Sample records for radiations ionisantes rayons

  1. Supervision of professional personnel exposed to ionizing radiation (X-rays); Surveillance du personnel professionnellement expose aux radiations ionisantes (rayons X)

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    Chalabreysse, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Pierrelatte (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    After a short introduction giving the physical characteristics and the possible interactions of X-rays, this report considers in more detail the basis of the dosimetry and the units used. Taking into account the dangers of irradiation and the professional norms applicable, the report reviews the physical methods (collective and individual dosimetry) and the biological method (based on the systematic supervision of the hemogram) which are used to ensure that these professional norms an respected. As an example the influence is studied of repeated doses of X-rays on the hemogram of X-ray operators when the individual radiation levels are known through dosimetric films. Two processes are used: one considers the mean values (irradiation and average hemogram for each person), the other requires the use of an electronic computer and uses each haematological variable as a function of the monthly or cumulative doses; it gives correlation coefficients for the different variables. In conclusion, the results obtained are compared to those conventionally accepted, and the validity of the hemogram is estimated as a criterion for the supervision. (author) [French] Apres avoir rappele brievement les caracteristiques physiques et le mode d'interaction des rayons X, ce rapport reprend les bases de la dosimetrie et les unites qui sont utilisees. Considerant les dangers entraines par une irradiation et rappelant les normes professionnelles, il envisage les methodes physiques (dosimetrie collective et individuelle) et la methode biologique (basee sur la surveillance systematique de l'hemogramme), utilisees pour faire respecter ces normes professionnelles. En application est etudiee l'influence, sur l'hemogramme des manipulateurs radio, des rayons X subis a doses repetees, connaissant les niveaux individuels d'irradiation gr e au film dosimetrique. Deux procedes sont utilises, l'un considere les valeurs moyennes (irradiation et hemogramme moyens pour

  2. Behaviour of circuits with respect to ionising radiations; Tenue des circuits aux radiations ionisantes

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    Boudenot, J.C. [Thomson-CSF, 75 - Paris (France)


    Electronic components with a greater integration of transistors, with an increase of surface and with reduced grid distances and operating voltages are more and more developing. These new technologies are more sensible to radiative environments which can lead to important disturbances: multiple upset, low level leakage current in MOS components etc.. The hardening techniques used so far must be adapted in order to take into account these new phenomena. This paper deals successively with: 1 - recall about radiations: interaction with matter (electrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, neutrons), effects to be considered (dose and dose rates, displacements, linear energy transfer and critical load); 2 - radiative environments: nuclear explosions, spatial environment (radiation belts, solar eruptions and wind, cosmic radiation), atmospheric environment, other environments (particle accelerators, robots in radiative environments, nuclear power plants, propulsion reactors, fusion devices, dismantling of nuclear facilities, industrial irradiations); 3 - radiative effects and technological hardening: cumulated dose (basic mechanisms, influence of radiation, polarization, dose rates, temperature, process, vulnerability of components), neutron fluence, heavy ions; 4 - protection means: components technology, circuits and systems (dose and dose rates, neutrons, heavy ions), hardening strategy; 5 - hardening validation: testing methods and procedures, nuclear hardening assurance (context, definition of needs, distribution of afterlife probabilities, design margins, components classification, repertory file), space hardening assurance (context, dose effects, direct and indirect heavy ion effects, assurance costs). (J.S.)

  3. Response of hematopoietic stem cells to ionizing radiation; Reponse des cellules souches hematopoitiques aux radiations ionisantes

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    Simonnet, A


    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain blood and immune system throughout life and restore them after hematological injuries. Exposure of an organism to ionizing radiation (IR) causes rapid and acute myelosuppression and challenges the replenishment capacity of HSCs. Yet, the precise damages that are generated remain largely unexplored. To better understand these effects, phenotypic and functional changes in the stem/progenitor compartments of sublethally irradiated mice were monitored over a ten week period after radiation exposure. We report that shortly after sublethal IR-exposure, HSCs, defined by their repopulating ability, still segregate in the Hoechst dye excluding side population (SP); yet, their Sca-1 (S) and c-Kit (K) expression levels are increased and severely reduced, respectively, with a concurrent increase in the proportion of SP{sup SK} cells positive for established indicators of HSC presence: CD150{sup +} and CD105{sup +}. A great proportion of HSCs quickly but transiently enter the cell cycle to replenish the bone marrow of myelo-ablated mice. Ten weeks after, whereas bone marrow cellularity has recovered and hematopoietic homeostasis is restored, major phenotypic modifications can be observed within the Lin{sup -/low} Sca-1{sup +} c-Kit{sup +} (LSK) stem/progenitor compartment: CD150{sup +}/Flk2{sup -} and CD150{sup -}/Flk2{sup +} LSK cell frequencies are increased and dramatically reduced, respectively. CD150{sup +} LSK cells also show impaired reconstitution capacity, accrued number of {gamma}-H2AX foci and increased tendency to apoptosis. This demonstrates that the LSK compartment is not properly restored 10 weeks after sublethal exposure, and that long-term IR-induced injury to the bone marrow proceeds, at least partially, through direct damage to the stem cell pool. Thrombopoietin (TPO) has been shown to promote the survival of lethally irradiated mice when administrated quickly after exposure. We investigated the mechanisms underlying

  4. Cosmic radiations; A la rencontre des rayons cosmiques

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    Cosmic radiations were discovered one century ago, they were detected indirectly by their positive effect on the conductivity of the air through the ionization of atoms and molecules composing the air. The first measurement made on balloons showed that the ionization was increasing with altitude which discredited the idea that the radiations were coming from the earth itself. Other measurement campaigns showed that the cosmic radiations were very low at the equator which supported the idea that cosmic radiations were made up of charged particles that are deflected by the earth magnetic field. During the forties and the fifties the study of cosmic radiations led to the discovery of a broad range of particles: positrons, muons, pions, kaons and hyperons. The first observations on stratospheric balloons confirmed the origin of the showers of particles that had been detected with a series of ground detectors dispatched on a large area a few years before. These showers of particles are produced by primary cosmic rays mainly energetic protons colliding with nitrogen and oxygen atoms of the atmosphere. (A.C.)

  5. Ionizing radiations management in university, medical and industrial media; La gestion des sources ionisantes en milieux universitaire, medical et industriel

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    Klein, D. [Universite Technologique de Belfort Montbeliard - LERMPS, 90 - Belfort (France)]|[Universite de Franche Comte, CREST-IRMA, 25 - Montbeliard (France)


    The radioactive sources are useful in several areas: medicine, research, measurement laboratories. Severe accidents in the past (Forbach in France 1991, Arequipa, Peru 1999, Goiania, Brazil 1987) remind us of the dangerous character of ionizing radiations. That is why the the management of radioactive sources are so regulated. Radiation protection and legal aspects of sealed and unsealed sources management are evoked, as well as the different official organisms that take a part in their management. (N.C.)

  6. Management of ionizing radiation sources in university, medical and industrial environments; Gestion des sources ionisantes en milieux universitaire, medical et industriel

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    This conference treats several subjects relative to the use of radioactive sources. The first session comprises three articles about ionizing sources and regulation. The second session, with three articles, tackles the question of radiation protection in the use of sources in industrial field. The third session, four articles, treats the same question but in the medicine and university media. The fourth session (three articles) is devoted to the organisation of radiation protection in the case of accidents. The fifth session concerns the management of spent sources (three articles). The sixth session studies the radiation protection of sources in Europe. The seventh and final session ends with the part and coordination of actors in radiation protection in the sources management (three articles). (N.C.)

  7. The source of cosmic radiations; A la source des rayons cosmiques

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    Letessier-Selvon, A. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et Hautes Energies, 75 - Paris (France)


    The existence of the GZD (Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin) limit comes from the fact that the cosmological diffuse background interacts with cosmological radiations and can reduce dramatically their energy. As a consequence cosmic radiations traveling over large intergalactic distances can not have an energy over 60*10{sup 18} eV (the GZK limit). Another consequence is that a cosmic radiation with an energy greater that the GZK limit comes necessarily from a region no more than 500 million light-years away. The Auger observatory that at term will cover a surface of 3000 km{sup 2} has been designed to study high energy cosmic radiations through the detection of the huge particle showers they trigger when interacting with particles from the upper part of the atmosphere. The first results of the Auger observatory shows three important things. First, the Auger detector's ability to detect is 30 times greater than that of previous experiments. Secondly, 27 events with an energy greater than the GZK limit have been detected and for 20 of them a very active galaxy is located in their incident direction within a distance of 300*10{sup 6} km, these galaxies are then highly suspected to be the source of very high energy cosmic radiations. Thirdly, the graph of the measured cosmic radiation flux shows a brutal drop around 60*10{sup 18} eV which is the GZK limit. (A.C.)

  8. Cosmic rays and radiations from the cosmos; Rayons cosmiques et rayonnement du cosmos

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    Parizot, E


    This document gathers a lot of recent information concerning cosmic radiations, it is divided into 4 parts. Part I: energy, mass and angular spectra of cosmic rays. Part II: general phenomenology of cosmic rays, this part deals with the standard model, the maximal energy of protons inside supernova remnants, nucleosynthesis of light elements, and super-bubbles. Part III: radiations from the cosmos, this part deals with high energy gamma rays, non-thermal radiation of super-bubbles, positron transport, and the Compton trail of gamma-ray bursts. Part IV: the Pierre Auger observatory (OPA), this part deals with the detection of gamma ray bursts at OPA, the measurement of anisotropy, and top-down models. (A.C.)

  9. Approach of combined cancer gene therapy and radiation: response of promoters to ionizing radiation; Approche de therapie genique anti-cancereuse combinee a l'irradiation: etude de la reponse de promoteurs aux radiations ionisantes

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    Anstett, A


    Gene therapy is an emerging cancer treatment modality. We are interested in developing a radiation-inducible gene therapy system to sensitize the tumor vasculature to the effects of ionizing radiation (IR) treatment. An expression system based on irradiation-inducible promoters will drive the expression of anti-tumor genes in the tumor vasculature. Solid tumors are dependent on angio genesis, a process in which new blood vessels are formed from the pre-existing vasculature. Vascular endothelial cells are un transformed and genetically stable, thus avoiding the problem of resistance to the treatments. Vascular endothelial cells may therefore represent a suitable target for this therapeutic gene therapy strategy.The identification of IR-inducible promoters native to endothelial cells was performed by gene expression profiling using cDNA micro array technology. We describe the genes modified by clinically relevant doses of IR. The extension to high doses aimed at studying the effects of total radiation delivery to the tumor. The radio-inductiveness of the genes selected for promoter study was confirmed by RT-PCR. Analysis of the activity of promoters in response to IR was also assessed in a reporter plasmid. We found that authentic promoters cloned onto a plasmid are not suitable for cancer gene therapy due to their low induction after IR. In contrast, synthetic promoters containing repeated sequence-specific binding sites for IR-activated transcription factors such as NF-{kappa}B are potential candidates for gene therapy. The activity of five tandemly repeated TGGGGACTTTCCGC elements for NF-{kappa}B binding in a luciferase reporter was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the response to fractionated low doses was improved in comparison to the total single dose. Thus, we put present evidence that a synthetic promoter for NF-{kappa}B specific binding may have application in the radio-therapeutic treatment of cancer. (author)

  10. Characterization of ionizing radiation effects in MOS structures by study of bipolar operation; Caracterisation des effets induits par irradiations ionisantes dans des structures MOS a partir de leur fonctionnement en regime bipolaire

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    Bakhtiar, H. [Univ. Teknologi Malaysia, Dept. of Physics, Johor (Malaysia); Picard, C.; Brisset, C. [CEA Saclay, Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique, LETI, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bakhtiar, H.; Hoffmann, A.; Charles, J.P. [Metz Univ., LICM-CLOES-Supelec, 57 (France)


    This work presents an original method to characterize radiation effects of micronic transistors. The characterization includes a study of the transistor substrate-drain junction and current gain variation of the bipolar transistor (drain-substrate-source as emitter-base-collector) for different gate voltages. (author000.

  11. High dose ionizing irradiation induces an early and transient increase in peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells; L`exposition aigue aux radiations ionisantes induit un recrutement transitoire des progeniteurs hematopoietiques au niveau du sang peripherique: implications therapeutiques potentielles

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    Drouet, M.; Mathieu, J.; Grenier, N.; Vetillard, J.; Chauvelot, F.; Thierry, D.; Mestries, J.C.; Herodin, F. [Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, La Tronche, 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees - Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)


    Nonhuman primates exposed to ionizing radiation exhibit an early and transient increase in peripheral blood committed hematopoietic progenitor cells. The management of bone marrow aplasia secondary to accidental irradiation could be based in part on the re-infusion of those circulating autologous progenitors following a period of ex vivo expansion with cytokines. (authors)

  12. Low doses effects and gamma radiations low dose rates; Les effets des faibles doses et des faibles debits de doses de rayons gamma

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    Averbeck, D. [Institut Curie, CNRS UMR 2027, 75 - Paris (France)


    This expose wishes for bringing some definitions and base facts relative to the problematics of low doses effects and low dose rates effects. It shows some already used methods and some actual experimental approaches by focusing on the effects of ionizing radiations with a low linear energy transfer. (N.C.)

  13. Per-operative X-ray radiotherapy: personnel radiation protection in the operating theatre suite; Radiotherapie peroperatoire par rayons X: radioprotection du personnel au bloc operatoire

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    Lisbona, A.; Josset-Gaudaire, S.; Brunet, G.; Delpon, G. [ICO Centre Rene-Gauducheau, Saint-Herblain (France)


    The authors report the radioprotection study required in the exploitation authorization file associated with the putting into service of the Zeiss Meditec Intrabeam system. After having evoked the characteristics of this equipment (power, dose rate, treatment duration) and some characteristics of the building, they report the results of the zoning and workstation study. Two situations have assessed: the operator is present in the operating theatre suite behind a leaded screens, or stands outside of the operating theatre suite. The received dose is assessed on a basis of 50 treatments a year. Dose rate levels comply with personnel radiation protection requirements. Short communication

  14. Investigation of the effect of ionizing radiation on gene expression variation by the 'DNA chips': feasibility of a biological dosimeter; Etude de l'effet des radiations ionisantes sur la variation d'expression genique par la methode des 'puces a ADN': faisabilite d'un dosimetre biologique

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    Gruel, G.


    After having described the different biological effects of ionizing radiation and the different approaches to biological dosimetry, and introduced 'DNA chips' or DNA micro-arrays, the author reports the characterization of gene expression variations in the response of cells to a gamma irradiation. Both main aspects of the use DNA chips are investigated: fundamental research and diagnosis. This research thesis thus proposes an analysis of the effect of ionizing radiation using DNA chips, notably by comparing gene expression modifications measured in mouse irradiated lung, heart and kidney. It reports a feasibility study of bio-dosimeter based on expression profiles

  15. Identification of human genes involved in cellular responses to ionizing radiation: molecular and cellular studies of gene encoding the p68 helicase in mammalian cells; Identification de genes humains impliques dans la reponse cellulaire aux radiations ionisantes: etudes moleculaire et cellulaire du gene codant l'helicase p68 dans les cellules de mammiferes

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    Menaa, F.


    Cells submitted to genotoxic factors -like IR- activate several and important mechanisms such as repair, cell cycle arrest or 'apoptosis' to maintain genetic integrity. So, the damaged cells will induce many and different genes. The human transcriptome analysis by 'SSH' method in a human breast carcinoma cell line MCF7 {gamma}-irradiated versus not irradiated, allowed to identify about one hundred genes. Among of these genes, we have focused our study on a radio-induced gene encoding the p68 helicase. In the conditions of irradiation used, our results show that the kinetic and the regulation of this gene expression differs between the nature of radiations used. Indeed, in {gamma}-irradiated mammalian cells, ATM, a protein kinase activated by DSB and IR, is required to induce quickly P68 gene via the important transcription factor p53 stabilized by IR. In the case of UVC-irradiated cells, the P68 gene induction is late and the intracellular signalling pathway that lead to this induction is independent from the p53 protein. Finally, we show that the p68 protein under-expression is responsible for an increased radiosensitivity of MCF7 cells. Consequently, we can postulate that the p68 protein is involved in cellular responses to radiations to reduce the increased radiosensitivity of cells exposed to {gamma}-rays. (author)

  16. Rayon from Dryer Lint: A Demonstration (United States)

    Knopp, Michael A.


    In this demonstration, ordinary household dryer lint from the laundering of cotton items is stirred into the traditional Schweizer reagent mixture, a saturated solution of copper (II) carbonate in concentrated ammonium hydroxide. Any insoluble material (i.e. hair) is removed with a glass rod. The resulting deep blue viscous solution is taken up in an eye dropper and extruded into a 190 x 100 mm glass recrystallizing dish, which contains a dilute (3M) solution of sulfuric acid. Threads of rayon several cm in length can be thus formed. These threads are best viewed by the audience on an overhead projector. The sulfuric acid solution and threads are disposed of in compliance with local environmental regulations.

  17. Radio-oxidation of an EPDM elastomer under weak or strong ionising radiations: measurement and modelling of dioxygen consumption; Radio-oxydation d'un elastomere de type EPDM lors d'irradiations faiblement ou fortement ionisantes: mesure et modelisation de la consommation de dioxygene

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    Dely, N


    Usually, the irradiation of polymers under ionising radiations occurs in air that is in the presence of oxygen. This leads to a radio oxidation process and to oxygen consumption. Our material is an EPDM elastomer (ethylene propylene 1,4 hexadiene) used as insulator in control-command cables in nuclear plants (Pressurised Water Reactor). A specific device has been conceived and built up during this PhD work for measuring very small oxygen consumptions with an accuracy of around 10%. Ionising radiations used are electrons at 1 MeV and carbon ions at 11 MeV per nucleon. Under both electron and ion irradiations, the influence of oxygen pressure on oxygen consumption has been studied in a very large range: between 1 and 200 mbar. In both cases, the yield of oxygen consumption is constant in-between 200 and 5 mbar. Then, at lower pressures, it decreases appreciably. On the other hand, the oxygen consumption during ion irradiation is four times smaller than during electron irradiation. This emphasizes the role of the heterogeneity of the energy deposition at a nano-metric scale. The adjustment of the experimental results obtained during electron irradiation with the general homogeneous steady-state kinetic model has allowed extracting all the values of the kinetic parameters for the chosen mechanism of radio oxidation. The knowledge of these numbers will allow us to face our results obtained during ion irradiation with a heterogeneous kinetic model under development. (author)

  18. Modified bamboo rayon-copper nanoparticle composites as antibacterial textiles. (United States)

    Teli, M D; Sheikh, Javed


    In the current study the bamboo rayon fabric grafted with acrylamide was utilized as a backbone to immobilize copper nanoprticles. The grafted bamboo rayon was first treated with CuSO4 followed by chemical reduction. The modified product was characterized using FTIR, TGA and SEM. The characteristic color developed after reduction was measured spectrophotometrically. The grafted bamboo rayon with Cu nanoparticles was then evaluated for antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria and the durability of their antibacterial activity after washing. The product showed antibacterial activity against both types of bacterias which was found to be durable till 50 washes. The material can be claimed as suitable candidate for medical textile applications to prevent cross-infections.

  19. Water requirements of the rayon- and acetate-fiber industry (United States)

    Mussey, Orville Durey


    Water is required for several purposes in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. These water requirements, as indicated by a survey of the water used by the plants operating in 1953, are both quantitative and qualitative. About 300 mgd (million gallons per day) of water was used in 1953 in the preparation of purified wood cellulose and cotton linters, the basic material from which the rayon and acetate fiber is made. An additional 620 mgd was used in the process of converting the cellulose to rayon and acetate fiber. The total, 920 mgd, is about 1 percent of the total estimated withdrawals of industrial water in the United States in 1953. The rayon- and acetate-fiber plants are scattered through eastern United States and generally are located in small towns or rural areas where there are abundant supplies of clean, soft water. Water use at a typical rayon-fiber plant was about 9 mgd, and at a typical acetate-fiber plant about 38 mgd. About 110 gallons of water was used to produce a pound of rayon fiber, 32 gallons per pound was process water and the remainder was used largely for cooling in connection with power production and air conditioning. For the manufacture of a pound of acetate fiber about 170 gallons of water was used. However, the field survey on which this report is based indicated a wide range in the amount of water used per pound of product. For example, in the manufacture of viscose rayon, the maximum unit water use was 8 times the minimum unit water use. Water use in summer was about 22 percent greater than average annual use. About 8 mgd Of water was consumed by evaporation in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. More than 90 percent of the water used by the rayon and acetate industry was with- drawn from surface-water sources, about 8 percent from ground water, and less than 2 percent from municipal water supplies. All available analyses of the untreated waters used by the rayon and acetate industry were collected and studied. The

  20. Cosmogenic isotopes and neo-tectonics. Active tectonics and cosmic radiations: in situ generated cosmogenic nuclides; Isotopes cosmogeniques et neotectonique. Tectonique active et rayons cosmiques: les nucleides cosmogeniques produits in situ

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    Siame, L.; Braucher, R.; Bourles, D.; Derrieux, F


    In situ generated cosmogenic nuclides ({sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl) allow to analyse and determine the velocity in landscape changes. The build-up of cosmogenic nuclides in surface rocks submitted to cosmic radiations is proportional to the geomorphological stability of the exposed surfaces. Thus the concentration of in situ generated cosmogenic nuclides depends on the duration of the exposure and on the denudation rate. In some favorable circumstances the method allows to estimate the age of surface exposure. For a given sample at a given depth, an infinity of time-denudation solutions can be calculated to explained the measured concentration. The use of multiple samples taken at different depths allows to solve this mathematical problem and to obtain a unique solution. (J.S.)

  1. Effects of ionizing radiations on DNA-protein complexes; Effets des radiations ionisantes sur des complexes ADN-proteine

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    Gillard, N


    The radio-induced destruction of DNA-protein complexes may have serious consequences for systems implicated in important cellular functions. The first system which has been studied is the lactose operon system, that regulates gene expression in Escherichia coli. First of all, the repressor-operator complex is destroyed after irradiation of the complex or of the protein alone. The damaging of the domain of repressor binding to DNA (headpiece) has been demonstrated and studied from the point of view of peptide chain integrity, conformation and amino acids damages. Secondly, dysfunctions of the in vitro induction of an irradiated repressor-unirradiated DNA complex have been observed. These perturbations, due to a decrease of the number of inducer binding sites, are correlated to the damaging of tryptophan residues. Moreover, the inducer protects the repressor when they are irradiated together, both by acting as a scavenger in the bulk, and by the masking of its binding site on the protein. The second studied system is formed by Fpg (for Formamido pyrimidine glycosylase), a DNA repair protein and a DNA with an oxidative lesion. The results show that irradiation disturbs the repair both by decreasing its efficiency of DNA lesion recognition and binding, and by altering its enzymatic activity. (author)

  2. Characterization and Oxidation Behavior of Rayon-Derived Carbon Fibers (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan; Hull, David


    Rayon-derived fibers are the central constituent of reinforced carbon/ carbon (RCC) composites. Optical, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the as-fabricated fibers and the fibers after oxidation. Oxidation rates were measured with weight loss techniques in air and oxygen. The as-received fibers are approximately 10 micron in diameter and characterized by grooves or crenulations around the edges. Below 800 C, in the reaction-controlled region, preferential attack began in the crenulations and appeared to occur down fissures in the fibers.

  3. Influence of heat treatment of rayon-based activated carbon fibers on the adsorption of formaldehyde. (United States)

    Rong, Haiqin; Ryu, Zhenyu; Zheng, Jingtang; Zhang, Yuanli


    The influence of heat treatment of rayon-based activated carbon fibers on the adsorption behavior of formaldehyde was studied. Heat treatment in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen for rayon-based activated carbon fibers (ACFs) resulted in a significant increase in the adsorption capacities and prolongation of breakthrough time on removing of formaldehyde. The effect of different heat-treatment conditions on the adsorption characteristics was investigated. The porous structure parameters of the samples under study were investigated using nitrogen adsorption at the low temperature 77.4 K. The pore size distributions of the samples under study were calculated by density functional theory. With the aid of these analyses, the relationship between structure and adsorption properties of rayon-based ACFs for removing formaldehyde was revealed. Improvement of their performance in terms of adsorption selectivity and adsorption rate for formaldehyde were achieved by heat post-treatment in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen.

  4. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Study on Cation adsorption on Viscose Rayon Succinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Khasbaatar


    Full Text Available Ion-exchange materials have been considered as suitable material for the recovery of heavy metals in water. A viscose rayon succinate, synthesized from viscose rayon and succinic anhydride in presence of DMSO, to remove trace bivalent metal ions such as Ag+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ and Cr3+, was studied using FT-IR for the behavior of metal adsorption. Both esterification and carboxyl bonding of viscose rayon succinate were assigned essentially at 1729 and 1693cm-1, respectively. And the essential band of bonding between metal and the material was determined at 1625cm-1. The available adsorption capacity of this fiber was 6.2 mequiv/g. The adsorption of metal ions on the viscose rayon succinate follows the order of Cu2+>Cr3+>Ni2+>Pb2+>Zn2+>Ag+ with maximum adsorptions capacities 4.2, 1.42, 0.91, 0.83, 0.69 and 0.35 mmol/g, respectively.DOI: Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 136-141

  5. Swabbing for respiratory viral infections in older patients: a comparison of rayon and nylon flocked swabs. (United States)

    Hernes, S S; Quarsten, H; Hagen, E; Lyngroth, A L; Pripp, A H; Bjorvatn, B; Bakke, P S


    The purpose of this study was to compare the sampling efficacy of rayon swabs and nylon flocked swabs, and of oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal specimens for the detection of respiratory viruses in elderly patients. Samples were obtained from patients 60 years of age or above who were newly admitted to Sorlandet Hospital Arendal, Norway. The patients were interviewed for current symptoms of a respiratory tract infection. Using rayon swabs and nylon flocked swabs, comparable sets of mucosal samples were harvested from the nasopharynx and the oropharynx. The samples were analysed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. A total of 223 patients (mean age 74.9 years, standard deviation [SD] 9.0 years) were swabbed and a virus was recovered from 11% of the symptomatic patients. Regardless of the sampling site, a calculated 4.8 times higher viral load (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-17, p = 0.017) was obtained using the nylon flocked swabs as compared to the rayon swabs. Also, regardless of the type of swab, a calculated 19 times higher viral load was found in the samples from the nasopharynx as compared to the oropharynx (95% CI 5.4-67.4, p Nylon flocked swabs appear to be more efficient than rayon swabs.

  6. Uso do Blue Rayon para extração/concentração de compostos policíclicos em amostras ambientais Use of Blue Rayon for the extraction/concentration of polycyclic compounds in the aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Kummrow


    Full Text Available This is a review about the use of Blue rayon in the extraction and concentration of environmental contaminants in the aquatic environment. Blue rayon is an adsorbent composed of fibers covalently linked with copper phthalocyanine trisulphonate that has the ability to selectively adsorb polycyclic compounds. Blue rayon can be used in situ, in columns or in flasks. This method showed to be efficient in the extraction of important classes of environmental contaminants like the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, aromatic amines and phenylbenzotriazoles (PBTAs and can be an important tool in monitoring studies for the evaluation of water quality.

  7. Cold dyeing of rayon fabric%人棉织物的冷染生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鹤; 钟泉泉; 唐祝玉


    人棉织物的冷轧堆染整工艺包括烧毛、堆置、煮洗、拉幅、冷轧堆和后整理等工序,要掌握好工艺条件和加工要点,防止织物冷染加工时发生断裂和缝头印.冷染染料选用亨斯迈公司的C型染料染中浅色,效果较佳,但成本较高.%Cold pad -batch dyeing and finishing process of rayon fabric is introduced, including singeing, dwelling, scouring and rinsing, stentering, cold pad-batch dyeing and post finishing. Solutions for eliminating fabric broken in cold dyeing process and seam mark formation are pointed out. Rayon dyeings in light to medium shades with Huntsman C type dyes can achieve good quality, but the cost is a slight higher.

  8. Catalytic Pyrolyses of Rayon and the Effect on Activated Carbon Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾凡龙; 潘鼎


    The catalytic pyrolyses of rayon have been studied respectively by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) when rayon was treated with phosphoric acid (PA), three ammonium phosphate salts and ammonium sulfate (AS). The air is favorable to the catalysis of dibasic ammonium phosphate (DAP), but not to those of ADP, PA, AP, and AS obviously. It is put forward that a peak's shape character can be described with the ratio of height to half-height-width (H/W/2) of the peak on a differential thermo-gravimetric (DTG) curve. A flat cracking peak, presenting a more moderate dehydration reaction, has a smaller ratio and could lead to higher carbonization and activation yields. The experimental results prove this view. According to expectation, the order of catalysis is: DAP≥ADP>PA>AP(>>)AS(>>) no catalyst.

  9. Ethnobotany in Rayones, Nuevo León, México. (United States)

    Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Garza-López, Miriam; Villarreal-Quintanilla, José Ángel; Salinas-Rodríguez, María Magdalena; Soto-Mata, Brianda Elizabeth; González-Rodríguez, Humberto; González-Uribe, Dino Ulises; Cantú-Silva, Israel; Carrillo-Parra, Artemio; Cantú-Ayala, César


    Trough collections of plants and interviews with 110 individuals, an ethnobotanical study was conducted in order to determine the knowledge and use plant species in Rayones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The aim of this study was to record all useful plants and their uses, to know whether differences exist in the knowledge about the number of species and uses between women and men, and to know if there is a correlation between the age of individuals and knowledge of species and their uses. A total of 110 persons were interviewed (56 men, 56 women). Semistructured interviews were carried out. The data were analyzed by means of Student t test and the Pearson Correlation Coeficient. A total of 252 species, 228 genera and 91 families of vascular plants were recorded. Astraceae, Fabaceae and are the most important families with useful species and Agave and Opuntia are the genera with the highest number of useful species. One hundred and thirty six species are considered as medicinal. Agave, Acacia and Citrus are the genera with the highest number of medicinal species. Other uses includes edible, spiritual rituals, construction and ornamentals. There was a non-significant correlation between the person's age and number of species, but a significant very low negative correlation between the person's age and number of uses was found. Knowing their medicinal uses is an important issue for the people of Rayones. Boiling and preparing infusions are the main ways of using plants by residents. The leaves, the branches, and the fruits are the most commonly used parts. Almost 18% of the flora is used for wood and construction purposes. Several uses such as cosmetic, shampoo, firming skin tonics and health hair products recorded in Rayones has not been reported for other areas in the state of Nuevo León. In Rayones, women have a greater knowledge about plants and their uses than men, particularly, medicinal plants, but, men have a greater knowledge about wood and construction species.

  10. Study and determination of the national dosimetric standards in terms of air kerma for X-rays radiation fields of low and medium-energies; Etude et realisation des references dosimetriques nationales en termes de kerma dans l'air pour les faisceaux de rayons X de basses et moyennes energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ksouri, W


    Progress in radiation protection and radiotherapy, and the increased needs in terms of accuracy lead national metrology institutes to improve the standard. For ionizing radiation, the standard is defined by an absolute instrument used for air kerma rate measurement. The aim of the thesis is to establish standards, in terms of air kerma for X-rays beams of low and medium-energies. This work enables to complement the standard beam range of the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNHB). Two free-air chambers have been developed, WK06 for medium-energy and WK07 for low-energy. The air-kerma rate is corrected by several correction factors. Some are determined experimentally; and the others by using Monte Carlo simulations. The uncertainty budget of the air-kerma rate at one standard deviation has been established. These dosimetric standards were compared with those of counterparts' laboratories and are consistent in terms of degree of equivalence. (author)

  11. 100 years of X-rays, 20 years of absorption spectroscopy with the synchrotron radiation: history, principles and a few examples of applications; Un siecle de rayons X, 20 ans de spectroscopie d`absorption avec le rayonnement synchrotron: histoire, principes et quelques exemples d`applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalowicz, A.; Moscovici, J.; Mimouni, A. [Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France)


    The centenary of the discovery of X-rays is the occasion to summarize the history of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and its development on synchrotron radiation sources, to give the underlying principles and to illustrate the possible uses of this spectroscopy by three examples: (a) the structural characterization of disordered spin transition coordination compounds by EXAFS spectroscopy; (b) the ligand binding to vitamin B{sub 12} by XANES spectroscopy; and (c) the chemical analysis of sulfur compounds included in fly-ashes by low-energy XANES spectroscopy. (authors). 23 refs., 8 figs.

  12. "No fertile soil for pathogens": rayon, advertising, and biopolitics in late Weimar Germany. (United States)

    Lane, Yvette Florio


    Recent research on twentieth-century German history has begun to re-examine the centrality of race as a category of analysis. While not discounting its importance in the shaping and enacting of Nazi policies and practices, race is seen instead as one among many factors leading to the crimes of the Nazi regime. In this paper, the author considers the role consumerist desires and fantasies played in the wider context of the inter-war European fascination with notions of technology, "hygiene," democracy, and modernity. Using advertisements that were created to promote manufactured-fiber (rayon) apparel, this article suggests that continuities across cultures and time periods necessitate a re-evaluation of race as the signal organizing principal. Instead, the author argues that by complicating the intersections between class, science and technology, and an emerging, but troubling, modernity, 1920s rayon advertising offers an especially rich site for analysis of the ways in which biopolitics and nascent consumerism both sold products and constructed ideologies before 1933, and influenced the post-war welfare state.

  13. The effect of the substitution of D{sub 2}O for H{sub 2}O on the degradation of myosin {beta} in solution by heat and by {sup 60}Co {gamma} radiation (1962); Effet de la substitution de D{sub 2}O a H{sub 2}O sur l'alteration de la Myosine B en solution par la chaleur et par les rayons {gamma} du {sup 60}CO (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinset-Harstrom, I.; Fritsch, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    (1) Alterations of myosin B produced by heat or irradiation are shown to be qualitatively identical as demonstrated by analytical centrifugation. (2) A considerable isotope effect was demonstrated using 75 per cent D{sub 2}O in the solvent. The sensitivity of myosin B to heat and irradiation is discussed in the light of this isotope effect. (3) Polymers appearing upon heat treatment of myosin B seem to be of a very different nature than the polymers occurring alter a similar treatment upon myosin A. Polymers obtained from myosin B can be depolymerized by ATP and they appear in a much narrower temperature range than myosin A polymers. This fact indicates a considerable difference in the activation enthalpies in the two reactions. (authors) [French] (1) Cette etude montre que les alterations de la myosine B provoquees par la chaleur et par l'irradiation aux rayons {gamma} sont - telles qu'elles apparaissent a l'ultracentrifugation analytique - qualitativement semblables. (2) Nous avons observe un effet isotopique considerable de la presence de 75 pour cent de D{sub 2}O dans le solvant sur la sensibilite de la myosine B envers ces deux agents, et nous avons presente une tentative d'explication de ce fait. (3) Les polymeres qui apparaissent apres un traitement par la chaleur de la myosine semblent etre d'une nature tres differente des polymeres que l'on voit apparaitre apres un traitement identique de la myosine A. Ceux obtenus a partir de le myosine B sont depolymerisables par l'intermediaire de l'ATP et apparaissent dans une zone de temperature beaucoup plus etroite que celles de la myosine A. Ce dernier fait indique une difference considerable de l'enthalpie d'activation des deux reactions. (auteurs)

  14. Effects of Electrochemical Treatment on the Superficial Properties of Rayon-based Carbon Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩风; 黄永秋; 潘鼎


    The development of surface acidity on rayon-based carbon fibers during mild electrochemical treatment was investigated. Conductimetric titration was the primary method used to investigate the functionalities on the carbon fiber surface. The acidity on the surface of the untreated carbon fiber was very low, while for the treated fibers, the acidity increased significantly.Moreover, with the treatment extent proceeded, the acidity on the fiber surface also increased. SEM analysis shows electrochemical treatment under intense treatment degree caused considerable etch on the fiber surface.Cavities and grooves can be observed on the surface via the SEM microphotograph. While in a more mild treatment, electrochemical treatment didn't cause great etch on the surface of the fiber.

  15. Processing of rayon waste effluent for the recovery of zinc and separation of calcium using thiophosphinic extractant. (United States)

    Jha, M K; Kumar, V; Bagchi, D; Singh, R J; Lee, Jae-chun


    Zinc is used in various metallurgical, chemical and textile industries. In textile industries, waste effluent containing zinc is generated during the manufacture of rayon yarn. Due to the strict environmental regulations and the presence of toxic metallic and other constituents, the discharge of effluents in sewage is restricted. In view of above a process has been developed for the recovery of zinc from rayon waste effluent following solvent extraction technique using thiophosphinic extractants Cyanex 272 and 302. Before recycling of zinc sulphate solution in spinning bath, solution must be free from calcium, which is deleterious to the process as gypsum precipitates and forms scale. The extractant Cyanex 302 has been found selective for the recovery of 99.99% of zinc in the form of [R(2)Zn](org) from the effluent above equilibrium pH 3.4 maintaining the O/A ratio of 1/30 leaving all the calcium in the raffinate. The zinc from the loaded Cyanex 302 can be stripped with 10% sulphuric acid at even O/A ratio of 10. The stripped solution thus obtained could be recycled in the spinning bath of the rayon plant and raffinate could be disposed safely without affecting environment.

  16. Developpement d'algorithmes de reconstruction statistique appliques en tomographie rayons-X assistee par ordinateur (United States)

    Thibaudeau, Christian

    La tomodensitometrie (TDM) permet d'obtenir, et ce de facon non invasive, une image tridimensionnelle de l'anatomie interne d'un sujet. Elle constitue l'evolution logique de la radiographie et permet l'observation d'un volume sous differents plans (sagittal, coronal, axial ou n'importe quel autre plan). La TDM peut avantageusement completer la tomographie d'emission par positrons (TEP), un outil de predilection utilise en recherche biomedicale et pour le diagnostic du cancer. La TEP fournit une information fonctionnelle, physiologique et metabolique, permettant la localisation et la quantification de radiotraceurs a l'interieur du corps humain. Cette derniere possede une sensibilite inegalee, mais peut neanmoins souffrir d'une faible resolution spatiale et d'un manque de repere anatomique selon le radiotraceur utilise. La combinaison, ou fusion, des images TEP et TDM permet d'obtenir cette localisation anatomique de la distribution du radiotraceur. L'image TDM represente une carte de l'attenuation subie par les rayons-X lors de leur passage a travers les tissus. Elle permet donc aussi d'ameliorer la quantification de l'image TEP en offrant la possibilite de corriger pour l'attenuation. L'image TDM s'obtient par la transformation de profils d'attenuation en une image cartesienne pouvant etre interpretee par l'humain. Si la qualite de cette image est fortement influencee par les performances de l'appareil, elle depend aussi grandement de la capacite de l'algorithme de reconstruction a obtenir une representation fidele du milieu image. Les techniques de reconstruction standards, basees sur la retroprojection filtree (FBP, filtered back-projection), reposent sur un modele mathematiquement parfait de la geometrie d'acquisition. Une alternative a cette methode etalon est appelee reconstruction statistique, ou iterative. Elle permet d'obtenir de meilleurs resultats en presence de bruit ou d'une quantite limitee d'information et peut virtuellement s'adapter a toutes formes

  17. Gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb Sebagai Pewarna Alam Kain Batik Sutera, Katun, dan Rayon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan Sofyan


    Full Text Available Gambier (Uncaria gambir Roxb. is one of main commodities in West Sumatra Province where most of the products are exported in raw gambier form. Many benefits that can be derived from gambier, but there is no diversify of this product. The research was aimed to use gambier as natural dyes in batik fabric and to see the quality of the batik that had been dyed. The study was conducted by varying the type of fabric (silk, cotton, and rayon and the type of mordant or color fixer namely lime (CaO, alum (Al2(SO43, and ferous salt (FeSO4. The fabrics which had been dyed were tested color direction, color fastness of washing, light, rubbing, moreover acid and alkaline perspiration. The results showed that the color direction was brownish with different color darkness depending on the type of mordant used. The results of testing on color fastness were good to excellent averagely. In term of the type of fabric, from the three types of fabric used, silk gave the best result in terms of color fastness of washing and perspiration of acid and alkaline with average test results was good to excellent (scale 4-5. The use of different types of mordant had not given significant effect on testing of color fastness to light and rubbing. ABSTRAKGambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb. merupakan salah satu komoditi unggulan Provinsi Sumatera Barat dimana hampir sebagian besar produknya diekspor dalam bentuk gambir mentah. Sangat banyak manfaat yang dapat diperoleh dari gambir, namun belum ada hilirisasi produk ini di dalam negeri. Tujuan penelitian adalah menggunakan gambir sebagai pewarna alam pada kain batik dan melihat kualitas kain batik yang telah diwarnai. Penelitian dilakukan dengan memvariasikan jenis kain (sutera, katun, dan rayon dan jenis mordan atau pembangkit warna yaitu kapur (CaO, tawas (Al2(SO43, dan tunjung (FeSO4. Kain yang telah diwarnai dilakukan pengujian arah/beda warna, ketahanan luntur warna terhadap pencucian, sinar, gosokan, dan keringat asam dan basa


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏春霞; 闫亚明; 贺福; 邓蜀平


    The present state of R & D as well as market-consumption of Rayon-based CF in China and other nations was described. It seems that the gap between China and other nations shows a tendency to be more and more wider. The supply of Rayon-based CF can not meet the demand of our country. From the standpoint of techno-economics, the factors limiting the development of Rayon-based CF were analyzed and summarized. The quality of raw Rayon-based fibers is so critical that it has a great influence in the properties of Rayon-based carbon fibers. Other factors like high investment, high cost and small amount of invested funds for research and production are also important. Social benefit of Rayon-based carbon fibers was simply analyzed. Some suggestions for the development of Rayon-based carbon fibers in China were put forward.%通过简述粘胶基炭纤维生产技术的发展概况和国内外市场情况,可看出国内外差距越来越大。粘胶基炭纤维具有其它纤维不可替代的优异性能,国内市场严重的供不应求。从技术经济角度分析其发展的制约因素,原丝质量制约其产品性能,投资比较大、成本较高,生产研究的投入不足制约其发展。同时简单分析了其社会效益,对我国粘胶基炭纤维发展提出了几点建议。

  19. Operators exposed to ionizing irradiation in interventional cardiology: evaluation; Evaluation de l'irradiation ionisante des operateurs en cardiologie interventionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amri, C.; Chaari, N.; Henchi, M.A.; Abdallah, B.; Akrout, M.; Khalfallah, T. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Monastir, Service de Medecine du Travail et de Pathologie Professionnelle, Faculte de Medecine de Monastir (Tunisia); Bedoui, M.H. [Faculte de Medecine de Monastir, Lab. de Biophysique (Tunisia); Ben Hamda, K.; Gamra, H. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Monastir, Service de Cardiologie (Tunisia)


    Ionizing radiation is widely used in medical practice for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. There is a risk of adverse effects for exposed operators. To evaluate the exposure in interventional imagery, we carried out a descriptive six-month cross-sectional study using electronic dosimeters 1-36, Dosicard and DMC100. This study was conducted in the interventional cardiology unit of the Monastir hospital. Mean radioscopic time was both procedure- and operator-dependent. It was 6.06 minutes for coronarography and 21.41 minutes for angioplasty. The highest equivalent exposure per procedure involved the hands, about 99.5 {mu}Sv versus 14 {mu}Sv on the neck and 34 {mu}Sv on feet. The annual equivalent showed that all operators had a low exposure level. Exposure for crystalline lens and upper limbs were respectively 1.93 mSv and 14.02 mSv per year in invasive cardiology. Such amounts are largely under the norms proposed by the national center of radioprotection. In addition, annual effective exposure level was low for all operators; the maximum was 2.5 mSv. his study enabled a real-time evaluation of radiation exposed level of operators. Exposure levels can be measured directly by he operator ensuring a permanent follow-up of radiation expo re. Despite the low exposure level noted in this study, radioprotection measures must be respected. (authors)

  20. Influence of the irradiation by the {gamma} rays on various factors of immunity; Influence de l'irradiation par les rayons {gamma} sur divers facteurs d'immunite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaude, G.; Coursaget, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Exposed animals often present, in the days or weeks following the irradiation, heavy infectious lesions. The goal of this survey was to search the influence of the total irradiation by the gamma radiation from cobalt-60, on the organism, on the phagocytic power of the leukocytes and on the biogenesis of antibodies. The experiences were done on hundred animals, rabbits and guinea pigs. All irradiations have been achieved with eight sources of Cobalt 60 of 10 curies each, disposed on a sphere of 1 m, the animal living the region neighboring of the center. The intensity of the radiation, in these conditions, is about 100 roentgens per hour. (authors) [French] Les animaux irradies presentent souvent, dans les jours ou les semaines qui suivent l'irradiation, de graves lesions infectieuses. Le but de cette etude etait de rechercher l'influence de l'irradiation totale de l'organisme par le rayonnement gamma du cobalt 60 sur le pouvoir phagocytaire des leucocytes et sur la biogenese des anticorps. Les experiences portent sur une centaine d'animaux, lapins et cobayes. Toutes les irradiations ont ete realisees avec huit sources de Cobalt 60 de 10 curies chacune, disposees sur une sphere de 1 m de rayon, les animaux ocoupant la region voisine du centre. L'intensite du rayonnement est, dans ces conditions, d'environ 100 roentgens par heure. (auteurs)

  1. Study of the cetuximab-ionizing radiation association on a model of in vitro endothelial cells; Etude de l'association cetuximab-radiations ionisantes sur un modele de cellules endotheliales in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vautravers-Dewas, C.; Rebucci, M.; Lansiaux, A. [Centre Oscar-Lambret, Inserm U837, Lab. de Pharmacologie Antitumorale, 59 - Lille (France); Peixoto, P. [Inserm U837, 59 - Lille (France); Lartigau, E. [Centre Oscar-Lambret, Dept. Universitaire de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France)


    These data support the existence of functional signalling tracks downstream epidermal growth factor receptor (E.G.F.R.) in endothelial cells. But our in vitro model, in two dimensional calculations, did not allow to show a radiosensitivity by cetuximab. The study of functional consequences of the association cetuximab-irradiation treatment will be relevant in an in vitro three dimensional model and on xenografts. (N.C.)

  2. Effects of ionizing radiations on reticulated polymers associated to nuclear wastes. The HSF-SIMS technique contribution; Effets des radiations ionisantes sur les polymeres reticules associes aux dechets nucleaires. Apport de la technique HSF-SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debre, O. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire


    Among the materials used for confinement of nuclear wastes of low and medium level activity the epoxyde resins are known as matrices which preserve well their properties in an ionizing environment. This work is dedicated to the investigation of the modifications occurring in molecular structure of these materials as well as of the ion exchange resins they incorporate, irradiated in different conditions. The first part deals with the analysis of a commercial reticulated epoxyde resin submitted to a 2 MGy integral dose gamma irradiation under two different dose rate (51 and 900 Gy/h), and under two different environments (air and water). The results obtained with the techniques providing structure information (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HSF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectrometry) confirm those obtained by techniques sensible to macroscopic properties of material (DMA, DSC), taking into account that no noticeable irradiation effect can be made evident inside the material. On the other hand, an irradiation carried out in air results in a superficial oxidation, due probably to the action of the air radiolysis products. The preliminary results of an ion irradiation followed by an in-situ HSF-SIMS analysis pointed out to a basic difference between the energy amount transferred by gamma photons and fast ions; the last ones being able to induce scissions of the nearby liaisons in the material. The second part of this work is concerned with the ion exchange resins of the type PS-DVB saturated in water and non-active ions, simulating real wastes, irradiated in the same conditions as the epoxyde resins. In contrast to the results on the last one, it appears that the irradiation of these materials results primarily in scissions of the functional groups on which the ions are attached. In addition to this finding it appears that the role of water as carrying outward the attached ions appears to be fundamental 175 refs.

  3. X-rays and matter - RX 2009; Rayons X et matiere - RX 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudeau, P. [Institut Pprime-CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, SP2MI, Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France); Guinebretiere, R. [Laboratoire SPCTS-CNRS, Ecole nationale superieure de ceramique industrielle - ENSCI, Limoges (France)


    This collective book presents an overview of researches on X-ray diffraction, scattering and absorption. It belongs to a serial publication which gathers contributions from scientists involved in the implementation of X radiation techniques for the study of condensed matter. The capabilities of the advanced light sources of the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility for the study of condensed matter are presented, as well as the size and shape characterization of nano-particles by central X-ray scattering, the X-ray scattering determination of carbon nano-tubes structure, the X-ray diffuse scattering and diffraction study of the relaxing ceramic materials microstructure, and the high-energy X-ray scattering analysis of phase transitions. This series makes up a reference synthesis of the different aspects (instruments, methodology, applications) of the X radiation/matter interactions. (J.S.)

  4. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on the electrochemical performance of the rayon and polyacrylonitrile based carbon felt for the vanadium redox flow battery application (United States)

    Dixon, D.; Babu, D. J.; Langner, J.; Bruns, M.; Pfaffmann, L.; Bhaskar, A.; Schneider, J. J.; Scheiba, F.; Ehrenberg, H.


    Oxygen plasma treatment was applied on commercially available graphite felt electrodes based on rayon (GFA) and polyacrylonitrile (GFD). The formation of functional groups on the surface of the felt was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The BET studies of the plasma treated electrodes showed no significant increase in surface area for both the rayon as well as the PAN based felts. Both plasma treated electrodes showed significantly enhanced V3+/V2+ redox activity compared to the pristine electrodes. Since an increase of the surface area has been ruled out for plasma treated electrode the enhanced activity could be attributed to surface functional groups. Interestingly, plasma treated GFD felts showed less electrochemical activity towards V5+/V4+ compared to the pristine electrode. Nevertheless, an overall increase of the single cell performance was still observed as the negative electrode is known to be the performance limiting electrode. Thus, to a great extent the present work helps to preferentially understand the importance of functional groups on the electrochemical activity of negative and positive redox reaction. The study emphasizes the need of highly active electrodes especially at the negative electrode side as inactive electrodes can still facilitate hydrogen evolution and degrade the electrolyte in VRFBs.

  5. 金(银)丝/人造丝/锦纶弹性花边的染整工艺%Wet processing of tinsel/rayon/nylon elastic lace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    金、银丝不耐酸、碱、高温,不耐磨,按常规染整工艺加工,会出现严重褪色现象,使布面完全失去亮片光泽.金(银)丝/人造丝/锦氨混纺花边染整加工中,人造丝采用高反应性活性染料和5~10g/L纯碱于温度40℃染色,同时控制皂洗pH<8;锦纶采用酸性染料于温度80~90℃染色,染液pH值控制在4.5以上,可确保金、银丝亮片不褪色,保持坯布织造时的光泽,且耐水洗牢度和耐摩擦牢度较好.%Owing to high alkalinity and high temperature in traditional wet processing, tinsel sequin will lose luster. In this paper, proper dyeing and finishing process for tinsel/rayon/nylon elastic lace is introduced. Rayon dyeing is carried out at 40 ℃ with high-activity reactive dyes and 5 -10 g/L sodium carbonate, and the pH value of soaping is controlled below8. Nylon dyeing is carried out at 80 -90 ℃ with acid dyes and pH value of above 4.5. The new process can impart the elastic lace brilliant luster and good color fastness to washing and rubbing.

  6. Current and historical individual data about exposure of workers in the rayon industry to carbon disulfide and their validity in calculating the cumulative dose. (United States)

    Göen, Thomas; Schramm, Axel; Baumeister, Thomas; Uter, Wolfgang; Drexler, Hans


    The objective of the study was to investigate how exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) in a rayon-manufacturing plant has changed within two decades and whether it is possible to calculate valid data for the individual cumulative exposure. The data for CS2 concentration in air and biological exposure monitoring (2-thio-1,3-thiaxolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) in urine) from two cross-sectional studies, performed in 1992 (n = 362) and 2009 (n = 212) in a German rayon-manufacturing plant, were compared to data obtained from company-internal measurements between the studies. Using the data from the cross-sectional studies and company-internal data, cumulative external exposure and the cumulative internal exposure were calculated for each worker. External and internal CS2 exposure of the employees decreased from 1992 (medians 4.0 ppm and 1.63 mgTTCA/g creatinine) to 2009 (medians 2.5 ppm and 0.86 mg/g). However, company-internal CS2 data do not show a straight trend for this period. The annual medians of the company-internal measurement of external exposure to CS2 have varied between 2.7 and 8.4 ppm, in which median values exceeded 5 ppm generally since 2000. The annual medians for the company-internal biomonitoring assessment ranged between 1.2 and 2.8 mg/g creatinine. The cumulative CS2 exposure ranged from 8.5 to 869.5 ppm years for external exposure and between 1.30 and 176.2 mg/g creatinine years for the internal exposure. Significant correlations were found between the current air pollution and the internal exposure in 2009 but also between the cumulative external and internal CS2 exposure. Current exposure data, usually collected in cross-sectional studies, rarely allow a reliable statement on the cumulative dose, because of higher exposure in the past and of fluctuating courses of exposure. On the other hand, company-internal exposure data may be affected by non-representative measurement strategies. Some verification of the reliability of

  7. Syntrophic co-culture of Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumonia for degradation of kraft lignin discharged from rayon grade pulp industry. (United States)

    Yadav, Sangeeta; Chandra, Ram


    In order to search the degradability of kraft lignin, the potential bacterial strains Bacillus subtilis (GU193980) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (GU193981) were isolated, screened and applied in axenic and co-culture conditions. Results revealed that mixed culture showed better decolorization efficiency (80%) and reduction of pollution parameters (COD 73% and BOD 62%) than axenic culture. This indicated syntrophic growth of these two bacteria rather than any antagonistic effect. The HPLC analysis of degraded samples of kraft lignin has shown the reduction in peak area compared to control, suggesting that decrease in color intensity might be largely attributed to the degradation of lignin by isolated bacteria. Further, the GC-MS analysis showed that most of the compounds detected in control were diminished after bacterial treatment. Further, the seed germination test using Phaseolus aureus has supported the detoxification of bacterial decolorized kraft lignin for environmental safety. All these observations have revealed that the developed bacterial co-culture was capable for the effective degradation and decolorization of lignin containing rayon grade pulp mill wastewater for environmental safety.

  8. Phyto-extraction of heavy metals and biochemical changes with Brassica nigra L. grown in rayon grade paper mill effluent irrigated soil. (United States)

    Singh, Uday Veer; Abhishek, Amar; Bhaskar, Monika; Tandan, Neeraj; Ansari, Nasreen Ghazi; Singh, Netra Pal


    In this study, distribution of metal accumulation and their biological changes of Indian mustard plants (Brassica nigra L.) grown in soil irrigated with different concentration of rayon grade paper effluent (RGPE, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, v/v) were studied. A pronounced effect was recorded at 50% (v/v) RGPE on germination of seeds, amylase activity and other growth parameters in Indian mustard plants. An increase in the chlorophyll and protein contents was also recorded at 75%). A significant increase lipid peroxidation was recorded, which was evidenced by the increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in shoot, leaves and seeds in tested plant at all the concentrations of RGPE. This Indian mustard plants (Brassica nigra L.) are well adapted for tolerance of significant amount of heavy metals due to increased level of antioxidants (cysteine and ascorbic acid) in root shoot and leaves of treated plants at all concentration of RGPE. Moreover, it is also important that RGPE should be treated to bring down the metal concentration well within the prescribed limit prior to use in agricultural soil for ferti-irrigation.

  9. Anaerobic treatment of pre-hydrolysate liquor (PHL) from a rayon grade pulp mill: pilot and full-scale experience with UASB reactors. (United States)

    Rao, A Gangagni; Bapat, A N


    Pilot studies were carried out for the treatment of pre-hydrolysate liquor (PHL), a high strength effluent (COD: 70,000-80,000 mg/l) emanating from a rayon grade pulp mill using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB). Substrate inhibition was avoided with optimum COD feed of around 25,000 mg/l. This was achieved by diluting the PHL with a low strength effluent stream known as alkali back wash (ABW) available in the plant and also by partially recycling the reactor liquid outlet. An optimum organic loading rate (OLR) of 10 could be achieved with a COD reduction of 70-75%, a BOD reduction of 85-90% and a methane yield of 0.31-0.33 m3/kg of COD reduced. The pilot scale studies also revealed that addition of milk of lime (MOL) was essential for neutralization and buffering and DAP and urea to supplement the nutrients in the PHL. Based on the pilot studies, a full-scale high rate biomethanation plant was designed and erected for treating the PHL, which after some modification showed similar performance for COD, BOD reduction and methane yield.

  10. Germanium 70: a gamma ray detector for astrophysics; Le germanium 70: un detecteur de rayons gamma en astrophysique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durouchoux, P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee


    A thorough study concerning the background noise generated from the germanium detectors used in astrophysics spatial experiences, is presented. These detectors, selected for their energy high definition, are sensitive to cosmic radiations that activate some isotopes contained in the natural germanium and induce background noise through a beta+ decay. This noise component may be notably reduced with utilization of {sup 70}Ge isotope enriched detectors, which do not present such interactions. The predictions have been verified through space tests conducted from Australia in 1992. Preliminary results and prospectives for astrophysics application of the Germanium 70 isotope, are discussed. 6 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  11. Étude par diffraction des rayons X des vernis rouges des sigillées du sud de la Gaule. Les ateliers de la Graufesenque (United States)

    Vendier, L.; Sciau, Ph.; Dooryhee, E.


    La Graufesenque (Millau, Aveyron) 1^rst and 2^nd, centuries AC Sigillata red slips have been studied by x-ray diffraction at ESRF and on a conventional diffractometer. Although x-ray diffraction is a non-destructive characterisation technique adapted to surface study, it has not been used so mutch for Sigillata slip characterisation. The poor quality of the slip surface can be an explanation. In this work we demonstrate that it is possible to get good quality diffraction diagrams on 20-120 AC Sigillata slips. The results confirm the productions homogeneity and the hypothesis about a non-local clay used for the slips. On a counterpart, the late (second half of 2^nd century AC) Sigillata study needs because of their crackled surface a high quality beam, which can only be accessible on a synchrotron installation. These productions seems to be more heterogeneous: some Sigillata present similar diffraction diagrams for the slip and ceramic body (same clay?), some others present results similar to the precedent production period ones. Les vernis rouges de poteries sigillées (I^er et II^e siècles) de la Graufesenque (Millau, Aveyron) ont été étudiés par diffraction des rayons X à la fois à l'ESRF et sur une installation classique de laboratoire. Bien que la diffraction des rayons X soit une technique adaptée à l'étude des surfaces, cette technique a jusqu'à présent assez peu servi dans l'examen de ces objets. Ceci peut en partie s'expliquer par le mauvais état de surface de certains vernis. Dans ce travail, nous montrons que moyennant quelques précautions, il est possible d'obtenir sur une installation classique de bons diffractogranunes des vernis des sigillées datés entre 20 et 120 ap. J.C. Les résultats confirment l'homogénéité de ces productions et l'hypothèse selon laquelle ces vernis n'ont pas été fabriqués à partir des argiles locales du jurassique environnant le site. Par contre, l'étude des sigillées tardives de la deuxième moitié du

  12. Radiographie par rayons X à haute résolution de défauts topologiques en volume de structures modulées comparée aux neutrons en faisceau blanc (United States)

    Fernandez Palacio, J.; Hamelin, B.; Marmeggi, J. C.


    Une émission de rayons X par un générateur à haute tension (plage : 50 - 410 kV) a été développée pour être utilisée avec un diffractomètre à rayons X durs et caractériser en volume des monocristaux. Le fort flux issu d'une installation de radiologie à foyer fin avec un grand pouvoir de pénétration en profondeur autorise l'étude d'échantillons très absorbants. Quelques exemples de l'utilisation de ces propriétés pour des échantillons épais et très absorbants sont présentés ; principalement l'analyse de contraintes et la topographie X projetée 2D dans des matériaux en comparaison avec l'information par la diffraction des neutrons. La diffraction à haute énergie apparaît dans la direction transmise, les angles de Bragg sont petits et ainsi les différentes lignes de réflexions sont réparties autour du faisceau principal. La presse uni-axiale utilisée pour les expériences est optimisée effectivement avec l'absence d'un bruit de fond dû à l'usage de fentes. L'optique des rayons X durs et neutrons appliquée aux échantillons épais donne une information complémentaire dans les expériences sur l'analyse de la densité volumétrique par la diffusion des rayons X et neutrons. On l'applique à des problèmes concernant des cristaux aux structures modulées étudiées sous des charges mécaniques et thermiques.

  13. Chlamydophilose abortive ovine : études à propos d'une suspicion de résistance de Chlamydophila abortus au vaccin vivant thermosensible dans des élevages ovins laitiers du rayon de Roquefort


    Uhart, Maia


    Des cas d'avortements imputés à Chlamydophila abortus ont été décrits dans des élevages de brebis du rayon Roquefort (France, 12) alors que ces élevages pratiquaient la vaccination contre la chlamydophilose avec un vaccin vivant depuis plusieurs années. De brefs rappels bibliographiques concernant la chlamydophilose et la vaccination contre cette maladie sont présentés en première partie. Une enquête menée auprès de neuf éleveurs est ensuite exposée afin d'expliquer la persistance d'avortemen...

  14. Étude par diffraction des rayons X de la nitruration plasma d'un acier 304L Influence sur l'oxydation à 1000 ^{circ}C (United States)

    Marot, L.; Buscail, H.; Straboni, A.; Riffard, F.; Caudron, E.; Cueff, R.


    This work presents the influence of various nitridation parameters on the 304L steel oxidation at 1000 ^{circ}C, in air under atmospheric pressure. Nitridation temperatures were ranging between 300 ^{circ}C and 430 ^{circ}C with exposure times lasting from 2 to 8 hours. At 300 and 430 ^{circ}C, the nitridation treatment leads to the solid solution surface formation γ-N without any nitride formation. After oxidation at 1000 ^{circ}C of blank specimens, X ray diffraction reveals the FeCr2O4 spinel formation. This oxide does not act as a good diffusion barrier. With nitrogen treated specimens, the higher the nitridation temperature is and the longer the exposure time is, better is the oxidation behaviour at 1000 ^{circ}C. We then observe that the Cr{1,3}Fe{0,7}O3 oxide is more present in the oxide sale from the very beginning of the oxidation test which is correlated to a final lower mass gain. Cette étude porte sur l'influence des paramètres de nitruration plasma sur l'oxydation de l'acier 304L à 1000 ^{circ}C, sous air, à la pression atmosphérique. Les températures employées lors de la nitruration ont été de 300 ^{circ}C et 430 ^{circ}C pour des durées de nitruration variant entre 2 et 8 heures. A 300 et 430 ^{circ}C, la nitruration conduit à la formation d'une solution solide γ-N en surface sans provoquer la formation de nitrures. Après oxydation à 1000 ^{circ}C du 304L non nitruré, la diffraction des rayons X révèle la formation d'une couche de type spinelle FeCr2O4 qui ne semble pas jouer le rôle de barrière de diffusion. Pour les échantillons préalablement nitrurés, plus la température de nitruration est élevée et plus la durée du traitement est longue, meilleur est le comportement en oxydation. Nous observons alors l'oxyde Cr{1,3}Fe{0,7}O3 en proportion importante dès le début de l'oxydation et une prise de masse finale plus faible.

  15. Microscopie par rayons X dans la fenêtre de l'eau : faisabilité et intérêt pour la biologie d'un instrument de laboratoire (United States)

    Adam, J. F.; Moy, J. P.


    La biologie étudie des structures ou des phénomènes sub-cellulaires. Pour cela la microscopie est la technique d'observation privilégiée. La résolution spatiale de la microscopie optique s'avère bien souvent insuffisante pour de telles observations. Les techniques plus résolvantes, comme la microscopie électronique par transmission sont souvent destructrices et d'une complexité peu adaptée aux besoins des biologistes. La microscopie par rayons X dans la fenêtre de l'eau permet l'imagerie rapide de cellules dans leur milieu naturel, nécessite peu de préparation et offre des résolutions de quelques dizaines de nanomètres. De plus, il existe un bon contraste naturel entre les structures carbonées (protéines, lipides) et l'eau. Actuellement cette technique est limitée aux centres de rayonnement synchrotron, ce qui impose une planification et des déplacements incompatibles avec les besoins de la biologie. Un tel microscope fonctionnant avec uns source de laboratoire serait d'une grande utilité. Ce document présente un état de l'art de la microscopie par rayons X dans la fenêtre de l'eau. Un cahier des charges détaillé pour un appareil de laboratoire ayant les performances optiques requises par les biologistes est présenté et confronté aux microscopes X de laboratoire déjà existants. Des solutions concernant la source et les optiques sont également discutées.

  16. Application de la diffraction des rayons X in situ à haute température pour l'identification d'une nouvelle phase lors de l'oxydation à 900circC de l'acier 304 (United States)

    Riffard, F.; Buscail, H.; Caudron, E.; Cueff, R.; Issartel, C.; El Messki, S.; Perrier, S.


    Une nouvelle interprétation du comportement atypique couramment appelé "breakaway" observé lors de l'oxydation à haute température d'alliages chromino-formeurs est proposée grâce à l'utilisation de la diffraction des rayons X in situ à haute température. L'acier chromino-formeur AISI 304 doit établir une couche d'oxyde superficielle généralement dense et majoritairement, constituée de chromine, dont la vitesse de croissance est lente, afin d'assurer sa protection contre la corrosion à haute température. Cette faible vitesse de croissance de la couche d'oxyde est effectivement observée à 1000circC. Elle serait favorisée par l'établissement d'une couche de chromine induite par la présence d'une sous-couche continue de silice à l'interface interne. Cette dernière limiterait la diffusion du fer. Le phénomène du "breakaway" est observé à la température de 900circC après 40 heures d'oxydation. Ce phénomène serait lié à la croissance initiale d'oxydes contenant du fer. L'oxyde Fe{7}SiO{10, }a été identifié{ }pour la première fois grâce à la technique de diffraction des rayons X in situ à haute température. Cet oxyde semble piéger le silicium dans la couche d'oxyde, empêchant son accumulation à l'interface interne et la formation d'une couche continue de silice.

  17. Proposition of declaration tending to create a commission of inquiry relative to the impact in nourishment and on health of foodstuff treated by irradiation; Proposition de resolution tendant a creer une commission d'enquete relative a l'impact dans l'alimentation et sur la sante des denrees traitees par radiations ionisantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In application of articles 140 and following of the regulation, is created a commission of inquiry with thirty members relative to the impact in foodstuff and on health of irradiated food. It should examines the respect of the regulation concerning the labelling, the production and imports; it should determine the real place of this food in the French diet and the impact on this diet that could imply an opening of the market to the food imported from third country to european Union; it should evaluate the risk for human and animal health of their consumption. (N.C.)

  18. Radiation Protection (United States)

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View and download EPA radiation ...

  19. Radiation Therapy (United States)

    ... the area is stitched shut. Another treatment, called proton-beam radiation therapy , focuses the radiation on the ... after radiation treatment ends. Sore mouth and tooth decay. If you received radiation therapy to the head ...

  20. Radiation sickness (United States)

    ... radiation. There are two basic types of radiation: ionizing and nonionizing. Nonionizing radiation comes in the form of light, radio waves, microwaves and radar. This kind of radiation usually ...

  1. Radiation dosimetry.


    Cameron, J


    This article summarizes the basic facts about the measurement of ionizing radiation, usually referred to as radiation dosimetry. The article defines the common radiation quantities and units; gives typical levels of natural radiation and medical exposures; and describes the most important biological effects of radiation and the methods used to measure radiation. Finally, a proposal is made for a new radiation risk unit to make radiation risks more understandable to nonspecialists.

  2. X-ray study of the structure of polyethylene at the scale of 100-200 Angstrom; Etude par rayons X dela structure du polyethylene a l'echelle de 100-200 Angstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belbeoch nee Goldsztein, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Information on the structure of polyethylene is deduced from a comparison of the results obtained by central diffusion and by other X-ray methods. The structure depends on the thermal and mechanical treatment to which the samples are subjected, as well as on the observation temperature. The central diffusion due to the heterogeneity of the material at the scale of 100-200 Angstrom is bound up with the presence of both the amorphous and crystalline phases. Stretched polythene shows a more or less regular succession of orderly and disorderly regions. When released it has a structure of recrystallisation preceded by 'amorphization'. (author) [French] Les informations sur la structure du polyethylene sont deduites de la confrontation des resultats obtenus par la diffusion centrale et par d'autres methodes de rayons X. La structure depend des traitements thermiques et mecaniques subis par les echantillons ainsi que la temperature d'observation. La diffusion centrale due a l'existence d'heterogeneites de la matiere a l'echelle 100-200 Angstrom est lie a la presence des deux phases amorphe et cristallisee. Le polyethylene etire comporte une succession plus ou moins reguliere de domaines ordonnes et desordonnes. Le polyethylene relaxe a une structure de recristallisation precedee d'une 'amorphisation'. (auteur)

  3. Study of recombination processes for 'electron-hole' pairs in germanium irradiated by {gamma} rays from {sup 60}Co using the photovoltaic effect in P-N junctions; Etude du processus de recombinaison des paires ''electron-trou'' dans le germanium irradie par les rayons {gamma} du cobalt 60 a l'aide de l'effet photovoltaique dans les jonctions P-N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi-Mochadam, A.A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Using the photo-voltaic effect in p-n junctions, we have studied, during bombardment, the mechanism of the recombination of 'electron-hole' pairs in the presence of structure defects produced in germanium of the N and P types by {gamma} rays from a Co{sup 60} source. At 310 K the level of the recombination centres is situated 0.25 eV above the conduction band and the capture cross-sections of the holes and of the electrons have the respective values of: {sigma}{sub p} = 4 X 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sub n} = 3 X 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}. The value of {sigma}{sub n} appears to be under-estimated because the number of defects in P-type samples appears to be lower than that in N-type samples. These results lead to the conclusion that the interstitials are responsible for the recombination. At 80 K it has been found that in N-type samples, a shallow level exists at O.05 eV below the conduction band with a capture cross-section for the holes of {sigma}{sub p} {>=} 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}. We believe that in this case the recombination of charge carriers is controlled by the neighbouring 'defect-interstitial' pairs. In P-type samples at low temperature, the life-time is practically constant during irradiation. This fact is attributed to a spontaneous annealing of defects ol purely electrical origin. In the last part of the work the study of the photo-voltaic effect applied to the problem of gamma radiation dosimetry is considered. It is shown that such dosimeters, based on this principle, make it possible to measure the intensity of gamma rays over a very wide range. (author) [French] En utilisant l'effet photovoltaique dans les jonctions p-n, nous avons etudie au cours du bombardement le mecanisme de recombinaison des paires 'electron-trou' en presence des defauts de structure introduits dans le germanium de type N et de type P par les rayons gamma d'une source de Co{sup 60}. A 310 K, le niveau des centres de recombinaison se

  4. Radiation Therapy (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  5. Radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Gerald J; Hine, Gerald J


    Radiation Dosimetry focuses on the advancements, processes, technologies, techniques, and principles involved in radiation dosimetry, including counters and calibration and standardization techniques. The selection first offers information on radiation units and the theory of ionization dosimetry and interaction of radiation with matter. Topics include quantities derivable from roentgens, determination of dose in roentgens, ionization dosimetry of high-energy photons and corpuscular radiations, and heavy charged particles. The text then examines the biological and medical effects of radiation,

  6. Study of the fluctuations of the partial and total radiative widths by neutron capture resonance method; Etude des fluctuations des largeurs radiatives partielles et totales par la capture des neutrons de resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, V.D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Radiative capture experiments by neutron time-of-flight methods have been made for following studies: distribution of partial radiative widths, effects of correlation between different radiative transitions, fluctuations of total radiative widths {gamma}{sub {gamma}} from resonance to resonance, variation of {gamma}{sub {gamma}} with number of mass and the search for the existence of potential capture. Also, some other experiments with the use of neutron capture gamma-rays spectra have been investigated. (author) [French] Par la capture des neutrons de resonance dont les energies sont selectionnees a l'aide de la technique du temps de vol, differents types d'experiences ont ete realisees concernant les etudes des distributions des largeurs radiatives partielles, des effets de correlation entre differentes voies de desexcitation, de la fluctuation des largeurs radiatives totales {gamma}{sub {gamma}} de resonance a resonance, de la variation de la quantite {gamma}{sub {gamma}} en fonction du nombre de masse et de la mise en evidence de l'existence du processus de capture potentielle. Quelques autres applications de l'emploi du spectre de rayons gamma ont egalement ete presentees. (auteur)

  7. Analyses par diffraction de rayons X sur des revêtements barrières thermiques réalisés par un procédé hybride plasma-laser (United States)

    Antou, G.; Hlawka, F.; Montavon, G.; Bach, M.; Cornet, A.; Coddet, C.


    Les revêtements barrières thermiques (BTs) constitués de zircone yttriée partiellement stabilisée (ZrO{2} + 7% en masse d'Y{2}O{3}) et d'une sous-couche métallique (MCrAlY où M représente une combinaison de nickel et de cobalt) sont extrêmement utilisés afin d'améliorer les performances des composants des parties chaudes des turbines à gaz. La projection plasma sous atmosphère ambiante et l'irradiation laser in situ (au moyen d'un laser à diodes) sont associés ici afin de modifier les caractéristiques structurales des BTs. Les phases présentes au sein de la BT ont un rôle important. Des analyses par diffraction de rayons X ont été menées pour étudier les changements de phase possibles après traitement laser. Aucun changement de phase n'a été remarqué : la phase tétragonale métastable (t') demeure la phase prépondérante aussi bien pour les dépôts projetés que les dépôts post-traités au laser et refondus in situ. La formation de cette phase semble être liée à la solidification et au refroidissement rapide découlant de la projection plasma ainsi que de la refusion laser. Ce résultat est prometteur, car :

  8. Study of the neutron strength function and of the diffusion radius as a function of mass number; Etude de la fonction densite de neutron et du rayon de diffusion en fonction du nombre de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenstern, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The strength functions S{sub 0} and S{sub 1}, and the scattering length R' are studied. The values of S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} and R' are obtained by shape analysis of the individual resonances observed in total neutron cross-section measurements. These measurements were performed at the Saclay 45 MeV linac by the time of flight method. The best resolution achieved was equal to 0.19 ns/m. We have particularly studied the nuclei around number of mass A = 50, 90, 140 and 200. The experimental values of S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} and R' are compared with optical model calculations. A fairly good agreement is obtained using an optical potential with surface absorption. (author) [French] Nous etudions les fonctions densite S{sub 0} et S{sub 1} ainsi que le rayon de diffusion R'. Les valeurs de S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} et R' sont determinees a partir de l'analyse de forme des resonances individuelles observees lors de la mesure de la section efficace neutronique totale. Cette mesure a ete faite aupres de l'accelerateur lineaire d'electrons de 45 MeV de Saclay par la methode du temps de vol. La meilleure resolution atteinte etait egale a 0.19 ns/m. Nous avons particulierement etudie les noyaux situes vers les nombres de masse A 50, 90, 140 et 200. Nous comparons ensuite les valeurs experimentales de S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} et R' a differents calculs de modele optique. Un bon accord est obtenu avec un potentiel optique a absorption de surface. (auteur)

  9. Methods of X-ray CT image reconstruction from few projections; Methodes de reconstruction d'images a partir d'un faible nombre de projections en tomographie par rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.


    systeme de la tomographie par rayons X (CT), on cherche a reconstruire une image de haute qualite avec un faible nombre de projections. Les algorithmes classiques ne sont pas adaptes a cette situation: la reconstruction est perturbee par artefacts donc instable. Une nouvelle approche basee sur la theorie recente du 'Compressed Sensing' (CS) fait l'hypothese que l'image inconnue est 'parcimonieuse' ou 'compressible', et formule la reconstruction en un probleme d'optimisation (minimisation de la norme TV/l1) afin de promouvoir la parcimonie. Pour appliquer CS en CT avec le pixel (ou le voxel en 3D) comme la base de representation, il necessite une transformation de parcimonie, de plus il faut la combiner avec le 'projecteur du rayon X' qui applique sur une image pixelisee. Dans cette these, on a adapte une base radiale de famille Gaussienne nommee 'blob' a la reconstruction en CT par CS. Le blob a une meilleure localisation spatiofrequentielle que le pixel, et des operations comme la transformee en rayons X, peuvent etre evaluee analytiquement et elles sont facilement parallelisables (sur le plate-forme GPU). Compare au blob classique du Kaisser-Bessel, la nouvelle base a une structure multi-echelle: une image est la somme des translations et des dilatations d'un chapeau Mexicain radial. Les images medicales typiques sont compressibles sous cette base, ce qui entraine que le systeme de la representation parcimonieuse intervenu dans les algorithmes ordinaires de CS n'y est plus necessaire. Des simulations numeriques en 2D ont montre que, compare a l'approche equivalente basee sur la base de pixel ou d'ondelette, les algorithmes du TV et du l1 existantes sont plus efficaces et les reconstructions ont de meilleures qualites visuelles. Cette nouvelle approche a ete egalement validee sur des donnees experimentales bi-dimensionelles, ou on a observe que le nombre de projection peut etre reduit

  10. Radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    This will be a simple explanation of the reasons why CERN has to be careful about radiation protections issues, a practical guide on how to recognize radiation dangers, the monitoring systems that make sure radiation levels are well tolerable norms, and a quick summary of what radiation levels mean in terms of personal risk.

  11. Study of catalytic phenomena in radiation chemistry; Etude des phenomenes catalytiques en chimie des radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dran, J.C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Two phenomena have been studied: the action of {gamma} rays from radio-cobalt on the adsorption and catalytic properties of ZnO and NiO in. relationship with the heterogeneous oxidation of CO, and the homogeneous catalysis by OsO{sub 4} of the oxidation of various aqueous phase solutes by the same radiation. The prior irradiation of ZnO and of NiO does not modify their catalytic activity but generally increases the adsorption energy of -the gases CO and O{sub 2}. The influence of the radiations appears to be connected with the presence of traces of water on ZnO and of an excess of oxygen on NiO. Osmium tetroxide which is not degraded by irradiation in acid solution, accelerates the radiolytic oxidation of certain compounds (Te{sup IV}, Pt{sup 11}, As{sup 111}) in the presence of oxygen, as a result of its sensitizing effect on the oxidation by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In the case of phosphites on the other hand, OsO{sub 4} has a protecting action under certain conditions of acidity and may suppress entirely the chain reaction which characterizes the oxidation of this solute by{gamma} rays. A general mechanism is proposed for these phenomena. The rate constant for the OsO{sub 4} + HO{sub 2} reaction is calculated to be 5.7 x 10{sup 5} l.mol{sup -1}. sec{sup -1}. (author) [French] Deux phenomenes ont ete etudies: l'action des rayons {gamma} du radio-cobalt sur les proprietes adsorptives et catalytiques de ZnO et NiO en relation avec l'oxydation heterogene de CO et la catalyse homogene par OsO{sub 4} de l'oxydation de divers solutes en phase aqueuse par ce meme rayonnement. L'irradiation prealable de ZnO et de NiO n'a pas modifie leur activite catalytique, mais a generalement accru l'energie d'adsorption des gaz CO et O{sub 2}. L'influence des radiations semble liee a la presence de traces d'eau sur ZnO et d'un exces d'oxygene sur NiO. Le tetroxyde d'osmium qui n'est pas altere par le rayonnement en solution

  12. Chromosomes and irradiation: in vitro study of the action of X-rays on human lymphocytes; Chromosomes et radiations: etude in vitro de l'action des rayons X sur les lymphocytes humains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouriquand, C.; Patet, J.; Gilly, C.; Wolff, C


    Radioinduced chromosomal aberrations were studied in vitro on leukocytes of human peripheral blood after x irradiation at 25, 50, 100, 200, and 300 R. The numeric and structural anomalies were examined on 600 karyotypes. The relationship between these disorders and the dose delivered to the blood are discussed. An explanation on their mechanism of formation is tentatively given. (authors) [French] L'etude in vitro des anomalies chromosomiques radioinduites a ete pratiquee sur des leucocytes de sang peripherique preleve chez 4 sujets et irradie aux doses de 25, 50, 100, 200, 300 R. Les aberrations numeriques et structurales ont ete examinees sur 600 caryotypes. Les rapports entre ces anomalies et les doses appliquees sont etudies. Une hypothese sur leur mecanisme de formation est avancee. (auteurs)

  13. Radiation Therapy: Professions in Radiation Therapy (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Professions in Radiation Therapy Radiation Oncologist Therapeutic Medical Physicist Radiation Therapist Dosimetrist Radiation Oncology Nurse Social Worker Dietitian Radiation Oncologist Radiation oncologists are physicians who oversee the ...

  14. New types of spark-chambers for imaging {gamma} or x emitters, and their medical applications; Nouveaux types de chambres a etincelles destinees a localiser des corps radioactifs emetteurs de rayons x ou {gamma} et leur application en medecine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leloup, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    In order to adapt spark-chambers to low-energy particles, a first attempt was made using a two-electrode device operating as a proportional counter. The signal obtained triggers a high-voltage pulse which is applied to the same device and a spark occurs near the track of the particle. A three-electrode device including a detection space associated to the sparks space was then used. It was noticed that the spark was formed spontaneously at the point where the particle passed, when suitable direct-current voltages were applied to the electrodes; the high voltage is slightly lower than on the other types of chamber. This phenomenon makes the three-electrode device very easy to use for X or {gamma} rays. The characteristics of the first device filled with argon and methane are given and the first results obtained in the medical field with a device filled with xenon methylal are presented. (author) [French] Pour adapter les chambres a etincelles aux particules de faible energie, un premier essai a ete fait avec un dispositif a deux electrodes fonctionnant au repos comme un compteur proportionnel. Le signal obtenu commandait une impulsion de haute tension; celle-ci etait appliquee su meme dispositif et provoquait une etincelle au point de passage de la particule. Ensuite, un montage a trois electrodes, comprenant un espace de detection en plus de l'espace pour les etincelles, a ete utilise. Il a ete remarque que l'etincelle se forme spontanement a l'endroit de passage de la particule avec des tensions continues correctes sur les electrodes; la haute tension est un peu plus faible que sur les autres types de chambre. Ce phenomene fait du montage a trois electrodes un dispositif d'emploi facile pour les rayons X ou {gamma}. Les caracteristiques d'un premier appareil rempli d'argon methane sont donnees ainsi que les premiers resultats obtenus dans les applications medicales avec un appareil rempli de xenon methylal. (auteur)

  15. The structure of para-toluidine by X-ray and neutron diffraction; Etude de la structure de la para-toluidine par la diffraction des rayons X et des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertinotti, A.L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The crystal and molecular structure of para-toluidine has been solved by X-ray and neutron diffraction counter techniques. The molecules are arranged in the form of infinite chains in the crystal, each molecule being linked to two neighbours by hydrogen bonds. The presence of the H bonds makes clear the difference in the melting points between para-toluidine and benzene hydrocarbons of related symmetry and molecular weight. Their direction accounts for the (001) cleavage and the growth anisotropy of crystals from supersaturated vapour phase. A structure-seeking method by computer has been elaborated, using lattice energy calculations applied to molecules treated as rigid bodies and making use of a simplex method for function minimization without calculation of derivatives. The way the available information is handled allows to increase the range of convergence, as shown in the case of para-toluidine. (author) [French] La structure cristalline et moleculaire de la para-toluidine a ete resolue a l'aide de la diffraction des rayons X et des neutrons. L'analyse a revele que la structure presentait un encha ement particulier des molecules, liees entre elles par des ponts hydrogene. La presence des liaisons rend compte de l'elevation du point de fusion de la para-toluidine par rapport a celui des carbures benzeniques de symetrie et de poids moleculaires voisins. La direction des liaisons explique le clivage facile (001) des cristaux obtenus par fusion et l'anisotropie de croissance des cristaux en phase vapeur. Une methode de recherche de structures par ordinateur a ete elaboree, faisant usage du concept d'energie reticulaire applique aux molecules considerees comme rigides et faisant appel a une methode de simplexe pour la minimisation des fonctions sans calcul de derivees. La maniere dont est exploitee l'information disponible permet d'accro re, comme cela est montre dans le cas de la para-toluidine, l'etendue du domaine de

  16. Pelvic radiation - discharge (United States)

    Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical cancer - pelvic radiation; Uterine cancer - pelvic radiation; Rectal cancer - pelvic radiation

  17. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E


    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  18. Radiation Chemistry (United States)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  19. Radiation carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.


    The risk of iatrogenic tumors with radiation therapy is so outweighed by the benefit of cure that estimates of risk have not been considered necessary. However, with the introduction of chemotherapy, combined therapy, and particle radiation therapy, the comparative risks should be examined. In the case of radiation, total dose, fractionation, dose rate, dose distribution, and radiation quality should be considered in the estimation of risk. The biological factors that must be considered include incidence of tumors, latent period, degree of malignancy, and multiplicity of tumors. The risk of radiation induction of tumors is influenced by the genotype, sex, and age of the patient, the tissues that will be exposed, and previous therapy. With chemotherapy the number of cells at risk is usually markedly higher than with radiation therapy. Clearly the problem of the estimation of comparative risks is complex. This paper presents the current views on the comparative risks and the importance of the various factors that influence the estimation of risk.

  20. Radiation acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyamshev, Leonid M


    Radiation acoustics is a developing field lying at the intersection of acoustics, high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics. Radiation Acoustics is among the first books to address this promising field of study, and the first to collect all of the most significant results achieved since research in this area began in earnest in the 1970s.The book begins by reviewing the data on elementary particles, absorption of penetrating radiation in a substance, and the mechanisms of acoustic radiation excitation. The next seven chapters present a theoretical treatment of thermoradiation sound generation in condensed media under the action of modulated penetrating radiation and radiation pulses. The author explores particular features of the acoustic fields of moving thermoradiation sound sources, sound excitation by single high-energy particles, and the efficiency and optimal conditions of thermoradiation sound generation. Experimental results follow the theoretical discussions, and these clearl...

  1. Hawking radiation (United States)

    Parentani, Renaud; Spindel, Philippe


    Hawking radiation is the thermal radiation predicted to be spontaneously emitted by black holes. It arises from the steady conversion of quantum vacuum fluctuations into pairs of particles, one of which escaping at infinity while the other is trapped inside the black hole horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking who derived its existence in 1974. This radiation reduces the mass of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation.

  2. Chasseur de rayons cosmiques au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Brouet, Anne-Muriel


    Alvaro de Rújula swims every day in the macro and the microspace. At CERN since 25 years, he shares his time between his appointment as a professor in Boston and his researches to satisfy his scientific curiosity

  3. Development of a high temperature unicam camera and application to X-ray diffraction on powdered uranium; Mise au point d'une chambre unicam a haute temperature et application a la diffraction de rayons X sur l'uranium en poudre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laugier, J.; Blum, P.L.; Debrenne, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    A high temperature commercial X-ray camera (UNICAM S150), modified in order to improve some of its performances, is adapted to the uranium powder problem. The strong uranium reactivity for oxygen and silica, the sintering and the grain growth in {beta}-phase are avoided. X-ray photographs are thus possible even in the {gamma}-phase. (authors) [French] Une chambre commerciale de diffraction de rayons X a haute temperature, UNICAM SI50, modifiee en vue d'ameliorer certaines performances, a ete adaptee au probleme de la diffraction sur l'uranium en poudre. En particulier, la reaction avec la silice et l'oxygene, le frittage et l'accroissement du grain en phase {beta} sont evites. L'examen et les mesures sont ainsi possibles jusqu'en phase {gamma}. (auteurs)

  4. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, J I


    The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is

  5. Radiation Exposure (United States)

    ... on to any children you have after the exposure. A lot of radiation over a short period, ... skin burns and reduced organ function. If the exposure is large enough, it can cause premature aging ...

  6. Radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva


    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  7. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  8. Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M


    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2000 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department remain neutron dosimetry and neutron activation analysis, safeguards information handling and non-destructive assay techniques. Further activities include low-level radioactivity measurements in environmental and biological samples and radiation protection research. Finally, achievements in decision strategy research and social sciences in nuclear research are reported.

  9. Synchrotron radiation with radiation reaction (United States)

    Nelson, Robert W.; Wasserman, Ira


    A rigorous discussion is presented of the classical motion of a relativistic electron in a magnetic field and the resulting electromagnetic radiation when radiation reaction is important. In particular, for an electron injected with initial energy gamma(0), a systematic perturbative solution to the Lorentz-Dirac equation of motion is developed for field strengths satisfying gamma(0) B much less than 6 x 10 to the 15th G. A particularly accurate solution to the electron orbital motion in this regime is found and it is demonstrated how lowest-order corrections can be calculated. It is shown that the total energy-loss rate corresponds to what would be found using the exact Larmor power formula without including radiation reaction. Provided that the particle energy and field strength satisfy the same contraint, it is explicitly demonstrated that the intuitive prescription for calculating the time-integrated radiation spectrum described above is correct.

  10. Abdominal radiation - discharge (United States)

    Radiation - abdomen - discharge; Cancer - abdominal radiation; Lymphoma - abdominal radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after radiation treatment starts, you might notice changes ...

  11. Brain radiation - discharge (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  12. Directional radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, Jonathan L.


    Directional radiation detectors and systems, methods, and computer-readable media for using directional radiation detectors to locate a radiation source are provided herein. A directional radiation detector includes a radiation sensor. A radiation attenuator partially surrounds the radiation sensor and defines an aperture through which incident radiation is received by the radiation sensor. The aperture is positioned such that when incident radiation is received directly through the aperture and by the radiation sensor, a source of the incident radiation is located within a solid angle defined by the aperture. The radiation sensor senses at least one of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma particles, or neutrons.

  13. Cherenkov radiation; La radiation Cerenkov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    When the radioactivity has been discovered, it was observed by researchers that different materials as mineral salts or solutions were emitting a weak light when submitted to radioactivity beams. At the beginning it has been thought that it was fluorescent light. In 1934, Cherenkov, a russian physicist, worked on the luminescence of uranyl salts solutions caused by gamma radiation and observed a very weak light was emitted by pure liquid. After further studies, he concluded that this phenomena was different from fluorescence. Since then, it has been called Cherenkov effect. This blue light emission is produced when charged particles are going through a transparent medium with an upper velocity than light velocity. This can happen only in medium with large refractive index as water or glass. It also presents its different properties discovered afterwards. The different applications of the Cherenkov radiation are discussed as counting techniques for radiation detectors or comic ray detectors. (M.P.)

  14. Radiation Technology Against Bioterrorism (United States)


    application of radiation processing: radiation crosslinking of polymers and radiation sterilization of health care products have developed into substantial...municipal waste water, • radiation inactivation of bioterrorism agents, • electron beam processing of flue gases, • radiation crosslinking , • radiation...Electron beam processing of flue gases 6. Radiation crosslinking 7. Radiation curing 3 Radiation Technology Against Bioterrorism L.G. Gazsó and G

  15. Application des techniques de diffusion de la lumière des rayons X et des neutrons à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux. Première partie : Présentation théorique des trois techniques Application of Light, X-Ray and Neutron Diffusion Techniques to the Study of Colloidal Systems. Part One : Theoretical Description of Three Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinat D.


    Full Text Available Les techniques de diffusion, des rayons X, des neutrons et de la lumière, jouent un rôle très important pour la compréhension des milieux colloïdaux. Peu d'articles de la littérature s'attachent à présenter conjointement les trois méthodes. Nous avons, dans la première partie de cet article, détaillé les principes théoriques en insistent tout particulièrement sur les spécificités de chacune. Après les rappels concernant la diffusion par les systèmes dilués, nous nous sommes intéressés aux systèmes concentrés pour lesquels les entités diffusantes sont en interaction. Les milieux dispersés montrent souvent une certaine polydispersité que l'on cherche à mesurer; les techniques de diffusion permettent cette mesure. Nous terminerons cette revue par une description des appareillages utilisés. La deuxième partie de cet article concernera une large illustration des possibilités de ces méthodes d'analyse à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux, sur la base de travaux effectués à I'IFP (Institut Français du Pétrole ou dans de nombreux laboratoires de recherche extérieurs. This article aims to describe X-ray, neutron and light scattering techniques with emphasis on their specific nature and their scope of application. Indeed, whereas light diffusion has been used for a long time in research laboratories, in particular for characterizing polymers in solution, small angle X-ray scattering has been the subject of renewed interest in recent years. Neutron scattering, which is obviously more difficultly accessible, has proven to be extremely useful for studying various systems for which light and X-ray scattering remain relatively powerless. Whereas there is an abundant literature concerning various applications of the three methods, it should be noted that only a few articles have attempted to describe all three techniques at the same time. In this article we have tried to make up for this lack, and as such it was

  16. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.


    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  17. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    Radioactive Shipping Service


    The section of the radiation protection group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: Tél. 73171

  18. Radiation protection

    CERN Document Server


    The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: Tel. 73171

  19. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia


    The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: Tél. 73171

  20. Radiatively Generated $\

    CERN Document Server

    Joshipura, A S; Joshipura, Anjan S.; Rindani, Saurabh D.


    We study the consequences of assuming that the mass scale $\\Delta_{odot}$ corresponding to the solar neutrino oscillations and mixing angle $U_{e3}$ corresponding to the electron neutrino oscillation at CHOOZ are radiatively generated through the standard electroweak gauge interactions. All the leptonic mass matrices having zero $\\Delta_{odot}$ and $U_{e3}$ at a high scale lead to a unique low energy value for the $\\Delta_{odot}$ which is determined by the (known) size of the radiative corrections, solar and the atmospheric mixing angle and the Majorana mass of the neutrino observed in neutrinoless double beta decay. This prediction leads to the following consequences: ($i$) The MSSM radiative corrections generate only the dark side of the solar neutrino solutions. ($ii$) The inverted mass hierarchy ($m,-m,0$) at the high scale fails in generating the LMA solution but it can lead to the LOW or vacuum solutions. ($iii$) The $\\Delta_{odot}$ generated in models with maximal solar mixing at a high scale is zero t...

  1. Radiation Engineering for Designers (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.


    This tutorial provides an overview of the natural space radiation environment, an introduction to radiation effect types, an overview of EEE parts selection, scrubbing, and radiation mitigation, and an introduction to radiation testing.

  2. Acute Radiation Syndrome (United States)

    ... Matters Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS): A Fact Sheet for the Public ... is called the radiation dose. People exposed to radiation will get ARS only if: The radiation dose ...

  3. Chest radiation - discharge (United States)

    Radiation - chest - discharge; Cancer - chest radiation; Lymphoma - chest radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after your first treatment: It may be hard ...

  4. Risk Factors: Radiation (United States)

    Radiation of certain wavelengths, called ionizing radiation, has enough energy to damage DNA and cause cancer. Ionizing radiation includes radon, x-rays, gamma rays, and other forms of high-energy radiation.

  5. Radiation Engineering for Designers (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.


    This tutorial provides an overview of the natural space radiation environment, an introduction to radiation effect types, an overview of EEE parts selection, scrubbing, and radiation mitigation, and an introduction to radiation testing.

  6. Study of the fibrinogen - fibrin transformation kinetics and modifications caused to this reaction by irradiation (X rays) of the fibrinogen solution; Etude de la cinetique de la transformation fibrinogene-fibrine et modifications apportees dans cette reaction par irradiation (rayons X) de solution de fibrinogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollard, D.; Suscillon, M.; Marcille, G.; Rambaud, F.; Baloyan, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The authors present a spectrophotometric method for studying the transformation fibrinogen - fibrin. This method has the advantage of drawing immediately in graph form the three, phases of this transformation: proteolysis or monomerization; polymerisation; clot stabilization. It is a simple, faithful and easily reproductive technic. Owing to this method, they studied modifications of this transformation due to irradiation of fibrinogen solution. Low doses (90 000 R/mn) prevent transverse polymerisation. To upper doses (180 000 R and more), the action of thrombin on fibrinogen does not give an organised clot but a lacteous and fragile gel. There is not here a coagulation in the physiological understanding. (author) [French] Les auteurs presentent une methode d'etude spectro-photometrique de la transformation fibrinogene - fibrine. Cette technique a l'avantage de visualiser instantanement-par le trace d'une courbe les 3 phases de cette transformation: proteolyse ou monomerisation; polymerisation; stabilisation du caillot. C'est une technique simple, fidele, reproductible; grace a cette methode les auteurs ont pu etudier les modifications apportees dans cette transformation par irradiation aux rayons X de la solution de fibrinogene. A faible dose (90 000 R) l'irradiation inhibe la polymerisation Transversale. A forte dose ( > 180 000 R) le fibrinogene n'est plus transforme par la thrombine en un caillot organise mais en un gel laiteux et fragile. Il ne s'agit plus alors de coagulation au sens physiologique du terme. (auteur)

  7. Radiation pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amla, T.R.; Chakravarti, R.N.; Lal, K.


    Adult healthy rhesus monkeys were exposed to a course of roentgen irradiation over the chest and back to produce pulmonary changes simulating human radiation pneumonitis. Macroscopic and morphologic changes included dense adhesions, pleural thickening and increased consistency of the lungs. Microscopically the early reaction was characterized by dilatation of pulmonary vessels, microhaemorrhages, collapse of alveoli, permeation of the interstitial tissue with a fibrinous fluid and cells. In the late stage the fibrinous interstitial matrix was replaced by hyaline eosinophilic mass, fragmentation and dissolution of the elastic tissue and thickening of the alveolar walls. The cell population in the interstitial tissue showed decline and at places radiolytic effect. There was peribronchial and perivascular fibrosis and hyalinization and pulmonary arteries revealed marked degree of arteriosclerosis. The present study opens a new field for experimental research on the development of pulmonary hypertension as a post-irradiation complication.

  8. Radiation Insulation (United States)


    The Apollo and subsequent spacecraft have had highly effective radiation barriers; made of aluminized polymer film, they bar or let in heat to maintain consistent temperatures inside. Tech 2000, formerly Quantum International Corporation used the NASA technology in its insulating materials, Super "Q" Radiant Barrier, for home, industry and mobile applications. The insulation combines industrial aluminum foil overlaid around a core of another material, usually propylene or mylar. The outer layer reflects up to 97 percent of heat; the central layer creates a thermal break in the structure and thus allows low radiant energy emission. The Quantum Cool Wall, used in cars and trucks, takes up little space while providing superior insulation, thus reducing spoilage and costs. The panels can also dampen sound and engine, exhaust and solar heat.

  9. Pulsed X-rays for interventional radiology: tests on active personal dosemeters (APD) (European project FP7 ORAMED WP3); Rayons X pulses pour la radiologie interventionnelle: tests sur dosimetres personnel actifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denoziere, M.; Bordy, J.M.; Daures, J.; Lecerf, N


    this report presents the results of the tests performed on Active Personal dosemeters (A.P.D.) to check their responses in pulsed X-ray beam used in interventional X-ray radiology. this work is one of the goal of O.R.A.M.E.D W.P.3. (Optimization of radiation protection for medical staff)The response of seven A.P.D.s types was measured in terms of dose equivalent Hp (10) for different pulsed X-ray width and dose rate. (author)

  10. Cosmic rays measurements between 1 GeV and 1 PeV by AMS and CREAM experiments; Mesures des rayons cosmiques entre le GeV et le PeV par les experiences AMS et CREAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangin-Brinet, M


    The AMS (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) and CREAM (Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass) experiments that are devoted to the detection of cosmic radiations have a similar architecture and both use a Cherenkov detector whose scintillating material is a silicon aerogel. The performance of the Cherenkov detector rests on an accurate knowledge of the refractive index of the aerogel plane. This report deals with an adequate methodology of measuring the refractive index. The first chapter reviews the contributions of AMS and CREAM experiments to the physics of cosmic radiations. The second chapter presents different methods used for mapping the refractive index of the aerogel plane. The prism method is based on the measurement of the deflection of a laser beam through the sides of an aerogel tile. The most satisfying method to measure the changes in the refractive index is to use an electron beam, in this case any change infers a change in the emission angle of the Cherenkov photons that can be detected and the value of the refractive index is deduced. A new method based on the deflection of a laser beam on the 2 parallel sides of an aerogel tile has been developed. The characterization of the 2 Cherenkov detectors are given in the second and the third chapter. The last chapter presents some aspects of the simulation works and of the data processing. (A.C.)

  11. Breast radiation - discharge (United States)

    Radiation - breast - discharge ... away around 4 to 6 weeks after the radiation treatment is over. You may notice changes in ... breast looks or feels (if you are getting radiation after a lumpectomy). These changes include: Soreness or ...

  12. Pregnancy and Radiation Exposure (United States)

    ... Ask the Experts Pregnancy and Radiation Exposure Robert Brent, MD, PhD The following information pertains to reproductive risks of radiation exposures to women who are pregnant and have questions ...

  13. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Siegel, Robert


    Further expanding on the changes made to the fifth edition, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition continues to highlight the relevance of thermal radiative transfer and focus on concepts that develop the radiative transfer equation (RTE). The book explains the fundamentals of radiative transfer, introduces the energy and radiative transfer equations, covers a variety of approaches used to gauge radiative heat exchange between different surfaces and structures, and provides solution techniques for solving the RTE.

  14. Radiation controlling reversible window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, H.A. Jr.


    A coated glass glazing system is presented including a transparent glass substrate having one surface coated with a radiation absorptive film which is overcoated with a radiation reflective film by a technique which renders the radiation reflective film radiation absorptive at the surface contracting the radiating absorptive film. The coated glass system is used as glazing for storm windows which are adapted to be reversible so that the radiation reflective surface may be exposed to the outside of the dwelling during the warm seasons to prevent excessive solar radiation from entering a dwelling and reversed during cold seasons to absorb solar radiation and utilize it to aid in keeping the dwelling interior warm.

  15. A Study of the Effects of Carbon Disulfide Exposure on the Blood Lipids and Serum Trace Elements in Viscose Rayon Workers%二硫化碳接触工人血脂和血清微量元素的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔丹莉; 毕勇毅; 等


    [Objective] To explore the level and the effects of carbon disulfide exposure on the blood lipids and serum trace elements in viscose rayon workers. [Methods] The epidemiological cross-sectional investigation and lab examination were carried out. [Results] HDL-C in the exposed group was lower than that in the intervention and control groups,however ApoB in the exposed group was higher than that in the intervention and control groups. The serum copper,zinc and selenium concentrations in the intervention group and the exposed group were lower than those in the control group. [Conclusion] The results indicated that those indexes might be taken as sensitive biomarkers for health surveillance of cardiovascular system.%[目的]探讨二硫化碳(CS2)作业工人血脂及血清微量元素含量的改变。[方法]运用流行病学横断面调查和实验室检查。[结果]接触组高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C)较干预组和对照组低,载脂蛋白B(ApoB)较干预组和对照组高;血清铜、锌、硒含量对照组最高、干预组次之、接触组最低。[结论]接触CS2对作业工人血脂和血清微量元素有一定影响。

  16. Influence of the atmosphere on the space detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays; Influence de l'atmosphere sur la detection spatiale des rayons cosmiques d'ultra-haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreggia, S


    EUSO (Extreme Universe Space Observatory) is a project of ultra-high energy (> 10{sup 20} eV) cosmic rays detection from space. Its concept relies on the observation of fluorescence and Cerenkov photons emitted by extensive air showers from a telescope located on the International Space Station. A simulation software has been developed to study the characteristics of this innovative concept of detection. It deals with the different steps of the detection chain: extensive air shower development, emission of fluorescence and Cerenkov light, and radiative transfer to the telescope. A Monte-Carlo code has been implemented to simulate the propagation of photons through the atmosphere, dealing with multiple scattering in clear sky conditions as well as in presence of aerosols and clouds. With this simulation program, the impact of atmospheric conditions on the performance of a space-located detector has been studied. The precise treatment of photons propagation through the atmosphere has permitted to quantify the scattered light contribution to the detected signal. (author)

  17. Development and applications of coherent imaging with improved temporal and spatial resolution; Developpement et applications de l'imagerie coherente aux rayons X a tres haute resolution spatiale et temporelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokso, Rajmund


    This work has 2 purposes: the improvement of both temporal and spatial resolution of X-ray tomography. The first part is devoted to the technical aspects of the tomographic technique, particularly at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) beamline ID19, and the application of the new acquisition scheme to the imaging of liquid foams. We have improved the temporal resolution and field of view of the setup, which allowed to obtain for the first time experimental data with good statistics on three dimensional liquid foams. In the second part of the thesis we have described the Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing system and its first applications. In terms of stability and image quality the developments presented in this part of the thesis provide valuable evidence for the feasibility of phase contrast tomography in magnifying geometry. Since the ultimate goal of this research is to improve the spatial resolution in tomography for applications, four different contributions are important for the characterization of the imaging system: 1) the thermal stability and mechanical imperfections, 2) effects of distortion induced by mirror imperfections, 3) effects of refraction on sample borders, and 4) phase propagation effects with the influence of the magnification. Each of these factors has been studied.

  18. Detection of Terahertz Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation.......The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation....

  19. Gravitation radiation observations


    Glass, E. N.


    The notion of gravitational radiation begins with electromagnetic radiation. In 1887 Heinrich Hertz, working in one room, generated and received electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell's equations describe the electromagnetic field. The quanta of electromagnetic radiation are spin 1 photons. They are fundamental to atomic physics and quantum electrodynamics.

  20. Micromechanical radiation dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thundat, T.; Sharp, S.L.; Fisher, W.G.; Warmack, R.J.; Wachter, E.A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6123 (United States))


    We demonstrate the use of microcantilevers coated with ultraviolet cross-linking polymers as optical radiation dosimeters. Upon exposure to radiation, a treated cantilever bends due to stress and its resonance frequency increases due to stiffening. These phenomena can be used to develop sensitive radiation dosimeters which respond to radiation affecting the mechanical properties of the selected coating.

  1. Wireless radiation sensor (United States)

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, Jr, Layton N.; Mee, David K.; Kress, Reid L.


    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting radiation. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a radiation sensitive material coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The radiation sensitive material is operable to change a tensile stress of the ferromagnetic metal upon exposure to radiation. The radiation is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  2. Plutonium radiation surrogate (United States)

    Frank, Michael I [Dublin, CA


    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  3. Radiation protection at synchrotron radiation facilities. (United States)

    Liu, J C; Vylet, V


    A synchrotron radiation (SR) facility typically consists of an injector, a storage ring, and SR beamlines. The latter two features are unique to SR facilities, when compared to other types of accelerator facilities. The SR facilities have the characteristics of low injection beam power, but high stored beam power. The storage ring is generally above ground with people occupying the experimental floor around a normally thin concrete ring wall. This paper addresses the radiation issues, in particular the shielding design, associated with the storage ring and SR beamlines. Normal and abnormal beam losses for injection and stored beams, as well as typical storage ring operation, are described. Ring shielding design for photons and neutrons from beam losses in the ring is discussed. Radiation safety issues and shielding design for SR beamlines, considering gas bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation, are reviewed. Radiation source terms and the methodologies for shielding calculations are presented.

  4. ERLN Radiation Focus Area (United States)

    As part of the Environmental Response Laboratory Network, the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) here provides your laboratory with access to radiation-specific laboratory guidance documents and training courses.

  5. Radiation therapy -- skin care (United States)

    ... this page: // Radiation therapy - skin care To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. When you have radiation treatment for cancer, you may have some changes ...

  6. Hendee's radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlicki, Todd; Starkschall, George


    The publication of this fourth edition, more than ten years on from the publication of Radiation Therapy Physics third edition, provides a comprehensive and valuable update to the educational offerings in this field. Led by a new team of highly esteemed authors, building on Dr Hendee’s tradition, Hendee’s Radiation Therapy Physics offers a succinctly written, fully modernised update. Radiation physics has undergone many changes in the past ten years: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become a routine method of radiation treatment delivery, digital imaging has replaced film-screen imaging for localization and verification, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is frequently used, in many centers proton therapy has become a viable mode of radiation therapy, new approaches have been introduced to radiation therapy quality assurance and safety that focus more on process analysis rather than specific performance testing, and the explosion in patient-and machine-related data has necessitated an ...

  7. Cell Radiation Experiment System (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.


    The cell radiation experiment system (CRES) is a perfused-cell culture apparatus, within which cells from humans or other animals can (1) be maintained in homeostasis while (2) being exposed to ionizing radiation during controlled intervals and (3) being monitored to determine the effects of radiation and the repair of radiation damage. The CRES can be used, for example, to determine effects of drug, radiation, and combined drug and radiation treatments on both normal and tumor cells. The CRES can also be used to analyze the effects of radiosensitive or radioprotectant drugs on cells subjected to radiation. The knowledge gained by use of the CRES is expected to contribute to the development of better cancer treatments and of better protection for astronauts, medical-equipment operators, and nuclear-power-plant workers, and others exposed frequently to ionizing radiation.

  8. Environmental Radiation Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is an electronic and print journal compiled and distributed quarterly by the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air's National Air...

  9. Radiation processing in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment


    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  10. Environmental Radiation Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is an electronic and print journal compiled and distributed quarterly by the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air's National Air and...

  11. Radiation effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server


    There is a need to understand and combat potential radiation damage problems in semiconductor devices and circuits. Written by international experts, this book explains the effects of radiation on semiconductor devices, radiation detectors, and electronic devices and components. These contributors explore emerging applications, detector technologies, circuit design techniques, new materials, and innovative system approaches. The text focuses on how the technology is being used rather than the mathematical foundations behind it. It covers CMOS radiation-tolerant circuit implementations, CMOS pr

  12. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia


    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  13. Heart and radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Martins Júnior


    Full Text Available ABSTRATC The heart exposition to ionizing radiation may produce lesions in cardiac structures, acute (in most of cases benign and reversible, or months and even years later. There is a direct relationship of severity of lesions with radiation doses. The clinical picture receives a new denomination: radiation induced cardiopathy. The more frequent use of radiation in diagnosis and therapeutics increases the importance of their knowledge and especially their prevention.

  14. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  15. Hybrid radiator cooling system (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.


    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  16. (Mis)Understanding Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, Stephen Bruce [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This set of slides discusses radiation and fears concerning it at a non-technical level. Included are some misconceptions and practical consequences resulting from these. The concept of radiation hormesis is explained. The author concludes that a number of significant societal benefits are being foregone because of overly cautious concerns about low-level radiation.

  17. Ultraviolet radiation and immunosuppression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, G M


    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a complete carcinogen. The effects of UV radiation are mediated via direct damage to cellular DNA in the skin and suppression of image surveillance mechanisms. In the context of organ transplantation, addiction of drugs which suppress the immune system add greatly to the carcinogenicity of UV radiation. This review considers the mechanisms of such effects.

  18. Radiation bioengineering; Bioinzynieria radiacyjna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosiak, J.M. [Politechnika Lodzka, Lodz (Poland). Inst. Techniki Radiacynej


    Radiation processing for modification of different properties of materials being designed for medical use have been described. Especially the polymers as very often used for medical equipment production have been modified by radiation. The different medical applications of biomaterials based on radiation modified polymers have been presented. 13 refs.

  19. Biological implications of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V.P.


    Some topics discussed are as follows: effects of diagnostic and therapeutic radiation on dividing cells, DNA, and blood cells; radiation sickness in relation to dose; early and late effects of radiation; effects of low dose irradiation; dose-effect curves; radioinduction of tumors in animals; and incidence of cancer in children following in utero exposure to diagnostic x rays. (HLW)

  20. The Impact of Proposed Radio Frequency Radiation Standards on Military Operations. (United States)


    Dardalhon M, Averbeck D, Berteaud AJ. Action des ondes centimetriques seules ou combinees avec les rayons ultra violets sur les cellules eucaryotiques. activity of membrane-bound Red blood cell membrane; 2.45 (SW) 10 26 Adaveguide 41 enzymes measured spectrophotometrically mitochondrial inner

  1. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server


    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  2. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  3. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  4. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J


    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes.

  5. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Mengüç, M Pinar


    Providing a comprehensive overview of the radiative behavior and properties of materials, the fifth edition of this classic textbook describes the physics of radiative heat transfer, development of relevant analysis methods, and associated mathematical and numerical techniques. Retaining the salient features and fundamental coverage that have made it popular, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Fifth Edition has been carefully streamlined to omit superfluous material, yet enhanced to update information with extensive references. Includes four new chapters on Inverse Methods, Electromagnetic Theory, Scattering and Absorption by Particles, and Near-Field Radiative Transfer Keeping pace with significant developments, this book begins by addressing the radiative properties of blackbody and opaque materials, and how they are predicted using electromagnetic theory and obtained through measurements. It discusses radiative exchange in enclosures without any radiating medium between the surfaces-and where heat conduction...

  6. Radiation curing of epoxies (United States)

    Dickson, Lawrence W.; Singh, Ajit

    The literature on radiation polymerization of epoxy compounds has been reviewed to assess the potential use of radiation for curing these industrially important monomers. Chemical curing of epoxies may proceed by either cationic or anionic mechanisms depending on the nature of the curing agent, but most epoxies polymerize by cationic mechanisms under the influence of high-energy radiation. Radiation-induced cationic polymerization of epoxy compounds is inhibited by trace quantities of water because of proton transfer from the chain-propagating epoxy cation to water. Several different methods with potential for obtaining high molecular weight polymers by curing epoxies with high-energy radiation have been studied. Polymeric products with epoxy-like properties have been produced by radiation curing of epoxy oligomers with terminal acrylate groups and mixtures of epoxies with vinyl monomers. Both of these types of resin have good potential for industrial-scale curing by radiation treatment.

  7. Acute radiation syndrome and chronic radiation syndrome. (United States)

    Grammaticos, Philip; Giannoula, Evanthia; Fountos, George P


    Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) or sickness or poisoning or toxicity is induced after a whole body exposure of men to high doses of radiation between 1-12Gy. First symptoms are from the gastrointestinal system, which together with bone marrow are the most sensitive parts of our body. Chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) may be induced by smaller than 1Gy radiation doses or after a mild form of ARS. Prophylaxis and treatment suggestions are described. In cases of ARS, a large part of the exposed population after proper medical care may survive, while without medical care this part of the population will be lost. Prophylaxis may also save another part of the population.

  8. Radiation processing of polyethylene (United States)

    Barlow, A.; Biggs, J. W.; Meeks, L. A.

    This paper covers two areas (a) the use of high energy radiation for the synthesis and improvement of polymer properties and (b) the formulation of radiation curable compounds for automotive/appliance wire applications and high voltage insulation. The first part discusses the use of gamma radiation for the bulk polymerization of ethylene and the properties of the polymer produced. The use of low dose radiation to increase polymer molecular weight and modify polydispersity is also described together with its projected operational cost. An update is provided of the cost savings that can be realized when using radiation crosslinked heavy duty film, which expands its applications, compared with noncrosslinked materials. The second section of the paper considers the advantages and disadvantages of radiation vs. peroxide curing of wire and cable compounds. The formulation of a radiation curable, automotive/appliance wire compound is discussed together with the interactions between the various ingredients; i.e., base resin, antioxidants, flame retardant filler, coupling agents, processing aids and radiation to achieve the desired product. In addition, the general property requirements of a radiation curable polyethylene for high voltage insulation are discussed; these include crosslinking efficiency, thermal stability, wet tree resistance and satisfactory dielectric properties. Preliminary data generated in the development of a 230KV radiation crosslinked polyethylene insulation are included.

  9. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.


    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  10. Detection of ultra-high-energy cosmic radiation at the Pierre Auger Observatory, theoretical study of its propagation through extragalactic space; Detection des rayons cosmiques ultra-energetiques avec l'observatoire Pierre Auger et etude theorique de leur propagation dans le milieu extragalactique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, D


    The Pierre Auger observatory's main aim is to observe the ultra-energetic cosmic ray spectrum with high statistics. Indeed, the spectrum around 10{sup 20} eV is so far only poorly known, due to low statistics and the expected GZK (Gneisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin) cut-off is for the time being not clearly observed. The first part will deal with propagation of charged (protons and nuclei) ultra-energetic cosmic rays in the extragalactic medium. We will investigate the influence of physical parameters, such as the composition of cosmic ray fluxes, on the highest energy spectrum shape. The influence of the turbulent extragalactic magnetic fields on the spectrum of the clusters will also be studied. We will also investigate the possibility to observe gamma ray bursts with the Pierre Auger Observatory by using the single particle technique. We will show how galactic gamma ray bursts could become a persistent and quasi-isotropic source due to the 'Compton trail' induced by Compton scattering of the primary photon beam in the interstellar medium. In the section devoted to simulations, we will develop methods to reconstruct air showers and identify primary cosmic rays. We will also study the aperture of the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger observatory. Finally, we will use the methods developed in the previous chapters to analyze the data of the year 2004 and will give preliminary results. (author)

  11. Theory of edge radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni; Schneidmiller, Evgeni; Yurkov, Mikhail


    We formulate a complete theory of Edge Radiation based on a novel method relying on Fourier Optics techniques. Similar types of radiation like Transition Undulator Radiation are addressed in the framework of the same formalism. Special attention is payed in discussing the validity of approximations upon which the theory is built. Our study makes consistent use of both similarity techniques and comparisons with numerical results from simulation. We discuss both near and far zone. Physical understanding of many asymptotes is discussed. Based on the solution of the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, we also discuss an analytical model to describe the presence of a vacuum chamber. In particular, explicit calculations for a circular vacuum chamber are reported. Finally, we consider the use of Edge Radiation as a tool for electron beam diagnostics. We discuss Coherent Edge Radiation, Extraction of Edge Radiation by a mirror, and other issues becoming important at high electron energy and long ...

  12. Radiation processes in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, Wallace H


    The purpose of this book is twofold: to provide a brief, simple introduction to the theory of radiation and its application in astrophysics and to serve as a reference manual for researchers. The first part of the book consists of a discussion of the basic formulas and concepts that underlie the classical and quantum descriptions of radiation processes. The rest of the book is concerned with applications. The spirit of the discussion is to present simple derivations that will provide some insight into the basic physics involved and then to state the exact results in a form useful for applications. The reader is referred to the original literature and to reviews for rigorous derivations.The wide range of topics covered is illustrated by the following table of contents: Basic Formulas for Classical Radiation Processes; Basic Formulas for Quantum Radiation Processes; Cyclotron and Synchrotron Radiation; Electron Scattering; Bremsstrahlung and Collision Losses; Radiative Recombination; The Photoelectric Effect; a...

  13. Solar radiation models - review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamil Ahmad, G.N. Tiwari


    Full Text Available In the design and study of solar energy, information on solar radiation and its components at a given location is very essential. Solar radiation data are required by solar engineers, architects, agriculturists and hydrologists for many applications such as solar heating, cooking, drying and interior illumination of buildings. For this purpose, in the past, several empirical correlations have been developed in order to estimate the solar radiation around the world. The main objective of this study is to review the global solar radiation models available in the literature. There are several formulae which relate global radiation to other climatic parameters such as sunshine hours, relative humidity and maximum temperature. The most commonly used parameter for estimating global solar radiation is sunshine duration. Sunshine duration can be easily and reliably measured and data are widely available.

  14. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  15. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne


    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  16. Transgenerational Radiation Epigenetics (United States)


    showed altered expression in normal lung from F3 mice. Thus, traces of the effects of a single dose of radiation during development persist into...radiation showed a loss of global cytosine methylation in DNA from thymus , implicating profound epigenetic dysregulation (Tawa et al., 1998; Pogribny...for the carcinogenic and transgenerational effects of radiation. It is also anticipated that these epigenetic signatures will be developed as

  17. Radiation | (United States)

    About half of all cancer patients get radiation therapy. This treatment can damage healthy cells, which can cause uncomfortable side effects. Use this action deck to get information on common symptoms that affect people going through radiation and learn how to manage them. The side effects of radiation may depend on the part of your body being treated. If you don’t see the symptom cards that describe what you are going through, try building your own deck.

  18. Polémiques sur les rayons cosmiques

    CERN Multimedia

    Baruch, Jacques-Olivier


    The more intense the solar magnetic field is, the less there are clouds on earth. This phenomen, based on indirect mechanisms, was these last ten years, was the center of deep debates about the correlation of flows of cosmic rays and the current warming. (2 pages)

  19. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek


    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of {gamma}-ray. (author)

  20. Potential theory of radiation (United States)

    Chiu, Huei-Huang


    A theoretical method is being developed by which the structure of a radiation field can be predicted by a radiation potential theory, similar to a classical potential theory. The introduction of a scalar potential is justified on the grounds that the spectral intensity vector is irrotational. The vector is also solenoidal in the limits of a radiation field in complete radiative equilibrium or in a vacuum. This method provides an exact, elliptic type equation that will upgrade the accuracy and the efficiency of the current CFD programs required for the prediction of radiation and flow fields. A number of interesting results emerge from the present study. First, a steady state radiation field exhibits an optically modulated inverse square law distribution character. Secondly, the unsteady radiation field is structured with two conjugate scalar potentials. Each is governed by a Klein-Gordon equation with a frictional force and a restoring force. This steady potential field structure and the propagation of radiation potentials are consistent with the well known results of classical electromagnetic theory. The extension of the radiation potential theory for spray combustion and hypersonic flow is also recommended.

  1. [Thyroid and radiation]. (United States)

    Yamashita, S; Namba, H; Nagataki, S


    The topic "Thyroid and Radiation" is both an old and a new area to be solved by human beings. The thyroid is an organ that is usually susceptible to exposure to ionizing radiation, both by virtue of its ability to concentrate radioiodine (internal radiation) and by routine medical examination: Chest X-ray, Dental X-ray, X-irradiation of cervical lymphnodes etc. (external radiation). Iodine-131 is widely used for the therapy of Graves' disease and thyroid cancers, of which the disadvantage is radiation-induced hypothyroidism but not complications of thyroid tumor. The thyroid gland is comparatively radioresistant, however, the data obtained from Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Marshall islands indicates a high incidence of external radiation-induced thyroid tumors as well as hypothyroidism. The different biological effects of internal and external radiation remains to be further clarified. Interestingly, recent reports demonstrate the increased number of thyroid cancer in children around Chernobyl in Belarus. In this review, we would like to introduce the effect of radiation on the thyroid gland at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. Furthermore the clinical usefulness of iodine-131, including the safety-control for radiation exposure will be discussed.

  2. Radiation`96. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The conference program includes eight invited lectures which cover a range of contemporary topics in radiation science and technology. In addition, thirty-two oral papers were presented, along with forty-five posters. The conference handbook contains one-page precis or extended abstracts of all presentations, and is a substantial compendium of current radiation research in Australia.

  3. ALICE HMPID Radiator Vessel

    CERN Multimedia


    View of the radiator vessels of the ALICE/HMPID mounted on the support frame. Each HMPID module is equipped with 3 indipendent radiator vessels made out of neoceram and fused silica (quartz) windows glued together. The spacers inside the vessel are needed to stand the hydrostatic pressure.

  4. Radiation belts of jupiter. (United States)

    Stansberry, K G; White, R S


    Predictions of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts are based mainly on decimeter observations of 1966 and 1968. Extensive calculations modeling radial diffusion of particles inward from the solar wind and electron synchrotron radiation are used to relate the predictions and observations.

  5. Theory of edge radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Kocharyan, V.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.


    We formulate a complete theory of Edge Radiation based on a novel method relying on Fourier Optics techniques. Similar types of radiation like Transition UndulatorRadiation are addressed in the framework of the same formalism. Special attention is payed in discussing the validity of approximations upon which the theory is built. Our study makes consistent use of both similarity techniques and comparisons with numerical results from simulation. We discuss both near and far zone. Physical understanding of many asymptotes is discussed. Based on the solution of the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, we also discuss an analytical model to describe the presence of a vacuum chamber. In particular, explicit calculations for a circular vacuum chamber are reported. Finally, we consider the use of Edge Radiation as a tool for electron beam diagnostics. We discuss Coherent Edge Radiation, Extraction of Edge Radiation by a mirror, and other issues becoming important at high electron energy and long radiation wavelength. Based on this work we also study the impact of Edge Radiation on XFEL setups and we discuss recent results. (orig.)

  6. Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy (United States)

    ... radiation (absorbed dose) or to the potential biological effect in tissue exposed to radiation (equivalent dose). Sv or Sievert The International System of Units (SI) unit for dose equivalent equal to 1 joule/kilogram. The sievert has replaced the rem; one ...

  7. NASA's Space Radiation Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shelley Canright; 陈功


    @@ Imagine a human spacecraft crew voyaging through space. A satellite sends a warning; energetic particles are being accelerated from the Sun's corona①,sending dangerous radiation toward the spacecraft, but the crewmembers aren't worried. Long before their journey, researchers on Earth conducted experiments to accurately measure the hazards of space radiation and developed new materials and countermeasures to protect them.

  8. Radiation Therapy for Cancer (United States)

    ... basic unit of light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation . It can be thought of as a bundle ... 3D-CRT uses very sophisticated computer software and advanced treatment machines to deliver radiation to very precisely shaped target areas. Many other ...

  9. New sources of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimmerling, W.


    An attempt is made to select examples of radiation sources whose application may make new or unconventional demands on radiation protection and dosimetry. A substantial body of knowledge about high energy facilities exists and, partly for this reason, the great high energy accelerators are mentioned only briefly.

  10. Electronics for radiation detection

    CERN Document Server


    Addresses the developments in the design of semiconductor detectors and integrated circuits, in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. This book explains how circuits for radiation are built, focusing on practical information about how they are being used, rather than mathematical details.

  11. Instrument for assaying radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.


    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  12. Semiconductor radiation detection systems

    CERN Document Server


    Covers research in semiconductor detector and integrated circuit design in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. This book explores other applications of semiconductor radiation detection systems in security applications such as luggage scanning, dirty bomb detection and border control.

  13. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan


    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  14. [Radiation induced tumors]. (United States)

    Gutiérrez Bayard, L; Delgado López, L; Tirado Bejarano, C; Gómez Puerto, A; García Fernández, J L


    Radiations at cellular level produce different effects, depending on type of radiation and irradiated tissue. The radiation-induced cancers are associated to non-letals genetics mutations, and to classify like radiation induced tumors is necessary that appear in the treatment volume, a long latency period (years), histolo-different to the primary lesion, enough doses quantitatively and that exists a greater incidence in the irradiated populations. The genetics mutations affect at tumoral suppressors gen(Gen RB I, p53, BRCA I, BRCA 2) and repressors gen (hMSH 2, hMLH I,...), they could be longer and multifocals mutations, and produce lack of cellular control and a greater predisposition to develop tumors and a probable risk of increment of radiosensitivity. We present some of the more representatives studies about radiation-induced tumors.

  15. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry (United States)

    Bos, Adrie J. J.


    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  16. Transition radiation by neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannisian, A.N., E-mail: [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Br. 2, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Institute for Theoretical Physics and Modeling, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Ioannisian, D.A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Br. 2, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Institute for Theoretical Physics and Modeling, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Physics Department, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian (Armenia); Kazarian, N.A. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Modeling, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia)


    We calculate the transition radiation process {nu}{yields}{nu}{gamma} at an interface of two media. The neutrinos are taken to be with only standard-model couplings. The medium fulfills the dual purpose of inducing an effective neutrino-photon vertex and of modifying the photon dispersion relation. The transition radiation occurs when at least one of those quantities have different values in different media. The neutrino mass is ignored due to its negligible contribution. We present a result for the probability of the transition radiation which is both accurate and analytic. For E{sub {nu}=}1 MeV neutrino crossing polyethylene-vacuum interface the transition radiation probability is about 10{sup -39} and the energy intensity is about 10{sup -34} eV. At the surface of the neutron stars the transition radiation probability may be {approx}10{sup -20}. Our result is by the three orders of magnitude larger than those of previous calculations.

  17. Transition radiation by neutrinos (United States)

    Ioannisian, A. N.; Ioannisian, D. A.; Kazarian, N. A.


    We calculate the transition radiation process ν→νγ at an interface of two media. The neutrinos are taken to be with only standard-model couplings. The medium fulfills the dual purpose of inducing an effective neutrino-photon vertex and of modifying the photon dispersion relation. The transition radiation occurs when at least one of those quantities have different values in different media. The neutrino mass is ignored due to its negligible contribution. We present a result for the probability of the transition radiation which is both accurate and analytic. For Eν=1 MeV neutrino crossing polyethylene-vacuum interface the transition radiation probability is about 10 and the energy intensity is about 10 eV. At the surface of the neutron stars the transition radiation probability may be ˜10. Our result is by the three orders of magnitude larger than those of previous calculations.

  18. Electrodynamics of Radiating Charges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Grøn


    Full Text Available The theory of electrodynamics of radiating charges is reviewed with special emphasis on the role of the Schott energy for the conservation of energy for a charge and its electromagnetic field. It is made clear that the existence of radiation from a charge is not invariant against a transformation between two reference frames that has an accelerated motion relative to each other. The questions whether the existence of radiation from a uniformly accelerated charge with vanishing radiation reaction force is in conflict with the principle of equivalence and whether a freely falling charge radiates are reviewed. It is shown that the resolution of an electromagnetic “perpetuum mobile paradox” associated with a charge moving geodetically along a circular path in the Schwarzschild spacetime requires the so-called tail terms in the equation of motion of a charged particle.

  19. Fading Hawking Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakalli, I; Pasaoglu, H


    In this study, we explore a particular type Hawking radiation which ends with zero temperature and entropy. The appropriate black holes for this purpose are the linear dilaton black holes. In addition to the black hole choice, a recent formalism in which the Parikh-Wilczek's tunneling formalism amalgamated with quantum corrections to all orders in \\hbar is considered. The adjustment of the coefficients of the quantum corrections plays a crucial role on this particular Hawking radiation. The obtained tunneling rate indicates that the radiation is not pure thermal anymore, and hence correlations of outgoing quanta are capable of carrying away information encoded within them. Finally, we show in detail that when the linear dilaton black hole completely evaporates through such a particular radiation, entropy of the radiation becomes identical with the entropy of the black hole, which corresponds to "no information loss".

  20. Accelerator and radiation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Samita; Nandy, Maitreyee


    "Accelerator and radiation physics" encompasses radiation shielding design and strategies for hadron therapy accelerators, neutron facilities and laser based accelerators. A fascinating article describes detailed transport theory and its application to radiation transport. Detailed information on planning and design of a very high energy proton accelerator can be obtained from the article on radiological safety of J-PARC. Besides safety for proton accelerators, the book provides information on radiological safety issues for electron synchrotron and prevention and preparedness for radiological emergencies. Different methods for neutron dosimetry including LET based monitoring, time of flight spectrometry, track detectors are documented alongwith newly measured experimental data on radiation interaction with dyes, polymers, bones and other materials. Design of deuteron accelerator, shielding in beam line hutches in synchrotron and 14 MeV neutron generator, various radiation detection methods, their characteriza...

  1. Applications of ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Developments in standard applications and brand new nuclear technologies, with high impact on the future of the agriculture, medicine, industry and the environmental preservation. The Radiation Technology Center (CTR) mission is to apply the radiation and radioisotope technologies in Industry, Health, Agriculture, and Environmental Protection, expanding the scientific knowledge, improving human power resources, transferring technology, generating products and offering services for the Brazilian society. The CTR main R and D activities are in consonance with the IPEN Director Plan (2011-2013) and the Applications of Ionizing Radiation Program, with four subprograms: Irradiation of Food and Agricultural Products; Radiation and Radioisotopes Applications in Industry and Environment; Radioactive Sources and Radiation Applications in Human Health; and Radioactive Facilities and Equipment for the Applications of Nuclear Techniques.

  2. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer (United States)

    ... of the lung cancer and your overall health. Radiation Therapy Radiation is a high-energy X-ray that can ... surgery, chemotherapy or both depending upon the circumstances. Radiation therapy works within cancer cells by damaging their ...

  3. Radiation vulcanization of rubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment


    An abstract of the radiation process of polymer materials and the polymer reaction by radiation is explained. Main radiation is 250 keV to 10 MeV of electron rays in the industry. Radiation cross-linked rubber has less the tensile strength than that by sulfur and organic peroxide crosslinking. The main origins of low tensile strength are caused by cut of backbone chain and ozone depend on radiation. Acceleration of crosslinking and short time of radiation are necessary to improve these defects. To accelerate crosslinking, we used crosslinking accelerators, for example, three poly-functional monomers (PFM). The maximum tensile strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) not added crosslinking accelerators showed 3 MPa at 110 kGy, but SBR added A-TMMT (tetramethylolmethane tetraacrylate) showed 5.5 MPa at 110 kGy. Radiation crosslinking of many kinds of rubber: isoprene (IR), SBR, CR, nitrile rubber (NBR), hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR), butyl rubber (IIR), chlorinated butyl rubber (CIIR), EPM and TPE are explained. (S.Y.)

  4. Depression and ionizing radiation. (United States)

    Loganovsky, K N; Vasilenko, Z L


    The objective of this at issue paper is the analysis of published data in correlation with the results of own research on the potential role of ionizing radiation in the genesis of depressive disorders. Depression is one of the most significant and long-term effect of the atomic bombings, nuclear testing and radiation emergences. The participants of the accident at the Chornobyl nuclear power plant increased prevalence of depression (18.0% and 13.1% in controls) and suicide rates. Depression is mainly observed in the structure of an organic mental disorder against cerebrovascular disease. The clinical pattern is dominated by asthenoadynamic and asthenoapathetic depression. Depressive disorders in radiation emergencies are multifactorial, that is the result of exposure to the complex psychogenic and radiological accident's factors, impact of traditional risk factors, somatic and neurological diseases, genetic predisposition, predisposition, etc. At the same time, exposure to ionizing radiation is a factor in the genesis of depression. This impact can be direct (to the Central Nervous System), and indirectly through the somatic and neurological abnormalities (multiorgan dysfunction) as well as by a variety of pathogenic mechanisms of ionizing radiation on the brain that have been discovered recently. It is strongly necessary analytical clinical and epidemiological studies with verification of depression and evidence-based establishment of the role of radiation and non-radiation risk factors. Loganovskyj K. N., Vasylenko Z. L., 2013.

  5. Beneficial uses of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, M.R.


    An overall decline in technical literacy within the American public has come at a time when technological advances are accelerating in the United States and around the world. This had led to a large communication gulf between the general public and the technologists. Nowhere is this more evident then with the topic of radiation. Regrettably, too few people know about sources of radiation, the pervasiveness, amounts, and variabilities, and do not have a true understanding of the environment in which we live. Nor do many people know that radiation has been used in beneficial ways for decades around the world. While the general public does not know of the scientific applications to which radiation has been deployed, it nevertheless had benefited tremendously from these efforts. Thanks to the well know properties of radiation, scientific ingenuity has found many uses of radiation in chemical and agricultural research, biomedical research, in the diagnoses and treatment of hundreds of types of diseases, in industrial applications, food irradiation, and many others. This paper provides a sample of the types of uses to which radiation has been used to help advance the betterment of humankind.

  6. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.


    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of light extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. It is an extremely important source of Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation. Brightness is defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle and is normally a more important quantity than flux alone particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. It is well known from classical theory of electricity and magnetism that accelerating charges emit electromagnetic radiation. In the case of synchrotron radiation, relativistic electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit and emit electromagnetic radiation in a broad spectral range. The visible portion of this spectrum was first observed on April 24, 1947 at General Electric's Schenectady facility by Floyd Haber, a machinist working with the synchrotron team, although the first theoretical predictions were by Lienard in the latter part of the 1800's. An excellent early history with references was presented by Blewett and a history covering the development of the utilization of synchrotron radiation was presented by Hartman. Synchrotron radiation covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared region through the visible, ultraviolet, and into the x-ray region up to energies of many 10's of kilovolts. If the charged particles are of low mass, such as electrons, and if they are traveling relativistically, the emitted radiation is very intense and highly collimated, with opening angles of the order of 1 milliradian. In electron storage rings there are three possible sources of synchrotron radiation; dipole (bending) magnets; wigglers, which act like a sequence of bending magnets with alternating polarities; and undulators, which are also multi-period alternating magnet systems but in which the beam deflections are small resulting in coherent interference of the emitted light.

  8. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung-chi Lihn


    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed.

  9. The theory of heat radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Planck, Max


    Nobel laureate's classic exposition of the theory of radiant heat in terms of quantum action. Kirchoff's law, black radiation, Maxwell's radiation pressure, entropy, other topics. 1914 edition. Bibliography.

  10. Radiation Belt Dynamics (United States)


    Wygant, J. R., et al., “The Electric Field and Waves Instruments on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission,” Space Sci. Rev., 179, 2013, pp. 183–220, doi...A. N., Li, X., Kanekal, S. G., Hudson, M. K., and Kress, B. T., “Observations of the Inner Radiation Belt: CRAND and Trapped Solar Protons,” J...1215–1228, doi:10.1002/2014JA020777. [27] Selesnick, R. S., “ Measurement of Inner Radiation Belt Electrons with Kinetic Energy Above 1 MeV,” J

  11. Nuclear medicine radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J


    Complexities of the requirements for accurate radiation dosimetry evaluation in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine (including PET) have grown over the past decade. This is due primarily to four factors: growing consideration of accurate patient-specific treatment planning for radionuclide therapy as a means of improving the therapeutic benefit, development of more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in estimating radiation transport and dosimetry in patients, design and use of advanced Monte Carlo algorithms in calculating the above-mentioned radiation transport and

  12. Radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hendee, William R; Hendee, Eric G


    The Third Edition of Radiation Therapy Physics addresses in concise fashion the fundamental diagnostic radiologic physics principles as well as their clinical implications. Along with coverage of the concepts and applications for the radiation treatment of cancer patients, the authors have included reviews of the most up-to-date instrumentation and critical historical links. The text includes coverage of imaging in therapy planning and surveillance, calibration protocols, and precision radiation therapy, as well as discussion of relevant regulation and compliance activities. It contains an upd

  13. Foundations of radiation hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalas, Dimitri


    Radiation hydrodynamics is a broad subject that cuts across many disciplines in physics and astronomy: fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, kinetic theory, and radiative transfer, among others. The theory developed in this book by two specialists in the field can be applied to the study of such diverse astrophysical phenomena as stellar winds, supernova explosions, and the initial phases of cosmic expansion, as well as the physics of laser fusion and reentry vehicles. As such, it provides students with the basic tools for research on radiating flows.Largely self-contained,

  14. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Cun, Ki Jung; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek


    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with difference dosage of {gamma}-ray.

  15. Ethics and radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Sven Ove [Department of Philosophy and the History of Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 78 B, 2tr, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)


    Some of the major problems in radiation protection are closely connected to issues that have a long, independent tradition in moral philosophy. This contribution focuses on two of these issues. One is the relationship between the protection of individuals and optimisation on the collective level, and the other is the relative valuation of future versus immediate damage. Some of the intellectual tools that have been developed by philosophers can be useful in radiation protection. On the other hand, philosophers have much to learn from radiation protectors, not least when it comes to finding pragmatic solutions to problems that may be intractable in principle.

  16. Synchrotron Radiation Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Studies the effects of UV radiation and X rays on solids, and calibrates X-ray optics, detectors, and instruments.DESCRIPTION: Research focuses on applying...

  17. Intelligent Radiative Materials Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An opportunity to boost energy efficiency in homes and buildings exists through the design of functional radiative properties in glass and other building materials....

  18. Nanotechnology in radiation oncology. (United States)

    Wang, Andrew Z; Tepper, Joel E


    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also well suited for applications in radiation oncology, nanomaterials have been used in many different areas of radiation oncology for imaging and treatment planning, as well as for radiosensitization to improve the therapeutic ratio. In this article, we review the unique properties of nanomaterials that are favorable for oncology applications and examine the various applications of nanotechnology in radiation oncology. We also discuss the future directions of nanotechnology within the context of radiation oncology. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  19. Physics for radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, James E


    A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided.

  20. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a NASA funded facility, delivering heavy ion beams to a target area where scientists...

  1. Lecture on Thermal Radiation (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.


    This lecture will cover solar thermal radiation, particularly as it relates to the high energy solar processes that are the subject of this summer school. After a general review of thermal radiation from the Sun and a discussion of basic definitions, the various emission and absorption mechanisms will be described including black-body emission, bremsstrahlung, free-bound, and atomic line emissions of all kinds. The bulk of the time will be spent discussing the observational characteristics of thermal flare plasma and what can be learned about the flare energy release process from observations of the thermal radiation at all wavelengths. Information that has been learned about the morphology, temperature distribution, and composition of the flare plasma will be presented. The energetics of the thermal flare plasma will be discussed in relation to the nonthermal energy of the particles accelerated during the flare. This includes the total energy, the radiated and conductive cooling processes, and the total irradiated energy.

  2. Natural radiative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.


    Natural radiative cooling at night was measured based on the surface-radiation spectrum after the heat balance of the surface exposed to the sun had been reradiated. A concept equivalent to the sky temperature and a concept useful for obtaining the net heat flux are discussed. The highest possible equilibrium temperature of the selective surface can be lowered; however, how to apply this practically is not yet known. A simple radiator, completely enclosed by a transparent screen, can produce a significant and inexpensive cooling effect. The results of experiments carried out in an area such as Padua, Italy, where the climate is not suitable for cooling purposes can still be predicted theoretically. The possibility of using the collector for heat collection during the day and as a radiator at night is indicated.

  3. Radiation protection in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E.; Holmberg, O.; Perez, M. R.; Ortiz, P.


    Diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic used of ionizing radiation are beneficial for hundreds of millions of people each year by improving health care and saving lives. In March 2001, the first International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients was held in Malaga, Spain, which led to an international action plan for the radiation protection of patients. Ten years after establishing the international action plan, the International Conference on Radiation Protection in Medicine: Setting the Scene for the Next Decade was held in Bonn, Germany, in December 2012. the main outcome of this conference was the so called Bonn Call for Action that identifies then priority actions to enhance radiation protection in medicine for the next decade. The IAEA and WHO are currently working in close cooperation to foster and support the implementation of these ten priority actions in Member States, but their implementation requires collaboration of national governments, international agencies, researchers, educators, institutions and professional associations. (Author)

  4. Radiation synovectomy revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, E. (Mallinckrodt Medical, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Brodack, J.W. (Mallinckrodt Medical, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Deutsch, K.F. (Mallinckrodt Medical, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))


    Radiation synovectomy is a potential weapon in the therapeutic armamentarium of nuclear medicine. It is an attractive alternative to surgical or chemical synovectomy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In this article the clinical results obtained with radiation synovectomy from the 1950s through 1992 are summarized and reviewed. Even after taking into account the paucity of well-controlled trials and rigorous clinical follow-up, it is clear that radiation synovectomy is efficacious in controlling the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. However, the procedure is not widely used because of concerns about leakage of radioactivity from the treated joint, and the resulting high doses that can be delivated to nontarget organs. New approaches to the preparation of radiolabeled particles for use in radiation synovectomy promise to minimize this leakage and thus allows the full potential of this important radiotherapy to be realized. (orig.)

  5. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph


    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  6. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovelock, D.J. [Dental Hospital and School, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology


    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author).

  7. Blackbody Radiation Tables (United States)

    at the indicated wavelength and temperature, Planck’s equation. This equation represents the monochromatic radiant intensity at a particular wavelength from a perfect radiator maintained at the indicated temperature.

  8. Radiation Therapy (For Parents) (United States)

    ... with ink to highlight the treatment area. This "tattoo" should not be wiped off because it helps ... quickly to reduce exposure. previous continue Common Side Effects of Radiation If your child has cancer, you' ...

  9. Radiative heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Modest, Michael F


    The third edition of Radiative Heat Transfer describes the basic physics of radiation heat transfer. The book provides models, methodologies, and calculations essential in solving research problems in a variety of industries, including solar and nuclear energy, nanotechnology, biomedical, and environmental. Every chapter of Radiative Heat Transfer offers uncluttered nomenclature, numerous worked examples, and a large number of problems-many based on real world situations-making it ideal for classroom use as well as for self-study. The book's 24 chapters cover the four major areas in the field: surface properties; surface transport; properties of participating media; and transfer through participating media. Within each chapter, all analytical methods are developed in substantial detail, and a number of examples show how the developed relations may be applied to practical problems. It is an extensive solution manual for adopting instructors. Features: most complete text in the field of radiative heat transfer;...

  10. Radiation Protection Group

    CERN Multimedia


    The Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group wishes to inform you that the Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre will be closed on the afternoon of Tuesday 19 December 2006. Thank-you for your understanding.

  11. Radiation practices 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havukainen, R. [ed.


    At the end of 1996, there were 1,762 valid safety licences in Finland for the use of radiation. In addition, there were 2,052 responsible parties for dental x-ray diagnostics. The registry of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety listed 13,360 radiation sources and 313 radionuclide laboratories. The import of radioactive substances amounted to 1.14 x 10{sup +16} Bq and export to 7.78 x 10{sup +13} Bq. A total of 4.02 x 10{sup +13} Bq of short-lived radionuclides were produced in Finland. There were 11,842 workers monitored for radiation exposure at 1,352 work sites. Of these employees, 27% received an annual dose exceeding the recording level. The total dose recorded in the dose registry (sum of individual dosimeter readings) was 7.96 manSv in 1996, with nuclear power plant workers accounting for 69% of this total. The annual dosimeter reading of ten medical doctors (radiologists, interventional radiologists and cardiologists) and eight nuclear power plant employees was equal to or in excess of 20 mSv. Effective doses, however, did not exceed the dose limit of 50 mSv established for one-year monitoring periods. The sum of dosimeter readings (depth dose) on the lead-rubber apron of one interventional radiologist was 242 mSv. It was verified that the annual dose limit for the lens of the eye, 150 mSv, had been exceeded in this case. This high dose was caused by the fact that the radiologist had carried out multiple examinations where unusually high exposure to radiation was an unavoidable part of the task. Report was made of 12 incidents of anomalies in the use of radiation. None of these proved to have caused significant radiation exposure to the radiation source operators. Five of these cases occurred in radiotherapy, three in use of a radiation source in industry, three in transport of radiation sources and one in use of solarium appliances. Radiation-contaminated material was found in 17 shipments of scrap. (orig.)

  12. Radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server


    The aim of this book is to provide a uniquely comprehensive source of information on the entire field of radiation therapy physics. The very significant advances in imaging, computational, and accelerator technologies receive full consideration, as do such topics as the dosimetry of radiolabeled antibodies and dose calculation models. The scope of the book and the expertise of the authors make it essential reading for interested physicians and physicists and for radiation dosimetrists.

  13. Radiative transfer dynamo effect (United States)

    Munirov, Vadim R.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.


    Magnetic fields in rotating and radiating astrophysical plasma can be produced due to a radiative interaction between plasma layers moving relative to each other. The efficiency of current drive, and with it the associated dynamo effect, is considered in a number of limits. It is shown here, however, that predictions for these generated magnetic fields can be significantly higher when kinetic effects, previously neglected, are taken into account.

  14. Auditing radiation sterilization facilities (United States)

    Beck, Jeffrey A.

    The diversity of radiation sterilization systems available today places renewed emphasis on the need for thorough Quality Assurance audits of these facilities. Evaluating compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices is an obvious requirement, but an effective audit must also evaluate installation and performance qualification programs (validation_, and process control and monitoring procedures in detail. The present paper describes general standards that radiation sterilization operations should meet in each of these key areas, and provides basic guidance for conducting QA audits of these facilities.

  15. Acute local radiation injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gongora, R. (Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)); Jammet, H. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, ISPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France))


    Local acute radiation injuries do not occur very often. Their origin is generally accidental. They show specific anatomo-clinical features. The clinical evolution and therapeutic behaviour are dependent on the dose level and topographical distribution. The dosimetric assessment requires physical methods and paraclinical investigations. From a study of 60 cases followed by the International Center of Radiopathology, the clinical symptomatology is described and the problems raised to the radiopathologist physician by local acute radiation injuries are stated.

  16. Radiation technology in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo Van Thuan [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, VAEC, Hanoi (Viet Nam)


    Most of researches and developments in the field of radiation technology that have completed in a decade before 1995 were concentrated to sterilization and food irradiation. A series of medical devices and products were the main commodities for research and application trials. Also, many kind of food have attracted the scientists and technologists to investigate the application and commercialization of irradiated food. In addition, the radiation technology also was utilized for processing of non-food items including herbs, medicinal produces, and tobacco material. Since 1996 VAEC and INST has realized the important role of radiation processing on natural polymers. Hence, along with the commercialization of radiation technology, three research teams were established for the target. This report reviews the recent activities and achievements on radiation technology in the country emphasizing on the radiation processing of polysaccharides. A number of polysaccharides, which originated from bio-/agro-wastes such as seaweed, shrimp shells, lignocelluloses, was modified or degraded by irradiation to prepare hydrogel and bio-active material using for health-care and crop production. (author)

  17. Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture (United States)

    Roybal, Lyle Gene


    Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

  18. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald


    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  19. Gravitational radiation resistance, radiation damping and field fluctuations (United States)

    Schaefer, G.


    Application is made of two different generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorems and their derivations to the calculation of the gravitational quadrupole radiation resistance using the radiation-reaction force given by Misner, Thorne and Wheeler and the usual tidal force on one hand and the tidal force and the free gravitational radiation field on the other hand. The quantum-mechanical version (including thermal generalizations) of the well known classical quadrupole radiation damping formula is obtained as a function of the radiation resistance.

  20. Recent Re-Measurement of Neutron and Gamma-Ray Spectra 1080 Meters from the APRD (Army Pulse Radiation Division) Critical Facility, (United States)


    spectres d𔄀missions neutroniques et de rayons gamma. On a compar6 les risultats de ces mesures A plusieurs calculs rcents effectu~s par d’autres...les neutrons et le- rayons gamma; on observe toutefois d’importantes differences spectrales. A - faible altitude, les spectres neutroniques son i6g...measurements were performed by both groups, using a variety of tissue-equivalent ion-chambers, Geiger-M(.ller counters and sulphur activation (n,p). In 1980

  1. Radiation practices 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havukainen, R. [ed.


    At the end of 1997, there were 1,753 valid safety licenses in Finland for the use of radiation. In addition, there were 2,065 responsible parties for dental x-ray diagnostics. The registry of STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority listed 13,839 radiation sources and 302 radionuclide laboratories. The import of radioactive substances amounted to 1.09 x 10{sup +16} Bq and export to 2.4 x 10{sup +13} Bq. Short-lived radionuclides produced in Finland amounted to 5.2 x 10{sup +13} Bq. There were 11,773 workers monitored for radiation exposure at 1,316 work sites. Of these employees, 24% received an annual dose exceeding the recording level. The total dose recorded in the dose registry (sum of the individual dosemeter readings) was 6.6 Sv in 1997, with nuclear power plant workers accounting for 62% of this total. The annual dosemeter reading of thirteen medical doctors (radiologists, interventional radiologists and cardiologists) and six nuclear power plant employees was equal to or in excess of 20 mSv. Effective doses, however, did not exceed the dose limit of 50 mSv established for one-year monitoring periods. The sum of the dosemeter readings (depth dose) on the lead-rubber apron of one interventional radiologist was 253 mSv. It was verified that the annual dose limit for the lens of the eye, 150 mSv, had been exceeded in this case. This high dose was caused by the fact that the radiologist had carried out multiple examinations in which unusually high exposure to radiation was an unavoidable part of the task. Reports were made of four incidents of anomalies in the use of radiation. None of these proved to have caused significant radiation exposure to the radiation source operators. Two of these cases occurred in the medical use of radiation, one in the use of radiation sources in industry, and one in the use of solarium appliances. (orig.)

  2. Radiation nephritis causing nephrotic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennette, J.C.; Ordonez, N.G.


    Clinical symptoms of acute radiation nephritis with nephrotic syndrome developed in a fifty-six-year-old woman after abdominal radiation therapy for an astrocytoma of the spinal cord. The diagnosis of radiation nephritis was confirmed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of radiation nephritis associated with nephrotic syndrome.

  3. Radiation Sensitization in Cancer Therapy. (United States)

    Greenstock, Clive L.


    Discusses various aspects of radiation damage to biological material, including free radical mechanisms, radiation sensitization and protection, tumor hypoxia, mechanism of hypoxic cell radiosensitization, redox model for radiation modification, sensitizer probes of cellular radiation targets, pulse radiolysis studies of free radical kinetics,…

  4. Proposing a simple radiation scale for the public: Radiation index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Gyu Seong; Kim, Jong Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae Soon [Center for Ionizing Radiation, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kunwoo [Dept. of Natural Radiation Safety, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A new radiation scale is proposed. With empathy toward the vast majority of people who are not well versed in radiation and related matters, and thus suffering from misunderstanding that breeds unnecessary fear of radiation, the aim of proposing a new radiation scale, radiation index (RAIN), is to put the general public at ease with the concept of radiation. RAIN is defined in dimensionless numbers that relate any specific radiation dose to a properly defined reference level. As RAIN is expressed in plain numbers without an attached scientific unit, the public will feel comfortable with its friendly look, which in turn should help them understand radiation dose levels easily and allay their anxieties about radiation. The expanded awareness and proper understanding of radiation will empower the public to feel that they are not hopeless victims of radiation. The correspondence between RAIN and the specific accumulated dose is established. The equivalence will allow RAIN to serve as a common language of communication for the general public with which they can converse with radiation experts to discuss matters related to radiation safety, radiation diagnosis and therapy, nuclear accidents, and other related matters. Such fruitful dialogues will ultimately enhance public acceptance of radiation and associated technologies.

  5. Radiation in Particle Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R; Graziani, F; Glosli, J; Surh, M


    Hot dense radiative (HDR) plasmas common to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and stellar interiors have high temperature (a few hundred eV to tens of keV), high density (tens to hundreds of g/cc) and high pressure (hundreds of megabars to thousands of gigabars). Typically, such plasmas undergo collisional, radiative, atomic and possibly thermonuclear processes. In order to describe HDR plasmas, computational physicists in ICF and astrophysics use atomic-scale microphysical models implemented in various simulation codes. Experimental validation of the models used to describe HDR plasmas are difficult to perform. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the many-body interactions of plasmas is a promising approach to model validation but, previous work either relies on the collisionless approximation or ignores radiation. We present four methods that attempt a new numerical simulation technique to address a currently unsolved problem: the extension of molecular dynamics to collisional plasmas including emission and absorption of radiation. The first method applies the Lienard-Weichert solution of Maxwell's equations for a classical particle whose motion is assumed to be known. The second method expands the electromagnetic field in normal modes (planewaves in a box with periodic boundary-conditions) and solves the equation for wave amplitudes coupled to the particle motion. The third method is a hybrid molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo (MD/MC) method which calculates radiation emitted or absorbed by electron-ion pairs during close collisions. The fourth method is a generalization of the third method to include small clusters of particles emitting radiation during close encounters: one electron simultaneously hitting two ions, two electrons simultaneously hitting one ion, etc. This approach is inspired by the virial expansion method of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Using a combination of these methods we believe it is possible to do atomic-scale particle

  6. Ultraviolet radiation in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taalas, P.; Koskela, T.; Damski, J.; Supperi, A. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research; Kyroe, E. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory


    Solar ultraviolet radiation is damaging for living organisms due to its high energy pro each photon. The UV radiation is often separated into three regions according to the wavelength: UVC (200-280 nm), UVB (280-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm). The most hazardous part, UVC is absorbed completely in the upper atmosphere by molecular oxygen. UVB radiation is absorbed by atmospheric ozone partly, and it is reaching Earth`s surface, as UVA radiation. Besides atmospheric ozone, very important factors in determining the intensity of UVB radiation globally are the solar zenith angle and cloudiness. It may be calculated from global ozone changes that the clear-sky UVB doses may have enhanced by 10-15 % during spring and 5-10 % during summer at the latitudes of Finland, following the decrease of total ozone between 1979-90. The Finnish ozone and UV monitoring activities have become a part of international activities, especially the EU Environment and Climate Programme`s research projects. The main national level effort has been the Finnish Academy`s climatic change programme, SILMU 1990-95. This presentation summarises the scientific results reached during the SILMU project

  7. Radiation Shielding Materials (United States)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)


    NASA has relied on the materials to provide radiation shielding for astronauts since the first manned flights. Until very recently existing materials in the structure of manned spacecraft as well as the equipment and consumables onboard have been taken advantage of for radiation shielding. With the advent of the International Space Station and the prospect of extended missions to the Moon or Mars, it has been found that the materials, which were included in the spacecraft for other reasons, do not provide adequate shielding. For the first time materials are being added to manned missions solely to improve the radiation shielding. It is now recognized that dual use materials must be identified/developed. These materials must serve a purpose as part of the spacecraft or its cargo and at the same time be good shielding. This paper will review methods for evaluating the radiation shielding effectiveness of materials and describe the character of materials that have high radiation shielding effectiveness. Some candidate materials will also be discussed.

  8. Surprising radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert


    Radiation doses received by the human body can be measured indirectly and retrospectively by counting the tracks left by particles in ordinary objects like pair of spectacles, glassware, compact disks...This method has been successfully applied to determine neutron radiation doses received 50 years ago on the Hiroshima site. Neutrons themselves do not leave tracks in bulk matter but glass contains atoms of uranium that may fission when hurt by a neutron, the recoil of the fission fragments generates a track that is detectable. The most difficult is to find adequate glass items and to evaluate the radiation shield they benefited at their initial place. The same method has been used to determine the radiation dose due to the pile-up of radon in houses. In that case the tracks left by alpha particles due to the radioactive decay of polonium-210 have been counted on the superficial layer of the window panes. Other materials like polycarbonate plastics have been used to determine the radiation dose due to heavy io...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Irawan


    Full Text Available Dental panoramic radiograph in Indonesia has been widely used. Modern diagnostic imaging equipment with minimum radiation is still very limited. One of the conditions in nuclear safety law, UU 10/1997, is an optimization of all radiation sources with DRL through skin dose measurements. In Indonesia, the national DRL has not been established yet, and there were no reports on the study of panoramic skin dose in Indonesia. The aim of this preliminary study was to obtain a panoramic skin dose radiation as reference to establish DRL in Indonesia. Panoramic radiographs of sixteen female and fifteen male patients, aged 4 – 48 years, were taken using the standard conventional method, with TLD chips attached in location groups. The chips were then read with the detector and integrator of BATAN, in high and low temperature condition at the same time. It was revealed that behind the right and left ear were the regions with the highest radiation dose received, followed by the back of the neck, left jaw, right jaw, and chin. The result of this study has shown the importance of DRL in Indonesia since the use of modern diagnostic imaging equipement that limits radiation dose to the minimum level is still very limited.

  10. Radiation exposure analysis of female nuclear medicine radiation workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Young [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering Graduate School, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hoon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Technologist, Shingu College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, radiation workers who work in nuclear medicine department were analyzed to find the cause of differences of radiation exposure from General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition and Conduct, especially females working on nuclear medicine radiation, in order to pave the way for positive defense against radiation exposure. The subjects were 106 radiation workers who were divided into two groups of sixty-four males and forty-two females answered questions about their General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition, Conduct, and radiation exposure dose which was measured by TLD (Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter). The results of the analysis revealed that as the higher score of knowledge and conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in female groups, and as the higher score of conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in male groups. In the correlation analysis of female groups, the non-experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of knowledge and conduct was higher and the experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of recognition and conduct was higher. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of nuclear medicine radiation workers, the gender caused the meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of female groups compared to male groups. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of female groups, the factor of conduct showed a meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of the experienced in pregnancy was lower compared to the non-experienced. The conclusion of this study revealed that radiation exposure of female groups was lower than that of male groups. Therefore, male groups need to more actively defend themselves against radiation exposure. Among the female groups, the experienced in pregnancy who have an active defense tendency showed a lower radiation exposure. Thus

  11. Radiation techniques for acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minniti Giuseppe


    Full Text Available Abstract Radiotherapy (RT remains an effective treatment in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions, with durable tumor control and biochemical remission; however, there are still concerns about delayed biochemical effect and potential late toxicity of radiation treatment, especially high rates of hypopituitarism. Stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed as a more accurate technique of irradiation with more precise tumour localization and consequently a reduction in the volume of normal tissue, particularly the brain, irradiated to high radiation doses. Radiation can be delivered in a single fraction by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS or as fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT in which smaller doses are delivered over 5-6 weeks in 25-30 treatments. A review of the recent literature suggests that pituitary irradiation is an effective treatment for acromegaly. Stereotactic techniques for GH-secreting pituitary tumors are discussed with the aim to define the efficacy and potential adverse effects of each of these techniques.

  12. Physics: unknown radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, E; Liksonov, V I; Tsinoiev, V G


    This article reports experiments concerning the study of the electrical explosion of a titanium foil in water. During the electrical discharge a strong luminescence appears, the analysis of spectra shows the presence of new chemical elements and this presence is confirmed by the mass-spectrometry measurements performed on the precipitates found after the discharge. This experiment has been repeated about 200 times and the results are consistent an show an average titanium transmutation rate of 4%. Neither gamma nor neutron radiation have been detected but an unknown radiation, sensitive to magnetic fields, has been detected through tracks left on RF-ZMP fluo-graphical films covered with a 10 mu m-thick emulsion layer. The assumption of a radiation made up of magnetic monopoles is supported by the author. (A.C.)

  13. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S


    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  14. Space radiation protection issues. (United States)

    Kronenberg, Amy; Cucinotta, Francis A


    The complex charged particle environments in space pose considerable challenges with regard to potential health consequences that can impact mission design and crew selection. The lack of knowledge of the biological effects of different ions in isolation and in combination is a particular concern because the risk uncertainties are very high for both cancer and non-cancer late effects. Reducing the uncertainties is of high priority. Two principal components of space radiation each raise different concerns. Solar particle events (SPE) occur sporadically and are comprised primarily of low- to moderate-energy protons. Galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) is isotropic and relatively invariant in dose rate. GCR is also dominated by protons, but the energy range is wider than in SPE. In addition, the contribution of other light and heavy ions to the health risks from GCR must be addressed. This paper will introduce the principal issues under consideration for space radiation protection.

  15. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar


    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  16. Transition Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Andronic, A


    We review the basic features of transition radiation and how they are used for the design of modern Transition Radiation Detectors (TRD). The discussion will include the various realizations of radiators as well as a discussion of the detection media and aspects of detector construction. With regard to particle identification we assess the different methods for efficient discrimination of different particles and outline the methods for the quantification of this property. Since a number of comprehensive reviews already exist, we predominantly focus on the detectors currently operated at the LHC. To a lesser extent we also cover some other TRDs, which are planned or are currently being operated in balloon or space-borne astro-particle physics experiments.

  17. Radiative accidental matter

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, D Aristizabal; Wegman, D


    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that $\\mu\\to e \\gamma$ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below $10^6\\,$ GeV, a value (natur...

  18. Digital Radiation image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou-Bakr Ramadan


    Full Text Available This work introduces a new way for data visualization. Its name is Digital Application name' Image. Normal digital image is created by digital camera or digital scanner but digital application name image is created by measurements of monitoring data. This work uses the data which is measured by radiation monitoring station and classifies it using fuzzy logic rules to create digital radiation image. The main unique advantage of digital radiation image is that it expresses thousands of measurements in a very clear form through only one picture while the maximum number of measurements does not exceed 100 with other conventional visualization methods. This feature gives a facility to view one year of all recorded measurements in only one photo. This picture helps the user to observe the behavior of thousands of measurements in few minutes instead of spending few hours for reviewing hundreds of charts for the same measurements.

  19. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R


    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  20. Case of radiation myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Noriyoshi; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Hagiwara, Akiyoshi; Sato, Yoshihito; Shimizu, Nobuya; Takagi, Yasushi


    A 72-year-old woman presented with right hemiparesthesia and left hemiparalysis. At the age of 63, the patient was treated with pre- and post-operative radiation with a total dose of 100 Gy for maxillary squamous cell carcinoma. Five years later, a dose of 50 Gy was delivered again to the head and neck because of the suspicion of recurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging showed flat and thinned cervical spine on the transverse section and markedly atrophied cervical spine at the C1 to C3 levels on the sagittal section. She was diangosed as having chronic progressive radiation myelopathy in view of a history of large doses of radiation to the head and neck. (Namekawa, K.).

  1. Radiation Protection Research: Radiobiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desaintes, C


    The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium; to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (2) to participate in the IARC study; (3) to elucidate the molecular basis of the effects of ionising radiation in the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (4) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (5) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 1999 are reported.

  2. Audible radiation monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, D.M.C.


    This invention consists of a method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

  3. Properties of undulator radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veal, B.W.


    Properties of the radiation emitted by a plane sinusoidal undulator are calculated in the far field approximation. Software has been developed to calculate the spectral distribution and polarization of the radiated intensity I(E) at a point on (or integrated over) a cross sectional observation plane of the photon beam. Spatial distribution of monochromatic radiation and power density contours are also calculated. Spectral broadening caused by an electron beam of finite spatial distribution is considered. Dispersive properties of the photon beam, including the dependence on deflection parameter, are analyzed. It is shown that reasonably constant intensity distribution I(E) can be obtained by properly shaping the beam acceptance aperture. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  4. Solar cell radiation handbook (United States)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.


    The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

  5. Radiation in Particle Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R M; Graziani, F R; Glosli, J; Surh, M


    Hot dense radiative (HDR) plasmas common to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and stellar interiors have high temperature (a few hundred eV to tens of keV), high density (tens to hundreds of g/cc) and high pressure (hundreds of Megabars to thousands of Gigabars). Typically, such plasmas undergo collisional, radiative, atomic and possibly thermonuclear processes. In order to describe HDR plasmas, computational physicists in ICF and astrophysics use atomic-scale microphysical models implemented in various simulation codes. Experimental validation of the models used to describe HDR plasmas are difficult to perform. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the many-body interactions of plasmas is a promising approach to model validation but, previous work either relies on the collisionless approximation or ignores radiation. We present four methods that attempt a new numerical simulation technique to address a currently unsolved problem: the extension of molecular dynamics to collisional plasmas including emission and absorption of radiation. The first method applies the Lienard-Weichert solution of Maxwell's equations for a classical particle whose motion is assumed to be known (section 3). The second method expands the electromagnetic field in normal modes (plane-waves in a box with periodic boundary-conditions) and solves the equation for wave amplitudes coupled to the particle motion (section 4). The third method is a hybrid MD/MC (molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo) method which calculates radiation emitted or absorbed by electron-ion pairs during close collisions (section 5). The fourth method is a generalization of the third method to include small clusters of particles emitting radiation during close encounters: one electron simultaneously hitting two ions, two electrons simultaneously hitting one ion, etc.(section 6). This approach is inspired by the Virial expansion method of equilibrium statistical mechanics.

  6. Proposed Radiation Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davey, C. S.


    Current scientific evidence is that radiation at low levels is not harmful, but beneficial. This is borne out by both radiobiology and epidemiology. The ICRP 26 recommended limits of 50 mSv and 5 mSv per annum are comparable with the average natural background levels in Iran and Norway, respectively, and levels five times higher than that quoted for Iran are to be found in some populated parts of this world. The new limits proposed for ionising radiation are generated by comparison to existing recommended limits for essential minerals. There is a range of acceptable exposures to radiation, just as there is for minerals. The replacement for the ICRP 60 recommendations (20 mSv and 1 mSv for radiation workers and public respectively) should be higher limits of 200 mSv and 50 mSv. There should also be minimum recommended annual levels of 10 mSv, for both radiation workers and the public. The consequences of not proposing this change are continuing huge negative impacts to society. In cancer therapy, even the older guidelines caused unnecessary expense and delays. The cost to Canada is astronomical, when one considers the effect of the existing limits on the use of nuclear power, and the resulting use of hydrocarbons and the consequent increase in acid rain, etc. Of course, the same thing can be said of the entire world limited funds are diverted from areas where they would be better applied, and alternative solutions to societal needs are implemented, solutions which increase pollution and cause injury and death. It is time to reverse the current, expensive trend into misapplied ALARA, based on the paranoia about all things nuclear, which has developed since the linear no-threshold hypothesis was first proposed.propose the transition to a realistic and balanced approach to ionising radiation. (Author)

  7. Radiative plateau inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ballesteros, Guillermo


    We describe how monomial chaotic inflation becomes compatible with the latest CMB data thanks to radiative corrections producing a plateau. The interactions of the inflation with other fields, required for reheating, can flatten the potential and moderate the production of primordial gravitational waves, keeping these below the current upper bound. We show that the appearance of a plateau requires that the inflaton couples to fermions and to another scalar or a gauge group. We give concrete examples of minimal particle physics models leading to plateaus for quadratic and quartic chaotic inflation. We also provide a three-parameter model-independent description of radiatively corrected inflation that is amenable to CMB analyses.

  8. ATHENA radiation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumway, R.W.


    The ATHENA computer program has many features that make it desirable to use as a space reactor evaluation tool. One of the missing features was a surface-to-surface thermal radiation model. A model was developed that allows any of the regular ATHENA heat slabs to radiate to any other heat slab. The view factors and surface emissivities must be specified by the user. To verify that the model was properly accounting for radiant energy transfer, two different types of test calculations were performed. Both calculations have excellent results. The updates have been used on both the INEL CDC-176 and the Livermore Cray. 7 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Radiation Detectors and Art (United States)

    Denker, Andrea

    The use of radiation detectors in the analysis of art objects represents a very special application in a true interdisciplinary field. Radiation detectors employed in this field detect, e.g., x-rays, γ-rays, β particles, and protons. Analyzed materials range from stones, metals, over porcelain to paintings. The available nondestructive and noninvasive analytical methods cover a broad range of techniques. Hence, for the sake of brevity, this chapter will concentrate on few techniques: Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced γ-ray Emission (PIGE).

  10. Radiation Monitoring Equipment Dosimeter Experiment (United States)

    Hardy, Kenneth A.; Golightly, Michael J.; Quam, William


    Spacecraft crews risk exposure to relatively high levels of ionizing radiation. This radiation may come from charged particles trapped in the Earth's magnetic fields, charged particles released by solar flare activity, galactic cosmic radiation, energetic photons and neutrons generated by interaction of these primary radiations with spacecraft and crew, and man-made sources (e.g., nuclear power generators). As missions are directed to higher radiation level orbits, viz., higher altitudes and inclinations, longer durations, and increased flight frequency, radiation exposure could well become a major factor for crew stay time and career lengths. To more accurately define the radiological exposure and risk to the crew, real-time radiation monitoring instrumentation, which is capable of identifying and measuring the various radiation components, must be flown. This presentation describes a radiation dosimeter instrument which was successfully flown on the Space Shuttle, the RME-3.

  11. Radiative Magnetic Reconnection in Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A


    I review a new rapidly growing area of high-energy plasma astrophysics --- radiative magnetic reconnection, i.e., a reconnection regime where radiation reaction influences reconnection dynamics, energetics, and nonthermal particle acceleration. This influence be may be manifested via a number of astrophysically important radiative effects, such as radiation-reaction limits on particle acceleration, radiative cooling, radiative resistivity, braking of reconnection outflows by radiation drag, radiation pressure, viscosity, and even pair creation at highest energy densities. Self-consistent inclusion of these effects in magnetic reconnection theory and modeling calls for serious modifications to our overall theoretical approach to the problem. In addition, prompt reconnection-powered radiation often represents our only observational diagnostic tool for studying remote astrophysical systems; this underscores the importance of developing predictive modeling capabilities to connect the underlying physical condition...

  12. Effects of radiation; Effets des radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R. [Office de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, 78 - le Vesinet (France)


    The medical consequences of a whole-body irradiation come from the destruction of cells and inflammatory reactions it provokes. The most sensitive organs are the tissues that actively split. The embryo is particularly sensitive, from 200 mSv for the effects on the brain development. The reproduction functions are reached for man from 2000 mSv, the ovary sensitivity is less, the oocytes do not split after the fetus life. For adult the bone marrow outrage leads to the disappearing of blood cells (4000 mSv). The doses from 6000 to 10000 mSv lead the failure of the digestive system and lung. for the upper doses every tissue is reached, particularly by the effects on cells of blood vessels. Important brain dysfunctions appear beyond 10000 mSv. As regards the delayed effects of overexposures the epidemiology brings to light sanitary consequences of the exposure of the population to the ionizing radiations and requires that all the possible factors associated for that purpose are considered. About hereditary effects, it appears that moderate acute radiation exposures of even a relatively large human population must have little impact, in spite of the rate of spontaneous congenital deformations is of the order of 6 %. For the induction of cancers, it is not observed excess for doses lower than 200 mSv for adults and 100 mSv for children (the populations studied are survival people of hiroshima and Nagasaki, patients treated by irradiation, uranium miners, children exposed to radioactive iodine after Chernobylsk accident). To simplify an expression of the risk has been fixed to 5% of induced cancer by Sv for population and 4% by Sv for workers, the different being explained by the demography and the sensitivity of the youngest age groups. As regards the low doses of radiations, a bundle of convergent epidemiological observations notices the absence of effects of the low doses rates. Biological mechanisms, notably of repair are approached, then certain accidents (Goiania

  13. Ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses. (United States)

    Christensen, Doran M; Iddins, Carol J; Sugarman, Stephen L


    Although the spectrum of information related to diagnosis and management of radiation injuries and illnesses is vast and as radiation contamination incidents are rare, most emergency practitioners have had little to no practical experience with such cases. Exposures to ionizing radiation and internal contamination with radioactive materials can cause significant tissue damage and conditions. Emergency practitioners unaware of ionizing radiation as the cause of a condition may miss the diagnosis of radiation-induced injury or illness. This article reviews the pertinent terms, physics, radiobiology, and medical management of radiation injuries and illnesses that may confront the emergency practitioner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation Safety in Pediatric Orthopaedics. (United States)

    Caird, Michelle S


    Patients, surgeons, and staff are exposed to ionizing radiation in pediatric orthopaedic surgery from diagnostic studies and imaging associated with procedures. Estimating radiation dose to pediatric patients is based on complex algorithms and dose to surgeons and staff is based on dosimeter monitoring. Surgeons can decrease radiation exposure to patients with careful and thoughtful ordering of diagnostic studies and by minimizing exposure intraoperatively. Surgeon and staff radiation exposure can be minimized with educational programs, proper shielding and positioning intraoperatively, and prudent use of intraoperative imaging. Overall, better awareness among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons of our role in radiation exposure can lead to improvements in radiation safety.

  15. Paradoxes of Thermal Radiation (United States)

    Besson, U.


    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal behaviour of objects exposed to a solar-type flux of thermal radiation. It aims to clarify certain apparent inconsistencies between theory and observation, and to give a detailed exposition of some critical points that physics textbooks usually treat in an insufficient or incorrect way. In particular,…

  16. Evidence for extra radiation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, J.


    during the marginalisation process, and we demonstrate that the effect is related to the fact that cosmic microwave background (CMB) data constrain N_eff only indirectly via the redshift of matter-radiation equality. Once present CMB data are combined with external information about, e.g., the Hubble...

  17. Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramotnev, D. K.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.


    Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation, that is, reducing the cross sections of propagating optical modes far beyond the diffraction limit in dielectric media, can be achieved in tapered metal-dielectric waveguides that support surface plasmon-polariton modes. Although the main principles...

  18. Radiative Corrections and Z'

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens


    Radiative corrections to parity violating deep inelastic electron scattering are reviewed including a discussion of the renormalization group evolution of the weak mixing angle. Recently obtained results on hypothetical Z' bosons - for which parity violating observables play an important role - are also presented.

  19. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Ansanelli, E.


    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market.

  20. Microwave Radiation Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Subrahmanian


    Full Text Available Excessive exposure to microwave radiation could lead to biological damage. The criteria for maximum permissible exposure limits derived from experiments by several countries are discussed. Recommendations made for safety of operating personnel based on a recent protection survey are also presented.

  1. Radiation damping on cryoprobes. (United States)

    Shishmarev, Dmitry; Otting, Gottfried


    Radiation damping on 600 and 800 MHz cryoprobes was investigated. The phase angle β between a vector 90° phase shifted to the precessing magnetization and the rf field induced in the coil was found to depend markedly on whether an FID was being acquired or not. The magnitude of the radiation damping field was sufficiently strong to restore 95% of the equilibrium water magnetization of a 90% H2O sample in a 5 mm sample tube within about 5 ms following a 165° pulse. This can be exploited in water flip-back versions of NOESY and TOCSY experiments of proteins, but care must be taken to limit the effect of the radiation damping field from the water on the Ha protons. Long water-selective pulses can be applied only following corrections. We developed a program for correcting pulse shapes if β is non-zero. The WATERGATE scheme is shown to be insensitive to imperfections introduced by radiation damping.

  2. Detection of gravitational radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holten, J.W. van [ed.


    In this report the main contributions presented at the named symposium are collected. These concern astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation, ultracryogenic gravitational wave experiments, read out and data analysis of gravitational wave antennas, cryogenic aspects of large mass cooling to mK temperatures, and metallurgical and engineering aspects of large Cu structure manufacturing. (HSI).

  3. Modeling Radiation Fog (United States)

    K R, Sreenivas; Mohammad, Rafiuddin


    Predicting the fog-onset, its growth and dissipation helps in managing airports and other modes of transport. After sunset, occurrence of fog requires moist air, low wind and clear-sky conditions. Under these circumstances radiative heat transfer plays a vital role in the NBL. Locally, initiation of fog happens when the air temperature falls below the dew-point. Thus, to predict the onset of fog at a given location, one has to compute evolution of vertical temperature profile. Earlier,our group has shown that the presence of aerosols and vertical variation in their number density determines the radiative-cooling and hence development of vertical temperature profile. Aerosols, through radiation in the window-band, provides an efficient path for air layers to lose heat to the cold, upper atmosphere. This process creates cooler air layer between warmer ground and upper air layers and resulting temperature profile facilitate the initiation of fog. Our results clearly indicates that accounting for the presence of aerosols and their radiative-transfer is important in modeling micro-meteorological process of fog formation and its evolution. DST, Govt. INDIA.

  4. VDT Emissions Radiate Debate. (United States)

    Morgan, Bill


    Discusses the possible health effects of electromagnetic fields of radiation that are emitted from video display terminals (VDTs). Responses from vendors in the computer industry are related, steps to reduce possible risks are suggested, and additional sources of information on VDTs are listed. (LRW)

  5. Radiation monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Farias, Marcos S. de; Lacerda, Fabio de; Heimlich, Adino [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Design of a portable low-power multichannel analyzer with wireless connectivity for remote radiation monitoring, powered from a solar panel with a internal battery to be operated in field. The multichannel analyzer is based on a single microcontroller which performs the digital functions and an analog signal processing board for implementing a Gaussian shaper preamplifier, a Gaussian stretcher, sample and hold, pile-up rejector and a 10 bit ADC. Now this design is to be used with a NaI(Ti) scintillator detector. This multichannel analyzer is designed to be a part of radiation monitoring network. All of them are connected, by radio in a radius of 10 kilometers, to a supervisor computer that collects data from the network of multichannel analyzers and numerically display the latest radiation measurements or graphically display measurements over time for all multichannel analyzers. Like: dose rate, spectra and operational status. Software also supports remotely configuring operating parameters (such as radiation alarm level) for each monitor independently. (author)

  6. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.


    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  7. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes (United States)

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa


    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  8. Paradoxes of Thermal Radiation (United States)

    Besson, U.


    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal behaviour of objects exposed to a solar-type flux of thermal radiation. It aims to clarify certain apparent inconsistencies between theory and observation, and to give a detailed exposition of some critical points that physics textbooks usually treat in an insufficient or incorrect way. In particular,…

  9. Management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses, part 1: physics, radiation protection, and radiation instrumentation. (United States)

    Christensen, Doran M; Jenkins, Mark S; Sugarman, Stephen L; Glassman, Erik S


    Ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses are exceedingly rare; therefore, most physicians have never managed such conditions. When confronted with a possible radiation injury or illness, most physicians must seek specialty consultation. Protection of responders, health care workers, and patients is an absolute priority for the delivery of medical care. Management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses, as well as radiation protection, requires a basic understanding of physics. Also, to provide a greater measure of safety when working with radioactive materials, instrumentation for detection and identification of radiation is needed. Because any health care professional could face a radiation emergency, it is imperative that all institutions have emergency response plans in place before an incident occurs. The present article is an introduction to basic physics, ionizing radiation, radiation protection, and radiation instrumentation, and it provides a basis for management of the consequences of a radiologic or nuclear incident.

  10. Integrative Radiation Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen [New York University School of Medicine, NY (United States)


    We plan to study tissue-level mechanisms important to human breast radiation carcinogenesis. We propose that the cell biology of irradiated tissues reveals a coordinated multicellular damage response program in which individual cell contributions are primarily directed towards suppression of carcinogenesis and reestablishment of homeostasis. We identified transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ) as a pivotal signal. Notably, we have discovered that TGFβ suppresses genomic instability by controlling the intrinsic DNA damage response and centrosome integrity. However, TGFβ also mediates disruption of microenvironment interactions, which drive epithelial to mesenchymal transition in irradiated human mammary epithelial cells. This apparent paradox of positive and negative controls by TGFβ is the topic of the present proposal. First, we postulate that these phenotypes manifest differentially following fractionated or chronic exposures; second, that the interactions of multiple cell types in tissues modify the responses evident in this single cell type culture models. The goals are to: 1) study the effect of low dose rate and fractionated radiation exposure in combination with TGFβ on the irradiated phenotype and genomic instability of non-malignant human epithelial cells; and 2) determine whether stromal-epithelial interactions suppress the irradiated phenotype in cell culture and the humanized mammary mouse model. These data will be used to 3) develop a systems biology model that integrates radiation effects across multiple levels of tissue organization and time. Modeling multicellular radiation responses coordinated via extracellular signaling could have a significant impact on the extrapolation of human health risks from high dose to low dose/rate radiation exposure.

  11. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Beppu, H.; Hirose, K.; Yamada, K. (Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital (Japan))


    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author).

  12. Spacecraft Electrostatic Radiation Shielding (United States)


    This project analyzed the feasibility of placing an electrostatic field around a spacecraft to provide a shield against radiation. The concept was originally proposed in the 1960s and tested on a spacecraft by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. Such tests and analyses showed that this concept is not only feasible but operational. The problem though is that most of this work was aimed at protection from 10- to 100-MeV radiation. We now appreciate that the real problem is 1- to 2-GeV radiation. So, the question is one of scaling, in both energy and size. Can electrostatic shielding be made to work at these high energy levels and can it protect an entire vehicle? After significant analysis and consideration, an electrostatic shield configuration was proposed. The selected architecture was a torus, charged to a high negative voltage, surrounding the vehicle, and a set of positively charged spheres. Van de Graaff generators were proposed as the mechanism to move charge from the vehicle to the torus to generate the fields necessary to protect the spacecraft. This design minimized complexity, residual charge, and structural forces and resolved several concerns raised during the internal critical review. But, it still is not clear if such a system is costeffective or feasible, even though several studies have indicated usefulness for radiation protection at energies lower than that of the galactic cosmic rays. Constructing such a system will require power supplies that can generate voltages 10 times that of the state of the art. Of more concern is the difficulty of maintaining the proper net charge on the entire structure and ensuring that its interaction with solar wind will not cause rapid discharge. Yet, if these concerns can be resolved, such a scheme may provide significant radiation shielding to future vehicles, without the excessive weight or complexity of other active shielding techniques.

  13. The importance of microdosimetry for radiation biology and radiation protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendsen, G.W.


    In this contribution several features will be discussed of relations between biological effects produced by ionizing radiations and the spatial distributions of energy deposition of these radiations. Effects produced by high-LET radiations are generally found to be less dependent on dose-rate, dose-

  14. The importance of microdosimetry for radiation biology and radiation protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendsen, G.W.


    In this contribution several features will be discussed of relations between biological effects produced by ionizing radiations and the spatial distributions of energy deposition of these radiations. Effects produced by high-LET radiations are generally found to be less dependent on dose-rate,

  15. Radiation physics for medical physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Podgorsak, Ervin B


    This textbook summarizes the basic knowledge of atomic, nuclear, and radiation physics that professionals working in medical physics and biomedical engineering need for efficient and safe use of ionizing radiation in medicine. Concentrating on the underlying principles of radiation physics, the textbook covers the prerequisite knowledge for medical physics courses on the graduate and post-graduate levels in radiotherapy physics, radiation dosimetry, imaging physics, and health physics, thus providing the link between elementary undergraduate physics and the intricacies of four medical physics specialties: diagnostic radiology physics, nuclear medicine physics, radiation oncology physics, and health physics. To recognize the importance of radiation dosimetry to medical physics three new chapters have been added to the 14 chapters of the previous edition. Chapter 15 provides a general introduction to radiation dosimetry. Chapter 16 deals with absolute radiation dosimetry systems that establish absorbed dose or ...

  16. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options (United States)

    ... Cancer Upper GI Cancers Search x FIND A RADIATION ONCOLOGIST CLOSE SNIPEND TREATMENT TYPES SNIPSTART Home / Treatment ... novel targeted therapies can act as radiosensitizers. Systemic Radiation Therapy Certain cancers may be treated with radioactive ...

  17. American Society for Radiation Oncology (United States)

    ... for other cancer types View videos on radiation oncology Please Select an Action Read a news release ... This online career board is the premier radiation oncology recruitment tool, offering employers and job seekers an ...

  18. Radiation Injury to the Brain (United States)

    ... Tumors Brain Tumors Brain Disorders AVMs Radiosurgery Gamma Knife Linac Radiotherapy Overview Childhood Brain Tumors IMRT Radiation Therapy Radiation Injury Treatment Day Making a Decision Centers of Excellence Publications Definitions Q & ...

  19. Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (United States)

    Mitchell, Allan C. G.; Zemansky, Mark W.


    1. Introduction; 2. Physical and chemical effects connected with resonance radiation; 3. Absorption lines and measurements of the lifetime of the resonance state; 4. Collision processes involving excited atoms; 5. The polarization of resonance radiation; Appendix; Index.

  20. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator (United States)

    Miller, E. R.


    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  1. Radiation Alert Immediate Disclosure Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Invocon's Radiation Alert Immediate Disclosure (RAID) system is a miniature, low-power, real-time, active radiation badge. It is designed for monitoring personnel,...

  2. Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer (United States)

    ... Testicular Cancer Treating Testicular Cancer Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer Radiation therapy uses a beam of high-energy ... Testicular Cancer, by Type and Stage More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  3. An introduction to radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Alan; Beach, Karen; Cole, Peter


    The sixth edition of this established text takes the reader through the general background to the subject, the technical principles underlying the control of radiation hazards, radiation detection and measurement and the biological effects of radiation. These are followed by a consideration of radiation protection issues in the nuclear industry, the non-nuclear sector and the medical field. Further specialised topics include risk assessment, waste management and decommissioning, radiological incidents and emergencies, relevant legislation and organizational issues.

  4. Measurement and detection of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tsoulfanidis, Nicholas


    This fourth edition reflects recent major developments that have occurred in radiation detector materials, systems, and applications. It continues to provide the most practical and up-to-date introduction to radiation detector technology, proper measurement techniques, and analysis of results for engineers and scientists using radiation sources. New chapters emphasize the expanded use of radiation detection systems in nuclear non-proliferation, homeland security, and nuclear medicine. The book also discusses the correct ways to perform measurements following current health physics procedures.

  5. Applications des techniques de diffusion de la lumière, des rayons X et des neutrons a l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux. Troisième partie : caractérisation des microémulsions et des composés solides. Étude de différents systèmes d'intérêt industriel Application of Light, X-Ray and Neutron Diffusion Techniques to the Study of Colloidal Systems. Part Three: Microemulsions, Solid Materials, Liquids and Miscellaneous Systems with Industrial Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinat D.


    Full Text Available Cette troisième partie clôt une revue bibliographique concernant la caractérisation des systèmes colloïdaux par les techniques de diffusion (lumière, rayons X, neutrons (Rev. Inst. Franç. du Pétrole, Vol. 45, No 6, novembre-décembre 1990. Nous poursuivrons cette présentation en nous intéressant aux microémulsions. Après la présentation des informations que l'on peut obtenir sur les systèmes polymériques, les solutions micellaires ou les systèmes fractals, qui ont fait l'objet de multiples travaux, nous reviendrons sur les applications plus restreintes à des systèmes colloïdaux parfois moins bien définis et d'origine industrielle, telles les fractions lourdes des pétroles, les asphaltènes ou encore les additifs de lubrification. Les possibilités de la diffusion des rayons X et des neutrons à l'étude de matériaux solides seront présentées à travers la caractérisation des solides poreux et en particulier des catalyseurs. Nous terminerons cette présentation par les liquides purs ou les mélanges; les techniques de diffusion ont contribué fortement à la description des structures des phases liquides. This article is the second one (the first one was published in Revue de l'Institut Français du Pétrole No. 6, November-December 1990 concerning the application of techniques of light scattering, X rays and neutrons to the analysis of colloidal systems and more specifically to the theoretical description of the three methods. The aim of this second part is to make a nonexhaustive description of several fields of applications. A special effort is made to describe the potential of these methods for characterizing colloidal or divided systems encountered in a great many activities involving the petroleum industry. The first part of this article takes up polymer and colloidal solutions. Particular attention is paid to the importance of scattering techniques for characterizing polymers in solution and micellar solutions. A

  6. Pregnancy and Radiation Protection (United States)

    Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.


    Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating

  7. Space Radiation Cancer Risks (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.


    Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation

  8. Historical review of radiation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, B. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)


    The presentation reviews the history of radiation research beginning with the first findings and attempts for modelling of harmful effects of radiation, followed by the contamination of the environment, use of radiation epidemiology and concluding with the question of cancer generation. (26 refs.).

  9. Infrared Radiation from Rough Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Ayryan, E A; Oganesyan, K B


    We consider generation of diffusive radiation by a charged particle passing through a random stack of plates in the infrared region. Diffusive radiation originates due to multiple scattering of pseudophotons on the plates. To enhance the radiation intensity one needs to make the scattering more effective. For this goal we suggest to use materials with negative dielectric constant .

  10. Prevention of pelvic radiation disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lorenzo; Fuccio; Leonardo; Frazzoni; Alessandra; Guido


    Pelvic cancers are among the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide. Treatment of patients requires a multidisciplinary approach that frequently includes radiotherapy. Gastrointestinal(GI) radiation-induced toxicity is a major complication and the transient or long-term problems, ranging from mild to very severe, arising in non-cancerous tissues resulting from radiation treatment to a tumor of pelvic origin, are actually called as pelvic radiation disease. The incidence of pelvic radiation disease changes according to the radiation technique, the length of follow up, the assessmentmethod, the type and stage of cancer and several other variables. Notably, even with the most recent radiation techniques, i.e., intensity-modulated radiotherapy, the incidence of radiation-induced GI side effects is overall reduced but still not negligible. In addition, radiation-induced GI side effects can develop even after several decades; therefore, the improvement of patient life expectancy will unavoidably increase the risk of developing radiation-induced complications. Once developed, the management of pelvic radiation disease may be challenging. Therefore, the prevention of radiation-induced toxicity represents a reasonable way to avoid a dramatic drop of the quality of life of these patients. In the current manuscript we provide an updated and practical review on the best available evidences in the field of the prevention of pelvic radiation disease.

  11. Material Effectiveness for Radiation Shielding (United States)


    Materials with a smaller mean atomic mass, such as lithium (Li) hydride and polyethylene, make the best radiation shields for astronauts. The materials have a higher density of nuclei and are better able to block incoming radiation. Also, they tend to produce fewer and less dangerous secondary particles after impact with incoming radiation.

  12. Radiation leakage from electromagnetic oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Khalil


    Results & Discussions: The measurements have been done at some houses in Erbil city, according to the source of background radiation exist before measuring data. Our data compared with standard safe range of radiation data. Results showed that there is radiation leak form all type of electromagnetic oven and all at the order of safety compared with standard value.

  13. Assessment of internal radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Young; Chang, S. Y.; Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. S.; Song, M. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    This report describes the contents and results for implementation of internal radiation monitoring programme, measurement of uranium lung deposition by lung counter and assessment of committed effective dose for radiation workers of KNFC. The aim of radiation protection was achieved by implementing this activity. 9 refs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  14. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System. (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ϒ, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins

  15. Doses from radiation exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G


    Practical implementation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) system of protection requires the availability of appropriate methods and data. The work of Committee 2 is concerned with the development of reference data and methods for the assessment of internal and external radiation exposure of workers and members of the public. This involves the development of reference biokinetic and dosimetric models, reference anatomical models of the human body, and reference anatomical and physiological data. Following ICRP's 2007 Recommendations, Committee 2 has focused on the provision of new reference dose coefficients for external and internal exposure. As well as specifying changes to the radiation and tissue weighting factors used in the calculation of protection quantities, the 2007 Recommendations introduced the use of reference anatomical phantoms based on medical imaging data, requiring explicit sex averaging of male and female organ-equivalent doses in the calculation of effecti...

  16. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae


    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  17. Radiation effects in glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrt, D.; Vogel, W. (Otto-Schott-Inst., Chemische Fakultaet, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ., Jena (Germany))


    Glass was produced by man about 4000 years ago. The scientific exploration of glass is very young and closely connected with Jena. Fraunhofer, Goethe, Dobereiner, Abbe, Zeiss and Schott are famous names on this field. Both crystals and glasses are solids. However, there are fundamental differences in their properties and behavior. Glass is a thermodynamically unstable state and has a defect structure compared to the crystal. Glass and its properties are subject to a variety of changes under the influence of high energy radiation. In general, effects extend from the reduction of specific ions to the collapse of the entire network. Ultraviolet and X-ray radiation effects on UV-transmitting glasses will be discussed. (orig.).

  18. Radiative Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, X


    Viscous resistance to changes in the volume of a gas arises when different degrees of freedom have different relaxation times. Collisions tend to oppose the resulting departures from equilibrium and, in so doing, generate entropy. Even for a classical gas of hard spheres, when the mean free paths or mean flight times of constituent particles are long, we find a nonvanishing bulk viscosity. Here we apply a method recently used to uncover this result for a classical rarefied gas to radiative transfer theory and derive an expression for the radiative stress tensor for a gray medium with absorption and Thomson scattering. We determine the transport coefficients through the calculation of the comoving entropy generation. When scattering dominates absorption, the bulk viscosity becomes much larger than either the shear viscosity or the thermal conductivity.

  19. Radiation detector with spodumene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amorim, Raquel Aline P.O.; Lima, Hestia Raissa B.R.; Souza, Susana O. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Sasaki, Jose M., E-mail: sasaki@fisica.ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    In this work, {beta}-spodumene potentiality as a radiation detector was evaluated by making use of thermoluminescence (TL) and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) techniques. The pellets were obtained from the {beta}-spodumene powder mixed with Teflon followed by a sintering process of thermal treatments of 300 deg/30 min and 400 deg/1.5 h. The samples were irradiated in standard gamma radiation beams with doses between 5 Gy and 10 kGy. The TL emission curve showed a prominent peak at 160 deg and in the case of TSEE a prominent peak at 145 Celsius approximately. Initial results show that the material is promising for high-dose dosimetry. (author)

  20. ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker

    CERN Multimedia


    The ATLAS transition radiation tracker is made of 300'000 straw tubes, up to 144cm long. Filled with a gas mixture and threaded with a wire, each straw is a complete mini-detector in its own right. An electric field is applied between the wire and the outside wall of the straw. As particles pass through, they collide with atoms in the gas, knocking out electrons. The avalanche of electrons is detected as an electrical signal on the wire in the centre. The tracker plays two important roles. Firstly, it makes more position measurements, giving more dots for the computers to join up to recreate the particle tracks. Also, together with the ATLAS calorimeters, it distinguishes between different types of particles depending on whether they emit radiation as they make the transition from the surrounding foil into the straws.

  1. Radiation protection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanmarcke, H


    The objectives of the research in the field of radiation protection research performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for radioactively contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations; (4) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation; (5) to identify non nuclear industries producing NORM waste, to make an inventory of occurring problems and to propose feasible solutions or actions when required; (6) to maintain the know-how of retrospective radon measurements in real conditions and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques. Main achievements in these areas for 2001 are summarised.

  2. Genesis Radiation Environment (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; Skipworth, William C.


    The Genesis spacecraft launched on 8 August 2001 sampled solar wind environments at L1 from 2001 to 2004. After the Science Capsule door was opened, numerous foils and samples were exposed to the various solar wind environments during periods including slow solar wind from the streamer belts, fast solar wind flows from coronal holes, and coronal mass ejections. The Survey and Examination of Eroded Returned Surfaces (SEERS) program led by NASA's Space Environments and Effects program had initiated access for the space materials community to the remaining Science Capsule hardware after the science samples had been removed for evaluation of materials exposure to the space environment. This presentation will describe the process used to generate a reference radiation Genesis Radiation Environment developed for the SEERS program for use by the materials science community in their analyses of the Genesis hardware.

  3. Radiation characterization summary :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parma, Edward J.,; Quirk, Thomas J.; Lippert, Lance L.; Griffin, Patrick J; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Luker, Spencer Michael


    This document presents the facility-recommended characterization of the neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray radiation fields in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) for the 44-inch-long lead-boron bucket in the central cavity on the 32-inch pedestal at the core centerline. The designation for this environment is ACRR-LB44-CC-32-cl. The neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray energy spectra are presented as well as radial and axial neutron and gamma-ray flux profiles within the experiment area of the bucket. Recommended constants are given to facilitate the conversion of various dosimetry readings into radiation metrics desired by experimenters. Representative pulse and steady-state operations are presented with conversion examples.

  4. Radiation damage tolerant nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Beyerlein


    Full Text Available Designing a material from the atomic level to achieve a tailored response in extreme conditions is a grand challenge in materials research. Nanostructured metals and composites provide a path to this goal because they contain interfaces that attract, absorb and annihilate point and line defects. These interfaces recover and control defects produced in materials subjected to extremes of displacement damage, impurity implantation, stress and temperature. Controlling radiation-induced-defects via interfaces is shown to be the key factor in reducing the damage and imparting stability in certain nanomaterials under conditions where bulk materials exhibit void swelling and/or embrittlement. We review the recovery of radiation-induced point defects at free surfaces and grain boundaries and stabilization of helium bubbles at interphase boundaries and present an approach for processing bulk nanocomposites containing interfaces that are stable under irradiation.

  5. Radiative corrections to DIS

    CERN Document Server

    Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold


    Early deep inelastic scattering (DIS) experiments at SLAC discovered partons, identified them as quarks and gluons, and restricted the set of the candidate theories for strong interactions to those exhibiting the asymptotic freedom property. The next generation DIS experiments at FNAL and CERN confirmed the predictions of QCD for the size of the scaling violation effects in the nucleon structure functions. The QCD fits to their data resulted in determining the momentum distributions of the point-like constituents of nucleons. Interpretation of data coming from all these experiments and, in the case of the SLAC experiments, even an elaboration of the running strategies, would not have been possible without a precise understanding of the electromagnetic radiative corrections. In this note I recollect the important milestones, achieved in the period preceding the HERA era, in the high precision calculations of the radiative corrections to DIS, and in the development of the methods of their experimental control. ...

  6. HANARO radiation emergency plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Tai


    The emergency plan of HANARO (High-flux advanced Neutron Application Reactor) is prepared based on the Korea Atomic Law, the Civil Defence Law, Disaster Protection Law and the emergency related regulation guides such as the NUREG series from USNRC to ensure adequate response capabilities to the emergency event which would cause a significant risk to the KAERI staffs and the public near to the site. Periodic training and exercise for the reactor operators and emergency staffs will reduce accident risks and the release of radioactivities to the environment. The plan describes the organization and staff's duties in the radiation emergency, classification on the radiation accidents, urgent actions of reactor operators in the early state, emergency response activities, maintenance of emergency equipment, training and exercise to improve response capabilities against emergency accidents. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs.

  7. [Heavy particle radiation therapy]. (United States)

    Lozares, S; Mañeru, F; Pellejero, S


    The characteristics of radiation formed by heavy particles make it a highly useful tool for therapeutic use. Protons, helium nuclei or carbon ions are being successfully employed in radiotherapy installations throughout the world. This article sets out the physical and technological foundations that make these radiation particles suitable for attacking white volume, as well as the different ways of administering treatment. Next, the main clinical applications are described, which show the therapeutic advantages in some of the pathologies most widely employed in proton and hadron therapy centres at present. Under continuous study, the clinical use of heavy particles appears to be an enormously promising path of advance in comparison with classical technologies, both in tumour coverage and in reducing dosages in surrounding tissue.

  8. Radiation Induced Genomic Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, William F.


    Radiation induced genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells multiple generations after irradiation of parental cells. The phenotype is well established both in vivo (Morgan 2003) and in vitro (Morgan 2003), and may be critical in radiation carcinogenesis (Little 2000, Huang et al. 2003). Instability can be induced by both the deposition of energy in irradiated cells as well as by signals transmitted by irradiated (targeted) cells to non-irradiated (non-targeted) cells (Kadhim et al. 1992, Lorimore et al. 1998). Thus both targeted and non-targeted cells can pass on the legacy of radiation to their progeny. However the radiation induced events and cellular processes that respond to both targeted and non-targeted radiation effects that lead to the unstable phenotype remain elusive. The cell system we have used to study radiation induced genomic instability utilizes human hamster GM10115 cells. These cells have a single copy of human chromosome 4 in a background of hamster chromosomes. Instability is evaluated in the clonal progeny of irradiated cells and a clone is considered unstable if it contains three or more metaphase sub-populations involving unique rearrangements of the human chromosome (Marder and Morgan 1993). Many of these unstable clones have been maintained in culture for many years and have been extensively characterized. As initially described by Clutton et al., (Clutton et al. 1996) many of our unstable clones exhibit persistently elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (Limoli et al. 2003), which appear to be due dysfunctional mitochondria (Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2006). Interestingly, but perhaps not surprisingly, our unstable clones do not demonstrate a “mutator phenotype” (Limoli et al. 1997), but they do continue to rearrange their genomes for many years. The limiting factor with this system is the target – the human chromosome. While some clones demonstrate amplification of this chromosome and thus lend

  9. ATLAS Transitional Radiation Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach


    This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the transitional radiation tracker within the ATLAS detector. Subjects covered include what the tracker is used to measure, its structure, what happens when particles pass through the tracker, how it distinguishes between different types of particles within it.

  10. Radiation Bystander Effects Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokohzaman Soleymanifard


    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiation Induced Bystander Effect (RIBE which cause radiation effects in non-irradiated cells, has challenged the principle according to which radiation traversal through the nucleus of a cell is necessary for producing biological responses. What is the mechanism of this phenomenon? To have a better understanding of this rather ambiguous concept substantial number of original and reviewed article were carefully examined. Results: Irradiated cells release molecules which can propagate in cell environment and/or transmit through gap junction intercellular communication. These molecules can reach to non-irradiated cells and transmit bystander signals. In many investigations, it has been confirmed that these molecules are growth factors, cytokines, nitric oxide and free radicals like reactive oxygen species (ROS. Transmission of by stander signal to neighboring cells persuades them to produce secondary growth factors which in their turn cause further cell injuries. Some investigators suggest, organelles other than nucleus (mitochondria and cell membrane are the origin of these signals.  There is another opinion which suggests double strand breaks (DSB are not directly generated in bystander cells, rather they are due to smaller damage like single strand breaks which accumulate and end up to DSB. Although bystander mechanisms have not been exactly known, it can be confirmed that multiple mechanisms and various pathways are responsible for this effect. Cell type, radiation type, experimental conditions and end points identify the dominant mechanism. Conclusion: Molecules and pathways which are responsible for RIBE, also cause systemic responses to other non-irradiation stresses. So RIBE is a kind of systemic stress or innate immune responses, which are performed by cell microenvironment. Irradiated cells and their signals are components of microenvironment for creating bystander effects.

  11. Infrared Radiation of Flames (United States)


    March 1960. 4. S. Silverman, G. A. Hornbeck, and R. C. Herman , J. Chem. Phys. 16 155 (1947). The Infrared Emission and Absorption or-the Carbon Infrared Radiation. 9. S. Silverman and R. C. Herman , J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 216 (1949). The Infrared Emission Spectra of the Oxy- Hydrogen and Oxy...Press, 1961). 35. W. J, Pearce, Conference on Extremely High Temperatures, Fischer and Mansur , eds. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1958), p. 123. 36. M. P

  12. Radiation in Yolo County (United States)

    Dickie, H.; Colwell, K.


    In today's post-nuclear age, there are many man-made sources of radioactivity, in addition to the natural background we expect from cosmic and terrestrial origins. While all atoms possess unstable isotopes, there are few that are abundant enough, energetic enough, and have long enough half-lives to pose a signicant risk of ionizing radiation exposure. We hypothesize a decreasing relative radiation measurement (in detected counts per minute [CPM]) at nine locations that might pose occupational or environmental hazard: 1. A supermarket produce aisle (living tissue has high concentration of 40K) 2. A hospital (medical imaging uses X-rays and radioactive dyes) 3. The electronics section of a superstore (high voltage electronics have the potential to produce ionizing radiation) 4. An electrical transformer (similar reasons) 5. An antique store (some ceramics and glazes use radioisotopes that are now outlawed) 6. A gasoline pump (processing and terrestrial isotope contamination might leave a radioactive residue) 7. A fertilized eld (phosphate rock contains uranium and thorium, in addition to potassium) 8. A house (hopefully mild background, but potential radon contamination) 9. A school (should be radiologically neutral) We tested the hypothesis by measuring 100 minutes of counts on a self-assembled MightyOhmTM Geiger counter at each location. Our results show that contrary to the hypothesized ordering, the house was the most radiologically active. We present possible explanations for the observed radiation levels, as well as possible sources of measurement error, possible consequences of prolonged exposure to the measured levels, and suggestions for decreasing exposure and environmental impact.

  13. Uninformed Hawking Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakalli, I


    We show in detail that the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method (PWTM), which was designed for resolving the information loss problem in Hawking radiation (HR)fails whenever the radiation occurs from an isothermal process. The PWTM aims to produce a non-thermal HR which adumbrates the resolution of the problem of unitarity in quantum mechanics (QM), and consequently the entropy (or information) conservation problem. The effectiveness of the method has been satisfactorily tested on numerous black holes (BHs). However, it has been shown that the isothermal HR, which results from the emission of the uncharged particles of the linear dilaton BH (LDBH) described in the Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton (EMD) theory, the PWTM has vulnerability in having non-thermal radiation. In particular, we consider Painlev\\'{e}-Gullstrand coordinates (PGCs) and isotropic coordinates (ICs) in order to prove the aformentioned failure in the PWTM. While carrying out calculations in the ICs, we also highlight the effect of the refractive index o...

  14. Fanconi anemia and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Asako; Komatsu, Kenshi [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology


    Aplastic Fanconi anemia (FA) accompanying malformation was firstly reported in 1927. This review concerns the recent findings on FA. FA belongs to the chromosomal instability syndrome and its detailed molecular mechanism is still unknown. The disease has been defined to be highly sensitive to radiation, however, which is quite an important problem since irradiation with a large dose of radiation is required before its radical treatment (bone marrow transplantation). FA cells are also mitomycin C-sensitive and FA patients are said to be the mosaic of the sensitive and normal cells. This enables to classify FA into 8 types of A-H groups, whose genotypes (FAA-FAH, FANCA-FANCH) are becoming clear. However, the intracellular function of the FANC-expressed protein, although known to form a big complex, is not elucidated yet. There is an abnormality in DNA processing such as re-linkage of the double strand-broken DNA in FA cells. FA causal gene FANCG is found identical to XRCC9 which is associated to high sensitivity to radiation. Analysis of FANC genes will provide useful findings on molecular mechanism of DNA-repair. (K.H.)

  15. Stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Simon S. [Univ. Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center, Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Case Comprehensive Cancer Center; Teh, Bin S. [The Methodist Hospital Cancer Center and Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States). Weill Cornell Medical College; Lu, Jiade J. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Schefter, Tracey E. (eds.) [Colorado Univ., Aurora, CO (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology


    Comprehensive an up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. Examines in detail retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials for various organ sites from around the world. Written by world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia and Europe. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an innovative treatment for various primary and metastatic cancers, and the past five years have witnessed a quantum leap in its use. This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. It will serve as a detailed resource for this rapidly developing treatment modality. The organ sites covered include lung, liver, spine, pancreas, prostate, adrenal, head and neck, and female reproductive tract. Retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials on SBRT for various organ sites from around the world are examined, and toxicities and normal tissue constraints are discussed. This book features unique insights from world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia, and Europe. It will be necessary reading for radiation oncologists, radiation oncology residents and fellows, medical physicists, medical physics residents, medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, and cancer scientists.

  16. Uninformed Hawking radiation (United States)

    Sakalli, I.; Ovgun, A.


    We show in detail that the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method (PWTM), which was designed for resolving the information loss problem in Hawking radiation (HR) fails whenever the radiation occurs from an isothermal process. The PWTM aims to produce a non-thermal HR which adumbrates the resolution of the problem of unitarity in quantum mechanics (QM), and consequently the entropy (or information) conservation problem. The effectiveness of the method has been satisfactorily tested on numerous black holes (BHs). However, it has been shown that the isothermal HR, which results from the emission of the uncharged particles of the linear dilaton BH (LDBH) described in the Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton (EMD) theory, the PWTM has vulnerability in having non-thermal radiation. In particular, we consider Painlevé-Gullstrand coordinates (PGCs) and isotropic coordinates (ICs) in order to prove the aforementioned failure in the PWTM. While carrying out calculations in the ICs, we also highlight the effect of the refractive index on the null geodesics.

  17. Relativistic Radiation Mediated Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Budnik, Ran; Sagiv, Amir; Waxman, Eli


    The structure of relativistic radiation mediated shocks (RRMS) propagating into a cold electron-proton plasma is calculated and analyzed. A qualitative discussion of the physics of relativistic and non relativistic shocks, including order of magnitude estimates for the relevant temperature and length scales, is presented. Detailed numerical solutions are derived for shock Lorentz factors $\\Gamma_u$ in the range $6\\le\\Gamma_u\\le30$, using a novel iteration technique solving the hydrodynamics and radiation transport equations (the protons, electrons and positrons are argued to be coupled by collective plasma processes and are treated as a fluid). The shock transition (deceleration) region, where the Lorentz factor $ \\Gamma $ drops from $ \\Gamma_u $ to $ \\sim 1 $, is characterized by high plasma temperatures $ T\\sim \\Gamma m_ec^2 $ and highly anisotropic radiation, with characteristic shock-frame energy of upstream and downstream going photons of a few~$\\times\\, m_ec^2$ and $\\sim \\Gamma^2 m_ec^2$, respectively.P...

  18. Microbeam radiation therapy (United States)

    Laissue, Jean A.; Lyubimova, Nadia; Wagner, Hans-Peter; Archer, David W.; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Di Michiel, Marco; Nemoz, Christian; Renier, Michel; Brauer, Elke; Spanne, Per O.; Gebbers, Jan-Olef; Dixon, Keith; Blattmann, Hans


    The central nervous system of vertebrates, even when immature, displays extraordinary resistance to damage by microscopically narrow, multiple, parallel, planar beams of x rays. Imminently lethal gliosarcomas in the brains of mature rats can be inhibited and ablated by such microbeams with little or no harm to mature brain tissues and neurological function. Potentially palliative, conventional wide-beam radiotherapy of malignant brain tumors in human infants under three years of age is so fraught with the danger of disrupting the functional maturation of immature brain tissues around the targeted tumor that it is implemented infrequently. Other kinds of therapy for such tumors are often inadequate. We suggest that microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) might help to alleviate the situation. Wiggler-generated synchrotron x-rays were first used for experimental microplanar beam (microbeam) radiation therapy (MRT) at Brookhaven National Laboratory's National Synchrotron Light Source in the early 1990s. We now describe the progress achieved in MRT research to date using immature and adult rats irradiated at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France, and investigated thereafter at the Institute of Pathology of the University of Bern.

  19. Sun and Other Types of Radiation (United States)

    ... What Causes Cancer? Sun and Other Types of Radiation Learn about the different types of radiation and ... other diseases. Learn more here. Other Types of Radiation Exposure Not all types of radiation have been ...

  20. Radiation Therapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas (United States)

    ... Stage Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treating Soft Tissue Sarcomas Radiation Therapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Radiation therapy uses ... spread. This is called palliative treatment . Types of radiation therapy External beam radiation therapy: For this treatment, ...

  1. Lunar radiation environment (United States)

    Schwadron, Nathan; Spence, Harlan; Wilson, Jody

    One of the goals of the CRaTER investigation is to characterize the radiation environment near the Moon in order to enable exploration. The state-of-the-art understanding developed thus far during the LRO mission is documented in a special issue of the Spaceweather Journal entitled “Space Weather: Building the observational foundation to deduce biological effects of space radiation” (Schwadron et al., 2013a). This recently published CRaTER work probes deeper into the physics of the radiation environment at the Moon. It motivates and provides the scientific basis for new investigations in the next phase of the LRO mission. The effects of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) range from chemical modification of the regolith, the generation of a radiation albedo that is increasingly illuminating chemical properties of the regolith, causing charging of the regolith and hazards to human explorers and robotic missions. Low-lunar orbit provides a platform for measuring SEP anisotropy over timescales of 2 hours both parallel and perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, and so far we have observed more than 18 SEP events with time-variable anisotropies during the LRO mission. Albedo proton maps of the Moon from CRaTER indicate that the flux of lunar albedo protons is correlated with elemental abundances at the lunar surface. The yield of albedo protons from the maria is 1% higher than the yield from the highlands, and there are localized peaks with even higher contrast (that may be co-located with peaks in trace elemental abundances as measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer). The Moon’s radiation environment both charges and affects the chemistry in the Moon’s polar regions, particularly in PSRs. This makes these regions a prime target for new CRaTER observations, since CRaTER measures GCRs and SEPs that penetrate the regolith down to 10s of cm. Thus, we review emerging discoveries from LRO/CRaTER’s remarkable exploration of

  2. Utrecht Radiative Transfer Courses (United States)

    Rutten, R. J.


    The Utrecht course ``The Generation and Transport of Radiation'' teaches basic radiative transfer to second-year students. It is a much-expanded version of the first chapter of Rybicki & Lightman's ``Radiative Processes in Astrophysics''. After this course, students understand why intensity is measured per steradian, have an Eddington-Barbier feel for optically thick line formation, and know that scattering upsets LTE. The text is a computer-aided translation by Ruth Peterson of my 1992 Dutch-language course. My aim is to rewrite this course in non-computer English and make it web-available at some time. In the meantime, copies of the Peterson translation are made yearly at Uppsala -- ask them, not me. Eventually it should become a textbook. The Utrecht course ``Radiative Transfer in Stellar Atmospheres'' is a 30-hour course for third-year students. It treats NLTE line formation in plane-parallel stellar atmospheres at a level intermediate between the books by Novotny and Boehm-Vitense, and Mihalas' ``Stellar Atmospheres''. After this course, students appreciate that epsilon is small, that radiation can heat or cool, and that computers have changed the field. This course is web-available since 1995 and is regularly improved -- but remains incomplete. Eventually it should become a textbook. The three Utrecht exercise sets ``Stellar Spectra A: Basic Line Formation'', ``Stellar Spectra B: LTE Line Formation'', and ``Stellar Spectra C: NLTE Line Formation'' are IDL-based computer exercises for first-year, second-year, and third-year students, respectively. They treat spectral classification, Saha-Boltzmann population statistics, the curve of growth, the FAL-C solar atmosphere model, the role of H-minus in the solar continuum, LTE formation of Fraunhofer lines, inversion tactics, the Feautrier method, classical lambda iteration, and ALI computation. The first two sets are web-available since 1998; the third will follow. Acknowledgement. Both courses owe much to previous

  3. Chapter 1: Direct Normal Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Daryl R.


    This chapter addresses the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the solar resource, the direct solar radiation. It discusses the total or integrated broadband direct beam extraterrestrial radiation (ETR). This total integrated irradiance is comprised of photons of electromagnetic radiation. The chapter also discusses the impact of the atmosphere and its effect upon the direct normal irradiance (DNI) beam radiation. The gases and particulates present in the atmosphere traversed by the direct beam reflect, absorb, and scatter differing spectral regions and proportions of the direct beam, and act as a variable filter. Knowledge of the available broadband DNI beam radiation resource data is essential in designing a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system. Spectral variations in the DNI beam radiation affect the performance of a CPV system depending on the solar cell technology used. The chapter describes propagation and scattering processes of circumsolar radiation (CSR), which includes the Mie scattering from large particles.

  4. New approaches to radiation protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot Michael Rosen


    Full Text Available Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (eg., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion; hence the are called radiation countermeasures. Here we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development.

  5. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  6. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  7. Radiation shielding for diagnostic radiology. (United States)

    Martin, Colin J


    Scattered radiation makes up the majority of the stray radiation field around an X-ray unit. The scatter is linked to the amount of radiation incident on the patient. It can be estimated from quantities used to assess patient dose such as the kerma-area product, and factors have been established linking this to levels of scattered radiation for radiography and fluoroscopy. In radiography shielding against primary radiation is also needed, but in other modalities this is negligible, as the beam is intercepted by the image receptor. In the same way scatter from CT can be quantified in terms of dose-length product, but because of higher radiation levels, exposure to tertiary scatter from ceilings needs to be considered. Transmission requirements are determined from comparisons between calculated radiation levels and agreed dose criteria, taking into account the occupancy of adjacent areas. Thicknesses of shielding material required can then be calculated from simple equations.

  8. Radiation control standards and procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This manual contains the Radiation Control Standards'' and Radiation Control Procedures'' at Hanford Operations which have been established to provide the necessary control radiation exposures within Irradiation Processing Department. Provision is also made for including, in the form of Bulletins'', other radiological information of general interest to IPD personnel. The purpose of the standards is to establish firm radiological limits within which the Irradiation Processing Department will operate, and to outline our radiation control program in sufficient detail to insure uniform and consistent application throughout all IPD facilities. Radiation Control Procedures are intended to prescribe the best method of accomplishing an objective within the limitations of the Radiation Control Standards. A procedure may be changed at any time provided the suggested changes is generally agreeable to management involved, and is consistent with department policies and the Radiation Control Standards.

  9. Non-LTE Radiation Transport in High Radiation Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, H A


    A primary goal of numerical radiation transport is obtaining a self-consistent solution for both the radiation field and plasma properties. Obtaining such a solution requires consideration of the coupling between the radiation and the plasma. The different characteristics of this coupling for continuum and line radiation have resulted in two separate sub-disciplines of radiation transport with distinct emphases and computational techniques. LTE radiation transfer focuses on energy transport and exchange through broadband radiation, primarily affecting temperature and ionization balance. Non-LTE line transfer focuses on narrowband radiation and the response of individual level populations, primarily affecting spectral properties. Many high energy density applications, particularly those with high-Z materials, incorporate characteristics of both these regimes. Applications with large radiation fields including strong line components require a non-LTE broadband treatment of energy transport and exchange. We discuss these issues and present a radiation transport treatment which combines features of both types of approaches by explicitly incorporating the dependence of material properties on both temperature and radiation fields. The additional terms generated by the radiation dependence do not change the character of the system of equations and can easily be added to a numerical transport implementation. A numerical example from a Z-pinch application demonstrates that this method improves both the stability and convergence of the calculations. The information needed to characterize the material response to radiation is closely related to that used by the Linear Response Matrix (LRM) approach to near-LTE simulation, and we investigate the use of the LRM for these calculations.

  10. Engineering calculations in radiative heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, W A; Hopkins, D W


    Engineering Calculations in Radiative Heat Transfer is a six-chapter book that first explains the basic principles of thermal radiation and direct radiative transfer. Total exchange of radiation within an enclosure containing an absorbing or non-absorbing medium is then described. Subsequent chapters detail the radiative heat transfer applications and measurement of radiation and temperature.

  11. Applied physics of external radiation exposure dosimetry and radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Rodolphe


    This book describes the interaction of living matter with photons, neutrons, charged particles, electrons and ions. The authors are specialists in the field of radiation protection. The book synthesizes many years of experiments with external radiation exposure in the fields of dosimetry and radiation shielding in medical, industrial and research fields. It presents the basic physical concepts including dosimetry and offers a number of tools to be used by students, engineers and technicians to assess the radiological risk and the means to avoid them by calculating the appropriate shields. The theory of radiation interaction in matter is presented together with empirical formulas and abacus. Numerous numerical applications are treated to illustrate the different topics. The state of the art in radiation protection and dosimetry is presented in detail, especially in the field of simulation codes for external exposure to radiation, medical projects and advanced research. Moreover, important data spread in differ...

  12. Chronic radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akleyev, Alexander V. [Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation). Clinical Dept.


    Comprehensive analysis of chronic radiation syndrome, covering epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathoanatomy, diagnosis and treatment. Based on observations in a unique sample of exposed residents of the Techa riverside villages in the Urals. Casts new light on the condition. Of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in chronic radiation syndrome. This book covers all aspects of chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) based on observations in a unique sample of residents of the Techa riverside villages in the southern Urals who were exposed to radioactive contamination in the 1950s owing to releases of liquid radioactive wastes from Mayak Production Association, which produced plutonium for weapons. In total, 940 cases of CRS were diagnosed in this population and these patients were subjected to detailed analysis. The opening chapters address the definition and classification of CRS, epidemiology and pathogenesis, covering molecular and cellular mechanisms, radioadaptation, and the role of tissue reactions. The pathoanatomy of CRS during the development and recovery stages is discussed for all organ systems. Clinical manifestations of CRS at the different stages are then described in detail and the dynamics of hematopoietic changes are thoroughly examined. In the following chapters, principles of diagnosis (including assessment of the exposure doses to critical organs) and differential diagnosis from a wide range of other conditions are discussed and current and potential treatment options, described. The medical and social rehabilitation of persons with CRS is also covered. This book, which casts new light on the condition, will be of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in CRS.

  13. Radiative Equilibrium and Temperature Correction in Monte Carlo Radiation Transfer


    Bjorkman, J. E.; Wood, Kenneth


    We describe a general radiative equilibrium and temperature correction procedure for use in Monte Carlo radiation transfer codes with sources of temperature-independent opacity, such as astrophysical dust. The technique utilizes the fact that Monte Carlo simulations track individual photon packets, so we may easily determine where their energy is absorbed. When a packet is absorbed, it heats a particular cell within the envelope, raising its temperature. To enforce radiative equilibrium, the ...

  14. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Pachmayer, Y


    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high Pτ tracks in one single TRD stack.

  15. The space radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, D.E.


    There are three primary sources of space radiation: galactic cosmic rays (GCR), trapped belt radiation, and solar particle events (SPE). All are composed of ions, the nuclei of atoms. Their energies range from a few MeV u{sup -1} to over a GeV u{sup -1}. These ions can fragment when they interact with spacecraft materials and produce energetic neutrons and ions of lower atomic mass. Absorbed dose rates inside a typical spacecraft (like the Space Shuttle) in a low inclination (28.5 degrees) orbit range between 0.05 and 2 mGy d{sup -1} depending on the altitude and flight inclination (angle of orbit with the equator). The quality factor of radiation in orbit depends on the relative contributions of trapped belt radiation and GCR, and the dose rate varies both with orbital altitude and inclination. The corresponding equivalent dose rate ranges between 0.1 and 4 mSv d{sup -1}. In high inclination orbits, like that of the Mir Space Station and as is planned for the International Space Station, blood-forming organ (BFO) equivalent dose rates as high as 1.5 mSv d{sup -1}. Thus, on a 1 y mission, a crew member could obtain a total dose of 0.55 Sv. Maximum equivalent dose rates measured in high altitude passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) were 10 mSv h{sup -1}. For an interplanetary space mission (e.g., to Mars) annual doses from GCR alone range between 150 mSv y{sup -1} at solar maximum and 580 mSv y{sup -1} at solar minimum. Large SPE, like the October 1989 series, are more apt to occur in the years around solar maximum. In free space, such an event could contribute another 300 mSv, assuming that a warning system and safe haven can be effectively used with operational procedures to minimize crew exposures. Thus, the total dose for a 3 y mission to Mars could exceed 2 Sv.

  16. Chronic radiation myelitis. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, R H; Marks, R D; Wallace, K M


    From March 1971 to September 1973, 200 patients with primary bronchogenic carcinoma received 4,000 rad (40 Gy) by means of split-course accelerated fractionation. Forty-five patients (22.5%) survived more than 11 months; and of these, 6 (13.3%) were found to have progressive myelitis. Recent reports indicate that rapid fractionation is preferred in some centers and may be undergoing a resurgence. The authors review their experience with this technique and the current understanding of the factors which affect the development of radiation myelitis.

  17. Cosmic Tachyon Background Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R


    The equilibrium statistical mechanics of a background radiation of superluminal particles is investigated, based on a vectorial wave equation for tachyons of the Proca type. The partition function, the spectral energy density, and the various thermodynamic variables of an ideal Bose gas of tachyons in an open Robertson-Walker cosmology are derived. The negative mass square in the wave equation changes the frequency scaling in the Rayleigh-Jeans law, and there are also significant changes in the low temperature regime as compared to the microwave background, in particular in the caloric and thermal equations of state.

  18. Radiation damage in graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, John Harry Walrond


    Nuclear Energy, Volume 102: Radiation Damage in Graphite provides a general account of the effects of irradiation on graphite. This book presents valuable work on the structure of the defects produced in graphite crystals by irradiation. Organized into eight chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the description of the methods of manufacturing graphite and of its physical properties. This text then presents details of the method of setting up a scale of irradiation dose. Other chapters consider the effect of irradiation at a given temperature on a physical property of graphite. This

  19. Danfos: Thermostatic Radiator Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Oliver, James; Hjorth, Poul G.


    This problem deals with modelling the flow through a typical Danfoss thermostatic radiator valve.Danfoss is able to employ Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in calculations of the capacity of valves, but an experienced engineer can often by rules of thumb "guess" the capacity, with a precision...... similar to the one achieved by the expensive and time-consuming CFD calculations. So CFD is only used in case of entirely new designs or where a very detailed knowledge of the flow is required. Even though rules of thumb are useful for those, who have developed them, Danfoss needs an objective and general...... method that can be used to predict the performance of valves....

  20. Microstructured silicon radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Derzon, Mark S.; Draper, Bruce L.


    A radiation detector comprises a silicon body in which are defined vertical pores filled with a converter material and situated within silicon depletion regions. One or more charge-collection electrodes are arranged to collect current generated when secondary particles enter the silicon body through walls of the pores. The pores are disposed in low-density clusters, have a majority pore thickness of 5 .mu.m or less, and have a majority aspect ratio, defined as the ratio of pore depth to pore thickness, of at least 10.

  1. Radiative Augmented Combustion. (United States)


    86-0085 In 00I to RADIATIVE AUGMENTED COMBUSTION MOSHE LAVID M.L. ENERGIA , INC. P.O. BOX 1468 1 PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 08542 AUGUST 1985 *.. plo...Combustion conducted at M.L. ENERGIA . It is funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Contract No. F49620-83-C-0133, with Dr. J.M...reported. It covers the second year of the contract, from July 15, 1984 through July 14, 1985. The work was performed at ENERGIA , Princeton, New Jersey

  2. Radiation protection considerations

    CERN Document Server

    Adorisio, C; Urscheler, C; Vincke, H


    This chapter summarizes the legal Radiation Protection (RP) framework to be considered in the design of HiLumi LHC. It details design limits and constraints, dose objectives and explains how the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) approach is formalized at CERN. Furthermore, features of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code are summarized that are of relevance for RP studies. Results of FLUKA simulations for residual dose rates during Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) are compared to measurements demonstrating good agreement and providing proof for the accuracy of FLUKA predictions for future shutdowns. Finally, an outlook for the residual dose rate evolution until LS3 is given.

  3. Virtual Gamma Ray Radiation Sources through Neutron Radiative Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Wilde, Raymond Keegan


    The countrate response of a gamma spectrometry system from a neutron radiation source behind a plane of moderating material doped with a nuclide of a large radiative neutron capture cross-section exhibits a countrate response analogous to a gamma radiation source at the same position from the detector. Using a planar, surface area of the neutron moderating material exposed to the neutron radiation produces a larger area under the prompt gamma ray peak in the detector than a smaller area of dimensions relative to the active volume of the gamma detection system.

  4. METHODOLOGICAL NOTES: Radiation damping forces and radiation from charged particles (United States)

    Klepikov, N. P.


    A review of the literature on the radiation reaction force on a charged particle shows that the expression given for this force obtained by Lorentz, Abraham, and Dirac is in physically reasonable agreement with the radiation of energy, momentum, and angular momentum, and is successfully used in investigating the motion of particles in a field. A selection of physical solutions by the methods presented herein guarantees that the conservation laws are satisfied. In the first approximation, which is the only one utilized in the majority of physical situations, radiation damping does not depend on assumptions concerning the structure of the charge of the particle. A theory is presented of the losses of energy, momentum and angular momentum by a system of charged particles in the course of their moving together taking into account the external field, the radiation damping forces, and the retarded Lienard-Wiechert forces. Formulas are given for the spectral and angular distribution of the radiation from a system of particles. The concept of a center of a system of events with relativistic particles is utilized in constructing a system of equations for finding the angular momenta of the electromagnetic waves radiated by particles of the system. The angular distribution and the total intensity of the radiation from a system of particles at an arbitrary instant of time is obtained. Using the example of the joint synchrotron radiation from two particles the consistency of all three approaches to the radiation from a system of particles is demonstrated.

  5. Radiation damage in biomolecular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuss, Martina Christina


    Since the discovery of X-rays and radioactivity, ionizing radiations have been widely applied in medicine both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The risks associated with radiation exposure and handling led to the parallel development of the field of radiation protection. Pioneering experiments done by Sanche and co-workers in 2000 showed that low-energy secondary electrons, which are abundantly generated along radiation tracks, are primarily responsible for radiation damage through successive interactions with the molecular constituents of the medium. Apart from ionizing processes, which are usually related to radiation damage, below the ionization level low-energy electrons can induce molecular fragmentation via dissociative processes such as internal excitation and electron attachment. This prompted collaborative projects between different research groups from European countries together with other specialists from Canada,  the USA and Australia. This book summarizes the advances achieved by these...

  6. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  7. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  8. Sound radiation from finite surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas


    A method to account for the effect of finite size in acoustic power radiation problem of planar surfaces using spatial windowing is developed. Cremer and Heckl presents a very useful formula for the power radiating from a structure using the spatially Fourier transformed velocity, which combined...... with spatially windowing of a plane waves can be used to take into account the finite size. In the present paper, this is developed by means of a radiation impedance for finite surfaces, that is used instead of the radiation impedance for infinite surfaces. In this way, the spatial windowing is included...... in the radiation formula directly, and no pre-windowing is needed. Examples are given for the radiation efficiency, and the results are compared with results found in the literature....

  9. The physics of radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Faiz M


    Dr. Khan's classic textbook on radiation oncology physics is now in its thoroughly revised and updated Fourth Edition. It provides the entire radiation therapy team—radiation oncologists, medical physicists, dosimetrists, and radiation therapists—with a thorough understanding of the physics and practical clinical applications of advanced radiation therapy technologies, including 3D-CRT, stereotactic radiotherapy, HDR, IMRT, IGRT, and proton beam therapy. These technologies are discussed along with the physical concepts underlying treatment planning, treatment delivery, and dosimetry. This Fourth Edition includes brand-new chapters on image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and proton beam therapy. Other chapters have been revised to incorporate the most recent developments in the field. This edition also features more than 100 full-color illustrations throughout.

  10. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation (United States)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.


    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  11. Quantum optical dipole radiation fields

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, Adam


    We introduce quantum optical dipole radiation fields defined in terms of photon creation and annihilation operators. These fields are identified through their spatial dependence, as the components of the total fields that survive infinitely far from the dipole source. We use these radiation fields to perturbatively evaluate the electromagnetic radiated energy-flux of the excited dipole. Our results indicate that the standard interpretation of a bare atom surrounded by a localised virtual photon cloud, is difficult to sustain, because the radiated energy-flux surviving infinitely far from the source contains virtual contributions. It follows that there is a clear distinction to be made between a radiative photon defined in terms of the radiation fields, and a real photon, whose identification depends on whether or not a given process conserves the free energy. This free energy is represented by the difference between the total dipole-field Hamiltonian and its interaction component.

  12. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  13. Future Synchrotron Radiation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Winick, Herman


    Sources of synchrotron radiation (also called synchrotron light) and their associated research facilities have experienced a spectacular growth in number, performance, and breadth of application in the past two to three decades. In 1978 there were eleven electron storage rings used as light sources. Three of these were small rings, all below 500 mega-electron volts (MeV), dedicated to this purpose; the others, with energy up to 5 giga-electron volts (GeV), were used parasitically during the operation of the ring for high energy physics research. In addition, at that time synchrotron radiation from nine cyclic electron synchrotrons, with energy up to 5 GeV, was also used parasitically. At present no cyclic synchrotrons are used, while about 50 electron storage rings are in operation around the world as fully dedicated light sources for basic and applied research in a wide variety of fields. Among these fields are structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, materials, analytic chemistry, micr...

  14. Radiation accident grips Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, L.


    On 13 September two young scavengers in Goiania, Brazil, removed a stainless steel cylinder from a cancer therapy machine in an abandoned clinic, touching off a radiation accident second only to Chernobyl in its severity. On 18 September they sold the cylinder, the size of a 1-gallon paint can, to a scrap dealer for $25. At the junk yard an employee dismantled the cylinder and pried open the platinum capsule inside to reveal a glowing blue salt-like substance - 1400 curies of cesium-137. Fascinated by the luminescent powder, several people took it home with them. Some children reportedly rubbed in on their bodies like carnival glitter - an eerie image of how wrong things can go when vigilance over radioactive materials lapses. In all, 244 people in Goiania, a city of 1 million in central Brazil, were contaminated. The eventual toll, in terms of cancer or genetic defects, cannot yet be estimated. Parts of the city are cordoned off as radiation teams continue washing down buildings and scooping up radioactive soil. The government is also grappling with the political fallout from the accident.

  15. Space radiation studies (United States)


    Two Active Radiation Dosimeters (ARD's) flown on Spacelab 1, performed without fault and were returned to Space Science Laboratory, MSFC for recalibration. During the flight, performance was monitored at the Huntsville Operations Center (HOSC). Despite some problems with the Shuttle data system handling the verification flight instrumentation (VFI), it was established that the ARD's were operating normally. Postflight calibrations of both units determined that sensitivities were essentially unchanged from preflight values. Flight tapes were received for approx. 60 percent of the flight and it appears that this is the total available. The data was analyzed in collaboration with Space Science Laboratory, MSFC. Also, the Nuclear Radiation Monitor (NRM) was assembled and tested at MSFC. Support was rendered in the areas of materials control and parts were supplied for the supplementary heaters, dome gas-venting device and photomultiplier tube housing. Performance characteristics of some flight-space photomultipliers were measured. The NRM was flown on a balloon-borne test flight and subsequently performed without fault on Spacelab-2. This data was analyzed and published.

  16. Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katusin-Razem, Branka [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O.B 180, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia)]. E-mail:; Hamitouche, Katia [Centre de Recherche et Developpement Saidal, El Harrach (Algeria); Maltar-Strmecki, Nadica [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Kos, Karmen [Belupo Pharmaceutical Works, Koprivnica 48000 (Croatia); Pucic, Irina [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O.B 180, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Britvic-Budicin, Smiljana [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O.B 180, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Razem, Dusan [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O.B 180, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia)


    Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen (KP) dry powder was investigated by selected physico-chemical methods. High-performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and electron spin resonance spectroscopy did not show any significant degradation at sterilization dose 25 kGy. To determine the nature, extent and direction of radiation-induced changes, KP was irradiated to extremely high doses, much higher than necessary to achieve sterility. The irradiated KP did not show any difference of XRD patterns up to 200 kGy; with DSC and IR some changes were detected only above 1000 and 2000 kGy, respectively; HPLC has shown about 5% destruction at 2000 kGy. Acetyl benzophenon (AcBph) was generated by irradiation with G(AcBph)=(1.6{+-}0.1)x10{sup -8} mol J{sup -1}. Ames test has shown no mutagenicity of KP irradiated with 3000 kGy or of the oily mixture of radiolytic products isolated from it. Solid KP has proven to be very stable on irradiation, and irradiation has been found to be a suitable method for its sterilization.

  17. Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen (United States)

    Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Hamitouche, Katia; Maltar-Strmečki, Nadica; Kos, Karmen; Pucić, Irina; Britvić-Budicin, Smiljana; Ražem, Dušan


    Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen (KP) dry powder was investigated by selected physico-chemical methods. High-performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and electron spin resonance spectroscopy did not show any significant degradation at sterilization dose 25 kGy. To determine the nature, extent and direction of radiation-induced changes, KP was irradiated to extremely high doses, much higher than necessary to achieve sterility. The irradiated KP did not show any difference of XRD patterns up to 200 kGy; with DSC and IR some changes were detected only above 1000 and 2000 kGy, respectively; HPLC has shown about 5% destruction at 2000 kGy. Acetyl benzophenon (AcBph) was generated by irradiation with G(AcBph)=(1.6±0.1)×10 -8 mol J -1. Ames test has shown no mutagenicity of KP irradiated with 3000 kGy or of the oily mixure of radiolytic products isolated from it. Solid KP has proven to be very stable on irradiation, and irradiation has been found to be a suitable method for its sterilization.

  18. Ultraviolet radiation and cyanobacteria. (United States)

    Rastogi, Rajesh Prasad; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Moh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Taek Kyun; Kottuparambil, Sreejith; Kim, Youn-Jung; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Choi, Eun-Mi; Brown, Murray T; Häder, Donat-Peter; Han, Taejun


    Cyanobacteria are the dominant photosynthetic prokaryotes from an ecological, economical, or evolutionary perspective, and depend on solar energy to conduct their normal life processes. However, the marked increase in solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) caused by the continuous depletion of the stratospheric ozone shield has fueled serious concerns about the ecological consequences for all living organisms, including cyanobacteria. UV-B radiation can damage cellular DNA and several physiological and biochemical processes in cyanobacterial cells, either directly, through its interaction with certain biomolecules that absorb in the UV range, or indirectly, with the oxidative stress exerted by reactive oxygen species. However, cyanobacteria have a long history of survival on Earth, and they predate the existence of the present ozone shield. To withstand the detrimental effects of solar UVR, these prokaryotes have evolved several lines of defense and various tolerance mechanisms, including avoidance, antioxidant production, DNA repair, protein resynthesis, programmed cell death, and the synthesis of UV-absorbing/screening compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and scytonemin. This study critically reviews the current information on the effects of UVR on several physiological and biochemical processes of cyanobacteria and the various tolerance mechanisms they have developed. Genomic insights into the biosynthesis of MAAs and scytonemin and recent advances in our understanding of the roles of exopolysaccharides and heat shock proteins in photoprotection are also discussed.

  19. [Stereotactic radiation therapy]. (United States)

    Aristu, J J; Ciérvide, R; Guridi, J; Moreno, M; Arbea, L; Azcona, J D; Ramos, L I; Zubieta, J L


    Stereotactic radiotherapy is a form of external radiotherapy that employs a system of three dimensional coordinates independent of the patient for the precise localisation of the lesion. It also has the characteristic that the radiation beams are conformed and precise, and converge on the lesion, making it possible to administer very high doses of radiotherapy without increasing the radiation to healthy adjacent organs or structures. When the procedure is carried out in one treatment session it is termed radiosurgery, and when administered over several sessions it is termed stereotactic radiotherapy. Special systems of fixing or immobilising the patient (guides or stereotactic frames) are required together with radiotherapy devices capable of generating conformed beams (lineal accelerator, gammaknife, cyberknife, tomotherapy, cyclotrons). Modern stereotactic radiotherapy employs intra-tumoural radio-opaque frames or CAT image systems included in the irradiation device, which make possible a precise localisation of mobile lesions in each treatment session. Besides, technological advances make it possible to coordinate the lesion's movements in breathing with the radiotherapy unit (gating and tracking) for maximum tightening of margins and excluding a greater volume of healthy tissue. Radiosurgery is mainly indicated in benign or malign cerebral lesions less than 3-4 centimetres (arteriovenous malformations, neurinomas, meningiomas, cerebral metastases) and stereotactic radiotherapy is basically administered in tumours of extracraneal localisation that require high conforming and precision, such as inoperable early lung cancer and hepatic metastasis.

  20. Proportional counter radiation camera (United States)

    Borkowski, C.J.; Kopp, M.K.


    A gas-filled proportional counter camera that images photon emitting sources is described. A two-dimensional, positionsensitive proportional multiwire counter is provided as the detector. The counter consists of a high- voltage anode screen sandwiched between orthogonally disposed planar arrays of multiple parallel strung, resistively coupled cathode wires. Two terminals from each of the cathode arrays are connected to separate timing circuitry to obtain separate X and Y coordinate signal values from pulse shape measurements to define the position of an event within the counter arrays which may be recorded by various means for data display. The counter is further provided with a linear drift field which effectively enlarges the active gas volume of the counter and constrains the recoil electrons produced from ionizing radiation entering the counter to drift perpendicularly toward the planar detection arrays. A collimator is interposed between a subject to be imaged and the counter to transmit only the radiation from the subject which has a perpendicular trajectory with respect to the planar cathode arrays of the detector. (Official Gazette)

  1. Imaging with terahertz radiation (United States)

    Chan, Wai Lam; Deibel, Jason; Mittleman, Daniel M.


    Within the last several years, the field of terahertz science and technology has changed dramatically. Many new advances in the technology for generation, manipulation, and detection of terahertz radiation have revolutionized the field. Much of this interest has been inspired by the promise of valuable new applications for terahertz imaging and sensing. Among a long list of proposed uses, one finds compelling needs such as security screening and quality control, as well as whimsical notions such as counting the almonds in a bar of chocolate. This list has grown in parallel with the development of new technologies and new paradigms for imaging and sensing. Many of these proposed applications exploit the unique capabilities of terahertz radiation to penetrate common packaging materials and provide spectroscopic information about the materials within. Several of the techniques used for terahertz imaging have been borrowed from other, more well established fields such as x-ray computed tomography and synthetic aperture radar. Others have been developed exclusively for the terahertz field, and have no analogies in other portions of the spectrum. This review provides a comprehensive description of the various techniques which have been employed for terahertz image formation, as well as discussing numerous examples which illustrate the many exciting potential uses for these emerging technologies.

  2. The dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server


    A continuation of the treatise The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, Volume III builds upon the foundations of Volumes I and II and the tradition of the preceeding treatise Radiation Dosimetry. Volume III contains three comprehensive chapters on the applications of radiation dosimetry in particular research and medical settings, a chapter on unique and useful detectors, and two chapters on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications.

  3. Occupation: nurse; occupational hazard: radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickson, K.


    The work of the occupational health nurses at the Pickering Generating Station is described. A staff of two nurses teach first aid and safety, practice an emergency plan, and monitor personnel for minimum health standards for radiation workers. Special attention is paid to problems which might be aggravated by radiation, such as skin complaints, respiratory diseases, emotional stability, or phobias regarding heights, plastic suits, or radiation itself. Procedures used in treating contaminated personnel are outlined.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Yakubovich


    Full Text Available The paper proposes a methodology for calculation of a radiator cooling surface with due account of heat transfer non-uniformity on depth of its core. Calculation of radiator cooling surfaces of «Belarus-1221» and «Belarus-3022» tractors has been carried out in the paper. The paper also advances standard size series of radiators for powerful «Belarus» tractor type.

  5. On Divergence in Radiation Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Fricke, Joerg


    Three thought experiments demonstrate that under certain circumstances radiation fields have to be attenuated or amplified multiplicatively in order not to violate the conservation of energy. Modulation of radiation by means other than superposition is theoretically made possible by plugging additional terms into the source slots of the Maxwell equations. Modulated radiation would enable the well focused stimulation of neurons for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  6. Radiation monitoring around accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Shinichi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    The present status of a network of radiation monitors (NORM) working at KEK is described in detail. NORM consists of there parts; stand-alone radiation monitors (SARM), local-monitoring stations (STATION) and a central data-handling system (CENTER). NORM has developed to a large-scaled monitoring system in which more than 250 SARMs are under operation for monitoring the radiation fields and radioactivities around accelerators in KEK. (author)

  7. Space Flight Ionizing Radiation Environments (United States)

    Koontz, Steve


    The space-flight ionizing radiation (IR) environment is dominated by very high-kinetic energy-charged particles with relatively smaller contributions from X-rays and gamma rays. The Earth's surface IR environment is not dominated by the natural radioisotope decay processes. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of space radiation environments, beginning with the space radiation environment on the International Space Station and moving outward through the Van Allen belts to cislunar space. The benefits and limitations of radiation shielding materials will also be summarized.

  8. Radiation Therapy of Pituitary Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Moon Baik; Hong, Seong Eong [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Radiation treatment results were analyzed in a retrospective analysis of 47 patients with pituitary adenoma treated with radiation alone or combined with surgery from 1974 through 1987 at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology of Kyung Hee University. The 5-year overall survival rates for all patients was 80.4%. Radiation therapy was effective for improving visual symptoms and headache, but could not normalize amenorrhea and galactorrhoea. There was no difference of survival rate between radiation alone and combination with surgery. Prognostic factors such as age, sex, disease type, visual field, headache and surgical treatment were statistically no significant in survival rates of these patients.

  9. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars


    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

  10. Radiation reaction in fusion plasmas. (United States)

    Hazeltine, R D; Mahajan, S M


    The effects of a radiation reaction on thermal electrons in a magnetically confined plasma, with parameters typical of planned burning plasma experiments, are studied. A fully relativistic kinetic equation that includes the radiation reaction is derived. The associated rate of phase-space contraction is computed and the relative importance of the radiation reaction in phase space is estimated. A consideration of the moments of the radiation reaction force show that its effects are typically small in reactor-grade confined plasmas, but not necessarily insignificant.

  11. Cardiac imaging: does radiation matter? (United States)

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Knuuti, Juhani


    The use of ionizing radiation in cardiovascular imaging has generated considerable discussion. Radiation should not be considered in isolation, but rather in the context of a careful examination of the benefits, risks, and costs of cardiovascular imaging. Such consideration requires an understanding of some fundamental aspects of the biology, physics, epidemiology, and terminology germane to radiation, as well as principles of radiological protection. This paper offers a concise, contemporary perspective on these areas by addressing pertinent questions relating to radiation and its application to cardiac imaging. PMID:21828062

  12. Secondary osteoporosis due to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Katsuyuki; Kihana, Toshimasa; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Takeda, Yasunari; Matsuura, Shumpei; Kataoka, Masaaki; Hamamoto, Ken (Ehime Univ., Shigenobu (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Bone mineral density (BMD) of the 3rd lumber vertebra (L3) and the 5th lumber vertebra (L5) were measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT). BMD of L3 and L5 in 139 normal control cases decreased linearly with age (L3: Y= 317.32 - 3.283X, L5: Y= 314.35 - 2.9056X). Ratio of the BMD of L5 to L3 (L5/L3 ratio, %) was constant in the value of 106.03{+-}12.84% before 50 years old and increased linearly after 50 years old (Y= 21.624 + 1.7187X). In 30 radiated cases, BMD of the radiated L5 ws decreased after 20 Gy of radiation and reached 47.44{+-}18.74% of the preradiated value after 50 Gy of radiation. L5/L3 ratio was also decreased after 20 Gy of radiation and reached 48.34{+-}19.33% of pre-radiated value after 50 Gy radiation. BMD of L5 and L5/L3 ratio after 50 Gy of radiation were decreased linearly with age (L5: Y= 107.44 - 0.9686X, L5/L3 ratio: Y= 106.98 - 0.9472X). Quality of life (performance status: PS, lumbago score) after radiation correlated significantly with age, body weight, BMD of L3 before radiation, BMD of L5 after radiation. PS and lumbago score were increased significantly in cases of more than 75 years old, less than 50 kg, less than 100 mg/cm{sup 3} of BMD of L3 before radiation and less than 40 mg/cm{sup 3} of BMD of L5 after radiation. Quality of life after radiation was improved by treatment of alfacalcidol (PS: 3.0{+-}0.61 to 1.2{+-}0.47, lumbago score: 15.4{+-}4.08 to 4.2{+-}1.17). In conclusion, it should be said that pelvic radiation for gynecologic malignancy may disturb the bone metabolism and quality of life in the early phase after radiation, especially in the aged patients and that quality of life could be improved by treatment of alfacalcidol. (author).

  13. Radiation Shielding for Space Flight (United States)

    Blattnig, Steve R.; Norbury, John W.; Norman, Ryan B.


    A safe and efficient exploration of space requires an understanding of space radiations so that human life and sensitive equipment can be protected. On the way to these sensitive sites, the radiation is modified in both quality and quantity. Many of these modifications are thought to be due to the production of pions and muons in the interactions between the radiation and intervening matter. A method to predict the effects of the presence of these particles on the transport of radiation through materials is presented.

  14. Diffusion effects in undulator radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Agapov


    Full Text Available Quantum diffusion effects in undulator radiation in semiclassical approximation are considered. Short-term effects on the electron beam motion are discussed and it is shown that approaches based on diffusion approximation with drift-diffusion coefficients derived from undulator or bending magnet radiation spectrum, and on Poisson statistics with radiation spectrum defined by the local beding field, all lead to similar results in terms of electron energy spread for cases of practical interest. An analytical estimate of the influence of quantum diffusion on the undulator radiation spectrum is derived.

  15. Nanocomposite for Radiation Shielding Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) program requires the need for materials that can protect astronauts and spacecrafts from ionizing radiations such as...

  16. Doses from Medical Radiation Sources (United States)

    ... Memoriam Sections All Sections (listing) Accelerator AIRRS Decommissioning Environmental/Radon Homeland Security Instrumentation Medical Health Physics Military Health Physics Nonionizing Radiation Power Reactor Affiliates ...

  17. Radiation protection in medical imaging and radiation oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Stoeva, Magdalena S


    Radiation Protection in Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology focuses on the professional, operational, and regulatory aspects of radiation protection. Advances in radiation medicine have resulted in new modalities and procedures, some of which have significant potential to cause serious harm. Examples include radiologic procedures that require very long fluoroscopy times, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, and intravascular brachytherapy. This book summarizes evidence supporting changes in consensus recommendations, regulations, and health physics practices associated with these recent advances in radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology. It supports intelligent and practical methods for protection of personnel, the public, and patients. The book is based on current recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and is complemented by detailed practical sections and professional discussions by the world’s leading medical and health physics professionals. It also ...

  18. Radiation damping forces and radiation from charged particles (United States)

    Klepikov, N. P.


    In the present evaluation of reported results on the radiation reaction force to which a charged particle is subject, the expression obtained for this force by Lorentz (1909), Abraham (1904), and Dirac (1938) is noted to be in physically reasonable agreement with the radiation of energy, momentum and angular momentum; it has, moreover, been successfully used in investigations of the motion of particles in a field. A theory is presented for the losses of energy, momentum, and angular momentum by a system of charged particles as they move together, taking the external field, the radiation damping forces, and the retarded Lienard-Wiechert forces into account. Formulas are given for the spectral and angular distribution of the radiation from a system of particles, and a system of equations is constructed for finding the angular momenta of EM waves radiated by particles of the system.

  19. Radiation practices. Annual report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantanen, E. (ed.)


    1791 safety licences for the use of radiation were current at the end of 2011. 1702 responsible parties were engaged in notifiable licence-exempt dental X-ray activities. Use of radiation was controlled through regular inspections performed at places of use, test packages sent by post to dental X-ray facilities and maintenance of the Dose Register. Radiation safety guides were also published and research was conducted in support of regulatory control. The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) conducted 575 inspections of licensed practices in 2011. 633 repair orders and recommendations were issued in the course of inspections. A total of nearly 11 700 workers were subject to individual monitoring in 2011 and about 143 000 dose entries were made in the Dose Register maintained by STUK. Regulatory control of natural radiation focused on radon at workplaces and exposure of aircrews to cosmic radiation. 166 workplaces including a total of 288 work areas were subject to radon monitoring during 2011. Just over 3600 cockpit and cabin crew members were monitored for exposure to cosmic radiation. STUK was involved in four ionizing radiation research projects, and also took part in an international expert group evaluation of STUK research activities. New alpha and beta sources were procured for metrological activities and a Co-60 irradiation device procured in 2010 was installed and taken into use. Calibration and testing services continued as in previous years. Regulatory control of the use of non-ionizing radiation in 2011 focused particularly on mobile phones, sunbeds and lasers. Orders were issued to 5 responsible parties to discontinue the use of tattoo removal lasers. 7 sunbed facilities were inspected and 10 on-site laser display inspections were performed. Five mobile phone types were tested in market surveillance of wireless communication devices. Non-ionizing radiation research activities were also subjected to the evaluation of STUK research activities

  20. Dark Radiative Inverse Seesaw

    CERN Document Server

    Ahriche, Amine; Nasri, Salah


    We present a minimal model that simultaneously accounts for neutrino masses and the origin of dark matter (DM) and where the electroweak phase transition is strong enough to allow for electroweak baryogenesis. The Standard Model is enlarged with a Majorana fermion, three generations of chiral fermion pairs, and a single complex scalar that plays a central role in DM production and phenomenology, neutrino masses, and the strength of the phase transition. All the new fields are singlets under the SM gauge group. Neutrino masses are generated via a new variant of radiative inverse seesaw where the required small mass term is generated via loops involving DM and no large hierarchy is assumed among the mass scales. The model offers all the advantage of low-scale neutrino mass models as well as a viable dark matter candidate that is testable with direct detection experiments.

  1. Antiangiogenic and Radiation Therapy (United States)

    Ren, Ying; Fleischmann, Dominik; Foygel, Kira; Molvin, Lior; Lutz, Amelie M.; Koong, Albert C.; Jeffrey, R. Brooke; Tian, Lu; Willmann, Jürgen K.


    Objectives To assess early treatment effects on computed tomography (CT) perfusion parameters after antiangiogenic and radiation therapy in subcutaneously implanted, human colon cancer xenografts in mice and to correlate in vivo CT perfusion parameters with ex vivo assays of tumor vascularity and hypoxia. Materials and Methods Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (perfusion CT, 129 mAs, 80 kV, 12 slices × 2.4 mm; 150 μL iodinated contrast agent injected at a rate of 1 mL/min intravenously) was performed in 100 subcutaneous human colon cancer xenografts on baseline day 0. Mice in group 1 (n = 32) received a single dose of the antiangiogenic agent bevacizumab (10 mg/kg body weight), mice in group 2 (n = 32) underwent a single radiation treatment (12 Gy), and mice in group 3 (n = 32) remained untreated. On days 1, 3, 5, and 7 after treatment, 8 mice from each group underwent a second CT perfusion scan, respectively, after which tumors were excised for ex vivo analysis. Four mice were killed after baseline scanning on day 0 for ex vivo analysis. Blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), and flow extraction product were calculated using the left ventricle as an arterial input function. Correlation of in vivo CT perfusion parameters with ex vivo microvessel density and extent of tumor hypoxia were assessed by immunofluorescence. Reproducibility of CT perfusion parameter measurements was calculated in an additional 8 tumor-bearing mice scanned twice within 5 hours with the same CT perfusion imaging protocol. Results The intraclass correlation coefficients for BF, BV, and flow extraction product from repeated CT perfusion scans were 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.78, 0.97), 0.88 (0.66, 0.95), and 0.88 (0.56, 0.95), respectively. Changes in perfusion parameters and tumor volumes over time were different between treatments. After bevacizumab treatment, all 3 perfusion parameters significantly decreased from day 1 (P ≤ 0.006) and remained significantly decreased until day 7 (P ≤ 0

  2. Radiative light dark matter (United States)

    Dedes, A.; Karamitros, D.; Pilaftsis, A.


    We present a Peccei-Quinn (PQ)-symmetric two-Higgs doublet model that naturally predicts a fermionic singlet dark matter in the mass range 10 keV-1 GeV. The origin of the smallness of the mass of this light singlet fermion arises predominantly at the one-loop level, upon soft or spontaneous breakdown of the PQ symmetry via a complex scalar field in a fashion similar to the so-called Dine-Fischler-Sredniki-Zhitnitsky axion model. The mass generation of this fermionic radiative light dark matter (RLDM) requires the existence of two heavy vectorlike SU(2) isodoublets, which are not charged under the PQ symmetry. We show how the RLDM can be produced via the freeze-in mechanism, thus accounting for the missing matter in the Universe. Finally, we briefly discuss possible theoretical and phenomenological implications of the RLDM model for the strong C P problem and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  3. Thermodynamics of radiation modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, Eduardo; De la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, PO Box 55 534, Mexico, D F, 09340 (Mexico)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the frequencies. One equation relating frequency and volume is used to define the thermodynamics of one mode, and to explain the mystery of the frequency-dependent quantities having a similar behaviour to the non-frequency-dependent quantities for some thermodynamic equations and different behaviour for others. Besides, this frequency-volume relation is used to count the number of modes in a band of frequency.

  4. Radiation induced femoral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, B.; Esnault, S.; Brunet, P. (Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris (France))


    We report four cases of femoral palsy due to compressive fibrosis, after pelvic radiation therapy. Three patients had Hodgkin's disease, and one testicular seminoma. Prominent clinical features include major groin induration and underlying swelling. Unlike what is usually seen in tumoral relapse, little or no pain is associated with these neuropathies. The femoral post-radic palsy develops earlier and faster than brachial plexus palsy of same aetiology. In one case, progressive aggravation led to surgical neurolysis which resulted in dramatic and long lasting improvement. The principal preventive and therapeutic management methods are discussed: since compressive fibrosis is related to the use of isolated and massive electron beam therapy, various associations of cobalt and electron beam therapy are designed to best prevent the side effects of each of these methods. The early treatment of developing fibrosis by D. penicillamine is discussed.

  5. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Ansanelli, E. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States)


    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market. In this project, the ARIES team sought to better understand the current usage of TRVs by key market players in steam and hot water heating and to conduct limited experiments on the effectiveness of new and old TRVs as a means of controlling space temperatures and reducing heating fuel consumption. The project included a survey of industry professionals, a field experiment comparing old and new TRVs, and cost-benefit modeling analysis using BEopt™ (Building Energy Optimization software).

  6. Radiation imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbitt, III, John T.; Immel, David M.; Folsom, Matthew D.; Plummer, Jean R.; Serrato, Michael G.


    A radiation imaging system includes a casing and a camera disposed inside the casing. A first field of view through the casing exposes the camera to light from outside of the casing. An image plate is disposed inside the casing, and a second field of view through the casing to the image plate exposes the image plate to high-energy particles produced by a radioisotope outside of the casing. An optical reflector that is substantially transparent to the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope is disposed with respect to the camera and the image plate to reflect light to the camera and to allow the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope to pass through the optical reflector to the image plate.

  7. Radiation imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immel, David M.; Bobbit, III, John T.; Plummer, Jean R.; Folsom, Matthew D.; Serrato, Michael G.


    A radiation imaging system includes a casing and a camera disposed inside the casing. A first field of view through the casing exposes the camera to light from outside of the casing. An image plate is disposed inside the casing, and a second field of view through the casing to the image plate exposes the image plate to high-energy particles produced by a radioisotope outside of the casing. An optical reflector that is substantially transparent to the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope is disposed with respect to the camera and the image plate to reflect light to the camera and to allow the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope to pass through the optical reflector to the image plate.

  8. The radiation of ULTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheila, D.; Hill, D.J.; Whitaker, A.K. [The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Department of Chemistry, Polymer Material and Radiation Group


    Polyimide polymers and membranes have interesting mechanical, thermal and electrical properties, and useful for industrial applications. They are also known for their exceptional thermo-oxidative and chemical resistance. High performance linear aromatic polymers with skeletons composed primarily of aromatic units are expected to be the materials used in high energy radiation fields, such as space and fusion reactor environments. In this study the ESR technique was employed to study the radiation resistivity of ULTEM. Gamma irradiations were carried out at 77 K and the ambient temperature. The neutral and anionic free radicals produced at 52 Mrad, and 77 K were further thermally annealed to just above glass transition temperature. The annealing resulted in two decay regions, namely 130-230 K and above 250 K, corresponding to the decay of anion radicals and neutral radicals respectively. The sample was further irradiated for 20 Mrads at 77 K. Photobleaching with visible light at 610 nm and 510 nm were carried out to detrap the anionic radicals. It was observed that up to 71% of the radicals were detrapped by photobleaching. Further annealing up to 490 K, following the photobleaching, showed complete decay of the radicals. {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR of the polymers irradiated at 100, 250 and 500 Mrad clearly showed the evidence of cross linking at 250 Mrad. New peaks were identified for {sup 1}H NMR at {delta} 1.60 a 7.04. GPC results of the irradiated polymer at 52, 100, and 250 Mrad showed increase in molecular weight after initial decline

  9. Cherenkov radiation in moving medium



    Cherenkov radiation in uniformly moving homogenous isotropic medium without dispersion is studied. Formula for the spectrum of Cherenkov radiation of fermion was derived for the case when the speed of the medium is less than the speed of light in this medium at rest. The properties of Cherenkov spectrum are investigated.

  10. Radiation carcinogenesis: radioprotectors and photosensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.


    This paper outlines 1) some of the salient features of radiation carcinogenesis that are pertinent to the questions of how the carcinogenic effects might be influenced, 2) the effects of radioprotectors on ionizing radiation-induced cancer, and 3) the effect of photosensitizers on UVR-induced skin cancer.

  11. Chemical Protection Against Ionizing Radiation. (United States)


    experimentally obtained. SPONSOR: Div of Cancer Treatment, NIH /A TOPICS: 2D PI/ORG: Moss, Alfred J; Veterans Administration Ned Ctr, Little Rock AR TITLE...Robert C; Dartmouth- Hitchcock Ned Ctr, Hanover NH TITLE: Radiation-chemical induction of mutagenesis. SUMMARY: Effects of sensitizers on radiation

  12. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia



    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  13. Radiation curing in the eighties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrancken, A. (UCB, Drogenbos (Belgium). Chemical Specialities Div.)


    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; what is radiation curing; history; radiation curable resins (with properties of products); ultraviolet and electron beam curing; photoinitiation and the ultraviolet light curing process; electron beam curing (initiation; electron beam accelerators); end uses (graphic arts; wood finishing; paper upgrading; adhesives; metal finishing; electronic chemical; floor coatings).

  14. Synchrotron radiation from massless charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Gal'tsov


    Full Text Available Classical radiation power from an accelerated massive charge diverges in the zero-mass limit, while some authors suggest that strictly massless charge does not radiate at all. On the other hand, the regularized classical radiation reaction force, though looking odd, is non-zero and finite. To clarify this controversy, we consider radiation problem in massless scalar quantum electrodynamics in the external magnetic field. In this framework, synchrotron radiation is found to be non-zero, finite, and essentially quantum. Its spectral distribution is calculated using Schwinger's proper time technique for ab initio massless particle of zero spin. Provided E2≫eH, the maximum in the spectrum is shown to be at ħω=E/3, and the average photon energy is 4E/9. The normalized spectrum is universal, depending neither on E nor on H. Quantum nature of radiation makes classical radiation reaction equation meaningless for massless charge. Classical theory is reliable only as providing the low-frequency part of the true quantum radiation spectrum.

  15. Biological Research for Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Jung, Il Lae; Choi, Yong Ho; Kim, Jin Sik; Moon, Myung Sook; Byun, Hee Sun; Phyo, Ki Heon; Kim, Sung Keun


    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells.

  16. Cancer risks after radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelz, G.L.


    A general overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer induction is presented. The relationship between the degree of risk and absorbed dose is examined. Mortality from radiation-induced cancer in the US is estimated and percentages attributable to various sources are given. (ACR)

  17. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation (United States)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.


    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  18. Radiation Safety Aspects of Nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, David; Cash, Leigh Jackson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Guilmette, Raymond [Ray Guilmette & Associates, LLC, Perry, ME (United States); Kreyling, Wolfgang [Helmholtz-Zentrum Munchen, (Germany); Oberdorster, Gunter [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Smith, Rachel [Public Health England, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom). Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards


    This Report is intended primarily for operational health physicists, radiation safety officers, and internal dosimetrists who are responsible for establishing and implementing radiation safety programs involving radioactive nanomaterials. It should also provide useful information for workers, managers and regulators who are either working directly with or have other responsibilities related to work with radioactive nanomaterials.

  19. Radiation camera motion correction system (United States)

    Hoffer, P.B.


    The device determines the ratio of the intensity of radiation received by a radiation camera from two separate portions of the object. A correction signal is developed to maintain this ratio at a substantially constant value and this correction signal is combined with the camera signal to correct for object motion. (Official Gazette)

  20. Workshops on radiation imaging detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sochinskii, N.V.; Sun, G.C.; Kostamo, P.; Silenas, A.; Saynatjoki, A.; Grant, J.; Owens, A.; Kozorezov, A.G.; Noschis, E.; Van Eijk, C.; Nagarkar, V.; Sekiya, H.; Pribat, D.; Campbell, M.; Lundgren, J.; Arques, M.; Gabrielli, A.; Padmore, H.; Maiorino, M.; Volpert, M.; Lebrun, F.; Van der Putten, S.; Pickford, A.; Barnsley, R.; Anton, M.E.G.; Mitschke, M.; Gros d' Aillon, E.; Frojdh, C.; Norlin, B.; Marchal, J.; Quattrocchi, M.; Stohr, U.; Bethke, K.; Bronnimann, C.H.; Pouvesle, J.M.; Hoheisel, M.; Clemens, J.C.; Gallin-Martel, M.L.; Bergamaschi, A.; Redondo-Fernandez, I.; Gal, O.; Kwiatowski, K.; Montesi, M.C.; Smith, K


    This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the international workshop on radiation imaging detectors. 9 sessions were organized: 1) materials for detectors and detector structure, 2) front end electronics, 3) interconnected technologies, 4) space, fusion applications, 5) the physics of detection, 6) industrial applications, 7) synchrotron radiation, 8) X-ray sources, and 9) medical and other applications.

  1. Nanocomposites for electromagnetic radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrunin, V. F., E-mail: [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)


    Specific features that characterize nanoparticles and which are due to their small size and allow one to enhance the interaction between the electromagnetic radiation and nanostructured materials and to develop the effective protection of man and equipment against harmful uncontrolled radiation are reported. Examples of the development of nanocomposite radar absorbing materials that can be used for protection of man and equipment are presented.

  2. The program RADLST (Radiation Listing)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, T.W.


    The program RADLST (Radiation Listing) is designed to calculate the nuclear and atomic radiations associated with the radioactive decay of nuclei. It uses as its primary input nuclear decay data in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) format. The code is written in FORTRAN 77 and, with a few exceptions, is consistent with the ANSI standard. 65 refs.

  3. Hawking Radiation in Dispersive Media

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Scott James


    Hawking radiation, despite its presence in theoretical physics for over thirty years, remains elusive and undetected. It also suffers, in its original context of gravitational black holes, from conceptual difficulties. Of particular note is the trans-Planckian problem, which is concerned with the apparent origin of the radiation in absurdly high frequencies. In order to gain better theoretical understanding and, it is hoped, experimental verification of Hawking radiation, much study is being devoted to systems which model the spacetime geometry of black holes, and which, by analogy, are also thought to emit Hawking radiation. These analogue systems typically exhibit dispersion, which regularizes the wave behaviour at the horizon but does not lend itself well to analytic treatment, thus rendering Hawking's prediction less secure. A general analytic method for dealing with Hawking radiation in dispersive systems has proved difficult to find. This thesis presents new numerical and analytic results for Hawking em...

  4. Measurement and detection of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tsoulfanidis, Nicholas


    This is an update of the standard textbook for the field of radiation measurement. It includes illustrative examples and new problems. The research and applications of nuclear instrumentation have grown substantially since publication of the previous editions. With the miniaturization of equipment, increased speed of electronic components, and more sophisticated software, radiation detection systems are now more productively used in many disciplines, including nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, and nuclear medicine. Continuing in the tradition of its bestselling predecessors, "Measurement and Detection of Radiation, Third Edition" illustrates the fundamentals of nuclear interactions and radiation detection with a multitude of examples and problems. It offers a clearly written, accessible introduction to nuclear instrumentation concepts. The following are new to the third edition: a new chapter on the latest applications of radiation detection, covering nuclear medicine, dosimetry, health physics, no...

  5. Radiation physics for medical physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Podgorsak, Ervin B


    This book summarizes the radiation physics knowledge that professionals working in medical physics need to master for efficient and safe dealings with ionizing radiation. It contains eight chapters, each chapter covering a specific group of subjects related to radiation physics and is intended as a textbook for a course in radiation physics in medical-physics graduate programs. However, the book may also be of interest to the large number of professionals, not only medical physicists, who in their daily occupations deal with various aspects of medical physics and find a need to improve their understanding of radiation physics. The main target audience for this book is graduate students studying for M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in medical physics, who have to possess the necessary physics and mathematics background knowledge to be able to follow and master the complete textbook. Medical residents, technology students and biomedical engineering students may find certain sections too challenging or esoteric, yet they...

  6. Radiation feedback in dusty clouds (United States)

    Ishiki, Shohei; Okamoto, Takashi


    We have investigated the impact of photoionization and radiation pressure on a dusty star-forming cloud using one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations, which include absorption and re-emission of photons by dust. We find that, in a cloud of mass 105 M⊙ and radius 17 pc, the effect of radiation pressure is negligible when star formation efficiency is 2 per cent. The importance of radiation pressure increases with increasing star formation efficiency or an increasing dust-to-gas mass ratio. The net effect of radiation feedback, however, becomes smaller with the increasing dust-to-gas mass ratio, since the absorption of ultraviolet photons by dust grains suppresses photoionization and hence photoheating.

  7. Status of radiation processing dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.


    Several milestones have marked the field of radiation processing dosimetry since IMRP 7. Among them are the IAEA symposium on High Dose Dosimetry for Radiation Processing and the international Workshops on Dosimetry for Radiation Processing organized by the ASTM. Several standards have been...... or are being published by the ASTM in this field, both on dosimetry procedures and on the proper use of specific dosimeter systems. Several individuals are involved in this international cooperation which contribute significantly to the broader understanding of the role of dosimetry in radiation processing....... The importance of dosimetry is emphasized in the standards on radiation sterilization which are currently drafted by the European standards organization CEN and by the international standards organization ISO. In both standards, dosimetry plays key roles in characterization of the facility, in qualification...

  8. Atomic spectroscopy and radiative processes

    CERN Document Server

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio


    This book describes the basic physical principles of atomic spectroscopy and the absorption and emission of radiation in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. It summarizes the basics of electromagnetism and thermodynamics and then describes in detail the theory of atomic spectra for complex atoms, with emphasis on astrophysical applications. Both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena in plasmas are considered. The interaction between radiation and matter is described, together with various types of radiation (e.g., cyclotron, synchrotron, bremsstrahlung, Compton). The basic theory of polarization is explained, as is the theory of radiative transfer for astrophysical applications. Atomic Spectroscopy and Radiative Processes bridges the gap between basic books on atomic spectroscopy and the very specialized publications for the advanced researcher: it will provide under- and postgraduates with a clear in-depth description of theoretical aspects, supported by practical examples of applications.

  9. Radiation Hardening of Silicon Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Leroy, C; Glaser, M


    %RD48 %title\\\\ \\\\Silicon detectors will be widely used in experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider where high radiation levels will cause significant bulk damage. In addition to increased leakage current and charge collection losses worsening the signal to noise, the induced radiation damage changes the effective doping concentration and represents the limiting factor to long term operation of silicon detectors. The objectives are to develop radiation hard silicon detectors that can operate beyond the limits of the present devices and that ensure guaranteed operation for the whole lifetime of the LHC experimental programme. Radiation induced defect modelling and experimental results show that the silicon radiation hardness depends on the atomic impurities present in the initial monocrystalline material.\\\\ \\\\ Float zone (FZ) silicon materials with addition of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, germanium and tin were produced as well as epitaxial silicon materials with epilayers up to 200 $\\mu$m thickness. Their im...

  10. Essentials of radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server



    Essentials of Radiation Heat Transfer is a textbook presenting the essential, fundamental information required to gain an understanding of radiation heat transfer and equips the reader with enough knowledge to be able to tackle more challenging problems. All concepts are reinforced by carefully chosen and fully worked examples, and exercise problems are provided at the end of every chapter. In a significant departure from other books on this subject, this book completely dispenses with the network method to solve problems of radiation heat transfer in surfaces. It instead presents the powerful radiosity-irradiation method and shows how this technique can be used to solve problems of radiation in enclosures made of one to any number of surfaces. The network method is not easily scalable. Secondly, the book introduces atmospheric radiation, which is now being considered as a potentially important area, in which engineers can contribute to the technology of remote sensing and atmospheric sciences in general, b...

  11. Bistability in radiative heat exchange (United States)

    Rudakov, V. I.; Ovcharov, V. V.; Prigara, V. P.


    The possibility of a bistable regime in systems with radiative heat exchange is theoretically demonstrated for the first time. The transfer characteristics of a radiation-closed stationary system have been calculated, in which the radiator is a blackbody and the absorber is made of a material with the absorptivity sharply increasing in a certain temperature interval. The radiator and absorber are separated by a vacuum gap. The heat exchange between the system and the environment is controlled by varying the flow rate of a heat-transfer agent cooling the absorber. The output parameter of a bistable system is the absorber temperature, while the input parameter can be either the radiator temperature or the heat-transfer agent flow rate. Depending on the choice of the input parameter, the transfer characteristic of the system is either represented by a usual S-like curve or has an inverted shape.

  12. Radiation physics for nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Hoeschen, Christoph


    The field of nuclear medicine is expanding rapidly, with the development of exciting new diagnostic methods and treatments. This growth is closely associated with significant advances in radiation physics. In this book, acknowledged experts explain the basic principles of radiation physics in relation to nuclear medicine and examine important novel approaches in the field. The first section is devoted to what might be termed the "building blocks" of nuclear medicine, including the mechanisms of interaction between radiation and matter and Monte Carlo codes. In subsequent sections, radiation sources for medical applications, radiopharmaceutical development and production, and radiation detectors are discussed in detail. New frontiers are then explored, including improved algorithms for image reconstruction, biokinetic models, and voxel phantoms for internal dosimetry. Both trainees and experienced practitioners and researchers will find this book to be an invaluable source of up-to-date information.

  13. Applying radiation health effects data to radiation protection policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckerheide, James [Center for Nuclear Technology and Society at WPI, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA (United States)


    Data from the peer-reviewed scientific literature establish a sound basis to define a low-dose, low-dose-rate, dose-response. These data include human health dose-response studies; immunologically 'whole' animal studies; and cellular and molecular biological studies of complete biological systems for the relevant immunological and physiological responses. Initiatives are required to constructively apply these data to both radiation research and radiation protection policies. First, current low level radiation health effects research must apply existing data to define research projects to integrate and confirm existing dose-response data, with specific emphasis on the biological bases that exist in definitive and reproducible cellular and biological dose-response. Second, dose-response assessment must identify and incorporate all existing substantial and confirmed data, including natural radiation sources, to establish the bases for radiation protection policy for interventions to protect public health and safety. A preliminary assessment of these data is applied to: 1) Specify research that can be constructively applied to describe radiation health effects dose-response. 2) Apply health effects dose-response to radiation and radioactivity applications policies to maximize radiation health effects interventions for occupational applications, medical applications, and other radiation and radioactive materials applications controls to cost-effectively assure public health and safety. An assessment of the proposed revisions to ICRP radiation protection policies is provided that associates the basis for administrative limits with the previous proposal of the US NRC for a 'Below Regulatory Concern' (BRC) policy. This proposal ignores the context of the fact that very low levels of radiation exposure are far within the variations of natural radiation exposures, and therefore can have no gross net consequences. The equivalent failure of the BRC proposal

  14. Optimization and radiation protection culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, In Young; Shin, Hyeong Ki; Lee, Chan Mi [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Safety culture or radiation protection culture is based in common on the term, 'culture'. Culture is defined as the learned, shared set of symbols and patterns of basic assumptions, which is invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problem of external adaptation and internal integration. Safety culture generally refers to the attitude and behaviors affecting safety performance. The concept of 'Safety Culture' was introduced after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. For the accident, nuclear society reached the conclusion that the cause was the wrong management attitude of the NPP, that is, deficient 'Safety Culture'. Recently, 'Radiation Protection Culture' was introduced as the core concept of nuclear safety culture. There have been many efforts to establish definition and develop assessment tool for radiation protection culture in international level such as ICRP and IRPA as well as NRC. In the same context with the safety culture, radiation protection culture is defined as 'the core values and behaviors resulting from a collective commitment by leaders and individual's to emphasize safety over competing goals to ensure protection of people and the environment.' It is worthwhile to recognize that regulatory enforcement in establishing healthy radiation protection culture of operators should be minimized because culture is not in the domain of regulatory enforcement. However, as 'ALARA', the most important concept in radiation protection, may be successfully achieved only in well established radiation protection culture, the least regulatory intervention would be needed in promoting and nurturing radiation protection culture in licensee. In addition, the concept of radiation protection culture should be addressed in plant operational policy to achieve the goals of ALARA. The pre-condition of the successful radiation protection culture is a healthy organizational

  15. Radiation treatment and radiation reactions in dermatology. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panizzon, Renato G. [Univ. Hospital CHUV, Lausanne (Switzerland). Dept. of Dermatology; Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich (ed.) [Strahlenzentrum Hamburg (Germany)


    Explains the use of radiation treatment in the full range of skin cancers and precancerous lesions. Covers physical and radiobiological principles, dose definitions, radiation reactions, and risk assessments. Revised and updated edition that includes new chapters and numerous additional figures. In this book, leading experts in the dermatological and oncological field describe the use of radiation therapy for the treatment of the full range of dermatological malignancies - including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, cutaneous lymphomas, Kaposi's sarcoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell tumor - as well as those precancerous lesions and non-malignant dermatological disorders which are amenable to radiation therapy. In each case the specific indications for the use of radiotherapy and its application are clearly explained with the aid of numerous high-quality illustrations. In addition, the book provides a concise introduction to physical and radiobiological principles, selection of radiation factors, dose definitions, radiation reactions, and risk assessments. The new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect advances in practical knowledge and clinical practice. It will be an invaluable source of information on the management of skin tumors and related non-malignant disorders for both dermatologists, oncologists and radiation oncologists.

  16. Studies about space radiation promote new fields in radiation biology. (United States)

    Ohnishi, Takeo; Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Ken


    Astronauts are constantly exposed to space radiation of various types of energy with a low dose-rate during long-term stays in space. Therefore, it is important to determine correctly the biological effects of space radiation on human health. Studies about biological the effects at a low dose and a low dose-rate include various aspects of microbeams, bystander effects, radioadaptive responses and hormesis which are important fields in radiation biology. In addition, space radiations contain high linear energy transfer (LET) particles. In particular, neutrons may cause reverse effectiveness at a low dose-rate in comparison to ionizing radiation. We are also interested in p53-centered signal transduction pathways involved in the cell cycle, DNA repair and apoptosis induced by space radiations. We must also study whether the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of space radiation is affected by microgravity which is another typical component in space. To confirm this, we must prepare centrifuge systems in an International Space Station (ISS). In addition, we must prepare many types of equipment for space experiments in an ISS, because we cannot use conventional equipment from our laboratories. Furthermore, the research for space radiation might give us valuable information about the birth and evolution of life on the Earth. We can also realize the importance of preventing the ozone layer from depletion by the use of exposure equipment to sunlight in an ISS. For these reasons, we desire to educate space researchers of the next generation based on the consideration of the preservation of the Earth from research about space radiation.

  17. Radiation by moving charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    It is generally accepted that in order to describe the dynamics of relativistic particles in the laboratory (lab) frame it is sufficient to take into account the relativistic dependence of the particle momenta on the velocity. This solution of the dynamics problem in the lab frame makes no reference to Lorentz transformations. For this reason they are not discussed in particle tracking calculations in accelerator and plasma physics. It is generally believed that the electrodynamics problem can be treated within the same ''single inertial frame'' description without reference to Lorentz transformations. In particular, in order to evaluate radiation fields arising from charged particles in motion we need to know their velocities and positions as a function of the lab frame time t. The relativistic motion of a particle in the lab frame is described by Newton's second law ''corrected'' for the relativistic dependence of momentum on velocity. It is assumed in all standard derivations that one can perform identification of the trajectories in the source part of the usual Maxwell's equations with the trajectories vector x(t) measured (or calculated by using the corrected Newton's second law) in the lab frame. This way of coupling fields and particles is considered since more than a century as the relativistically correct procedure.We argue that this procedure needs to be changed, and we demonstrate the following, completely counterintuitive statement: the results of conventional theory of radiation by relativistically moving charges are not consistent with the principle of relativity. In order to find the trajectory of a particle in the lab frame consistent with the usual Maxwell's equations, one needs to solve the dynamic equation inmanifestly covariant form by using the coordinate-independent proper time τ to parameterize the particle world-line in space-time. We show that there is a difference between &apos

  18. The risks of radiation (United States)

    Miettenen, Jorma K.


    The risks of radioactivity are a really complicated matter, yet they are much better known than are the risks relating to thousands of chemical poisons that occur in our environment. The greatest mistakes are probably made in the definition of safety margins. Except for the bombs dropped in Japan and one other case in the Marshall Islands, there has always—luckily—been a wide safety margin between fallout radiation and doses dangerous to health; the margin has actually been about 1000-fold. The Chernobyl dose of 0.5 mGy/year that we received is only 1/1000 of the acute dose of 0.5 Gy which would cause a slight and nonpermanent change in the blood picture. There is no such safety margin with respect to many air pollutants. The safety standards for sulfuric or nitric oxides, ozone and so on, have been set only just below the level that already causes a health hazard, and these standards are exceeded once in a while. Otherwise, traffic would have to be forbidden and many industrial plants, especially power stations using coal, would have to stop working whenever a low-temperature inversion occurred. Environmental radioactivity does not represent a likely health risk in Finland unless a nuclear war breaks out. Air pollutants, on the contrary, are a real and almost daily health risk that should be carefully considered when decisions about our energy production are being made. In spite of what happened at Chernobyl, global consumption of nuclear power will double by the year 2000, since there are about 140 nuclear power plants presently under construction. It is not likely that another catastrophe like Chernobyl will happen, yet nuclear plant accidents are of course possible, even if their likelihood is diminished by improving reactor safety and even if any eventual damage could be expected to be smaller. If a reactor is hooded by a containment structure, no significant release of radioactive materials should be possible even in case of an accident. However, we must

  19. Rapid Development of the Radiation Curing Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Radiation curing is an advanced material surface treatment technology using ultraviolet (UV) radiation and electronic beams (EB). With the greater attention paid to environ mentel protection in recent years ,radiation curing has developed rapidly.

  20. X-ray magnetic dichroism: from quantitative determination of magnetic moments to imaging of magnetization dynamics; Dichroisme magnetique des rayons X: de la determination quantitative des moments magnetiques a l'imagerie de la dynamique de l'aimantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J


    In this document, I use some results of my research activities of the last ten years to show the power of x-ray magnetic dichroism for determining magnetic properties of thin layers, multilayers and nano-structures. The use of sum rules for x-ray dichroism allows a quantitative determination of the spin and orbital contributions to the magnetic moment, for each element of a heterogeneous material separately. Used in a qualitative way, x-ray dichroism allows monitoring the magnetization of the different layers in a multilayer material as a function of applied field. In combination with the temporal structure of synchrotron radiation, it is possible to study fast magnetization reversal with element selectivity, which is important for devices like spin valves and magnetic tunnel junctions. Adding the spatial resolution of a photoelectron emission microscope (PEEM), it becomes possible to study all the details of the fast magnetization reversal in complex magnetic systems. (author)

  1. Radiation feedback in dusty clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Ishiki, Shohei


    We have investigated the impact of photoionization and radiation pressure on a dusty star-forming cloud by one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations, which include absorption and re-emission of photons by dust. We find that even in a moderately dusty cloud with the infrared optical depth of 0.15, radiation pressure has strong impact on driving an outflow, while the effect of radiation pressure is negligible in a dustless cloud. The radiation pressure on dust creates an HII region whose density is much lower than that in a dustless cloud where an outflow is driven by thermal pressure of ionized gas. Due to the radiation pressure, a shocked shell expands with high velocity, > 100 km s^-1. Absorption of re-emitted photons by dust plays a significant role in driving an outflow when the infrared optical depth becomes unity and it increases the importance of radiation pressure. The column density of clouds decreases with very short timescale owing to the shell expansion. Because of the decline of the infra...

  2. Compton Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey Krafft,Gerd Priebe


    When a relativistic electron beam interacts with a high-field laser beam, intense and highly collimated electromagnetic radiation will be generated through Compton scattering. Through relativistic upshifting and the relativistic Doppler effect, highly energetic polarized photons are radiated along the electron beam motion when the electrons interact with the laser light. For example, X-ray radiation can be obtained when optical lasers are scattered from electrons of tens-of-MeV beam energy. Because of the desirable properties of the radiation produced, many groups around the world have been designing, building, and utilizing Compton sources for a wide variety of purposes. In this review article, we discuss the generation and properties of the scattered radiation, the types of Compton source devices that have been constructed to date, and the prospects of radiation sources of this general type. Due to the possibilities of producing hard electromagnetic radiation in a device that is small compared to the alternative storage ring sources, it is foreseen that large numbers of such sources may be constructed in the future.

  3. Synchrotron radiation from massless charge

    CERN Document Server

    Gal'tsov, D V


    Classical radiation power from an accelerated massive charge diverges in the zero-mass limit, while some general arguments suggest that strictly massless charge does not not radiate at all. On the other hand, the regularized classical radiation reaction force, though looking odd, is non-zero and finite. To clarify this controversy, we consider radiation problem in massless scalar quantum electrodynamics in the external magnetic field. In this framework, synchrotron radiation is found to be non-zero, finite, and essentially quantum. Its spectral distribution is calculated using Schwinger's proper time technique for {\\em ab initio} massless particle of zero spin. Provided $E^2\\gg eH$, the maximum in the spectrum is shown to be at $\\hbar \\omega=E/3$, and the average photon energy is $4E/9$. The normalized spectrum is universal, depending neither on $E$ nor on $H$. Quantum nature of radiation makes classical radiation reaction equation meaningless for massless charge. Our results are consistent with the view (sup...

  4. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  5. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects (United States)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  6. IRPA initiative on radiation protection culture (United States)

    Golnik, Natalia; Tulik, Piotr


    The concept of radiation protection culture, proposed by French Society for Radiation Protection (SFRP) and then launched by International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) is presented. The paper is focused on the role of radiation culture in preventing unjustified fear associated with the use of radiation. Principles of RP culture and optimization of radiation protection, as well as the problems how RP culture can be learned and how to engage the stakeholders are considered.

  7. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.


    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed.

  8. Radiation Damage in Electronic Memory Devices


    Irfan Fetahović; Milić Pejović; Miloš Vujisić


    This paper investigates the behavior of semiconductor memories exposed to radiation in order to establish their applicability in a radiation environment. The experimental procedure has been used to test radiation hardness of commercial semiconductor memories. Different types of memory chips have been exposed to indirect ionizing radiation by changing radiation dose intensity. The effect of direct ionizing radiation on semiconductor memory behavior has been analyzed by using Monte Carlo simula...

  9. Sacramento Regional Response Guide to Radiation Emergencies (United States)


    heat, radio waves, and microwaves which are low level radiation energy which is referred to as non- ionizing radiation. High energy radiation is...Response Plan" (California Office of Emergency Services, Updated February 2001), 5. 41 • Department of Fish and Game-lead agency for petroleum spills...radiation-binding and radiation-ridding gels, foam products, films and emulsions . The goal of radiation decontamination is to be sensitive to the

  10. Obligatory Radiation Protection Course

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit


    Since February 2008, participation in the radiation protection course has been a prerequisite for obtaining a CERN personal dosimeter for all Staff Members and Users. All Staff and Users holding a personal dosimeter were informed by the Bulletin and by a personal e-mail sent in February 2008 that they were required to participate in the course before the annual exchange of their dosimeter. Many people had not done so by that time and the Dosimetry Service exceptionally classified them for 2 months as short-term visitors (VCT), a category of monitored personnel to whom the training requirement does not presently apply. As all personnel concerned have since had time to participate in an RP course, this "grace period" will no longer be granted as of 1 October 2008 and the RP course must be completed before the personal dosimeter is exchanged. For newcomers to CERN, and for those returning to CERN after an absence of more than 1 year, one registration as a VCT for two months ...

  11. Visualizing dipole radiation (United States)

    Girwidz, Raimund V.


    The Hertzian dipole is fundamental to the understanding of dipole radiation. It provides basic insights into the genesis of electromagnetic waves and lays the groundwork for an understanding of half-wave antennae and other types. Equations for the electric and magnetic fields of such a dipole can be derived mathematically. However these are very abstract descriptions. Interpreting these equations and understanding travelling electromagnetic waves are highly limited in that sense. Visualizations can be a valuable supplement that vividly present properties of electromagnetic fields and their propagation. The computer simulation presented below provides additional instructive illustrations for university lectures on electrodynamics, broadening the experience well beyond what is possible with abstract equations. This paper refers to a multimedia program for PCs, tablets and smartphones, and introduces and discusses several animated illustrations. Special features of multiple representations and combined illustrations will be used to provide insight into spatial and temporal characteristics of field distributions—which also draw attention to the flow of energy. These visualizations offer additional information, including the relationships between different representations that promote deeper understanding. Finally, some aspects are also illustrated that often remain unclear in lectures.

  12. Smart Radiation Therapy Biomaterials. (United States)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Boateng, Francis; Kumar, Rajiv; Irvine, Darrell J; Formenti, Silvia; Ngoma, Twalib; Herskind, Carsten; Veldwijk, Marlon R; Hildenbrand, Georg Lars; Hausmann, Michael; Wenz, Frederik; Hesser, Juergen


    Radiation therapy (RT) is a crucial component of cancer care, used in the treatment of over 50% of cancer patients. Patients undergoing image guided RT or brachytherapy routinely have inert RT biomaterials implanted into their tumors. The single function of these RT biomaterials is to ensure geometric accuracy during treatment. Recent studies have proposed that the inert biomaterials could be upgraded to "smart" RT biomaterials, designed to do more than 1 function. Such smart biomaterials include next-generation fiducial markers, brachytherapy spacers, and balloon applicators, designed to respond to stimuli and perform additional desirable functions like controlled delivery of therapy-enhancing payloads directly into the tumor subvolume while minimizing normal tissue toxicities. More broadly, smart RT biomaterials may include functionalized nanoparticles that can be activated to boost RT efficacy. This work reviews the rationale for smart RT biomaterials, the state of the art in this emerging cross-disciplinary research area, challenges and opportunities for further research and development, and a purview of potential clinical applications. Applications covered include using smart RT biomaterials for boosting cancer therapy with minimal side effects, combining RT with immunotherapy or chemotherapy, reducing treatment time or health care costs, and other incipient applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation hazard control report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Taeko; Inagaki, Masayo; Morishima, Hiroshige; Araki, Yasusuke; Takiguchi, Chizuko; Hiraji, Chihiro; Nagai, Shoya [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan)


    The document of radiation hazard control from April 2001 to March 2002 in the research institute of atomic energy of Kinki University was reported and actual data were presented. 106 personnel were subjected to the control, the reactor maximal output was 1W with total output of 399,64 W center dot h for total 718.23 h and the institute underwent the inspection by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology for twice, which resulting in getting satisfactory evaluation. The control involved was for the personnel, laboratories and field. The first was done mainly with film badges and sometimes with pocket dosimeters, and revealed the exposure of 0.480 mSv at maximum. The laboratory dose equivalent was continuously measured with the ionization chamber area monitor and sometimes with the ionization chamber survey meters, GM tube survey meters and scintillation survey meters. The film badge and TLD were also used. In addition, concentrations of radioactivity were measured in the exhaust gas and water with the dust-monitor and overall-monitor, respectively, and surface densities by smear-method with 2 pi-gas flow and liquid scintillation counters. The field control was carried out by calculation of environmental gamma-ray dose equivalent rate based on monthly TLD dose data and by actual beta-ray measurement of environmental specimens collected at every 3 months. (J.P.N.)

  14. Radiation hazard control report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Taeko; Inagaki, Masayo; Morishima, Hiroshige; Araki, Yasusuke; Takiguchi, Chizuko; Matsubayashi, Hideki; Hiraji, Chihiro [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan)


    The document of radiation hazard control from April 2000 to March 2001 in the research institute of atomic energy of Kinki University was reported and actual data were presented. Seventy five personnel were subjected to the control, the reactor maximal output was 1W with total output of 463.74 W center dot h for total 777.34 h and the institute underwent the inspection by Science and Technology Agency for 3 times, which resulting in getting satisfactory evaluation. The control involved was for the personnel, laboratories and field. The first was done mainly with film badges and sometimes with pocket dosimeters, and revealed the exposure of 0.264 mSv at maximum. The laboratory dose equivalent was continuously measured with the ionization chamber area monitor and sometimes with the ionization chamber survey meters, GM tube survey meters and scintillation survey meters. The film badge and TLD were also used. In addition, concentrations of radioactivity were measured in the exhaust gas and water with the dust-monitor and overall-monitor, respectively, and surface densities by smear-method with the 2 pi-gas flow and liquid scintillation counters. The field control was carried out by calculation of environmental gamma-ray dose equivalent rate based on monthly TLD dose data and by actual beta-ray measurement of environmental specimens collected at every 3 months. (J.P.N.)

  15. Radiation treatment of molasses (United States)

    Rodríguez, A. S.; Serrano G., J.; Lara R., O.; Reyes L., J.

    Molasses are a by-product of the sugar industry. Their annual production in México in around 1 million tons and are mainly used as a complement for animal feeding and for the production of alcohols. Their value is relatively low compared with another chemicals. When molasses are irradiated with gamma radiation or accelerated electrons, in presence of nitric acid and oxygen, it is obtained oxalic acid and several polymeric compounds. In both cases, the same products are obtained, but the yield is greater with electrons. It has been studied the effect of dose and dose rate in the yields. As example, when mixtures of molasses-nitric acid, with an initial concentration of 26% of total sugar reductors, are irradiated with 1.0 MeV electrons, in a continuous flow reactor, at 0.11 {Gy}/{sec} to a total dose of 30 KGy, the oxalic acid yield is around 44% of the total chemical reductors used. The separations of the radiolytic products was made by successive decantations and concentrations, and purified by recristallizations. From the analytical information, the minimal formula were calculated for the acid product and the polymeric compounds.

  16. Application of radiation in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naiyyum Choudhury; Najmul Alam Chowdhury; Feroza Akhtar [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)


    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various field. All over the world, this technology is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation sterilisation of medical products, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, radiation processing of polymeric materials and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission mainly using Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The investigation covers medical sterilisation, food preservation and development and modification of polymeric materials by gamma radiation. Both food preservation and radiation sterilisation of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. As a result of successful achievement of R and D activities in all these projects, a pilot plant project involving about US$ 4.00 million is under implementation at the Atomic energy Research Establishment campus of BAEC. In addition a project on 'National Polymer Centre' at a cost of US$ 2.00 million has already been approved. It is expected that work on radiation processing including commercialization will be accelerated with the implementation of these projects. The impact of radiation

  17. Radiosensitizers, radioprotectors, and radiation mitigators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayam Raviraj


    Full Text Available Radiotherapy is regarded as one of the most important therapeutic modality for the treatment of malignant lesions. This field is undergoing rapid advancements in the recent times. With the use of radiosensitizers and radioprotective agents, the course of radiotherapy has improved the sensitization of tumor cells and protection of normal cells, respectively. The aim of this paper was to critically review and analyze the available compounds used as radiosensitizers, radioprotectors, and radiation mitigators. For reviewing, the author used the electronic search for the keywords ′Radiosensitizers′, ′Radioprotectors′, ′Radiation mitigators′ on PubMed for inclusion of previously published articles and further search of reference papers on individual radiosensitizing and radioprotecting agents was done. Radiosensitizers are agents that sensitize the tumor cells to radiation. These compounds apparently promote fixation of the free radicals produced by radiation damage at the molecular level. The mechanism of action is similar to the oxygen effect, in which biochemical reactions in the damaged molecules prevent repair of the cellular radiation damage. Free radicals such as OH + are captured by the electron affinity of the radiosensitizers, rendering the molecules incapable of repair. Radioprotectors are compounds that are designed to reduce the damage in normal tissues caused by radiation. These compounds are often antioxidants and must be present before or at the time of radiation for effectiveness. Other agents, termed mitigators, may be used to minimize toxicity even after radiation has been delivered. This article tries to discuss the various aspects of radiosensitizers, radioprotectors, and radiation mitigators including the newer agents.

  18. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.


    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  19. Radiative effects in radiative shocks in shock tubes (United States)

    Drake, R. P.; Doss, F. W.; McClarren, R. G.; Adams, M. L.; Amato, N.; Bingham, D.; Chou, C. C.; DiStefano, C.; Fidkowski, K.; Fryxell, B.; Gombosi, T. I.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Holloway, J. P.; van der Holst, B.; Huntington, C. M.; Karni, S.; Krauland, C. M.; Kuranz, C. C.; Larsen, E.; van Leer, B.; Mallick, B.; Marion, D.; Martin, W.; Morel, J. E.; Myra, E. S.; Nair, V.; Powell, K. G.; Rauchwerger, L.; Roe, P.; Rutter, E.; Sokolov, I. V.; Stout, Q.; Torralva, B. R.; Toth, G.; Thornton, K.; Visco, A. J.


    Using modern high-energy-density facilities it is straightforward to produce radiative shock waves in which the transfer of energy by radiation controls the hydrodynamic structure of the system. Some of these experiments use shock tubes. This paper discusses such experiments, with an emphasis on the simple physical relations that determine the primary features of such shocks and on the details and impact of radiative energy transfer in such systems. Notable aspects include the creation of high-density shocked layers, the flow of radiative energy toward regions of higher energy density, and the creation of secondary shocks by ablation of the tube walls ahead of the primary shock front. Simulations of one such experimental system are also shown.

  20. Radiation Chemistry and the Radiation Preservation of Food. (United States)

    Taub, Irwin A.


    Describes common features in the radiation chemistry of food components, and illustrates how product yields are predicted. Presents data that pertain to the radiolysis of the nitrate ion, metmyoglobin, myosin, and tripalmitin. (CS)

  1. Radiation Chemistry and the Radiation Preservation of Food. (United States)

    Taub, Irwin A.


    Describes common features in the radiation chemistry of food components, and illustrates how product yields are predicted. Presents data that pertain to the radiolysis of the nitrate ion, metmyoglobin, myosin, and tripalmitin. (CS)

  2. Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Sky Radiation (SKYRAD) collection of radiometers provides each Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station (ARCS) with continuous measurements of broadband shortwave...

  3. Novel Technology for Radiation Protection Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation exposure to living tissue generates free radicals through ionizing reaction such as photoelectric effect, Compton and Auger effects.  Radiation...

  4. Radiative transfer on discrete spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Preisendorfer, Rudolph W; Stark, M; Ulam, S


    Pure and Applied Mathematics, Volume 74: Radiative Transfer on Discrete Spaces presents the geometrical structure of natural light fields. This book describes in detail with mathematical precision the radiometric interactions of light-scattering media in terms of a few well established principles.Organized into four parts encompassing 15 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the derivations of the practical formulas and the arrangement of formulas leading to numerical solution procedures of radiative transfer problems in plane-parallel media. This text then constructs radiative tran

  5. Solar and infrared radiation measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Vignola, Frank; Michalsky, Joseph


    The rather specialized field of solar and infrared radiation measurement has become more and more important in the face of growing demands by the renewable energy and climate change research communities for data that are more accurate and have increased temporal and spatial resolution. Updating decades of acquired knowledge in the field, Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements details the strengths and weaknesses of instruments used to conduct such solar and infrared radiation measurements. Topics covered include: Radiometer design and performance Equipment calibration, installation, operati

  6. Synchrotron radiation and structural proteomics

    CERN Document Server

    Pechkova, Eugenia


    This book presents an overview of the current state of research in both synchrotron radiation and structural proteomics from different laboratories worldwide. The book presents recent research results in the most advanced methods of synchrotron radiation analysis, protein micro- and nano crystallography, X-ray scattering and X-ray optics, coherent X-Ray diffraction, and laser cutting and contactless sample manipulation are described in details. The book focuses on biological applications and highlights important aspects such as radiation damage and molecular modeling.

  7. The radiation chemistry of macromolecules

    CERN Document Server


    The Radiation Chemistry of Macromolecules, Volume II is a collection of papers that discusses radiation chemistry of specific systems. Part 1 deals with radiation chemistry of substituted vinyl polymers, particularly polypropylene (PP) as its structure is intermediate between polyethylene and polyisobutylene. This part also discusses polypropylene oxide (PPOx) for it can be prepared in the atactic, isotactic, and optically active forms. One paper focuses on the fundamental chemical processes and the changes in physical properties that give rise to many different applications of polystyrene. An

  8. Sommerfeld radiation condition at threshold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Erik

    We prove Besov space bounds of the resolvent at low energies in any dimension for a class of potentials that are negative and obey a virial condition with these conditions imposed at infinity only. We do not require spherical symmetry. The class of potentials includes in dimension ≥ 3 the attract...... the attractive Coulomb potential. There are two boundary values of the resolvent at zero energy which we characterize by radiation conditions. These radiation conditions are zero energy versions of the well-known Sommerfeld radiation condition....

  9. Thermopile detector radiation hard readout (United States)

    Gaalema, Stephen; Van Duyne, Stephen; Gates, James L.; Foote, Marc C.


    The NASA Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) conceptual payload contains a thermal instrument with six different spectral bands ranging from 8μm to 100μm. The thermal instrument is based on multiple linear arrays of thermopile detectors that are intrinsically radiation hard; however, the thermopile CMOS readout needs to be hardened to tolerate the radiation sources of the JEO mission. Black Forest Engineering is developing a thermopile readout to tolerate the JEO mission radiation sources. The thermal instrument and ROIC process/design techniques are described to meet the JEO mission requirements.

  10. Ocular neuromyotonia after radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessell, S.; Lessell, I.M.; Rizzo, J.F. III


    Ocular neuromyotonia is a paroxysmal monocular deviation that results from spasm of eye muscles secondary to spontaneous discharges from third, fourth, or sixth nerve axons. We observed this rare disorder in four patients who had been treated with radiation for tumors in the region of the sella turcica and cavernous sinus. Based on these cases and four others identified in the literature it would appear that radiation predisposes to a cranial neuropathy in which ocular neuromyotonia may be the major manifestation. Radiation appears to be the most common cause of ocular neuromyotonia.

  11. Radiation biology of medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Kelsey, Charles A; Sandoval, Daniel J; Chambers, Gregory D; Adolphi, Natalie L; Paffett, Kimberly S


    This book provides a thorough yet concise introduction to quantitative radiobiology and radiation physics, particularly the practical and medical application. Beginning with a discussion of the basic science of radiobiology, the book explains the fast processes that initiate damage in irradiated tissue and the kinetic patterns in which such damage is expressed at the cellular level. The final section is presented in a highly practical handbook style and offers application-based discussions in radiation oncology, fractionated radiotherapy, and protracted radiation among others. The text is also supplemented by a Web site.

  12. Review of solar radiation utilizability (United States)

    Klein, S. A.; Beckman, W. A.


    A development history is presented for the concept and methodology of solar radiation 'utilizability', which is defined as the fraction of solar radiation that is incident on a surface exceeding a specified threshold or critical level. The concept, which was initially applied to flat plate solar collector thermal performance calculations, has more recently been applied to systems with concentrating collectors as well as to passive and photovoltaic systems. The utilizability function also contains information about operating times through its derivative with respect to critical level. Existing utilizability correlations provide a simple and elegant means of estimating the long term effect of solar radiation on any solar process.

  13. Radiation-induced Genomic Instability and Radiation Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnum, Susan M.; Sowa, Marianne B.; Kim, Grace J.; Morgan, William F.


    The obvious relationships between reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory type responses and reactive chemokines and cytokines suggests a general stress response induced by ionizing radiation most likely leads to the non-targeted effects described after radiation exposure. We argue that true bystander effects do not occur in the radiation therapy clinic. But there is no question that effects outside the target volume do occur. These “out of field effects” are considered very low dose effects in the context of therapy. So what are the implications of non-targeted effects on radiation sensitivity? The primary goal of therapy is to eradicate the tumor. Given the genetic diversity of the human population, lifestyle and environment factors it is likely some combination of these will influence patient outcome. Non-targeted effects may contribute to a greater or lesser extent. But consider the potential situation involving a partial body exposure due to a radiation accident or radiological terrorism. Non-targeted effects suggest that the tissue at risk for demonstrating possible detrimental effects of radiation exposure might be greater than the volume actually irradiated.

  14. Boundary conditions for NLTE polarized radiative transfer with incident radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Faurobert, Marianne; Atanackovic, Olga


    Polarized NLTE radiative transfer in the presence of scattering in spectral lines and/or in continua may be cast in a so-called reduced form for six reduced components of the radiation field. In this formalism the six components of the reduced source function are angle-independent quantities. It thus reduces drastically the storage requirement of numerical codes. This approach encounters a fundamental problem when the medium is illuminated by a polarized incident radiation, because there is a priori no way of relating the known (and measurable) Stokes parameters of the incident radiation to boundary conditions for the reduced equations. The origin of this problem is that there is no unique way of deriving the radiation reduced components from its Stokes parameters (only the inverse operation is clearly defined). The method proposed here aims at enabling to work with arbitrary incident radiation field (polarized or unpolarized). In previous works an ad-hoc treatment of the boundary conditions, applying to case...

  15. Radiation effects on structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoniem, N.M.


    This report discusses the following topics on the effect radiation has on thermonuclear reactor materials: Atomic Displacements; Microstructure Evolution; Materials Engineering, Mechanics, and Design; Research on Low-Activation Steels; and Research Motivated by Grant Support.

  16. The LISA Pathfinder Radiation Monitor (United States)

    Wass, P. J.; Araújo, H.; Boatella, C.; Chmeissani, M.; Hajdas, W.; Lobo, A.; Puigdengoles, C.; Sumner, T.


    We present the concept, design and testing of the radiation monitor for LISA Pathfinder. Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) will cause charging of the LISA Pathfinder test masses producing unwanted disturbances which could be significant during a large solar eruption. A radiation monitor on board LISA Pathfinder, using silicon PIN diodes as particle detectors, will measure the particle flux responsible for charging. It will also be able to record spectral information to identify solar energetic particle events. The design of the monitor was supported by Monte Carlo simulations which allow detailed predictions of the radiation monitor performance. We present these predictions as well as the results of high-energy proton tests carried out at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. The tests show good agreement with our simulations and confirm the capability of the radiation monitor to perform well in the space environment, meeting all science requirements.

  17. Multiple-mode radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, Liam D.; Derzon, Mark S.; Kay, Randolph R.; Bauer, Todd; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; Henry, Michael David


    An apparatus for detecting radiation is provided. In embodiments, at least one sensor medium is provided, of a kind that interacts with radiation to generate photons and/or charge carriers. The apparatus also includes at least one electrode arrangement configured to collect radiation-generated charge from a sensor medium that has been provided. The apparatus also includes at least one photodetector configured to produce an electrical output in response to photons generated by radiation in such a sensor medium, and an electronic circuit configured to produce an output that is jointly responsive to the collected charge and to the photodetector output. At least one such electrode arrangement, at least one such photodetector, and at least one such sensor medium are combined to form an integral unit.

  18. Nuclear Radiation and the Thyroid (United States)

    American Thyroid Association ® Nuclear Radiation and the Thyroid What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland that is normally located in the ...

  19. Radiation Resources Outside of EPA (United States)

    EPA does not license nuclear power plants or regulate the non-ionizing radiation from cell phones, smart meters or power lines. This page provides links to the state and federal agencies that regulate these matters.

  20. Quality Indicators in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Jeffrey M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Das, Prajnan, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)


    Oncologic specialty societies and multidisciplinary collaborative groups have dedicated considerable effort to developing evidence-based quality indicators (QIs) to facilitate quality improvement, accreditation, benchmarking, reimbursement, maintenance of certification, and regulatory reporting. In particular, the field of radiation oncology has a long history of organized quality assessment efforts and continues to work toward developing consensus quality standards in the face of continually evolving technologies and standards of care. This report provides a comprehensive review of the current state of quality assessment in radiation oncology. Specifically, this report highlights implications of the healthcare quality movement for radiation oncology and reviews existing efforts to define and measure quality in the field, with focus on dimensions of quality specific to radiation oncology within the “big picture” of oncologic quality assessment efforts.

  1. Electricity generation using electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara


    In general, in one aspect, the invention relates to a system to create vapor for generating electric power. The system includes a vessel comprising a fluid and a complex and a turbine. The vessel of the system is configured to concentrate EM radiation received from an EM radiation source. The vessel of the system is further configured to apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat. The vessel of the system is also configured to transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the fluid to vapor. The vessel of the system is further configured to sending the vapor to a turbine. The turbine of the system is configured to receive, from the vessel, the vapor used to generate the electric power.

  2. GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release-3.0 data sets contains global 3-hourly, daily, monthly/3-hourly, and monthly averages of surface and top-of...

  3. Severe small bowel radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J.; Santos, J.A.; Carrion, J.R.; Garcia, P. (Hospital General Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain))


    We have during recent years observed 8 patients with serious radiation injury to the small intestine. As the cases are quite illustrative, their symptomatology is briefly reported and the treatment and possible predisposing factors are analysed. (orig./MG).

  4. Radiation reaction in various dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Galtsov, D V


    We discuss the radiation reaction problem for an electric charge moving in flat space-time of arbitrary dimensions. It is shown that four is the unique dimension where a local differential equation exists accounting for the radiation reaction and admitting a consistent mass-renormalization (the Dirac-Lorentz equation). In odd dimensions the Huygens principle does not hold; as a result, the radiation reaction force depends on the whole past history of a charge (radiative tail). We show that the divergence in the tail integral can be removed by the mass renormalization only in the 2+1 theory. In even dimensions higher than four, divergences can not be removed by a renormalization.

  5. Sarcoma risk after radiation exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrington de Gonzalez Amy


    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcomas were one of the first solid cancers to be linked to ionizing radiation exposure. We reviewed the current evidence on this relationship, focusing particularly on the studies that had individual estimates of radiation doses. There is clear evidence of an increased risk of both bone and soft tissue sarcomas after high-dose fractionated radiation exposure (10 + Gy in childhood, and the risk increases approximately linearly in dose, at least up to 40 Gy. There are few studies available of sarcoma after radiotherapy in adulthood for cancer, but data from cancer registries and studies of treatment for benign conditions confirm that the risk of sarcoma is also increased in this age-group after fractionated high-dose exposure. New findings from the long-term follow-up of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors suggest, for the first time, that sarcomas can be induced by acute lower-doses of radiation (

  6. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Lars (ed.)


    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

  7. Stackable Radiation Hardened FRAM Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Purpose of this effort was to offer a novel solution to the pressing need for radiation tolerant memory for the demanding satellite and space probe worldwide...

  8. Radiation Effects on Polymers - XI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghanem, N. A.; El-Awady, N. I.; Singer, Klaus Albert Julius;


    With the aim of improving properties of cellulose acetate membranes for reverse osmosis desalination, grafting was performed using high energy electrons. In this paper, the grafting parameters (radiation dose and method, monomer concentration, solvents, chain transfer agent and redox system...

  9. Documentation requirements for radiation sterilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.


    Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation for appr......Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation...... for approval of radiation sterilized products. The impact of these standards on the radiation sterilization is discussed, with special attention given to a few special issues, mainly traceability and uncertainty of measurement results....

  10. Radiation reaction in various dimensions (United States)

    Gal'Tsov, Dmitri V.


    We discuss the radiation reaction problem for an electric charge moving in flat space-time of arbitrary dimensions. It is shown that four is the unique dimension where a local differential equation exists accounting for the radiation reaction and admitting a consistent mass renormalization (the Lorentz-Dirac equation). In odd dimensions Huygens's principle does not hold, and, as a result, the radiation reaction force depends on the whole past history of a charge (radiative tail). We show that the divergence in the tail integral can be removed by the mass renormalization only in the 2+1 theory. In even dimensions higher than four, divergences cannot be removed by the mass renormalization.

  11. FLYCHK Collisional-Radiative Code (United States)

    SRD 160 FLYCHK Collisional-Radiative Code (Web, free access)   FLYCHK provides a capability to generate atomic level populations and charge state distributions for low-Z to mid-Z elements under NLTE conditions.

  12. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (United States)

    Thomlinson, W.


    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  13. Structural/Radiation-Shielding Epoxies (United States)

    Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G.; Hinkley, Jeffrey; Blattnig, Steve; Delozier, Donavon M.; Watson, Kent A.; Ghose, Sayata


    A development effort was directed toward formulating epoxy resins that are useful both as structural materials and as shielding against heavy-ion radiation. Hydrogen is recognized as the best element for absorbing heavy-ion radiation, and high-hydrogen-content polymers are now in use as shielding materials. However, high-hydrogen-content polymers (e.g. polyethylene) are typically not good structural materials. In contrast, aromatic polymers, which contain smaller amounts of hydrogen, often have the strength necessary for structural materials. Accordingly, the present development effort is based on the concept that an ideal structural/ heavy-ion-radiation-shielding material would be a polymer that contains sufficient hydrogen (e.g., in the form of aliphatic molecular groups) for radiation shielding and has sufficient aromatic content for structural integrity.

  14. COOP Wind and Radiation Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind and radiation data from stations in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observers Network. Some precipitation and pressure forms are mistakenly placed in...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K; Donna Beals, D; Ken Odell, K; Robert Eakle, R; Russell Huffman, R; Larry Harpring, L


    A unique radiation monitor has been developed for performing wide-area field surveys for radiation sources. This device integrates the real-time output of multiple radiation detectors into a hand-held personal computer (e.g., a PDA) containing an intuitive graphical user interface. An independent hardware module supplies high voltage to the detectors and contains a rapid sampling system for transferring the detector count rates through an interface to the PDA. The imbedded firmware can be changed for various applications using a programmable memory card. As presently configured, the instrument contains a series of Geiger-Mueller (GM) tubes in a flexible detector string. This linear array of multiple sensors can be used by US Coast Guard and Customs container inspection personnel to measure radiation intensity in stacks of transport containers where physical access is impeded.

  16. Clinical fundamentals for radiation oncologists. (United States)

    Yang, Jack


    Clinical fundamentals for radiation oncologists. Hasan Murshed. Medical Physics Publishing, Madison, WI, 2011. 680 pp. (soft cover), Price: $90.00. 978-1-930524-43-9. © 2011 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  17. Simple dynamic electromagnetic radiation detector (United States)

    Been, J. F.


    Detector monitors gamma dose rate at particular position in a radiation facility where a mixed neutron-gamma environment exists, thus determining reactor power level changes. Device also maps gamma intensity profile across a neutron-gamma beam.

  18. Dark Radiation from Modulated Reheating

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tomo; Yamaguchi, Masahide


    We show that the modulated reheating mechanism can naturally account for dark radiation, which is favored by recent observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the primordial Helium abundance. In this mechanism, the inflaton decay rate depends on a light modulus which acquires almost scale-invariant quantum fluctuations during inflation. We find that the light modulus is generically produced by the inflaton decay and therefore a prime candidate for the dark radiation. Interestingly, an almost scale-invariant power spectrum predicted in the modulated reheating mechanism gives a better fit to the observation in the presence of the extra radiation. We discuss the production mechanism of the light modulus in detail taking account of its associated isocurvature fluctuations. We also consider a case where the modulus becomes the dominant component of dark matter.

  19. Development of Radiation Hard Scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Tiras, Emrah; Bilki, Burak; Winn, David; Onel, Yasar


    Modern high-energy physics experiments are in ever increasing need for radiation hard scintillators and detectors. In this regard, we have studied various radiation-hard scintillating materials such as Polyethylene Naphthalate (PEN), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), our prototype material Scintillator X (SX) and Eljen (EJ). Scintillation and transmission properties of these scintillators are studied using stimulated emission from a 334 nm wavelength UV laser with PMT before and after certain amount of radiation exposure. Recovery from radiation damage is studied over time. While the primary goal of this study is geared for LHC detector upgrades, these new technologies could easily be used for future experiments such as the FCC and ILC. Here we discuss the physics motivation, recent developments and laboratory measurements of these materials.

  20. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.


    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  1. High Efficency Lightweight Radiators Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — XC Associates proposes to build on prior work to develop and characterize a very high efficiency, lightweight radiator constructed from high thermal conductivity...

  2. Radiation Physics for Medical Physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Podgorsak, Ervin B


    This well-received textbook and reference summarizes the basic knowledge of atomic, nuclear, and radiation physics that professionals working in medical physics and biomedical engineering need for efficient and safe use of ionizing radiation. Concentrating on the underlying principles of radiation physics, it covers the prerequisite knowledge for medical physics courses on the graduate and post-graduate levels in radiotherapy physics, radiation dosimetry, imaging physics, and health physics, thus providing the link between elementary physics on the one hand and the intricacies of the medical physics specialties on the other hand. This expanded and revised second edition offers reorganized and expanded coverage. Several of the original chapters have been split into two with new sections added for completeness and better flow. New chapters on Coulomb scattering; on energy transfer and energy absorption in photon interactions; and on waveguide theory have been added in recognition of their importance. Others tra...

  3. Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sana [Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (Bangladesh)


    Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

  4. Radiative cooling for thermophotovoltaic systems (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiguang; Sun, Xingshu; Bermel, Peter


    Radiative cooling has recently garnered a great deal of attention for its potential as an alternative method for photovoltaic thermal management. Here, we will consider the limits of radiative cooling for thermal management of electronics broadly, as well as a specific application to thermal power generation. We show that radiative cooling power can increase rapidly with temperature, and is particularly beneficial in systems lacking standard convective cooling. This finding indicates that systems previously operating at elevated temperatures (e.g., 80°C) can be passively cooled close to ambient under appropriate conditions with a reasonable cooling area. To examine these general principles for a previously unexplored application, we consider the problem of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion of heat to electricity via thermal radiation illuminating a photovoltaic diode. Since TPV systems generally operate in vacuum, convective cooling is sharply limited, but radiative cooling can be implemented with proper choice of materials and structures. In this work, realistic simulations of system performance are performed using the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) techniques to capture thermal emitter radiation, PV diode absorption, and radiative cooling. We subsequently optimize the structural geometry within realistic design constraints to find the best configurations to minimize operating temperature. It is found that low-iron soda-lime glass can potentially cool the PV diode by a substantial amount, even to below ambient temperatures. The cooling effect can be further improved by adding 2D-periodic photonic crystal structures. We find that the improvement of efficiency can be as much as an 18% relative increase, relative to the non-radiatively cooled baseline, as well as a potentially significant improvement in PV diode lifetime.

  5. Forms of Approximate Radiation Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, G


    Photon radiation transport is described by the Boltzmann equation. Because this equation is difficult to solve, many different approximate forms have been implemented in computer codes. Several of the most common approximations are reviewed, and test problems illustrate the characteristics of each of the approximations. This document is designed as a tutorial so that code users can make an educated choice about which form of approximate radiation transport to use for their particular simulation.

  6. Solar Radiation and Asteroidal Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J


    Effects of solar wind and solar electromagnetic radiation on motion of asteroids are discussed. The results complete the statements presented in Vokrouhlick\\'{y} and Milani (2000). As for the effect of electromagnetic radiation, the complete equation of motion is presented to the first order in $v/c$ -- the shape of asteroid (spherical body is explicitly presented) and surface distribution of albedo should be taken into account. Optical quantities must be calculated in proper frame of reference.

  7. Radiation tolerant power converter controls (United States)

    Todd, B.; Dinius, A.; King, Q.; Uznanski, S.


    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is the world's most powerful particle collider. The LHC has several thousand magnets, both warm and super-conducting, which are supplied with current by power converters. Each converter is controlled by a purpose-built electronic module called a Function Generator Controller (FGC). The FGC allows remote control of the power converter and forms the central part of a closed-loop control system where the power converter voltage is set, based on the converter output current and magnet-circuit characteristics. Some power converters and FGCs are located in areas which are exposed to beam-induced radiation. There are numerous radiation induced effects, some of which lead to a loss of control of the power converter, having a direct impact upon the accelerator's availability. Following the first long shut down (LS1), the LHC will be able to run with higher intensity beams and higher beam energy. This is expected to lead to significantly increased radiation induced effects in materials close to the accelerator, including the FGC. Recent radiation tests indicate that the current FGC would not be sufficiently reliable. A so-called FGClite is being designed to work reliably in the radiation environment in the post-LS1 era. This paper outlines the concepts of power converter controls for machines such as the LHC, introduces the risks related to radiation and a radiation tolerant project flow. The FGClite is then described, with its key concepts and challenges: aiming for high reliability in a radiation field.

  8. Radiation damping in real time. (United States)

    Mendes, A C; Takakura, F I


    We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a charge interacting with its own radiation, which originates the radiation damping. The real-time equation of motion for the charge and the associated Langevin equation is found in classical limit. The equation of motion for the charge allows one to obtain the frequency-dependent coefficient of friction. In the lowest order we find that although the coefficient of static friction vanishes, there is dynamical dissipation represented by a non-Markovian dissipative kernel.

  9. Simple suppression of radiation damping. (United States)

    Khitrin, A K; Jerschow, Alexej


    Radiation damping is known to cause line-broadening and frequency shifts of strong resonances in NMR spectra. While several techniques exist for the suppression of these effects, many require specialized hardware, or are only compatible with the presence of few strong resonances. We describe a simple pulse sequence for radiation damping suppression in spectra with many strong resonances. The sequence can be used as-is to generate simple spectra or as a signal excitation part in more advanced experiments.

  10. Current treatments for radiation retinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliari, Gian Paolo; Simpson, E. Rand (Princess Margaret Hospital, Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, Toronto (Canada)), e-mail:; Sadaka, Ama (Schepens Eye Research Inst., Boston, MA (United States)); Hinkle, David M. (Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution, Cambridge, MA (United States))


    Background. To review the currently available therapeutic modalities for radiation retinopathy (RR), including newer investigational interventions directed towards specific aspects of the pathophysiology of this refractory complication. Methods. A review of the literature encompassing the pathogenesis of RR and the current therapeutic modalities available was performed. Results. RR is a chronic and progressive condition that results from exposure to any source of radiation. It might be secondary to radiation treatment of intraocular tumors such as choroidal melanomas, retinoblastomas, and choroidal metastasis, or from unavoidable exposure to excessive radiation from the treatment of extraocular tumors like cephalic, nasopharyngeal, orbital, and paranasal malignancies. After the results of the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study, most of the choroidal melanomas are being treated with plaque brachytherapy increasing by that the incidence of this radiation complication. RR has been reported to occur in as many as 60% of eyes treated with plaque radiation, with higher rates associated with larger tumors. Initially, the condition manifests as a radiation vasculopathy clinically seen as microaneurysms and telangiectasis, with posterior development of retinal hard exudates and hemorrhages, macular edema, neovascularization and tractional retinal detachment. Regrettably, the management of these eyes remains limited. Photodynamic therapy, laser photocoagulation, oral pentoxyphylline and hyperbaric oxygen have been attempted as treatment modalities with inconclusive results. Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor such as bevacizumab, ranibizumab and pegaptanib sodium have been recently used, also with variable results. Discussion. RR is a common vision threatening complication following radiation therapy. The available therapeutic options are limited and show unsatisfactory results. Further large investigative studies are required for developing

  11. Radiation Damage of Quartz Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Hagopian, V


    Quartz fibers are used in high energy physics experiments as the active medium in high radiation area calorimetry. Quartz fibers are also used in the transmission of optical signals. Even though quartz does not damage by moderate amounts of irradiation, the clad of the fibers and the protective coating ( buffer) do damage reducing light transmission. Various types of quartz fibers have been irradiated and measured for light transmission. The most radiation hard quartz fibers are those with quartz clad and aluminum buffer.

  12. Radiation protection for veterinary practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A. (National Radiological Protection Board, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Scottish Centre)


    This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.).

  13. Radiative corrections to Bose condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A. (Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, La Habana. Inst. de Matematica, Cibernetica y Computacion)


    The Bose condensation of the scalar field in a theory behaving in the Coleman-Weinberg mode is considered. The effective potential of the model is computed within the semiclassical approximation in a dimensional regularization scheme. Radiative corrections are shown to introduce certain ultraviolet divergences in the effective potential coming from the Many-Particle theory. The weight of radiative corrections in the dynamics of the system is strongly modified by the charge density.

  14. Radiation effects in polycarbonate capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujisić Miloš


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of neutron and gamma irradiation on the dissipation factor and capacitance of capacitors with polycarbonate dielectrics. The operation of capacitors subject to extreme conditions, such as the presence of ionizing radiation fields, is of special concern in military industry and space technology. Results obtained show that the exposure to a mixed neutron and gamma radiation field causes a decrease of capacitance, while the loss tangent remains unchanged.

  15. Radiation therapy in pseudotumour haemarthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lal, P.; Biswal, B.M.; Thulkar, S.; Patel, A.K.; Venkatesh, R.; Julka, P.K. [Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi (India). Departments of Radiation Oncology, Radiodiagnosis and Haematology


    Total or partial deficiency of factor VIII and IX in the coagulation cascade leads to haemophilia. Haemophilia affecting weight-bearing joints gives a `pseudotumour` or haemarthrosis-like condition. Surgery and cryoprecipitate infusions have been the treatment for this condition. Radiocolloids and radiation therapy have been used with some benefit. One case of ankle pseudotumour which was treated by low-dose external beam radiation is presented here. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 14 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Radiation annealing in cuprous oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vajda, P.


    Experimental results from high-intensity gamma-irradiation of cuprous oxide are used to investigate the annealing of defects with increasing radiation dose. The results are analysed on the basis of the Balarin and Hauser (1965) statistical model of radiation annealing, giving a square-root relati......-root relationship between the rate of change of resistivity and the resistivity change. The saturation defect density at room temperature is estimated on the basis of a model for defect creation in cuprous oxide....

  17. Proton synchrotron radiation at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman-Keup, Randy; /Fermilab


    While protons are not generally associated with synchrotron radiation, they do emit visible light at high enough energies. This paper presents an overview of the use of synchrotron radiation in the Tevatron to measure transverse emittances and to monitor the amount of beam in the abort gap. The latter is necessary to ensure a clean abort and prevent quenches of the superconducting magnets and damage to the silicon detectors of the collider experiments.

  18. PABLM. Accumulated Environment Radiation Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E.Jr.; Soldat, J.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    PABLM calculates internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release, after deposition, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider exposure to radionuclides deposited on the ground or crops from contaminated air or irrigation water, radionuclides in contaminated drinking water, aquatic foods raised in contaminated water, and radionuclides in bodies of water and sediments where people might fish, boat, or swim. For vegetation, the radiation dose model considers both direct deposition and uptake through roots. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The program is designed to calculate accumulated radiation doses from the chronic ingestion of food products that contain radionuclides and doses from the external exposure to radionuclides in the environment. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years.

  19. Leukemia and ionizing radiation revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttler, J.M. [Cuttler & Associates Inc., Vaughan, Ontario (Canada); Welsh, J.S. [Loyola University-Chicago, Dept. or Radiation Oncology, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois (United States)


    A world-wide radiation health scare was created in the late 19508 to stop the testing of atomic bombs and block the development of nuclear energy. In spite of the large amount of evidence that contradicts the cancer predictions, this fear continues. It impairs the use of low radiation doses in medical diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. This brief article revisits the second of two key studies, which revolutionized radiation protection, and identifies a serious error that was missed. This error in analyzing the leukemia incidence among the 195,000 survivors, in the combined exposed populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, invalidates use of the LNT model for assessing the risk of cancer from ionizing radiation. The threshold acute dose for radiation-induced leukemia, based on about 96,800 humans, is identified to be about 50 rem, or 0.5 Sv. It is reasonable to expect that the thresholds for other cancer types are higher than this level. No predictions or hints of excess cancer risk (or any other health risk) should be made for an acute exposure below this value until there is scientific evidence to support the LNT hypothesis. (author)

  20. Undulator radiation in a waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.


    We propose an analytical approach to characterize undulator radiation near resonance, when the presence of the vacuum-pipe considerably affects radiation properties. This is the case of the far-infrared undulator beamline at the Free-electron LASer (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH), that will be capable of delivering pulses in the TeraHertz (THz) range. This undulator will allow pump-probe experiments where THz pulses are naturally synchronized to the VUV pulse from the FEL, as well as the development of novel electron-beam diagnostics techniques. Since the THz radiation diffraction-size exceeds the vacuum-chamber dimensions, characterization of infrared radiation must be performed accounting for the presence of a waveguide.We developed a theory of undulator radiation in a waveguide based on paraxial and resonance approximation. We solved the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, and extracted figure of merits describing in a simple way the influence of the vacuum-pipe on the radiation pulse as a function of the problem parameters. Our theory, that makes consistent use of dimensionless analysis, allows treatment and physical understanding of many asymptotes of the parameter space, together with their region of applicability. (orig.)