime to monitor high-energy ions, x-rays and electrons of the plasma generated by a high-intensity (1016 W/cm2) pulsed laser. Furthermore, SiC devices with an interdigit Schottky front electrode were proposed and studied to overcome the limits of the such SiC detectors in the detection of low-energy (˜1.0 keV) ions and photons of the plasmas generated by a low-intensity (1010 W/cm2) pulsed laser. SiC detectors are expected to be a powerful tool for the monitoring of radioactive sources and ion beams produced by accelerators, for a complete characterization of radiations emitted from laser-generated plasmas at high and low temperatures, and for dosimetry in a radioprotection field.

  3. Decomposing Shortwave Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Variability in Terms of Surface and Atmospheric Contributions Using CERES Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, N. G.; Wong, T.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's climate is determined by the exchange of radiant energy between the Sun, Earth and space. The absorbed solar radiation (ASR) fuels the climate system, providing the energy required for atmospheric and oceanic motions, while the system cools by emitting outgoing longwave (LW) radiation to space. A central objective of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is to produce a long-term global climate data record of Earth's radiation budget along with the associated atmospheric and surface properties that influence it. CERES data products utilize a number of data sources, including broadband radiometers measuring incoming and reflected solar radiation and OLR, polar orbiting and geostationary spectral imagers, meteorological, aerosol and ozone assimilation data, and snow/sea-ice maps based on microwave radiometer data. Here we use simple diagnostic model of Earth's albedo and CERES Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF) Ed4.0 data for March 2000-February 2016 to quantify interannual variations in SW TOA flux associated with surface albedo and atmospheric reflectance and transmittance variations. Surface albedo variations account for cloud properties over the Arctic Ocean.

  4. Investigation of the Impact of ENDF/B-VI Cross Sections on the H.B. Robinson-2 Pressure-Vessel Flux Prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remec, I

    1999-01-01

    This report discusses the impact of the change from the SAILOR cross-section library, based on the ENDF/B-IV data, to the BUGLE-96 cross-section library, based on the ENDF/B-VI data, on the neutron flux prediction in the H. B. Robinson-2 pressure vessel, in the surveillance capsule, and in the cavity. The fast flux (E > 1 MeV) from the transport calculations with the BUGLE-96 library is approximately6% higher in the surveillance capsule and at the PV inner wall, and approximately25% higher in the reactor cavity than the flux from the transport calculations with the SAILOR library. These changes result from the combined effect of the changes in the cross sections, which cause significant increases in the calculated fluxes, and much smaller decreases in the fast fluxes due to the changes in the fission spectra. The increase in the calculated fast flux due to the changes in the cross sections only is approximately9% in the capsule and at the pressure vessel (PV) wall, and approximately30% in the cavity. The changes in the fission spectra lead to decreases in the order of approximately3-4% in calculated fast fluxes

  5. Unconventional application of the two-flux approximation for the calculation of the Ambartsumyan-Chandrasekhar function and the angular spectrum of the backward-scattered radiation for a semi-infinite isotropically scattering medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remizovich, V. S.

    2010-06-01

    It is commonly accepted that the Schwarzschild-Schuster two-flux approximation (1905, 1914) can be employed only for the calculation of the energy characteristics of the radiation field (energy density and energy flux density) and cannot be used to characterize the angular distribution of radiation field. However, such an inference is not valid. In several cases, one can calculate the radiation intensity inside matter and the reflected radiation with the aid of this simplest approximation in the transport theory. In this work, we use the results of the simplest one-parameter variant of the two-flux approximation to calculate the angular distribution (reflection function) of the radiation reflected by a semi-infinite isotropically scattering dissipative medium when a relatively broad beam is incident on the medium at an arbitrary angle relative to the surface. We do not employ the invariance principle and demonstrate that the reflection function exhibits the multiplicative property. It can be represented as a product of three functions: the reflection function corresponding to the single scattering and two identical h functions, which have the same physical meaning as the Ambartsumyan-Chandrasekhar function ( H) has. This circumstance allows a relatively easy derivation of simple analytical expressions for the H function, total reflectance, and reflection function. We can easily determine the relative contribution of the true single scattering in the photon backscattering at an arbitrary probability of photon survival Λ. We compare all of the parameters of the backscattered radiation with the data resulting from the calculations using the exact theory of Ambartsumyan, Chandrasekhar, et al., which was developed decades after the two-flux approximation. Thus, we avoid the application of fine mathematical methods (the Wiener-Hopf method, the Case method of singular functions, etc.) and obtain simple analytical expressions for the parameters of the scattered radiation

  6. Spatial and radiative properties of an open-flame hydrogen plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, R.W.; Houf, W.G. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bourne, B.; Colton, J. [SRI International, 333 Ravenwood Ave., Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Considerable effort is being directed toward updating safety codes and standards in preparation for production, distribution, and retail of hydrogen as a consumer energy source. In the present study, measurements were performed in large-scale, vertical flames to characterize the dimensional and radiative properties of an ignited hydrogen jet. These data are relevant to the safety scenario of a sudden leak in a high-pressure hydrogen containment vessel. Specifically, the data will provide a technological basis for determining hazardous length scales associated with unintended releases at hydrogen storage and distribution centers. Visible and infrared video and ultraviolet flame luminescence imaging were used to evaluate flame length, diameter and structure. Radiometer measurements allowed determination of the radiant heat flux from the flame. The results show that flame length increases with total jet mass flow rate and jet nozzle diameter. When plotted as a function of Froude number, which measures the relative importance of jet momentum and buoyancy, the measured flame lengths for a range of operating conditions collapse onto the same curve. Good comparison with hydrocarbon jet flame lengths is found, demonstrating that the non-dimensional correlations are valid for a variety of fuel types. The radiative heat flux measurements for hydrogen flames show good agreement with non-dimensional correlations and scaling laws developed for a range of fuels and flame conditions. This result verifies that such correlations can be used to predict radiative heat flux from a wide variety of hydrogen flames and establishes a basis for predicting a priori the characteristics of flames resulting from accidental releases. (author)

  7. Comparing convective heat fluxes derived from thermodynamics to a radiative-convective model and GCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Chirag; Renner, Maik; Kleidon, Axel

    2015-04-01

    The convective transport of heat and moisture plays a key role in the climate system, but the transport is typically parameterized in models. Here, we aim at the simplest possible physical representation and treat convective heat fluxes as the result of a heat engine. We combine the well-known Carnot limit of this heat engine with the energy balances of the surface-atmosphere system that describe how the temperature difference is affected by convective heat transport, yielding a maximum power limit of convection. This results in a simple analytic expression for convective strength that depends primarily on surface solar absorption. We compare this expression with an idealized grey atmosphere radiative-convective (RC) model as well as Global Circulation Model (GCM) simulations at the grid scale. We find that our simple expression as well as the RC model can explain much of the geographic variation of the GCM output, resulting in strong linear correlations among the three approaches. The RC model, however, shows a lower bias than our simple expression. We identify the use of the prescribed convective adjustment in RC-like models as the reason for the lower bias. The strength of our model lies in its ability to capture the geographic variation of convective strength with a parameter-free expression. On the other hand, the comparison with the RC model indicates a method for improving the formulation of radiative transfer in our simple approach. We also find that the latent heat fluxes compare very well among the approaches, as well as their sensitivity to surface warming. What our comparison suggests is that the strength of convection and their sensitivity in the climatic mean can be estimated relatively robustly by rather simple approaches.

  8. Research on transition undulator radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Shuzhuang; Dai Zhimin; Zhao Xiaofeng

    2000-01-01

    The theory of transition undulator radiation was described first, then the properties of infrared and far-infrared transition undulator radiation of SSRF U9.0 were explored by the methods of analytical treatment and numerical simulation, and the influence of beam energy spread, emittance, and magnetic field errors on transition undulator radiation was given also. It was shown that the flux density of the infrared and far-infrared transition undulator radiation of the SSRF U9.0 was high (e.g., the maximum flux density might reach 35 x 10 13 photons/(s·mrad 2 ·BW), collecting angle φ = 0.23 mrad, and the effects of beam energy spread, emittance and magnetic field errors on the radiation flux density were small

  9. Comparison of Radiation Dose Rates with the Flux to Dose Conversion Factors Recommended in ICRP-74 and ICRP-116

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Sun; Kil, A Reum; Lee, Jo Eun; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee; Hwang, Won Tae

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of radiation shielding has been performed for the design and maintenance of various facilities using radioactive sources such as nuclear fuel, accelerator, and radionuclide. The conversion of flux to dose mainly used in nuclear and radiation fields has been generally made with the dose coefficients presented in ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP- 74), which are produced based on ICRP Publication 60. On the other hand, ICRP Publication 116 (ICRP-116), which adopts the protection system of ICRP Publication 103, has recently been published and provides the dose conversion coefficients calculated with a variety of Monte Carlo codes. The coefficients have more than an update of those in ICRP-74, including new particle types and a greatly expanded energy range. In this study, a shielding evaluation of a specific container for neutron and gamma sources was performed with the MCNP6 code. The dose rates from neutron and gamma-ray sources were calculated using the MCNP6 codes, and these results were based on the flux to dose conversion factors recommended in ICRP-74 and ICRP-116. As a result, the dose rates evaluated with ICRP-74 were generally shown higher than those with ICRP-116. For neutrons, the difference is mainly occurred by the decrease of radiation weighting factors in a part of energy ranges in the ICRP-116 recommendations. For gamma-rays, the ICRP-74 recommendation applied with the kerma approximation leads to overestimated results than the other assessment

  10. Squeezing Flux Out of Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Merging transcriptomics or metabolomics data remains insufficient for metabolic flux estimation. Ramirez et al. integrate a genome-scale metabolic model with extracellular flux data to predict and validate metabolic differences between white and brown adipose tissue. This method allows both metab...

  11. A multigroup flux-limited asymptotic diffusion Fokker-Planck equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengan

    1987-01-01

    A more perfrect flux-limited method is applied to combine with asymptotic diffusion theory of the radiation transpore, and the high peaked component in the scattering angle is treated with Fokker-Planck methods, thus the flux-limited asymptotic diffusion Fokker-Planck equation has been founded. Since the equation is of diffusion form, it retains the simplity and the convenience of the classical diffusion theory, and improves precision in describing radiation transport problems

  12. The effects of cosmic radiation on implantable medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, P.

    1996-01-01

    Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuits, with the benefits of low power consumption, represent the state of the art technology for implantable medical devices. Three significant sources of radiation are classified as having the ability to damage or alter the behavior of implantable electronics; Secondary neutron cosmic radiation, alpha particle radiation from the device packaging and therapeutic doses(up to 70 Gγ) of high energy radiation used in radiation oncology. The effects of alpha particle radiation from the packaging may be eliminated by the use of polyimide or silicone rubber die coatings. The relatively low incidence of therapeutic radiation incident on an implantable device and the use of die coating leaves cosmic radiation induced secondary neutron single event upset (SEU) as the main pervasive ionising radiation threat to the reliability of implantable devices. A theoretical model which predicts the susceptibility of a RAM cell to secondary neutron cosmic radiation induced SEU is presented. The model correlates well within the statistical uncertainty associated with both the theoretical and field estimate. The predicted Soft Error Rate (SER) is 4.8 x l0 -12 upsets/(bit hr) compared to an observed upset rate of 8.5 x 10 -12 upsets/(bit hr) from 20 upsets collected over a total of 284672 device days. The predicted upset rate may increase by up to 20% when consideration is given to patients flying in aircraft The upset rate is also consistent with the expected geographical variations of the secondary cosmic ray neutron flux, although insufficient upsets precluded a statistically significant test. This is the first clinical data set obtained indicating the effects of cosmic radiation on implantable devices. Importantly, it may be used to predict the susceptibility of future to the implantable device designs to the effects of cosmic radiation

  13. Radiation belt seed population and its association with the relativistic electron dynamics: A statistical study: Radiation Belt Seed Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C. L.; Wang, Y. X.; Ni, B.; Zhang, J.-C.

    2017-01-01

    Using the Van Allen Probes data, we study the radiation belt seed population and it associated with the relativistic electron dynamics during 74 geomagnetic storm events. Based on the flux changes of 1 MeV electrons before and after the storm peak, these storm events are divided into two groups of “non-preconditioned” and “preconditioned”. The statistical study shows that the storm intensity is of significant importance for the distribution of the seed population (336 keV electrons) in the outer radiation belt. However, substorm intensity can also be important to the evolution of the seed population for some geomagnetic storm events. For non-preconditioned storm events, the correlation between the peak fluxes and their L-shell locations of the seed population and relativistic electrons (592 keV, 1.0 MeV, 1.8 MeV, and 2.1 MeV) is consistent with the energy-dependent dynamic processes in the outer radiation belt. For preconditioned storm events, the correlation between the features of the seed population and relativistic electrons is not fully consistent with the energy-dependent processes. It is suggested that the good correlation between the radiation belt seed population and ≤1.0 MeV electrons contributes to the prediction of the evolution of ≤1.0 MeV electrons in the Earth’s outer radiation belt during periods of geomagnetic storms.

  14. Primary cosmic ray flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor

    2001-05-01

    We discuss the primary cosmic ray flux from the point of view of particle interactions and production of atmospheric neutrinos. The overall normalization of the cosmic ray flux and its time variations and site dependence are major ingredients of the atmospheric neutrino predictions and the basis for the derivation of the neutrino oscillation parameters.

  15. Prediction of critical heat flux in fuel assemblies using a CHF table method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Tae Hyun; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Bang, Je Geon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advance Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A CHF table method has been assessed in this study for rod bundle CHF predictions. At the conceptual design stage for a new reactor, a general critical heat flux (CHF) prediction method with a wide applicable range and reasonable accuracy is essential to the thermal-hydraulic design and safety analysis. In many aspects, a CHF table method (i.e., the use of a round tube CHF table with appropriate bundle correction factors) can be a promising way to fulfill this need. So the assessment of the CHF table method has been performed with the bundle CHF data relevant to pressurized water reactors (PWRs). For comparison purposes, W-3R and EPRI-1 were also applied to the same data base. Data analysis has been conducted with the subchannel code COBRA-IV-I. The CHF table method shows the best predictions based on the direct substitution method. Improvements of the bundle correction factors, especially for the spacer grid and cold wall effects, are desirable for better predictions. Though the present assessment is somewhat limited in both fuel geometries and operating conditions, the CHF table method clearly shows potential to be a general CHF predictor. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  16. Prediction of critical heat flux in fuel assemblies using a CHF table method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Tae Hyun; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Bang, Je Geon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advance Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    A CHF table method has been assessed in this study for rod bundle CHF predictions. At the conceptual design stage for a new reactor, a general critical heat flux (CHF) prediction method with a wide applicable range and reasonable accuracy is essential to the thermal-hydraulic design and safety analysis. In many aspects, a CHF table method (i.e., the use of a round tube CHF table with appropriate bundle correction factors) can be a promising way to fulfill this need. So the assessment of the CHF table method has been performed with the bundle CHF data relevant to pressurized water reactors (PWRs). For comparison purposes, W-3R and EPRI-1 were also applied to the same data base. Data analysis has been conducted with the subchannel code COBRA-IV-I. The CHF table method shows the best predictions based on the direct substitution method. Improvements of the bundle correction factors, especially for the spacer grid and cold wall effects, are desirable for better predictions. Though the present assessment is somewhat limited in both fuel geometries and operating conditions, the CHF table method clearly shows potential to be a general CHF predictor. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  17. Assessment of ASSERT-PV for prediction of critical heat flux in CANDU bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Y.F.; Cheng, Z.; Waddington, G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of the new Canadian subchannel code ASSERT-PV 3.2 for CHF prediction. • CANDU 28-, 37- and 43-element bundle CHF experiments. • Prediction improvement of ASSERT-PV 3.2 over previous code versions. • Sensitivity study of the effect of CHF model options. - Abstract: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the subchannel thermalhydraulics code ASSERT-PV for the Canadian nuclear industry. The recently released ASSERT-PV 3.2 provides enhanced models for improved predictions of flow distribution, critical heat flux (CHF), and post-dryout (PDO) heat transfer in horizontal CANDU fuel channels. This paper presents results of an assessment of the new code version against five full-scale CANDU bundle experiments conducted in 1990s and in 2009 by Stern Laboratories (SL), using 28-, 37- and 43-element (CANFLEX) bundles. A total of 15 CHF test series with varying pressure-tube creep and/or bearing-pad height were analyzed. The SL experiments encompassed the bundle geometries and range of flow conditions for the intended ASSERT-PV applications for CANDU reactors. Code predictions of channel dryout power and axial and radial CHF locations were compared against measurements from the SL CHF tests to quantify the code prediction accuracy. The prediction statistics using the recommended model set of ASSERT-PV 3.2 were compared to those from previous code versions. Furthermore, the sensitivity studies evaluated the contribution of each CHF model change or enhancement to the improvement in CHF prediction. Overall, the assessment demonstrated significant improvement in prediction of channel dryout power and axial and radial CHF locations in horizontal fuel channels containing CANDU bundles

  18. Rockburst Disaster Prediction of Isolated Coal Pillar by Electromagnetic Radiation Based on Frictional Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongbin; Yin, Yanchun; Xiao, Fukun; Tan, Yunliang; Zou, Jianchao

    2014-01-01

    Based on the understanding that charges generated during coal cracking are due to coal particle friction, a microstructure model was developed by considering four different variation laws of friction coefficient. Firstly, the frictional energy release of coal sample during uniaxial compressive tests was investigated and discussed. Then electromagnetic radiation method was used to predict the potential rockburst disaster in isolated coal pillar mining face, Muchengjian Colliery. The results indicate that the friction coefficient of coal particles decreases linearly with the increase of axial loading force. In predicting the strain-type rockburst, the high stress state of coal must be closely monitored. Field monitoring shows that electromagnetic radiation signal became abnormal before the occurrence of rockburst during isolated coal pillar mining. Furthermore, rockburst tends to occur at the early and ending stages of isolated coal pillar extraction. Mine-site investigation shows the occurrence zone of rockburst is consistent with the prediction, proving the reliability of the electromagnetic radiation method to predict strain-type rockburst disaster. PMID:25054186

  19. Rockburst Disaster Prediction of Isolated Coal Pillar by Electromagnetic Radiation Based on Frictional Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongbin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the understanding that charges generated during coal cracking are due to coal particle friction, a microstructure model was developed by considering four different variation laws of friction coefficient. Firstly, the frictional energy release of coal sample during uniaxial compressive tests was investigated and discussed. Then electromagnetic radiation method was used to predict the potential rockburst disaster in isolated coal pillar mining face, Muchengjian Colliery. The results indicate that the friction coefficient of coal particles decreases linearly with the increase of axial loading force. In predicting the strain-type rockburst, the high stress state of coal must be closely monitored. Field monitoring shows that electromagnetic radiation signal became abnormal before the occurrence of rockburst during isolated coal pillar mining. Furthermore, rockburst tends to occur at the early and ending stages of isolated coal pillar extraction. Mine-site investigation shows the occurrence zone of rockburst is consistent with the prediction, proving the reliability of the electromagnetic radiation method to predict strain-type rockburst disaster.

  20. Fast heat flux modulation at the nanoscale

    OpenAIRE

    van Zwol, P. J.; Joulain, K.; Abdallah, P. Ben; Greffet, J. J.; Chevrier, J.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new concept for electrically controlled heat flux modulation. A flux contrast larger than 10 dB is expected with switching time on the order of tens of nanoseconds. Heat flux modulation is based on the interplay between radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale and phase change materials. Such large contrasts are not obtainable in solids, or in far field. As such this opens up new horizons for temperature modulation and actuation at the nanoscale.

  1. A theoretical prediction of critical heat flux in saturated pool boiling during power transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Nelson, R.A.; Gunnerson, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Understanding and predicting critical heat flux (CHF) behavior during steady-state and transient conditions is of fundamental interest in the design, operation, and safety of boiling and two-phase flow devices. Presented within this paper are the results of a comprehensive theoretical study specifically conducted to model transient CHF behavior in saturated pool boiling. Thermal energy conduction within a heating element and its influence on the CHF are also discussed. The resultant theory provides new insight into the basic physics of the CHF phenomenon and indicates favorable agreement with the experimental data from cylindrical heaters with small radii. However, the flat-ribbon heater data compared poorly with the present theory, although the general trend was predicted. Finally, various factors that affect the discrepency between the data and the theory are listed

  2. DNDO Report: Predicting Solar Modulation Potentials for Modeling Cosmic Background Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behne, Patrick Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-08

    The modeling of the detectability of special nuclear material (SNM) at ports and border crossings requires accurate knowledge of the background radiation at those locations. Background radiation originates from two main sources, cosmic and terrestrial. Cosmic background is produced by high-energy galactic cosmic rays (GCR) entering the atmosphere and inducing a cascade of particles that eventually impact the earth’s surface. The solar modulation potential represents one of the primary inputs to modeling cosmic background radiation. Usosokin et al. formally define solar modulation potential as “the mean energy loss [per unit charge] of a cosmic ray particle inside the heliosphere…” Modulation potential, a function of elevation, location, and time, shares an inverse relationship with cosmic background radiation. As a result, radiation detector thresholds require adjustment to account for differing background levels, caused partly by differing solar modulations. Failure to do so can result in higher rates of false positives and failed detection of SNM for low and high levels of solar modulation potential, respectively. This study focuses on solar modulation’s time dependence, and seeks the best method to predict modulation for future dates using Python. To address the task of predicting future solar modulation, we utilize both non-linear least squares sinusoidal curve fitting and cubic spline interpolation. This material will be published in transactions of the ANS winter meeting of November, 2016.

  3. Comparison of calculated energy flux of internal tides with microstructure measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Falahat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertical mixing caused by breaking of internal tides plays a major role in maintaining the deep-ocean stratification. This study compares observations of dissipation from microstructure measurements to calculations of the vertical energy flux from barotropic to internal tides, taking into account the temporal variation due to the spring-neap tidal cycle. The dissipation data originate from two surveys in the Brazil Basin Tracer Release Experiment (BBTRE, and one over the LArval Dispersal along the Deep East Pacific Rise (LADDER3, supplemented with a few stations above the North-Atlantic Ridge (GRAVILUCK and in the western Pacific (IZU. A good correlation is found between logarithmic values of energy flux and local dissipation in BBTRE, suggesting that the theory is able to predict energy fluxes. For the LADDER3, the local dissipation is much smaller than the calculated energy flux, which is very likely due to the different topographic features of BBTRE and LADDER3. The East Pacific Rise consists of a few isolated seamounts, so that most of the internal wave energy can radiate away from the generation site, whereas the Brazil Basin is characterised by extended rough bathymetry, leading to a more local dissipation. The results from all four field surveys support the general conclusion that the fraction of the internal-tide energy flux that is dissipated locally is very different in different regions.

  4. Increased heat fluxes near a forest edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W; van Breugel, PB; Moors, EJ; Nieveen, JP

    2002-01-01

    Observations of sensible and latent heat flux above forest downwind of a forest edge show these fluxes to be larger than the available energy over the forest. The enhancement averages to 56 W m(-2), or 16% of the net radiation, at fetches less than 400 m, equivalent to fetch to height ratios less

  5. Increased heat fluxes near a forest edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W.; Breugel, van P.B.; Moors, E.J.; Nieveen, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Observations of sensible and latent heat flux above forest downwind of a forest edge show these fluxes to be larger than the available energy over the forest. The enhancement averages to 56 W mm2, or 16 f the net radiation, at fetches less than 400 m, equivalent to fetch to height ratios less than

  6. A biological approach to the interspecies prediction of radiation-induced mortality risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, B.A.; Grahn, D.; Olshansky, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    Evolutionary explanations for why sexually reproducing organisms grow old suggest that the forces of natural selection affect the ages when diseases occur that are subject to a genetic influence (referred to here as intrinsic diseases). When extended to the population level for a species, this logic leads to the general prediction that age-specific death rates from intrinsic causes should begin to rise as the force of selection wanes once the characteristic age of sexual maturity is attained. Results consistent with these predictions have been found for laboratory mice, beagles, and humans where, after adjusting for differences in life span, it was demonstrated that these species share a common age pattern of mortality for intrinsic causes of death. In quantitative models used to predict radiation-induced mortality, risks are often expressed as multiples of those observed in a control population. A control population, however, is an aging population. As such, mortality risks related to exposure must be interpreted relative to the age-specific risk of death associated with aging. Given the previous success in making interspecies predictions of age-related mortality, the purpose of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced mortality observed in one species could also be predicted quantitatively from a model used to describe the mortality consequences of exposure to radiation in a different species. Mortality data for B6CF 1 mice and beagles exposed to 60 Co γ-rays for the duration of life were used for analysis

  7. Assessment of 12 CHF prediction methods, for an axially non-uniform heat flux distribution, with the RELAP5 computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrouk, M. [Laboratoire du Genie Physique des Hydrocarbures, University of Boumerdes, Boumerdes 35000 (Algeria)], E-mail: m_ferrouk@yahoo.fr; Aissani, S. [Laboratoire du Genie Physique des Hydrocarbures, University of Boumerdes, Boumerdes 35000 (Algeria); D' Auria, F.; DelNevo, A.; Salah, A. Bousbia [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione, Universita di Pisa (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    The present article covers the evaluation of the performance of twelve critical heat flux methods/correlations published in the open literature. The study concerns the simulation of an axially non-uniform heat flux distribution with the RELAP5 computer code in a single boiling water reactor channel benchmark problem. The nodalization scheme employed for the considered particular geometry, as modelled in RELAP5 code, is described. For this purpose a review of critical heat flux models/correlations applicable to non-uniform axial heat profile is provided. Simulation results using the RELAP5 code and those obtained from our computer program, based on three type predictions methods such as local conditions, F-factor and boiling length average approaches were compared.

  8. North Atlantic Aerosol Properties for Radiative Impact Assessments. Derived from Column Closure Analyses in TARFOX and ACE-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Philip A.; Bergstrom, Robert A.; Schmid, Beat; Livingston, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Aerosol effects on atmospheric radiative fluxes provide a forcing function that can change the climate in potentially significant ways. This aerosol radiative forcing is a major source of uncertainty in understanding the climate change of the past century and predicting future climate. To help reduce this uncertainty, the 1996 Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) and the 1997 Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) measured the properties and radiative effects of aerosols over the Atlantic Ocean. Both experiments used remote and in situ measurements from aircraft and the surface, coordinated with overpasses by a variety of satellite radiometers. TARFOX focused on the urban-industrial haze plume flowing from the United States over the western Atlantic, whereas ACE-2 studied aerosols over the eastern Atlantic from both Europe and Africa. These aerosols often have a marked impact on satellite-measured radiances. However, accurate derivation of flux changes, or radiative forcing, from the satellite measured radiances or retrieved aerosol optical depths (AODs) remains a difficult challenge. Here we summarize key initial results from TARFOX and ACE-2, with a focus on closure analyses that yield aerosol microphysical models for use in improved assessments of flux changes. We show how one such model gives computed radiative flux sensitivities (dF/dAOD) that agree with values measured in TARFOX and preliminary values computed for the polluted marine boundary layer in ACE-2. A companion paper uses the model to compute aerosol-induced flux changes over the North Atlantic from AVHRR-derived AOD fields.

  9. Experimental Evolution of UV-C Radiation Tolerance: Emergence of Adaptive and Non-Adaptive Traits in Escherichia coli Under Differing Flux Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffet, A.; Okansinski, A.; Sloan, C.; Grace, J. M.; Paulino-Lima, I. G.; Gentry, D.; Rothschild, L. J.; Camps, M.

    2014-12-01

    High-energy ultraviolet (UV-C) radiation is a significant challenge to life in environments such as high altitude areas, the early Earth, the Martian surface, and space. As UV-C exposure is both a selection pressure and a mutagen, adaptation dynamics in such environments include a high rate of change in both tolerance-related and non-tolerance-related genes, as well changes in linkages between the resulting traits. Determining the relationship between the intensity and duration of the UV-C exposure, mutation rate, and emergence of UV-C resistance will inform our understanding of both the emergence of radiation-related extremophily in natural environments and the optimal strategies for generating artificial extremophiles. In this study, we iteratively exposed an Escherichia colistrain to UV-C radiation of two different fluxes, 3.3 J/m^2/s for 6 seconds and 0.5 J/m^2/s for 40 seconds, with the same overall fluence of 20 J/m^2. After each iteration, cells from each exposure regime were assayed for increased UV-C tolerance as an adaptive trait. The exposed cells carried a plasmid bearing a TEM beta-lactamase gene, which in the absence of antibiotic treatment is a neutral reporter for mutagenesis. Sequencing of this gene allowed us to determine the baseline mutation frequency for each flux. As an additional readout for adaptation, the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase mutations was tested by plating UV-exposed cultures in cefotaxime plates. We observed an increase of approximately one-million-fold in UV-C tolerance over seven iterations; no significant difference between the two fluxes was found. Future work will focus on identifying the genomic changes responsible for the change in UV-C tolerance; determining the mechanisms of the emerged UV-C tolerance; and performing competition experiments between the iteration strains to quantify fitness tradeoffs resulting from UV-C adaptation.

  10. Effect of spectrally varying albedo of vegetation surfaces on shortwave radiation fluxes and aerosol direct radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an algorithm for representing detailed spectral features of vegetation albedo based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS observations at 7 discrete channels, referred to as the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Albedo (MEVA algorithm. The MEVA algorithm empirically fills spectral gaps around the vegetation red edge near 0.7 μm and vegetation water absorption features at 1.48 and 1.92 μm which cannot be adequately captured by the MODIS 7 channels. We then assess the effects of applying MEVA in comparison to four other traditional approaches to calculate solar fluxes and aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF at the top of atmosphere (TOA based on the MODIS discrete reflectance bands. By comparing the DRF results obtained through the MEVA method with the results obtained through the other four traditional approaches, we show that filling the spectral gap of the MODIS measurements around 0.7 μm based on the general spectral behavior of healthy green vegetation leads to significant improvement in the instantaneous aerosol DRF at TOA (up to 3.02 W m−2 difference or 48% fraction of the aerosol DRF, −6.28 W m−2, calculated for high spectral resolution surface reflectance from 0.3 to 2.5 μm for deciduous vegetation surface. The corrections of the spectral gaps in the vegetation spectrum in the near infrared, again missed by the MODIS reflectances, also contributes to improving TOA DRF calculations but to a much lower extent (less than 0.27 W m−2, or about 4% of the instantaneous DRF.

    Compared to traditional approaches, MEVA also improves the accuracy of the outgoing solar flux between 0.3 to 2.5 μm at TOA by over 60 W m−2 (for aspen 3 surface and aerosol DRF by over 10 W m−2 (for dry grass. Specifically, for Amazon vegetation types, MEVA can improve the accuracy of daily averaged aerosol radiative forcing in the spectral range of 0.3 to 2.5 μm at

  11. Geothermal modelling and geoneutrino flux prediction at JUNO with local heat production data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Y.; Wipperfurth, S. A.; McDonough, W. F.; Sramek, O.; Roskovec, B.; He, J.

    2017-12-01

    Geoneutrinos are mostly electron antineutrinos created from natural radioactive decays in the Earth's interior. Measurement of a geoneutrino flux at near surface detector can lead to a better understanding of the composition of the Earth, inform about chemical layering in the mantle, define the power driving mantle convection and plate tectonics, and reveal the energy supplying the geodynamo. JUNO (Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory) is a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector currently under construction with an expected start date in 2020. Due to its enormous mass, JUNO will detect about 400 geoneutrinos per year, making it an ideal tool to study the Earth. JUNO is located on the passive continental margin of South China, where there is an extensive continental shelf. The continental crust surrounding the JUNO detector is between 26 and 32 km thick and represents the transition between the southern Eurasian continental plate and oceanic plate of the South China Sea.We seek to predict the geoneutrino flux at JUNO prior to data taking and announcement of the particle physics measurement. To do so requires a detail survey of the local lithosphere, as it contributes about 50% of the signal. Previous estimates of the geoneutrino signal at JUNO utilized global crustal models, with no local constraints. Regionally, the area is characterized by extensive lateral and vertical variations in lithology and dominated by Mesozoic granite intrusions, with an average heat production of 6.29 μW/m3. Consequently, at 3 times greater heat production than the globally average upper crust, these granites will generate a higher than average geoneutrino flux at JUNO. To better define the U and Th concentrations in the upper crust, we collected some 300 samples within 50 km of JUNO. By combining chemical data obtained from these samples with data for crustal structures defined by local geophysical studies, we will construct a detailed 3D geothermal model of the region. Our

  12. Gaseous mercury fluxes from the forest floor of the Adirondacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyun-Deok; Holsen, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    The flux of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) from the forest floor of the Adirondack Mountains in New York (USA) was measured numerous times throughout 2005 and 2006 using a polycarbonate dynamic flux chamber (DFC). The Hg flux ranged between -2.5 and 27.2 ng m -2 h -1 and was positively correlated with temperature and solar radiation. The measured Hg emission flux was highest in spring, and summer, and lowest in winter. During leaf-off periods, the Hg emission flux was highly dependent on solar radiation and less dependent on temperature. During leaf-on periods, the Hg emission flux was fairly constant because the forest canopy was shading the forest floor. Two empirical models were developed to estimate yearly Hg 0 emissions, one for the leaf-off period and one for the leaf-on period. Using the U.S. EPA's CASTNET meteorological data, the cumulative estimated emission flux was approx. 7.0 μg Hg 0 m -2 year -1 . - Empirical models based on the Hg emission measurements from the forest floor of the Adirondacks indicate the estimated emission flux was approx. 7.0 μg Hg 0 m -2 year -1 in 2006

  13. Estimate of the latent flux by the energy balance in protected cultivation of sweet pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, A.R. da; Escobedo, J.F.; Klosowski, E.S.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize and bring into relationship the net radiation with the latent heat flux equivalent to water mm, in sweet pepper crops in the field and in protected cultivation. The estimate of latent heat flux was made by the energy balance method through the Bowen ratio. Instantaneous measures were made of net radiation (Rn), sensitive (H) and latent (LE) heat fluxes, heat flux into the soil (G), and of psychrometers gradients in the crop canopy. In protected cultivation, the conversion of the available net radiation in total dry matter and fruit productivity was more efficient than in the field, in spite of lower amounts of global solar radiation received by the crop. Ratios of G/Rn and LE/Rn were lower, and that of H/Rn was higher in protected cultivation, with an equivalent latent heat flux in millimeters, 45.43% lower than that determined in the field. Available net radiation and energy losses were also lower in protected cultivation, showing a higher water use efficiency. (author) [pt

  14. 7Be(p, γ)8B and the high-energy solar neutrino flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csoto, A.

    1997-01-01

    Despite thirty years of extensive experimental and theoretical work, the predicted solar neutrino flux is still in sharp disagreement with measurements. The solar neutrino measurements strongly suggest that the problem cannot be solved within the standard electroweak and astrophysical theories. Thus, the solar neutrino problem constitutes the strongest evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. Whatever the solution of the solar neutrino problem turns out to be, it is of paramount importance that the input parameters of the underlying electroweak and solar theories rest upon solid ground. The most uncertain nuclear input parameter in standard solar models is the low-energy 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B radiative capture cross section. This reaction produces 8 B in the Sun, whose β + decay is the main source of the high-energy solar neutrinos. Here, the importance of the 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B reaction in predicting the high energy solar neutrino flux is discussed. The author presents a microscopic eight-body model and a potential model for the calculation of the 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B cross section

  15. Effect of axial heat flux distribution on CHF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol

    2000-10-01

    Previous investigations for the effect of axial heat flux distributions on CHF and the prediction methods are reviewed and summarized. A total of 856 CHF data in a tube with a non-uniform axial heat flux distribution has been compiled from the articles and analyzed using the 1995 Groeneveld look-up table. The results showed that two representative correction factors, K5 of the look-up table and Tongs F factor, can be applied to describe the axial heat flux distribution effect on CHF. However, they overpredict slightly the measured CHF, depending on the quality and flux peak shape. Hence, a corrected K5 factor, which accounts for the axial heat flux distribution effect is suggested to correct these trends. It predicted the CHF power for the compiled data with an average error of 1.5% and a standard deviation of 10.3%, and also provides a reasonable prediction of CHF locations.

  16. The use of normal tissue complication probability to predict radiation hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Ki Chang; Seong, Jin Sil; Suh, Chang Ok; Lee, Sang Wook; Chung, Eun Ji; Shin, Hyun Soo; Kim, Gwi Eon

    2000-01-01

    correlated to predict a radiation hepatitis. The risk of radiation hepatitis was increased above the cut-off value. Therefore the NTCP seems to be used for predicting the radiation hepatitis

  17. Shelf life prediction of radiation sterilized polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandford, Craig; Woo, Lecon

    1988-01-01

    The functional properties of many polymers employed in medical disposables are unaffected by sterilizing doses of ionizing radiation. However, some materials (PVC, polypropylene, cellulosics, etc.) undergo undesirable changes which continue to occur for the shelf life of the product. In many cases, conventional accelerated aging techniques do not accurately predict the real time properties of the materials. As real time aging is not generally practical, it has become necessary to develop accelerated aging techniques which can predict the functional properties of a material for the shelf life of the product. This presentation will address issues involved in developing these tests. Real time physical property data is compared to data generated by various acceleration methods. (author)

  18. Predicting Radiation Pneumonitis After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy in Patients Previously Treated With Conventional Thoracic Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hui; Zhang Xu; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy Y.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Chang, Joe Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of and risk factors for radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) to the lung in patients who had previously undergone conventional thoracic radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-two patients who had previously received conventionally fractionated radiation therapy to the thorax were treated with SABR (50 Gy in 4 fractions) for recurrent disease or secondary parenchymal lung cancer (T 10 and mean lung dose (MLD) of the previous plan and the V 10 -V 40 and MLD of the composite plan were also related to RP. Multivariate analysis revealed that ECOG PS scores of 2-3 before SABR (P=.009), FEV1 ≤65% before SABR (P=.012), V 20 ≥30% of the composite plan (P=.021), and an initial PTV in the bilateral mediastinum (P=.025) were all associated with RP. Conclusions: We found that severe RP was relatively common, occurring in 20.8% of patients, and could be predicted by an ECOG PS score of 2-3, an FEV1 ≤65%, a previous PTV spanning the bilateral mediastinum, and V 20 ≥30% on composite (previous RT+SABR) plans. Prospective studies are needed to validate these predictors and the scoring system on which they are based.

  19. Chemistry with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preses, J.; Grover, J.R.; White, M.G.; Kvick, A.

    1990-01-01

    An accidental by-product of high-energy physics, synchrotron radiation, has emerged as one of the most powerful tools for the understanding of chemical reactions. Advances made by using synchrotron radiation in physical chemistry are reviewed herein. Descriptions of experiments exploiting the many ways that synchrotron radiation can be manipulated are presented. These manipulations include intensification of the radiation and compression or shifting of its spectral structure. Combinations of the use of synchrotron radiation, which provides access to very short wavelengths and is, at the same time, continuously and easily tunable, with laser radiation, which offers much higher resolution and much more intense radiation per pulse, but is difficult to tune in the ultraviolet region of the spectra, gives the chemist a way to map a molecule's potential energy curve, to note the lengths and strengths of chemical bonds, and to predict and explain novel reactions of more complex molecules. The use of diffraction of x-rays to study the spacing of atoms in crystals is discussed. Various applications of synchrotron radiation to studies of the fluorescence of hydrocarbons and to the chiral dichroism studies of other natural products like DNA and RNA are described. Methods for enhancing synchrotron light sources by insertion devices, such as wigglers and undulators, that increase the available photo flux and construction of new sources of synchrotron radiation are mentioned

  20. Synergy between 13C-metabolic flux analysis and flux balance analysis for understanding metabolic adaption to anaerobiosis in e. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genome-based Flux Balance Analysis (FBA, constraints based flux analysis) and steady state isotopic-labeling-based Metabolic Flux Analysis (MFA) are complimentary approaches to predicting and measuring the operation and regulation of metabolic networks. Here a genome-derived model of E. coli metabol...

  1. Variations of the Electron Fluxes in the Terrestrial Radiation Belts Due To the Impact of Corotating Interaction Regions and Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacquista, R.; Boscher, D.; Rochel, S.; Maget, V.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we study the variations of the radiation belts electron fluxes induced by the interaction of two types of solar wind structures with the Earth magnetosphere: the corotating interaction regions and the interplanetary coronal mass ejections. We use a statistical method based on the comparison of the preevent and postevent fluxes. Applied to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Polar Operational Environmental Satellites data, this gives us the opportunity to extend previous studies focused on relativistic electrons at geosynchronous orbit. We enlighten how corotating interaction regions and Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections can impact differently the electron belts depending on the energy and the L shell. In addition, we provide a new insight concerning these variations by considering their amplitude. Finally, we show strong relations between the intensity of the magnetic storms related to the events and the variation of the flux. These relations concern both the capacity of the events to increase the flux and the deepness of these increases.

  2. A 3-D radiation model for non-grey gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcuk, Nevin; Doner, Nimeti

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional radiation code based on method of lines (MOL) solution of discrete ordinates method (DOM) coupled with spectral line-based weighted sum of grey gases (SLW) model for radiative heat transfer in non-grey absorbing-emitting media for use in conjunction with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code based on the same approach was developed. The code was applied to three test problems: two containing isothermal homogenous/non-homogenous water vapor and one non-isothermal water vapor/carbon dioxide mixture. Predictive accuracy of the code was evaluated by benchmarking its steady-state predictions against accurate results, calculated by ray tracing method with statistical narrow band model, available in the literature. Comparative testing with solutions of other methods is also provided. Comparisons reveal that MOL solution of DOM with SLW model provides accurate solutions for radiative heat fluxes and source terms and can be used with confidence in conjunction with CFD codes based on MOL

  3. A Monte Carlo transport code study of the space radiation environment using FLUKA and ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, T; Carminati, F; Brun, R; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Empl, A; MacGibbon, J

    2001-01-01

    We report on the progress of a current study aimed at developing a state-of-the-art Monte-Carlo computer simulation of the space radiation environment using advanced computer software techniques recently available at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland. By taking the next-generation computer software appearing at CERN and adapting it to known problems in the implementation of space exploration strategies, this research is identifying changes necessary to bring these two advanced technologies together. The radiation transport tool being developed is tailored to the problem of taking measured space radiation fluxes impinging on the geometry of any particular spacecraft or planetary habitat and simulating the evolution of that flux through an accurate model of the spacecraft material. The simulation uses the latest known results in low-energy and high-energy physics. The output is a prediction of the detailed nature of the radiation environment experienced in space as well a...

  4. Lognormal Kalman filter for assimilating phase space density data in the radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, D.; Ghil, M.; Shprits, Y.

    2011-11-01

    Data assimilation combines a physical model with sparse observations and has become an increasingly important tool for scientists and engineers in the design, operation, and use of satellites and other high-technology systems in the near-Earth space environment. Of particular importance is predicting fluxes of high-energy particles in the Van Allen radiation belts, since these fluxes can damage spaceborne platforms and instruments during strong geomagnetic storms. In transiting from a research setting to operational prediction of these fluxes, improved data assimilation is of the essence. The present study is motivated by the fact that phase space densities (PSDs) of high-energy electrons in the outer radiation belt—both simulated and observed—are subject to spatiotemporal variations that span several orders of magnitude. Standard data assimilation methods that are based on least squares minimization of normally distributed errors may not be adequate for handling the range of these variations. We propose herein a modification of Kalman filtering that uses a log-transformed, one-dimensional radial diffusion model for the PSDs and includes parameterized losses. The proposed methodology is first verified on model-simulated, synthetic data and then applied to actual satellite measurements. When the model errors are sufficiently smaller then observational errors, our methodology can significantly improve analysis and prediction skill for the PSDs compared to those of the standard Kalman filter formulation. This improvement is documented by monitoring the variance of the innovation sequence.

  5. On the role of radiation and dimensionality in predicting flow opposed flame spread over thin fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chenthil; Kumar, Amit

    2012-06-01

    In this work a flame-spread model is formulated in three dimensions to simulate opposed flow flame spread over thin solid fuels. The flame-spread model is coupled to a three-dimensional gas radiation model. The experiments [1] on downward spread and zero gravity quiescent spread over finite width thin fuel are simulated by flame-spread models in both two and three dimensions to assess the role of radiation and effect of dimensionality on the prediction of the flame-spread phenomena. It is observed that while radiation plays only a minor role in normal gravity downward spread, in zero gravity quiescent spread surface radiation loss holds the key to correct prediction of low oxygen flame spread rate and quenching limit. The present three-dimensional simulations show that even in zero gravity gas radiation affects flame spread rate only moderately (as much as 20% at 100% oxygen) as the heat feedback effect exceeds the radiation loss effect only moderately. However, the two-dimensional model with the gas radiation model badly over-predicts the zero gravity flame spread rate due to under estimation of gas radiation loss to the ambient surrounding. The two-dimensional model was also found to be inadequate for predicting the zero gravity flame attributes, like the flame length and the flame width, correctly. The need for a three-dimensional model was found to be indispensable for consistently describing the zero gravity flame-spread experiments [1] (including flame spread rate and flame size) especially at high oxygen levels (>30%). On the other hand it was observed that for the normal gravity downward flame spread for oxygen levels up to 60%, the two-dimensional model was sufficient to predict flame spread rate and flame size reasonably well. Gas radiation is seen to increase the three-dimensional effect especially at elevated oxygen levels (>30% for zero gravity and >60% for normal gravity flames).

  6. Types of Lightning Discharges that Abruptly Terminate Enhanced Fluxes of Energetic Radiation and Particles Observed at Ground Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Khanikyants, Y.; Pokhsraryan, D.; Soghomonyan, S.; Mareev, E.; Rakov, V.

    2017-01-01

    We present ground-based measurements of thunderstorm-related enhancements of fluxes of energetic radiation and particles that are abruptly terminated by lightning discharges. All measurements were performed at an altitude of 3200 m above sea level on Mt. Aragats (Armenia). Lightning signatures were recorded using a network of five electric field mills, three of which were placed at the Aragats station, one at the Nor Amberd station (12.8 km from Aragats), and one at the Yerevan station (39 km from Aragats), and a wideband electric field measuring system with a useful frequency bandwidth of 50 Hz to 12 MHZ. It appears that the flux-enhancement termination is associated with close (within 10 km or so of the particle detector) -CGs and normal polarity ICs; that is, with lightning types which reduce the upward-directed electric field below the cloud and, hence, suppress the acceleration of electrons toward the ground. (author)

  7. Incoming Shortwave Fluxes at the Surface--A Comparison of GCM Results with Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the exam surface net radiation calculated in general circulation models at continental surfaces is mostly due to excess incoming shortwave fluxes. Based on long-term observations from 22 worldwide inland stations and results from four general circulation models the overestimate in models of 20% (11 W m2) in net radiation on an annual basis compares with 6% (9 W m2) for shortwave fluxes for the same 22 locations, or 9% (18 W m2) for a larger set of 93 stations (71 having shortwave fluxes only). For annual fluxes, these differences appear to be significant.

  8. Collective modes and radiation from gliding Josephson vortex lattice in layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemenko, S.N.; Remizov, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    We found that stability of moving lattice of Josephson vortices driven by the transport current is limited by the critical velocity which agrees with the maximum velocity observed in BSCCO in the flux-flow regime. We also predict a peak of the radiation at Josephson plasma frequency which may be observed in high magnetic field. (orig.)

  9. Thermal protection for hypervelocity flight in earth's atmosphere by use of radiation backscattering ablating materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, John T.; Yang, Lily

    1991-01-01

    A heat-shield-material response code predicting the transient performance of a material subject to the combined convective and radiative heating associated with the hypervelocity flight is developed. The code is dynamically interactive to the heating from a transient flow field, including the effects of material ablation on flow field behavior. It accomodates finite time variable material thickness, internal material phase change, wavelength-dependent radiative properties, and temperature-dependent thermal, physical, and radiative properties. The equations of radiative transfer are solved with the material and are coupled to the transfer energy equation containing the radiative flux divergence in addition to the usual energy terms.

  10. Magnetogasdynamics shock waves in a rotational axisymmetric non-ideal gas with increasing energy and conductive and radiative heat-fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Gorakh

    2016-07-01

    Self-similar solutions are obtained for one-dimensional adiabatic flow behind a magnetogasdynamics cylindrical shock wave propagating in a rotational axisymmetric non ideal gas with increasing energy and conductive and radiative heat fluxes in presence of an azimuthal magnetic field. The fluid velocities and the azimuthal magnetic field in the ambient medium are assume to be varying and obeying power laws. In order to find the similarity solutions the angular velocity of the ambient medium is taken to be decreasing as the distance from the axis increases. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and the radiation is considered to be the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity and the absorption coefficient are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The effects of the presence of radiation and conduction, the non-idealness of the gas and the magnetic field on the shock propagation and the flow behind the shock are investigated.

  11. A fast, exact code for scattered thermal radiation compared with a two-stream approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogley, A.C.; Pandey, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    A two-stream accuracy study for internally (thermal) driven problems is presented by comparison with a recently developed 'exact' adding/doubling method. The resulting errors in external (or boundary) radiative intensity and flux are usually larger than those for the externally driven problems and vary substantially with the radiative parameters. Error predictions for a specific problem are difficult. An unexpected result is that the exact method is computationally as fast as the two-stream approximation for nonisothermal media

  12. Predictive Biomarkers of Radiation Sensitivity in Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tut, Thein Ga

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world. Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the United States, and parts of Europe have the highest incidence rates of CRC. China, India, South America and parts of Africa have the lowest risk of CRC. CRC is the second most common cancer in both sexes in Australia. Even though the death rates from CRC involving the colon have diminished, those arising from the rectum have revealed no improvement. The greatest obstacle in attaining a complete surgical resection of large rectal cancers is the close anatomical relation to surrounding structures, as opposed to the free serosal surfaces enfolding the colon. To assist complete resection, pre-operative radiotherapy (DXT) can be applied, but the efficacy of ionising radiation (IR) is extremely variable between individual tumours. Reliable predictive marker/s that enable patient stratification in the application of this otherwise toxic therapy is still not available. Current therapeutic management of rectal cancer can be improved with the availability of better predictive and prognostic biomarkers. Proteins such as Plk1, gammaH2AX and MMR proteins (MSH2, MSH6, MLH1 and PMS2), involved in DNA damage response (DDR) pathway may be possible biomarkers for radiation response prediction and prognostication of rectal cancer. Serine/threonine protein kinase Plk1 is overexpressed in most of cancers including CRC. Plk1 functional activity is essential in the restoration of DNA damage following IR, which causes DNA double strand break (DSB). The earliest manifestation of this reparative process is histone H2AX phosphorylation at serine 139, leading to gammaH2AX. Colorectal normal mucosa showed the lowest level of gammaH2AX with gradually increasing levels in early adenoma and then in advanced malignant colorectal tissues, leading to the possibility that gammaH2AX may be a prospective biomarker in rectal cancer management. There are numerous publications regarding DNA mismatch

  13. Sea ice-atmospheric interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Konrad; Key, J.; Maslanik, J.; Schweiger, A.

    1993-01-01

    This is the third annual report on: Sea Ice-Atmosphere Interaction - Application of Multispectral Satellite Data in Polar Surface Energy Flux Estimates. The main emphasis during the past year was on: radiative flux estimates from satellite data; intercomparison of satellite and ground-based cloud amounts; radiative cloud forcing; calibration of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) visible channels and comparison of two satellite derived albedo data sets; and on flux modeling for leads. Major topics covered are arctic clouds and radiation; snow and ice albedo, and leads and modeling.

  14. Flux cutting in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes experiments and theories of flux cutting in superconductors. The use of the flux line picture in free space is discussed. In superconductors cutting can either be by means of flux at an angle to other layers of flux, as in longitudinal current experiments, or due to shearing of the vortex lattice as in grain boundaries in YBCO. Experiments on longitudinal currents can be interpreted in terms of flux rings penetrating axial lines. More physical models of flux cutting are discussed but all predict much larger flux cutting forces than are observed. Also, cutting is occurring at angles between vortices of about one millidegree which is hard to explain. The double critical state model and its developments are discussed in relation to experiments on crossed and rotating fields. A new experiment suggested by Clem gives more direct information. It shows that an elliptical yield surface of the critical state works well, but none of the theoretical proposals for determining the direction of E are universally applicable. It appears that, as soon as any flux flow takes place, cutting also occurs. The conclusion is that new theories are required. (perspective)

  15. A Neural Network Based Intelligent Predictive Sensor for Cloudiness, Solar Radiation and Air Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Pedro M.; Gomes, João M.; Martins, Igor A. C.; Ruano, António E.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation and atmospheric temperature, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight and portable sensor was developed, using artificial neural network models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. These have been identified with the aid of a procedure based on the multi-objective genetic algorithm. As cloudiness is the most significant factor affecting the solar radiation reaching a particular location on the Earth surface, it has great impact on the performance of predictive solar radiation models for that location. This work also represents one step towards the improvement of such models by using ground-to-sky hemispherical colour digital images as a means to estimate cloudiness by the fraction of visible sky corresponding to clouds and to clear sky. The implementation of predictive models in the prototype has been validated and the system is able to function reliably, providing measurements and four-hour forecasts of cloudiness, solar radiation and air temperature. PMID:23202230

  16. Assessing FPAR Source and Parameter Optimization Scheme in Application of a Diagnostic Carbon Flux Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D P; Ritts, W D; Wharton, S; Thomas, C; Monson, R; Black, T A

    2009-02-26

    The combination of satellite remote sensing and carbon cycle models provides an opportunity for regional to global scale monitoring of terrestrial gross primary production, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem production. FPAR (the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the plant canopy) is a critical input to diagnostic models, however little is known about the relative effectiveness of FPAR products from different satellite sensors nor about the sensitivity of flux estimates to different parameterization approaches. In this study, we used multiyear observations of carbon flux at four eddy covariance flux tower sites within the conifer biome to evaluate these factors. FPAR products from the MODIS and SeaWiFS sensors, and the effects of single site vs. cross-site parameter optimization were tested with the CFLUX model. The SeaWiFs FPAR product showed greater dynamic range across sites and resulted in slightly reduced flux estimation errors relative to the MODIS product when using cross-site optimization. With site-specific parameter optimization, the flux model was effective in capturing seasonal and interannual variation in the carbon fluxes at these sites. The cross-site prediction errors were lower when using parameters from a cross-site optimization compared to parameter sets from optimization at single sites. These results support the practice of multisite optimization within a biome for parameterization of diagnostic carbon flux models.

  17. Urban surface energy fluxes based on remotely-sensed data and micrometeorological measurements over the Kansai area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukeyasu, T.; Ueyama, M.; Ando, T.; Kosugi, Y.; Kominami, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The urban heat island is associated with land cover changes and increases in anthropogenic heat fluxes. Clear understanding of the surface energy budget at urban area is the most important for evaluating the urban heat island. In this study, we develop a model based on remotely-sensed data for the Kansai area in Japan and clarify temporal transitions and spatial distributions of the surface energy flux from 2000 to 2016. The model calculated the surface energy fluxes based on various satellite and GIS products. The model used land surface temperature, surface emissivity, air temperature, albedo, downward shortwave radiation and land cover/use type from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) under cloud free skies from 2000 to 2016 over the Kansai area in Japan (34 to 35 ° N, 135 to 136 ° E). Net radiation was estimated by a radiation budget of upward/downward shortwave and longwave radiation. Sensible heat flux was estimated by a bulk aerodynamic method. Anthropogenic heat flux was estimated by the inventory data. Latent heat flux was examined with residues of the energy budget and parameterization of bulk transfer coefficients. We validated the model using observed fluxes from five eddy-covariance measurement sites: three urban sites and two forested sites. The estimated net radiation roughly agreed with the observations, but the sensible heat flux were underestimated. Based on the modeled spatial distributions of the fluxes, the daytime net radiation in the forested area was larger than those in the urban area, owing to higher albedo and land surface temperatures in the urban area than the forested area. The estimated anthropogenic heat flux was high in the summer and winter periods due to increases in energy-requirements.

  18. Artificial neural network optimisation for monthly average daily global solar radiation prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsina, Emanuel Federico; Bortolini, Marco; Gamberi, Mauro; Regattieri, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Prediction of the monthly average daily global solar radiation over Italy. • Multi-location Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model: 45 locations considered. • Optimal ANN configuration with 7 input climatologic/geographical parameters. • Statistical indicators: MAPE, NRMSE, MPBE. - Abstract: The availability of reliable climatologic data is essential for multiple purposes in a wide set of anthropic activities and operative sectors. Frequently direct measures present spatial and temporal lacks so that predictive approaches become of interest. This paper focuses on the prediction of the Monthly Average Daily Global Solar Radiation (MADGSR) over Italy using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). Data from 45 locations compose the multi-location ANN training and testing sets. For each location, 13 input parameters are considered, including the geographical coordinates and the monthly values for the most frequently adopted climatologic parameters. A subset of 17 locations is used for ANN training, while the testing step is against data from the remaining 28 locations. Furthermore, the Automatic Relevance Determination method (ARD) is used to point out the most relevant input for the accurate MADGSR prediction. The ANN best configuration includes 7 parameters, only, i.e. Top of Atmosphere (TOA) radiation, day length, number of rainy days and average rainfall, latitude and altitude. The correlation performances, expressed through statistical indicators as the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), range between 1.67% and 4.25%, depending on the number and type of the chosen input, representing a good solution compared to the current standards.

  19. Comparison of 37 months global net radiation flux derived from PICARD-BOS over the same period observations of CERES and ARGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The absolute level of the global net radiation flux (NRF) is fixed at the level of [0.5-1.0] Wm-2 based on the ocean heat content measurements [1]. The space derived global NRF is at the same order of magnitude than the ocean [2]. Considering the atmosphere has a negligible effects on the global NRF determination, the surface global NRF is consistent with the values determined from space [3]. Instead of studying the absolute level of the global NRF, we focus on the interannual variation of global net radiation flux, which were derived from the PICARD-BOS experiment and its comparison with values over the same period but obtained from the NASA-CERES system and inferred from the ocean heat content survey by ARGO network. [1] Allan, Richard P., Chunlei Liu, Norman G. Loeb, Matthew D. Palmer, Malcolm Roberts, Doug Smith, and Pier-Luigi Vidale (2014), Changes in global net radiative imbalance 1985-2012, Geophysical Research Letters, 41 (no.15), 5588-5597. [2] Loeb, Norman G., John M. Lyman, Gregory C. Johnson, Richard P. Allan, David R. Doelling, Takmeng Wong, Brian J. Soden, and Graeme L. Stephens (2012), Observed changes in top-of-the-atmosphere radiation and upper-ocean heating consistent within uncertainty, Nature Geoscience, 5 (no.2), 110-113. [3] Wild, Martin, Doris Folini, Maria Z. Hakuba, Christoph Schar, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Seiji Kato, David Rutan, Christof Ammann, Eric F. Wood, and Gert Konig-Langlo (2015), the energy balance over land and oceans: an assessment based on direct observations and CMIP5 climate models, Climate Dynamics, 44 (no.11-12), 3393-3429.

  20. Theoretical basal Ca II fluxes for late-type stars: results from magnetic wave models with time-dependent ionization and multi-level radiation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Diaa E.; Stȩpień, K.

    2018-03-01

    In the current study we present ab initio numerical computations of the generation and propagation of longitudinal waves in magnetic flux tubes embedded in the atmospheres of late-type stars. The interaction between convective turbulence and the magnetic structure is computed and the obtained longitudinal wave energy flux is used in a self-consistent manner to excite the small-scale magnetic flux tubes. In the current study we reduce the number of assumptions made in our previous studies by considering the full magnetic wave energy fluxes and spectra as well as time-dependent ionization (TDI) of hydrogen, employing multi-level Ca II atomic models, and taking into account departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium. Our models employ the recently confirmed value of the mixing-length parameter α=1.8. Regions with strong magnetic fields (magnetic filling factors of up to 50%) are also considered in the current study. The computed Ca II emission fluxes show a strong dependence on the magnetic filling factors, and the effect of time-dependent ionization (TDI) turns out to be very important in the atmospheres of late-type stars heated by acoustic and magnetic waves. The emitted Ca II fluxes with TDI included into the model are decreased by factors that range from 1.4 to 5.5 for G0V and M0V stars, respectively, compared to models that do not consider TDI. The results of our computations are compared with observations. Excellent agreement between the observed and predicted basal flux is obtained. The predicted trend of Ca II emission flux with magnetic filling factor and stellar surface temperature also agrees well with the observations but the calculated maximum fluxes for stars of different spectral types are about two times lower than observations. Though the longitudinal MHD waves considered here are important for chromosphere heating in high activity stars, additional heating mechanism(s) are apparently present.

  1. Parallel-plate submicron gap formed by micromachined low-density pillars for near-field radiative heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kota; Miura, Atsushi; Iizuka, Hideo; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Near-field radiative heat transfer has been a subject of great interest due to the applicability to thermal management and energy conversion. In this letter, a submicron gap between a pair of diced fused quartz substrates is formed by using micromachined low-density pillars to obtain both the parallelism and small parasitic heat conduction. The gap uniformity is validated by the optical interferometry at four corners of the substrates. The heat flux across the gap is measured in a steady-state and is no greater than twice of theoretically predicted radiative heat flux, which indicates that the parasitic heat conduction is suppressed to the level of the radiative heat transfer or less. The heat conduction through the pillars is modeled, and it is found to be limited by the thermal contact resistance between the pillar top and the opposing substrate surface. The methodology to form and evaluate the gap promotes the near-field radiative heat transfer to various applications such as thermal rectification, thermal modulation, and thermophotovoltaics

  2. Parallel-plate submicron gap formed by micromachined low-density pillars for near-field radiative heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Kota, E-mail: kotaito@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Miura, Atsushi; Iizuka, Hideo [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

    2015-02-23

    Near-field radiative heat transfer has been a subject of great interest due to the applicability to thermal management and energy conversion. In this letter, a submicron gap between a pair of diced fused quartz substrates is formed by using micromachined low-density pillars to obtain both the parallelism and small parasitic heat conduction. The gap uniformity is validated by the optical interferometry at four corners of the substrates. The heat flux across the gap is measured in a steady-state and is no greater than twice of theoretically predicted radiative heat flux, which indicates that the parasitic heat conduction is suppressed to the level of the radiative heat transfer or less. The heat conduction through the pillars is modeled, and it is found to be limited by the thermal contact resistance between the pillar top and the opposing substrate surface. The methodology to form and evaluate the gap promotes the near-field radiative heat transfer to various applications such as thermal rectification, thermal modulation, and thermophotovoltaics.

  3. Numerical prediction of critical heat flux in nuclear fuel rod bundles with advanced three-fluid multidimensional porous media based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoran Stosic; Vladimir Stevanovic

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The modern design of nuclear fuel rod bundles for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) is characterised with increased number of rods in the bundle, introduced part-length fuel rods and a water channel positioned along the bundle asymmetrically in regard to the centre of the bundle cross section. Such design causes significant spatial differences of volumetric heat flux, steam void fraction distribution, mass flux rate and other thermal-hydraulic parameters important for efficient cooling of nuclear fuel rods during normal steady-state and transient conditions. The prediction of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) under these complex thermal-hydraulic conditions is of the prime importance for the safe and economic BWR operation. An efficient numerical method for the CHF prediction is developed based on the porous medium concept and multi-fluid two-phase flow models. Fuel rod bundle is observed as a porous medium with a two-phase flow through it. Coolant flow from the bundle entrance to the exit is characterised with the subsequent change of one-phase and several two-phase flow patterns. One fluid (one-phase) model is used for the prediction of liquid heating up in the bundle entrance region. Two-fluid modelling approach is applied to the bubbly and churn-turbulent vapour and liquid flows. Three-fluid modelling approach is applied to the annular flow pattern: liquid film on the rods wall, steam flow and droplets entrained in the steam stream. Every fluid stream in applied multi-fluid models is described with the mass, momentum and energy balance equations. Closure laws for the prediction of interfacial transfer processes are stated with the special emphasis on the prediction of the steam-water interface drag force, through the interface drag coefficient, and droplets entrainment and deposition rates for three-fluid annular flow model. The model implies non-equilibrium thermal and flow conditions. A new mechanistic approach for the CHF prediction

  4. Real-Time Aircraft Cosmic Ray Radiation Exposure Predictions from the NAIRAS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, C. J.; Tobiska, W.; Kress, B. T.; Xu, X.

    2012-12-01

    The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a prototype operational model for predicting commercial aircraft radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays. NAIRAS predictions are currently streaming live from the project's public website, and the exposure rate nowcast is also available on the SpaceWx smartphone app for iPhone, IPad, and Android. Cosmic rays are the primary source of human exposure to high linear energy transfer radiation at aircraft altitudes, which increases the risk of cancer and other adverse health effects. Thus, the NAIRAS model addresses an important national need with broad societal, public health and economic benefits. There is also interest in extending NAIRAS to the LEO environment to address radiation hazard issues for the emerging commercial spaceflight industry. The processes responsible for the variability in the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, solar energetic particle spectrum, and the dynamical response of the magnetosphere to these space environment inputs, strongly influence the composition and energy distribution of the atmospheric ionizing radiation field. Real-time observations are required at a variety of locations within the geospace environment. The NAIRAS model is driven by real-time input data from ground-, atmospheric-, and space-based platforms. During the development of the NAIRAS model, new science questions and observational data gaps were identified that must be addressed in order to obtain a more reliable and robust operational model of atmospheric radiation exposure. The focus of this talk is to present the current capabilities of the NAIRAS model, discuss future developments in aviation radiation modeling and instrumentation, and propose strategies and methodologies of bridging known gaps in current modeling and observational capabilities.

  5. LAD Early Career Prize Talk:Laboratory astrophysics experiments investigating the effects of high energy fluxes on Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth relevant to young supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranz, Carolyn C.; Drake, R. Paul; Park, Hye Sook; Huntington, Channing; Miles, Aaron R.; Remington, Bruce A.; Plewa, Tomek; Trantham, Matt; Shvarts, Dov; Raman, Kumar; MacLaren, Steven; Wan, Wesley; Doss, Forrest; Kline, John; Flippos, Kirk; Malamud, Guy; Handy, Timothy; Prisbey, Shon; Grosskopf, Michael; Krauland, Christine; Klein, Sallee; Harding, Eric; Wallace, Russell; Marion, Donna; Kalantar, Dan

    2017-06-01

    Energy-transport effects can alter the structure that develops as a supernova evolves into a supernova remnant. The Rayleigh Taylor (RT) instability is thought to produce structure at the interface between the stellar ejecta and the circumstellar matter (CSM), based on simple models and hydrodynamic simulations. When a blast wave emerges from an exploding star, it drives a forward shock into the CSM and a reverse shock forms in the expanding stellar ejecta, creating a young supernova remnant (SNR). As mass accumulates in the shocked layers, the interface between these two shocks decelerates, becoming unstable to the RT instability. Simulations predict that RT produces structures at this interface, having a range of spatial scales. When the CSM is dense enough, as in the case of SN 1993J, the hot shocked matter can produce significant radiative fluxes that affect the emission from the SNR. Here we report experimental results from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to explore how large energy fluxes, which are present in supernovae such as SN 1993J, might affect this structure. The experiment used NIF to create a RT unstable interface subject to a high energy flux by the emergence of a blast wave into lower-density matter, in analogy to the SNR. We also preformed and with a low energy flux to compare the affect of the energy flux on the instability growth. We found that the RT growth was reduced in the experiments with a high energy flux. In analyzing the comparison with SN 1993J, we discovered that the energy fluxes produced by heat conduction appear to be larger than the radiative energy fluxes, and large enough to have dramatic consequences. No reported astrophysical simulations have included radiation and heat conduction self-consistently in modeling SNRs.

  6. Prediction of the thickness of the compensator filter in radiation therapy using computational intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehlaghi, Vahab; Taghipour, Mostafa; Haghparast, Abbas; Roshani, Gholam Hossein; Rezaei, Abbas; Shayesteh, Sajjad Pashootan; Adineh-Vand, Ayoub; Karimi, Gholam Reza

    2015-01-01

    In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) are investigated to predict the thickness of the compensator filter in radiation therapy. In the proposed models, the input parameters are field size (S), off-axis distance, and relative dose (D/D 0 ), and the output is the thickness of the compensator. The obtained results show that the proposed ANN and ANFIS models are useful, reliable, and cheap tools to predict the thickness of the compensator filter in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

  7. Prediction of the thickness of the compensator filter in radiation therapy using computational intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehlaghi, Vahab; Taghipour, Mostafa; Haghparast, Abbas [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roshani, Gholam Hossein [School of Energy, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, Abbas [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shayesteh, Sajjad Pashootan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Adineh-Vand, Ayoub [Department of Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Electrical Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, Gholam Reza, E-mail: ghkarimi@razi.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) are investigated to predict the thickness of the compensator filter in radiation therapy. In the proposed models, the input parameters are field size (S), off-axis distance, and relative dose (D/D{sub 0}), and the output is the thickness of the compensator. The obtained results show that the proposed ANN and ANFIS models are useful, reliable, and cheap tools to predict the thickness of the compensator filter in intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

  8. Prediction of shock-layer ultraviolet radiation for hypersonic vehicles in near space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Qinglin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A systemic and validated model was developed to predict ultraviolet spectra features from the shock layer of near-space hypersonic vehicles in the “solar blind” band region. Computational procedures were performed with 7-species thermal non-equilibrium fluid mechanics, finite rate chemistry, and radiation calculations. The thermal non-equilibrium flow field was calculated with a two-temperature model by the finite volume technique and verified against the bow-shock ultra-violet (BSUV flight experiments. The absorption coefficient of the mixture gases was evaluated with a line-by-line method and validated through laboratory shock tube measurements. Using the line of sight (LOS method, radiation was calculated from three BSUV flights at altitudes of 38, 53.5 and 71 km. The investigation focused on the level and structure of ultraviolet spectra radiated from a NO band system in wavelengths of 200–400 nm. Results predicted by the current model show qualitative spatial agreement with the measured data. At a velocity of 3.5 km/s (about Mach 11, the peak absolute intensity at an altitude of 38 km is two orders of magnitude higher than that at 53.5 km. Under the same flight conditions, the spectra structures have quite a similar distribution at different viewing angles. The present computational model performs well in the prediction of the ultraviolet spectra emitted from the shock layer and will contribute to the investigation and analysis of radiative features of hypersonic vehicles in near space.

  9. Heat flux microsensor measurements and calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, James P.; Hager, Jon M.; Onishi, Shinzo; Diller, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    A new thin-film heat flux gage has been fabricated specifically for severe high temperature operation using platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium for the thermocouple elements. Radiation calibrations of this gage were performed at the AEDC facility over the available heat flux range (approx. 1.0 - 1,000 W/cu cm). The gage output was linear with heat flux with a slight increase in sensitivity with increasing surface temperature. Survivability of gages was demonstrated in quench tests from 500 C into liquid nitrogen. Successful operation of gages to surface temperatures of 750 C has been achieved. No additional cooling of the gages is required because the gages are always at the same temperature as the substrate material. A video of oxyacetylene flame tests with real-time heat flux and temperature output is available.

  10. Approach to Integrate Global-Sun Models of Magnetic Flux Emergence and Transport for Space Weather Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nagi N.; Wray, Alan A.; Mehrotra, Piyush; Henney, Carl; Arge, Nick; Godinez, H.; Manchester, Ward; Koller, J.; Kosovichev, A.; Scherrer, P.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Sun lies at the center of space weather and is the source of its variability. The primary input to coronal and solar wind models is the activity of the magnetic field in the solar photosphere. Recent advancements in solar observations and numerical simulations provide a basis for developing physics-based models for the dynamics of the magnetic field from the deep convection zone of the Sun to the corona with the goal of providing robust near real-time boundary conditions at the base of space weather forecast models. The goal is to develop new strategic capabilities that enable characterization and prediction of the magnetic field structure and flow dynamics of the Sun by assimilating data from helioseismology and magnetic field observations into physics-based realistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. The integration of first-principle modeling of solar magnetism and flow dynamics with real-time observational data via advanced data assimilation methods is a new, transformative step in space weather research and prediction. This approach will substantially enhance an existing model of magnetic flux distribution and transport developed by the Air Force Research Lab. The development plan is to use the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) to develop Coupled Models for Emerging flux Simulations (CMES) that couples three existing models: (1) an MHD formulation with the anelastic approximation to simulate the deep convection zone (FSAM code), (2) an MHD formulation with full compressible Navier-Stokes equations and a detailed description of radiative transfer and thermodynamics to simulate near-surface convection and the photosphere (Stagger code), and (3) an MHD formulation with full, compressible Navier-Stokes equations and an approximate description of radiative transfer and heating to simulate the corona (Module in BATS-R-US). CMES will enable simulations of the emergence of magnetic structures from the deep convection zone to the corona. Finally, a plan

  11. Predictive assays and their role in selection of radiation as the therapeutic modality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    Radiation therapy is a modality to treat cancer patients using ionising radiation. Ionising radiation kills cancer (or malignant tumour) cells and hopefully cures the patient. If some cancer cells survive the treatment, those cells would ultimately multiply again and eventually kill the patient. Although radiation is intended to focus on the cancer, irradiation of the normal tissues is unavoidable. The higher the radiation dose given to the cancer, the greater the chance of eradicating it. On the other hand, the greater the radiation dose, the greater the probability of severe morbidity or side effects. Thus, optimising the dose for the patients is crucial. Human cancers have variable radiation sensitivities. Many factors influence the sensitivity. These factors include simple parameters such as tumour size, cellular sensitivity, such as repair capacity, and tumour environment, such as oxygen content. If we can predict the radiation sensitivity of the individual tumours prior to radiation therapy, or even during the radiation therapy, it would give us valuable information with regard to determining the optimal dose. Such an approach has led to the search for predictive assays. Recent advances in molecular technology and equipment have facilitated progress in this field. Some of the studies relied on tumour tissues taken by biopsy, while others focused on cell cycle parameters, which could suggest optimal fractionation schedules. The IAEA's sub-programme on Applied Radiation Biology and Radiotherapy aims to assist Member States in establishing or upgrading radiotherapy facilities to contribute effectively to cancer treatment for palliative or curative purposes and to provide assistance towards the enhancement of radiation-induced therapeutic gain. The Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Radiation Responsiveness Criteria for Human Tumours as Determinant for Therapeutic Modality Planning was initiated in 1992 to address this problem. This publication was assembled

  12. FLUXNET: A Global Network of Eddy-Covariance Flux Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R. B.; Holladay, S. K.; Margle, S. M.; Olsen, L. M.; Gu, L.; Heinsch, F.; Baldocchi, D.

    2003-12-01

    The FLUXNET global network was established to aid in understanding the mechanisms controlling the exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy across a variety of terrestrial ecosystems. Flux tower data are also being used to validate ecosystem model outputs and to provide information for validating remote sensing based products, including surface temperature, reflectance, albedo, vegetation indices, leaf area index, photosynthetically active radiation, and photosynthesis derived from MODIS sensors on the Terra and Aqua satellites. The global FLUXNET database provides consistent and complete flux data to support global carbon cycle science. Currently FLUXNET consists of over 210 sites, with most flux towers operating continuously for 4 years or longer. Gap-filled data are available for 53 sites. The FLUXNET database contains carbon, water vapor, sensible heat, momentum, and radiation flux measurements with associated ancillary and value-added data products. Towers are located in temperate conifer and broadleaf forests, tropical and boreal forests, crops, grasslands, chaparral, wetlands, and tundra on five continents. Selected MODIS Land products in the immediate vicinity of the flux tower are subsetted and posted on the FLUXNET Web site for 169 flux-towers. The MODIS subsets are prepared in ASCII format for 8-day periods for an area 7 x 7 km around the tower.

  13. Radiation phenomena and particle fluxes in the X-event in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeckel, H J; Bartlett, D V; Falter, H; Lingertat, J; Reichle, R [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    The radiation build-up and the particle fluxes in the phase, immediately preceding the X-event, has been studied bolometrically and using spectroscopy. The results show that the H-mode phase in high performance discharges tends to collapse irreversibly. The (calculated) target temperature just before the X-event amounts to about 1400 C. Any deterioration of confinement at this temperature leads to run-away conditions of the target temperature and a final fall-back into L-mode. Possible causes of the confinement deterioration are: MHD activities can cause a fast plasma loss and, hence, a power flash, dumped on the divertor target, leading to a temperature jump of up to 1000 C; enhanced recycling, due to thermal release of trapped deuterium from the graphite target plates causes an effective plasma edge cooling; loose graphite on the target tiles with virtually no thermal coupling to the target bulk can be sublimated and ejected into the main plasma with even small power levels. An active cooling, keeping the bulk target at ambient temperature could make the discharge more resilient against even medium MHD instabilities, as e.g. giant ELMs. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Pyrolytic graphite gauge for measuring heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Robert C. (Inventor); Ewing, Mark E. (Inventor); Shipley, John L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A gauge for measuring heat flux, especially heat flux encountered in a high temperature environment, is provided. The gauge includes at least one thermocouple and an anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body that covers at least part of, and optionally encases the thermocouple. Heat flux is incident on the anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body by arranging the gauge so that the gauge surface on which convective and radiative fluxes are incident is perpendicular to the basal planes of the pyrolytic graphite. The conductivity of the pyrolytic graphite permits energy, transferred into the pyrolytic graphite body in the form of heat flux on the incident (or facing) surface, to be quickly distributed through the entire pyrolytic graphite body, resulting in small substantially instantaneous temperature gradients. Temperature changes to the body can thereby be measured by the thermocouple, and reduced to quantify the heat flux incident to the body.

  15. Application of the Critical Heat Flux Look-Up Table to Large Diameter Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Nakla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The critical heat flux look-up table was applied to a large diameter tube, namely 67 mm inside diameter tube, to predict the occurrence of the phenomenon for both vertical and horizontal uniformly heated tubes. Water was considered as coolant. For the vertical tube, a diameter correction factor was directly applied to the 1995 critical heat flux look-up table. To predict the occurrence of critical heat flux in horizontal tube, an extra correction factor to account for flow stratification was applied. Both derived tables were used to predict the effect of high heat flux and tube blockage on critical heat flux occurrence in boiler tubes. Moreover, the horizontal tube look-up table was used to predict the safety limits of the operation of boiler for 50% allowable heat flux.

  16. Plasmaspheric noise radiation during geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larkina, V.I.; Likhter, Ya.I.

    1981-01-01

    Variations of plasmospheric background radiations during geomagnetic storms of different intensity are investigated. Used are results of ELF and VLF radiation measurements as well as electron fluxes of energies Esub(e)>40 keV carried out by Intercosmos 3 and Intercosmos 5 satellites. Dependences of radiation amplitude variations at 1.6 and 25 kHz frequencies on L shell for various geomagnetic activity in the day-time as well as data on variations of quasicaptured electron fluxes at Esub(e)>40 keV, are given. It is shown that experimental data agree with the existing theories of plasmospheric noise excitation. It is concluded that the plasmospheric noise excitation area Lsub(max) is always in the region of gap between radiation belts and inner slope of external radiation belt during magnetic storms. During magnetic storms Lsub(max) area moves simultaneously with the area, where particle flux of the external radiation belt is the most intensive [ru

  17. Analytic flux formulas and tables of shielding functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, O.J.

    1981-06-01

    Hand calculations of radiation flux and dose rates are often useful in evaluating radiation shielding and in determining the scope of a problem. The flux formulas appropriate to such calculations are almost always based on the point kernel and allow for at most the consideration of laminar slab shields. These formulas often require access to tables of values of integral functions for effective use. Flux formulas and function tables appropriate to calculations involving homogeneous source regions with the shapes of lines, disks, slabs, truncated cones, cylinders, and spheres are presented. Slab shields may be included in most of these calculations, and the effect of a cylindrical shield surrounding a cylindrical source may be estimated. Detector points may be located axially, laterally, or interior to a cylindrical source. Line sources may be tilted with respect to a slab shield. All function tables are given for a wide range of arguments

  18. A mobile detector for measurements of the atmospheric muon flux in underground sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrica, Bogdan, E-mail: mitrica@nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Margineanu, Romul; Stoica, Sabin; Petcu, Mirel; Brancus, Iliana [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Jipa, Alexandru; Lazanu, Ionel; Sima, Octavian [Department of Physics, University of Bucharest, P.O.B. MG-11 (Romania); Haungs, Andreas; Rebel, Heinigerd [Institut fur Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus North, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Petre, Marian; Toma, Gabriel; Saftoiu, Alexandra; Stanca, Denis; Apostu, Ana; Gomoiu, Claudia [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2011-10-21

    Muons comprise an important contribution of the natural radiation dose in air (approx. 30 nSv/h of a total dose rate of 65-130 nSv/h), as well as in underground sites even when the flux and relative contribution are significantly reduced. The flux of muons observed underground can be used as an estimator for the depth in mwe (meter water equivalent) of the underground site. The water equivalent depth is important information to devise physics experiments feasible for a specific site. A mobile detector for performing measurements of the muon flux was developed in IFIN-HH, Bucharest. Consisting of two scintillator plates (approx. 0.9 m{sup 2}) which measure in coincidence, the detector is installed on a van which facilitates measurements at different locations at the surface or underground. The detector was used to determine muon fluxes at different sites in Romania. In particular, data were taken and the values of meter water equivalents were assessed for several locations at the salt mine in Slanic-Prahova, Romania. The measurements have been performed in two different galleries of the Slanic mine at different depths. In order to test the stability of the method, also measurements of the muon flux at the surface at different elevations were performed. The results were compared with predictions of Monte-Carlo simulations using the CORSIKA and MUSIC codes.

  19. A mobile detector for measurements of the atmospheric muon flux in underground sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrica, Bogdan; Margineanu, Romul; Stoica, Sabin; Petcu, Mirel; Brancus, Iliana; Jipa, Alexandru; Lazanu, Ionel; Sima, Octavian; Haungs, Andreas; Rebel, Heinigerd; Petre, Marian; Toma, Gabriel; Saftoiu, Alexandra; Stanca, Denis; Apostu, Ana; Gomoiu, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Muons comprise an important contribution of the natural radiation dose in air (approx. 30 nSv/h of a total dose rate of 65-130 nSv/h), as well as in underground sites even when the flux and relative contribution are significantly reduced. The flux of muons observed underground can be used as an estimator for the depth in mwe (meter water equivalent) of the underground site. The water equivalent depth is important information to devise physics experiments feasible for a specific site. A mobile detector for performing measurements of the muon flux was developed in IFIN-HH, Bucharest. Consisting of two scintillator plates (approx. 0.9 m 2 ) which measure in coincidence, the detector is installed on a van which facilitates measurements at different locations at the surface or underground. The detector was used to determine muon fluxes at different sites in Romania. In particular, data were taken and the values of meter water equivalents were assessed for several locations at the salt mine in Slanic-Prahova, Romania. The measurements have been performed in two different galleries of the Slanic mine at different depths. In order to test the stability of the method, also measurements of the muon flux at the surface at different elevations were performed. The results were compared with predictions of Monte-Carlo simulations using the CORSIKA and MUSIC codes.

  20. LOFT gamma densitometer background fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimesey, R.A.; McCracken, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    Background gamma-ray fluxes were calculated at the location of the γ densitometers without integral shielding at both the hot-leg and cold-leg primary piping locations. The principal sources for background radiation at the γ densitometers are 16 N activity from the primary piping H 2 O and γ radiation from reactor internal sources. The background radiation was calculated by the point-kernel codes QAD-BSA and QAD-P5A. Reasonable assumptions were required to convert the response functions calculated by point-kernel procedures into the gamma-ray spectrum from reactor internal sources. A brief summary of point-kernel equations and theory is included

  1. Real Time Radiation Monitoring Using Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Hanratty, James J. (Inventor); Wilkins, Richard T. (Inventor); Lu, Yijiang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    System and method for monitoring receipt and estimating flux value, in real time, of incident radiation, using two or more nanostructures (NSs) and associated terminals to provide closed electrical paths and to measure one or more electrical property change values .DELTA.EPV, associated with irradiated NSs, during a sequence of irradiation time intervals. Effects of irradiation, without healing and with healing, of the NSs, are separately modeled for first order and second order healing. Change values.DELTA.EPV are related to flux, to cumulative dose received by NSs, and to radiation and healing effectivity parameters and/or.mu., associated with the NS material and to the flux. Flux and/or dose are estimated in real time, based on EPV change values, using measured .DELTA.EPV values. Threshold dose for specified changes of biological origin (usually undesired) can be estimated. Effects of time-dependent radiation flux are analyzed in pre-healing and healing regimes.

  2. Predicted Rates of Secondary Malignancies From Proton Versus Photon Radiation Therapy for Stage I Seminoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Charles B., E-mail: csimone@alumni.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Kramer, Kevin [Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Rockville, Maryland (United States); O' Meara, William P. [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Belard, Arnaud [Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Rockville, Maryland (United States); McDonough, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); O' Connell, John [Radiation Oncology Service, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Photon radiotherapy has been the standard adjuvant treatment for stage I seminoma. Single-dose carboplatin therapy and observation have emerged as alternative options due to concerns for acute toxicities and secondary malignancies from radiation. In this institutional review board-approved study, we compared photon and proton radiotherapy for stage I seminoma and the predicted rates of excess secondary malignancies for both treatment modalities. Methods and Material: Computed tomography images from 10 consecutive patients with stage I seminoma were used to quantify dosimetric differences between photon and proton therapies. Structures reported to be at increased risk for secondary malignancies and in-field critical structures were contoured. Reported models of organ-specific radiation-induced cancer incidence rates based on organ equivalent dose were used to determine the excess absolute risk of secondary malignancies. Calculated values were compared with tumor registry reports of excess secondary malignancies among testicular cancer survivors. Results: Photon and proton plans provided comparable target volume coverage. Proton plans delivered significantly lower mean doses to all examined normal tissues, except for the kidneys. The greatest absolute reduction in mean dose was observed for the stomach (119 cGy for proton plans vs. 768 cGy for photon plans; p < 0.0001). Significantly more excess secondary cancers per 10,000 patients/year were predicted for photon radiation than for proton radiation to the stomach (4.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.22-5.01), large bowel (0.81; 95% CI, 0.39-1.01), and bladder (0.03; 95% CI, 0.01-0.58), while no difference was demonstrated for radiation to the pancreas (0.02; 95% CI, -0.01-0.06). Conclusions: For patients with stage I seminoma, proton radiation therapy reduced the predicted secondary cancer risk compared with photon therapy. We predict a reduction of one additional secondary cancer for every 50 patients

  3. Estimating carbon dioxide fluxes from temperate mountain grasslands using broad-band vegetation indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wohlfahrt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The broad-band normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI and the simple ratio (SR were calculated from measurements of reflectance of photosynthetically active and short-wave radiation at two temperate mountain grasslands in Austria and related to the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE measured concurrently by means of the eddy covariance method. There was no significant statistical difference between the relationships of midday mean NEE with narrow- and broad-band NDVI and SR, measured during and calculated for that same time window, respectively. The skill of broad-band NDVI and SR in predicting CO2 fluxes was higher for metrics dominated by gross photosynthesis and lowest for ecosystem respiration, with NEE in between. A method based on a simple light response model whose parameters were parameterised based on broad-band NDVI allowed to improve predictions of daily NEE and is suggested to hold promise for filling gaps in the NEE time series. Relationships of CO2 flux metrics with broad-band NDVI and SR however generally differed between the two studied grassland sites indicting an influence of additional factors not yet accounted for.

  4. Theory of redeposition of sputtered flux on to surface asperities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belson, J.; Wilson, I.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper models the topographical evolution of features on amorphous surfaces under ion bombardment. Specifically, evolution due to accretion of material sputtered from areas adjacent to a feature has been investigated in terms of the flux density redeposited on to an arbitrary profile y = f(xi) from a linear emitter. Analytical solutions have been found for the early ( first burst ) evolution of linear and sinusoidal surface features in cases where the emitter radiates isotropically or anisotropically (cosine law) from each point of its length. The predictions of models based on these two types of emitter are compared. Both types produce enhanced deposition near the foot of a linear slope but the effect is much greater for isotropic emission. Above the foot of a linear slope there is a point beyond which the redeposition due to an anisotropic emitter is greater than that due to an isotropic emitter of identical luminance. For a 90 0 slope (step or groove of rectangular section) the point is about 0.4 times the emitter length (i.e. 0.4 x groove width) above the base. Sinusoidal asperities which are present in a high surface density are expected to receive significant redeposited flux only near their bases. By contrast, widely separated asperities would receive flux over almost all or their profiles. In this latter situation the magnitude of the redeposited flux density is found to be relatively insensitive to position on a profile. (orig.)

  5. Temporal Variability in Vertical Groundwater Fluxes and the Effect of Solar Radiation on Streambed Temperatures Based on Vertical High Resolution Distributed Temperature Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebok, E.; Karan, S.; Engesgaard, P. K.; Duque, C.

    2013-12-01

    Due to its large spatial and temporal variability, groundwater discharge to streams is difficult to quantify. Methods using vertical streambed temperature profiles to estimate vertical fluxes are often of coarse vertical spatial resolution and neglect to account for the natural heterogeneity in thermal conductivity of streambed sediments. Here we report on a field investigation in a stream, where air, stream water and streambed sediment temperatures were measured by Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) with high spatial resolution to; (i) detect spatial and temporal variability in groundwater discharge based on vertical streambed temperature profiles, (ii) study the thermal regime of streambed sediments exposed to different solar radiation influence, (iii) describe the effect of solar radiation on the measured streambed temperatures. The study was carried out at a field site located along Holtum stream, in Western Denmark. The 3 m wide stream has a sandy streambed with a cobbled armour layer, a mean discharge of 200 l/s and a mean depth of 0.3 m. Streambed temperatures were measured with a high-resolution DTS system (HR-DTS). By helically wrapping the fiber optic cable around two PVC pipes of 0.05 m and 0.075 m outer diameter over 1.5 m length, temperature measurements were recorded with 5.7 mm and 3.8 mm vertical spacing, respectively. The HR-DTS systems were installed 0.7 m deep in the streambed sediments, crossing both the sediment-water and the water-air interface, thus yielding high resolution water and air temperature data as well. One of the HR-DTS systems was installed in the open stream channel with only topographical shading, while the other HR-DTS system was placed 7 m upstream, under the canopy of a tree, thus representing the shaded conditions with reduced influence of solar radiation. Temperature measurements were taken with 30 min intervals between 16 April and 25 June 2013. The thermal conductivity of streambed sediments was calibrated in a 1D flow

  6. Critical heat flux prediction by using radial basis function and multilayer perceptron neural networks: A comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaziri, Nima; Hojabri, Alireza; Erfani, Ali; Monsefi, Mehrdad; Nilforooshan, Behnam

    2007-01-01

    Critical heat flux (CHF) is an important parameter for the design of nuclear reactors. Although many experimental and theoretical researches have been performed, there is not a single correlation to predict CHF because it is influenced by many parameters. These parameters are based on fixed inlet, local and fixed outlet conditions. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied to a wide variety of different areas such as prediction, approximation, modeling and classification. In this study, two types of neural networks, radial basis function (RBF) and multilayer perceptron (MLP), are trained with the experimental CHF data and their performances are compared. RBF predicts CHF with root mean square (RMS) errors of 0.24%, 7.9%, 0.16% and MLP predicts CHF with RMS errors of 1.29%, 8.31% and 2.71%, in fixed inlet conditions, local conditions and fixed outlet conditions, respectively. The results show that neural networks with RBF structure have superior performance in CHF data prediction over MLP neural networks. The parametric trends of CHF obtained by the trained ANNs are also evaluated and results reported

  7. Calculating the Responses of Self-Powered Radiation Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, D. A.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The aim of this research is to review and develop the theoretical understanding of the responses of Self -Powered Radiation Detectors (SPDs) in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). Two very different models are considered. A simple analytic model of the responses of SPDs to neutrons and gamma radiation is presented. It is a development of the work of several previous authors and has been incorporated into a computer program (called GENSPD), the predictions of which have been compared with experimental and theoretical results reported in the literature. Generally, the comparisons show reasonable consistency; where there is poor agreement explanations have been sought and presented. Two major limitations of analytic models have been identified; neglect of current generation in insulators and over-simplified electron transport treatments. Both of these are developed in the current work. A second model based on the Explicit Representation of Radiation Sources and Transport (ERRST) is presented and evaluated for several SPDs in a PWR at beginning of life. The model incorporates simulation of the production and subsequent transport of neutrons, gamma rays and electrons, both internal and external to the detector. Neutron fluxes and fuel power ratings have been evaluated with core physics calculations. Neutron interaction rates in assembly and detector materials have been evaluated in lattice calculations employing deterministic transport and diffusion methods. The transport of the reactor gamma radiation has been calculated with Monte Carlo, adjusted diffusion and point-kernel methods. The electron flux associated with the reactor gamma field as well as the internal charge deposition effects of the transport of photons and electrons have been calculated with coupled Monte Carlo calculations of photon and electron transport. The predicted response of a SPD is evaluated as the sum of contributions from individual

  8. Predictive modelling for swallowing dysfunction after primary (chemo)radiation: results of a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianen, Miranda E M C; Schilstra, Cornelis; Beetz, Ivo; Muijs, Christina T; Chouvalova, Olga; Burlage, Fred R; Doornaert, Patricia; Koken, Phil W; Leemans, C René; Rinkel, Rico N P M; de Bruijn, Marieke J; de Bock, G H; Roodenburg, Jan L N; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Slotman, Ben J; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Bijl, Hendrik P; Langendijk, Johannes A

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this large multicentre prospective cohort study was to identify which dose volume histogram parameters and pre-treatment factors are most important to predict physician-rated and patient-rated radiation-induced swallowing dysfunction (RISD) in order to develop predictive models for RISD after curative (chemo) radiotherapy ((CH) RT). The study population consisted of 354 consecutive head and neck cancer patients treated with (CH) RT. The primary endpoint was grade 2 or more swallowing dysfunction according to the RTOG/EORTC late radiation morbidity scoring criteria at 6 months after (CH) RT. The secondary endpoints were patient-rated swallowing complaints as assessed with the EORTC QLQ-H&N35 questionnaire. To select the most predictive variables a multivariate logistic regression analysis with bootstrapping was used. At 6 months after (CH) RT the bootstrapping procedure revealed that a model based on the mean dose to the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (PCM) and mean dose to the supraglottic larynx was most predictive. For the secondary endpoints different predictive models were found: for problems with swallowing liquids the most predictive factors were the mean dose to the supraglottic larynx and radiation technique (3D-CRT versus IMRT). For problems with swallowing soft food the mean dose to the middle PCM, age (18-65 versus >65 years), tumour site (naso/oropharynx versus other sites) and radiation technique (3D-CRT versus IMRT) were the most predictive factors. For problems with swallowing solid food the most predictive factors were the mean dose to the superior PCM, the mean dose to the supraglottic larynx and age (18-65 versus >65 years). And for choking when swallowing the V60 of the oesophageal inlet muscle and the mean dose to the supraglottic larynx were the most predictive factors. Physician-rated and patient-rated RISD in head and neck cancer patients treated with (CH) RT cannot be predicted with univariate relationships between the

  9. Dynamic thermal signature prediction for real-time scene generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Chad L.; Gouthas, Efthimios (Themie); Williams, Owen M.; Swierkowski, Leszek

    2013-05-01

    At DSTO, a real-time scene generation framework, VIRSuite, has been developed in recent years, within which trials data are predominantly used for modelling the radiometric properties of the simulated objects. Since in many cases the data are insufficient, a physics-based simulator capable of predicting the infrared signatures of objects and their backgrounds has been developed as a new VIRSuite module. It includes transient heat conduction within the materials, and boundary conditions that take into account the heat fluxes due to solar radiation, wind convection and radiative transfer. In this paper, an overview is presented, covering both the steady-state and transient performance.

  10. Inferring CO2 Fluxes from OCO-2 for Assimilation into Land Surface Models to Calculate Net Ecosystem Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, R.; Radov, A.; Halem, M.; Nearing, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    Investigations of mid to high latitude atmospheric CO2 show a growing seasonal amplitude. Land surface models poorly predict net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and are unable to substantiate these sporadic observations. An investigation of how the biosphere has reacted to changes in atmospheric CO2 is essential to our understanding of potential climate-vegetation feedbacks. A global, seasonal investigation of CO2-flux is then necessary in order to assimilate into land surface models for improving the prediction of annual NEE. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) of DOE collects CO2-flux measurements (in addition to CO2 concentration and various other meteorological quantities) at several towers located around the globe at half hour temporal frequencies. CO2-fluxes are calculated via the eddy covariance technique, which utilizes CO2-densities and wind velocities to calculate CO2-fluxes. The global coverage of CO2 concentrations as provided by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) provide satellite-derived CO2 concentrations all over the globe. A framework relating the satellite-inferred CO2 concentrations collocated with the ground-based ARM as well as Ameriflux stations would enable calculations of CO2-fluxes far from the station sites around the entire globe. Regression techniques utilizing deep-learning neural networks may provide such a framework. Additionally, meteorological reanalysis allows for the replacement of the ARM multivariable meteorological variables needed to infer the CO2-fluxes. We present the results of inferring CO2-fluxes from OCO-2 CO2 concentrations for a two year period, Sept. 2014- Sept. 2016 at the ARM station located near Oklahoma City. A feed-forward neural network (FFNN) is used to infer relationships between the following data sets: F([ARM CO2-density], [ARM Meteorological Data]) = [ARM CO2-Flux] F([OCO-2 CO2-density],[ARM Meteorological Data]) = [ARM CO2-Flux] F([ARM CO2-density],[Meteorological Reanalysis]) = [ARM CO2-Flux

  11. Flux balance modeling to predict bacterial survival during pulsed-activity events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Nicholas A.; Lau, Rebecca; Swenson, Tami L.; Klitgord, Niels; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Bowen, Benjamin P.; Baran, Richard; Northen, Trent R.

    2018-04-01

    Desert biological soil crusts (BSCs) are cyanobacteria-dominated surface soil microbial communities common to plant interspaces in arid environments. The capability to significantly dampen their metabolism allows them to exist for extended periods in a desiccated dormant state that is highly robust to environmental stresses. However, within minutes of wetting, metabolic functions reboot, maximizing activity during infrequent permissive periods. Microcoleus vaginatus, a primary producer within the crust ecosystem and an early colonizer, initiates crust formation by binding particles in the upper layer of soil via exopolysaccharides, making microbial dominated biological soil crusts highly dependent on the viability of this organism. Previous studies have suggested that biopolymers play a central role in the survival of this organism by powering resuscitation, rapidly forming compatible solutes, and fueling metabolic activity in dark, hydrated conditions. To elucidate the mechanism of this phenomenon and provide a basis for future modeling of BSCs, we developed a manually curated, genome-scale metabolic model of Microcoleus vaginatus (iNJ1153). To validate this model, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) were used to characterize the rate of biopolymer accumulation and depletion in in hydrated Microcoleus vaginatus under light and dark conditions. Constraint-based flux balance analysis showed agreement between model predictions and experimental reaction fluxes. A significant amount of consumed carbon and light energy is invested into storage molecules glycogen and polyphosphate, while β-polyhydroxybutyrate may function as a secondary resource. Pseudo-steady-state modeling suggests that glycogen, the primary carbon source with the fastest depletion rate, will be exhausted if M. vaginatus experiences dark wetting events 4 times longer than light wetting events.

  12. Design of an actively cooled plate calorimeter for the investigation of pool fire heat fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Nicolette, V.F.; Wix, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    For final qualification of shipping containers for transport of hazardous materials, thermal testing in accordance with regulations such as 10CFR71 must be completed. Such tests typically consist of 30 minute exposures with the container fully engulfed in flames from a large, open pool of JP4 jet engine fuel. Despite careful engineering analyses of the container, testing often reveals design problems that must be solved by modification and expensive retesting of the container. One source of this problem is the wide variation in surface heat flux to the container that occurs in pool fires. Average heat fluxes of 50 to 60 kW/m 2 are typical and close the values implied by the radiation model in 10CFR71, but peak fluxes up to 150 kW/m 2 are routinely observed in fires. Heat fluxes in pool fires have been shown to be a function of surface temperature of the container, height above the pool, surface orientation, wind, and other variables. If local variations in the surface heat flux to the container could be better predicted, design analyses would become more accurate, and fewer problems will be uncovered during testing. The objective of the calorimeter design described in this paper is to measure accurately pool fire heat fluxes under controlled conditions, and to provide data for calibration of improved analytical models of local flame-surface interactions

  13. Ignition of Cellulosic Paper at Low Radiant Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. Alan

    1996-01-01

    The ignition of cellulosic paper by low level thermal radiation is investigated. Past work on radiative ignition of paper is briefly reviewed. No experimental study has been reported for radiative ignition of paper at irradiances below 10 Watts/sq.cm. An experimental study of radiative ignition of paper at these low irradiances is reported. Experimental parameters investigated and discussed include radiant power levels incident on the sample, the method of applying the radiation (focussed vs. diffuse Gaussian source), the presence and relative position of a separate pilot ignition source, and the effects of natural convection (buoyancy) on the ignition process in a normal gravity environment. It is observed that the incident radiative flux (in W/sq.cm) has the greatest influence on ignition time. For a given flux level, a focussed Gaussian source is found to be advantageous to a more diffuse, lower amplitude, thermal source. The precise positioning of a pilot igniter relative to gravity and to the fuel sample affects the ignition process, but the precise effects are not fully understood. Ignition was more readily achieved and sustained with a horizontal fuel sample, indicating the buoyancy plays a role in the ignition process of cellulosic paper. Smoldering combustion of doped paper samples was briefly investigated, and results are discussed.

  14. Individual response to ionising radiation: What predictive assay(s) to choose?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granzotto, A.; Viau, M.; Devic, C.; Maalouf, M.; Thomas, Ch.; Vogin, G.; Foray, N.; Granzotto, A.; Vogin, G.; Balosso, J.; Joubert, A.; Maalouf, M.; Vogin, G.; Colin, C.; Malek, K.; Balosso, J.; Colin, C.

    2011-01-01

    Individual response to ionizing radiation is an important information required to apply an efficient radiotherapy treatment against tumour and to avoid any adverse effects in normal tissues. In 1981, Fertil and Malaise have demonstrated that the post-irradiation local tumor control determined in vivo is correlated with clonogenic cell survival assessed in vitro. Furthermore, these authors have reminded the relevance of the concept of intrinsic radiosensitivity that is specific to each individual organ (Fertil and Malaise, 1981) [1]. To date, since clonogenicity assays are too time-consuming and do not provide any other molecular information, a plethora of research groups have attempted to determine the molecular bases of intrinsic radiosensitivity in order to propose reliable and faster predictive assays. To this aim, several approaches have been developed. Notably, the recent revolution in genomic and proteomics technologies is providing a considerable number of data but their link with radiosensitivity still remains to be elucidated. On another hand, the systematic screening of some candidate genes potentially involved in the radiation response is highlighting the complexity of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of DNA damage sensing and signalling and shows that an abnormal radiation response is not necessarily due to the impairment of one single protein. Finally, more modest approaches consisting in focusing some specific functions of DNA repair seem to provide more reliable clues to predict over-acute reactions caused by radiotherapy. In this review, we endeavored to analyse the contributions of these major approaches to predict human radiosensitivity. (authors)

  15. Fast nanoscale heat-flux modulation with phase-change materials

    OpenAIRE

    Van Zwol , Pieter; Joulain , Karl; Ben-Abdallah , Philippe; Greffet , Jean-Jacques; Chevrier , Joël

    2011-01-01

    International audience; We introduce a new concept for electrically controlled heat flux modulation. A flux contrast larger than 10 dB is expected with switching time on the order of tens of nanoseconds. Heat flux modulation is based on the interplay between radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale and phase change materials. Such large contrasts are not obtainable in solids, or in far field. As such this opens up new horizons for temperature modulation and actuation at the nanoscale.

  16. Average profiles of the solar wind and outer radiation belt during the extreme flux enhancement of relativistic electrons at geosynchronous orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kataoka

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We report average profiles of the solar wind and outer radiation belt during the extreme flux enhancement of relativistic electrons at geosynchronous orbit (GEO. It is found that seven of top ten extreme events at GEO during solar cycle 23 are associated with the magnetosphere inflation during the storm recovery phase as caused by the large-scale solar wind structure of very low dynamic pressure (<1.0 nPa during rapid speed decrease from very high (>650 km/s to typical (400–500 km/s in a few days. For the seven events, the solar wind parameters, geomagnetic activity indices, and relativistic electron flux and geomagnetic field at GEO are superposed at the local noon period of GOES satellites to investigate the physical cause. The average profiles support the "double inflation" mechanism that the rarefaction of the solar wind and subsequent magnetosphere inflation are one of the best conditions to produce the extreme flux enhancement at GEO because of the excellent magnetic confinement of relativistic electrons by reducing the drift loss of trapped electrons at dayside magnetopause.

  17. Predicting space climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-10-01

    Galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles can be hazardous to humans in space, damage spacecraft and satellites, pose threats to aircraft electronics, and expose aircrew and passengers to radiation. A new study shows that these threats are likely to increase in coming years as the Sun approaches the end of the period of high solar activity known as “grand solar maximum,” which has persisted through the past several decades. High solar activity can help protect the Earth by repelling incoming galactic cosmic rays. Understanding the past record can help scientists predict future conditions. Barnard et al. analyzed a 9300-year record of galactic cosmic ray and solar activity based on cosmogenic isotopes in ice cores as well as on neutron monitor data. They used this to predict future variations in galactic cosmic ray flux, near-Earth interplanetary magnetic field, sunspot number, and probability of large solar energetic particle events. The researchers found that the risk of space weather radiation events will likely increase noticeably over the next century compared with recent decades and that lower solar activity will lead to increased galactic cosmic ray levels. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL048489, 2011)

  18. Self similar flow behind an exponential shock wave in a self-gravitating, rotating, axisymmetric dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajargaan, Ruchi; Patel, Arvind

    2018-04-01

    One-dimensional unsteady adiabatic flow behind an exponential shock wave propagating in a self-gravitating, rotating, axisymmetric dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux, which has exponentially varying azimuthal and axial fluid velocities, is investigated. The shock wave is driven out by a piston moving with time according to an exponential law. The dusty gas is taken to be a mixture of a non-ideal gas and small solid particles. The density of the ambient medium is assumed to be constant. The equilibrium flow conditions are maintained and energy is varying exponentially, which is continuously supplied by the piston. The heat conduction is expressed in the terms of Fourier's law, and the radiation is assumed of diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity and the absorption coefficient are assumed to vary with temperature and density according to a power law. The effects of the variation of heat transfer parameters, gravitation parameter and dusty gas parameters on the shock strength, the distance between the piston and the shock front, and on the flow variables are studied out in detail. It is interesting to note that the similarity solution exists under the constant initial angular velocity, and the shock strength is independent from the self gravitation, heat conduction and radiation heat flux.

  19. A prediction model for the radiation safety management behavior of medical cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ji Hye; Han, Eun Ok; Kim, Ssang Tae

    2008-01-01

    This study attempted to provide reference materials for improving the behavior level in radiation safety managements by drawing a prediction model that affects the radiation safety management behavior because the radiation safety management of medical Cyclotrons, which can be used to produce radioisotopes, is an important factor that protects radiation caused diseases not only for radiological operators but average users. In addition, this study obtained follows results through the investigation applied from January 2 to January 30, 2008 for the radiation safety managers employed in 24 authorized organizations, which have already installed Cyclotrons, through applying a specific form of questionnaire in which the validity was guaranteed by reference study, site investigation, and focus discussion by related experts. The radiation safety management were configured as seven steps: step 1 is a production preparation step, step 2 is an RI production step, step 3 is a synthesis step, step 4 is a distribution step, step 5 is a quality control step, step 6 is a carriage container packing step, and step 7 is a transportation step. It was recognized that the distribution step was the most exposed as 15 subjects (62.5%), the items of 'the sanction and permission related works' and 'the guarantee of installation facilities and production equipment' were the most difficult as 9 subjects (37.5%), and in the trouble steps in such exposure, the item of 'the synthesis and distribution' steps were 4 times, respectively (30.8%). In the score of the behavior level in radiation safety managements, the minimum and maximum scores were 2.42 and 4.00, respectively, and the average score was 3.46 ± 0.47 out of 4. Prosperity and well-being programs in the behavior and job in radiation safety managements (r=0.529) represented a significant correlation statistically. In the drawing of a prediction model based on the factors that affected the behavior in radiation safety managements, general

  20. Pretreatment Growth Rate Predicts Radiation Response in Vestibular Schwannomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Nina N.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Larvie, Mykol; Curtin, Hugh; Loeffler, Jay S.; McKenna, Michael J.; Shih, Helen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are often followed without initial therapeutic intervention because many tumors do not grow and radiation therapy is associated with potential adverse effects. In an effort to determine whether maximizing initial surveillance predicts for later treatment response, the predictive value of preirradiation growth rate of VS on response to radiation therapy was assessed. Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients with 65 VS were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiation surgery or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. Pre- and postirradiation linear expansion rates were estimated using volumetric measurements on sequential magnetic resonance images (MRIs). In addition, postirradiation tumor volume change was classified as demonstrating shrinkage (ratio of volume on last follow-up MRI to MRI immediately preceding irradiation <80%), stability (ratio 80%-120%), or expansion (ratio >120%). The median pre- and postirradiation follow-up was 20.0 and 27.5 months, respectively. Seven tumors from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients were excluded from statistical analyses. Results: In the 58 non-NF2 patients, there was a trend of correlation between pre- and postirradiation volume change rates (slope on linear regression, 0.29; P=.06). Tumors demonstrating postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 89%/year, and those without postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 41%/year (P=.02). As the preirradiation growth rate increased, the probability of postirradiation expansion also increased. Overall, 24.1% of tumors were stable, 53.4% experienced shrinkage, and 22.5% experienced expansion. Predictors of no postirradiation tumor expansion included no prior surgery (P=.01) and slower tumor growth rate (P=.02). The control of tumors in NF2 patients was only 43%. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for VS, but tumors that grow quickly preirradiation may be

  1. Pretreatment Growth Rate Predicts Radiation Response in Vestibular Schwannomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Nina N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Larvie, Mykol [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Curtin, Hugh [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Loeffler, Jay S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); McKenna, Michael J. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are often followed without initial therapeutic intervention because many tumors do not grow and radiation therapy is associated with potential adverse effects. In an effort to determine whether maximizing initial surveillance predicts for later treatment response, the predictive value of preirradiation growth rate of VS on response to radiation therapy was assessed. Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients with 65 VS were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiation surgery or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. Pre- and postirradiation linear expansion rates were estimated using volumetric measurements on sequential magnetic resonance images (MRIs). In addition, postirradiation tumor volume change was classified as demonstrating shrinkage (ratio of volume on last follow-up MRI to MRI immediately preceding irradiation <80%), stability (ratio 80%-120%), or expansion (ratio >120%). The median pre- and postirradiation follow-up was 20.0 and 27.5 months, respectively. Seven tumors from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients were excluded from statistical analyses. Results: In the 58 non-NF2 patients, there was a trend of correlation between pre- and postirradiation volume change rates (slope on linear regression, 0.29; P=.06). Tumors demonstrating postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 89%/year, and those without postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 41%/year (P=.02). As the preirradiation growth rate increased, the probability of postirradiation expansion also increased. Overall, 24.1% of tumors were stable, 53.4% experienced shrinkage, and 22.5% experienced expansion. Predictors of no postirradiation tumor expansion included no prior surgery (P=.01) and slower tumor growth rate (P=.02). The control of tumors in NF2 patients was only 43%. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for VS, but tumors that grow quickly preirradiation may be

  2. Relativistic electrons of the outer radiation belt and methods of their forecast (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapov A.S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews studies of the dynamics of relativistic electrons in the geosynchronous region. It lists the physical processes that lead to the acceleration of electrons filling the outer radiation belt. As one of the space weather factors, high-energy electron fluxes pose a serious threat to the operation of satellite equipment in one of the most populated orbital regions. Necessity is emphasized for efforts to develop methods for forecasting the situation in this part of the magnetosphere, possible predictors are listed, and their classification is given. An example of a predictive model for forecasting relativistic electron flux with a 1–2-day lead time is proposed. Some questions of practical organization of prediction are discussed; the main objectives of short-term, medium-term, and long-term forecasts are listed.

  3. Seasonal predictions of equatorial Atlantic SST in a low-resolution CGCM with surface heat flux correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippe, Tina; Greatbatch, Richard; Ding, Hui

    2016-04-01

    The dominant mode of interannual variability in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is the Atlantic Niño or Zonal Mode. Akin to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in the Pacific sector, it is able to impact the climate both of the adjacent equatorial African continent and remote regions. Due to heavy biases in the mean state climate of the equatorial-to-subtropical Atlantic, however, most state-of-the-art coupled global climate models (CGCMs) are unable to realistically simulate equatorial Atlantic variability. In this study, the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) is used to investigate the impact of a simple bias alleviation technique on the predictability of equatorial Atlantic SSTs. Two sets of seasonal forecasting experiments are performed: An experiment using the standard KCM (STD), and an experiment with additional surface heat flux correction (FLX) that efficiently removes the SST bias from simulations. Initial conditions for both experiments are generated by the KCM run in partially coupled mode, a simple assimilation technique that forces the KCM with observed wind stress anomalies and preserves SST as a fully prognostic variable. Seasonal predictions for both sets of experiments are run four times yearly for 1981-2012. Results: Heat flux correction substantially improves the simulated variability in the initialization runs for boreal summer and fall (June-October). In boreal spring (March-May), however, neither the initialization runs of the STD or FLX-experiments are able to capture the observed variability. FLX-predictions show no consistent enhancement of skill relative to the predictions of the STD experiment over the course of the year. The skill of persistence forecasts is hardly beat by either of the two experiments in any season, limiting the usefulness of the few forecasts that show significant skill. However, FLX-forecasts initialized in May recover skill in July and August, the peak season of the Atlantic Niño (anomaly correlation

  4. Estimating shortwave solar radiation using net radiation and meteorological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortwave radiation has a wide variety of uses in land-atmosphere interactions research. Actual evapotranspiration estimation that involves stomatal conductance models like Jarvis and Ball-Berry require shortwave radiation to estimate photon flux density. However, in most weather stations, shortwave...

  5. Predicting radio fluxes of extrasolar planets (Griessmeier+, 2007)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griessmeier, J.M.; Zarka, P.; Spreeuw, H.

    2007-01-01

    Expected radio emission from presently known exoplanets. For each of the currently known exoplanets, we list its estimated magnetic moment, maximum radio emission frequency, plasma frequency in the ambient stellar wind, and radio fluxes according to three different models. (1 data file).

  6. Air-sea heat flux control on the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass intensity and implications for its prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junying; Shi, Jie; Guo, Xinyu; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong

    2018-01-01

    The Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM), which occurs during summer in the central Yellow Sea, plays an important role in the hydrodynamic field, nutrient cycle and biological species. Based on water temperature observations during the summer from 1978 to 1998 in the western Yellow Sea, five specific YSCWM years were identified, including two strong years (1984 and 1985), two weak years (1989 and 1995) and one normal year (1992). Using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, the YSCWM formation processes in these five years were simulated and compared with observations. In general, the YSCWM began forming in spring, matured in summer and gradually disappeared in autumn of every year. The 8 °C isotherm was used to indicate the YSCWM boundary. The modelled YSCWM areas in the two strong years were approximately two times larger than those in the two weak years. Based on the simulations in the weak year of 1995, ten numerical experiments were performed to quantify the key factors influencing the YSCWM intensity by changing the initial water condition in the previous autumn, air-sea heat flux, wind, evaporation, precipitation and sea level pressure to those in the strong year of 1984, respectively. The results showed that the air-sea heat flux was the dominant factor influencing the YSCWM intensity, which contributed about 80% of the differences of the YSCWM average water temperature at a depth of 50 m. In addition, the air-sea heat flux in the previous winter had a determining effect, contributing more than 50% of the differences between the strong and weak YSCWM years. Finally, a simple formula for predicting the YSCWM intensity was established by using the key influencing factors, i.e., the sea surface temperature before the cooling season and the air-sea heat flux during the cooling season from the previous December to the current February. With this formula, instead of a complicated numerical model, we were able to roughly predict the YSCWM intensity for the

  7. OBSERVATIONS OF ENHANCED RADIATIVE GRAIN ALIGNMENT NEAR HD 97300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B-G; Potter, S. B.

    2010-01-01

    We have obtained optical multi-band polarimetry toward sightlines through the Chamaeleon I cloud, particularly in the vicinity of the young B9/A0 star HD 97300. We show, in agreement with earlier studies, that the radiation field impinging on the cloud in the projected vicinity of the star is dominated by the flux from the star, as evidenced by a local enhancement in the grain heating. By comparing the differential grain heating with the differential change in the location of the peak of the polarization curve, we show that the grain alignment is enhanced by the increase in the radiation field. We also find a weak, but measurable, variation in the grain alignment with the relative angle between the radiation field anisotropy and the magnetic field direction. Such an anisotropy in the grain alignment is consistent with a unique prediction of modern radiative alignment torque theory and provides direct support for radiatively driven grain alignment.

  8. Group: radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    1990-01-01

    The main activities of the radiation dosimetry group is described, including the calibration of instruments, sources and radioactive solutions and the determination of neutron flux; development, production and market dosimetric materials; development radiation sensor make the control of radiation dose received by IPEN workers; development new techniques for monitoring, etc. (C.G.C.)

  9. Divertor heat flux mitigation in the National Spherical Torus Experimenta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Maingi, R.; Gates, D. A.; Menard, J. E.; Paul, S. F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A. L.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Boedo, J. A.; Bush, C. E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; Leblanc, B. P.; Mueller, D.; NSTX Team

    2009-02-01

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for both ITER and spherical torus-based devices with compact high power density divertors. Significant reduction of heat flux to the divertor plate has been achieved simultaneously with favorable core and pedestal confinement and stability properties in a highly shaped lower single null configuration in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 2000] using high magnetic flux expansion at the divertor strike point and the radiative divertor technique. A partial detachment of the outer strike point was achieved with divertor deuterium injection leading to peak flux reduction from 4-6MWm-2to0.5-2MWm-2 in small-ELM 0.8-1.0MA, 4-6MW neutral beam injection-heated H-mode discharges. A self-consistent picture of the outer strike point partial detachment was evident from divertor heat flux profiles and recombination, particle flux and neutral pressure measurements. Analytic scrape-off layer parallel transport models were used for interpretation of NSTX detachment experiments. The modeling showed that the observed peak heat flux reduction and detachment are possible with high radiated power and momentum loss fractions, achievable with divertor gas injection, and nearly impossible to achieve with main electron density, divertor neutral density or recombination increases alone.

  10. Radiation damage studies for the DOe silicon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, Frank

    2004-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies performed on spare production silicon detector modules for the current DOe silicon detector. The lifetime expectations due to radiation damage effects of the existing silicon detector are reviewed. A new upgrade project was started with the goal of a complete replacement of the existing silicon detector. In that context, several investigations on the radiation hardness of new prototype silicon microstrip detectors were carried out. The irradiation on different detector types was performed with 10 MeV protons up to fluences of 10 14 p/cm 2 at the J.R. Mcdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University. The flux calibration was carefully checked using different normalisation techniques. As a result, we observe roughly 40-50% less radiation damage in silicon for 10 MeV p exposure than it is expected by the predicted NIEL scaling

  11. A Novel Diffuse Fraction-Based Two-Leaf Light Use Efficiency Model: An Application Quantifying Photosynthetic Seasonality across 20 AmeriFlux Flux Tower Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hao; Wang, Shao-Qiang; Yu, Kai-Liang; Wang, Bin; Yu, Qin; Bohrer, Gil; Billesbach, Dave; Bracho, Rosvel; Rahman, Faiz; Shugart, Herman H.

    2017-10-01

    Diffuse radiation can increase canopy light use efficiency (LUE). This creates the need to differentiate the effects of direct and diffuse radiation when simulating terrestrial gross primary production (GPP). Here, we present a novel GPP model, the diffuse-fraction-based two-leaf model (DTEC), which includes the leaf response to direct and diffuse radiation, and treats maximum LUE for shaded leaves (ɛmsh defined as a power function of the diffuse fraction (Df)) and sunlit leaves (ɛmsu defined as a constant) separately. An Amazonian rainforest site (KM67) was used to calibrate the model by simulating the linear relationship between monthly canopy LUE and Df. This showed a positive response of forest GPP to atmospheric diffuse radiation, and suggested that diffuse radiation was more limiting than global radiation and water availability for Amazon rainforest GPP on a monthly scale. Further evaluation at 20 independent AmeriFlux sites showed that the DTEC model, when driven by monthly meteorological data and MODIS leaf area index (LAI) products, explained 70% of the variability observed in monthly flux tower GPP. This exceeded the 51% accounted for by the MODIS 17A2 big-leaf GPP product. The DTEC model's explicit accounting for the impacts of diffuse radiation and soil water stress along with its parameterization for C4 and C3 plants was responsible for this difference. The evaluation of DTEC at Amazon rainforest sites demonstrated its potential to capture the unique seasonality of higher GPP during the diffuse radiation-dominated wet season. Our results highlight the importance of diffuse radiation in seasonal GPP simulation.Plain Language SummaryAs diffuse radiation can increase canopy light use efficiency (LUE), there is a need to differentiate the effects of direct and diffuse radiation in simulating terrestrial gross primary production (GPP). A novel diffuse-fraction (Df)-based two leaf GPP model (DTEC) developed by this study considers these effects. Evaluation

  12. Design Principles of A Sigma-delta Flux-gate Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnes, W.; Valavanoglou, A.; Pierce, D.; Frank, A.; Schwingenschuh, K.

    A state-of-the-art flux-gate magnetometer is characterised by magnetic field resolution of several pT in a wide frequency range, low power consumption, low weight and high robustness. Therefore, flux-gate magnetometers are frequently used for ground-based Earth's field observation as well as for measurements aboard scientific space missions. But both traditional analogue and recently developed digital flux-gate magnetometers need low power and high-resolution analogue-to-digital converters for signal quan- tization. The disadvantage of such converters is the low radiation hardness. This fact has led to the idea of combining a traditional analogue flux-gate regulation circuit with that of a discretely realized sigma-delta converter in order to get a radiation hard and further miniaturized magnetometer. The name sigma-delta converter is derived from putting an integrator in front of a 1-bit delta modulator which forms the sigma-delta loop. It is followed by a digital decimation filter realized in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The flux-gate regulation and the sigma-delta loop are quite similar in the way of realizing the integrator and feedback circuit, which makes it easy to com- bine these two systems. The presented talk deals with the design principles and the results of a first bread board model.

  13. Vertical motions in an intense magnetic flux tube. Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, A.R.; Roberts, B.

    1980-01-01

    It is of interest to examine the effect of radiative relaxation on the propagation of waves in an intense magnetic flux tube embedded in a stratified atmosphere. The radiative energy loss (assuming Newton's law of cooling) leads to a decrease in the vertical phase-velocity of the waves, and to a damping of the amplitude for those waves with frequencies greater than the adiabatic value (ωsub(upsilon)) of the tube cut-off frequency. The cut-off frequency is generalized to include the effects of radiative relaxation, and allows the waves to be classified as mainly progressive or mainly damped. The phase-shift between velocity oscillations at two different levels and the phase-difference between temperature and velocity perturbations are compared with the available observations. Radiative dissipation of waves propagating along an intense flux tube may be the cause of the high temperature (and excess brightness) observed in the network. (orig.)

  14. Propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in a rotating dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishwakarma, J P; Nath, G

    2010-01-01

    A self-similar solution for the propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in a dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux, which is rotating about the axis of symmetry, is investigated. The shock is assumed to be driven out by a piston (an inner expanding surface) and the dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles. The density of the ambient medium is assumed to be constant. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and radiation is considered to be of diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient α R are assumed to vary with temperature and density. Similarity solutions are obtained, and the effects of variation of the parameter of non-idealness of the gas in the mixture, the mass concentration of solid particles and the ratio of density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas are investigated.

  15. Design and "As Flown" Radiation Environments for Materials in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph; McWilliams, Brett; Altstatt, Richard; Koontz, Steven

    2006-01-01

    the ISS flight trajectory including variations in altitude due to decay of the vehicle orbit and periodic reboosts to higher altitudes. In addition, an estimate of the AE-8 model to predict low Earth orbit electron flux (because the radiation dose for thin materials is dominated by the electron component of the radiation environment) is presented based on comparisons of the AE-8 model to measurements of electron integral flux at approximately 850 km from the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector on board the NOAA Polar Operational Environmental Satellite.

  16. A consistent multigroup model for radiative transfer and its underlying mean opacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turpault, Rodolphe

    2005-01-01

    In some regimes, such as in plasma physics or in super orbital atmospheric entry of space objects, the effects of radiation are crucial and can tremendously modify the hydrodynamics of the gas. In such cases, it is therefore important to have a good prediction of the radiative variables. However, full transport solutions of these multi-dimensional, time-dependent problems are too expensive to get to be involved in a coupled configuration. It is hence necessary to develop other models for radiation that are cheap, yet accurate enough to give good predictions of the radiative effects. We will herein introduce the multigroup-M1 model and look at its characteristics and in particular try to separate the angular error from the frequential one since these two approximation play very different roles. The angular behaviour of the model will be tested on a case proposed by Su and Olson and used by Olson et al. to compare various moments and (flux-limited) diffusion models. For the frequency behaviour, we use a simplified flame test-case and show the importance of taking good mean opacities

  17. Prediction of UV spectra and UV-radiation damage in actual plasma etching processes using on-wafer monitoring technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinnai, Butsurin; Fukuda, Seiichi; Ohtake, Hiroto; Samukawa, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    UV radiation during plasma processing affects the surface of materials. Nevertheless, the interaction of UV photons with surface is not clearly understood because of the difficulty in monitoring photons during plasma processing. For this purpose, we have previously proposed an on-wafer monitoring technique for UV photons. For this study, using the combination of this on-wafer monitoring technique and a neural network, we established a relationship between the data obtained from the on-wafer monitoring technique and UV spectra. Also, we obtained absolute intensities of UV radiation by calibrating arbitrary units of UV intensity with a 126 nm excimer lamp. As a result, UV spectra and their absolute intensities could be predicted with the on-wafer monitoring. Furthermore, we developed a prediction system with the on-wafer monitoring technique to simulate UV-radiation damage in dielectric films during plasma etching. UV-induced damage in SiOC films was predicted in this study. Our prediction results of damage in SiOC films shows that UV spectra and their absolute intensities are the key cause of damage in SiOC films. In addition, UV-radiation damage in SiOC films strongly depends on the geometry of the etching structure. The on-wafer monitoring technique should be useful in understanding the interaction of UV radiation with surface and in optimizing plasma processing by controlling UV radiation.

  18. Predicting Radiative Heat Transfer in Oxy-Methane Flame Simulations: An Examination of Its Sensitivities to Chemistry and Radiative Property Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Abdul-Sater

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements from confined, laminar oxy-methane flames at different O2/CO2 dilution ratios in the oxidizer are first reported with measurements from methane-air flames included for comparison. Simulations of these flames employing appropriate chemistry and radiative property modeling options were performed to garner insights into the experimental trends and assess prediction sensitivities to the choice of modeling options. The chemistry was modeled employing a mixture-fraction based approach, Eddy dissipation concept (EDC, and refined global finite rate (FR models. Radiative properties were estimated employing four weighted-sum-of-gray-gases (WSGG models formulated from different spectroscopic/model databases. The mixture fraction and EDC models correctly predicted the trends in flame length and OH concentration variations, and the O2, CO2, and temperature measurements outside the flames. The refined FR chemistry model predictions of CO2 and O2 deviated from their measured values in the flame with 50% O2 in the oxidizer. Flame radiant power estimates varied by less than 10% between the mixture fraction and EDC models but more than 60% between the different WSGG models. The largest variations were attributed to the postcombustion gases in the temperature range 500 K–800 K in the upper sections of the furnace which also contributed significantly to the overall radiative transfer.

  19. Effect of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux on buoyancy MHD nanofluid flow and heat transfer over a stretching sheet in the presence of Joule heating and thermal radiation impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogonchi, A. S.; Ganji, D. D.

    2018-06-01

    In this study, buoyancy MHD nanofluid flow and heat transfer over a stretching sheet in the presence of Joule heating and thermal radiation impacts, are studied. Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model instead of conventional Fourier's law of heat conduction is applied to investigate the heat transfer characteristics. A similarity transformation is used to transmute the governing momentum and energy equations into non-linear ordinary differential equations with the appropriate boundary conditions. The obtained non-linear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically. The impacts of diverse active parameters such as the magnetic parameter, the radiation parameter, the buoyancy parameter, the heat source parameter, the volume fraction of nanofluid and the thermal relaxation parameter are examined on the velocity and temperature profiles. In addition, the value of the Nusselt number is calculated and presented through figures. The results demonstrate that the temperature profile is lower in the case of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model as compared to Fourier's law. Moreover, the Nusselt number raises with the raising volume fraction of nanofluid and it abates with the ascending the radiation parameter.

  20. Space Radiation Environment Prediction for VLSI microelectronics devices onboard a LEO Satellite using OMERE-Trad Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad

    This tutorial/survey paper presents the assessment/determination of level of hazard/threat to emerging microelectronics devices in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space radiation environment with perigee at 300 Km, apogee at 600Km altitude having different orbital inclinations to predict the reliability of onboard Bulk Built-In Current Sensor (BBICS) fabricated in 350nm technology node at OptMA Lab. UFMG Brazil. In this context, the various parameters for space radiation environment have been analyzed to characterize the ionizing radiation environment effects on proposed BBICS. The Space radiation environment has been modeled in the form of particles trapped in Van-Allen radiation belts(RBs), Energetic Solar Particles Events (ESPE) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) where as its potential effects on Device- Under-Test (DUT) has been predicted in terms of Total Ionizing Dose (TID), Single-Event Effects (SEE) and Displacement Damage Dose (DDD). Finally, the required mitigation techniques including necessary shielding requirements to avoid undesirable effects of radiation environment at device level has been estimated /determined with assumed standard thickness of Aluminum shielding. In order to evaluate space radiation environment and analyze energetic particles effects on BBICS, OMERE toolkit developed by TRAD was utilized.

  1. A 3-D CFD approach to the mechanistic prediction of forced convective critical heat flux at low quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Marie Le Corre; Cristina H Amon; Shi-Chune Yao

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The prediction of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in a heat flux controlled boiling heat exchanger is important to assess the maximal thermal capability of the system. In the case of a nuclear reactor, CHF margin gain (using improved mixing vane grid design, for instance) can allow power up-rate and enhanced operating flexibility. In general, current nuclear core design procedures use quasi-1D approach to model the coolant thermal-hydraulic conditions within the fuel bundles coupled with fully empirical CHF prediction methods. In addition, several CHF mechanistic models have been developed in the past and coupled with 1D and quasi-1D thermal-hydraulic codes. These mechanistic models have demonstrated reasonable CHF prediction characteristics and, more remarkably, correct parametric trends over wide range of fluid conditions. However, since the phenomena leading to CHF are localized near the heater, models are needed to relate local quantities of interest to area-averaged quantities. As a consequence, large CHF prediction uncertainties may be introduced and 3D fluid characteristics (such as swirling flow) cannot be accounted properly. Therefore, a fully mechanistic approach to CHF prediction is, in general, not possible using the current approach. The development of CHF-enhanced fuel assembly designs requires the use of more advanced 3D coolant properties computations coupled with a CHF mechanistic modeling. In the present work, the commercial CFD code CFX-5 is used to compute 3D coolant conditions in a vertical heated tube with upward flow. Several CHF mechanistic models at low quality available in the literature are coupled with the CFD code by developing adequate models between local coolant properties and local parameters of interest to predict CHF. The prediction performances of these models are assessed using CHF databases available in the open literature and the 1995 CHF look-up table. Since CFD can reasonably capture 3D fluid

  2. Modelling thermal radiation in buoyant turbulent diffusion flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consalvi, J. L.; Demarco, R.; Fuentes, A.

    2012-10-01

    This work focuses on the numerical modelling of radiative heat transfer in laboratory-scale buoyant turbulent diffusion flames. Spectral gas and soot radiation is modelled by using the Full-Spectrum Correlated-k (FSCK) method. Turbulence-Radiation Interactions (TRI) are taken into account by considering the Optically-Thin Fluctuation Approximation (OTFA), the resulting time-averaged Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) being solved by the Finite Volume Method (FVM). Emission TRIs and the mean absorption coefficient are then closed by using a presumed probability density function (pdf) of the mixture fraction. The mean gas flow field is modelled by the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes (FANS) equation set closed by a buoyancy-modified k-ɛ model with algebraic stress/flux models (ASM/AFM), the Steady Laminar Flamelet (SLF) model coupled with a presumed pdf approach to account for Turbulence-Chemistry Interactions, and an acetylene-based semi-empirical two-equation soot model. Two sets of experimental pool fire data are used for validation: propane pool fires 0.3 m in diameter with Heat Release Rates (HRR) of 15, 22 and 37 kW and methane pool fires 0.38 m in diameter with HRRs of 34 and 176 kW. Predicted flame structures, radiant fractions, and radiative heat fluxes on surrounding surfaces are found in satisfactory agreement with available experimental data across all the flames. In addition further computations indicate that, for the present flames, the gray approximation can be applied for soot with a minor influence on the results, resulting in a substantial gain in Computer Processing Unit (CPU) time when the FSCK is used to treat gas radiation.

  3. Development of classification and prediction methods of critical heat flux using fuzzy theory and artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sang Ki

    1995-02-01

    This thesis applies new information techniques, artificial neural networks, (ANNs) and fuzzy theory, to the investigation of the critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon for water flow in vertical round tubes. The work performed are (a) classification and prediction of CHF based on fuzzy clustering and ANN, (b) prediction and parametric trends analysis of CHF using ANN with the introduction of dimensionless parameters, and (c) detection of CHF occurrence using fuzzy rule and spatiotemporal neural network (STN). Fuzzy clustering and ANN are used for classification and prediction of the CHF using primary system parameters. The fuzzy clustering classifies the experimental CHF data into a few data clusters (data groups) according to the data characteristics. After classification of the experimental data, the characteristics of the resulted clusters are discussed with emphasis on the distribution of the experimental conditions and physical mechanisms. The CHF data in each group are trained in an artificial neural network to predict the CHF. The artificial neural network adjusts the weight so as to minimize the prediction error within the corresponding cluster. Application of the proposed method to the KAIST CHF data bank shows good prediction capability of the CHF, better than other existing methods. Parametric trends of the CHF are analyzed by applying artificial neural networks to a CHF data base for water flow in uniformly heated vertical round tubes. The analyses are performed from three viewpoints, i.e., for fixed inlet conditions, for fixed exit conditions, and based on local conditions hypothesis. In order to remove the necessity of data classification, Katto and Groeneveld et al.'s dimensionless parameters are introduced in training the ANNs with the experimental CHF data. The trained ANNs predict the CHF better than any other conventional correlations, showing RMS error of 8.9%, 13.1%, and 19.3% for fixed inlet conditions, for fixed exit conditions, and for local

  4. Anti-diffusive radiation flow in the cooling layer of a radiating shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClarren, Ryan G.; Paul Drake, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows that for systems with optically thin, hot layers, such as those that occur in radiating shocks, radiation will flow uphill: radiation will flow from low to high radiation energy density. These are systems in which the angular distribution of the radiation intensity changes rapidly in space, and in which the radiation in some region has a pancaked structure, whose effect on the mean intensity will be much larger than the effect on the scalar radiation pressure. The salient feature of the solution to the radiative transfer equation in these circumstances is that the gradient of the radiation energy density is in the same direction as the radiation flux, i.e. radiation energy is flowing uphill. Such an anti-diffusive flow of energy cannot be captured by a model where the spatial variation of the Eddington factor is not accounted for, as in flux-limited diffusion models or the P 1 equations. The qualitative difference between the two models leads to a monotonic mean intensity for the diffusion model whereas the transport mean intensity has a global maximum in the hot layer. Mathematical analysis shows that the discrepancy between the diffusion model and the transport solution is due to an approximation of exponential integrals using a simple exponential.

  5. Enhancement and Tunability of Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer Mediated by Surface Plasmon Polaritons in Thin Plasmonic Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Boriskina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The properties of thermal radiation exchange between hot and cold objects can be strongly modified if they interact in the near field where electromagnetic coupling occurs across gaps narrower than the dominant wavelength of thermal radiation. Using a rigorous fluctuational electrodynamics approach, we predict that ultra-thin films of plasmonic materials can be used to dramatically enhance near-field heat transfer. The total spectrally integrated film-to-film heat transfer is over an order of magnitude larger than between the same materials in bulk form and also exceeds the levels achievable with polar dielectrics such as SiC. We attribute this enhancement to the significant spectral broadening of radiative heat transfer due to coupling between surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs on both sides of each thin film. We show that the radiative heat flux spectrum can be further shaped by the choice of the substrate onto which the thin film is deposited. In particular, substrates supporting surface phonon polaritons (SPhP strongly modify the heat flux spectrum owing to the interactions between SPPs on thin films and SPhPs of the substrate. The use of thin film phase change materials on polar dielectric substrates allows for dynamic switching of the heat flux spectrum between SPP-mediated and SPhP-mediated peaks.

  6. Prediction of oxy-coal combustion through an optimized weighted sum of gray gases model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangwanpongpan, Tanin; Corrêa da Silva, Rodrigo; Krautz, Hans Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is considered as one of promising options for carbon dioxide capture in future coal power plants. Currently models available in CFD codes fail to predict accurately the radiative heat transfer in oxy-fuel cases due to higher pressure of carbon dioxide and water vapor. This paper concerns numerical investigation applying three band formulations aiming an accurate prediction of radiative properties. The radiative heat transfer is calculated by discrete ordinate method coupled with a weighted sum of gray gases model. The first case relates to the domain-based approach using air-fired parameters. In the last two cases, the optimized parameters of 3 and 4 gray gases fitted to oxy-fired conditions are implemented through a non-gray gases approach. Results applying these set of parameters are evaluated through a comparison with experimental data. Discrepancies between the predicted and measured velocity and O 2 concentration are found mainly close to the burner due to shortcomings of the turbulence model and inaccurate thermochemical closure. The gas flame temperatures are better predicted by the optimized parameters for oxy-fuel conditions, which are considerably lower than the values calculated by the air-fired parameters. Similar trends are observed when the radiative heat fluxes at the lateral wall are compared.

  7. A prediction model for the radiation safety management behavior of medical cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ji Hye; Han, Eun Ok [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ssang Tae [CareCamp Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    This study attempted to provide reference materials for improving the behavior level in radiation safety managements by drawing a prediction model that affects the radiation safety management behavior because the radiation safety management of medical Cyclotrons, which can be used to produce radioisotopes, is an important factor that protects radiation caused diseases not only for radiological operators but average users. In addition, this study obtained follows results through the investigation applied from January 2 to January 30, 2008 for the radiation safety managers employed in 24 authorized organizations, which have already installed Cyclotrons, through applying a specific form of questionnaire in which the validity was guaranteed by reference study, site investigation, and focus discussion by related experts. The radiation safety management were configured as seven steps: step 1 is a production preparation step, step 2 is an RI production step, step 3 is a synthesis step, step 4 is a distribution step, step 5 is a quality control step, step 6 is a carriage container packing step, and step 7 is a transportation step. It was recognized that the distribution step was the most exposed as 15 subjects (62.5%), the items of 'the sanction and permission related works' and 'the guarantee of installation facilities and production equipment' were the most difficult as 9 subjects (37.5%), and in the trouble steps in such exposure, the item of 'the synthesis and distribution' steps were 4 times, respectively (30.8%). In the score of the behavior level in radiation safety managements, the minimum and maximum scores were 2.42 and 4.00, respectively, and the average score was 3.46 {+-} 0.47 out of 4. Prosperity and well-being programs in the behavior and job in radiation safety managements (r=0.529) represented a significant correlation statistically. In the drawing of a prediction model based on the factors that affected the behavior in

  8. Improved Statistical Model Of 10.7-cm Solar Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, John D.; Tabor, Jill L.

    1993-01-01

    Improved mathematical model simulates short-term fluctuations of flux of 10.7-cm-wavelength solar radiation during 91-day averaging period. Called "F10.7 flux", important as measure of solar activity and because it is highly correlated with ultraviolet radiation causing fluctuations in heating and density of upper atmosphere. F10.7 flux easily measureable at surface of Earth.

  9. Lunar dusty plasma: A result of interaction of the solar wind flux and ultraviolet radiation with the lunar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisin, E A; Tarakanov, V P; Petrov, O F; Popel, S I

    2015-01-01

    One of the main problems of future missions to the Moon is associated with lunar dust. Solar wind flux and ultraviolet radiation interact with the lunar surface. As a result, there is a substantial surface change and a near-surface plasma sheath. Dust particles from the lunar regolith, which turned in this plasma because of any mechanical processes, can levitate above the surface, forming dust clouds. In preparing of the space experiments “Luna-Glob” and “Luna-Resource” particle-in-cell calculations of the near-surface plasma sheath parameters are carried out. Here we present some new results of particle-in-cell simulation of the plasma sheath formed near the surface of the moon as a result of interaction of the solar wind and ultraviolet radiation with the lunar surface. The conditions of charging and stable levitation of dust particles in plasma above the lunar surface are also considered. (paper)

  10. Validation of radiation dose estimations in VRdose: comparing estimated radiation doses with observed radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystad, Espen; Sebok, Angelia; Meyer, Geir

    2004-04-01

    The Halden Virtual Reality Centre has developed work-planning software that predicts the radiation exposure of workers in contaminated areas. To validate the accuracy of the predicted radiation dosages, it is necessary to compare predicted doses to actual dosages. During an experimental study conducted at the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) hall, the radiation exposure was measured for all participants throughout the test session, ref. HWR-681 [3]. Data from this experimental study have also been used to model tasks in the work-planning software and gather data for predicted radiation exposure. Two different methods were used to predict radiation dosages; one method used all radiation data from all the floor levels in the HBWR (all-data method). The other used only data from the floor level where the task was conducted (isolated data method). The study showed that the all-data method gave predictions that were on average 2.3 times higher than the actual radiation dosages. The isolated-data method gave predictions on average 0.9 times the actual dosages. (Author)

  11. Nitrate deposition following an astrophysical ionizing radiation event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenswander, Ben; Melott, Adrian

    2015-06-01

    It is known that a gamma ray burst (GRB) originating near the Earth could be devastating to life. The mechanism of ozone depletion and subsequent increased UVB exposure is the primary risk, but models also show increased nitrification culminating in nitric acid rainout. These effects are also expected after nearby supernovae and extreme solar proton events. In this work we considered specifically whether the increased nitric acid rainout from such events is a threat to modern terrestrial ecosystems. We also considered its potential benefit to early terrestrial Paleozoic ecosystems. We used established critical loads for nitrogen deposition in ecoregions of Europe and the US and compared them with previously predicted values of nitric acid rainout from a typical GRB within our galaxy. The predicted rainout was found to be too low to harm modern ecosystems, however, it is large compared with probable nitrate flux onto land prior to the invasion of plants. We suggest that this flux may have contributed nutrients to this invasion if, as hypothesized, the end-Ordovician extinction event were initiated by a GRB or other ionizing radiation event.

  12. Design of an actively cooled plate calorimeter for the investigation of pool fire heat fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Nicolette, V.F.; Wix, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    For final qualification of shipping containers for transport of hazardous materials, thermal testing in accordance with regulations such as 10CFR71 must be completed. Such tests typically consist of 30 minute exposures with the container fully engulfed in flames from a large, open pool of JP4 jet engine fuel. Despite careful engineering analyses of the container, testing often reveals design problems that must be solved by modification and expensive retesting of the container. One source of this problem is the wide variation in surface heat flux to the container that occurs in pool fires. Average beat fluxes of 50 to 60 kW/m 2 are typical and close the values implied by the radiation model in 10CFR71, but peak fluxes up to 150 kW/m 2 are routinely observed in fires (Keltner, et al,1990). Heat fluxes in pool fires have been shown to be a function of surface temperature of the container, height above the pool, surface orientation, wind, and other variables. If local variations in the surface heat flux to the container can be better predicted, design analyses will become more accurate, and fewer problems will be uncovered during testing. The objective of the calorimeter design described in this paper is to measure accurately pool fire heat fluxes under controlled conditions, and to provide data for calibration of improved analytical models of local flame-surface interactions

  13. Performance of STICS model to predict rainfed corn evapotranspiration and biomass evaluated for 6 years between 1995 and 2006 using daily aggregated eddy covariance fluxes and ancillary measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattey, Elizabeth; Jégo, Guillaume; Bourgeois, Gaétan

    2010-05-01

    Verifying the performance of process-based crop growth models to predict evapotranspiration and crop biomass is a key component of the adaptation of agricultural crop production to climate variations. STICS, developed by INRA, was part of the models selected by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada to be implemented for environmental assessment studies on climate variations, because of its built-in ability to assimilate biophysical descriptors such as LAI derived from satellite imagery and its open architecture. The model prediction of shoot biomass was calibrated using destructive biomass measurements over one season, by adjusting six cultivar parameters and three generic plant parameters to define two grain corn cultivars adapted to the 1000-km long Mixedwood Plains ecozone. Its performance was then evaluated using a database of 40 years-sites of corn destructive biomass and yield. In this study we evaluate the temporal response of STICS evapotranspiration and biomass accumulation predictions against estimates using daily aggregated eddy covariance fluxes. The flux tower was located in an experimental farm south of Ottawa and measurements carried out over corn fields in 1995, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2002 and 2006. Daytime and nighttime fluxes were QC/QA and gap-filled separately. Soil respiration was partitioned to calculate the corn net daily CO2 uptake, which was converted into dry biomass. Out of the six growing seasons, three (1995, 1998, 2002) had water stress periods during corn grain filling. Year 2000 was cool and wet, while 1996 had heat and rainfall distributed evenly over the season and 2006 had a wet spring. STICS can predict evapotranspiration using either crop coefficients, when wind speed and air moisture are not available, or resistance. The first approach provided higher prediction for all the years than the resistance approach and the flux measurements. The dynamic of evapotranspiration prediction of STICS was very good for the growing seasons without

  14. The Lattice and Thermal Radiation Conductivity of Thermal Barrier Coatings: Models and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Spuckler, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    The lattice and radiation conductivity of ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was evaluated using a laser heat flux approach. A diffusion model has been established to correlate the coating apparent thermal conductivity to the lattice and radiation conductivity. The radiation conductivity component can be expressed as a function of temperature, coating material scattering, and absorption properties. High temperature scattering and absorption of the coating systems can be also derived based on the testing results using the modeling approach. A comparison has been made for the gray and nongray coating models in the plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings. The model prediction is found to have a good agreement with experimental observations.

  15. Prediction of turbulent heat transfer with surface blowing using a non-linear algebraic heat flux model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, F.; Younis, B.A.; Bellettre, J.; Lallemand, A.

    2003-01-01

    The paper reports on the prediction of the effects of blowing on the evolution of the thermal and velocity fields in a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer developing over a porous surface. Closure of the time-averaged equations governing the transport of momentum and thermal energy is achieved using a complete Reynolds-stress transport model for the turbulent stresses and a non-linear, algebraic and explicit model for the turbulent heat fluxes. The latter model accounts explicitly for the dependence of the turbulent heat fluxes on the gradients of mean velocity. Results are reported for the case of a heated boundary layer which is first developed into equilibrium over a smooth impervious wall before encountering a porous section through which cooler fluid is continuously injected. Comparisons are made with LDA measurements for an injection rate of 1%. The reduction of the wall shear stress with increase in injection rate is obtained in the calculations, and the computed rates of heat transfer between the hot flow and the wall are found to agree well with the published data

  16. Evaluating Energy Flux in Vibrofluidized Granular Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sheikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular flows require sustained input of energy for fluidization. A level of fluidization depends on the amount of heat flux provided to the flow. In general, the dissipation of the grains upon interaction balances the heat inputs and the resultant flow patterns can be described using hydrodynamic models. However, with the increase in packing fraction, the heat fluxes prediction of the cell increases. Here, a comparison is made for the proposed theoretical models against the MD simulations data. It is observed that the variation of packing fraction in the granular cell influences the heat flux at the base. For the elastic grain-base interaction, the predictions vary appreciably compared to MD simulations, suggesting the need to accurately model the velocity distribution of grains for averaging.

  17. Machine Learning Approaches for Predicting Radiation Therapy Outcomes: A Clinician's Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, John; Schwartz, Russell; Flickinger, John; Beriwal, Sushil

    2015-01-01

    Radiation oncology has always been deeply rooted in modeling, from the early days of isoeffect curves to the contemporary Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) initiative. In recent years, medical modeling for both prognostic and therapeutic purposes has exploded thanks to increasing availability of electronic data and genomics. One promising direction that medical modeling is moving toward is adopting the same machine learning methods used by companies such as Google and Facebook to combat disease. Broadly defined, machine learning is a branch of computer science that deals with making predictions from complex data through statistical models. These methods serve to uncover patterns in data and are actively used in areas such as speech recognition, handwriting recognition, face recognition, “spam” filtering (junk email), and targeted advertising. Although multiple radiation oncology research groups have shown the value of applied machine learning (ML), clinical adoption has been slow due to the high barrier to understanding these complex models by clinicians. Here, we present a review of the use of ML to predict radiation therapy outcomes from the clinician's point of view with the hope that it lowers the “barrier to entry” for those without formal training in ML. We begin by describing 7 principles that one should consider when evaluating (or creating) an ML model in radiation oncology. We next introduce 3 popular ML methods—logistic regression (LR), support vector machine (SVM), and artificial neural network (ANN)—and critique 3 seminal papers in the context of these principles. Although current studies are in exploratory stages, the overall methodology has progressively matured, and the field is ready for larger-scale further investigation.

  18. Forecast of solar proton flux profiles for well-connected events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Eun-Young; Moon, Yong-Jae; Park, Jinhye

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a forecast model of solar proton flux profiles (> 10 MeV channel) for well-connected events. Among 136 solar proton events (SPEs) from 1986 to 2006, we select 49 well-connected ones that are all associated with single X-ray flares stronger than M1 class and start to increase within 4 h after their X-ray peak times. These events show rapid increments in proton flux. By comparing several empirical functions, we select a modified Weibull curve function to approximate a SPE flux profile. The parameters (peak flux, rise time, and decay time) of this function are determined by the relationship between X-ray flare parameters (peak flux, impulsive time, and emission measure) and SPE parameters. For 49 well-connected SPEs, the linear correlation coefficient between the predicted and the observed proton peak fluxes is 0.65 with the RMS error of 0.55 log10(pfu). In addition, we determine another forecast model based on flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) parameters using 22 SPEs. The used CME parameters are linear speed and angular width. As a result, we find that the linear correlation coefficient between the predicted and the observed proton peak fluxes is 0.83 with the RMS error of 0.35 log10(pfu). From the relationship between error of model and CME acceleration, we find that CME acceleration is an important factor for predicting proton flux profiles.

  19. Evaluation of the performance of SiBcrop model in predicting carbon fluxes and crop yields in the croplands of the US mid continental region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokupitiya, E.; Denning, S.; Paustian, K.; Corbin, K.; Baker, I.; Schaefer, K.

    2008-12-01

    The accurate representation of phenology, physiology, and major crop variables is important in the land- atmosphere carbon models being used to predict carbon and other exchanges of the man-made cropland ecosystems. We evaluated the performance of SiBcrop model (which is the Simple Biosphere model (SiB) with a new scheme for crop phenology and physiology) in predicting carbon exchanges of the US mid continental region which has several major crops. The use of the new phenology scheme within SiB remarkably improved the prediction of LAI and carbon fluxes for corn, soybean, and wheat crops as compared with the observed data at several Ameriflux eddy covariance flux tower sites with those crops. SiBcrop better predicted the onset and end of the growing season, harvest, interannual variability associated with crop rotation, day time carbon draw down, and day to day variability in the carbon exchanges. The model has been coupled with RAMS, the regional Atmospheric Modeling System (developed at Colorado State University), and the coupled SiBcrop-RAMS has predicted better carbon and other fluxes compared to the original SiB-RAMS. SiBcrop also predicted daily variation in biomass in different plant pools (i.e. roots, leaves, stems, and products). In this study, we further evaluated the performance of SiBcrop by comparing the yield estimates based on the grain/seed biomass at harvest predicted by SiBcrop for relevant major crops, against the county-level crop yields reported by the US National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). Initially, the model runs were based on crop maps scaled at 40 km resolution; the maps were used to derive the fraction of corn, soybean, and wheat at each grid cell across the US Mid Continental Intensive (MCI) region under the North American Carbon Program (NACP). The yield biomass carbon values (at harvest) predicted for each grid cell by SiBcrop were extrapolated to derive the county-level yield biomass carbon values, which were then

  20. Predictions of integrated circuit serviceability in space radiation fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamidullina, N.M.; Kuznetsov, N.V.; Pichkhadze, K.M.; Popov, V.D

    1999-10-01

    The present paper suggests an approach to estimating and predicting the serviceability of on-board electronic equipment. It is based on the postulates of the reliability theory and accounts for total-dose and single-event radiation effects as well as other exterior destabilizing factors. The methods of determination of failure and upset rates for CMOS devices are considered. The probability of non-failure operation of a two CMOS RAM is calculated along the whole trajectory of the 'Solar Probe' spacecraft.

  1. Radiation damage studies for the D0 silicon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, F.

    2004-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies performed on spare production silicon detector modules for the current D0 silicon detector. The lifetime expectations due to radiation damage effects of the existing silicon detector are reviewed. A new upgrade project was started with the goal of a complete replacement of the existing silicon detector. In that context, several investigations on the radiation hardness of new prototype silicon microstrip detectors were carried out. The irradiation on different detector types was performed with 10 MeV protons up to fluences of 10 14 p/cm 2 at the J.R. Mcdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University. The flux calibration was carefully checked using different normalization techniques. As a result, we observe roughly 40-50% less radiation damage in silicon for 10 MeV p exposure than it is expected by the predicted NIEL scaling

  2. Infrared radiation from an extrasolar planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Seager, Sara; Richardson, L Jeremy; Harrington, Joseph

    2005-04-07

    A class of extrasolar giant planets--the so-called 'hot Jupiters' (ref. 1)--orbit within 0.05 au of their primary stars (1 au is the Sun-Earth distance). These planets should be hot and so emit detectable infrared radiation. The planet HD 209458b (refs 3, 4) is an ideal candidate for the detection and characterization of this infrared light because it is eclipsed by the star. This planet has an anomalously large radius (1.35 times that of Jupiter), which may be the result of ongoing tidal dissipation, but this explanation requires a non-zero orbital eccentricity (approximately 0.03; refs 6, 7), maintained by interaction with a hypothetical second planet. Here we report detection of infrared (24 microm) radiation from HD 209458b, by observing the decrement in flux during secondary eclipse, when the planet passes behind the star. The planet's 24-microm flux is 55 +/- 10 microJy (1sigma), with a brightness temperature of 1,130 +/- 150 K, confirming the predicted heating by stellar irradiation. The secondary eclipse occurs at the midpoint between transits of the planet in front of the star (to within +/- 7 min, 1sigma), which means that a dynamically significant orbital eccentricity is unlikely.

  3. An iterative procedure for estimating areally averaged heat flux using planetary boundary layer mixed layer height and locally measured heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, R. L.; Gao, W.; Lesht, B. M.

    2000-04-04

    Measurements at the central facility of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) are intended to verify, improve, and develop parameterizations in radiative flux models that are subsequently used in General Circulation Models (GCMs). The reliability of this approach depends upon the representativeness of the local measurements at the central facility for the site as a whole or on how these measurements can be interpreted so as to accurately represent increasingly large scales. The variation of surface energy budget terms over the SGP CART site is extremely large. Surface layer measurements of the sensible heat flux (H) often vary by a factor of 2 or more at the CART site (Coulter et al. 1996). The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) effectively integrates the local inputs across large scales; because the mixed layer height (h) is principally driven by H, it can, in principal, be used for estimates of surface heat flux over scales on the order of tens of kilometers. By combining measurements of h from radiosondes or radar wind profiles with a one-dimensional model of mixed layer height, they are investigating the ability of diagnosing large-scale heat fluxes. The authors have developed a procedure using the model described by Boers et al. (1984) to investigate the effect of changes in surface sensible heat flux on the mixed layer height. The objective of the study is to invert the sense of the model.

  4. Relative linkages of peatland methane and carbon dioxide fluxes with climatic, environmental and ecological parameters and their inter-comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tirtha; Hommeltenberg, Janina; Roy, Avipsa; De Roo, Frederik; Mauder, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Although methane (CH4) is the second most important greenhouse gas (GHG) after CO2, about 80% of its global production is biogenic (wetlands, enteric fermentation and water disposal from animals) contrary to major anthropogenic sources of most other GHGs. Although on a shorter time scale, global emissions of methane are greater (10 year time frame) or about 80% (20 year time frame) of those of carbon dioxide in terms of their influence on global warming, methane emissions have been studied much less than CO2 emissions. Lakes, reservoirs and wetlands are estimated to contribute about 15-40% to the global methane source budget, which is higher than total oceanic CH4 emission. Half of the world's wetlands are represented by peatlands which cover 3% of the global total land area. Peatlands have a thick water-logged organic soil layer (peat) made up of dead and decaying plant material. Moreover, they are carbon rich, containing twice as much stock as the entire forest biomass of the world (550 Gt carbon). When disturbed, they can become significant sources of greenhouse gas emissions. The organic carbon exposed to air due to various mechanisms can release CH4 or CO2 in the atmosphere. Thus the nature of vegetation cover, radiation environment, wind turbulence, soil characteristics, water table depth etc. are expected to be important forcings that influence the emission of CH4 or CO2 in the shorter time scale. However, long term climate change can also influence these governing factors themselves over a larger time scale, which in turn can influence the wetland GHG emissions. Thus developing a predictive framework and long term source appropriation for wetland CH4 or CO2 warrants an identification of the major environmental forcings on the CH4 or CO2 flux. In the present work, we use a simple and systematic data-analytics approach to determine the relative linkages of different climate and environmental variables with the canopy level half-hourly CH4 or CO2 fluxes over a

  5. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis of Afterbody Radiative Heating Predictions for Earth Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas K., IV; Johnston, Christopher O.; Hosder, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to perform sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification for afterbody radiative heating predictions of Stardust capsule during Earth entry at peak afterbody radiation conditions. The radiation environment in the afterbody region poses significant challenges for accurate uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis due to the complexity of the flow physics, computational cost, and large number of un-certain variables. In this study, first a sparse collocation non-intrusive polynomial chaos approach along with global non-linear sensitivity analysis was used to identify the most significant uncertain variables and reduce the dimensions of the stochastic problem. Then, a total order stochastic expansion was constructed over only the important parameters for an efficient and accurate estimate of the uncertainty in radiation. Based on previous work, 388 uncertain parameters were considered in the radiation model, which came from the thermodynamics, flow field chemistry, and radiation modeling. The sensitivity analysis showed that only four of these variables contributed significantly to afterbody radiation uncertainty, accounting for almost 95% of the uncertainty. These included the electronic- impact excitation rate for N between level 2 and level 5 and rates of three chemical reactions in uencing N, N(+), O, and O(+) number densities in the flow field.

  6. Automated reactivity anomaly surveillance in the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, B.J.; Harris, R.A.; Honeyman, D.J.; Shook, A.T.; Krohn, C.N.

    1985-01-01

    The automated technique for monitoring core reactivity during power operation used at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is described. This technique relies on comparing predicted to measured rod positions to detect any anomalous (or unpredicted) core reactivity changes. It is implemented on the Plant Data System (PDS) computer and, thus, provides rapid indication of any abnormal core conditions. The prediction algorithms use thermal-hydraulic, control rod position and neutron flux sensor information to predict the core reactivity state

  7. Long-term global distribution of earth's shortwave radiation budget at the top of atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hatzianastassiou

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean monthly shortwave (SW radiation budget at the top of atmosphere (TOA was computed on 2.5° longitude-latitude resolution for the 14-year period from 1984 to 1997, using a radiative transfer model with long-term climatological data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP-D2 supplemented by data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction – National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR Global Reanalysis project, and other global data bases such as TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS and Global Aerosol Data Set (GADS. The model radiative fluxes at TOA were validated against Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE S4 scanner satellite data (1985–1989. The model is able to predict the seasonal and geographical variation of SW TOA fluxes. On a mean annual and global basis, the model is in very good agreement with ERBE, overestimating the outgoing SW radiation at TOA (OSR by 0.93 Wm-2 (or by 0.92%, within the ERBE uncertainties. At pixel level, the OSR differences between model and ERBE are mostly within ±10 Wm-2, with ±5 Wm-2 over extended regions, while there exist some geographic areas with differences of up to 40 Wm-2, associated with uncertainties in cloud properties and surface albedo. The 14-year average model results give a planetary albedo equal to 29.6% and a TOA OSR flux of 101.2 Wm-2. A significant linearly decreasing trend in OSR and planetary albedo was found, equal to 2.3 Wm-2 and 0.6% (in absolute values, respectively, over the 14-year period (from January 1984 to December 1997, indicating an increasing solar planetary warming. This planetary SW radiative heating occurs in the tropical and sub-tropical areas (20° S–20° N, with clouds being the most likely cause. The computed global mean OSR anomaly ranges within ±4 Wm-2, with signals from El Niño and La Niña events or Pinatubo eruption, whereas significant negative OSR anomalies, starting from year 1992, are also

  8. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE's programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols

  9. CREME96 and Related Error Rate Prediction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the rate of occurrence of single event effects (SEEs) in space requires knowledge of the radiation environment and the response of electronic devices to that environment. Several analytical models have been developed over the past 36 years to predict SEE rates. The first error rate calculations were performed by Binder, Smith and Holman. Bradford and Pickel and Blandford, in their CRIER (Cosmic-Ray-Induced-Error-Rate) analysis code introduced the basic Rectangular ParallelePiped (RPP) method for error rate calculations. For the radiation environment at the part, both made use of the Cosmic Ray LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectra calculated by Heinrich for various absorber Depths. A more detailed model for the space radiation environment within spacecraft was developed by Adams and co-workers. This model, together with a reformulation of the RPP method published by Pickel and Blandford, was used to create the CR ME (Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics) code. About the same time Shapiro wrote the CRUP (Cosmic Ray Upset Program) based on the RPP method published by Bradford. It was the first code to specifically take into account charge collection from outside the depletion region due to deformation of the electric field caused by the incident cosmic ray. Other early rate prediction methods and codes include the Single Event Figure of Merit, NOVICE, the Space Radiation code and the effective flux method of Binder which is the basis of the SEFA (Scott Effective Flux Approximation) model. By the early 1990s it was becoming clear that CREME and the other early models needed Revision. This revision, CREME96, was completed and released as a WWW-based tool, one of the first of its kind. The revisions in CREME96 included improved environmental models and improved models for calculating single event effects. The need for a revision of CREME also stimulated the development of the CHIME (CRRES/SPACERAD Heavy Ion Model of the Environment) and MACREE (Modeling and

  10. Development of an anthropomorfic simulator for simulation and measurements of neutron dose and flux the facility for BNCT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz, Rafael Oliveira Rondon

    2010-01-01

    IPEN facility for researches in BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) uses IEA-R1 reactor's irradiation channel number 3, where there is a mixed radiation field - neutrons and gamma. The researches in progress require the radiation fields, in the position of the irradiation of sample, to have in its composition maximized thermal neutrons component and minimized, fast and epithermal neutron flux and gamma radiation. This work was developed with the objective of evaluating whether the present radiation field in the facility is suitable for BNCT researches. In order to achieve this objective, a methodology for the dosimetry of thermal neutrons and gamma radiation in mixed fields of high doses, which was not available in IPEN, was implemented in the Center of Nuclear Engineering of IPEN, by using thermoluminescent dosimeters - TLDs 400, 600 and 700. For the measurements of thermal and epithermal neutron flux, activation detectors of gold were used applying the cadmium ratio technique. A cylindrical phantom composed by acrylic discs was developed and tested in the facility and the DOT 3.5. computational code was used in order to obtain theoretical values of neutron flux and the dose along phantom. In the position corresponding to about half the length of the cylinder of the phantom, the following values were obtained: thermal neutron flux (2,52 ± 0,06).10 8 n/cm 2 s, epithermal neutron flux (6,17 ± 0,26).10 7 .10 6 n/cm 2 s, absorbed dose due to thermal neutrons (4,2 ± 1,8)Gy and (10,1 ± 1,3)Gy due to gamma radiation. The obtained values show that the fluxes of thermal and epithermal neutrons flux are appropriate for studies in BNCT, however, the dose due to gamma radiation is high, indicating that the facility should be improved. (author)

  11. Radiation budget measurement/model interface research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    The NIMBUS 6 data were analyzed to form an up to date climatology of the Earth radiation budget as a basis for numerical model definition studies. Global maps depicting infrared emitted flux, net flux and albedo from processed NIMBUS 6 data for July, 1977, are presented. Zonal averages of net radiation flux for April, May, and June and zonal mean emitted flux and net flux for the December to January period are also presented. The development of two models is reported. The first is a statistical dynamical model with vertical and horizontal resolution. The second model is a two level global linear balance model. The results of time integration of the model up to 120 days, to simulate the January circulation, are discussed. Average zonal wind, meridonal wind component, vertical velocity, and moisture budget are among the parameters addressed.

  12. Dosimetry of mixed gamma - neutron fluxes in the active zone of working reactor and gamma-flux after quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussaeva, M.A.; Zinov'ev, V.; Ibragimova, E.M.; Muminov, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: For carrying out experiments in the channels of nuclear reactor, it is necessary to know the distribution of neutron flux and the intensity of accompanying gamma-radiation both in the working and quenched regimes. Dosimetric parameter of transparent dielectrics is based on the effect of monotonous changing of optical absorption or luminescence under neutrons and/or gamma-radiation. While the radioactivity induced in an element monitor is proportional only to a neutron fluence beginning from a threshold energy. Therefore the aim of this work was to determine the values of neutron and gamma-component fluxes separately and evaluate the contribution of each into the defect production in dielectrics. We used very pure quartz glass of KU-1 type, produced in Russian State Optical Institute by fusion from SiCl 4 in the mixed flow of O 2 +H 2 (impurities of Cl and OH up to 10 -2 % and the rest - below 10 -4 %), SiO 2 glasses with 30 % Ba, and also pure Ni wire. Since under irradiation in the working reactor samples were undergone mixed neutron and gamma fluxes, we suggested determination of intensity of gamma-radiation from radio-nuclides (products of uranium fission) after quenching the reactor by the current of ionization chamber and glass dosimeters. Samples of SiO 2 -BaO together with Ni monitors were irradiated for 1 hour in 18 channels of the active zone of the working reactor both in the sealed ampoules and in the contact with water of the 1-st cooling circuit at 40 deg C. The linear dependence of the induced optical density on the absorbed dose of n 0 + γ-radiation was obtained. Ni -monitors not sensitive to γ-radiation gained the induced radioactivity proportional to the absorbed energy of neutron flux above 1 MeV. Neutron fluxes in the 18 channels varied from 9.53·10 11 to 1.21·10 13 cm -2 s -1 corresponding to fluences from 3.43·10 15 to 4.3·10 16 cm -2 . Optical density of band 215 nm ascertained to E ' - center, which is ≡ Si * near oxygen

  13. Random Forests to Predict Rectal Toxicity Following Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ospina, Juan D.; Zhu, Jian; Chira, Ciprian; Bossi, Alberto; Delobel, Jean B.; Beckendorf, Véronique; Dubray, Bernard; Lagrange, Jean-Léon; Correa, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To propose a random forest normal tissue complication probability (RF-NTCP) model to predict late rectal toxicity following prostate cancer radiation therapy, and to compare its performance to that of classic NTCP models. Methods and Materials: Clinical data and dose-volume histograms (DVH) were collected from 261 patients who received 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer with at least 5 years of follow-up. The series was split 1000 times into training and validation cohorts. A RF was trained to predict the risk of 5-year overall rectal toxicity and bleeding. Parameters of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model were identified and a logistic regression model was fit. The performance of all the models was assessed by computing the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: The 5-year grade ≥2 overall rectal toxicity and grade ≥1 and grade ≥2 rectal bleeding rates were 16%, 25%, and 10%, respectively. Predictive capabilities were obtained using the RF-NTCP model for all 3 toxicity endpoints, including both the training and validation cohorts. The age and use of anticoagulants were found to be predictors of rectal bleeding. The AUC for RF-NTCP ranged from 0.66 to 0.76, depending on the toxicity endpoint. The AUC values for the LKB-NTCP were statistically significantly inferior, ranging from 0.62 to 0.69. Conclusions: The RF-NTCP model may be a useful new tool in predicting late rectal toxicity, including variables other than DVH, and thus appears as a strong competitor to classic NTCP models

  14. Cosmic Ray Modulation and Radiation Dose of Aircrews During Possible Grand Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, S.; Kataoka, R.; Sato, T.; Imada, S.; Miyahara, H.; Shiota, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueno, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Sun is exhibiting low solar activity levels since the descending phase of the last solar cycle, and it is likely to be continued as well as in the case of the past grand solar minima. The cosmic-ray modulation, which is the variation of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) spectrum caused by the heliospheric environmental change, is basically anti-correlated with the solar activity. In the recent weak solar cycle, we thus expect that the flux of GCRs is getting higher than that in the previous solar cycles, leading to the increase in the radiation exposure in the space and atmosphere. In order to quantitatively evaluate the possible solar modulation of GCRs and resultant radiation exposure at flight altitude, we have developed the time-dependent and three-dimensional model of the cosmic-ray modulation. Our model can give the flux of GCRs anywhere in the heliosphere by assuming the variation of the solar wind speed, the strength of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF), and its tilt angle. We solve the gradient-curvature drift motion of GCRs in the HMF, and therefore reproduce the 22-year variation of the cosmic-ray modulation. We also calculate the neutron monitor counting rate and the radiation dose of aircrews at flight altitude, by the air-shower simulation performed by PHITS (Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System). In our previous study [1], we calculated the radiation dose at a flight altitude during the coming solar cycle by assuming the variation of the solar wind speed and the strength of the HMF expressed by sinusoidal curve, and obtained that an annual radiation dose of aircrews in 5 years around the next solar minimum will be up to 19% higher than that at the last cycle. In this study, we predict the new model of the heliospheric environmental change on the basis of a prediction model for the sunspot number. The quantitative predictions of the cosmic-ray modulation and the radiation dose at a flight altitude during possible Grand Minimum considering

  15. Finite element method for radiation heat transfer in multi-dimensional graded index medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.H.; Zhang, L.; Tan, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    In graded index medium, ray goes along a curved path determined by Fermat principle, and curved ray-tracing is very difficult and complex. To avoid the complicated and time-consuming computation of curved ray trajectories, a finite element method based on discrete ordinate equation is developed to solve the radiative transfer problem in a multi-dimensional semitransparent graded index medium. Two particular test problems of radiative transfer are taken as examples to verify this finite element method. The predicted dimensionless net radiative heat fluxes are determined by the proposed method and compared with the results obtained by finite volume method. The results show that the finite element method presented in this paper has a good accuracy in solving the multi-dimensional radiative transfer problem in semitransparent graded index medium

  16. TRAPPED PROTON FLUXES AT LOW EARTH ORBITS MEASURED BY THE PAMELA EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriani, O.; Bongi, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Barbarino, G. C. [Department of Physics, University of Naples " Federico II," I-80126 Naples (Italy); Bazilevskaya, G. A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, RU-119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bellotti, R.; Bruno, A. [Department of Physics, University of Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Carbone, R. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Bogomolov, E. A. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RU-194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bottai, S. [INFN, Sezione di Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Cafagna, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Campana, D. [INFN, Sezione di Naples, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Carlson, P. [KTH, Department of Physics, and the Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Casolino, M.; De Donato, C.; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Felice, V. Di [INFN, Sezione di Rome " Tor Vergata," I-00133 Rome (Italy); Castellini, G., E-mail: alessandro.bruno@ba.infn.it [IFAC, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); and others

    2015-01-20

    We report an accurate measurement of the geomagnetically trapped proton fluxes for kinetic energy above ∼70 MeV performed by the PAMELA mission at low Earth orbits (350 ÷ 610 km). Data were analyzed in the frame of the adiabatic theory of charged particle motion in the geomagnetic field. Flux properties were investigated in detail, providing a full characterization of the particle radiation in the South Atlantic Anomaly region, including locations, energy spectra, and pitch angle distributions. PAMELA results significantly improve the description of the Earth's radiation environment at low altitudes, placing important constraints on the trapping and interaction processes, and can be used to validate current trapped particle radiation models.

  17. A comparison between weighted sum of gray and spectral CK radiation models for heat transfer calculations in furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ammouri, F; Plessier, R; Till, M; Marie, B; Djavdan, E [Air Liquide Centre de Recherche Claude Delorme, 78 - Jouy-en-Josas (France)

    1997-12-31

    Coupled reactive fluid dynamics and radiation calculations are performed in air and oxy-fuel furnaces using two gas radiative property models. The first one is the weighted sum of gray gases model (WSGG) and the second one is the correlated-k (CK) method which is a spectral model based on the cumulative distribution function of the absorption coefficient inside a narrow band. The WSGG model, generally used in industrial configurations, is less time consuming than the CK model. However it is found that it over-predicts radiative fluxes by about 12 % in industrial furnaces. (authors) 27 refs.

  18. A comparison between weighted sum of gray and spectral CK radiation models for heat transfer calculations in furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ammouri, F.; Plessier, R.; Till, M.; Marie, B.; Djavdan, E. [Air Liquide Centre de Recherche Claude Delorme, 78 - Jouy-en-Josas (France)

    1996-12-31

    Coupled reactive fluid dynamics and radiation calculations are performed in air and oxy-fuel furnaces using two gas radiative property models. The first one is the weighted sum of gray gases model (WSGG) and the second one is the correlated-k (CK) method which is a spectral model based on the cumulative distribution function of the absorption coefficient inside a narrow band. The WSGG model, generally used in industrial configurations, is less time consuming than the CK model. However it is found that it over-predicts radiative fluxes by about 12 % in industrial furnaces. (authors) 27 refs.

  19. Evaluation of Site and Continental Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Simulations with North American Flux Tower Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczka, B. M.; Davis, K. J.; Regional-Interim Synthesis Participants, N.; Site Level Interim Synthesis, N.; Regional/Continental Interim Synthesis Team

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon models are widely used to diagnose past ecosystem-atmosphere carbon flux responses to climate variability, and are a critical component of coupled climate-carbon model used to predict global climate change. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) Interim Regional and Site Interim Synthesis activities collected a broad sampling of terrestrial carbon model results run at both regional and site level. The Regional Interim Synthesis Activity aims to determine our current knowledge of the carbon balance of North America by comparing the flux estimates provided by the various terrestrial carbon cycle models. Moving beyond model-model comparison is challenging, however, because no continental-scale reference values exist to validate modeled fluxes. This paper presents an effort to evaluate the continental-scale flux estimates of these models using North American flux tower observations brought together by the Site Interim Synthesis Activity. Flux towers present a standard for evaluation of the modeled fluxes, though this evaluation is challenging because of the mismatch in spatial scales between the spatial resolution of continental-scale model runs and the size of a flux tower footprint. We compare model performance with flux tower observations at monthly and annual integrals using the statistical criteria of normalized standard deviation, correlation coefficient, centered root mean square deviation and chi-squared. Models are evaluated individually and according to common model characteristics including spatial resolution, photosynthesis, soil carbon decomposition and phenology. In general all regional models are positively biased for GPP, Re and NEE at both annual and monthly time scales. Further analysis links this result to a positive bias in many solar radiation reanalyses. Positively biased carbon fluxes are also observed for enzyme-kinetic models and models using no nitrogen limitation for soil carbon decomposition. While the former result is

  20. Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rowberry, Matthew David; Martí, Xavier; Frontera, C.; Van De Wiel, M.J.; Briestenský, Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 157, JUN (2016), 16-26 ISSN 0265-931X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : cave radon concentration * cave radon flux * cave ventilation * radioactive decay * fault slip * numerical modelling Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure; BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.310, year: 2016

  1. Combining Physical and Biologic Parameters to Predict Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenmark, Matthew H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cai Xuwei [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Cancer Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Shedden, Kerby [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Yuan Shuanghu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Radiation Oncology, Shangdong Cancer Hospital, Jinan (China); Ritter, Timothy [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Kong Fengming, E-mail: fengkong@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the plasma dynamics of 5 proinflammatory/fibrogenic cytokines, including interleukin-1beta (IL-1{beta}), IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}), and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-{beta}1) to ascertain their value in predicting radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT), both individually and in combination with physical dosimetric parameters. Methods and Materials: Treatments of patients receiving definitive conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (RT) on clinical trial for inoperable stages I-III lung cancer were prospectively evaluated. Circulating cytokine levels were measured prior to and at weeks 2 and 4 during RT. The primary endpoint was symptomatic RILT, defined as grade 2 and higher radiation pneumonitis or symptomatic pulmonary fibrosis. Minimum follow-up was 18 months. Results: Of 58 eligible patients, 10 (17.2%) patients developed RILT. Lower pretreatment IL-8 levels were significantly correlated with development of RILT, while radiation-induced elevations of TGF-ss1 were weakly correlated with RILT. Significant correlations were not found for any of the remaining 3 cytokines or for any clinical or dosimetric parameters. Using receiver operator characteristic curves for predictive risk assessment modeling, we found both individual cytokines and dosimetric parameters were poor independent predictors of RILT. However, combining IL-8, TGF-ss1, and mean lung dose into a single model yielded an improved predictive ability (P<.001) compared to either variable alone. Conclusions: Combining inflammatory cytokines with physical dosimetric factors may provide a more accurate model for RILT prediction. Future study with a larger number of cases and events is needed to validate such findings.

  2. From COS ecosystem fluxes to GPP: integrating soil, branch and ecosystem fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijmans, L.; Maseyk, K. S.; Vesala, T.; Mammarella, I.; Baker, I. T.; Seibt, U.; Sun, W.; Aalto, J.; Franchin, A.; Kolari, P.; Keskinen, H.; Levula, J.; Chen, H.

    2016-12-01

    The close coupling of Carbonyl Sulfide (COS) and CO2 due to a similar uptake pathway into plant stomata makes COS a promising new tracer that can potentially be used to partition the Net Ecosystem Exchange into gross primary production (GPP) and respiration. Although ecosystem-scale measurements have been made at several sites, the contribution of different ecosystem components to the total COS budget is often unknown. Besides that, the average Leaf Relative Uptake (LRU) ratio needs to be better determined to accurately translate COS ecosystem fluxes into GPP estimates when the simple linear correlation between GPP estimates and COS plant uptake is used. We performed two campaigns in the summer of 2015 and 2016 at the SMEAR II site in Hyytiälä, Finland to provide better constrained COS flux data for boreal forests. A combination of COS measurements were made during both years, i.e. atmospheric profile concentrations up to 125 m, eddy-covariance fluxes and soil chamber fluxes. In addition to these, branch chamber measurements were done in 2016 in an attempt to observe the LRU throughout the whole season. The LRU ratio shows an exponential correlation with photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) but is constant for PAR levels above 500 µmol m-2 s-1. Mid-day LRU values are 1.0 (aspen) and 1.5 (pine). The correlation between LRU and PAR can be explained by the fact that COS is hydrolyzed with the presence of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, and is not light dependent, whereas the photosynthetic uptake of CO2 is. We observed nighttime fluxes on the order of 25-30 % of the daily maximum COS uptake. Soils are a small sink of COS and contribute to 3 % of the total ecosystem COS flux during daytime. In a comparison between observed and simulated fluxes from the Simple Biosphere (SiB) model, the modelled COS and CO2 ecosystem fluxes are on average 40 % smaller than the observed fluxes, however, the Ecosystem Relative Uptake (ERU) ratios are identical at a value of 1.9 ± 0

  3. The effect of the advanced drift-flux model of ASSERT-PV on critical heat flux, flow and void distributions in CANDU bundle subchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammouda, N.; Rao, Y.F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Presentation of the “advanced” drift-flux model of the subchannel code ASSERT-PV. • Study the effect of the drift-flux model of ASSERT on CHF and flow distribution. • Quantify model component effects with flow, quality and dryout power measurements. - Abstract: This paper studies the effect of the drift flux model of the subchannel code ASSERT-PV on critical heat flux (CHF), void fraction and flow distribution across fuel bundles. Numerical experiments and comparison against measurements were performed to examine the trends and relative behaviour of the different components of the model under various flow conditions. The drift flux model of ASSERT-PV is composed of three components: (a) the lateral component or diversion cross-flow, caused by pressure difference between connected subchannels, (b) the turbulent diffusion component or the turbulent mixing through gaps of subchannels, caused by instantaneous turbulent fluctuations or flow oscillations, and (c) the void drift component that occurs due to the two-phase tendency toward a preferred distribution. This study shows that the drift flux model has a significant impact on CHF, void fraction and flow distribution predictions. The lateral component of the drift flux model has a stronger effect on CHF predictions than the axial component, especially for horizontal flow. Predictions of CHF, void fraction and flow distributions are most sensitive to the turbulent diffusion component of the model, followed by the void drift component. Buoyancy drift can be significant, but it does not have as much influence on CHF and flow distribution as the turbulent diffusion and void drift.

  4. Prediction of the performance of an ion chamber amplifier under γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Sundarsingh, V.P.; Ramachandran, V.

    2005-01-01

    The ion chamber amplifier (ICA) plays a major role in the proper functioning of a nuclear reactor as it monitors the radiations from the nuclear reactor by measuring the ionic activity inside the ion chamber. The signal conditioning circuitry of the ICA detects and conditions the weak ionic currents coming from the ion chamber dome. Degradation in the performance of the semiconductor devices used in this part of the ICA, can lead to inaccurate monitoring of the reactor operation, resulting in a possible catastrophe due to malfunction. Further, the response of the ICA under irradiation also depends upon the strength of the input signal (ionic) current it is required to handle. The active devices used in the ICA under study are operational amplifiers (Op-Amps) such as DN8500A and OPA111, instrumentation amplifier INA101, transistor 2N2920A and a voltage reference device, AD584. Since these devices may be sensitive to radiation, one must know their radiation behaviour so that the performance of the ICA can be predicted. This paper examines the performance of the ICA by characterising the radiation profiles of its vital components, viz. the Op-Amps, instrumentation amplifiers, transistors, etc. by monitoring their parametric changes on-line, i.e. when the source is on, and the devices are biased. The simulation runs involve the simulation of the entire ICA circuitry using the changed values of the vital parameters such as input bias current and input offset voltage. The main advantage of this method is that it obviates irradiating the whole ICA circuit to study its irradiation performance, and simulates an environment of radiation leakage around the ICA. Based on this study, results are presented to predict the performance of the ICA

  5. Prediction of a photovoltaic system performance using cumulative frequency curves of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnier, F; Sivoththaman, S [Asian Inst. of Technology, Bangkok (TH). Div. of Energy Technology

    1990-01-01

    The system performance of stand-alone photovoltaic systems is analysed. From the hourly radiation data for Bangkok (from 1984 to 1987) the cumulative frequency curves of radiation are generated and a typical meteorological day (TMD) is created each year. The system performance is determined using both the TMD radiation and the actual radiation values. The comparison results show that the TMD method can be applied for the sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic systems. The storage batteries of realistic sizes usually exhibit a daily cyclic variation in state-of-charge, with constant load consumption. Only very large and unrealistic sizes of batteries show a seasonal variation in state-of-charge. This is the fact that prompted the attempt to predict the system performance for a season by using a single representative day (TMD) of that season. Apart from giving reliable results, the TMD method significantly reduces the computation time and simplifies the process. (author).

  6. Variable Eddington factors and flux-limiting diffusion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, P.P.

    1982-01-01

    Variable Eddington factors and flux limiting diffusion coefficients arise in two common techniques of closing the moment equations of transport. The first two moment equations of the full transport equation are still frequently used to solve many problems of radiative or particle transport. An approximate analysis, developed by Levermore, exhibits the relation between the coefficients of the two different techniques. This analysis is described and then used to test the validity of several commonly used flux limiters and Eddington factors. All of the ad-hoc flux limiters have limited validity. All of the variable Eddington factors derived from some underlying description of the angular distribution function are generally valid. The use of coefficients from Minerbo's elegant maximum entropy Eddington factor analysis is suggested for use in either flux limited diffusion or variable Eddington factor equations

  7. Asymptotic analysis of discrete schemes for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xia; Yuan, Guang-wei; Shen, Zhi-jun

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by providing well-behaved fully discrete schemes in practice, this paper extends the asymptotic analysis on time integration methods for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion in [2] to space discretizations. Therein studies were carried out on a two-temperature model with Larsen's flux-limited diffusion operator, both the implicitly balanced (IB) and linearly implicit (LI) methods were shown asymptotic-preserving. In this paper, we focus on asymptotic analysis for space discrete schemes in dimensions one and two. First, in construction of the schemes, in contrast to traditional first-order approximations, asymmetric second-order accurate spatial approximations are devised for flux-limiters on boundary, and discrete schemes with second-order accuracy on global spatial domain are acquired consequently. Then by employing formal asymptotic analysis, the first-order asymptotic-preserving property for these schemes and furthermore for the fully discrete schemes is shown. Finally, with the help of manufactured solutions, numerical tests are performed, which demonstrate quantitatively the fully discrete schemes with IB time evolution indeed have the accuracy and asymptotic convergence as theory predicts, hence are well qualified for both non-equilibrium and equilibrium radiation diffusion. - Highlights: • Provide AP fully discrete schemes for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion. • Propose second order accurate schemes by asymmetric approach for boundary flux-limiter. • Show first order AP property of spatially and fully discrete schemes with IB evolution. • Devise subtle artificial solutions; verify accuracy and AP property quantitatively. • Ideas can be generalized to 3-dimensional problems and higher order implicit schemes.

  8. Machine Learning Approaches for Predicting Radiation Therapy Outcomes: A Clinician's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, John; Schwartz, Russell; Flickinger, John; Beriwal, Sushil

    2015-12-01

    Radiation oncology has always been deeply rooted in modeling, from the early days of isoeffect curves to the contemporary Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) initiative. In recent years, medical modeling for both prognostic and therapeutic purposes has exploded thanks to increasing availability of electronic data and genomics. One promising direction that medical modeling is moving toward is adopting the same machine learning methods used by companies such as Google and Facebook to combat disease. Broadly defined, machine learning is a branch of computer science that deals with making predictions from complex data through statistical models. These methods serve to uncover patterns in data and are actively used in areas such as speech recognition, handwriting recognition, face recognition, "spam" filtering (junk email), and targeted advertising. Although multiple radiation oncology research groups have shown the value of applied machine learning (ML), clinical adoption has been slow due to the high barrier to understanding these complex models by clinicians. Here, we present a review of the use of ML to predict radiation therapy outcomes from the clinician's point of view with the hope that it lowers the "barrier to entry" for those without formal training in ML. We begin by describing 7 principles that one should consider when evaluating (or creating) an ML model in radiation oncology. We next introduce 3 popular ML methods--logistic regression (LR), support vector machine (SVM), and artificial neural network (ANN)--and critique 3 seminal papers in the context of these principles. Although current studies are in exploratory stages, the overall methodology has progressively matured, and the field is ready for larger-scale further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Critical heat flux in vertical flows at low pressures; Flux de chaleur critique en ecoulements verticaux aux pressions faibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olekhnowitch, A [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents some critical heat flux (CHF) data obtained for vertical upflow of water in an 8 mm test section, for exit pressures ranging from 5 to 30 bar. The experiments were carried out for heated lengths of 0.75, 1, 1.4 and 1.8 m. In general, the collected data show trends similar to those described in the open literature. However, it was observed that for low pressures CHF depends on the heated length; this dependence begins to disappear for exit pressure of about 30 bar. The data have been compared with a look-up table and predictions of well known correlations. For low pressures and low mass fluxes, the look-up table seems to give better predictions, but for medium pressures and mass fluxes, the correlations perform better. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Advanced divertor configurations with large flux expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukhanovskii, V.A., E-mail: vlad@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Bell, R.E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaye, S.; Kolemen, E.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); McLean, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Menard, J.E.; Paul, S.F.; Podesta, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Raman, R. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ryutov, D.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Scotti, F.; Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mueller, D.M.; Roquemore, A.L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Reimerdes, H.; Canal, G.P. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom Confédération Suisse, Lausanne (Switzerland); and others

    2013-07-15

    Experimental studies of the novel snowflake divertor concept (D. Ryutov, Phys. Plasmas 14 (2007) 064502) performed in the NSTX and TCV tokamaks are reviewed in this paper. The snowflake divertor enables power sharing between divertor strike points, as well as the divertor plasma-wetted area, effective connection length and divertor volumetric power loss to increase beyond those in the standard divertor, potentially reducing heat flux and plasma temperature at the target. It also enables higher magnetic shear inside the separatrix, potentially affecting pedestal MHD stability. Experimental results from NSTX and TCV confirm the predicted properties of the snowflake divertor. In the NSTX, a large spherical tokamak with a compact divertor and lithium-coated graphite plasma-facing components (PFCs), the snowflake divertor operation led to reduced core and pedestal impurity concentration, as well as re-appearance of Type I ELMs that were suppressed in standard divertor H-mode discharges. In the divertor, an otherwise inaccessible partial detachment of the outer strike point with an up to 50% increase in divertor radiation and a peak divertor heat flux reduction from 3–7 MW/m{sup 2} to 0.5–1 MW/m{sup 2} was achieved. Impulsive heat fluxes due to Type-I ELMs were significantly dissipated in the high magnetic flux expansion region. In the TCV, a medium-size tokamak with graphite PFCs, several advantageous snowflake divertor features (cf. the standard divertor) have been demonstrated: an unchanged L–H power threshold, enhanced stability of the peeling–ballooning modes in the pedestal region (and generally an extended second stability region), as well as an H-mode pedestal regime with reduced (×2–3) Type I ELM frequency and slightly increased (20–30%) normalized ELM energy, resulting in a favorable average energy loss comparison to the standard divertor. In the divertor, ELM power partitioning between snowflake divertor strike points was demonstrated. The NSTX

  11. The submm wave Josephson flux flow oscillator; Linewidth measurements and simple theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Jesper; Koshelets, V. P.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    2005-01-01

    The Flux Flow Oscillator (FFO) is a long Josephson junction in which a DC bias current and a DC magnetic field maintain a unidirectional viscous flow of magnetic flux quanta. The theoretical linewidth of the electromagnetic radiation generated at the end boundary is due to internal current...

  12. Validation of the ASSERT subchannel code: Prediction of critical heat flux in standard and nonstandard CANDU bundle geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, M.B.; Kiteley, J.C.; Zhou, R.Q.N.; Junop, S.V.; Rowe, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    The ASSERT code has been developed to address the three-dimensional computation of flow and phase distribution and fuel element surface temperatures within the horizontal subchannels of Canada uranium deuterium (CANDU) pressurized heavy water reactor fuel channels and to provide a detailed prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) distribution throughout the bundle. The ASSERT subchannel code has been validated extensively against a wide repertoire of experiments; its combination of three-dimensional prediction of local flow conditions with a comprehensive method of predicting CHF at these local conditions makes it a unique tool for predicting CHF for situations outside the existing experimental database. In particular, ASSERT is an appropriate tool to systematically investigate CHF under conditions of local geometric variations, such as pressure tube creep and fuel element strain. The numerical methodology used in ASSERT, the constitutive relationships incorporated, and the CHF assessment methodology are discussed. The evolutionary validation plan is also discussed and early validation exercises are summarized. More recent validation exercises in standard and nonstandard geometries are emphasized

  13. Response of earth's atmosphere to increases in solar flux and implications for loss of water from Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasting, J.F.; Pollack, J.B.; Ackerman, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    A one-dimensional radiative-convective model is used to compute temperature and water vapor profiles as functions of solar flux for an earthlike atmosphere. The troposphere is assumed to be fully saturated, with a moist adiabatic lapse rate, and changes in cloudiness are neglected. Predicted surface temperatures increase monotonically from -1 to 111 C as the solar flux is increased from 0.81 to 1.45 times its present value. The results imply that the surface temperature of a primitive water-rich Venus should have been at least 80-100 C and may have been much higher. Water vapor should have been a major atmospheric constituent at all altitudes, leading to the rapid hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen. The oxygen left behind by this process was presumably consumed by reactions with reduced minerals in the crust. 43 references

  14. Influence of radiation on predictive accuracy in numerical simulations of the thermal environment in industrial buildings with buoyancy-driven natural ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Xiaojing; Wang, Yi; Liu, Tiening; Xing, Xiao; Cao, Yingxue; Zhao, Jiangping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of radiation on predictive accuracy in numerical simulations were studied. • A scaled experimental model with a high-temperature heat source was set up. • Simulation results were discussed considering with and without radiation model. • The buoyancy force and the ventilation rate were investigated. - Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of radiation on predictive accuracy in the numerical simulations of industrial buildings. A scaled experimental model with a high-temperature heat source is set up and the buoyancy-driven natural ventilation performance is presented. Besides predicting ventilation performance in an industrial building, the scaled model in this paper is also used to generate data to validate the numerical simulations. The simulation results show good agreement with the experiment data. The effects of radiation on predictive accuracy in the numerical simulations are studied for both pure convection model and combined convection and radiation model. Detailed results are discussed regarding the temperature and velocity distribution, the buoyancy force and the ventilation rate. The temperature and velocity distributions through the middle plane are presented for the pure convection model and the combined convection and radiation model. It is observed that the overall temperature and velocity magnitude predicted by the simulations for pure convection were significantly greater than those for the combined convection and radiation model. In addition, the Grashof number and the ventilation rate are investigated. The results show that the Grashof number and the ventilation rate are greater for the pure convection model than for the combined convection and radiation model.

  15. Combining multiple models to generate consensus: Application to radiation-induced pneumonitis prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Shiva K.; Chen Shifeng; Deasy, Joseph O.; Zhou Sumin; Yin Fangfang; Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    The fusion of predictions from disparate models has been used in several fields to obtain a more realistic and robust estimate of the ''ground truth'' by allowing the models to reinforce each other when consensus exists, or, conversely, negate each other when there is no consensus. Fusion has been shown to be most effective when the models have some complementary strengths arising from different approaches. In this work, we fuse the results from four common but methodologically different nonlinear multivariate models (Decision Trees, Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines, Self-Organizing Maps) that were trained to predict radiation-induced pneumonitis risk on a database of 219 lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy (34 with Grade 2+ postradiotherapy pneumonitis). Each model independently incorporated a small number of features from the available set of dose and nondose patient variables to predict pneumonitis; no two models had all features in common. Fusion was achieved by simple averaging of the predictions for each patient from all four models. Since a model's prediction for a patient can be dependent on the patient training set used to build the model, the average of several different predictions from each model was used in the fusion (predictions were made by repeatedly testing each patient with a model built from different cross-validation training sets that excluded the patient being tested). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the fused cross-validated results was 0.79, with lower variance than the individual component models. From the fusion, five features were extracted as the consensus among all four models in predicting radiation pneumonitis. Arranged in order of importance, the features are (1) chemotherapy; (2) equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for exponent a=1.2 to 3; (3) EUD for a=0.5 to 1.2, lung volume receiving >20-30 Gy; (4) female sex; and (5) squamous cell histology. To facilitate

  16. External radiation survey and dose predictions for Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik, Ailuk, and Wotje Atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.; Miltenberger, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    External radiation measurements were made at several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands, which are known or suspected to have been the recipients of tropospheric fallout during the Pacific Testing Programs. Sufficient data were available to ascertain realistic dose predictions for the inhabitants of Rongelap and Utirik Atolls where the 30 year integral doses from external sources exclusive of background radiation were 0.65 and 0.06 rem respectively. These estimates are based on realistic life-style models based on observations of each atoll community. Ailuk and Wotje Atolls were found to be represenatives of regional background radiation levels

  17. Effect of spatial sampling from European flux towers for estimating carbon and water fluxes with artificial neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papale, D.; Black, T Andrew; Carvalhais, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    -output relationships, while prediction for conditions outside the training domain is generally uncertain. In this work, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used for the prediction of gross primary production (GPP) and latent heat flux (LE) on local and European scales with the aim to assess the portion...

  18. Pitfalls in Prediction Modeling for Normal Tissue Toxicity in Radiation Therapy: An Illustration With the Individual Radiation Sensitivity and Mammary Carcinoma Risk Factor Investigation Cohorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbah, Chamberlain, E-mail: chamberlain.mbah@ugent.be [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Mathematical Modeling, Statistics, and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Thierens, Hubert [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Thas, Olivier [Department of Mathematical Modeling, Statistics, and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); National Institute for Applied Statistics Research Australia, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia); De Neve, Jan [Department of Data Analysis, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Chang-Claude, Jenny; Seibold, Petra; Botma, Akke [Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); West, Catharine [Translational Radiobiology Group, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Radiotherapy Related Research, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); De Ruyck, Kim [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To identify the main causes underlying the failure of prediction models for radiation therapy toxicity to replicate. Methods and Materials: Data were used from two German cohorts, Individual Radiation Sensitivity (ISE) (n=418) and Mammary Carcinoma Risk Factor Investigation (MARIE) (n=409), of breast cancer patients with similar characteristics and radiation therapy treatments. The toxicity endpoint chosen was telangiectasia. The LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) logistic regression method was used to build a predictive model for a dichotomized endpoint (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer score 0, 1, or ≥2). Internal areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (inAUCs) were calculated by a naïve approach whereby the training data (ISE) were also used for calculating the AUC. Cross-validation was also applied to calculate the AUC within the same cohort, a second type of inAUC. Internal AUCs from cross-validation were calculated within ISE and MARIE separately. Models trained on one dataset (ISE) were applied to a test dataset (MARIE) and AUCs calculated (exAUCs). Results: Internal AUCs from the naïve approach were generally larger than inAUCs from cross-validation owing to overfitting the training data. Internal AUCs from cross-validation were also generally larger than the exAUCs, reflecting heterogeneity in the predictors between cohorts. The best models with largest inAUCs from cross-validation within both cohorts had a number of common predictors: hypertension, normalized total boost, and presence of estrogen receptors. Surprisingly, the effect (coefficient in the prediction model) of hypertension on telangiectasia incidence was positive in ISE and negative in MARIE. Other predictors were also not common between the 2 cohorts, illustrating that overcoming overfitting does not solve the problem of replication failure of prediction models completely

  19. Kinetics of radiation-induced segregation in ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N.O.; Kumar, A.; Wiedersich, H.

    1982-01-01

    Model calculations of radiation-induced segregation in ternary alloys have been performed, using a simple theory. The theoretical model describes the coupling between the fluxes of radiation-induced defects and alloying elements in an alloy A-B-C by partitioning the defect fluxes into those occurring via A-, B-, and C-atoms, and the atom fluxes into those taking place via vacancies and interstitials. The defect and atom fluxes can be expressed in terms of concentrations and concentration gradients of all the species present. With reasonable simplifications, the radiation-induced segregation problem can be cast into a system of four coupled partial-differential equations, which can be solved numerically for appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Model calculations have been performed for ternary solid solutions intended to be representative of Fe-Cr-Ni and Ni-Al-Si alloys under various irradiation conditions. The dependence of segregation on both the alloy properties and the irradiation variables, e.g., temperature and displacement rate, was calculated. The sample calculations are in good qualitative agreement with the general trends of radiation-induced segregation observed experimentally

  20. Estimating surface fluxes over the north Tibetan Plateau area with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface fluxes are important boundary conditions for climatological modeling and Asian monsoon system. The recent availability of high-resolution, multi-band imagery from the ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer sensor has enabled us to estimate surface fluxes to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements using micrometeorological instruments and regional scale land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are fundamental for the understanding of the water cycle in the Asian monsoon system. A parameterization method based on ASTER data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving surface albedo, surface temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI, vegetation coverage, Leaf Area Index (LAI, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over heterogeneous land surface in this paper. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet, located at the north Tibetan Plateau. The ASTER data of 24 July 2001, 29 November 2001 and 12 March 2002 was used in this paper for the case of summer, winter and spring. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured surface variables (surface albedo and surface temperature and land surface heat fluxes (net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux were compared to the ASTER derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables and land surface heat fluxes in three different months over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. Also, the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good accordance with ground measurements, and all their absolute percentage difference (APD is less than 10% in the validation sites

  1. Evaluation of mathematical methods for predicting optimum dose of gamma radiation in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.K.; Siddiqui, S.H.; Heinz, D.J.; Ladd, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    Two mathematical methods - the reversed logarithmic method and the regression method - were used to compare the predicted and the observed optimum gamma radiation dose (OD 50 ) in vegetative propagules of sugarcane. The reversed logarithmic method, usually used in sexually propagated crops, showed the largest difference between the predicted and observed optimum dose. The regression method resulted in a better prediction of the observed values and is suggested as a better method for the prediction of optimum dose for vegetatively propagated crops. (author)

  2. Vertical motions in an intense magnetic flux tube. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, A.R.; Roberts, B.

    1980-01-01

    Radiative damping of waves is important in the upper photosphere. It is thus of interest to examine the effect of radiative relaxation on the propagation of waves in an intense magnetic flux tube embedded in a uniform atmosphere. Assuming Newton's law of cooling, it is shown that the radiative energy loss leads to wave damping. Both the damping per wavelength and the damping per period reach maximum value when the sound and radiative timescales are comparable. The stronger the magnetic field, the greater is the damping. (orig.)

  3. A theoretical prediction of critical heat flux in subcooled pool boiling during power transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Nelson, R.A.; Gunnerson, F.S.

    1988-01-01

    Understanding and predicting critical heat flux (CHF) behavior during steady-state and transient conditions are of fundamenatal interest in the design, operation, safety of boiling and two-phase flow devices. This paper discusses the results of a comprehensive theoretical study made specifically to model transient CHF behavior in subcooled pool boiling. This study is based upon a simplified steady-state CHF model in terms of the vapor mass growth period. The results obtained from this theory indicate favorable agreement with the experimental data from cylindrical heaters with small radii. The statistical nature of the vapor mass behavior in transient boiling also is considered and upper and lower limits for the current theory are established. Various factors that affect the discrepancy between the data and the theory are discussed

  4. Limits of agricultural greenhouse gas calculators to predict soil N2O and CH4 fluxes in tropical agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Meryl; Metzel, Ruth; Chirinda, Ngonidzashe

    2016-01-01

    measurements from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Estimates based on GHG calculators were greater than measurements in 70% of the cases, exceeding twice the measured flux nearly half the time. For 41% of the comparisons, calculators incorrectly predicted whether emissions would increase or decrease...