WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiation sources production

  1. Indirect detection of radiation sources through direct detection of radiolysis products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Fischer, Larry E [Los Gatos, CA; Felter, Thomas E [Livermore, CA

    2010-04-20

    A system for indirectly detecting a radiation source by directly detecting radiolytic products. The radiation source emits radiation and the radiation produces the radiolytic products. A fluid is positioned to receive the radiation from the radiation source. When the fluid is irradiated, radiolytic products are produced. By directly detecting the radiolytic products, the radiation source is detected.

  2. Production of radioisotopic gamma radiation sources in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Hisashi; Kogure, Hiroto; Suzuki, Kyohei

    1980-04-01

    The present state of production of gamma radiation sources in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is described. Sources of 192 Ir, 60 Co and 170 Tm for industrial and 198 Au and 192 Ir for medical applications are produced and delivered routinely by JAERI. Prefabricated assembly targets are irradiated in JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 or JMTR. The irradiated targets are disassembled in a heavy density concrete cave or a lead-shielded cell, depending on the level of radioactivity. The yield of radioactivity in each target is measured with the aid of an ionization chamber. Where necessary, irradiated targets are encapsulated hermetically in capsules of aluminium, stainless steel or other material. The yield of radioactivity is estimated in relation with the burn-up of target nuclide and product nuclide. (author)

  3. Radiation protection with consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahders, Erio; Haeusler, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources (GTLS) were examined with respect to their radiological safety potential regarding leak tightness or accidents. The maximum tritium leakage rate of 2.7 Bq/d determined from experimental testing is well below the criterion for leak tightness of sealed radioactive sources in DIN 25426-4. In order to investigate the incorporation of tritium due to contact with consumer products, 2 scenarios were reviewed; the correct use of a tritium watch and the accident scenario with a keyring.

  4. Development of quality assurance procedures for production of sealed radiation source

    CERN Document Server

    Nam, J H; Cho, W K; Han, H S; Hong, S B; Kim, K H; Kim, S D; Lee, Y G; Lim, N J

    2001-01-01

    The quality assurance procedures for sealed radiation sources production using HANARO and RIPF have been developed. The detailed quality assurance procedures are essential to manage the whole work process effectively and ensure the quality of the produced sealed sources. Through applying this quality assurance procedures to the entire production works of the sealed radiation sources, it is expected that the quality of the products, the safety of the works and the satisfaction of the customers will be increased.

  5. Production of iridium-192 radiation sources: Indian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, K.V.S.; Kolhe, O.T.; Nagarja, P.S.; Paramr, Y.D.

    2002-01-01

    Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), a unit under the Department of Atomic Energy is fabricating and supplying Ir-192 industrial radiography sources for various models of radiography cameras for use in the industry for non-destructive testing. Basically these sources are fabricated by encapsulating the required quantity of the activity in stainless steel 316 L capsules using Tungsten Inert gas welding process and crimping/attaching to the respective pigtail assemblies of the radiography cameras. The inactive iridium pellets are irradiated in the DHRUVA reactor at a flux on 1.8 X 10 14 n/cm 2 /sec. The performance classification of these source encapsulation for various conditions of normal and accidental nature are tested by subjecting the prototype sources as per the standard laid down by the regulatory authority, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, in India. The sources are fabricated as per the national and international standards. Activity of the sources varies from 37O GBq (10 Ci ) to 2.96 TBq (80 Ci ) source strength depending on the requirement of the user. The specific activity of the Ir-192 sources supplied is around 7.4 TBq/gm (200 Ci/gm ). Quality control /Assurance for the manufacture of the source begins from the procurement of the raw material and ends with the finished source. Ir- 192 in the form of -0.3 mm diameter (0.1 mm dia wire of Ir-25 % and Pt-75% sheathed in pure platinum of 0.1 mm thick) is being supplied for use in the treatment of cancer of cervix, tongue etc. by brachytherapy. This is supplied in lengths of 50 cm / 100 cm with 37 - 185 GBq/cm ( 1-5 mCi/cm) activity. Annually 925 TBq (25 kCi) of Ir-192 for industrial radiography and about 60 meters of wire for brachytherapy are being fabricated and supplied. Because of the quality of these sources BRIT not only caters to the Indian industry but also is able to export sources to the third world countries. (Author)

  6. Recent status on cobalt-60 gamma ray radiation sources production and its application in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Zhijian; Song Yunjiang; Zhang Chunhua; Li Maoling

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the status of Co-60 γ ray radiation sources and their application in China. At present, the production capacity of Co-60 γ ray radiation sources in China is about 11.1 PBq (0.3 MCi) per year. 5 years later, it is increased to 37 PBq (1 MCi) per year. The radioactivity of each source is 370 TBq - 740 TBq (1000-2000 Ci). There are over 150 Co-60 γ ray radiation facilities with total design capacity of over 370 PBq (10 MCi) and practical capacity of about 92.5 PBq (2.5 MCi) in operation. The number of Co-60 γ ray radiation facilities with practical capacity of over 3.7 PBq (0.1 MCi) is 14. The main applications of the Co-60 γ ray sources are radiation crosslinking, radiation sterilization of disposable medical supplies and food irradiation. The prospects for Co-60 γ ray radiation source application in China are good. (author)

  7. Agricultural production as a source of irradiation of populations in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexakhin, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the agricultural production sphere in case of a radiation accident with radionuclide release is one of the most important sources of additional irradiation for population. As a result, realisation of the measures for mitigating the consequences of the accident in agro-industrial complex assumes the leading role in total system of measures providing radiation safety. The possibility to obtain agricultural production meeting the radiological standards is one of the main indications of effectiveness of liquidation of the accident consequences. First, obtaining of agricultural production meeting the radiological standards provides decreasing of the total radiation dose. The evidence is obtained in the 8-year experience of liquidation of the Chernobyl NPP accident that the 70% decrease of the internal dose for population became possible through a complex of protection measures in agriculture (during the first year after the accident, the contribution of internal dose into the total one amounted to 45%, and that of external irradiation - 52%; for the 70-year period these values are 39% and 60%, respectively). Second, the possibility to obtain 'pure' agricultural production is one of the most important factors of psychological stability for population. Third, obtaining of consumable (as to radionuclide content) agricultural production in private small holdings is one of the guarantees of stability of demographic sector in the accident-affected zone. From the point of view of organization of agricultural production in liquidation of the consequences of accidents with radioactive releases into environment, some periods can be distinguished: (i) the first (early) period takes 10-12 days after the accident. The main measures in the field of agricultural production are in operative assessment of the radiological situation, organization of radiation survey, express classification of agricultural products ready to consumption. If radionuclide content

  8. Estimated population exposure from nuclear power production and other radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates are given of the total radiation dose from all forms of ionizing radiation resulting from nuclear power reduction. A power consumption of 1kW per head of population, derived entirely from nuclear energy, would increase the average radiation exposure of the whole population from 100mrem per year from natural sources (plus about 40mrem per year from medical procedures and other artificial causes) by about 6mrem per year. The genetically signifificant component of this increase would be about 4mrem per year. Available estimates of harm from radiation would indicate that this would give a risk per year per million of population of about 1 fatal induced malignancy, about the same number of malignancies fully treatable by operation, and, after many generations, about the same number of inherited defects, of greater or less severity, per year. Accidental injuries, particularly in constructional and mining work, would cause an estimated 1 fatality and 50 other accidents annually. Indications are given of the number of fatalities and accidents involved in equal power production by alternative methods, and of the value and limitations of such numerical comparisons in reaching decisions on the development of future power programmes

  9. Sources of pulsed radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, M.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics of various sources of pulsed radiation are examined from the viewpoint of their importance to the radiation chemist, and some examples of uses of such sources are mentioned. A summary is given of the application of methods of physical dosimetry to pulsed sources, and the calibration of convenient chemical dosimeters by physical dosimetry is outlined. 7 figures, 1 table

  10. Ionizing radiation, radiation sources, radiation exposure, radiation effects. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, E.

    1985-01-01

    Part 2 deals with radiation exposure due to artificial radiation sources. The article describes X-ray diagnosis complete with an analysis of major methods, nuclear-medical diagnosis, percutaneous radiation therapy, isotope therapy, radiation from industrial generation of nucler energy and other sources of ionizing radiation. In conclusion, the authors attempt to asses total dose, genetically significant dose and various hazards of total radiation exposure by means of a summation of all radiation impacts. (orig./WU) [de

  11. New sources of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmerling, W.

    1979-09-01

    An attempt is made to select examples of radiation sources whose application may make new or unconventional demands on radiation protection and dosimetry. A substantial body of knowledge about high energy facilities exists and, partly for this reason, the great high energy accelerators are mentioned only briefly

  12. Production of sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandi, L.N.

    2016-01-01

    Radioisotope production has been an ongoing activity in India since the sixties. Radioisotopes find wide-ranging applications in various fields, including industry, research, agriculture and medicine. Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, an industrial unit of Department of Atomic Energy is involved in fabrication and supply of wide variety of sealed sources. The main radioisotopes fabricated and supplied by BRIT are Cobalt-60, Iridium-192. These isotopes are employed in industrial and laboratory irradiators, teletherapy machines, radiography exposure devices, nucleonic gauges. The source fabrication facilities of BRIT are located at Rajasthan Atomic Power Project Cobalt-60 Facility (RAPPCOF), Kota, Radiological Laboratories Group (RLG) and High Intensity Radiation Utilization Project (HIRUP) at Trombay

  13. Synchrotron radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    As a result of the exponential growth of the utilization of synchrotron radiation for research in the domain of the material sciences, atomic and molecular physics, biology and technology, a major construction activity has been generated towards new dedicated electron storage rings, designed optimally for synchrotron radiation applications, also, expansion programs are underway at the existing facilities, such as DORIS, SPEAR, and VEPP. In this report the basic properties of synchrotron radiation will be discussed, a short overview will be given of the existing and new facilities, some aspects of the optimization of a structure for a synchrotron radiation source will be discussed and the addition of wigglers and undulators for spectrum enhancement will be described. Finally, some parameters of an optimized synchrotron radiation source will be given.

  14. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  15. Categorization of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, M.

    2000-01-01

    Through one-parameter (factor) analysis it is proved a hypothesis that the value of a radiation source (RS) activity of an application correlates with the category (the rank) given to it by the IAEA categorization although it is based on other parameters of the RS applications (practices like devices with radiation sources in industry, science, medicine and agriculture). The principles of the new IAEA categorization, taking into account the potential harm the sources may cause and the necessary regulatory control, are described. (author)

  16. Synchroton Radiation Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of light extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. It is an extremely important source of Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation. Brightness is defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle and is normally a more important quantity than flux alone particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. It is well known from classical theory of electricity and magnetism that accelerating charges emit electromagnetic radiation. In the case of synchrotron radiation, relativistic electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit and emit electromagnetic radiation in a broad spectral range. The visible portion of this spectrum was first observed on April 24, 1947 at General Electric's Schenectady facility by Floyd Haber, a machinist working with the synchrotron team, although the first theoretical predictions were by Lienard in the latter part of the 1800's. An excellent early history with references was presented by Blewett and a history covering the development of the utilization of synchrotron radiation was presented by Hartman. Synchrotron radiation covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared region through the visible, ultraviolet, and into the x-ray region up to energies of many 10's of kilovolts. If the charged particles are of low mass, such as electrons, and if they are traveling relativistically, the emitted radiation is very intense and highly collimated, with opening angles of the order of 1 milliradian. In electron storage rings there are three possible sources of synchrotron radiation; dipole (bending) magnets; wigglers, which act like a sequence of bending magnets with alternating polarities; and undulators, which are also multi-period alternating magnet systems but in which the beam deflections are small resulting in coherent interference of the emitted light

  17. Calculation of the isotope concentrations, source terms and radiation shielding of the SAFARI-1 irradiation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, C.C.; Ball, G.

    2000-01-01

    The ever increasing expansion of the irradiation product portfolio of the SAFARI-1 reactor leads to the need to routinely calculate the radio-isotope concentrations and source terms for the materials irradiated in the reactor accurately. In addition to this, the required shielding for the transportation and processing of these irradiation products needs to be determined. In this paper the calculational methodology applied is described with special attention given to the spectrum dependence of the one-group cross sections of selected SAFARI-1 irradiation materials and the consequent effect on the determination of the isotope concentrations and source terms. Comparisons of the calculated isotopic concentrations and dose rates with experimental analysis and measurements provide confidence in the calculational methodologies and data used. (author)

  18. Safe handling of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    This chapter discussed the subjects related to the safe handling of radiation sources: type of radiation sources, method of use: transport within premises, transport outside premises; Disposal of Gamma Sources

  19. Categorization of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The objective of this report is to develop a categorization scheme for radiation sources that could be relevant to decisions both in a retrospective application to bring sources under control and in a prospective sense to guide the application of the regulatory infrastructure. The Action Plan envisages that the preparation of guidance on national strategies and programmes for the detection and location of orphan sources and their subsequent management should commence after the categorization of sources has been carried out. In the prospective application of the system of notification, registration, and licensing, the categorization is relevant to prioritize a regulatory authority's resources and training activities; to guide the degree of detail necessary for a safety assessment; and to serve as a measure of the intensity of effort which a regulatory authority should apply to the safety and security of a particular type of source

  20. Doses from Medical Radiation Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Radiation Sources Michael G. Stabin, PhD, CHP Introduction Radiation exposures from diagnostic medical examinations are generally ... of exposure annually to natural background radiation. Plain Film X Rays Single Radiographs Effective Dose, mSv Skull ( ...

  1. Tuned sources of submillimetre radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhnyj, V.L.

    1981-01-01

    The main present directions of development of sources of frequency coherent tuned radiation of electromagnetic waves in the submillimeter range: nonlinear mixing of different frequencies; semiconductor lasers; molecular lasers with optical pumping; relativistic electron beams in a magnetic field as submillimeter radiation sources; submillimeter radiation sources on the basis of SHF classical electrovacuum devices - are considered. The designs of generator systems and their specifications are presented. The main parameters of electromagnetic radiation of different sources, such as: power, stability, frequency, tuning range - are presented. The methods of improving sources and electromagnetic radiation parameters are proposed. The examples of possible applications of submillimeter radiation in different spheres of science and technology are given [ru

  2. Future Synchrotron Radiation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Winick, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Sources of synchrotron radiation (also called synchrotron light) and their associated research facilities have experienced a spectacular growth in number, performance, and breadth of application in the past two to three decades. In 1978 there were eleven electron storage rings used as light sources. Three of these were small rings, all below 500 mega-electron volts (MeV), dedicated to this purpose; the others, with energy up to 5 giga-electron volts (GeV), were used parasitically during the operation of the ring for high energy physics research. In addition, at that time synchrotron radiation from nine cyclic electron synchrotrons, with energy up to 5 GeV, was also used parasitically. At present no cyclic synchrotrons are used, while about 50 electron storage rings are in operation around the world as fully dedicated light sources for basic and applied research in a wide variety of fields. Among these fields are structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, materials, analytic chemistry, micr...

  3. Radiation sources and process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honious, H.B.; Janzow, E.F.; Malson, H.A.; Moyer, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to radiation sources comprising a substrate having an electrically-conductive non-radioactive metal surface, a layer of a metal radioactive isotope of the scandium group, which in addition to scandium, yttrium, lanthanum and actinium, includes all the lanthanide and actinide series of elements, with the actinide series usually being preferred because of the nature of the radioactive isotopes therein, particularly americium-241, curium-244, plutonium-238, californium-252 and promethium-147, and a non-radioactive bonding metal codeposited on the surface by electroplating the isotope and bonding metal from an electrolytic solution, the isotope being present in the layer in minor amount as compared to the bonding metal, and with or without a non-radioactive protective metal coating covering the isotoype and bonding metal on the surface, the coating being sufficiently thin to permit radiation to pass through the coating. The invention also relates to a process for providing radiation sources comprising codepositing a layer of the metal radioactive isotope with a non-radioactive bonding metal from an electrolytic solution in which the isotope is present in minor molar amount as compared to the bonding metal such that the codeposited layer contains a minor molar amount of the isotope compared to the bonding metal by electroplating on an electrically-conductive non-radioactive metal surface of a cathode substrate, and with or without depositing a nonradioactive protective metal coating over the isotope and bonding metal on the surface, the coating being sufficiently thin to permit radiation to pass through the coating

  4. Compact synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N.; Wang, T.; Tian, J.; Lin, Y.; Chen, S.; He, W.; Hu, Y.; Li, Q.

    1985-01-01

    A compact 800 MeV synchrotron radiation source is discussed. The storage ring has a circumference of 30.3 m, two 90 degree and four 45 degree bending magnet sections, two long straight sections and four short straight sections. The radius of the bending magnet is 2.224m. The critical wave length is 24A. The injector is a 15 Mev Microtron Electrons are accelerated from 15 Mev to 800 Mev by ramping the field of the ring. The expected stored current will be around 100 ma

  5. Natural sources of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Natural sources of ionizing radiations are described in detail. The sources are subdivided into sources of extraterrestrial origin (cosmic radiation) and sources of terrestrial origin. Data on the concentration of different nuclides in rocks, various soils, ground waters, atmospheric air, tissues of plants and animals, various food stuffs are presented. The content of natural radionuclides in environmental objects, related to human activities, is discussed

  6. Radiation protection problems with sealed Pu radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumann, M.; Wels, C.

    1982-01-01

    A brief outline of the production methods and most important properties of Pu-238 and Pu-239 is given, followed by an overview of possibilities for utilizing the different types of radiation emitted, a description of problems involved in the safe handling of Pu radiation sources, and an assessment of the design principles for Pu-containing alpha, photon, neutron and energy sources from the radiation protection point of view. (author)

  7. Experience with synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinsky, S.

    1987-01-01

    The development of synchrotron radiation sources is discussed, emphasizing characteristics important for x-ray microscopy. Bending magnets, wigglers and undulators are considered as sources of radiation. Operating experience at the national Synchrotron Light Source on the VUV and XRAY storage rings is reviewed, with particular consideration given to achieved current and lifetime, transverse bunch dimensions, and orbit stability. 6 refs., 3 figs

  8. Production of the sealed gamma-radiation sources of with iridium-192 radionuclide at the WWR-K research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petukhov, V.K.; Chernayev, V.P.; Chabeyev, N.T.; Ermakov, E.L.; Chakrov, P.V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Conversion orientation of the WWR-K research reactor activity was established after renewal of its operation in 1997. A priority in reactor works was determined in the decision of tasks of practical use of nuclear technologies in a national economy in the next directions: in an industry, public health services and agriculture. The items of prime tasks: development and introduction of radiation technologies and manufacturing of radioisotopes for industry. This task included both scientific and technical program in the list of works of the Republican goals. At the WWR-K reactor within the framework of the this task solution the works on pilot production of the sealed sources of radioactive radiations (SSRR) with Ir-192 radionuclide for an industry of Republic of Kazakhstan were made. Organizational questions related to the Kazakhstan authority body and the regulating documentation were solved the first of all. The second stage was the development of the techniques of creating of devices providing an samples irradiation in reactor, control of sources sealing, measurements of the equivalent radiation doze from sources and high-quality support of SSRR manufacture over all technological way. At the third stage was made a little quantity SSRR with Ir-192 radionuclide, such as GIID-A1 (G6), for 'TEKOPS-660' Gammaray Projectors. This work served as experimental check of the decisions correctness, and has allowed to remove those lacks, to find out which it was possible only during direct manufacturing of radioactive sources. During performance of all these works the following was carried out: development and release of the documents and specifications regulating work on SSRR manufacture at the Institute of Nuclear Physics; personnel preparation and certification; preparation and equipment providing of reactor hot chambers by additional devices for work with irradiated iridium samples; development and manufacturing of the devices for iridium samples irradiation in

  9. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  10. The sources of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.G.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation protection of workers and of members of the public requires an assessment of the various sources of exposure, their variations in time or under specific conditions or circumstances, and the possibilities for control or limitation. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has evaluated the various components of natural and man-made sources in some detail. Natural exposures form the largest component of radiation exposure of man. Variability in exposures depends on elevation, the concentrations of radionuclides in soil, food and water, the composition of building materials and the susceptibility of indoor spaces to radon build-up. Man-made sources have included exposures to fallout from atmospheric nuclear testing and discharged from nuclear fuel cycle installations in routine operations or in accidents. The other main source of radiation exposures of individuals is in medical diagnostic examinations and therapeutic treatments. (author)

  11. Ionizing radiations: effects and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignes, S.; Nenot, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Having first mentioned the effects of ionizing radiations in cancerogenisis, pre-natal, and genetic fields, the authors present the different sources of radiations and estimate their respective contributions to the total irradiation dose. Their paper makes reference to the main elements of a report issued by the United Nations Scientific Committee in 1977 [fr

  12. Radiation processed polysaccharide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Quoc Hien

    2007-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique products. In this communication, typical products from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above products were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)

  13. Exposures to natural radiation sources. Annex B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The assessment of the radiation doses from natural sources in humans is presented. Both external sources of extraterrestrial origin (cosmic rays) and of terrestrial origin, and internal sources, comprising the naturally-occurring radionuclides which are taken into the human body, are discussed. This Annex is to a large extent a summary of Annex B of the 1977 report of the Committee. The doses due to the radon isotopes and to their short-lived decay products are briefly reviewed.

  14. Searching for Orphan radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrov, Evgenij; Antonau, Uladzimir; Gurinovich, Uladzimir; Kazhamiakin, Valery; Petrov, Vitaly; Shulhovich, Heorhi; Tischenko, Siarhei

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The problem of orphan sources cannot be left unaddressed due high probability of accidental exposure and use of sources for terrorism. Search of objects of this kind is complex particularly when search territory is large. This requires devices capable of detecting sources, identifying their radionuclide composition, and correlating scan results to geographical coordinates and displaying results on a map. Spectral radiation scanner AT6101C can fulfill the objective of search for gamma and neutron radiation sources, radionuclide composition identification, correlation results to geographical coordinates and displaying results on a map. The scanner consists of gamma radiation scintillation detection unit based on NaI(Tl) crystal, neutron detection unit based on two He 3 counters, GPS receiver and portable ruggedized computer. Built-in and application software automates entire scan process, saving all results to memory for further analysis with visual representation of results as spectral information diagrams, count rate profile and gamma radiation dose rates on a geographical map. The scanner informs operator with voice messages on detection of radiation sources, identification result and other events. Scanner detection units and accessories are packed in a backpack. Weighing 7 kg, the scanner is human portable and can be used for scan inside cars. The scanner can also be used for radiation mapping and inspections. (author)

  15. Radiation protection with consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources; Strahlenschutz bei Konsumguetern mit Tritium-Gaslichtquellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahders, Erio; Haeusler, Uwe [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources (GTLS) were examined with respect to their radiological safety potential regarding leak tightness or accidents. The maximum tritium leakage rate of 2.7 Bq/d determined from experimental testing is well below the criterion for leak tightness of sealed radioactive sources in DIN 25426-4. In order to investigate the incorporation of tritium due to contact with consumer products, 2 scenarios were reviewed; the correct use of a tritium watch and the accident scenario with a keyring.

  16. Radiation sources working group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The Radiation Sources Working Group addressed advanced concepts for the generation of RF energy to power advanced accelerators. The focus of the working group included advanced sources and technologies above 17 GHz. The topics discussed included RF sources above 17 GHz, pulse compression techniques to achieve extreme peak power levels, components technology, technology limitations and physical limits, and other advanced concepts. RF sources included gyroklystrons, magnicons, free-electron masers, two beam accelerators, and gyroharmonic and traveling wave devices. Technology components discussed included advanced cathodes and electron guns, high temperature superconductors for producing magnetic fields, RF breakdown physics and mitigation, and phenomena that impact source design such as fatigue in resonant structures due to RF heating. New approaches for RF source diagnostics located internal to the source were discussed for detecting plasma and beam phenomena existing in high energy density electrodynamic systems in order to help elucidate the reasons for performance limitations

  17. Synchrotron radiation sources in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitza, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) is now recognized to be an important instrument for experimental work in many fields of science. Recently the application of SR in medicine and industry, especially as a light source for microelectronics production have been demonstrated. Thus the development of SR sources has now grown to become a significant and independent dimension for accelerator research and technology. This article describes SR work in the Soviet Union

  18. Overview of terahertz radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallerano, G.P.; Biedron, S.G.

    2004-01-01

    Although terahertz (THz) radiation was first observed about hundred years ago, the corresponding portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been for long time considered a rather poorly explored region at the boundary between the microwaves and the infrared. This situation has changed during the past ten years with the rapid development of coherent THz sources, such as solid state oscillators, quantum cascade lasers, optically pumped solid state devices and novel free electron devices, which have in turn stimulated a wide variety of applications from material science to telecommunications, from biology to biomedicine. For a comprehensive review of THz technology the reader is addressed to a recent paper by P. Siegel. In this paper we focus on the development and perspectives of THz radiation sources.

  19. Fabrication of sealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mars, Jean.

    1977-01-01

    The description is given for fabricating a sealed radiation source, consisting in depositing on a metal substrate a thin active coat of a radioelement, termed first coat, submitting this coated substrate to an oxidation treatment in order to obtain on the first coat an inactive coat of an oxide of the metal, termed second coat, and depositing a coat of varnish on this second inactive coat [fr

  20. Radiation sources and technical services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonek, K.; Satorie, Z.; Vyskocil, I.

    1981-01-01

    Work is briefly described of the department for sealed sources production of the Institute, including leak testing and surface contamination of sealed sources. The department also provides technical services including the inspections of sealed sources used in medicine and geology and repair of damaged sources. It carries out research of the mechanical and thermal strength of sealed sources and of the possibility of reprocessing used 226 Ra sources. The despatch department is responsible for supplying the entire country with home and imported radionuclides. The department of technical services is responsible for testing imported radionuclides, assembling materials testing, industrial and medical irradiation devices, and for the collection and storage of low-level wastes on a national scale. (M.D.)

  1. Radiation sources safety and radioactive materials security regulation in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyshliaiev, A.; Holubiev, V.; Makarovska, O.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation sources are widely used in Ukraine. There are about 2500 users in industry, science, education and about 2800 in medicine. About 80,000 sealed radiation sources with total kerma-equivalent of 450 Gy*M 2 /sec are used in Ukraine. The exact information about the radiation sources and their users will be provided in 2001 after the expected completion of the State inventory of radiation sources in Ukraine. In order to ensure radiation source safety in Ukraine, a State System for regulation of activities dealing with radiation sources has been established. The system includes the following elements: establishment of norms, rules and standards of radiation safety; authorization activity, i.e. issuance of permits (including those in the form of licences) for activities dealing with radiation sources; supervisory activity, i.e. control over observance of norms, rules and standards of radiation safety and fulfilment of conditions of licences for activities dealing with radiation sources, and also enforcement. Comprehensive nuclear legislation was developed and implemented from 1991 to 2000. Radiation source safety is regulated by three main nuclear laws in Ukraine: On the use of nuclear energy and radiation safety (passed on 8 February 1995); On Human Protection from Impact of Ionizing Radiation (passed on 14 January 1998); On permissive activity in the area of nuclear energy utilization (passed on 11 January 2000). The regulatory authorities in Ukraine are the Ministry for Ecology and Natural Resources (Nuclear Regulatory Department) and the Ministry of Health (State sanitary-epidemiology supervision). According to the legislation, activities dealing with radiation sources are forbidden without an officially issued permit in Ukraine. Permitted activities with radiation sources are envisaged: licensing of production, storage and maintenance of radiation sources; licensing of the use of radiation sources; obligatory certification of radiation sources and transport

  2. Radiation studies in the antiproton source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, M.

    1990-01-01

    Experiment E760 has a lead glass (Pb-G) calorimeter situated in the antiproton source tunnel in the accumulator ring at location A50. This location is exposed to radiation from several sources during antiproton stacking operations. A series of radiation studies has been performed over the last two years to determine the sources of this radiation and as a result, some shielding has been installed in the antiproton source in order to protect the lead glass from radiation damage

  3. Sustainably Sourced, Thermally Resistant, Radiation Hard Biopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugel, Diane

    2011-01-01

    This material represents a breakthrough in the production, manufacturing, and application of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and radiation shielding, as this represents the first effort to develop a non-metallic, non-ceramic, biomaterial-based, sustainable TPS with the capability to also act as radiation shielding. Until now, the standing philosophy for radiation shielding involved carrying the shielding at liftoff or utilizing onboard water sources. This shielding material could be grown onboard and applied as needed prior to different radiation landscapes (commonly seen during missions involving gravitational assists). The material is a bioplastic material. Bioplastics are any combination of a biopolymer and a plasticizer. In this case, the biopolymer is a starch-based material and a commonly accessible plasticizer. Starch molecules are composed of two major polymers: amylase and amylopectin. The biopolymer phenolic compounds are common to the ablative thermal protection system family of materials. With similar constituents come similar chemical ablation processes, with the potential to have comparable, if not better, ablation characteristics. It can also be used as a flame-resistant barrier for commercial applications in buildings, homes, cars, and heater firewall material. The biopolymer is observed to undergo chemical transformations (oxidative and structural degradation) at radiation doses that are 1,000 times the maximum dose of an unmanned mission (10-25 Mrad), indicating that it would be a viable candidate for robust radiation shielding. As a comparison, the total integrated radiation dose for a three-year manned mission to Mars is 0.1 krad, far below the radiation limit at which starch molecules degrade. For electron radiation, the biopolymer starches show minimal deterioration when exposed to energies greater than 180 keV. This flame-resistant, thermal-insulating material is non-hazardous and may be sustainably sourced. It poses no hazardous

  4. Estimates of radiation doses from various sources of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of radiation doses to individuals and to the collective US population from various sources of ionizing radiation. Summary tables present doses from various sources of ionizing radiation. Summary tables present doses from occupational exposures and annual per capita doses from natural background, the healing arts, nuclear weapons, nuclear energy and consumer products. Although doses from non-ionizing radiation are not as yet readily available in a concise form, the major sources of non-ionizing radiation are listed

  5. On the choice of working conditions for isotope radiation sources in irradiation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrkus, N.P.; Breger, A.Kh.; Putilov, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The problems of selecting an optimal regime for isotopic sources of radiation in powerful radiational installations depending on the costs, parameters of the radiational process (epsilon) and the radioactive isotope halflife are considered. When the radiation sources are simultaneusly replaced, then the optimal time of replacement of sources increases in the radiational installation with the radiation process parameter epsilon<0. Although the cost of a radiational product is lower during continuous replacement of radiation sources, the cost of products in the regime of simultaneous replacement of sources can be decreased, particularly, in the case of a secondary use of the radiactive sources

  6. 77 FR 26706 - Food Ingredients and Sources of Radiation Listed and Approved for Use in the Production of Meat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Listed and Approved for Use in the Production of Meat and Poultry Products AGENCY: Food Safety and... the regulations prohibit for use in meat or poultry products. Under this proposal, new uses of these substances in meat or poultry products would continue to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA...

  7. 78 FR 14636 - Food Ingredients and Sources of Radiation Listed and Approved for Use in the Production of Meat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Production of Meat and Poultry Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is amending the Federal meat and poultry products... substances that the regulations prohibit for use in meat or poultry products. New uses of these substances in...

  8. UV radiation sources for artificial skin tanning and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, D.; Hrnjak, M.

    1999-01-01

    UV radiation sources for artificial tanning are more utilized at the last time. UV radiation is not harmless, so there are not safety devices for tanning. If people do not want to avoid exposure to their radiation, than it is necessary to take the prevention measure: strictly dose of UV radiation according to skin type, use of appropriate protective eye-wears and respect for inhibit of some medicaments and some cosmetic products use. (author)

  9. Natural radiation source fabricated from commercially available instant coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao; Ando, Yoshiaki; Izumi, Yuuichi

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available instant coffee, Nescafe Excella, contained the radionuclide 40 K. From the instant coffee, sixteen coffee-block radiation sources were successfully fabricated with sufficiently low production dependences. The coffee-block radiation sources were examined their suitability for a radiation protection course. Although a part of radiation counts(cpm) obtained with 1 minute measurement were largely deviated, those determined by 5 minute measurements and five times of 1 minute measurement were less deviated, enabling better comprehension of the three cardinal principles of radiation protection. (author)

  10. The natural sources of ionizing radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximilien, R.

    1982-01-01

    Natural sources of ionizing radiation include external sources (cosmic rays, natural radionuclides present in the crust of the earth and in building materials) and internal sources (naturally occuring radionuclides in the human body, especially the potassium 40 and radon short lived decay products). The principal ways of human exposure to theses different components in ''normal'' areas are reviewed; some examples of the variability of exposure with respect to different regions of the world or the habits of life are given. Actual estimations of the doses delivered to the organs are presented; for the main contributors to population exposure, the conversion into effective dose equivalent has been made for allowing a better evaluation of their respective importance [fr

  11. Regulatory control of radiation sources in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxtova, L.

    2001-01-01

    In Slovakia, there are two regulatory authorities. Regulatory control of the utilization of nuclear energy, based on the Slovak National Council's law No. 130/1998 on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, is exercised by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic. The second regulatory authority - the Ministry of Health - is empowered by law No. 72/1994 on the protection of human health to license radiation sources and is responsible for radiation protection supervision (there are nearly 3000 establishments with sealed sources, radiation generators and unsealed sources in Slovakia). Pursuant to a new radiation protection regulation based on international standards, radiation sources are to be categorized in six classes according to the associated exposure and contamination hazards. A national strategy for improving the safety of radiation sources over their life-cycle and for the management of disused and orphan sources is being prepared for governmental approval. (author)

  12. High energy particle accelerators as radiation Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, M E [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Vontrol, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Small accelerators in the energy range of few million electron volts are usually used as radiation sources for various applications, like radiotherapy, food irradiation, radiation sterilization and in other industrial applications. High energy accelerators with energies reaching billions of electron volts also find wide field of applications as radiation sources. Synchrotrons with high energy range have unique features as radiation sources. This review presents a synopsis of cyclic accelerators with description of phase stability principle of high energy accelerators with emphasis on synchrotrons. Properties of synchrotron radiation are given together with their applications in basic and applied research. 13 figs.,1 tab.

  13. Radiation attenuation gauge with magnetically coupled source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a radiation attenuation gauge for measuring thickness and density of a material which includes, in combination, a source of gamma radiation contained within a housing of magnetic or ferromagnetic material, and a means for measuring the intensity of gamma radiation. The measuring means has an aperture and magnetic means disposed adjacent to the aperture for attracting and holding the housed source in position before the aperture. The material to be measured is placed between the source and the measuring means

  14. A new radiation source: the 'CASSITRON'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat, T.; Aucouturier, J.

    1984-01-01

    The CASSITRON, a radiation source conceived and made by CGR MeV, is intended for food processing, the sterilization of disposable medical supplies, sludge sterilization, and the treatment of polymers and chemical products. Its physical characteristics are described. Also the industrial characteristics, i.e. security, simplicity, reliability, easy insertion in a production line system and multipurpose use are explained. Meeting the physical, industrial and economic needs, the CASSITRON is a secure, reliable and simple electric machine. It is a multipurpose accelerator, and can be easily inserted in a production line system. The machine is composed mainly of an electron generator, a modulator, a conversion-device to produce hard x-ray with the electron beam, and a control console. (Mori, K.)

  15. 76 FR 82077 - Food Ingredients and Sources of Radiation Listed or Approved for Use in the Production of Meat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... sentence to read as follows: Sec. 319.306 Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. * * * Meatballs may be prepared with farinaceous material and with other binders...

  16. Control of radiation sources in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, S.

    2001-01-01

    The report refers to the regulations for radioactive material in force in Japan, and to the organizations with responsibilities for regulating radiation sources. An outline of the law regulating the use of radiation sources and radioactive materials is provided, including its scope, types of radiation sources under control, exemptions and the system of notification, authorization and inspection. The experience of Japan with orphan sources is presented in three different cases, and the measures carried out to store the orphan sources in safe conditions. (author)

  17. Nature and magnitude of the problem of spent radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Various types of sealed radiation sources are widely used in industry, medicine and research. Virtually all countries have some sealed sources. The activity in the sources varies from kilobecquerels in consumer products to hundreds of pentabecquerels in facilities for food irradiation. Loss or misuse of sealed sources can give rise to accidents resulting in radiation exposure of workers and members of the general public, and can also give rise to extensive contamination of land, equipment and buildings. In extreme cases the exposure can be lethal. Problems of safety relating to spent radiation sources have been under consideration within the Agency for some years. The first objective of the project has been to prepare a comprehensive report reviewing the nature and background of the problem, also giving an overview of existing practices for the management of spent radiation sources. This report is the fulfilment of this first objective. The safe management of spent radiation sources cannot be studied in isolation from their normal use, so it has been necessary to include some details which are relevant to the use of radiation sources in general, although that area is outside the scope of this report. The report is limited to radiation sources made up of radioactive material. The Agency is implementing a comprehensive action plan for assistance to Member States, especially the developing countries, in all aspects of the safe management of spent radiation sources. The Agency is further seeking to establish regional or global solutions to the problems of long-term storage of spent radiation sources, as well as finding routes for the disposal of sources when it is not feasible to set up safe national solutions. The cost of remedial actions after an accident with radiation sources can be very high indeed: millions of dollars. If the Agency can help to prevent even one such single accident, the cost of its whole programme in this field would be more than covered. Refs

  18. Regulation for radiation protection in applications of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonawane, Avinash U.

    2016-01-01

    Applications of ionising radiation in multifarious field are increasing in the country for the societal benefits. The national regulatory body ensures safety and security of radiation sources by enforcing provisions in the national law and other relevant rules issued under the principle law. In addition, the enforcement of detailed requirements contained in practice specific safety codes and standard and issuance of safety directives brings effectiveness in ensuring safe handling and secure management of radiation sources. The regulatory requirements for control over radiation sources throughout their life-cycle have evolved over the years from experience gained. Nevertheless, some of the regulatory activities which require special attention have been identified such as the development of regulation to deal with advance emerging radiation technology in applications of radiation in medicine and industry; sustaining continuity in ensuring human resource development programme; inspections of category 3 and 4 disused sources and their safe disposal; measures for controlling transboundary movement of radiation sources. The regulatory measures have been contemplated and are being enforced to deal with the above issues in an effective manner. The complete involvement of the management of radiation facilities, radiation workers and their commitment in establishing and maintaining safety and security culture is essential to handle the radiation sources safely and efficiently at all times

  19. Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Safety Guide is intended to assist States in implementing the requirements established in Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1, Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, for a national regulatory infrastructure to regulate any practice involving radiation sources in medicine, industry, research, agriculture and education. The Safety Guide provides advice on the legislative basis for establishing regulatory bodies, including the effective independence of the regulatory body. It also provides guidance on implementing the functions and activities of regulatory bodies: the development of regulations and guides on radiation safety; implementation of a system for notification and authorization; carrying out regulatory inspections; taking necessary enforcement actions; and investigating accidents and circumstances potentially giving rise to accidents. The various aspects relating to the regulatory control of consumer products are explained, including justification, optimization of exposure, safety assessment and authorization. Guidance is also provided on the organization and staffing of regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Legal framework for a regulatory infrastructure; 3. Principal functions and activities of the regulatory body; 4. Regulatory control of the supply of consumer products; 5. Functions of the regulatory body shared with other governmental agencies; 6. Organization and staffing of the regulatory body; 7. Documentation of the functions and activities of the regulatory body; 8. Support services; 9. Quality management for the regulatory system.

  20. Stabilization of radionuclides applied in radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielcarski, M.

    1989-01-01

    An attempt of comprehensive treatment of problems connected with the production of sealed radiation sources is made. In the introductory part of this work the basic information and definitions are contained. The classification systems currently applied are discussed. Attention was paid to the main fields of application. The methods of stabilization of radionuclides used for preparing radiation sources are discussed. The results of own investigations are presented, comprising the adsorption of some radionuclides on anodic Al 2 O 3 layers, stabilization in glazes and enamels, and the preparation of radioactive ceramics. In the adsorption investigations, these problems were considered as predominant which could form the basis for technological solutions. The results obtained allowed to establish the most favourable conditions of performing the process of stabilization by the use of this technique. In the case of radioactive enamels, the effect of glass composition on the yield of ionization has been investigated. Lowering of the content of radioactive component with simultaneous preserving the useful ionization ability was considered as being important. The mechanism of the observed increase of ionization caused by some inactive glass components is discussed. As concerns radioactive ceramics, a simplified method for preparing the ceramic core of cesium-137 sources is presented. This synthesis is based on the thermal transformation of moulded zeolite pellets into radioactive pollucite. Practical usefulness of different methods for the stabilization is discussed with emphasis given to those elaborated and applied in Poland. 131 refs., 37 figs., 20 tabs. (author)

  1. Radiation sterilization of medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshid, S.J.; Hussain, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation sterilization is the best method of sterilization, essentially for single use medical and surgical products. Pakistan has established a commercial gamma irradiation plant for this purpose. This article overviews the advantages and benefits of radiation sterilization to stimulate the interest of industrialists and the users in this technology. This technology can give a better medical care in the country and the growing demand can only be met by bulk sterilization. The radiation sterilized medical products can also compete well with the products sterilized by other methods in the international market, gamma sterilization is accepted internationally and if adopted it can boost our export of medical products. (author)

  2. Radiation effects on light sources and detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of optoelectronics includes a wide variety of both military and non-military applications in which the systems must meet radiation exposure requirements. Herein, we review the work on radiation effects on sources and detectors for such optoelectronic systems. For sources the principal problem is permanent damage-induced light output degradation, while for detectors it is ionizing radiation-induced photocurrents

  3. Regulated control of practices and radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Excepting the radiation caused by the natural background radiation, the Executive Secretariat for Nuclear Affairs (SEAN) does not authorize any source no practice within the national territory that may imply exposure of a person to ionizing radiation unless this use is ruled. This document establishes the basic criteria to set up such system as well as to exclude or exempt practices and sources from this regulated control

  4. Radiation sources, radiation environment and risk level at Dubna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komochkov, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The overall information about ionizing radiation sources, which form radiation environment and risk at Dubna, is introduced. Systematization of the measurement results is performed on the basis of the effective dose and losses of life expectancy. The contribution of different sources to total harm of Dubna inhabitants has been revealed. JINR sources carry in ∼ 4% from the total effective dose of natural and medicine radiation sources; the harm from them is much less than the harm from cigarette smoking. 18 refs.; 2 tabs

  5. Capillary discharge sources of hard UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachoncinlle, C; Dussart, R; Robert, E; Goetze, S; Pons, J; Mohanty, S R; Viladrosa, R; Fleurier, C; Pouvesle, J M

    2002-01-01

    We developed and studied three different extreme ultraviolet (EUV) capillary discharge sources either dedicated to the generation of coherent or incoherent EUV radiation. The CAPELLA source has been developed especially as an EUV source for the metrology at 13.4 nm. With one of these sources, we were able to produce gain on the Balmer-Hα (18.22 nm) and Hβ (13.46 nm) spectral lines in carbon plasma. By injecting 70 GW cm -3 we measured gain-length products up to 1.62 and 3.02 for the Hα and Hβ, respectively optimization of the EUV capillary source CAPELLA led to the development of an EUV lamp which emits 2 mJ in the bandwidth of the MoSi mirror, per joule stored, per shot and in full solid angle. The wall-plug efficiency is 0.2%. Stability of this lamp is better than 4% and the lamp can operate at repetition rate of 50 Hz

  6. Fission-product source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    This presentation consists of a review of fission-product source terms for light water reactor (LWR) fuel. A source term is the quantity of fission products released under specified conditions that can be used to calculate the consequences of the release. The source term usually defines release from breached fuel-rod cladding but could also describe release from the primary coolant system, the reactor containment shell, or the site boundary. The source term would be different for each locality, and the chemical and physical forms of the fission products could also differ

  7. Radiation exposure by using unsealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preitfellner, J.

    1999-05-01

    Investigations on patients using radioactive substances are performed on a routinely basis in nuclear medicine facilities at many hospitals in our days. These investigations are performed by administering a radiopharmacon to the patient which, depending on several parameters, remains in the body of the patient for various periods of time. All these investigations have in common a g-ray exposure of the environment by the radioactive substance in the body of the patient. Among others, doctors, technical personnel, cleaning personnel, and accompanying persons of patients are exposed to g-rays. Based on these facts, the degree of danger for persons who get into contact with these patients is repeatedly questioned. An additional problem is the health risk of persons employed at a nuclear medicine facility. To answer the first question, the local dose rate in the environment of 102 patients was evaluated immediately after application of the radioactive substance, in intervals from 30 minutes up to several hours, over a period of up to 2 weeks. Depending on the nature of the investigation, the patients were subdivided into 6 groups of 16-20 persons. From the data measured, the effective and the biological half life as well as the local dose were computed. With the aid of concrete case examples, the possible radiation exposure for contact persons was estimated. Postulating unfavorable local and temporal factors in our estimations, the actual radiation exposure is to be estimated about 10-30 % lower. As a reference value for the danger of persons, the maximum permissible boundary values from the Austrian Regulations for Protection against Radiation were used. Referring to these boundary values, for none of the six nuclear medicine investigation methods a danger for contact persons could be derived, indicating that available security measures offer a sufficient protection for affected contact persons. To answer the question about the risk for persons employed at a nuclear

  8. Virtual Gamma Ray Radiation Sources through Neutron Radiative Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Wilde, Raymond Keegan

    2008-07-01

    The countrate response of a gamma spectrometry system from a neutron radiation source behind a plane of moderating material doped with a nuclide of a large radiative neutron capture cross-section exhibits a countrate response analogous to a gamma radiation source at the same position from the detector. Using a planar, surface area of the neutron moderating material exposed to the neutron radiation produces a larger area under the prompt gamma ray peak in the detector than a smaller area of dimensions relative to the active volume of the gamma detection system.

  9. Plasma focus - a pulsed radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blagoev, Alexandar; Zapryanov, Stanislav; Gol'tsev, Vasilii; Gemishev, Orlin

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the applications of plasma focus (PF) in radiobiology. Briefly describes the principle of operation of the device and the parameters of the PF type 'Mader' at the Physics Department of the University. Phase pinch discharge zones appear hot and dense plasma, which is a source of X-ray and neutron pulse when the working gas is deuterium. These radiations are essential for biological applications. Besides these bundles are obtained from accelerated charged particles and shock wave of ionized gas. Described are some of the contributions of other authors using PF in radiobiology. Given the results in the exposure of living organisms with soft X-ray emission of PF. We examined the viability of the cells of the two types of yeasts, after irradiation with X-rays at a dose of 65 mSv, where no change was found on the performance. It is shown that soft X-ray radiation doses on the order of tens of mSv, cause a significant change in the productivity of the electronic transport in the photosynthetic apparatus of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Trichoderma reesei M7 shows remarkable vitality irradiation with substantial doses of hard X-ray radiation (tens Sv). Appear endoglyukonazata changes in the protein component and the residual mass

  10. Radiation safety and inventory of sealed radiation sources in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Mannan, A.

    2001-01-01

    Sealed radiation sources (SRS) of various types and activities are widely used in industry, medicine, agriculture, research and teaching in Pakistan. The proper maintenance of records of SRS is mandatory for users/licensees. Since 1956, more than 2000 radiation sources of different isotopes having activities of Bq to TBq have been imported. Of these, several hundred sources have been disposed of and some have been exported/returned to the suppliers. To ensure the safety and security of the sources and to control and regulate the safe use of radiation sources in various disciplines, the Directorate of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (DNSRP), the implementing arm of the regulatory authority in the country, has introduced a system for notifying, registering and licensing the use of all types of SRS. In order to update the inventory of SRS used throughout the country, the DNSRP has developed a database. (author)

  11. Radiation sources and methods for producing them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malson, H.A.; Moyer, S.E.; Honious, H.B.; Janzow, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    The radiation sources contain a substrate with an electrically conducting, non-radioactive metal surface, a layer of a metal isotope of the scandium group as well as a percentage of non-radioactive binding metal being coated on the surface by means of an electroplating method. Besides examples for β sources ( 147 Pm), γ sources ( 241 Am), and neutron sources ( 252 Cf) there is described an α-radiation source ( 241 Am, 244 Cu, 238 Pu) for smoke detectors. There are given extensive tables and a bibliography. (DG) [de

  12. Radiation technology and feed production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    The use of radiation technology to prepare feeds and feed additions for cattle of non-feed vegetable blends is considered.Physicochemical foundations of radiation-chemical processes, possibilities of the use of various radiation devices are given. Data on practical realization of the technology are presented and prospects of its introduction to solve the tasks put forward by the USSR program on feed production are analyzed

  13. Sources of radiation exposure - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.C.

    1990-01-01

    Sources of radiation exposure are reviewed from the perspective of mining and milling of radioactive ores in Australia. The major sources of occupational and public exposure are identified and described, and exposures from mining and milling operations are discussed in the context of natural radiation sources and other sources arising from human activities. Most radiation exposure of humans comes from natural sources. About 80% of the world average of the effective dose equivalents received by individual people arises from natural radiation, with a further 15-20% coming from medical exposures*. Exposures results from human activities, such as mining and milling of radioactive ores, nuclear power generation, fallout from nuclear weapons testing and non-medical use of radioisotopes and X-rays, add less than 1% to the total. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs

  14. There are radiation sources out there!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahran, M.Y.

    2001-01-01

    During the past few years we have been working in the area of the safety of radiation sources and radioactive materials. In this paper we summarize our findings and describe the recovery of an abandoned source. We call for further international co-operation in this area. In particular, we suggest an international system for the tagging and tracking of radioactive sources. (author)

  15. Radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    These Safety Fundamentals cover the protection of human beings against ionizing radiation (gamma and X rays and alpha, beta and other particles that can induce ionization as they interact with biological materials), referred to herein subsequently as radiation, and the safety of sources that produce ionizing radiation. The Fundamentals do not apply to non-ionizing radiation such as microwave, ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation. They do not apply either to the control of non-radiological aspects of health and safety. They are, however, part of the overall framework of health and safety

  16. Radiation Safety and Orphan Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.; Krizman, M.

    2006-01-01

    The wide spread use of radioactive and particularly of nuclear materials which started in the last century very quickly also demonstrated negative sides. The external exposure and radiotoxicity of these materials could be easily used in a malevolent act. Due to the fact that these materials could not be detected without special equipment designed for that purpose, severe control over their use in all phases of a life cycle is required. An orphan source is a radioactive source which is not under regulatory control, either because it has never been under regulatory or because it has been abandoned, lost, misplaced, stolen or transferred without proper authorization. In the last ten years a few international conferences were dedicated to the improvement of the safety and security of radioactive sources. Three main tasks are focused, the maintenance of data bases related to events with orphan sources and the publications of such events, the preparation of recommendations and guidelines to national regulatory bodies in order to prevent and detect the events related to orphan sources as well as to develop the response strategies to radiological or nuclear emergency, appraisals of the national strategies of radioactive sources control. Concerning Slovenia, strengthening control over orphan sources in Slovenia started after the adoption of new legislation in 2002. It was carried out through several tasks with the aim to prevent orphan sources, as well as to identify the sources which could be potentially orphan sources. The comprehensive methodology was developed by the Slovenian nuclear safety administration (S.N.S.A.) based on international guidelines as well as on the study of national lesson learned cases. The methodology was developed and used in close cooperation with all parties involved, namely other regulatory authorities, police, customs, agency for radioactive waste management (A.R.A.O.), technical support organisations (T.S.O.), users of source, authorised

  17. Radiation Safety and Orphan Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzekovic, H.; Krizman, M. [Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-07-01

    The wide spread use of radioactive and particularly of nuclear materials which started in the last century very quickly also demonstrated negative sides. The external exposure and radiotoxicity of these materials could be easily used in a malevolent act. Due to the fact that these materials could not be detected without special equipment designed for that purpose, severe control over their use in all phases of a life cycle is required. An orphan source is a radioactive source which is not under regulatory control, either because it has never been under regulatory or because it has been abandoned, lost, misplaced, stolen or transferred without proper authorization. In the last ten years a few international conferences were dedicated to the improvement of the safety and security of radioactive sources. Three main tasks are focused, the maintenance of data bases related to events with orphan sources and the publications of such events, the preparation of recommendations and guidelines to national regulatory bodies in order to prevent and detect the events related to orphan sources as well as to develop the response strategies to radiological or nuclear emergency, appraisals of the national strategies of radioactive sources control. Concerning Slovenia, strengthening control over orphan sources in Slovenia started after the adoption of new legislation in 2002. It was carried out through several tasks with the aim to prevent orphan sources, as well as to identify the sources which could be potentially orphan sources. The comprehensive methodology was developed by the Slovenian nuclear safety administration (S.N.S.A.) based on international guidelines as well as on the study of national lesson learned cases. The methodology was developed and used in close cooperation with all parties involved, namely other regulatory authorities, police, customs, agency for radioactive waste management (A.R.A.O.), technical support organisations (T.S.O.), users of source, authorised

  18. ROSY - Rossendorf synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einfeld, D.; Matz, W.

    1993-11-01

    The electron energy of the storage ring will be 3 GeV and the emitted synchrotron radiation is in the hard X-ray region with a critical energy of the spectrum of E c =8,4 keV (λ c =0,14 nm). With a natural emittance of 28 π nm rad ROSY emits high brilliance radiation. Besides the radiation from bending magnets there will be the possibility for using radiation from wigglers and undulators. For the insertion devices 8 places are foreseen four of which are located in non-dispersion-free regions. The storage ring is of fourfold symmetry, has a circumference of 148 m and is designed in a modified FODO structure. An upgrade of ROSY with superconducting bending magnets in order to shift the spectrum to higher energy can easily be done. Part I contains the scientific case and a description of the planned use of the beam lines. Part II describes the design of the storage ring and its components in more detail. (orig.) [de

  19. Ionizing radiation sources. Ionizing radiation interaction with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popits, R.

    1976-01-01

    Fundamentals of nuclear physics are reviewed under the headings: obtaining of X-rays and their properties; modes of radioactive decay of natural or man-made radionuclides; radioactive neutron sources; nuclear fission as basis for devising nuclear reactors and weapons; thermonuclear reactions; cosmic radiation. Basic aspects of ionizing radiation interactions with matter are considered with regard to charged particles, photon radiation, and neutrons. (A.B.)

  20. The utilization of radiation sources in Angola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, P.C.D.

    2001-01-01

    The report describes the situation that Angola, which joined the IAEA in September 1999, is facing with the lack of an appropriate infrastructure for the control of radiation sources. It emphasizes the country's needs in technical assistance from the IAEA and other Member States for improving its regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety. (author)

  1. All-fiber femtosecond Cherenkov radiation source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Møller, Uffe

    2012-01-01

    -conversion medium, we demonstrate milliwatt-level, stable, and tunable Cherenkov radiation at visible wavelengths 580–630 nm, with pulse duration of sub-160-fs, and the 3 dB spectral bandwidth not exceeding 36 nm. Such an all-fiber Cherenkov radiation source is promising for practical applications in biophotonics...

  2. Management of Spent Radiation Source from Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisyah

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays the use of radioactive source for both radiodiagnostic and radiotherapy in Indonesia hospital increases rapidly. Sealed source used in radiotherapy among others for brachytherapy, teletherapy, bone densitometry, whole blood irradiation and gamma knife (radiosurgery). In line with this, the waste of spent radiation sources will be generated in hospitals. Of course these spent radiation sources must be treated correctly in order to maintain the safety of both the public and the environment. According to the Act No. 10/1997, BATAN, in care of the Radioactive Waste Management Center is the national appointed agency for the management of radioactive waste. The option for waste management by hospitals needs to be expound, either by re-exporting to the supplier of origin, re-exporting to other supplier, re-use by other licensee or sending to the Radioactive Waste Management Center. Usually the waste sent by the hospitals to the center comprises of sealed radiation source of 60 Co, 137 Cs or 226 Ra. The management of spent radiation source in the center is carried out in several steps i.e. conditioning, temporary storage, and long-term storage (final disposal). The conditioning of non 226 Ra is carried out by placing the waste in a 200 litter drum shell, 950 or 350 litter concrete shells, depends on the activity and dimension of the spent radiation source. The conditioning of 226 Ra is carried out by encapsulating the waste in a stainless steel container for long-term storage shield which then placed in a 200 litter drum shell. The temporary storage of the conditioned spent radiation source is carried out by storing it in the center’s temporary storages, either low or medium activity waste. Finally, the conditioned spent radiation source is buried in a disposal facility. For medium half-life spent radiation source, the final disposal is burial it in a shallow-land disposal; mean while, for long half-life spent radiation source, the final disposal is burial it in

  3. Irradiation device using radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perraudin, Claude; Amarge, Edmond; Guiho, J.-P.; Horiot, J.-C.; Taniel, Gerard; Viel, Georges; Brethon, J.-P.

    1981-01-01

    The invention refers to an irradiation appliance making use of radioactive sources such as cobalt 60. This invention concerns an irradiation appliance delivering an easily adjustable irradiation beam in accurate dimensions and enabling the radioactive sources to be changed without making use of intricate manipulations at the very place where the appliance has to be used. This kind of appliance is employed in radiotherapy [fr

  4. Application of large radiation sources in chemical processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, K.

    1977-01-01

    Large radiation sources and their application in chemical processing industry are described. A reference has also been made to the present developments in this field in India. Radioactive sources, notably 60 Co, are employed in production of wood-plastic and concrete-polymer composites, vulcanised rubbers, polymers, sulfochlorinated paraffin hydrocarbons and in a number of other applications which require deep penetration and high reliability of source. Machine sources of electrons are used in production of heat shrinkable plastics, insulation materials for cables, curing of paints etc. Radiation sources have also been used for sewage hygienisation. As for the scene in India, 60 Co sources, gamma chambers and batch irradiators are manufactured. A list of the on-going R and D projects and organisations engaged in research in this field is given. (M.G.B.)

  5. Devices for obtaining information about radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosswill, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    The invention provides a sensitive, fast high-resolution device for obtaining information about the distribution of gamma and X-radiation sources and provides a radiation detector useful in such a device. It comprises a slit collimator with a multiplicity of slits each with slit-defining walls of material and thickness to absorb beam components impinging on them. The slits extend further in one direction than the other. The detector for separately detecting beam components passing through the slits also provides data output signals. It comprises a plurality of radiation transducing portions which are not photoconductor elements each at the end of a slit. A positioner operates to change the transverse position of the slits and radiation transducing portions relative to the source, wherein each radiation transducing element is positioned within its respective slit between the slit defining walls. Full details and preferred embodiments are given. (U.K.)

  6. Radiation therapy sources, equipment and installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    The safety code for Telegamma Therapy Equipment and Installations, (AERB/SC/MED-1) and safety code for Brachytherapy Sources, Equipment and Installations, (AERB/SC/MED-3) were issued by AERB in 1986 and 1988 respectively. These codes specified mandatory requirements for radiation therapy facilities, covering the entire spectrum of operations ranging from the setting up of a facility to its ultimate decommissioning, including procedures to be followed during emergency situations. The codes also stipulated requirements of personnel and their responsibilities. With the advent of new techniques and equipment such as 3D-conformal radiation therapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy, image guided radiation therapy, treatment planning system, stereotactic radiosurgery, stereotactic radiotherapy, portal imaging, integrated brachytherapy and endovascular brachytherapy during the last two decades, AERB desires that these codes be revised and merged into a single code titled Radiation Therapy Sources, Equipment, and Installations

  7. An industrial radiation source for food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat, R.

    1986-01-01

    The scientific linacs realized by CGR MeV in France have been installed in several research centers, the medical accelerators of CGR MeV have been installed in radiotherapy centers all over the world, and the industrial linacs have been used for radiography in heavy industries. Based on the experience for 30 years, CGR MeV has realized a new industrial radiation source for food processing. CARIC is going to install a new machine of CGR MeV, CASSITRON, as the demand for radiation increased. This machine has been devised specially for industrial irradiation purpose. Its main features are security, simplicity and reliability, and it is easy to incorporate it into a production line. The use of CASSITRON for food industry, the ionizing effect on mechanically separated poultry meat, the capital and processing cost and others are explained. Only 10 % of medical disposable supplies is treated by ionizing energy in France. The irradiation for food decontamination, and that for industrial treatment are demanded. Therefore, CARIC is going to increase the capacity by installing a CASSITRON for sterilization. The capital and processing cost are shown. The start of operation is expected in March, 1986. At present, a CASSITRON is being installed in the SPI food processing factory, and starts operation in a few weeks. (Kako, I.)

  8. Cesium-137 as a radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullen, W.H.; Sloan, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Byproducts Utilization Program (BUP) seeks to develop and encourage widespread commercial use of defense byproducts that are produced by DOE. Cesium-l37 is one such byproduct that is radioactive and decays with emission of gamma rays. The beneficial use of this radiation to disinfect sewage sludge or disinfest food commodities is actively being pursued by the program. The radiation produced by cesium-l37(Cs-l37) is identical in form to that produced by cobalt-60(Co-60), an isotope that is widely used in commercial applications such as medical product sterilization. The choice of isotope to use depends on several factors ranging from inherent properties of the isotopes to availability and cost. The BUP, although centrally concerned with the beneficial use of Cs-l37, by investigating and assessing the feasibility of various uses hopes to define appropriate circumstances where cesium or cobalt might best be used to accomplish specific objectives. This paper discusses some of the factors that should be considered when evaluating potential uses for isotopic sources

  9. Hydrogen production by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jin Ho; Lee, M. J.; Jin, J. H.; Park, K. B.; Cho, Y. H.; Jeong, H. S.; Chung, H. H.; Jeong, Y. S.; Ahn, S. S.

    2001-04-01

    In this work, various kinds of catalysts including a nanosize TiO2 (nTiO 2 ) were examined in respect to the efficiency of H2 production by gamma rays.The different activity of catalysts was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). A combination of EPR and spin-trapping method was also used to detect unstable radicals such as hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms to investigate the effect of catalysts and additives on the efficiency of H2 production. A nanosize TiO 2 (nTiO 2 ) catalyst that showed an excellent activity in the production of H2 from water by gamma rays were examined in respect to the efficiency of H2 production with concomitant treatment of metal-EDTA complexes that are main wastes of chemical cleaning wastewater. As a result, among the catalysts examined in this work, a nanosize TiO2 (nTiO 2 ) showed the most efficient H2 production and the efficiency increased upon reapplication. This catalyst was also successfully used to produce H2 with concomitant treatment of metal-EDTA complexes

  10. Radiation methods in dairy production and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguli, N.C.

    1975-01-01

    Various uses of radiotracers and radiation in dairy technology are described. In dairy production, radiotracers are used for studying: (1) rumen metabolism leading to protein synthesis (2) total body water, blood volume and sodium (3) minerals metabolism (4) relation between climatic stress and thyroid functioning of dairy animals (5) volume of milk in mammary glands (6) hormone level in dairy animals and (7) spermatozoa metabolism. In dairy processing, radiotracers are used for studying: (1) compositional analysis of milk and milk products and (2) efficiency of cleaning agents for cleaning dairy equipment. Ionizing radiation is used for: (1) preservation of milk and milk products and (2) sterilization of packaging materials. Radiation source has been used to monitor the over-run in ice-cream and the fill control for fluid in papar cartons. (M.G.B.)

  11. Security of radioactive sources in radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    Safety codes and safety standards are formulated on the basis of internationally accepted safety criteria for design, construction and operation of specific equipment, systems, structures and components of nuclear and radiation facilities. Safety codes establish the objectives and set requirements that shall be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety. Safety guides and guidelines elaborate various requirements and furnish approaches for their implementation. Safety manuals deal with specific topics and contain detailed scientific and technical information on the subject. These documents are prepared by experts in the relevant fields and are extensively reviewed by advisory committees of the Board before they are published. The documents are revised when necessary, in the light of experience and feedback from users as well as new developments in the field. In India, radiation sources are being widely used for societal benefits in industry, medical practices, research, training and agriculture. It has been reported from all over the world that unsecured radioactive sources caused serious radiological accidents involving radiation injuries and fatalities. Particular concern was expressed regarding radioactive sources that have become orphaned (not under regulatory control) or vulnerable (under weak regulatory control and about to be orphaned). There is a concern about safety and security of radioactive sources and hence the need of stringent regulatory control over the handling of the sources and their security. In view of this, this guide is prepared which gives provisions necessary to safeguard radiation installations against theft of radioactive sources and other malevolent acts that may result in radiological consequences. It is, therefore, required that the radiation sources are used safely and managed securely by only authorised personnel. This guide is intended to be used by users of radiation sources in developing the necessary security plan for

  12. Regulatory control of radiation sources. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The basic requirements for the protection of persons against exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources were established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards), jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/ NEA), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) (the Sponsoring Organizations). The application of the Basic Safety Standards is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities for radiation protection and safety. Requirements relating to the legal and governmental infrastructure for the safety of nuclear facilities and sources of ionizing radiation, radiation protection, the safe management of radioactive waste and the safe transport of radioactive material are established in the Safety Requirements on Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1. This Safety Guide, which is jointly sponsored by the FAO, the IAEA, the International Labour Office, the PAHO and the WHO, gives detailed guidance on the key elements for the organization and operation of a national regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety, with particular reference to the functions of the national regulatory body that are necessary to ensure the implementation of the Basic Safety Standards. The Safety Guide is based technically on material first published in IAEA-TECDOC-10671, which was jointly sponsored by the FAO, the IAEA, the OECD/NEA, the PAHO and the WHO. The requirements established in GS-R-1 have been taken into account. The Safety Guide is oriented towards national

  13. Ionization detector with improved radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.F.

    1977-01-01

    The detector comprises a chamber having at least one radiation source disposed therein. The chamber includes spaced collector plates which form a part of a detection circuit for sensing changes in the ionization current in the chamber. The radiation source in one embodiment is in the form of a wound wire or ribbon suitably supported in the chamber and preferably a source of beta particles. The chamber may also include an adjustable electrode and the source may function as an adjustable current source by forming the wire or ribbon in an eliptical shape and rotating the structure. In another embodiment the source has a random shape and is homogeneously disposed in the chamber. 13 claims, 5 drawing figures

  14. Radiation sources EB and UV curing machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi Sasaki

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes electron beam processors and related technologies for curing applications to facilitate those industrial personals who are trying to understand and evaluate the applicability and benefits of radiation curing to their products. 4 tabs., 10 figs

  15. Radiation sources EB and UV curing machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes electron beam processors and related technologies for curing applications to facilitate those industrial personals who are trying to understand and evaluate the applicability and benefits of radiation curing to their products. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  16. Safe management of spent radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso; Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Valdezco, E.M.; Choi, Kwang-Sub

    2003-01-01

    Presented are 8 investigation reports concerning the safe management of spent radiation source (SRS) during the current 2 years. Four reports from Japan are: Scheme for SRS management (approach and present status of the SRS management and consideration toward solving problems); Current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) activities related to safety of radiation sources (Chronology of action plan development, Outline of revised action plan, and Asian regional activities); Current status of SRS management in Japan (Regulation system, Obligations of licensed users, Regulatory system on sealed sources, Status in the incidents on sources occurred, Incident of source loss, and Incidents of orphan sources); and SRS management system in Japan (Current status of using of sealed sources, collection system of SRS-Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) services, and Disposal of SRS). Four reports from the Asian countries also concern the current statuses of SRS management in the Philippine (Radioactive waste sources, Waste management strategies, Conditioning of Ra sources, Ra project action plan, as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) program, Dose assessment, Regulations on radioactive waste, Action plan on the safety and security of sources, IAEA Regional Demonstration Centers, and sitting studies for a near surface disposal facility); Thailand (Current status of using sealed sources, Inventory of SRS, and Current topics of SRS management); Indonesia (Principles of management of radiation sources, Legislative framework of SRS management practices, Regulatory on SRS, management of sealed SRS, management hurdles, and reported incidents); and Korea (Regulatory frame work, Collection systems of SRS, Radioisotope waste generation, Radiation exposure incident, and Scrap monitoring system). (N.I.)

  17. The safe use of radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    As a means of promoting safety in the use of radiation sources, as well as encouraging consistency in regulatory control, the IAEA has from time to time organized training courses with the co-operation of Member State governments and organizations, to inform individuals from developing countries with appropriate responsibilities on the provisions for the safe use and regulation of radiation sources. Three such courses on the safe use of radiation sources have been held in both the USA, with the co-operation of the United States Government, and in Dublin, Ireland, with the co-operation of the Irish Government. The Training Course on the Safe Use and Regulation of Radiation Sources has been successfully given to over 77 participants from over 30 countries during the last years. The course is aimed at providing a basis of radiation protection knowledge in all aspects of the uses of radiation and of radiation sources that are used today. It is the intention of this course to provide a systematic enhancement of radioisotope safety in countries with developing radiological programmes through a core group of national authorities. The IAEA's training programmes provide an excellent opportunity for direct contact with lecturers that have extensive experience in resolving issues faced by developing countries and in providing guidance documents useful in addressing their problems. This document uses this collective experience and provides valuable technical information regarding the safety aspects of the uses not only of sealed and unsealed sources of radiation, but also for those machines that produce ionizing radiation. The first of these training courses, 'Safety and Regulation of Unsealed Sources' was held in Dublin, Ireland, June through July 1989 with the co-operation of the Nuclear Energy Board and Trinity College. This was an interregional training course, the participants came from all over the world. The second and third interregional courses, 'Safety and Regulation

  18. The safe use of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    As a means of promoting safety in the use of radiation sources, as well as encouraging consistency in regulatory control, the IAEA has from time to time organized training courses with the co-operation of Member State governments and organizations, to inform individuals from developing countries with appropriate responsibilities on the provisions for the safe use and regulation of radiation sources. Three such courses on the safe use of radiation sources have been held in both the USA, with the co-operation of the United States Government, and in Dublin, Ireland, with the co-operation of the Irish Government. The Training Course on the Safe Use and Regulation of Radiation Sources has been successfully given to over 77 participants from over 30 countries during the last years. The course is aimed at providing a basis of radiation protection knowledge in all aspects of the uses of radiation and of radiation sources that are used today. It is the intention of this course to provide a systematic enhancement of radioisotope safety in countries with developing radiological programmes through a core group of national authorities. The IAEA's training programmes provide an excellent opportunity for direct contact with lecturers that have extensive experience in resolving issues faced by developing countries and in providing guidance documents useful in addressing their problems. This document uses this collective experience and provides valuable technical information regarding the safety aspects of the uses not only of sealed and unsealed sources of radiation, but also for those machines that produce ionizing radiation. The first of these training courses, 'Safety and Regulation of Unsealed Sources' was held in Dublin, Ireland, June through July 1989 with the co-operation of the Nuclear Energy Board and Trinity College. This was an interregional training course, the participants came from all over the world. The second and third interregional courses, 'Safety and Regulation

  19. X radiation sources based on accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couprie, M.E.; Filhol, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Light sources based on accelerators aim at producing very high brilliance coherent radiation, tunable from the infrared to X-ray range, with picosecond or femtosecond light pulses. The first synchrotron light sources were built around storage rings in which a large number of relativistic electrons produce 'synchrotron radiation' when their trajectory is subjected to a magnetic field, either in bending magnets or in specific insertion devices (undulators), made of an alternating series of magnets, allowing the number of curvatures to be increased and the radiation to be reinforced. These 'synchrotron radiation' storage rings are now used worldwide (there are more than thirty), and they simultaneously distribute their radiation to several tens of users around the storage ring. The most effective installations in term of brilliance are the so-called third generation synchrotron radiation light sources. The radiation produced presents pulse durations of the order of a few tens of ps, at a high rate (of the order of MHz); it is tunable over a large range, depending on the magnetic field and the electron beam energy and its polarisation is adjustable (in the V-UV-soft-X range). Generally, a very precise spectral selection is made by the users with a monochromator. The single pass linear accelerators can produce very short electron bunches (around 100 fs). The beam of very high electronic density is sent into successive undulator modules, reinforcing the radiation's longitudinal coherence, produced according to a Free Electron Laser (FEL) scheme by the interaction between the electron bunch and a light wave. The very high peak brilliance justifies their designation as fourth generation sources. The number of users is smaller because an electron pulse produces a radiation burst towards only one beamline. Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) let the beam pass several times in the accelerator structures either to recover the energy or to accelerate the electrons during several turns

  20. Cosmical sources of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchowicz, B [Warsaw Univ. (Poland)

    1974-01-01

    A brief historical outline of the X-ray and ..gamma..-ray astronomies is given first, then a summary of the recent status of X-ray astronomy follows. Further chapters include information on ..gamma..-ray sources in the solar system, in our Galaxy, and beyond it. In discussing linear gamma spectra attention is paid to the possibility of studying explosive nucleo-synthesis by observation of gamma lines from supernova remnants, etc. Questions of the isotropic gamma background are discussed at the end of the survey.

  1. Protection from potential exposures: application to selected radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This ICRP Report begins with the general principles of radiation protection in the case of potential exposures, followed by special issues in application and compliance with regulatory aims. The rest of the report uses event trees or fault trees to derive the logical structure of six scenarios of potential exposure, i.e. two irradiators, a large research accelerator, an accelerator for industrial isotope production, an industrial radiography device using a mobile source of radiation, and finally a medical gamma radiotherapy device. (UK)

  2. Devices for obtaining information about radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosswill, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    The invention provides a sensitive, fast, high-resolution device for obtaining information about the distribution of gamma and X-radiation sources and provides a radiation detector useful in such a device. It comprises a slit collimator with a multiplicity of slits each with slit-defining walls of material and thickness to absorb beam components impinging on them. The slits extend further in one transverse direction than the other. The detector for separately detecting beam components passing through the slits also provides data output signals. It comprises a plurality of radiation transducing portions, each at the end of a slit. A positioner changes the transverse position of the slits and radiation transducer (a photoconductor) relative to the source. Applications are in nuclear medicine and industry. Full details and preferred embodiments are given. (U.K.)

  3. Assessment of risk from radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbaratnam, T.; Madhvanath, U.; Somasundaram, S.

    1976-01-01

    Assessment of risk from exposure to ionizing radiations from man-made radiation sources and nuclear installations has to be viewed from three aspects, namely, dose-effect relationship (genetic and somatic) for humans, calculation of doses or dose-commitments to population groups, assessment of risk to radiation workers and the population at large from the current levels of exposure from nuclear industry and comparison of risk estimates with other industries in a modern society. These aspects are discussed in brief. On the basis of available data, it is shown that estimated incidence of genetic diseases and cancers due to exposure of population to radiation from nuclear industry is negligible in comparison with their natural incidence, and radiation risks to the workers in nuclear industry are much lower than the risks in other occupations. (M.G.B.)

  4. Radiation protection and regulatory aspects in the use of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Amit; Dash Sharma, P.K.; Sonawane, A.U.

    2012-01-01

    The uses of ionising radiation sources (i.e. radioisotopes and radiation generating equipment such as accelerators and X-ray machines) for multifarious applications in industry, medicine, agriculture, research and teaching have been significantly increasing all over the world. In India, the application of radiation sources in various fields has registered phenomenal growth during the last decade. The use of radiation sources mainly include radiation processing for food preservation and sterilization of healthcare products, radiotherapy for treatment of cancer, nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy, gamma chambers for several R and D studies, blood irradiators, industrial radiography for non destructive examinations of steel structures, industrial ionising radiation gauging devices for monitoring/measurement of on-line quality control parameters (e.g. thickness, level, density, moisture, elemental analysis), consumer products such as gaseous tritium light sources (GTLS), gaseous tritium light devices (GTLD), ionisation chamber smoke detectors (ICSD), fluorescent light starters, antistatic devices and incandescent gas mantles containing thorium etc. All these beneficial applications involve use of both sealed and unsealed radioactive sources and amount of radioactivity varies from few kBq (μCi) to hundreds of TBq (thousands of curies). Radiation sources emit ionising radiations and if not handled properly and safely, may give rise to potential exposures leading to an unacceptable hazard. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure a high standard of safety and reliability in handling of radiation equipment and sources through their careful design by ensuring adequate built-in-safety as per applicable national/international standard, safe operation and periodic maintenance procedures, safe transport from one place to another, secured storage when not in use, physical security to radiation sources, effective emergency response plans and preparedness, including safe

  5. Plasma x-ray radiation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, N F; Kargin, V I; Ryaslov, E A; Pikar', A S

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives the results of studies on a plasma x-ray source, which enables one to obtain a 2.5-krad radiation dose per pulse over an area of 100 cm2 in the quantum energy range from 20 to 500 keV. Pulse duration is 100 ns. Spectral radiation distributions from a diode under various operation conditions of a plasma are obtained. A Marx generator served as an initial energy source of 120 kJ with a discharge time of T/4 = 10-6 s. A short electromagnetic pulse (10-7 s) was shaped using plasma erosion opening switches.

  6. Occupational exposure to natural sources of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, T.; Sciocchetti, G.; Rannou, A.

    1993-01-01

    The most important natural sources of radiation are analyzed. The situation in France, Italy, and Spain concerning protection against natural radiation is described, including the identification of sources, and defined practices, organizations charged of national surveys and the responsibility of regulatory bodies and the role of operating management. The activities of the international organizations (ICRP, CEC and IAEA) are presented and discussed, and existing actions toward harmonization in the CEC, IAEA and other international programs is also discussed. (R.P.) 23 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Photon acceleration-based radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J. R.; Muggli, P.; Katsouleas, T.; Mori, W. B.; Joshi, C.

    1999-01-01

    The acceleration and deceleration of photons in a plasma provides the means for a series of new radiation sources. Previous work on a DC to AC Radiation Converter (DARC source) has shown variable acceleration of photons having zero frequency (i.e., an electrostatic field) to between 6 and 100 GHz (1-3). These sources all had poor guiding characteristics resulting in poor power coupling from the source to the load. Continuing research has identified a novel way to integrate the DARC source into a waveguide. The so called ''pin structure'' uses stainless steel pins inserted through the narrow side of an X band waveguide to form the electrostatic field pattern (k≠0, ω=0). The pins are spaced such that the absorption band resulting from this additional periodic structure is outside of the X band range (8-12 GHz), in which the normal waveguide characteristics are left unchanged. The power of this X band source is predicted theoretically to scale quadratically with the pin bias voltage as -800 W/(kV) 2 and have a pulse width of -1 ns. Cold tests and experimental results are presented. Applications for a high power, short pulse radiation source extends to the areas of landmine detection, improved radar resolution, and experimental investigations of molecular systems

  8. Radiation Sources Working Group Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, Michael V.

    1999-01-01

    The Radiation Sources Working Group addressed advanced concepts for the generation of RF energy to power advanced accelerators. The focus of the working group included advanced sources and technologies above 17 GHz. The topics discussed included RF sources above 17 GHz, pulse compression techniques to achieve extreme peak power levels, component technology, technology limitations and physical limits, and other advanced concepts. RF sources included gyroklystrons, magnicons, free-electron masers, two beam accelerators, and gyroharmonic and traveling wave devices. Technology components discussed included advanced cathodes and electron guns, high temperature superconductors for producing magnetic fields, RF breakdown physics and mitigarion, and phenomena that impact source design such as fatigue in resonant structures due to pulsed RF heating. New approaches for RF source diagnostics located internal to the source were discussed for detecting plasma and beam phenomena existing in high energy density electrodynamic systems in order to help elucidate the reasons for performance limitations

  9. Radiation Sources Working Group Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    The Radiation Sources Working Group addressed advanced concepts for the generation of RF energy to power advanced accelerators. The focus of the working group included advanced sources and technologies above 17 GHz. The topics discussed included RF sources above 17 GHz, pulse compression techniques to achieve extreme peak power levels, component technology, technology limitations and physical limits, and other advanced concepts. RF sources included gyroklystrons, magnicons, free-electron masers, two beam accelerators, and gyroharmonic and traveling wave devices. Technology components discussed included advanced cathodes and electron guns, high temperature superconductors for producing magnetic fields, RF breakdown physics and mitigarion, and phenomena that impact source design such as fatigue in resonant structures due to pulsed RF heating. New approaches for RF source diagnostics located internal to the source were discussed for detecting plasma and beam phenomena existing in high energy density electrodynamic systems in order to help elucidate the reasons for performance limitations. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  10. Radiation measurement practice for understanding statistical fluctuation of radiation count using natural radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao

    2014-01-01

    It is known that radiation is detected at random and the radiation counts fluctuate statistically. In the present study, a radiation measurement experiment was performed to understand the randomness and statistical fluctuation of radiation counts. In the measurement, three natural radiation sources were used. The sources were fabricated from potassium chloride chemicals, chemical fertilizers and kelps. These materials contain naturally occurring potassium-40 that is a radionuclide. From high schools, junior high schools and elementary schools, nine teachers participated to the radiation measurement experiment. Each participant measured the 1-min integration counts of radiation five times using GM survey meters, and 45 sets of data were obtained for the respective natural radiation sources. It was found that the frequency of occurrence of radiation counts was distributed according to a Gaussian distribution curve, although the obtained 45 data sets of radiation counts superficially looked to be fluctuating meaninglessly. (author)

  11. Study of the corrosion products in the primary system of PWR plants as the source of radiation fields build-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabant, R. van; Regge, P. de.

    1982-01-01

    In the first part the behaviour of the corrosion products in the primary system of PWR plants is depicted on the basis of a literature review of the field. Water chemistry, corrosion processes and activation of corrosion products are the main topics. In the second part the results of the characterization of corrosion particles in the primary coolant circuit of the Doel 1 and 2 reactors are described, during steady state operation and transient phases. In the third part the possibilities for radiation control at nuclear power plants are outlined. The filtration possibilities for the reactor coolant are explored in detail. (author)

  12. Radiation disinfestation of food and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the radiodisinfestation of food and crops. Topics considered at the conference included food irradiation's impact of the US Agency for International Development, FDA regulations, irradiation as a quarantine treatment, quality attributes of irradiated fruits, low-dose irradiation, cesium 137 as a radiation source, radiosterilization, economic feasibility, marketing, consumer acceptance, and the packaging of irradiated products

  13. 76 FR 6692 - Radiation Sources on Army Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... possession of ionizing radiation sources by non-Army entities (including their civilian contractors) on an... Radiation Permit (ARP) from the garrison commander to use, store, or possess ionizing radiation sources on an Army installation. For the purpose of this rule, ``ionizing radiation source'' means any source...

  14. Radiation effects concerns at a spallation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    Materials used at spallation neutron sources are exposed to energetic particle and photon radiation. Mechanical and physical properties of these materials are altered; radiation damage on the atomic scale leads to radiation effects on the macroscopic scale. Most notable among mechanical-property radiation effects in metals and metal alloys are changes in tensile strength and ductility, changes in rupture strength, dimensional stability and volumetric swelling, and dimensional changes due to stress-induced creep. Physical properties such as electrical resistivity also are altered. The fission-reactor community has accumulated a good deal of data on material radiation effects. However, when the incident particle energy exceeds 50 MeV or so, a new form of radiation damage ensues; spallation reactions lead to more energetic atom recoils and the subsequent temporal and spatial distribution of point defects is much different from that due to a fission-reactor environment. In addition, spallation reactions cause atomic transmutations with these new atoms representing an impurity in the metal. The higher-energy case is of interest at spallation sources; limited detailed data exist for material performance in this environment. 35 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  15. Research sources of ionizing radiation based on transplutonium elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V. M.; Ryabinin, M. A.

    2010-03-01

    Scientific and technical demand stimulates an extension of the practical implementation field of TPE, requirements to their ecological safety calling for the development of such materials which could be most resistant to the environment and most suitable for the production of a wide range of sources different in their application and design. Such materials can involve pure metals of transplutonium elements and their alloys with metals of platinum group as well as their chemically stable compounds (such as silicides, carbides etc.) At SSC RIAR production processes of sources of different type and application have been implemented. Examples of the most recent developments of the sources are presented below. Presented is the analysis of the current state of issues related to designing, production and application of radionuclide research sources based on transplutonium elements. Examples of the development of the most up-to-date sources of alpha-, gamma- and neutron radiation and also fission ones are considered.

  16. Trade and transport of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The guide specifies the obligations pertaining to the trade in and transport of radiation sources and other matters to be taken into account in safety supervision. It also specifies obligations and procedures relating to transfrontier movements of radioactive waste contained in the EU Council Directive 92/3/Euratom. (7 refs.)

  17. Optimization of industrial processes using radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Claudio G.; Silva Filho, Edmundo D. da; Toribio, Norberto M.; Gandara, Leonardo A.

    1996-01-01

    Aiming the enhancement of the staff protection against radiation in operational areas, the SAMARCO Mineracao S.A. proceeded a reevaluation and analysis of the real necessity of the densimeters/radioactive sources in the operational area, and also the development of an alternative control process for measurement the ore pulp, and introduced of the advanced equipment for sample chemical analysis

  18. Radiation as a source of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Kazuaki

    1999-01-01

    Essence and nature of ionizing radiation as a source of risk are reviewed. Following to the appeal of necessity and importance of campaign for enlightening risk management, of individual and of society, background knowledge and information helpful to the promotion and discussion are summarized, also. (author)

  19. Underdense radiation sources: Moving towards longer wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, C.A.; Kilkenny, J.D. [General Atomics, San Diego, California (United States); Seely, J.F.; Weaver, J.L. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Feldman, U. [Artep Inc., Ellicott City, MD (United States); Tommasini, R.; Glendinning, S.G.; Chung, H.K.; Rosen, M.; Lee, R.W.; Scott, H.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California (United States); Tillack, M. [U. C. San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Underdense radiation sources have been developed to provide efficient laboratory multi-keV radiation sources for radiography and radiation hardening studies. In these plasmas laser absorption by inverse Bremsstrahlung leads to high x-ray conversion efficiency because of efficient ionization of the low density aerogel or gas targets. Now we performing experiments in the soft x-ray energy regime where the atomic physics models are much more complicated. In recent experiments at the NIKE laser, we have irradiated a Ti-doped SiO{sub 2} aerogel with up to 1650 J of 248 nm wavelength light. The absolute Ti L-shell emission in the 200-800 eV range is measured with a diagnostic that uses a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. We will give an overview of the temporally-resolved absolutely calibrated spectra obtained over a range of conditions. (authors)

  20. Underdense radiation sources: Moving towards longer wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, C.A.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Seely, J.F.; Weaver, J.L.; Feldman, U.; Tommasini, R.; Glendinning, S.G.; Chung, H.K.; Rosen, M.; Lee, R.W.; Scott, H.A.; Tillack, M.

    2006-01-01

    Underdense radiation sources have been developed to provide efficient laboratory multi-keV radiation sources for radiography and radiation hardening studies. In these plasmas laser absorption by inverse Bremsstrahlung leads to high x-ray conversion efficiency because of efficient ionization of the low density aerogel or gas targets. Now we performing experiments in the soft x-ray energy regime where the atomic physics models are much more complicated. In recent experiments at the NIKE laser, we have irradiated a Ti-doped SiO 2 aerogel with up to 1650 J of 248 nm wavelength light. The absolute Ti L-shell emission in the 200-800 eV range is measured with a diagnostic that uses a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. We will give an overview of the temporally-resolved absolutely calibrated spectra obtained over a range of conditions. (authors)

  1. Guidelines for testing sealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    These guidelines are based on article 16(1) of the Ordinance on the Implementation of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection dated 11 October 1984 (VOAS), in connection with article 36 of the Executory Provision to the VOAS, of 11 October 1984. They apply to the testing of sealed sources to verify their intactness, tightness and non-contamination as well as observance of their fixed service time. The type, scope and intervals of testing as well as the evaluation of test results are determined. These guidelines also apply to the testing of radiation sources forming part of radiation equipment, unless otherwise provided for in the type license or permit. These guidelines enter into force on 1 January 1990

  2. Aircrew radiation exposure: sources-risks-measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1994-05-01

    A short review is given on the actual aircrew exposure and its sources. The resulting risks for harmful effects to the health and discuss methods for in-flight measurements of exposure is evaluated. An idea for a fairly simple and economic approach to a practical, airborne active dosimeter for the assessment of individual crew exposure is presented. The exposure of civil aircrew to cosmic radiation, should not be considered a tremendous risk to the health, there is no reason for panic. However, being significantly higher than the average exposure to radiation workers, it can certainly not be neglected. As recommended by ICRP, aircrew exposure has to be considered occupational radiation exposure and aircrews are certainly entitled to the same degree of protection, as other ground-based radiation workers have obtained by law, since long time. (author)

  3. Compact high-power terahertz radiation source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Krafft

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new type of THz radiation source, based on recirculating an electron beam through a high gradient superconducting radio frequency cavity, and using this beam to drive a standard electromagnetic undulator on the return leg, is discussed. Because the beam is recirculated and not stored, short bunches may be produced that radiate coherently in the undulator, yielding exceptionally high average THz power for relatively low average beam power. Deceleration from the coherent emission, and the detuning it causes, limits the charge-per-bunch possible in such a device.

  4. Source of broadband Jovian Kilometric radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.; Leblanc, Y.

    1987-02-01

    Broadband Jovian Kilometric radiation was observed by Voyagers 1 and 2 to be beamed away from the zenomagnetic equatorial plane. Two theories were proposed for the equatorial shadow zone. One suggested that Io plasma torus forms an obstacle to radiation produced on auroral field lines. The other theory proposed that the source is located on the outer flanks of the torus, the beaming being inherent to the emission mechanism. Results are presented which indicate that the latter is consistent with the observations and it would appear that the emission is produced by linear mode conversion of electrostatic upper hybrid to electromagnetic waves in plasma density gradients.

  5. Source of broadband Jovian Kilometric radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.; Leblanc, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Broadband Jovian Kilometric radiation was observed by Voyagers 1 and 2 to be beamed away from the zenomagnetic equatorial plane. Two theories were proposed for the equatorial shadow zone. One suggested that Io plasma torus forms an obstacle to radiation produced on auroral field lines. The other theory proposed that the source is located on the outer flanks of the torus, the beaming being inherent to the emission mechanism. Results are presented which indicate that the latter is consistent with the observations and it would appear that the emission is produced by linear mode conversion of electrostatic upper hybrid to electromagnetic waves in plasma density gradients

  6. Applications and opportunities for radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Round, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    An important spin-off benefit from the nuclear industry has been the ability to produce a wide variety of ionizing radiation sources for industrial, medical and scientific applications. These sources include radionuclides produced by irradiation of target material in reactors and cyclotrons or recovered from spent fuels, and accelerators. The uses of radiation in both medicine and industry can be expected to evolve. Traditional uses such as cancer therapy will mature and in some cases be displaced by new technology. Major new applications, including food processing and waste treatment, are expected to maintain the demand for isotopes such as cobalt 60 and to stimulate the development of economical and reliable accelerator systems. (L.L.) (Tab., 2 figs.)

  7. Facility - Radiation Source Features and User Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gover, A.; Abramovich, A.; Eichenbaum, A.L.; Kanter, M.; Sokolowski, J.; Yahalom, A.; Shiloh, J.; Schnitzer, I.; Pinhasi, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Recent measurements of the radiation characteristics of the tandem FEL prove .that the device operates as a high quality, tunable radiation source in the mm wave regime. Tuning range of 60% around a central frequency of 100 GHz was demonstrated by varying the tandem accelerator energy from 1 to 1.5 MeV with 1-1.5 Amp. Beam current. Fourier transform limited linewidth of Δ f/f -5 was measured in single-mode lasing operation. The FEL power in pulse operation (10μsec) was 10 kWatt. Operating the FEL at high repetition rate with 0.1 to 1 mSec pulses will make it possible to obtain high average power (1 kWatt) and narrow linewidth (10 -7 ). Based ,on these exceptional properties of the FEL as a high quality spectroscopic tool and as a source of high average power radiation, the FEL consortium, supported by a body of 10 radiation user groups from various universities and research institutes, embark on a new project for development of an Israeli FEL radiation user laboratory. The laboratory is presently in a design and building stage in the academic campus in Ariel. The FEL will be moved to this laboratory after completion of X-ray protection structure in the allocated building. In the first phase of development, the radiation user laboratory will consist of three user stations: a. Spectroscopic station (low average power). Material studies are planned in the fields of H.T.S.C., submicron semiconductor devices, gases. b. Material processing station (high average power). Experiments are planned in the fields of thin film ceramic sintering (including H.T.S.C.), functionally graded materials, surface treatment of metals, interaction with biological tissues. c. Atmospheric study station. Experiments are planned in the fields of aerosol, dust and clouds mapping, remote sensing of gases, wide-band mm wave communication The FEL experimental results and the user laboratory features will be described

  8. Regulation of radiation sources in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.R.

    1989-04-01

    This paper describes in general the Canadian program for the regulation of radiation sources, with particular emphasis on radioisotope licences. The Atomic Energy Control Board is described, as are the most significant parts of the Regulations. Licensing, which is the method chosen for control, is explained by describing the assessment of an application through the enforcement of the requirements, and the overall effectiveness of the program is measured by analyzing the incidents and overexposures that have occurred in recent years

  9. Apparatus for radiation source depth determination in a material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.J.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for determining the depth of a radiation source within a body of material utilizing a radiation source holder moving the radiation source within the body. A plurality of switches have contacts that are fixed in relation to the movement of the radiation source within the material. Trigger means activates a particular switch at a preselected depth of the radiation source. Means for indicating the activation of a switch would thus produce a signal as a representative of the depth of the radiation source

  10. Safety of radiation sources in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belicic-Kolsek, A.; Sutej, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Republic of Slovenia, a central European country which has been independent since 1991, has about 2 million inhabitants and an area of 20,256 km 2 . The Constitutional Law on Enforcement of the Basic Constitutional Charter on the Autonomy and Independence of the Republic of Slovenia, adopted on 23 June 1991 (Off. Gaz. of the R of Slovenia No. 1/91), provided that all the laws adopted by the Socialist Federal Republic (SFR) of Yugoslavia should remain in force in the Republic of Slovenia pending the adoption of appropriate legislation by the Slovene Parliament. Under the Slovene Constitution, all international treaties ratified by Slovenia constitute an integral part of Slovenia's legislation and can be applied directly. In Slovenia, all regular types of ionizing radiation source are being used for peaceful purposes and are covered by a system for their safe use and control. All radiation sources and radioactive materials are registered and under regulatory control. Inspections are carried out periodically by the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia (HIRS) and, in the case of nuclear installations, the Slovene Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA). Technical checks on radiation sources are carried out periodically by technical support organizations: the Jozef Stefan Institute and the Institute for Occupational Safety (IOS). (author)

  11. Standard light source utilizing spontaneous radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, O.; Takenaga, M.; Tsujimoto, Y.

    1975-01-01

    A standard light source is described utilizing spontaneous radiation made by mixing a fluorescent substance LnVO 4 :X (wherein Ln is Y or Gd, and X is Dy or Eu) with a radioactive substance containing a radioactive isotope which is less in the degree of temperature variation of the intensity of emitted light and excellent in stability. Particularly when used in a light-receiving device having photomultiplier tubes, the said light source emits light quite similar to that of a thermoluminescent substance such as CaSO 4 :X (wherein X is Im, Dy, Sm or Mn), LiF or Mg 2 SiO 4 :Tb, and is excellent as a calibration high-stability standard light source for use in the above-mentioned light-receiving device. (auth)

  12. Radioactive waste management in sealed sources laboratory production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Gilberto

    2001-01-01

    The laboratory of sealed sources production, of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, was created in 1983 and since then, has produced radioactive sources for industry and engineering in general, having specialization in assembly of radiation sources for non destructive testings, by gammagraphy, with Iridium-192, that represents 98% of the production of laboratory and 2% with the Cobalt-60, used in nuclear gages. The aim of this work, is to quantify and qualify the radioactive wastes generated annually, taking into account, the average of radioactive sources produced, that are approximately 220 sources per year

  13. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the correlation between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from the source. The study included the interventional ...

  14. Analysis of polymer foil heaters as infrared radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witek, Krzysztof; Piotrowski, Tadeusz; Skwarek, Agata

    2012-01-01

    Infrared radiation as a heat source is used in many fields. In particular, the positive effect of far-infrared radiation on living organisms has been observed. This paper presents two technological solutions for infrared heater production using polymer-silver and polymer-carbon pastes screenprinted on foil substrates. The purpose of this work was the identification of polymer layers as a specific frequency range IR radiation sources. The characterization of the heaters was determined mainly by measurement of the surface temperature distribution using a thermovision camera and the spectral characteristics were determined using a special measuring system. Basic parameters obtained for both, polymer silver and polymer carbon heaters were similar and were as follows: power rating of 10–12 W/dm 2 , continuous working surface temperature of 80–90 °C, temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) about +900 ppm/K for polymer-carbon heater and about +2000 ppm/K for polymer-silver, maximum radiation intensity in the wavelength range of 6–14 μm with top intensity at 8.5 μm and heating time about 20 min. For comparison purposes, commercial panel heater was tested. The results show that the characteristics of infrared polymer heaters are similar to the characteristics of the commercial heater, so they can be taken into consideration as the alternative infrared radiation sources.

  15. 75 FR 19302 - Radiation Sources on Army Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... possession of ionizing radiation sources by non-Army agencies (including their civilian contractors) on an... radiation sources on Army land. The Army requires Non-Army agencies (including their civilian contractors... ionizing radiation sources on an Army Installation. For the purpose of this proposed rule, ``ionizing...

  16. Ionizing radiation source detection by personal TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, O.; Mirkov, Z.

    2002-01-01

    The Laboratory for personal dosimetry has about 3000 workers under control. The most of them work in medicine. Some institutions, as big health centers, have different ionizing radiation sources. It is usefull to analyze what has been the source of irradiation, special when appears a dosimeter with high dose. Personal dosimetry equipment is Harshaw TLD Reader Model 6600 and dosimeters consist of two chips LiF TLD-100 assembled in bar-coded cards which are wearing in holders with one tissue-equivalent filter (to determine H(10)) and skin-equivalent the other (to determine H(0.07)). The calibration dosimeters have been irradiated in holders by different sources: x-ray (for 80keV and 100keV), 6 0C o, 9 0S r (for different distances from beta source) and foton beem (at radiotherapy accelerator by 6MeV, 10MeV and 18MeV). The dose ratio for two LiF cristals was calculated and represented with graphs. So, it is possible to calculate the ratio H(10)/H(0.07) for a personal TLD and analyze what has been the source of irradiation. Also, there is the calibration for determination the time of irradiation, according to glow curve deconvolution

  17. A quality control program for radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, C.E. de; Sibata, C.H.; Cecatti, E.R.; Kawakami, N.S.; Alexandre, A.C.; Chiavegatti Junior, M.

    1982-01-01

    An extensive quality control program was established covering the following areas: physical parameters of the therapeutical machines, dosimetric standards, preventive maintenance of radiation sources and measuring instruments. A critical evaluation of this program was done after two years (1977-1979) of routine application and the results will be presented. The fluctuation on physical parameters strongly supports the efforts and cost of a quality control program. This program has certainly improved the accuracy required on the delivery of the prescribed dose for radiotherapy treatment. (Author) [pt

  18. The TAC Radiation Source for Bremsstrahlung Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, N.

    2008-01-01

    The TAC is a project for the first Turkish radiation source and currently design study is produced with funding from the DPT (State Planning Unity). Two main part of the project will be IR-FEL and Bremsstrahlung facility. Each LINAC will provide max. electron energy of 20 MeV. The Bremsstrahlung facility at TAC will consist two of the LINAC module and will be obtained 35 MeV photon energy. This would provide a chance to investigate nuclear structure at this energy range and also some application of photonuclear physics. In this work the main parameter and plans for those of facility will be detailed

  19. Applications of Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandedkar, R.V.

    2003-01-01

    Indus-1 is a 450 MeV electron storage ring. This is a soft X-ray and Vacuum Ultra Violet radiation source with the critical wavelength being 61 A. In this source, the first beam was stored in mid-1999 and was then made available, after initial storage and beam cleaning of the vacuum components, for beamline installation in the early 2000. Two beamlines are commissioned and are working. Other beamlines are in the advanced stage of commissioning. For Indus-1, the injection system consists of a 20 MeV classical microtron as a preinjector and a booster synchrotron that can go up to 700 MeV. For Indus-1, the injection into the storage ring is at full 450 MeV from this booster synchrotron

  20. Source region of aurora kilometric radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Akira; Oya, Hiroshi; Tokumaru, Munetoshi

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the source region of aurora kilometric radiation (AKR), and the relation between the particle acceleration region and the polar ionosphere. The observation was made by the satellite 'Jikiken'. The AKR can be transferred to Jikiken without any interception, when the magnetic latitude of the apogee of the satellite is low. The spectra taken in June, 1980, were analyzed. The observed spectra showed the source regions of the AKR were in the aurora bands of the north and south poles. One example showed that the 200 kHz component of AKR from both poles showed the similar behavior, and another example showed that the AKR spectra from both poles showed different behavior. The altitude distribution of source regions was able to be obtained. The altitude of AKR-A was in the range between 6200 and 12000 km, and that of AKR-B was in the range of 3500 and 5200 km. The source of AKR-A was identified as that in the south hemisphere, and that of AKR-B in the north hemisphere. The asymmetric spectra of AKR-A and B showed that the spread and intensity of the electric field along magnetic lines generated above the polar ionosphere were related with the conditions of the ionosphere. (Kato, T.)

  1. Technological yields of sources for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1990-01-01

    The present report is prepared for planners of radiation processing of any material. Sources with cobalt-60 are treated marginally, because most probably, there will be no installation of technically meaningful activity in Poland before the year 2000. Calculations are focused on accelerators of electrons, divided into two groups: versatile linacs of energy up to 13 MeV and accelerators of lower energy, below 2 MeV, of better energetical yield but of limited applications. The calculations are connected with the confrontation of the author's technological expectations during the preparation of the linac project in the late '60s, with the results of twenty years of exploitation of the machine. One has to realize that from the 150 kV input power from the mains, only 5 kV of bent and scanned beam is recovered on the conveyor. That power is only partially used for radiation induced phenomena, sometimes only a few percent, because of the demanded homogeneity of the dose, of the mode of packing of the object and its shape, of losses at the edges of the scanned area and in the spaces between boxes, and of losses during the dead time due to the tuning of the machine and dosimetric operations. The use of lower energy accelerators may be more economical in case of objects of optimum type. At the first stage, that is of the conversion of electrical power into that of the low energy electron beam, the yield is 2-3 times better than in the case of linacs. Attention has been paid to the technological aspects of electron beam conversion into the more penetrating bremsstrahlung similar to gamma radiation. The advantages of these technologies, which make it possible to control the shape of the processed object are stressed. Ten parameters necessary for a proper calculation of technological yields of radiation processing are listed. Additional conditions which must be taken into account in the comparison of the cost of radiation processing with the cost of other technologies are also

  2. ORIGEN-S: scale system module to calculate fuel depletion, actinide transmutation, fission product buildup and decay, and associated radiation source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    ORIGEN-S computes time-dependent concentrations and source terms of a large number of isotopes, which are simultaneously generated or depleted through neutronic transmutation, fission, radioactive decay, input feet rates and physical or chemical removal rates. The calculations may pertain to fuel irradiation within nuclear reactors, or the storage, management, transportation or subsequent chemical processing of removed fuel elements. The matrix exponential expansion model of the ORIGIN code is unaltered in ORIGEN-S. Essentially all features of ORIGEN were retained, expanded or supplemented within new computations. The primary objective of ORIGEN-S, as requested by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is that the calculations may utilize the multi-energy group cross sections from any currently processed standardized ENDF/B data base. This purpose has been implemented through the prior execution of codes within either the SCALE System or the AMPX System, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These codes compute flux-weighted cross sections, simulating conditions within any given reactor fuel assembly, and convert the data into a library that can be input to ORIGEN-S. Time-dependent libraries may be produced, reflecting fuel composition variations during irradiation. Presented in the document are: detailed and condensed input instructions, model theory, features available, range of applicability, brief subroutine descriptions, sample input, and I/O requirements. Presently the code is operable on IBM 360/370 computers and may be converted for CDC computers. ORIGEN-S is a functional module in the SCALE System and will be one of the modules invoked in the SAS2 Control Module, presently being developed, or may be applied as a stand alone program. It can be used in nuclear reactor and processing plant design studies, radiation safety analyses, and environmental assessments

  3. Science experiments via telepresence at a synchrotron radiation source facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J. E.; Diakun, G.; Bushnell-Wye, G.; Fisher, S.; Thalal, A.; Helliwell, M.; Helliwell, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The application of a turnkey communication system for telepresence at station 9.8 of the Synchrotron Radiation Source, Daresbury, is described and demonstrated, including its use for inter-continental classroom instruction and user training. Station 9.8 is one of the most oversubscribed and high-throughput stations at the Synchrotron Radiation Source, Daresbury, whereby awarded experimental time is limited, data collections last normally no longer than an hour, user changeover is normally every 24 h, and familiarity with the station systems can be low. Therefore time lost owing to technical failures on the station has a dramatic impact on productivity. To provide 24 h support, the application of a turnkey communication system has been implemented, and is described along with additional applications including its use for inter-continental classroom instruction, user training and remote participation

  4. Radiation safety aspects of fluorescent lamp starters incorporating radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadagopan, Geetha [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Shukla, V.K. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2000-05-01

    A fluorescent lamp starter is a switch applies the voltage to the fluorescent tube after sufficient preheating to allow the tube to conduct an electric current. Radioactive substances used in the starters are {sup 85}Kr, {sup 147}Pm, {sup 3}H and {sup 232}Th. In India, fluorescent lamp starters are classified as consumer products and users are outside regulatory control. However, regulatory control is exercised over the manufacturers at the production stage. Tritium activity measured in the lamp starters ranged from 400-4500 Bq with a mean activity of 1.78 kBq. Thorium activity measured varied from 0.44-3.3 mg. The results of radiation safety assessment of the workplace and radioactivity estimation in the starters are discussed in this paper. (author)

  5. Radiation safety aspects of fluorescent lamp starters incorporating radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadagopan, Geetha; Shukla, V.K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluorescent lamp starter is a switch applies the voltage to the fluorescent tube after sufficient preheating to allow the tube to conduct an electric current. Radioactive substances used in the starters are 85 Kr, 147 Pm, 3 H and 232 Th. In India, fluorescent lamp starters are classified as consumer products and users are outside regulatory control. However, regulatory control is exercised over the manufacturers at the production stage. Tritium activity measured in the lamp starters ranged from 400-4500 Bq with a mean activity of 1.78 kBq. Thorium activity measured varied from 0.44-3.3 mg. The results of radiation safety assessment of the workplace and radioactivity estimation in the starters are discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. Low frequency interference between short synchrotron radiation sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Méot

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed analytical formalism describing low frequency far-field synchrotron radiation (SR is applied to the calculation of spectral angular radiation densities from interfering short sources (edge, short magnet. This is illustrated by analytical calculation of synchrotron radiation from various assemblies of short dipoles, including an “isolated” highest density infrared SR source.

  7. Annual individual doses for personnel dealing with ionizing radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavskij, K.K.

    1982-01-01

    Data on annual individual doses for personnel of national economy enterprises, research institutes, high schools, medical establishments dealing with ionizing radiation sources are presented. It is shown that radiation dose for the personnel constitutes only shares of standards established by sanitary legislation. Numeral values of individual doses of the personnel are determined by the type, character and scope of using ionizing radiation sources

  8. Radiation-emitting Electronic Product Codes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database contains product names and associated information developed by the Center for all products, both medical and non-medical, which emit radiation. It...

  9. Establishing control over nuclear materials and radiation sources in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilia, G.

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory control over radiation sources in Georgia was lost after disintegration of the Soviet Union. A number of radiation accidents and illegal events occurred in Georgia. From 1999 Nuclear and Radiation Safety Service of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources is responsible for regulatory control over radiation sources in Georgia. US NRC Regulatory Assistance Program in Georgia Assist the Service in establishing long term regulatory control over sources. Main focuses of US NRC program are country-wide inventory, create National Registry of sources, safe storage of disused sources, upgrade legislation and regulation, implementation licensing and inspection activities

  10. Methods to identify and locate spent radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this manual is to provide essential guidance to Member States with nuclear applications involving the use of a wide range of sealed radiation sources on the practical task of physically locating spent radiation sources not properly accounted for. Advice is also provided to render the located source safe on location. Refs, figs and tabs.

  11. Methods to identify and locate spent radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this manual is to provide essential guidance to Member States with nuclear applications involving the use of a wide range of sealed radiation sources on the practical task of physically locating spent radiation sources not properly accounted for. Advice is also provided to render the located source safe on location. Refs, figs, tabs

  12. Methods to identify and locate spent radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this manual is to provide essential guidance to Member States with nuclear applications involving the use of a wide range of sealed radiation sources on the practical task of physically locating spent radiation sources not properly accounted for. Advice is also provided to render the located source safe on location. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Sources of gamma radiation in a reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Matts

    1959-05-15

    In a thermal reactor the gamma ray sources of importance for shielding calculations and related aspects are 1) fission, 2) decay of fission products, 3) capture processes in fuel, poison and other materials, 4) inelastic scattering in the fuel and 5) decay of capture products. The energy release and the gamma ray spectra of these sources have been compiled or estimated from the latest information available, and the results are presented in a general way to permit application to any thermal reactor, fueled with a mixture of {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U. As an example the total spectrum and the spectrum of radiation escaping from a fuel rod in the Swedish R3-reactor are presented.

  14. The concept of recommended working life applied to radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorch, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Consideration is given to the background behind the Radiochemical Centre's decision to introduce values of recommended working life (RWL) of 5, 10 or 15 years for the majority of its radiation sources. Criteria used in assessing RWL included toxicity, half-life and total initial activity of the nuclide, source construction, typical application environments, experience of safety in use and test performance data. The introduction of the concept of RWL has meant that users are becoming aware of the need for regular inspection and assessment of sources, but it is emphasized that the RWL does not constitute a guarantee of performance. It represents an effort by the Radiochemical Centre to ensure the proper use of its products. (U.K.)

  15. The regulatory control of radiation sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Birol, E.

    2001-01-01

    In Turkey, the national competent authority for regulating activities involving radioactive sources is the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, which implements the responsibility for the safety and security of radiation sources through its Radiation Health and Safety Department. The report describes the organization of the regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety in Turkey and, after a brief explanation of the current legal framework for such purpose, it refers to how the management of radiation sources is carried out and to the new provisions regarding radiation sources, including inspections of licensees and training on source safety. Finally, the report provides information on the Ikitelli radiological accident in Turkey and the current public concern about radiation sources after it happened. (author)

  16. Safety issues in the handling of radiation sources in category IV gamma radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    There is potential for incidents/accidents related to handling of radiation sources. This is increasing due to the fact that more number of plants that too with much larger levels of activity are now coming up. Such facilities produce very high levels of exposure rates during irradiation. A person accidentally present in the irradiation cell can receive a lethal dose within a very short time. Apart from safety requirements during operation and maintenance of these facilities, safety during loading and unloading of sources is important. Category IV type irradiators are the most common. Doubly encapsulated Co-60 slugs are employed to form the source pencils. These irradiators employ a water pool for safely storing the source pencils when irradiation of the products is not going on or when human access is needed into the irradiation cell for some maintenance or source loading/unloading operations. Safety during loading/unloading operations of source pencils is important. In design itself care needs to be taken such that all such operations are convenient and any incident will not lead to a situation where it becomes difficult to come out. Different situations, which can arise during handling of radiation sources and suggested designs to obviate such tight situations, are discussed. (Author)

  17. Intermittent Astrophysical Radiation Sources and Terrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melott, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial life is exposed to a variety of radiation sources. Astrophysical observations suggest that strong excursions in cosmic ray flux and spectral hardness are expected. Gamma-ray bursts and supernovae are expected to irradiate the atmosphere with keV to GeV photons at irregular intervals. Supernovae will produce large cosmic ray excursions, with time development varying with distance from the event. Large fluxes of keV to MeV protons from the Sun pose a strong threat to electromagnetic technology. The terrestrial record shows cosmogenic isotope excursions which are consistent with major solar proton events, and there are observations of G-stars suggesting that the rate of such events may be much higher than previously assumed. In addition there are unknown and unexplained astronomical transients which may indicate new classes of events. The Sun, supernovae, and gamma-ray bursts are all capable of producing lethal fluences, and some are expected on intervals of 10^8 years or so. The history of life on Earth is filled with mass extinctions at a variety of levels of intensity. Most are not understood. Astrophysical radiation may play a role, particularly from large increases in muon irradiation on the ground, and changes in atmospheric chemistry which deplete ozone, admitting increased solar UVB. UVB is strongly absorbed by DNA and proteins, and breaks the chemical bonds---it is a known carcinogen. High muon fluxes will also be damaging to such molecules, but experiments are needed to pin down the rate. Solar proton events which are not directly dangerous for the biota may nevertheless pose a major threat to modern electromagnetic technology through direct impact on satellites and magnetic induction of large currents in power grids, disabling transformers. We will look at the kind of events that are expected on timescales from human to geological, and their likely consequences.

  18. [Use of ionizing radiation sources in metallurgy: risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugni, U

    2012-01-01

    Use of ionizing radiation sources in the metallurgical industry: risk assessment. Radioactive sources and fixed or mobile X-ray equipment are used for both process and quality control. The use of ionizing radiation sources requires careful risk assessment. The text lists the characteristics of the sources and the legal requirements, and contains a description of the documentation required and the methods used for risk assessment. It describes how to estimate the doses to operators and the relevant classification criteria used for the purpose of radiation protection. Training programs must be organized in close collaboration between the radiation protection expert and the occupational physician.

  19. Radiological control in fires involving radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, J.O.A.; Coelho, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    The copies used during the chatter by techniques from CDTN in the I Mineiro Symposium of Fire Engineering, are presented. The chatter was based on emergency radiation control course, given by CDTN. Basic concepts, such as nuclear physics fundaments, radiation nature and detection, radiation protection and practical aspects of radiological fire emergency, were enphasized. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. A biotechnological project with a gamma radiation source of 100,000 Ci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, J.H.; Smolko, E.E.

    1990-01-01

    A project for the production of radiovaccines and other bio-medical products is presented which includes a radiation facility provided with a gamma ray source equivalent to 100,000 Ci of Co-60. The whole process incorporates novel basic features in virus production and inactivation steps. The former is carried out in animals previously subjected to immunodepression through electromagnetic radiation. The latter is obtained at low temperatures by using either electromagnetic or particle radiations. A vaccine manufacture process is shown to illustrate the utilization of ionizing radiations to obtain a foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine with good antigenic quality and low cost. (author)

  1. Surface negative ion production in ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belchenko, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Negative ion sources and the mechanisms for negative ion production are reviewed. Several classes of sources with surface origin of negative ions are examined in detail: surface-plasma sources where ion production occurs on the electrode in contact with the plasma, and ''pure surface'' sources where ion production occurs due to conversion or desorption processes. Negative ion production by backscattering, impact desorption, and electron- and photo-stimulated desorption are discussed. The experimental efficiencies of intense surface negative ion production realized on electrodes contacted with hydrogen-cesium or pure hydrogen gas-discharge plasma are compared. Recent modifications of surface-plasma sources developed for accelerator and fusion applications are reviewed in detail

  2. Thermal hadron production by QCD Hawking radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satz, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    The QCD counterpart of Hawking radiation from black holes leads to thermal hadron production in high energy collisions, from e + e - annihilation to heavy ion interactions. This hadronic radiation is emitted at a universal temperature T≅(σ/2π) 1/2 , where the string tension σ measures the colour field at the event horizon of confinement. Moreover, the emitted radiation is thermal 'at birth'; since the event horizon prevents all information transfer, no memory has to be destroyed kinetically. (author)

  3. Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources. Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Safety Guide is intended to assist States in implementing the requirements established in Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1, Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, for a national regulatory infrastructure to regulate any practice involving radiation sources in medicine, industry, research, agriculture and education. The Safety Guide provides advice on the legislative basis for establishing regulatory bodies, including the effective independence of the regulatory body. It also provides guidance on implementing the functions and activities of regulatory bodies: the development of regulations and guides on radiation safety; implementation of a system for notification and authorization; carrying out regulatory inspections; taking necessary enforcement actions; and investigating accidents and circumstances potentially giving rise to accidents. The various aspects relating to the regulatory control of consumer products are explained, including justification, optimization of exposure, safety assessment and authorization. Guidance is also provided on the organization and staffing of regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Legal framework for a regulatory infrastructure; 3. Principal functions and activities of the regulatory body; 4. Regulatory control of the supply of consumer products; 5. Functions of the regulatory body shared with other governmental agencies; 6. Organization and staffing of the regulatory body; 7. Documentation of the functions and activities of the regulatory body; 8. Support services; 9. Quality management for the regulatory system.

  4. Protection in handling ionizing radiation sources in national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The collection of study texts is divided into 13 chapters giving an explanation of the structure of the atom, the properties of ionizing radiation and its interactions, quantities and units used, basic dosimetric methods, biological radiation effects, the sources of population exposure, the principles of radiation protection, technological applications of ionizing radiation, the monitoring of personnel and environment, the method of recording and filing, the method of protection from external radiation and internal contamination, health care, and requirements for protection in handling nonsealed sources. (M.D.)

  5. Detailed observations of the source of terrestrial narrowband electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, W. S.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed observations are presented of a region near the terrestrial plasmapause where narrowband electromagnetic radiation (previously called escaping nonthermal continuum radiation) is being generated. These observations show a direct correspondence between the narrowband radio emissions and electron cyclotron harmonic waves near the upper hybrid resonance frequency. In addition, electromagnetic radiation propagating in the Z-mode is observed in the source region which provides an extremely accurate determination of the electron plasma frequency and, hence, density profile of the source region. The data strongly suggest that electrostatic waves and not Cerenkov radiation are the source of the banded radio emissions and define the coupling which must be described by any viable theory.

  6. Safety of radiation sources and other radioactive materials in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Since joining the IAEA Model Project for upgrading radiation protection infrastructure in countries of West Asia, Jordan has amended its radiation safety legislation. The Regulatory Authority is improving its inventory system for radiation sources and other radioactive materials and also its notification, registration, licensing, inspection and enforcement systems. It has established national provisions for the management of orphan sources after they have been found. The system for the control of the radiation sources and other radioactive materials entering the country has been improved by the Regulatory Authority. (author)

  7. Sterilization plants equipped with the isotopic gamma radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, K.; Chmielewski, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Presentation describes different isotopic gamma radiation sources applicable for sterilization of food and medical materials. Certain gamma pallet irradiators, mini gamma irradiators and different scale gamma tote irradiators are presented. It is concluded, that about two hundreds plants with gamma radiation sources operates in different countries. However, industrially developed countries must construct much more plants than operates now

  8. Radiation Emitting Product Corrective Actions and Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database provides descriptions of radiation-emitting products that have been recalled under an approved corrective action plan to remove defective and...

  9. Iridium-192 sources production for brachytherapy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostelato, Maria Elisa Chuery Martins

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of cancer increases every year in Brazil and turns out to be one of the most important causes of mortality. Some of the patients are treated with brachytherapy, a form of lesion treatment which is based on the insertion of sources into tumors, in this particular case, activated iridium wires. During this process, the ionizing radiation efficiently destroys the malignant cells. These iridium wires have a nucleus made out of an iridium-platinum alloy 20-30/70-80 of 0,1 mm in diameter either coated by platinum or encased in a platinum tube. The technique consists in irradiating the wire in the reactor neutron flux in order to produce iridium-192. The linear activity goes from 1 mCi/cm to 4 mCi/cm and the basic characteristic, which is required, is the homogeneity of the activation along the wire. It should not present a dispersion exceeding 5% on a wire measuring 50 cm in length, 0.5 mm or 0.3 mm in diameter. Several experiments were carried out in order to define the activation parameters. Wires from different origins were analyzed. It was concluded that United States of America and France wires were found to be perfectly adequate for brachytherapy purposes and have therefore been sent to specialized hospitals and successfully applied to cancer patients. Considering that the major purpose of this work is to make this product more accessible in Brazil, at a cost reflecting the Brazilian reality, the IPEN is promoting the preparation of iridium-192 sources to be used in brachytherapy, on a national level. (author)

  10. Transition undulator radiation as bright infrared sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Undulator radiation contains, in addition to the usual component with narrow spectral features, a broad-band component in the low frequency region emitted in the near forward direction, peaked at an angle 1/{gamma}, where {gamma} is the relativistic factor. This component is referred to as the transition undulator radiation, as it is caused by the sudden change in the electron`s longitudinal velocity as it enters and leaves the undulator. The characteristic of the transition undulator radiation are analyzed and compared with the infrared radiation from the usual undulator harmonics and from bending magnets.

  11. Study for a 6 GeV undulator based synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignola, G.; Barton, M.; Blumberg, R.; Galayda, J.; Krinsky, S.; Luccio, A.; Pellegrini, C.; van Steenbergen, A.; Wang, J.

    1985-01-01

    A partial study for a 6 GeV undulator based synchrotron radiation source for production of high brightness undulator radiation, in the A region, is presented. The basic lattice adopted for the storage ring is a hybrid FODO Chasman-Green lattice, making use of gradient in the dipoles. We discuss also the e beam current limits and the injection parameters

  12. Ocular exposure to ultraviolet and visible radiation from light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietanen, M.

    1992-01-01

    Exposure of the eyes to UV radiation and blue light of artificial light sources and the sun was evaluated. A spectroradiometer was used to determine the spectral irradiance at 1 nm intervals from 250 to 800 nm. Various groups of workers are at risk of ocular over-exposure to optical radiation, outdoor workers maintenance personnel of bright light source as and wear eye-protectors with effective filtering of UV radiation and blue light. (author)

  13. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources; Zwischenfaelle mit gefaehrlichen Strahlenquellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan [Bundesministerium fuer Inneres, Traiskirchen (Austria). Abt. 1/9 - Zivilschutzschule

    2016-07-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  14. Radiation cured coatings for high performance products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkins, J.C.; Teesdale, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    Development over the past ten years of radiation curable coating and lacquer systems and the means of curing them has led to new products in the packaging, flooring, furniture and other industries. Solventless lacquer systems formulated with acrylates and other resins enable high levels of durability, scuff resistance and gloss to be achieved. Ultra violet and electron beam radiation curing are used, the choice depending on the nature of the coating, the product and the scale of the operation. (author)

  15. The safety of radiation sources and radioactive materials in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.

    2001-01-01

    The report describes the present infrastructure for the safety of radiation sources in China, where applications of radiation sources have become more and more widespread in the past years. In particular, it refers to the main functions of the National Nuclear Safety Administration of the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), which is acting as the regulatory body for nuclear and radiation safety at nuclear installations, the Ministry of Public Health which issues licences for the use of radiation sources, and the Ministry of Public Security, which deals with the security of radiation sources. The report also refers to the main requirements of the existing regulatory system for radiation safety, i.e. the basic dose limits for radiation workers and the public, the licensing system for nuclear installations and for radioisotope-based and other irradiation devices, and the environmental impact assessment system. Information on the nationwide survey of radiation sources carried out by SEPA in 1991 is provided, and on some accidents that occurred in China due to loss of control of radiation sources and errors in the operation of irradiation facilities. (author)

  16. New legislative regulations for ensuring radiation protection using ionizing radiation sources in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, K.

    2018-01-01

    European Commission Directive No. 2013/59 / EURATOM laying down basic safety requirements for the provision of radiation protection regulates the provision of radiation protection for workers with radiation sources and residents in all areas of use of ionizing radiation sources. This Directive also addresses radiation protection in the use of ionizing radiation sources in medicine. The European Commission Directive regulates the requirements for radiation protection but also extends to its scope and provisions on the use of medical radiation sources (so-called m edical exposure ) in the scope of further legislation in the field of health care, which has to be amended and modified or possibly issued new. It was necessary in the preparation of the new act on radiation protection to amend simultaneously Act no. 576/2004 on the provision of health care and services related to provision of health care and Act no. 578/2004 on Health care Providers, Health care Professionals and Organizations in Health Care and to prepare a series of implementing regulations not only to the Law on Radiation Protection but also to the Laws governing the Provision of Health Care. The paper presents changes to existing legislation on radiation protection in medical radiation and new requirements for the construction and operation of health workplaces with radiation sources, the protection of the health of patients, the requirements for instrumentation used for medical radiation and radiological instrumentation tests. (authors)

  17. Nuclear radiation and agricultural production - the food chain as a pathway for radionuclide (toxic trace elements) migration from the source to the ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacintov, P [Statni Veterinarni Ustav, Brno (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-01-01

    The transport of /sup 131/I from the source into the atmosphere, its concentration in the atmosphere above agricultural land, its deposition in the vegetative cover and factors which affect the deposition rate, its retention and the effects of weather conditions are described as an example of the transport of radionuclides from the source to the ecosystem and into the human body. The relation is given for the calculation of the effective half-life of /sup 131/I retention in plants. In steady state during permanent /sup 131/I release the effective life-time is 7.2 days on the average. The transport is described of /sup 131/I from the vegetation into the organism of the cow, into milk and from there into the human body. The intake of /sup 131/I depends on the amount of milk consumed which again depends on age, sex and dietary habits. For children the maximum permissible concentration of /sup 131/I in milk is 15 to 40 pCi/l, based on a dose limit of 90 mrem/y to the thyroid. The knowledge of all factors related to /sup 131/I transport through the food chain to the human body allows determining the permissible level of /sup 131/I release from a nuclear power plant.

  18. Light source for synchrotron radiation x-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiyong; Jiang Jianhua; Tian Yulian

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of the synchrotron radiation source for X-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL) is described, local geometrical resolution of topographies is discussed, and the diffracting intensities of white beam topography is given

  19. Separation of radiation from two sources from their known radiated sum field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi; Pivnenko, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for complete and exact separation of the radiated fields of two sources (at the same frequency) from the knowledge of their radiated sum field. The two sources can be arbitrary but it must be possible to enclose the sources inside their own non-intersecting minimum...

  20. Introducing Product Lines through Open Source Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    We present an approach to introducing product lines to companies that lower their initial risk by applying open source tools and a smooth learning curve into the use and creation of domain specific modeling combined with standardized variability modeling.

  1. Smart material-based radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleski, Scott

    2014-10-01

    From sensors to power harvesters, the unique properties of smart materials have been exploited in numerous ways to enable new applications and reduce the size of many useful devices. Smart materials are defined as materials whose properties can be changed in a controlled and often reversible fashion by use of external stimuli, such as electric and magnetic fields, temperature, or humidity. Smart materials have been used to make acceleration sensors that are ubiquitous in mobile phones, to make highly accurate frequency standards, to make unprecedentedly small actuators and motors, to seal and reduce friction of rotating shafts, and to generate power by conversion of either kinetic or thermal energy to electrical energy. The number of useful devices enabled by smart materials is large and continues to grow. Smart materials can also be used to generate plasmas and accelerate particles at small scales. The materials discussed in this talk are from non-centrosymmetric crystalline classes including piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and ferroelectric materials, which produce large electric fields in response to external stimuli such as applied electric fields or thermal energy. First, the use of ferroelectric, pyroelectric and piezoelectric materials for plasma generation and particle acceleration will be reviewed. The talk will then focus on the use of piezoelectric materials at the University of Missouri to construct plasma sources and electrostatic accelerators for applications including space propulsion, x-ray imaging, and neutron production. The basic concepts of piezoelectric transformers, which are analogous to conventional magnetic transformers, will be discussed, along with results from experiments over the last decade to produce micro-thrusters for space propulsion and particle accelerators for x-ray and neutron production. Support from ONR, AFOSR, and LANL.

  2. State Register of Sources of Ionizing Radiation and Occupational exposure

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    One of main tasks of Radiation Protection Centre is to collect, process, systematize, store and provide the data on sources of ionizing radiation and occupational exposures. The number of sources in 2002 is provided and compared with previous year. Distribution of workers according to the type of practice is compared with previous year. Distribution of sealed sources and x-ray machines according their use is presented.

  3. Dosimetric analysis of radiation sources to use in dermatological lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Ariane

    2010-01-01

    Skin lesions undergoing therapy with radiation sources may have different patterns of malignancy. Malignant lesions or cancer most commonly found in radiotherapy services are carcinomas. Radiation therapy in skin lesions is performed with low penetration beams and orthovoltage X-rays, electron beams and radioactive sources ( 192 Ir, 198 Au, e 90 Sr) arranged on a surface mold or in metal applicator. This study aims to analyze the therapeutic radiation dose profile produced by radiation sources used in skin lesions radiotherapy procedures. Experimental measurements for the analysis of dosimetric radiation sources were compared with calculations obtained from a computer system based on the Monte Carlo Method. Computational results had a good agreement with the experimental measurements. Experimental measurements and computational results by the MCNP4C code have been used to validate the calculations obtained by MCNP code and to provide a reliable medical application for each clinical case. (author)

  4. Synchrotron radiation sources: general features and vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craievich, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    In the last years the electron or positron storage rings, which were until 1970 only used for high energy physics experiments, begun to be built in several countries exclusively as electromagnetic radiation source (synchrotron radiation). The sources are generally made up by injector (linear accelerator or microtron), 'booster' (synchrotron), storage ring, insertions ('Wigglers' and ondulators) and light lines. The interest by these sources are due to the high intensity, large spectrum (from infrared to the X-rays), polarization and pulsed structure of the produced radiation. For the ultra-vacuum obtainement, necessary for the functioning storage rings (p=10 -9 Torr), several special procedures are used. In Brazil the Synchrotron Radiation National Laboratory of the CNPq worked out a conceptual project of synchrotron radiation source, whose execution should begin by the construction of the several components prototypes. (L.C.) [pt

  5. The Chandra Source Catalog: Source Properties and Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rots, Arnold; Evans, Ian N.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Primini, Francis A.; Zografou, Panagoula; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiang Qun (Helen); Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is breaking new ground in several areas. There are two aspects that are of particular interest to the users: its evolution and its contents. The CSC will be a living catalog that becomes richer, bigger, and better in time while still remembering its state at each point in time. This means that users will be able to take full advantage of new additions to the catalog, while retaining the ability to back-track and return to what was extracted in the past. The CSC sheds the limitations of flat-table catalogs. Its sources will be characterized by a large number of properties, as usual, but each source will also be associated with its own specific data products, allowing users to perform mini custom analysis on the sources. Source properties fall in the spatial (position, extent), photometric (fluxes, count rates), spectral (hardness ratios, standard spectral fits), and temporal (variability probabilities) domains, and are all accompanied by error estimates. Data products cover the same coordinate space and include event lists, images, spectra, and light curves. In addition, the catalog contains data products covering complete observations: event lists, background images, exposure maps, etc. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

  6. Natural sources of ionizing radiation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.M.R.; Hughes, J.S.; Lomas, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    This publication maps levels of radiation of natural origin throughout the European Community (except in the Lander of the former German Democratic Republic), in Scandinavia and in Austria. The booklet explains in simple terms the basic properties and origin of different types of radiation (cosmic rays, gamma rays and radon) and their contribution to the overall exposure of the population. A glossary, a list of administrative regions used in the maps and detailed references to the data for each country are included

  7. Development of Yb-169 radiation source for new nondestructive inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamabayashi, Hisamichi

    1994-01-01

    As the nondestructive inspection method for large structures, there has been radiography, and X-ray and γ-ray have been used as the radiation. The transmissivity of radiation through materials changes by the energy of the radiation and the density and thickness of the materials. At present about 880 γ-ray radiography apparatuses are used in Japanese private enterprises, and about 70% of them use 192 Ir γ-ray sources, and about 30% use 60 Co or 137 Cs sources. Recently the defect inspection for the worlded parts of thin wall small tubes and so on have become to be regarded as important, and the 169 Yb source that emits lower energy γ-ray is suitable to the purpose. There are many reports that 169 Yb radiography was applied successfully. As the 169 Yb radiation source, pellets and balls are on the market. 169 Yb is made by the neutron irradiation of 168 Yb in nuclear reactors. The characteristics of 169 Yb, the manufacture of 169 Yb radiation sources and the applicability of 169 Yb radiation sources to nondestructive inspection are reported. Also in Japan, many basic experiments on 169 Yb radiation sources have been carried out, and the irradiation apparatuses are small and light, and the control area can be set small. (K.I.)

  8. Challenges in Regulating Radiation Sources and Radioactive Waste in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngwakwe, C.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying challenges that hamper the efficiency and efficacy of Regulatory Infrastructure (People and Processes) as regards ensuring safety & security of radiation sources and radioactive waste is a major step towards planning for improvement. In a world constantly motivated by technological advancements, there has been considerable increase in the use of new technologies incorporating radioactive sources in both medical and industrial applications due to its perceived benefits, hence changing the dynamics of regulation. This paper brings to the fore, contemporary challenges experienced by regulators in the course of regulating radiation sources and radioactive waste in Nigeria. These challenges encountered in the business of regulating radiation sources and radioactive waste in Nigeria amongst others include; knowledge gap in the use of novel technologies for industrial applications (e.g. radiotracers in oil & gas and wastewater management), inadequate collaboration with operators to ensure transparency in their operations, inadequate cooperation from other government agencies using ionizing radiation sources, lack of synergy between relevant government agencies, difficulty in establishing standard radioactive waste management facility for orphan & disused sources, and inadequate control of NORMS encountered in industrial activities (e.g. well logging, mining). Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NNRA), the body saddled with the responsibility of regulating the use of ionizing radiation sources in Nigeria is empowered by the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Act to ensure the protection of life, property, and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation, hence are not immune to the aforementioned challenges. (author)

  9. The regulatory control of ionizing radiation sources in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, A.; Ziliukas, J.; Morkunas, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Centre of the Ministry of Health is the regulatory authority responsible for radiation protection of the public and of workers using sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. One of its responsibilities is the control of radioactive sources, which includes keeping the registry, investigating persons arrested while illegally carrying or in possession of radioactive material, decision making and control of users of radioactive sources. The computer based registry contains a directory of more than 24,000 sources and some 800 users in research, medicine and industry. Most of these sources are found in smoke detectors and X ray equipment. The potentially most dangerous sources for therapy and industry (sealed and unsealed) are also listed in this registry. Problems connected with the regulatory control of radioactive sources in Lithuania are presented and their solution is discussed. (author)

  10. Radiation decontamination of meat lyophilized products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarczyk, H.B.; Migdal, W.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for powder soups and sauces compose with lyophilized products. Technology of lyophilization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the products lyophilization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment. (author)

  11. Sound power radiated by sources in diffuse fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polack, Jean-Dominique

    2000-01-01

    Sound power radiated by sources at low frequency notoriously depends on source position. We sampled the sound field of a rectangular room at 18 microphone and 4 source positions. Average power spectra were extrapolated from the reverberant field, taking into account the frequency dependent...

  12. Rendering harmless and deposition of spent sealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholerzynski, A.

    1999-01-01

    The sealed radiation sources are commonly used in medicine, agriculture, industry and scientific research. There is millions of such sources being used all over the world. The purpose of this article is to present a modes of management and disposal of spent sealed radioactive sources in different countries as well as methods being recommended in Poland

  13. Natural radiation sources fabricated from potassic chemical fertilizers and application to radiation education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao

    2010-01-01

    Potassic chemical fertilizers contain potassium, a small part of which is potassium-40. Since potassium-40 is a naturally occurring radioisotope, potassic chemical fertilizers are often used for demonstrations of the existence of natural radioisotopes and radiation. To fabricate radiation sources as educational tools, the compression and formation method developed by our previous study was applied to 13 brands of commercially available chemical fertilizers containing different amounts of potassium. The suitability (size, weight, and solidness) of thus fabricated sources was examined and 12 of them were selected as easy-to-use radiation sources at radiation educational courses. The radiation strength (radiation count rate measured by a GM survey meter) and potassium content of the 12 sources were examined. It was found that the count rate was wholly proportional to the percentage of potassium, and a new educational application was proposed and discussed for understanding that the substance emitting radiation must be the potassium present in the raw fertilizers. (author)

  14. THE ROLE OF RADIATION ACCIDENTS AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF IONIZING RADIATION SOURCES IN THE PROBLEM OF RADIATION DAMAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Кіхтенко, Ігор Миколайович

    2016-01-01

    Subject of research – the relevance of radiation damage at modern development of industry and medicine. In the world of radiation sources used in different fields of practice and their application in the future will increase, which greatly increases the likelihood of injury in a significant contingent of people.Research topic – the definition of the role of nuclear energy and the industrial use of ionizing radiation sources in the problem of radiation damage. The purpose of research – identif...

  15. Introduction to radiation protection practical knowledge for handling radioactive sources

    CERN Document Server

    Grupen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    The book presents an accessible account of the sources of ionising radiation and the methods of radiation protection. The basics of nuclear physics which are directly related to radiation protection are briefly discussed. The book describes the units of radiation protection, the measurement techniques, biological effects of radiation, environmental radiation, and many applications of radiation. For each chapter there is a problem section with full solutions. A detailed glossary and many useful information in appendixes complete the book. The author has addressed the issue of internationality to make sure that the text and, in particular, the complicated regulations can be easily interpreted not only in Europe and the United States but also in other countries. The subject of radiation protection requires a certain amount of mathematics. For those who have forgotten the basic rules of calculus a short refresher course in the form of a mathematical appendix is added.

  16. Ionizing radiation sources management in the Commonwealth of Independent States - CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskra, A.; Bufetova, M.

    2006-01-01

    Ionizing radiation sources cover a broad band of power: from powerful NPP reactors and research reactors to portable radioisotope ionizing radiation sources applied in medicine, agriculture, industry and in the energy supply systems of remote facilities. At present, scales and use field of radionuclide sources in the CIS have the tendency to increase. In this connection, the issues of ionizing radiation sources management safety at all stages of their life cycle, from production to treatment, have been of a great importance. The materials on ionizing radiation sources inventory and treatment in the CIS (Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Ukraine) are presented in the report. It is shown that in some republics, there is difficulty in ionizing radiation sources accounting and control system; the national regulatory and legal framework bases regulating activity on radioactive sources use, localization and treatment require update. Many problems are connected with the sources beyond state accounting. The problem of ionizing radiation sources use safety is complicated by the growing activity of various terrorist groups. The opportunity to use ionizing radiation sources with terrorism goals requires the application of defined systems of security and physical protection at all stages of their management. For this purpose a collective, with all CIS countries, organization of radioactive sources accounting and control as well as countermeasures on their illegal transportation and use are necessary. In this connection, the information collection regarding situation with providing of ionizing radiation sources safety, conditions of equipment and storage facilities, radioactive materials accounting and control system in the CIS countries is vitally needed

  17. Radiation technology of improved quality materials production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajkin, Yu.A.; Nadirov, N.K.; Zajkina, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    The technology of materials production from metals and alloys with high operational properties is developed. The technology is based on use of radiation methods in powder metallurgy. Use of radiation processing allows to improve technological conditions of sintering. It is established, that in certain regimes the sintering temperature is decreasing from 1200 deg C up to 950 deg C in the result of radiation processing of stainless steel powders . According to the processing regimes it is possible load reduction by powder pressing on 15-20 % and sintering time in to 1,5 - 2 times . The radiation methods give possibility to produce high qualitative goods from cheap powder materials without use energy-intensive processes and prolonged processing of finished products

  18. Reference neutron radiations. Part 1: Characteristics and methods of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    ISO 8529 consists of the following parts, under the general title Reference neutron radiations: Part 1: Characteristics and methods of production; Part 2: Calibration fundamentals of radiation protection devices related to the basic quantities characterizing the radiation field; Part 3: Calibration of area and personal dosimeters and determination of response as a function of energy and angle of incidence. This Part 1. of ISO 8529 specifies the reference neutron radiations, in the energy range from thermal up to 20 MeV, for calibrating neutron-measuring devices used for radiation protection purposes and for determining their response as a function of neutron energy. Reference radiations are given for neutron fluence rates of up to 1x10 9 m 2 s-1 , corresponding, at a neutron energy of 1 MeV, to dose-equivalent rates of up to 100 mSv h -1 . This part of ISO 8529 is concerned only with the methods of producing and characterizing the neutron reference radiations. The procedures for applying these radiations for calibrations are described in ISO 8529-2 and ISO 8529-3. The reference radiations specified are the following: neutrons from radionuclide sources, including neutrons from sources in a moderator; neutrons produced by nuclear reactions with charged particles from accelerators; neutrons from reactors. In view of the methods of production and use of them, these reference radiations are divided, for the purposes of this part of ISO 8529, into the following two separate sections. In clause 4, radionuclide neutron sources with wide spectra are specified for the calibration of neutron measuring devices. These sources should be used by laboratories engaged in the routine calibration of neutron-measuring devices, the particular design of which has already been type tested. In clause 5, accelerator-produced monoenergetic neutrons and reactor-produced neutrons with wide or quasi monoenergetic spectra are specified for determining the response of neutron-measuring devices

  19. Dosimetric aspects of radiation processing of food and allied products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, G.; Bhat, R.M.; Bhatt, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Gamma radiation processing in the last 4-5 decades is continuously gaining importance in processing of a wide variety of products, as it can modify physical, chemical and biological properties of the materials, including food and allied products on industrial scale due its inherent qualities like ease of processing in finally packaged form, eco-friendly nature and other obvious reasons over conventional means of processing. Food and allied products are either from agricultural produce or animal origin; they get easily contaminated from soil during harvesting, handling, processing, environment conditions, storage and transport from various types of micro-organisms including pathogens. In many countries it is mandatory to bring down the population of micro-organisms to an acceptable level and complete elimination of pathogens before such products are accepted for human or animal consumption. Processing of food and allied products by radiation has its own challenges due to wider public acceptance of irradiated food, a wide range, 0.25-50kGy, of absorbed dose requirements for different category of such products and purposes, use of a variety of packaging materials in different shapes and sizes and because of its perishable nature. More than 50 countries including India in the world have accepted radiation processing of food and allied products by radiation. Dosimetry is an important aspect of radiation processing, whether it is food or allied product. Uniformity in dose delivered to these products depends on several factors such as product carrier to source frame alignment, product carrier and product/tote box design, product loading pattern, attenuation due to product thickness, product bulk density that varies from 0.1-1.0 kg/l and the plant design whether during processing product overlaps the source or otherwise. In this presentation dosimetric aspects of radiation processing of food and allied products and problems associated with dosimetry of such

  20. Regulatory control of radiation sources in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coy, K.

    1998-01-01

    The regulatory programme governing the safe use of radioisotopes in Germany is based on the federal legislation enacted as Atomic Energy Control Act (Atomgesetz) and Radiation Protection Ordinance (Strahlen-schutzverordnung) and its implementation by the competent authorities of the individual states. Despite this highly decentralized infrastructure of enforcement the basic principles of regulations described in this paper such as authorization criteria, conditions imposed as well as depth and intensity of inspection balanced according to the individual radiation hazard involved are harmonized to the greatest possible extent by regular coordination among the competent authorities as well as a series of technical regulations such as standards and guidelines. (author)

  1. Radiation safety aspects in the use of radiation sources in industrial and heath-care applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkat Raj, V.

    2001-01-01

    The principle underlying the philosophy of radiation protection and safety is to ensure that there exists an appropriate standard of protection and safety for humans, without unduly limiting the benefits of the practices giving rise to exposure or incurring disproportionate costs in interventions. To realise these objectives, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP-60) and IAEA's Safety Series (IAEA Safety Series 120, 1996) have enunciated the following criteria for the application and use of radiation: (1) justification of practices; (2) optimisation of protection; (3) dose limitation and (4) safety of sources. Though these criteria are the basic tenets of radiation protection, the radiation hazard potentials of individual applications vary and the methods to achieve the above mentioned objectives principles are different. This paper gives a brief overview of the various applications of radiation and radioactive sources in India, their radiation hazard perspective and the radiation safety measures provided to achieve the basic radiation protection philosophy. (author)

  2. Radioactive sealed sources production process for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Paulo de S.; Ngunga, Daniel M.G.; Camara, Julio R.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S.

    2017-01-01

    providing products and services to the private and governmental Brazilian users of industrial radiography and nucleonic control systems. Radioactive sealed sources are commonly used in nondestructive tests as radiography to make inspections and verify the internal structure and integrity of materials and in nucleonic gauges to control level, density, viscosity, etc. in on-line industrial processes. One of the most important activities carried out by this laboratory is related to the inspection of source projectors devices used in industrial radiography and its constituent parts as well as remote handle control assembly drive cable and guide tube systems. The laboratory also provide for the users iridium-192, cobalt-60 and selenium-75 sealed sources and performs quality control tests replacing spent or contaminated radiative sources. All discard of radioactive source is treated as radioactive waste. Additionally, administrative and commercial processes and protocols for exportation and transport of radioactive material are developed by specialized departments. In this work are presented the mean processes and procedures used by the Sealed Source Production Laboratory such as the arrival of the radioactive material to the laboratory and the source projectors, mechanical inspections, source loading, source leaking tests, etc. (author)

  3. Radioactive sealed sources production process for industrial radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paulo de S.; Ngunga, Daniel M.G.; Camara, Julio R.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S., E-mail: psantos@ipen.br, E-mail: hobeddaniel@gmail.com, E-mail: jrcamara@ipen.br, E-mail: pavsalva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energética s e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    providing products and services to the private and governmental Brazilian users of industrial radiography and nucleonic control systems. Radioactive sealed sources are commonly used in nondestructive tests as radiography to make inspections and verify the internal structure and integrity of materials and in nucleonic gauges to control level, density, viscosity, etc. in on-line industrial processes. One of the most important activities carried out by this laboratory is related to the inspection of source projectors devices used in industrial radiography and its constituent parts as well as remote handle control assembly drive cable and guide tube systems. The laboratory also provide for the users iridium-192, cobalt-60 and selenium-75 sealed sources and performs quality control tests replacing spent or contaminated radiative sources. All discard of radioactive source is treated as radioactive waste. Additionally, administrative and commercial processes and protocols for exportation and transport of radioactive material are developed by specialized departments. In this work are presented the mean processes and procedures used by the Sealed Source Production Laboratory such as the arrival of the radioactive material to the laboratory and the source projectors, mechanical inspections, source loading, source leaking tests, etc. (author)

  4. Optical Imaging of Ionizing Radiation from Clinical Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Travis M; Drain, Charles Michael; Grimm, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Nuclear medicine uses ionizing radiation for both in vivo diagnosis and therapy. Ionizing radiation comes from a variety of sources, including x-rays, beam therapy, brachytherapy, and various injected radionuclides. Although PET and SPECT remain clinical mainstays, optical readouts of ionizing radiation offer numerous benefits and complement these standard techniques. Furthermore, for ionizing radiation sources that cannot be imaged using these standard techniques, optical imaging offers a unique imaging alternative. This article reviews optical imaging of both radionuclide- and beam-based ionizing radiation from high-energy photons and charged particles through mechanisms including radioluminescence, Cerenkov luminescence, and scintillation. Therapeutically, these visible photons have been combined with photodynamic therapeutic agents preclinically for increasing therapeutic response at depths difficult to reach with external light sources. Last, new microscopy methods that allow single-cell optical imaging of radionuclides are reviewed. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  5. Install and operate type radiation processing plant for marine products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohli, A.K. [BARC-BTIR Complex, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Atomic Energy. Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology

    2002-07-01

    Marine products can be carrier of several pathogens. Radiation processing is a very useful technique that is used to eliminate pathogens and also to extend shelf life of fresh fish. For marine products three processes are involved namely: radurization to pasteurize fresh chilled fish for extending shelf life; radicidation to sanitize frozen fishery products by elimination of pathogenic microorganisms and radiation disinfestations to eliminate insects from dehydrated fishery products. The paper brings out conceptual design of a compact radiation processing plant that can cater to all the three processes. The design is different from conveyor type of designs. The design is specially configured to maintain the temperature of frozen products and overdose ratio within limits specified. The throughput depends upon the source strength, type of product, the size of box and its configuration in which these could be arranged. The design has many features, which make it a very safe, convenient and economical method for processing of such items or for that matter all the food products, which are amenable for radiation processing. (author)

  6. Install and operate type radiation processing plant for marine products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Marine products can be carrier of several pathogens. Radiation processing is a very useful technique that is used to eliminate pathogens and also to extend shelf life of fresh fish. For marine products three processes are involved namely: radurization to pasteurize fresh chilled fish for extending shelf life; radicidation to sanitize frozen fishery products by elimination of pathogenic microorganisms and radiation disinfestations to eliminate insects from dehydrated fishery products. The paper brings out conceptual design of a compact radiation processing plant that can cater to all the three processes. The design is different from conveyor type of designs. The design is specially configured to maintain the temperature of frozen products and overdose ratio within limits specified. The throughput depends upon the source strength, type of product, the size of box and its configuration in which these could be arranged. The design has many features, which make it a very safe, convenient and economical method for processing of such items or for that matter all the food products, which are amenable for radiation processing. (author)

  7. Stochastic electromagnetic radiation of complex sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2007-01-01

    The emission of electromagnetic radiation by localized complex electric charge and current distributions is studied. A statistical formalism in terms of general dynamical multipole fields is developed. The appearing coefficients are treated as stochastic variables. Hereby as much as possible a

  8. Transport of cobalt-60 industrial radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstadt, Peter; Gibson, Wayne

    This paper will deal with safety aspects of the handling of Cobalt-60, the most widely used industrial radio-isotope. Cobalt-60 is a man-made radioisotope of Cobalt-59, a naturally occurring non radioactive element, that is made to order for radiation therapy and a wide range of industrial processing applications including sterilization of medical disposables, food irradiation, etc.

  9. Exposure to natural sources of radiation in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quindos, L.S.; Fernandez, P.L.; Soto, J.

    1992-01-01

    Studies carried by us during last three years have produced a map of natural radiation for Spain. The map contains, by administrative region, the respective contributions of terrestrial gamma rays, both outdoors and indoors, cosmic rays and indoor radon. Terrestrial gamma rays have been measured outdoors 'in situ' in more than 1,000 locations. Data for indoor gamma rays were derived from the radioactivity content of more typical spanish building materials as also by 'in situ'measurements in approximately 100 houses. The cosmic ray component is calculated from latitude and altitude. Values for indoor radon exposure have been derived from a national survey and covering more than 2,000 individual measurements employing active and passive detectors. When account is taken of exposures elsewhere, the mean annual effective dose equivalent from these sources is evaluated. Doses from thoron decay products and internal exposure due to natural activity retained in the body from diet are not dealt with in this evaluation. (author)

  10. WADOSE, Radiation Source in Vitrification Waste Storage Apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Jun-ichi; Tashiro, Shingo; Kikkawa, Shizuo; Tsuboi, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: This is a radiation shielding program which analyzes unknown dose rates using known radiation sources. It can also evaluate radiation sources from measured dose rates. For instance, dose rates measured at several points in the hot cell of WASTEF are introduced into WADOS, and as a result, Ci of radiation sources and their positions are estimated with structural arrangement data of the WASTEF cells. The later functional addition is very useful for actual operation of a hot cell and others. NEA-1142/02: The code was originally written in non standard Fortran dialect and has been fully translated into Fortran 90, Fortran 77 compatible. 2 - Method of solution: Point kernel ray tracing method (the same method as QAD code). 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Modeling of source form for input is available for cylinder, plate, point and others which are simplified geometrically

  11. Stability of high-brilliance synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: characteristics of synchrotron radiation sources; stability of the orbits; orbit control; nonlinear dynamic stability; and coherent stability and control. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. Rules and regulations on ionizing radiations sources installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The finality of this legislative text is to establish the standards and procedures for site, design, building, operation and decommissioning of nuclear installations, radioactive installations and ionizing radiations sources. This text include the commercialization of radioactive substances and equipment fabrication

  13. EVALUATION OF SIGNIFICANT ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES OF RADIATIVELY IMPORTANT TRACE GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is an initial evaluation of significant anthropogenic sources of radiatively important trace gases. missions of greenhouse gases from human activities--including fossil fuel combustion, industrial/agricultural activities, and transportation--contribute to the increasin...

  14. Regulatory requirements of radiation and radioactive sources in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundara Rao, I.S.

    1993-01-01

    Manufacture and supply of radiation sources, their use and the disposal of radioactive materials are regulated through the application of Safe Disposal Radioactive Wastes Rules 1987. Salient aspects of these are discussed

  15. Regulatory aspects of radiation sources safety in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollani, K.; Kushe, R.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper are presented the regulatory aspects of the radiation sources safety in Albania, based in the new Radiological Protection Act and Regulations. The radiation protection infrastructures and procedures are described as well as their functioning for the implementation of relevant activities such as licensing and regular inspection, personal dose monitoring, emergency preparedness which are developed in the frame of the IAEA Technical Co-operation Programme. The issue of the security of radiation sources is dealt in close relation with the preparation and use of the inventory of all radiation sources in the country. A special attention is paid to the identification and location of lost sources for their finding and secure storage. (author)

  16. Guidelines on radiation protection for work with open radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Danish National Institute of Radiation Protection (SIS) has published this, fourth edition of guidelines on radiation protection for work with open radiation sources. There are few changes compared to the previous edition, film doses are updated and preparation of the Danish legislation with respect to the 1991 ICRP recommendations (ICRP publication 60) is discussed. In this future recommendation the new dose limits will be proposed and new risk factors enlightened. (EG)

  17. Radiation safety aspects of the LINAC coherent light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vylet, V.; Fasso, A.; Rokni, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    The radiation protection systems, which comprise the Personnel Protection System (PPS), Beam Containment System (BCS), and shielding, are described. The radiation sources and methods of their assessment are highlighted; these include bremsstrahlung and neutrons from electron beam losses, gas bremsstrahlung, synchrotron radiation, muons, and induced activity. By way of example, a plot of tissue dose as a function of distance from beam axis at the end of the experimental hutch is reproduced. (P.A.)

  18. Radiation Source Mapping with Bayesian Inverse Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hykes, Joshua Michael

    We present a method to map the spectral and spatial distributions of radioactive sources using a small number of detectors. Locating and identifying radioactive materials is important for border monitoring, accounting for special nuclear material in processing facilities, and in clean-up operations. Most methods to analyze these problems make restrictive assumptions about the distribution of the source. In contrast, the source-mapping method presented here allows an arbitrary three-dimensional distribution in space and a flexible group and gamma peak distribution in energy. To apply the method, the system's geometry and materials must be known. A probabilistic Bayesian approach is used to solve the resulting inverse problem (IP) since the system of equations is ill-posed. The probabilistic approach also provides estimates of the confidence in the final source map prediction. A set of adjoint flux, discrete ordinates solutions, obtained in this work by the Denovo code, are required to efficiently compute detector responses from a candidate source distribution. These adjoint fluxes are then used to form the linear model to map the state space to the response space. The test for the method is simultaneously locating a set of 137Cs and 60Co gamma sources in an empty room. This test problem is solved using synthetic measurements generated by a Monte Carlo (MCNP) model and using experimental measurements that we collected for this purpose. With the synthetic data, the predicted source distributions identified the locations of the sources to within tens of centimeters, in a room with an approximately four-by-four meter floor plan. Most of the predicted source intensities were within a factor of ten of their true value. The chi-square value of the predicted source was within a factor of five from the expected value based on the number of measurements employed. With a favorable uniform initial guess, the predicted source map was nearly identical to the true distribution

  19. Source book of educational materials for radiation therapy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijar, M.L.

    1979-08-01

    The Source Book is a listing of educational materials in radiation therapy technology. The first 17 sections correspond to the subjects identified in the ASRT Curriculum Guide for schools of radiation therapy. Each section is divided into publications and in some sections audiovisuals and training aids. Entries are listed without endorsement

  20. Control of sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastauskas, Albinas; Ziliukas, Julius; Morkunas, Gendrutis [Radiation Protection Centre, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    1997-12-31

    Aspects connected with regulatory control of radioactive sources in Lithuania, such as keeping of the computer-based registry, investigation of arrested illegal radioactive material, decision making, control of users of radioactive sources are discussed. Most of the sources of ionizing radiation are smoke detectors and x-ray equipment. Potentially most dangerous sources (both sealed and unsealed) of therapy and industry are also presented 2 refs., 2 tabs.; e-mail: rsc at post.omnitel.net

  1. Control of sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, Albinas; Ziliukas, Julius; Morkunas, Gendrutis

    1997-01-01

    Aspects connected with regulatory control of radioactive sources in Lithuania, such as keeping of the computer-based registry, investigation of arrested illegal radioactive material, decision making, control of users of radioactive sources are discussed. Most of the sources of ionizing radiation are smoke detectors and x-ray equipment. Potentially most dangerous sources (both sealed and unsealed) of therapy and industry are also presented

  2. Experience with qualification examinations of workers handling ionizing radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokanova, K.

    1976-01-01

    The organization is described of examinations which have to be passed by supervising staff and workers using radioactive ionizing radiation sources. The requirements are listed of the examination in which these workers have to prove their professional knowledge and skills. The said examinations significantly contribute to the establishment of a system of safeguards at workplaces using ionizing radiation sources and may help economize operations at these workplaces

  3. Design and Construction of a Radiation Source of Extreme Flux

    OpenAIRE

    Valle Brozas, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    [EN]The present thesis consists of the design and construction of an X-ray source through the interaction of an ultra-intense laser with a solid and/or liquid target. Specifically, the laser technology suitable for this purpose has been investigated, the characteristics of the laser-matter interaction have been studied and possible applications of the generated X-radiation (and accelerated electrons) have been explored. Nowadays, the development of sources of ionizing radiation through la...

  4. Challenges in Regulating Radiation Sources and Associated Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehzad, A.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation sources are widely used in the fields of medical, industry, agriculture, research, etc. Owing to the inherent risk of exposure to ionizing radiations while using the radiation sources and management of associated waste, safety measures are of utmost importance including robust regulatory control. Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) is responsible for supervising all matters pertaining to nuclear safety and radiation protection in the country. Since its inception, PNRA has made rigorous efforts to regulate the radiation facilities for which regulatory framework was further strengthened by taking into account international norms/practices and implemented afterwards. However, due to vibrant use of these facilities, there are numerous challenges being faced while implementing the regulatory framework. These challenges pertains to shielding design of some facilities, control over service provider for QC/repair maintenance of radiation equipment, assessment of patient doses, and establishment of national diagnostic reference levels for radiological procedures. Further, the regulatory framework also delineate requirements to minimize the generation of associated radioactive waste as low as practicable. The requirements also necessitates that certain sealed radioactive sources (SRS) are returned to the supplier upon completion of their useful life, while other radioactive sources are required to be transported for storage at designated radioactive waste storage facilities in the country, which requires commitment from the licensee. This paper will briefly describe the challenges in regulating the radiation sources and issues related to the waste management associated with these facilities. (author)

  5. Feed network and electromagnetic radiation source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardavan, Arzhang; Singleton, John; Linehan, Kevin E.; Ardavan, Houshang; Schmidt-Zwiefel, Andrea Caroline

    2017-01-17

    An antenna may include a volume polarization current radiator and a feed network. The volume polarization current radiator, includes a dielectric solid (such as a dielectric strip), and a plurality of closely-spaced excitation elements (24), each excitation element (24) being configured to induce a volume polarization current distribution in the dielectric solid proximate to the excitation element when a voltage is applied to the excitation element. The feed network is coupled to the volume polarization current radiator. The feed network also includes a plurality of passive power divider elements (32) and a plurality of passive delay elements (d1-d6) coupling the first port (30) and the plurality of second ports (108, 109, 164), the plurality of power divider elements (32) and the plurality of phase delay elements (d1-d6) being configured such that a radio-frequency signal that is applied to the first port (30) experiences a progressive change of phase as it is coupled to the plurality of second ports (108, 109, 164) so as to cause the volume polarization current distribution to propagate along the dielectric solid.

  6. The characteristics of peripheral blood leukocytes in persons working with ionizing radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zykova, I.A.; Sokolova, N.B.; Yas'kova, V.Z.

    1984-01-01

    Functional and qualitative changes of peripheral blood cellular composition were studied in persons working over a long period of time with ionizing radiation sources under the action of various factors of production upon an organism. Appression of a function and increase of T-lymphocyte chromosome damages were revealed against the background of a decrease both of enzymatic activity level and leukocyte number in persons operating for a long time (more than 10 years) with ionizing radiation sources. Discovered changes occurred under the action upon a human being not only of small doses of ionizing radiation but a whole complex of industrial factors which may initiate changes of adapted character

  7. The Advanced Light Source (ALS) Radiation Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, A.L.; Oldfather, D.E.; Lindner, A.F.

    1993-08-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a 1.5 Gev synchrotron light source facility consisting of a 120 kev electron gun, 50 Mev linear accelerator, 1.5 Gev booster synchrotron, 200 meter circumference electron storage ring, and many photon beamline transport systems for research. Figure 1. ALS floor plan. Pairs of neutron and gamma radiation monitors are shown as dots numbered from 1 to 12. The Radiation Safety System for the ALS has been designed and built with a primary goal of providing protection against inadvertent personnel exposure to gamma and neutron radiation and, secondarily, to enhance the electrical safety of select magnet power supplies

  8. Evaluation of methods to leak test sealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbeau, N.D.; Scott, C.K.

    1987-04-01

    The methods for the leak testing of sealed radiation sources were reviewed. One hundred and thirty-one equipment vendors were surveyed to identify commercially available leak test instruments. The equipment is summarized in tabular form by radiation type and detector type for easy reference. The radiation characteristics of the licensed sources were reviewed and summarized in a format that can be used to select the most suitable detection method. A test kit is proposed for use by inspectors when verifying a licensee's test procedures. The general elements of leak test procedures are discussed

  9. The Radiation, Interplanetary Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) Toolset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, G. P.; Spann, James F.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project is to serve the needs of space system designers and operators by developing an interplanetary radiation environment model within 10 AU:Radiation, Interplanetary Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) toolset: (1) The RISCS toolset will provide specific reference environments for space system designers and nowcasting and forecasting capabilities for space system operators; (2) We envision the RISCS toolset providing the spatial and temporal radiation environment external to the Earth's (and other planets') magnetosphere, as well as possessing the modularity to integrate separate applications (apps) that can map to specific magnetosphere locations and/or perform the subsequent radiation transport and dosimetry for a specific target.

  10. Technological yields of sources for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1993-01-01

    The present report is prepared for planners of radiation processing of any material. Calculations are focused on accelerators of electrons, divided into two groups: versatile linacs of energy up to 13 MeV, and accelerators of lower energy, below 2 MeV, of better energy yield but of limited applications. The calculations are connected with the confrontation of the author's technological expectations during the preparation of the linac project in the late '60s, with the results of 25 years of exploitation of the machine. One has to realize that from the 200 kW input power from the mains, only 5 kW of bent and scanned beam is recovered on the conveyor. That power is only partially used for radiation induced phenomena, because of the demanded homogeneity of the dose, of the mode of packing of the object and its shape, of edges of the scanned area and in the spaces between boxes, and of loses during the idle time due to the tuning of the machine and dosimetric operations. The use of lower energy accelerators may be more economical than that of linacs in case of objects of specific type. At the first stage already, that is of the conversion of electrical power into that of low energy electron beam, the yield is 2-3 times better than in the case of linacs. Attention has been paid to the technological aspects of electron beam conversion into the more penetrating Bremsstrahlung similar to gamma radiation. The advantages of technologies, which make possible a control of the shape of the processed object are stressed. Special attention is focused to the relation between the yield of processing and the ratio between the maximum to the minimum dose in the object under the irradiation. (author). 14 refs, 14 figs

  11. Background radiation and man-made and sources of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babalola, I.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the use of the atom and its present applications in food and agriculture, industry medicine and health care, energy-environment and research. These applications have inevitably led to concerns about nuclear safety and radioactive waste management and the need for the adoption of procedures for control, safe use and disposal of radioactive sources

  12. Open Source Radiation Hardened by Design Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The proposed technology allows use of the latest microcircuit technology with lowest power and fastest speed, with minimal delay and engineering costs, through new Radiation Hardened by Design (RHBD) techniques that do not require extensive process characterization, technique evaluation and re-design at each Moore's Law generation. The separation of critical node groups is explicitly parameterized so it can be increased as microcircuit technologies shrink. The technology will be open access to radiation tolerant circuit vendors. INNOVATION: This technology would enhance computation intensive applications such as autonomy, robotics, advanced sensor and tracking processes, as well as low power applications such as wireless sensor networks. OUTCOME / RESULTS: 1) Simulation analysis indicates feasibility. 2)Compact voting latch 65 nanometer test chip designed and submitted for fabrication -7/2016. INFUSION FOR SPACE / EARTH: This technology may be used in any digital integrated circuit in which a high level of resistance to Single Event Upsets is desired, and has the greatest benefit outside low earth orbit where cosmic rays are numerous.

  13. Future radiation sources and identification of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1989-01-01

    Two major questions regarding irradiation that are raised today are: (1) Which sources should be used for irradiating food? and (2) How can irradiated foods be identified? This article considers both questions. After briefly mentioning a few of the historical stepping stones in the development of radiation sources, present and future radiation sources are discussed. Next the changes in foods caused by irradiation are considered. These changes are extremely small-so minor in fact that it is difficult to detect if the food has been irradiated. Still, these are several detection methods available, and this article describes them

  14. Regulatory control for safe usage of ionizing radiation sources in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In Bangladesh, there is a widespread and continuos growth in the use of the ionizing radiation sources both radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment in the field of industry, medicine, agriculture, research, teaching etc. In industry, they are employed in production as well as quality control such as non-destructive testing (radiography), nucleonic gauging, radiotracer techniques and in radiation processing. Medical applications of ionizing radiation include X-ray radiography, X-ray fluoroscopy, CT scan, mammography, nuclear medicine, beam therapy and brachytherapy. Besides radioisotopes are also used for research applications, viz., scattering experiments, tracer studies, etc. In agriculture, the uptake of nutrients by soil, and parts of plants are studied using suitable radionuclides. In all the above applications radioisotopes in two forms namely sealed sources and open sources in different chemical forms are employed with source strengths varying from micro curies to mega curies. The benefits to man from the use of ionizing radiation and sources of radiation are accompanied by risks which may result from exposure of man to ionizing radiation. In order to have an effective control on the use of radiation sources and to ensure radiological safety of the user as well as the public, Government of Bangladesh has promulgated Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NSRC) rules 1997 under the NSRC Act 1993. The Bangladesh Atomic Energy commission (BAEC) is the competent authority for formulating rules and regulations for ensuring radiological safety. BAEC is legally responsible for developing and strengthening the necessary radiation protection infrastructure in the country through the effective enforcement and implementation of regulatory requirements, criteria, obligations, guiding, codes etc. in order to save man and the related environment from the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation. In Bangladesh, only those persons who have been

  15. Ionizing radiation sources used in medical applications in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.M.C.; Carlos, M.T.; Cruz, L.R.F.; Domingues, C.; Farias, J.T.; Ferreira, R.; Figueiredo, L.; Peixoto, J.E.; Oliveira, S.M.V.; Drexler, G.

    1991-02-01

    Preliminary data about ionizing radiation sources used in medical applications and obtained through a national programme by IRD/CNEN together with Brazilian health authorities are presented. The data presentation follows, as close as possible, recommendations given by the United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). This programme has two main aims: First: to contribute for research in the field of ionizing radiation effects and risks including information about equipment quality control and procedures adopted by professionals working in Radiation Medicine. Second: to investigate the radiation protection status in Brazil, in order to give assistance to Brazilian health authorities for planning regional radiation programmes and training programmes for medical staffs. (F.E.). 13 refs, 19 figs, 34 tabs

  16. Solar radiation data sources, applications, and network design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    A prerequisite to considering solar energy projects is to determine the requirements for information about solar radiation to apply to possible projects. This report offers techniques to help the reader specify requirements in terms of solar radiation data and information currently available, describes the past and present programs to record and present information to be used for most requirements, presents courses of action to help the user meet his needs for information, lists sources of solar radiation data and presents the problems, costs, benefits and responsibilities of programs to acquire additional solar radiation data. Extensive background information is provided about solar radiation data and its use. Specialized information about recording, collecting, processing, storing and disseminating solar radiation data is given. Several Appendices are included which provide reference material for special situations.

  17. Radiometric analyzer with plural radiation sources and detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, S.; Oda, M.; Miyashita, K.; Takada, M.

    1977-01-01

    A radiometric analyzer for measuring characteristics of a material by radiation comprises a plurality of systems in which each consists of a radiation source and a radiation detector which are the same in number as the number of elements of the molecule of the material and a linear calibration circuit having inverse response characteristics (calibration curve) of the respective systems of detectors, whereby the measurement is carried out by four fundamental rules by operation of the mutual outputs of said detector system obtained through said linear calibration circuit. One typical embodiment is a radiometric analyzer for hydrocarbons which measures the density of heavy oil, the sulfur content and the calorific value by three detector systems which include a γ-ray source (E/sub γ/ greater than 50 keV), a soft x-ray source (Ex approximately 20 keV), and a neutron ray source. 2 claims, 6 figures

  18. Control of radiation sources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Silvia Maria Velasques de; Menezes, Sergio Ferreira; Alves Filho, Aristeu Dacio; Xavier, Ana Maria

    1997-01-01

    The radiological accident occurred in Goiania, in 1987, brought to light several deficiencies in the conduction of the licensing processes of medical, industrial and research facilities that handle radioisotopes as well as int he control of radioactive sources in Brazil. The objective of this article is to describe some of the technical and administrative measures taken to ensure the adoption of appropriate radiological safety standards throughout the country, thus reducing the incidence of radiological accidents. (author)

  19. Natural products as radiation response modifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin Seymour; Carmel Mothersill

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Protection of cells and organisms against low doses of radiation is a complex issue which must be considered at the level of cells, tissues and organisms. 'Protection' at one level, for example, prevention of cell death, may be adverse at another level, if it allows a damaged cell to survive and form a malignant tumour. Conversely, death of a cell carrying damage can be protective for the organism if it eliminates a damaged cell. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in protection against radiation damage at several hierarchical levels. The use of natural products as radiation response modifiers is very attractive. Many of these compounds are readily available and their function and pharmacology is well understood. Some derive from venoms or natural defenses and are currently used in medicine, others include vitamins, antioxidants or cofactors, which are tried and tested nutritional supplements. Radiation effects may be targeted or untargeted. Radiation may interact directly within a cell causing a direct DNA lesion or it may elicit a bystander response from the irradiated cell. A bystander effect is produced when the irradiated cell apparently exhibits no damage from the radiation, but passes on a biochemical signal which induces neighbouring cells to apoptose or undergo a number of other responses usually associated with irradiation such as mutation induction, transformation, induction of ROS responses etc.. Effects induced in progeny of non-targeted cells in receipt of bystander signals include genetic instability, mini and microsatellite mutations and carcinogenesis. A key characteristic of these non targeted effects is that they occur at very low acute doses (of the order of 5mGy) and saturate so that effective prevention requires an agent which can effectively shut off the mechanism. While the mechanism is not fully known, it is thought to involve signals from irradiated cells communicating via

  20. Bioactive natural products from novel microbial sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, Victoria L; Bode, Helge B

    2015-09-01

    Despite the importance of microbial natural products for human health, only a few bacterial genera have been mined for the new natural products needed to overcome the urgent threat of antibiotic resistance. This is surprising, given that genome sequencing projects have revealed that the capability to produce natural products is not a rare feature among bacteria. Even the bacteria occurring in the human microbiome produce potent antibiotics, and thus potentially are an untapped resource for novel compounds, potentially with new activities. This review highlights examples of bacteria that should be considered new sources of natural products, including anaerobes, pathogens, and symbionts of humans, insects, and nematodes. Exploitation of these producer strains, combined with advances in modern natural product research methodology, has the potential to open the way for a new golden age of microbial therapeutics. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Natural Radiation in byproducts of the production of phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Marcilei A. Guazzelli da; Cardoso, L.L.; Medina, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    Natural radiation is the largest source of radiation exposure to which man is subject. It is formed basically by cosmic radiation and the radionuclides present in the Earth crust, as 40 K and the elements of the decay series of 232 Th and 238 U. Phosphate ores, which constitutes the raw material for the production of phosphoric acid, have a high rate of natural radiation from the decay series of 232 Th and 238 U. Phosphogypsum, which is naturally radioactivity, is a by-product of the production of phosphoric acid by the wet method. For each ton of phosphoric acid it is produced about 4.5 tons of phosphogypsum. This work presents the analysis of samples collected in all stages of the manufacturing process of phosphoric acid, which generates the phosphogypsum. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to measure the concentration of the elements of the decay series of 232 Th and 238 U. All analyzed samples showed a high concentration of radionuclides, promoting the need for further steps in the process in order to reduce the presence of such radionuclides in the phosphogypsum. The results indicate the radionuclide 238 U has higher contribution in some samples of the intermediate stages of the process. All samples exceeded the international average range of human exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation, which is 0.3 to 1.0 mSv/year. (author)

  2. Regulatory control for safe usage of radiation sources in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P.K.; Sonawane, A.U.

    1998-01-01

    The widespread applications of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment in the field of industry, medicine agriculture and research in India necessitated the establishment of an efficient regulatory framework and consequently the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) was constituted to exercise regulatory control over the safe usage of the radioactive materials and the radiation generating equipment. The Atomic Energy Act, 1962 and the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971 promulgated under the Act forms the basis of radiation safety in India and Chairman, AERB is the Competent Authority to enforce the regulatory provisions of the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971, for safe use of radiation source in the country. AERB has published a number of documents such as Radiation Surveillance Procedures, Standards, Codes, Guides and Manuals for safe use and handling of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment. Apart from nuclear fuel cycle documents, these publications pertain to industrial radiography, medical application of radiation, transport of radioactive material, industrial gamma irradiators, X-ray units etc. AERB safety related publications are based on international standards e.g. BSS, IAEA, ICRP, ISO etc. This paper outlines the methodology of regulatory control exercised by AERB for safe use of the radioactive materials and the radiation generating equipment in the country. (author)

  3. Training of human resources on radiation protection and safe use of radiation sources. Argentine experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaggio, Alfredo L.; Nasazzi, Nora B.; Arias, Cesar

    2004-01-01

    Argentina has a long experience in Radiation Protection training since 25 years ago. In the present work we analyse those variable and non variable training aspects according to scientific development, increasing radiation source diversity (including new concepts like orphan sources and security), mayor concern about patient in Radiation Protection, previous exposures, etc. We comment what we consider the main steps in the training of Radiation Protection specialists, like university degree, post graduate education distinguishing between formative and informative contents and on the job training. Moreover, we point out the trainees aptitudes and attitudes to be developed in order to work properly in this interdisciplinary field. (author)

  4. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals and biomedical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, R.; Iddon, B.; Moore, J.S.; Phillips, G.O.; Power, D.M.; Woodward, T.W.

    1975-01-01

    Sterilization of pharmaceuticals by radiation is accompanied by chemical degradation which must be eliminated or minimised if the method is to be successfully applied. In order to devise ways in which the pharmaceutical can be protected it is necessary to know the yield and nature of the decomposition products, the mechanisms by which degradation occurs, and the rate constants for the reactions involved. We have obtained such data for a variety of pharmaceutical compounds, viz. vitamin B12, benzyl penicillin, sulphonamides, indoles, heparin, alginates and phenylmercurics, both in the solid state and in aqueous solution. The scope and limitations of radiation sterilization are discussed in the light of these results. (author)

  5. Application of large radiation sources in Asia and the Pacific - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iya, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    The current status of the applications of large radiation sources on industrial scale in the countries of Asia and the Pacific Region has been reviewed. The present R and D programmes and the major centres engaged in these programmes are described. So far as commercialization is considered, radiation processing industry is now well established in Japan, Australia, India and Israel. The major industrial uses of large radiation sources have been for : (1) sterilization of medical products, (2) food preservation, (3) cross-linking of polyethylene and (4) production of composite materials from polymer and wood or bamboo or bagasse. A table is given which indicates the current status of clearance of irradiated food in the countries under consideration. Finally, technological requirements in these countries for development and application of radiation processing are spelled out and discussed. (M.G.B.)

  6. Radiation in the living environment: sources, exposure and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Rashi

    2013-01-01

    We are living in a milieu of radiations and continuously exposed to radiations from natural sources from conception to death. We are exposed to radiation from Sun and outer space, radioactive materials present in the earth, house we live in, buildings and workplace, food we eat and air we breath. Each flake of snow, grain of soil, drop of rain, a flower, and even each man in the street is a source of this radiation. Even our own bodies contain naturally occurring radioactive elements. The general belief is that the radiations are harmful and everybody is scared of the same. The cancer is the most important concern on account of exposure to Ionizing Radiation which is initiated by the damage to DNA. The level of exposure depends on the environmental and working conditions and may vary from low to moderate to high and depending on the same the exposed humans can be classified as general public, non nuclear workers (NNW) and nuclear workers (NW). Though, the LNT theory which is considered to be the radiation paradigm considers all radiation at all levels to be harmful and the -severity of the deleterious effect increases with the increase in dose, however, the available literature, data and reports (epidemiological and experimental) speaks otherwise particularly at low levels. The purpose of this paper is to address the question, whether the radiation is harmful at all levels or it is simply media hype and the truth is different, and to promote harmony with nature and to improve our quality of life with the knowledge that cancer mortality rates decrease following exposure to LLIR. Various sources of radiation exposure and the subsequent consequences will be discussed. (author)

  7. Environmental radiation safety source term evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, O.R.; Filipy, R.E.; Cannon, W.C.; Craig, D.K.

    1977-04-01

    Plutonium-238 is currently used in the form of a pure refractory oxide as a power source on a number of space vehicles that have already been or will be launched during the next few years. Although the sources are designed and built to withstand re-entry into the earth's atmosphere and impact with the earth's surface without releasing any plutonium, the possibility of such an event can never be absolutely excluded. Three separate tasks were undertaken in this study. The interactions between soils and 238 PuO 2 aerosols which might be created in a space launch about environment were examined. Aging of the plutonium-soil mixture under a humid atmosphere showed a trend toward the slow coagulation of two dilute aerosols. Studies on marine animals were conducted to assess the response of 238 PuO 2 pellets to conditions found 60 feet below the ocean surface. Ultrafilterability studies measured the solubility of 238 PuO 2 as a function of time, temperature, suspension concentration and molality of solvent

  8. Molecular environmental science and synchrotron radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.E. Jr. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Molecular environmental science is a relatively new field but focuses on the chemical and physical forms of toxic and/or radioactive contaminants in soils, sediments, man-made waste forms, natural waters, and the atmosphere; their possible reactions with inorganic and organic compounds, plants, and organisms in the environment; and the molecular-level factors that control their toxicity, bioavailability, and transport. The chemical speciation of a contaminant is a major factor in determining its behavior in the environment, and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy is one of the spectroscopies of choice to quantitatively determine speciation of heavy metal contaminants in situ without selective extraction or other sample treatment. The use of high-flux insertion device beam lines at synchrotron sources and multi-element array detectors has permitted XAFS studies of metals such as Se and As in natural soils at concentration levels as low as 50 ppm. The X-ray absorption near edge structure of these metals is particularly useful in determining their oxidation state. Examples of such studies will be presented, and new insertion device beam lines under development at SSRL and the Advanced Photon Source for molecular environmental science applications will be discussed.

  9. Possible sources of radiation in indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djukanovic, M.

    1997-01-01

    More locations and building material will be needed to solve the housing needs, actually the future quantities will equal the total of all the previous building. And presently one quarter of the world population is already homeless. The development of human civilization in the new technological era goes on extremely quickly. In the search for new spaces, in the last decade of the 20th century, in town renovation planning the application of subterranean civil engineering is very popular. Below ground level, the new towns are built with many stories, with exclusively artificial light and artificial climate. There is not the slightest possibility of natural ventilation. These spaces have not been investigated as regards the contents of radon. Man is not adapted to spend most of the time in under artificial conditions. It is still to be discovered how it will affect humans and what is the degree of exposure to ionizing radiation in such conditions. It might be better to abandon underground construction before the adverse effects are proved. Previous mistakes in building must be overcome and new technologies applied as well as sustainable development in the future. (author)

  10. Control of radioisotopes and radiation sources in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridwan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Radioisotopes and radiation sources are extensively used in Indonesia in medicine, industry, mining, agriculture and research. These materials are controlled by the regulatory authority, according to established legal procedures. The Nuclear Energy Control Board of Indonesia (BAPETEN), which was established in 1998 through the Nuclear Energy Act No. 10/1997, is entrusted with the control of any application of nuclear energy, including the application of radioisotopes and radiation sources, through regulation, licensing and inspection. The control is aimed to assure welfare, security and peace, the safety and health of workers and the public, and environmental protection. The number of licences issued to date is around 2400, consisting of 1600 licences for radioisotopes and radiation sources used in hospitals, 347 in radiography, 256 in industry, 53 in mining, and the rest in many other areas such as research and agriculture. A licence can cover one or more radioisotopes or radiation sources, depending on the location of the user institution. These radioisotopes and radiation sources are Co-60, Cs-137, Ir-192, Ra-226, Am-241, Sr-90, Kr-85, Pm-147, linear accelerator and X-ray, and short half-life radioisotopes such as I-125, I-131 and Tc-99m. There are 10 LINACs, 27 X-ray medicines, 61 radioisotope devices for Co-60 and Cs-137, and 10 mHDR Ir-192 for therapeutic purposes currently used in Indonesia and some Ra-226 in storage. Any activity related to the application of nuclear energy is required to be conducted in a manner which observes safety and security. According to the legal requirements, each user has to employ at least one radiation safety officer. To improve the control of the application of radiation sources and radioactive material in the country, BAPETEN introduced some new approaches to the users, including regular dialogues with radiation safety officers and the management of the users, requalification for radiation protection officers twice in five

  11. Evaluation of integrity of radiation sources of nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torohate, Wiclif Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear equipment meters are mainly used in the industry in quality control and process control. The principle of operation consists in a shielded radioactive source together with a radiation detector such that the radiation interacts with the material to be analyzed before reaching the detector, providing real time data. Can be as their fixed and mobile mobility, the unique properties of ionizing radiation are used in three basic modes, transmission, backscatter or dispersion or induced (reactive). With the advancement and technological modernization in the world, the demand for nuclear gauges becomes increasingly larger. Currently in Brazil there are about 465 process control plants and 21 portable systems and Mozambique about 45 facilities using nuclear gauges. This font registration is done through a process called source inventory that allows also to know the category of the source, the danger or risk to human health that the source offers. The handling of this equipment requires personnel, certified, skilled and well trained in radiation protection area in accordance with the requirements of the various CNEN Rules. Due to the presence of radioactive source and because these devices are used by workers risk because there external radiation. In this context, we made the smear test in two fixed meters from the IRD industry laboratory, which determines the integrity of the source package, mandatory item in periodic integrity testing of the radiation source of this type of device. A set of procedures is made for its implementation as an evaluation of the radiological risk by radiological survey. It was intended to contribute to the learning handling and safe use of these meters. (author)

  12. Production of multimedia textbook: ionizing radiation and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hola, O.; Holy, K.

    2005-01-01

    In our contribution we want to outline our plan of actions to be carried out for the creation of the first multimedia internet textbook in Slovakia in the field of ionizing radiation and radiation protection. In particular we want to describe first steps that have been performed at its realisation. This textbook would be applicable to the full-time study as well as to distance learning at traditional universities and technical universities. It will also be usable for various forms of in-service training by e-learning. Our objective is to create a modem internet textbook in radiation protection, of which production will be co- ordinated with other European Union countries. The output of our project -the multimedia textbook -will be available to all students at our university's servers and other users will have CDs at their disposal. We propose the use of this multimedia didactic means also in various forms of the distance e-learning. The main motivation for the implementation of distance courses is the necessity to update knowledge, skills and qualification in our contemporary rapidly developing world. The distance e-learning form of education can solve also the problem with the acquisition of the professional qualifications for the work with ionizing radiation. This is the reason for usage of the mentioned textbook not only as the fundamental and unified textbook for the students of universities, but also as the study material for the civil servants responsible for radiation protection, for in-service workers and providers of the professional training. (authors)

  13. Dosimetry services for internal and external radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) sets radiation dose limits for the operation of nuclear facilities and the possession of prescribed substances within Canada. To administer these regulations the AECB must be satisfied that the dosimetry services used by a licensee meet adequate standards. Licensees are required to use the Occupational Dosimetry Service operated by the Bureau of Radiation and Medical Devices, Department of National Health and Welfare (BRMD) to determine doses from external sources of radiation, except where a detailed rationale is given for using another service. No national dosimetry service exists for internal sources of radiation. Licensees who operate or use a dosimetry service other than the BRMD must provide the AECB with evidence of the competence of the staff and adequacy of the equipment, techniques and procedures; provide the AECB with evidence that a quality assurance program has been implemented; and send individual dose or exposure data to the National Dose Registry. (L.L.)

  14. Strengthening the security of radiation sources in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emi-Reynolds, G.; Banini, G.K.; Flecther, J.J.; Ennison, I.; Schandorf, C.

    1998-01-01

    Legislative instrument LI 1559 of 1993 established the Radiation Protection Board (RPB) as the National Competent Authority (NCA) on radiation matters in Ghana. The Board advises Government through the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission on matters relating to radiation safety, security of sources, sales, import and export, contamination in food and environment, among others. It has wide ranging regulatory power and works in association with country authorities. The regulations in place for controlling the movement and use of radioactive materials in Ghana are discussed. Accountability for radioactive materials especially for those which were brought in before the establishment of the RPB have been the focus of our discussion. The need to for intensify educational programs for the public on matters relating to effect of radiation on man and environment is recommended. Strengthening of regulatory control of sources and intensifying efforts against smuggling, unauthorised use and systems for notification on radioactive transport accidents are noted. (author)

  15. Radiological Protection Experience with natural sources of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quindos, L. S.; Fernandez, P. L.; Vinuela, J.; Arteche, J.; Sainz, G.; Gomez, J.; Matarranz

    2003-01-01

    During the last twenty five years the research Radon Group of the Medical Physics Unit of the University of Cantabria has been involved in projects concerning the measurement of natural radiation, in special that coming from radon gas. At this moment we have available for this field a lot of information in different formats, as paper, video and CD, interesting not only for public in general but also for professionals interested in the evaluation of doses coming from natural sources of radiation. (Author)

  16. Radiation safety of sealed sources and equipment containing them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The guide gives information and requirements concerning the technical construction, installation, use and licensing of devices containing sealed radioactive sources in order to ensure the operational safety. The requirements are in accordance with the international standards ISO 1677, ISO 2919, ISO 7205 and Nordic Recommendations on radiation protection for radionuclide gauges in permanent installation. The guide explains also the practical measures that must be taken into account when a radiation device is repaired, maintained or removed from the use. (8 refs.)

  17. Measurement and calculation of radiation sources in the primary cooling system of JOYO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Iizawa, K.; Ohtani, N.; Kobayashi, T.; Horie, J.; Handa, H.

    1987-01-01

    Production and transfer of radiation sources in the primary cooling system are important consideration in the LMFBR plant from the viewpoint of radiation protection and shielding design. These items were evaluated with calculations and/or measurements in the Japanese experimental fast reactor JOYO. In this study, calculations were made with the DOT3.5 0 two-dimensional discrete ordinate transport code to determine the neutron flux and production rate distributions of radiation sources in the reactor vessel. Using the DOT results, the behavior in primary coolant sodium of the CP (radioactive corrosion products) which were released from the reactor structural material was also calculationally analyzed with the PSYCHE code developed by PNC. These analytical results were compared with the measured results to get the verification of analysis methods and to estimate the accuracy of calculations

  18. Exposure of the Spanish population to radiation from natural sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Talavera, M.; Suarez, E.; Matarranz, J.L.; Salas, R.; Ramos, L.

    2006-01-01

    We have assessed the exposure of the Spanish population to natural radiation sources. The annual average effective dose is estimated to be 2.38 mSv, taking into account contributions from cosmic radiation (13.8%), terrestrial gamma radiation (39%), radon and thoron inhalation (34%) and ingestion (13.2%). Cosmic radiation doses were calculated from town altitude data. Terrestrial gamma ray exposure outdoors was derived from the M.A.R.N.A. (natural gamma radiation map of Spain). Indoor gamma ray exposure was calculated by multiplying the corresponding outdoor value by a conversion factor, which was obtained by a linear least-squares fit of experimental measurements. Radon doses were estimated from national surveys carried out throughout the country. To assess doses by ingestion of water and foodstuffs we considered the results from a detailed study on consumption habits by age and geographical area in Spain, promoted by C.S.N., and average radioactivity values from UNSCEAR. (authors)

  19. Exposure of the Spanish population to radiation from natural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Talavera, M.; Suarez, E.; Matarranz, J.L.; Salas, R.; Ramos, L. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear. Justo Dorado, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    We have assessed the exposure of the Spanish population to natural radiation sources. The annual average effective dose is estimated to be 2.38 mSv, taking into account contributions from cosmic radiation (13.8%), terrestrial gamma radiation (39%), radon and thoron inhalation (34%) and ingestion (13.2%). Cosmic radiation doses were calculated from town altitude data. Terrestrial gamma ray exposure outdoors was derived from the M.A.R.N.A. (natural gamma radiation map of Spain). Indoor gamma ray exposure was calculated by multiplying the corresponding outdoor value conversion factor, which was obtained by a linear least-squares fit of experimental measurements. Radon doses were estimated from national surveys carried out throughout the country. To assess doses by ingestion of water and foodstuffs we considered the results from a detailed study on consumption habits by age and geographical area in Spain, promoted by C.S.N., and average radioactivity values from UNSCEAR. (authors)

  20. Radiation problems expected for the German spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, K.

    1981-01-01

    The German project for the construction of a Spallation Neutron Source with high proton beam power (5.5 MW) will have to cope with a number of radiation problems. The present report describes these problems and proposes solutions for keeping exposures for the staff and release of activity and radiation into the environment as low as reasonably achievable. It is shown that the strict requirements of the German radiation protection regulations can be met. The main problem will be the exposure of maintenance personnel to remanent gamma radiation, as is the case at existing proton accelerators. Closed ventilation and cooling systems will reduce the release of (mainly short-lived) activity to acceptable levels. Shielding requirements for different sections are discussed, and it is demonstrated by calculations and extrapolations from experiments that fence-post doses well below 150 mrem/y can be obtained at distances of the order of 100 metres from the principal source points. The radiation protection system proposed for the Spallation Neutron Source is discussed, in particular the needs for monitor systems and a central radiation protection data base and alarm system. (orig.)

  1. Dosimetric analysis of radiation sources for use dermatological lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Ariane

    2010-01-01

    Skin lesions undergoing therapy with radiation sources may have different patterns of malignancy. Malignant lesions or cancer most commonly found in radiotherapy services are carcinomas. Radiation therapy in skin lesions is performed with low penetration beams and orthovoltage X-rays, electron beams and radioactive sources ( 192 Ir, 198 Au, e 90 Sr) arranged on a surface mold or in metal applicator. This study aims to analyze the therapeutic radiation dose profile produced by radiation sources used in skin lesions radiotherapy procedures . Experimental measurements for the analysis of dosimetric radiation sources were compared with calculations obtained from a computer system based on the Monte Carlo Method. Computational results had a good agreement with the experimental measurements. Experimental measurements and computational results by the MCNP4C code were both physically consistent as expected. These experimental measurements compared with calculations using the MCNP-4C code have been used to validate the calculations obtained by MCNP code and to provide a reliable medical application for each clinical case. (author)

  2. Computer program for source distribution process in radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kassiri, H.; Abdul Ghani, B.

    2007-08-01

    Computer simulation for dose distribution using Visual Basic has been done according to the arrangement and activities of Co-60 sources. This program provides dose distribution in treated products depending on the product density and desired dose. The program is useful for optimization of sources distribution during loading process. there is good agreement between calculated data for the program and experimental data.(Author)

  3. Personnel selection and training for radiation protection and safe use of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    For proper implementation of the radiation protection programs in the work place, several persons with different qualifications and training are involved. Among these persons are regulatory personnel managers, operators, workers, health professional, health physics technicians, health physicists, qualified experts, and emergency personnel. The current status of education and training of these persons is discussed in order to build competence in radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources

  4. ELBE Center for High-Power Radiation Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dr. Michel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the ELBE Center for High-Power Radiation Sources, the superconducting linear electron accelerator ELBE, serving  two free electron lasers, sources for intense coherent THz radiation, mono-energetic positrons, electrons, γ-rays, a neutron time-of-flight system as well as two synchronized ultra-short pulsed Petawatt laser systems are collocated. The characteristics of these beams make the ELBE center a unique research instrument for a variety of external users in fields ranging from material science over nuclear physics to cancer research, as well as scientists of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR.

  5. New sources of high-power coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprehngl, F.

    1985-01-01

    New sources of high-power coherent radiation in the wavelength range from millimeter to ultraviolet are reviewed. Physical mechanisms underlying concepts of free electrons laser, cyclotron resonance laser and other new radiation sources are described. Free electron lasers and cyclotron resonance lasers are shown to suggest excellent possibilities for solving problems of spectroscopy, plasma heating radar and accelerator technology. Results of experiments with free electron laser in the Compton mode using linear accelerators microtrons and storage rings are given. Trends in further investigations are shown

  6. The Advanced Light Source (ALS) Radiation Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, A.; Oldfather, D.; Lindner, A.

    1993-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a 1.5 GeV synchrotron light source facility consisting of a 120 keV electron gun, 50 MeV linear accelerator, 1.5 Gev booster synchrotron, 200 meter circumference electron storage ring, and many photon beamline transport systems for research. The Radiation Safety System for the ALS has been designed and built with a primary goal of providing protection against inadvertent personnel exposure to gamma and neutron radiation and, secondarily, to enhance the electrical safety of select magnet power supplies

  7. MCNP model for the many KE-Basin radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    This document presents a model for the location and strength of radiation sources in the accessible areas of KE-Basin which agrees well with data taken on a regular grid in September of 1996. This modelling work was requested to support dose rate reduction efforts in KE-Basin. Anticipated fuel removal activities require lower dose rates to minimize annual dose to workers. With this model, the effects of component cleanup or removal can be estimated in advance to evaluate their effectiveness. In addition, the sources contributing most to the radiation fields in a given location can be identified and dealt with

  8. Radiation exposure management over a decade in sealed sources fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougule, Nitin V.; Swaminathan, N.; Singh, P.; Sreenivas, V.; Bairwa, S.M.; Rath, D.P.; Patil, B.N.; Sastry, K.V.S.

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive sealed sources find innumerable applications in medical and industrial applications. 60 Co teletherapy sources are used for the treatment of cancer. In brachytherapy; 137 Cs and 192 Ir are used. Industrial sources using 60 Co, 137 Cs find applications in nucleonic gauges, tracer studies etc. 60 Co and 192 Ir sources are used in radiography also. In addition, 60 Co is widely used in irradiator facilities. Board of Isotopes and Radiation Technology (BRIT) has committed in supply of these sealed sources to various hospitals and industrial institutions in India. Annually, PetaBq (PBq) level of above mentioned isotopes are handled remotely in hot cells, RLG, BARC. This paper brings out a detailed account on the radiological surveillance provided during the fabrication of these sources implementing ALARA. The decrease in collective dose per activity handled is the outcome of improved operation practices which were carried out at various stages of source fabrication. (author)

  9. The international standard for protection from ionizing radiation and safety of radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, T [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1995-06-01

    This document is a review in hebrew of the new 1994 international standard of the IAEA. The new standard title is `Basic safety standards for radiation protection and for the safety of radiation sources`, which were published in the ICRP Pub. 9.

  10. Beam Loss Detection at Radiation Source ELBE

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, P; Schurig, R; Langenhagen, H

    2003-01-01

    The Rossendorf superconducting Electron Linac of high Brilliance and low Emittance (ELBE) delivers an 40 MeV, 1 mA cw-beam for different applications such as bremsstrahlung production, electron channelling, free-electron lasers or secondary particle beam generation. In this energy region in case of collisions of the electron beam with the pipe nearly all beam power will be deposited into the pipe material. Therefore a reliable beam loss monitoring is essential for machine protection at ELBE. Different systems basing on photo multipliers, compton diodes and long ionization chambers were studied. The pros and cons of the different systems will be discussed. Ionization chambers based on air-isolated RF cables installed some cm away parallel to the beam line turned out to be the optimal solution. The beam shut-off threshold was adjusted to 1 μC integral charge loss during a 100 ms time interval. Due to the favourable geometry the monitor sensitivity varies less than ±50% along the beam line (di...

  11. On radiation treatment of pharmaceutical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukov, V.; Mende, V.

    1976-01-01

    The progress made in the GDR over the past decade in the field of radiosterilization of products of the medical industry, has naturally raised the question of radiosterilization in pharmaceutics. However, because of the diversity and complicated nature of pharmaceutical products and, consequently, longer periods of time required for preliminary studies, their radiosterilization has not yet been applied on an industrial scale, in contrast to the situation in the medical industry. The studies carried out so far have been mainly concerned with ascertaining the permissibility and effectiveness of radiosterilization of individual products under particular conditions rather than with laying down a broad theoretical basis. Accordingly, the present paper does not describe results of special studies but presents a brief rewiev of some studies on radiation treatment of pharmaceutical products undertaken in the GDR. (author)

  12. Romanian experience on safety and security of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botgros, Madalina; Coroianu, Anton; Negreanu, Mircea

    2008-01-01

    Romania has established the first administrative structure for controlling the deployment of the nuclear activities in 1961 and the first Romanian nuclear law was published in 1974. In the present, it is in force the Law no. 111, published in 1996 and republished in 2003. Moreover, there are available facilities and services to the persons authorized to manage radioactive sources. The regulation for safety and security of radioactive sources was amended two times in order to implement the international recommendations for setting up the national system for accounting and control of radiation sources and to coordinate the recovery activities. As part of national control programme, the national inventory of sources and devices is updated permanently, when issuing a new authorization, when modifying an existing one, or when renewing an authorization system and records in the database. The government responsibility for the orphan sources is stated in the law on radioactive waste management and decommissioning fund. There is a protocol between CNCAN, Ministry of Internal and Ministry of Health and Family regarding the co-operation in the case of finding orphan sources. When a radiation source is spent, it becomes radioactive waste that has to be disposed off properly. Depending on the case, the holder of a spent source has the possibility either to return the radioactive source to its manufacturer for regeneration or to transfer it to the Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility. (author)

  13. The German radiation protection infrastructure with emphasis on the safety of radiation sources and radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarwinski, R.; Weimer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Through federalism, Germany has a complicated but well functioning regulatory infrastructure for the safety and security of radiation sources based on a clear legal system. The main features of this infrastructure include the legal framework, the authorization and control systems and the responsibilities of different regulatory authorities, which this paper will describe. In connection with the legal framework, the provisions to control the import/export of radiation sources are briefly discussed and some information is given about the registries of sources. Protection and response measures related to unusual events concerning radiation sources, including orphan sources, will be cited. Also, the education and training of different target groups and punitive actions are touched upon in the paper. Conclusions will be drawn for future national and international actions. (author)

  14. Potential sources for the radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sande, W.E.; Libby, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The present, near-term, and potential (through year 2000) supply of radiation sources for large-scale radiosterilization applications is discussed. Principal sources considered are 60 Co produced in nuclear power reactors, 137 Cs presently available from ERDA encapsulation operations, and a mixture of 134 Cs- 137 Cs potentially available from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Some consideration is also given to electron accelerators

  15. Impurity radiation from a beam-plasma neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    Impurity radiation, in a worst case evaluation for a beam-plasma neutron source (BPNS), does not limit performance. Impurities originate from four sources: (a) sputtering from walls by charge exchange or alpha particle bombardment, (b) sputtering from limiters, (c) plasma desorption of gas from walls and (d) injection with neutral beams. Sources (c) and (d) are negligible; adsorbed gas on the walls of the confinement chamber and the neutral beam sources is removed by the steady state discharge. Source (b) is negligible for impinging ion energies below the sputtering threshold (T i ≤ 0.025 keV on tungsten) and for power densities to the limiter within the capabilities of water cooling (30-40 MW/m 2 ); both conditions can be satisfied in the BPNS. Source (a) radiates 0.025 MW/m 2 to the neutron irradiation samples, compared with 5 to 10 MW/m 2 of neutrons; and radiates a total of 0.08 MW from the plasma column, compared with 60 MW of injected power. The particle bombardment that yields source (a) deposits an average of 2.7 MW/m 2 on the samples, within the capabilities of helium gas cooling (10 MW/m 2 ). An additional worst case for source (d) is evaluated for present day 2 to 5 s pulsed neutral beams with 0.1% impurity density and is benchmarked against 2XIIB. The total radiation would increase a factor of 1.5 to ≤ 0.12 MW, supporting the conclusion that impurities will not have a significant impact on a BPN. (author). 61 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Management of Spent and Disused Radiation Sources - The Zambian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabala, F.

    2002-01-01

    Zambia like all other countries in the world is faced with environmental problems brought about by a variety of human activities. In Zambia the major environmental issues as identified by Nation Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) of 1994 are water pollution, poor sanitation, land degradation, air pollution, poor waste management, misuse of chemicals, wildlife depletion and deforestation. Zambian has been using a lot of radioactive materials in its various industries. The country has taken several projects with help of external partners. These partners however left these projects in the hands of the Zambians without developing their capacities to manage these radioactive sources. The Government recognized the need to manage these sources and passed legislation governing the management of radioactive materials. The first act of Parliament on Radiation Protection work was passed in 1975 to legislate the use of ionizing radiation. However, because of financial constraints the Country is facing, these regulations have remained unimplemented. Fortunately the international Community has been working in partnership with the Zambian Government in the Management of Radioactive Material. Therefore this paper will present the following aspects of radioactive waste management in Zambia: review Existing Legislation in Zambia regarding management of spent/radioactive sources; capacity building in the field of management of radioactive waste; management of spent and disused radiation sources; existing disposal systems in Zambia regarding spent/orphaned sources; existing stocks of radioactive sources in the Zambian industries

  17. Ultrabroadband terahertz source and beamline based on coherent transition radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Casalbuoni

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Coherent transition radiation (CTR in the THz regime is an important diagnostic tool for analyzing the temporal structure of the ultrashort electron bunches needed in ultraviolet and x-ray free-electron lasers. It is also a powerful source of such radiation, covering an exceptionally broad frequency range from about 200 GHz to 100 THz. At the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH we have installed a beam transport channel for transition radiation (TR with the intention to guide a large fraction of the radiation to a laboratory outside the accelerator tunnel. The radiation is produced on a screen inside the ultrahigh vacuum beam pipe of the linac, coupled out through a diamond window and transported to the laboratory through an evacuated tube equipped with five focusing and four plane mirrors. The design of the beamline has been based on a thorough analysis of the generation of TR on metallic screens of limited size. The optical propagation of the radiation has been computed taking into account the effects of near-field (Fresnel diffraction. The theoretical description of the TR source is presented in the first part of the paper, while the design principles and the technical layout of the beamline are described in the second part. First experimental results demonstrate that the CTR beamline covers the specified frequency range and preserves the narrow time structure of CTR pulses emitted by short electron bunches.

  18. Mapping of auroral kilometric radiation sources to the aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, R.L.; Calvert, W.; Craven, J.D.; Frank, L.A.; Gurnett, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) and optical auroral emissions are observed simultaneously using plasma wave instrumentation and auroral imaging photometers acrried on the DE 1 spacecraft. The DE 1 plasma wave instrument measures the relative phase of signals from orthogonal electric dipole antennas, and from these measurements, apparent source directions can be determined with a high degree of precision. Wave data are analyzed for several strong AKR events, and source directions are determined for several emission frequencies. By assuming that the AKR originates at cyclotron resonant altitudes, a condidate source field line is identified. When the selected source field line is traced down to auroral altitudes on the concurrent DE 1 auroral image, a striking correspondence between the AKR source field line and localized auroral features is produced. The magnetic mapping study provides strong evidence that AKR sources occur on field lines associated with discrete auroral arcs, and it provides confirmation that AKR is generated near the electron cyclotron frequency

  19. Overview in Argentina on spent/disused radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavalle, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Argentine nuclear activities have begun since about 1950. Since those days the peaceful applications of nuclear energy have been developed and together with then radioactive wastes have taken more and more relevance day by day. To deal with this special subject the Radioactive Waste Management Programme (RWMP) has been established. Spent/disused radiation sources are a very important task to consider in the management of radioactive waste. A great number of sources have been received along these years by the RWMP. Different sources categories handled together with their figures and radionuclide activities will be presented. Also described will be the steps that have to be followed by the users/owners of spent/disused radiation sources to transfer them to the RWMP. Once the sources are in the RWMP custody, they can be stored or they can be conditioned in order to be stored in an interim storage or disposed of. It is shown how the different sources are managed, taking into account the radionuclide's half life, its activity and the available facilities. Besides a record-keeping system for tracking all spent/disused radiation sources has been developed. It consists on a computerized database that contains essential information about the sources as well as the whole radioactive wastes managed by the RWMP. The main objective of the waste management registry-database system is to collect, identify, process and follow the related information about the radioactive wastes among al the management steps. It is also able to calculate the actualized activity inventory for the storage and final disposal facilities. In order to implement this system, it was necessary to write the related technical documentation. These documents established the radioactive waste acceptance requirements, that together with others integrates the Quality Assurance System applied to the radioactive waste management. Regarding the disused sources little could be done. They are stored in an appropriate

  20. International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (hereinafter termed radiation) and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards

  1. International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (hereinafter termed radiation) and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards. Tabs

  2. Sources of ionizing radiation in industry: licensing and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, V.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper are presented several methods, which the Inspection on the Safe Use of Atomic Energy applies for the control on the use of sources of ionizing radiation in industry. It reviews some problems, which we have to solve during our inspections. An analysis and assessment of them is done. The prescribed safety ensuring measures are discussed. (author)

  3. Review of radiation sources, calibration facilities and simulated workplace fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoste, V., E-mail: veronique.lacoste@irsn.f [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, BP3, Bat. 159, F-13115 Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2010-12-15

    A review on radiation sources, calibration facilities and realistic fields is presented and examples are given. The main characteristics of the fields are shortly described together with their domain of applications. New emerging fields are also mentioned and the question of needs for additional calibration fields is raised.

  4. Experience with first aid in radiation sources accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klener, V.

    1979-01-01

    More than 20 years of experience at the Radiation Hygiene Centre of the Prague Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology with prevention of accidents involving sources of radiation and the Centre's participation in providing medical aid in such accidents are described. A list is given of major types of accidents over the past decade. Prevalent were accidents involving sealed gamma sources, resulting in excessive local irradiation with serious skin damage or injury to some of the deeper structures of the hands, requiring plastic operation. Chromosomal picture investigation allows the estimation of the equivalent body dose which only reached higher values in a single case recorded (1.5 Gy = 150 rad). Organisational measures are described for emergencies and the task is shown by radiation hygiene departments attached to regional hygiene stations. The present system is capable of providing adequate, prompt and effective assistance. (author)

  5. Control of radiation sources and general regulations for accidental situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimani, A.

    1998-01-01

    In order to prevent accidents caused by application of radiation sources the Tunisian O.N.P.C. established straightforward strategy made up of 3 phases: prevention, planning and intervention. Civil Protection conducts prevention studies of all radiation sources by examining normal application conditions as well as possible accidental situations. It keeps up with scientific, technical and statistical aspects of radiation risks, elaborates specific plans and programs for intervention operations and cooperates with administrative and security services as well as international organisations. The O.N.P.C. established a model intervention plan based on observation (according to preliminary information), evaluation of the situation (according to the head of operation) intervention (specialized units) and post intervention (testing of personnel)

  6. Standard Syllabus for Postgraduate Educational Courses in Radiation Protection and the Safe use of Radiation Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, C.; Biaggio, A.; Nasazzi, N.

    2004-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published the Standard Syllabus for Post Graduate Educational Courses in Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources in 2002. Along more than two decades, Argentina has obtained valuable experience on building professional knowledge at postgraduate level in Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety. Such experience made advisable to review the IAEA Standard Syllabus and to modify it accordingly. The whole content of the Standard Syllabus is included in the syllabus developed for the Argentinean Regional Post Graduate Course in Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources. But a few additional topics were incorporated and changes were introduced in the sequence of subjects. The paper describes those modifications and explains the pedagogic motivations that induce them. (Author) 3 refs

  7. Novel particle and radiation sources and advanced materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mako, Frederick [FM Technologies, Inc. and Electron Technologies, Inc. (United States)

    2016-03-25

    The influence Norman Rostoker had on the lives of those who had the pleasure of knowing him is profound. The skills and knowledge I gained as a graduate student researching collective ion acceleration has fueled a career that has evolved from particle beam physics to include particle and radiation source development and advanced materials research, among many other exciting projects. The graduate research performed on collective ion acceleration was extended by others to form the backbone for laser driven plasma ion acceleration. Several years after graduate school I formed FM Technologies, Inc., (FMT), and later Electron Technologies, Inc. (ETI). Currently, as the founder and president of both FMT and ETI, the Rostoker influence can still be felt. One technology that we developed is a self-bunching RF fed electron gun, called the Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). The MPG has important applications for RF accelerators and microwave tube technology, specifically clinically improved medical linacs and “green” klystrons. In addition to electron beam and RF source research, knowledge of materials and material interactions gained indirectly in graduate school has blossomed into breakthroughs in materials joining technologies. Most recently, silicon carbide joining technology has been developed that gives robust helium leak tight, high temperature and high strength joints between ceramic-to-ceramic and ceramic-to-metal. This joining technology has the potential to revolutionize the ethylene production, nuclear fuel and solar receiver industries by finally allowing for the practical use of silicon carbide as furnace coils, fuel rods and solar receptors, respectively, which are applications that have been needed for decades.

  8. Novel particle and radiation sources and advanced materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mako, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    The influence Norman Rostoker had on the lives of those who had the pleasure of knowing him is profound. The skills and knowledge I gained as a graduate student researching collective ion acceleration has fueled a career that has evolved from particle beam physics to include particle and radiation source development and advanced materials research, among many other exciting projects. The graduate research performed on collective ion acceleration was extended by others to form the backbone for laser driven plasma ion acceleration. Several years after graduate school I formed FM Technologies, Inc., (FMT), and later Electron Technologies, Inc. (ETI). Currently, as the founder and president of both FMT and ETI, the Rostoker influence can still be felt. One technology that we developed is a self-bunching RF fed electron gun, called the Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). The MPG has important applications for RF accelerators and microwave tube technology, specifically clinically improved medical linacs and “green” klystrons. In addition to electron beam and RF source research, knowledge of materials and material interactions gained indirectly in graduate school has blossomed into breakthroughs in materials joining technologies. Most recently, silicon carbide joining technology has been developed that gives robust helium leak tight, high temperature and high strength joints between ceramic-to-ceramic and ceramic-to-metal. This joining technology has the potential to revolutionize the ethylene production, nuclear fuel and solar receiver industries by finally allowing for the practical use of silicon carbide as furnace coils, fuel rods and solar receptors, respectively, which are applications that have been needed for decades.

  9. Novel particle and radiation sources and advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mako, Frederick

    2016-03-01

    The influence Norman Rostoker had on the lives of those who had the pleasure of knowing him is profound. The skills and knowledge I gained as a graduate student researching collective ion acceleration has fueled a career that has evolved from particle beam physics to include particle and radiation source development and advanced materials research, among many other exciting projects. The graduate research performed on collective ion acceleration was extended by others to form the backbone for laser driven plasma ion acceleration. Several years after graduate school I formed FM Technologies, Inc., (FMT), and later Electron Technologies, Inc. (ETI). Currently, as the founder and president of both FMT and ETI, the Rostoker influence can still be felt. One technology that we developed is a self-bunching RF fed electron gun, called the Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). The MPG has important applications for RF accelerators and microwave tube technology, specifically clinically improved medical linacs and "green" klystrons. In addition to electron beam and RF source research, knowledge of materials and material interactions gained indirectly in graduate school has blossomed into breakthroughs in materials joining technologies. Most recently, silicon carbide joining technology has been developed that gives robust helium leak tight, high temperature and high strength joints between ceramic-to-ceramic and ceramic-to-metal. This joining technology has the potential to revolutionize the ethylene production, nuclear fuel and solar receiver industries by finally allowing for the practical use of silicon carbide as furnace coils, fuel rods and solar receptors, respectively, which are applications that have been needed for decades.

  10. Doses arising from natural radiation sources in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso Man-yin, W.

    1993-01-01

    The first reactor of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant, located 30 km from Hong Kong, should become operational at the end of 1993. People in Hong Kong are more concerned with their exposures to radiation, both man-made and natural. The local environmental background radiation baseline values should be established well before 1993 so that the radiological impact of the power plant on the environment can be assessed. However, there has not been much information on these aspects. In view of the situation, the Radioisotope Unit of the University of Hong Kong has launched a series of studies with the general goal of gaining a better understanding of Hong Kong's natural background radiation and a more accurate estimate of the natural radiation exposure of the local people. The scope of the measurement programmes is described and the doses from the various sources are derived. (1 tab.)

  11. Earth as a radio source: terrestrial kilometric radiation. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurnett, D.A.

    1974-02-01

    Radio wave experiments on the IMP-6 and 8 satellites have shown that the earth emits very intense electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range from about 50 kHz to 500 kHz. A peak intensity the total power emitted in this frequency range is about 1 billion watts. The earth is, therefore, a very intense planetary radio source, with a total power output comparable to the decametric radio emission from Jupiter. This radio emission from the earth is referred to as terrestrial kilometric radiation. Terrestrial kilometric radiation appears to originate from low altitudes (less than 3.0 Re) in the auroral region. Possible mechanisms which can explain the generation and propagation of the terrestrial kilometric radiation are discussed. (U.S.)

  12. The handling with orphan sources of ionizing radiation in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovskij, A.I.; Beresneva, V.A.; Pribylev, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    In Belarus, the emergency response actions, when detecting orphan sources, provide specific organs of government within their competence. Overall coordination and work on the collection, processing, exchange, accounting and transfer in the established order information about the sources of ionizing radiation interacting organs and relevant international organizations assigned to the Emergency Situations Ministry. Created in Belarus response system in case of detection of orphan sources can provide the level of emergency preparedness and response, and generally satisfy international best practice in this area. (authors)

  13. Small compact pulsed electron source for radiation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, Sergey

    2002-01-01

    The small compact pulsed electron source for radiation technologies is considered in the report. The electron source consists of pulsed high voltage Marx generator and vacuum diode with explosive emission cathode. The main parameters of electron source are next: kinetic energy is 100-150 keV, beam current is 5-200 A and pulse duration is 100-400 nsec. The distribution of absorbed doses in irradiated materials is considered. The physical feasibility of pulsed low energy electron beam for applications is considered

  14. Ionizing radiation for sterilization of medical products and biological tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S K; Raghevendrarao, M K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Library and Technical Information Section

    1975-10-01

    The article reviews the deliberations of the International Symposium on Ionizing Radiation for Sterilization of Medical Products and Biological Tissues which was held during 9-13 December 1974 under the auspices of the IAEA at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay. 42 papers were presented in the following broad subject areas: (1) Microbiological Control aspects of radiation sterilization, (2) Dosimetry aspects of radiation sterilization practices, (3) Effects of sterilizing radiation dose on the constituents of medical products, (4) Application of radiation sterilization of medical products of biological origin, (5) Technological aspects of radiation sterilization facilities, (6) Radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical substances, (7) Reports on current status of radiation sterilization of medical products in IAEA member states and (8) Working group discussion on the revision of the IAEA recommended code of practice for radiation sterilization of medical products.

  15. Emissions and doses from sources of ionising radiation in the Netherlands: radiation policy monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleveld, H.; Pruppers, M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1997 the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment requested RIVM to develop an information system for policy monitoring. One of the motives was that the European Union requires that the competent authorities of each member state ensure that dose estimates due to practices involving exposure to ionising radiation are made as realistic as possible for the population as a whole and for reference groups in all places where such groups may occur. Emissions of radionuclides and radiation to the environment can be classified as follows: (1) emissions to the atmosphere, (2) emissions to the aquatic system and (3) emission of external radiation from radioactive materials and equipment that produces ionising radiation. Released radioactivity is dispersed via exposure pathways, such as the atmosphere, deposition on the ground and farmland products, drinking water, fish products, etc. This leads to radiation doses due to inhalation, ingestion and exposure to external radiation. To assess the possible radiation doses different kinds of models are applied, varying from simple multiplications with dispersion coefficients, transfer coefficients and dose conversion coefficients to complex dispersion models. In this paper an overview is given of the human-induced radiation doses in the Netherlands. Also, trends in and the effect of policy on the radiation dose of members of the public are investigated. This paper is based on an RIVM report published recently. A geographical distribution of radiation risks due to routine releases for a typical year in the Netherlands was published earlier

  16. Spotting Radioactive Sources Buried Underground Using an Airborne Radiation Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinfeld, M.; Wengrowicz, U.; Beck, A.; Marcus, E.; Tirosh, D.

    2002-01-01

    This article provides theoretical background concerning the capability of the Airborne Radiation Monitoring System [1]to detect fission products buried at 1-meter depth under the ground surface,at a flight altitude of 100 meters above ground.The 137 Cs source was used as a typical fission product. The System monitors radioactive contamination in the air or on the ground using two 2 inch NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors and computerized accessories for analysis purposes

  17. Lecture notes on the safety aspects in the industrial applications of radiation sources - Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report comprises the notes of the lectures delivered on the safety aspects in industrial applications of radiation sources. The notes are presented in 9 chapters. Basic mathematics relevant to the topic and basic concepts of nuclear physics are introduced in chapters I and II respectively. Various aspects of interaction of radiation with matter and living cells are discussed in chapters III and IV respectively. The biological effects of ionizing radiations are described in chapter V. Various commonly used units of measurement of radiation and radioactivity are defined and explained and measuring methods of radiation exposure are described in chapter VI. Chapter VII deals with the maximum permissible levels of radiation, both internal and external, for occupational workers as well as population. The same chapter also deals with ICRP recommendations in this connection. Commonly used radiation detectors and instruments with associated electronics are described in chapter VIII. Production of radioisotopes, radiation sources and labelled compounds is described in chapter IX. A table of useful radioisotopes is appended to this chapter. A bibliography in which references are arranged chapterwise is also given at the end. (M.G.B.)

  18. CONDOS-II, Radiation Dose from Consumer Product Distribution Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: This code was developed under sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to serve as a tool for assessing radiation doses that may be associated with consumer products that contain radionuclides. The code calculates radiation dose equivalents resulting from user-supplied scenarios of exposures to radionuclides contained in or released from sources that contain radionuclides. Dose equivalents may be calculated to total body, skin surface, skeletal bone, testes, ovaries, liver, kidneys, lungs, and maximally exposed segments of the gastrointestinal tract from exposures via (1) direct, external irradiation by photons (including Bremsstrahlung) emitted from the source, (2) external irradiation by photons during immersion in air containing photon-emitting radionuclides that have escaped from the source, (3) internal exposures by all radiations emitted by inhaled radionuclides that have escaped from the source, and (4) internal exposures by all radiations emitted by ingested radionuclides that have escaped from the source. 2 - Method of solution: Organ dose equivalents are approximated in two ways, depending on the exposure type. For external exposures, energy specific organ-to-skin-surface dose conversion ratios are used to approximate dose equivalents to specific organs from doses calculated to a point on the skin surface. The organ-to-skin ratios are incorporated in organ- and nuclide-specific dose rate factors, which are used to approximate doses during immersion in contaminated air. For internal exposures, 50 year dose equivalents are calculated using organ- and nuclide-specific, 50 year dose conversion factors. Doses from direct, external exposures are calculated using the energy-specific dose conversion ratios, user supplied exposure conditions, and photon flux approximations for eleven source geometries. Available source geometries include: point, shielded and unshielded; line, shielded and unshielded; disk, shielded

  19. Nuisance Source Population Modeling for Radiation Detection System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokkappa, P; Lange, D; Nelson, K; Wheeler, R

    2009-10-05

    A major challenge facing the prospective deployment of radiation detection systems for homeland security applications is the discrimination of radiological or nuclear 'threat sources' from radioactive, but benign, 'nuisance sources'. Common examples of such nuisance sources include naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), medical patients who have received radioactive drugs for either diagnostics or treatment, and industrial sources. A sensitive detector that cannot distinguish between 'threat' and 'benign' classes will generate false positives which, if sufficiently frequent, will preclude it from being operationally deployed. In this report, we describe a first-principles physics-based modeling approach that is used to approximate the physical properties and corresponding gamma ray spectral signatures of real nuisance sources. Specific models are proposed for the three nuisance source classes - NORM, medical and industrial. The models can be validated against measured data - that is, energy spectra generated with the model can be compared to actual nuisance source data. We show by example how this is done for NORM and medical sources, using data sets obtained from spectroscopic detector deployments for cargo container screening and urban area traffic screening, respectively. In addition to capturing the range of radioactive signatures of individual nuisance sources, a nuisance source population model must generate sources with a frequency of occurrence consistent with that found in actual movement of goods and people. Measured radiation detection data can indicate these frequencies, but, at present, such data are available only for a very limited set of locations and time periods. In this report, we make more general estimates of frequencies for NORM and medical sources using a range of data sources such as shipping manifests and medical treatment statistics. We also identify potential data sources for industrial

  20. Status of radiation sterilization of healthcare products in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Nankang; Wang Chunlei; Teng Weifang

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the status of 60 Co radiation facilities both in service and under construction in China and examines the future market for radiation sterilization of healthcare products. Policies for developing the industry of radiation sterilization are also put forward; these include implementation of appropriate quality systems, scale-up and merging of existing radiation facilities, development of electron beam radiation for sterilization purposes and increasing awareness of the technology of radiation sterilization

  1. Training in radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The need for education and training in the various disciplines of radiation protection has long been recognized by the IAEA, the International Labour Organization (ILO), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). This need has been partially met through the many training courses undertaken by these organizations, either individually or in collaboration. The IAEA has assisted developing Member States in the training of specialists in radiation protection and safety through its organized educational and specialized training courses, workshops, seminars, fellowships and scientific visits. Training is an important means of promoting safety culture and enhancing the level of competence of personnel involved in radiation protection activities, and has acquired a place in the IAEA's programme accordingly. For example, the IAEA Post-graduate Educational Course in Radiation Protection and the Safe Use of Radiation Sources is regularly offered in countries around the world, and has been provided in Arabic, English, French, Spanish and Russian. The training provided by the IAEA is primarily aimed at regulators, professionals working in radiation protection and those responsible for the development of training programmes in their own countries. The importance of adequate and appropriate training for all those working with ionizing radiation has been highlighted by the results of the IAEA's investigations of radiological accidents. A significant contributory factor in a number of the accidents has been a lack of adequate training, which gave rise to errors with serious consequences. This report provides assistance in organizing training and complying with the requirements on training of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS). The previous version of this report. Technical Reports

  2. Definition of loss-of-coolant accident radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    Meaningful qualification testing of nuclear reactor components requires a knowledge of the radiation fields expected in a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The overall objective of this program is to define the LOCA source terms and compare these with the output of various simulators employed for radiation qualification testing. The basis for comparison will be the energy deposition in a model reactor component. The results of the calculations are presented and some interpretation of the results given. The energy release rates and spectra were validated by comparison with other calculations using different codes since experimental data appropriate to these calculations do not exist

  3. Area radiation monitor at the intense pulsed-neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichholz, J.J.; Lynch, F.J.; Mundis, R.L.; Howe, M.L.; Dolecek, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent ionization chamber with associated circuitry has been developed for area radiation monitoring in the Intense Pulsed-Neutron Source (IPNS) facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The conventional chamber configuration was modified in order to increase the electric field and effective volume thereby achieving higher sensitivity and linearity. The instrument provides local and remote radiation level indications and a high level alarm. Twenty-four of these instruments were fabricated for use at various locations in the experimental area of the IPNS-1 facility

  4. Programmes and Systems for Source and Environmental Radiation Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The discharge of radionuclides to the atmosphere and aquatic environments is a legitimate practice in the nuclear and other industries, hospitals and research. Where appropriate, monitoring of the discharges and of relevant environmental media is an essential regulatory requirement in order to ensure appropriate radiation protection of the public. Such monitoring provides information on the actual amounts of radioactive material discharged and the radionuclide concentrations in the environment, and is needed to demonstrate compliance with authorized limits, to assess the radiation exposure of members of the public and to provide data to aid in the optimization of radiation protection. Uncontrolled releases of radionuclides to the atmosphere and aquatic environments may occur as a result of a nuclear or radiological accident. Again, monitoring at the source of the release and of the environment is necessary. In this case, monitoring is used both to assess the radiation exposure of members of the public and to determine the actions necessary for public protection, including longer term countermeasures. Source and environmental monitoring associated with the release of radionuclides to the environment is the subject of a number of IAEA Safety Standards, particularly IAEA Safety Standard RS-G-1.8 (Environmental and Source Monitoring for Purposes of Radiation Protection). This publication is intended to complement this Safety Guide and, by so doing, replaces Safety Series No. 41 (Objectives and Design of Environmental Monitoring Programmes for Radioactive Contaminants) and Safety Series No. 46 (Monitoring of Airborne and Liquid Radioactive Releases from Nuclear Facilities to the Environment). Like Safety Standard RS-G-1.8, this Safety Report deals with monitoring at the source and in the environment associated with authorized releases of radionuclides to the environment. It also deals with the general issues of emergency monitoring during and in the aftermath of an

  5. Overview of physical safety of radiation sources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.R.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    The threat of 'radiological terrorism' has been recognized worldwide after the event of September 11, 2001. Radioactive sources can be used for the development of DDR ('dirty bomb') devices. Studies show that the use of a DDR could cause health damage, psychosocial and economic and environmental damage. Brazil follows this worldwide concern, since it has a large medical-industrial park that uses radioactive sources. This paper presents an overview of the physical safety of radioactive sources in Brazil, based on the inventory of radiative facilities, regulatory aspects and international recommendations. For the preparation of the study, the database of radioactive sources of the regulatory body, the current normative status and the international recommendations were used. In Brazil there are approximately 2,500 radiative installations, with about 400 radioactive sources Category 1 and 2, which are the biggest concern in terms of physical safety. The Brazilian licensing standard addresses only some aspects of physical protection, not providing a clear orientation for the elaboration and implementation of physical protection systems, in accordance with international recommendations. For Brazil to be included in the world scenario of physical safety of radioactive sources, it is urgent to elaborate specific legislation with well-defined regulatory criteria. The lack of more detailed requirements makes it difficult to make a more careful regulatory assessment of the physical protection conditions of the facilities, either through the evaluation of plans and other physical protection documents or through regulatory inspections

  6. Correlation of radiation dose and heart rate in dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laspas, Fotios; Tsantioti, Dimitra; Roussakis, Arkadios; Kritikos, Nikolaos; Efthimiadou, Roxani; Kehagias, Dimitrios; Andreou, John

    2011-04-01

    Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) has been widely used since the introduction of 64-slice scanners and dual-source CT technology, but the relatively high radiation dose remains a major concern. To evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure and heart rate (HR), in dual-source CTCA. Data from 218 CTCA examinations, performed with a dual-source 64-slices scanner, were statistically evaluated. Effective radiation dose, expressed in mSv, was calculated as the product of the dose-length product (DLP) times a conversion coefficient for the chest (mSv = DLPx0.017). Heart rate range and mean heart rate, expressed in beats per minute (bpm) of each individual during CTCA, were also provided by the system. Statistical analysis of effective dose and heart rate data was performed by using Pearson correlation coefficient and two-sample t-test. Mean HR and effective dose were found to have a borderline positive relationship. Individuals with a mean HR >65 bpm observed to receive a statistically significant higher effective dose as compared to those with a mean HR ≤65 bpm. Moreover, a strong correlation between effective dose and variability of HR of more than 20 bpm was observed. Dual-source CT scanners are considered to have the capability to provide diagnostic examinations even with high HR and arrhythmias. However, it is desirable to keep the mean heart rate below 65 bpm and heart rate fluctuation less than 20 bpm in order to reduce the radiation exposure.

  7. Radiological protection issues in endovascular use of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    The use of radiation from radioactive materials for cancer treatment is well established. However, examples of uses of radiation therapy for benign conditions have been limited. Placing a radioactive source in the blood vessel so as to irradiate the surrounding inner periphery of the vessel has been attempted in recent years to prevent restenosis after percutaneous coronary and peripheral interventions. This kind of endovascular application provides treatment options that are less invasive for various vascular conditions compared with open surgery. As a part of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) function for providing for application of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) that were jointly sponsored by the IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO, the IAEA planned a coordinated research project (CRP) that was to start in 2002 on radiological protection problems in endovascular use of radiation sources. However, as experts soon realized that the interest in this modality was waning, the CRP was not initiated. Nevertheless, it was felt that it would be appropriate to compile the information available on radiological protection problems observed so far and their possible solutions. This work was seen as part of a broader IAEA programme that covered accident prevention in radiotherapy. Publications on this topic have included, inter alia, Lessons Learned from Accidental Exposures in Radiotherapy (Safety Reports Series No. 17); Accidental Overexposure of Radiotherapy Patients in Bialystok; Investigation of an Accidental Exposure of Radiotherapy Patients in Panama; Accidental Overexposure of Radiotherapy Patients in San Jose, Costa Rica; and Investigation of an Accidental Exposure of Radiotherapy Patients in Poland. Keeping in mind that endovascular applications involve specialists such as cardiologists, angiologists and surgeons, all of whom might not have a

  8. Medical and industrial radiation sources as radiological weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielefeld, T.; Fischer, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    The execution of attacks with radiological weapons are well within the capabilities of both local terrorist groups and transnational terrorist networks. In a research project, plausible attack scenarios have been developed, based on medical and industrial radioactive sources widely used in Germany. Special emphasis was put on how such sources could be obtained applying criminal tactics. To this end, working procedures in hospitals and companies have been analyzed. Furthermore, by means of simulations, the consequences of a terrorist attack using such sources were estimated. None of the scenarios we investigated led to doses at the site of the explosion which might cause acute radiation effects. However, in some scenarios, an attack would result in the necessity of a potentially very costly clean-up of large urban areas. Therefore, improvements in sources security are recommended. (orig.)

  9. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR 2000 report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. Volume I: Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Over the past few years the United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of Atomic Radiation has undertaken a broad review of the sources and effects of ionizing radiation. In the present report, the Committee, drawing on the main conclusions of its scientific assessment summarizes the developments in radiation science in the years leading up to the next millennium. It covers the following: the effects of radiation exposure; levels of radiation exposure; radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; sources of radiation exposure including natural exposures, man-made environmental exposures, medical and occupational exposures; radiation associated cancer. This volume includes five Annexes covering: dose assessment methodologies; exposure from natural sources; exposures to the public from man-made sources of radiation and occupational radiation exposures

  10. Study of spear as a dedicated source of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerino, J.; Golde, A.; Hastings, J.; Lindau, I.; Salsburg, B.; Winick, H.; Lee, M.; Morton, P.; Garren, A.

    1977-11-01

    A study was made of the potential of SPEAR as a dedicated source of synchrotron radiation, based on the expectation that SPEAR will become increasingly available for this purpose as PEP, the 18-GeV colliding-beam storage ring now under construction by LBL and SLAC, becomes operational. A synchrotron radiation research program has been underway since May, 1974. Two beam ports capable of serving 9 simultaneous users are now operational. In single-beam multi-bunch operation high currents are possible (225 mA has been achieved and > approximately 300 mA is expected) and the electron beam emittance can be made smaller, resulting in higher source point brightness. Descriptions are given of SPEAR capabilities and of plans to expand the research capability by adding beam runs and by inserting wiggler magnets in SPEAR straight sections

  11. Regulatory control of radiation sources in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daroy, Rosita R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the radiation protection and safety infrastructure providing emphasis on the regulation and control of radiation sources in the Philippines. It deals with the experiences of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, as a regulatory body, in the regulation and control of radioactive materials in radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, industrial radiography, industrial gauges, industrial irradiators, and well logging. This paper includes an inventory of the sources and types of devices/equipment used by licensed users of radioactive materials in the Philippines as a contribution to the data base being prepared by the IAEA. The problems encountered by the regulatory body in the licensing and enforcement process, as well as the lessons learned from incidents involving radioactive materials are discussed. Plans for improving compliance to the regulations and enhancing the effectiveness of PNRI's regulatory functions are presented. (author)

  12. System for selection of radiation source transfer trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Yoshinori; Ito, Kojiro.

    1970-01-01

    A device for selection of trucks each of which load and transfer a radiation source to an irradiation room above a water pool is installed at the end of a pair of rails fixed to the bottom of the pool. This device is equipped with a number of laterally shiftable rail pairs which may be brought into successive alignment with the fixed rails and is adapted to receive, carry and fix a truck on each rail pair. If one of said trucks is selected for irradiation in a desired irradiation room, the rail pair carrying this truck is shifted to align and couple with the fixed rail pair whereupon the truck is driven and transferred to a position on the fixed rails below the desired room and elevated thereinto. Accordingly, a plurality of trucks can optionally be shunted on a line of fixed rails without unloading the respective radiation sources. (Ohno, Y.)

  13. Radiation Parameters of High Dose Rate Iridium -192 Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    A lack of physical data for high dose rate (HDR) Ir-192 sources has necessitated the use of basic radiation parameters measured with low dose rate (LDR) Ir-192 seeds and ribbons in HDR dosimetry calculations. A rigorous examination of the radiation parameters of several HDR Ir-192 sources has shown that this extension of physical data from LDR to HDR Ir-192 may be inaccurate. Uncertainty in any of the basic radiation parameters used in dosimetry calculations compromises the accuracy of the calculated dose distribution and the subsequent dose delivery. Dose errors of up to 0.3%, 6%, and 2% can result from the use of currently accepted values for the half-life, exposure rate constant, and dose buildup effect, respectively. Since an accuracy of 5% in the delivered dose is essential to prevent severe complications or tumor regrowth, the use of basic physical constants with uncertainties approaching 6% is unacceptable. A systematic evaluation of the pertinent radiation parameters contributes to a reduction in the overall uncertainty in HDR Ir-192 dose delivery. Moreover, the results of the studies described in this thesis contribute significantly to the establishment of standardized numerical values to be used in HDR Ir-192 dosimetry calculations.

  14. Sulfate Aerosol in the Arctic: Source Attribution and Radiative Forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Wang, Hailong [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Smith, Steven J. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park MD USA; Easter, Richard C. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Rasch, Philip J. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2018-02-08

    Source attributions of Arctic sulfate and its direct radiative effect for 2010–2014 are quantified in this study using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) equipped with an explicit sulfur source-tagging technique. Regions that have high emissions and/or are near/within the Arctic present relatively large contributions to Arctic sulfate burden, with the largest contribution from sources in East Asia (27%). East Asia and South Asia together have the largest contributions to Arctic sulfate concentrations at 9–12 km, whereas sources within or near the Arctic account largely below 2 km. For remote sources with strong emissions, their contributions to Arctic sulfate burden are primarily driven by meteorology, while contributions of sources within or near the Arctic are dominated by their emission strength. The sulfate direct radiative effect (DRE) is –0.080 W m-2 at the Arctic surface, offsetting the net warming effect from the combination of in-snow heating and DRE cooling from black carbon. East Asia, Arctic local and Russia/Belarus/Ukraine sources contribute –0.017, –0.016 and –0.014 W m-2, respectively, to Arctic sulfate DRE. A 20% reduction in anthropogenic SO2 emissions leads to a net increase of +0.013 W m-2 forcing at the Arctic surface. These results indicate that a joint reduction in BC emissions could prevent possible Arctic warming from future reductions in SO2 emissions. Sulfate DRE efficiency calculations suggest that short transport pathways together with meteorology favoring long sulfate lifetimes make certain sources more efficient in influencing the Arctic sulfate DRE.

  15. Starting material radiation source for Moessbauer investigations of tellurium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, A.J.; Grushko, J.S.; Makarov, E.F.; Mishin, K.Y.; Baltrunas, D.A.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described of preparing a radiation source for Mossbauer investigations of tellurium compounds manufactured on the basis of 5 MgO . Te 124 O 3 . 5 MgO . Te 124 O 3 is irradiated in a reactor by means of thermal neutrons, followed by annealing at a temperature ranging from 600 0 to 1,100 0 C for a period of from 5 to 10 hours

  16. Experiments planned to be made with the synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matz, W.

    1993-01-01

    For this working meeting, various research groups from the Land Sachsen and from the neighbouring countries Poland and the Czech Republic have been invited in order to present their materials research programmes or task-specific experiments intended to be carried out with the synchrotron radiation source to be installed in the near future. The proceedings volume in hand presents the discussion papers, which have been directly reproduced from the original foils. (orig.) [de

  17. Limitation of population's irradiation by natural sources of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisyuk, Eh.M.

    1989-01-01

    Review of works devoted to evaluating the human irradiation doses at the expense of the main sources of ionizing radiation, is given. It is shown that the human irradiation doses at the expense of DDP can be reduced 10 times and more. However to realize such measures it is necessary to study the efficiency and determine the cost of various protective activities as well as to develop the criteria of their realization necessity

  18. Postgraduate educational course in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. Standard syllabus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the Postgraduate Educational Course in Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources is to meet the needs of professionals at graduate level, or the equivalent, for initial training to acquire a sound basis in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. The course also aims to provide the necessary basic tools for those who will become trainers in radiation protection and in the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. It is designed to provide both theoretical and practical training in the multidisciplinary scientific and/or technical bases of international recommendations and standards on radiation protection and their implementation. The participants should have had a formal education to a level equivalent to a university degree in the physical, chemical or life sciences or engineering and should have been selected to work in the field of radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. The present revision of the Standard Syllabus takes into account the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), IAEA Safety Series No. 115 (1996) and recommendations of related Safety Guides, as well as experience gained from the Postgraduate Educational Course on Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources held in several regions in recent years. The general aim of the course, as mentioned, is the same. Some of the improvements in the present version are as follows: The learning objective of each part is specified. The prerequisites for each part are specified. The structure of the syllabus has been changed: the parts on Principles of Radiation Protection and on Regulatory Control were moved ahead of Dose Assessment and after Biological Effects of Radiation. The part on the interface with nuclear safety was dropped and a module on radiation protection in nuclear power plants has been included. A

  19. Postgraduate educational course in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. Standard syllabus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Postgraduate Educational Course in Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources is to meet the needs of professionals at graduate level, or the equivalent, for initial training to acquire a sound basis in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. The course also aims to provide the necessary basic tools for those who will become trainers in radiation protection and in the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. It is designed to provide both theoretical and practical training in the multidisciplinary scientific and/or technical bases of international recommendations and standards on radiation protection and their implementation. The participants should have had a formal education to a level equivalent to a university degree in the physical, chemical or life sciences or engineering and should have been selected to work in the field of radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. The present revision of the Standard Syllabus takes into account the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), IAEA Safety Series No. 115 (1996) and recommendations of related Safety Guides, as well as experience gained from the Postgraduate Educational Course on Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources held in several regions in recent years. The general aim of the course, as mentioned, is the same. Some of the improvements in the present version are as follows: The learning objective of each part is specified. The prerequisites for each part are specified. The structure of the syllabus has been changed: the parts on Principles of Radiation Protection and on Regulatory Control were moved ahead of Dose Assessment and after Biological Effects of Radiation. The part on the interface with nuclear safety was dropped and a module on radiation protection in nuclear power plants has been included. A

  20. Ionizing radiation for insect control in grain and grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, E.W.; Brower, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A technical review summarizes and discusses information on various aspects of the use of ionizing radiation for the control of insect infestation in grains and grain products. Topics include: the effects of ionizing radiation on insects infesting stored-grain products; the 2 main types of irradiators (electron accelerators; radioisotopes (e.g.: Co-60; Cs-137); dosimetry systems and methodology; variations in radiation resistance by stored-product pests; the proper selection of radiation dose; the effects of combining various treatments (temperature, infrared/microwave radiation, hypoxia, chemicals) with ionizing radiation; sublethal radiation for controlling bulk grain insects; the feeding capacity of irradiated insects; the susceptibility of insecticide-resistant insects to ionizing radiation; and the possible resistance of insects to ionizing radiation. Practical aspects of removing insects from irradiated grain also are discussed

  1. Regulatory control of radiation sources in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daroy, Rosita R

    1996-12-31

    This paper is concerned with the radiation protection and safety infrastructure providing emphasis on the regulation and control of radiation sources in the Philippines. It deals with the experiences of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, as a regulatory body, in the regulation and control of radioactive materials in radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, industrial radiography, industrial gauges, industrial irradiators, and well logging. This paper includes an inventory of the sources and types of devices/equipment used by licensed users of radioactive materials in the Philippines as a contribution to the data base being prepared by the IAEA. The problems encountered by the regulatory body in the licensing and enforcement process, as well as the lessons learned from incidents involving radioactive materials are discussed. Plans for improving compliance to the regulations and enhancing the effectiveness of PNRI`s regulatory functions are presented. (author). Paper presented during the IAEA Regional (RCA) Workshop on System of Notification, Registration, Licensing, and Control of Radiation Sources and Installations, Jakarta, Indonesia, 24-28 April 1995. 6 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Technological challenges of third generation synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornacchia, M.; Winick, H.

    1990-01-01

    New ''third generation'' synchrotron radiation research facilities are now in construction in France, Italy, Japan, Taiwan and the USA. Designs for such facilities are being developed in several other countries. Third generation facilities are based on storage rings with low electron beam emittance and space for many undulator magnets to produce radiation with extremely high brightness and coherent power. Photon beam from these rings will greatly extend present research capabilities and open up new opportunities in imaging, spectroscopy, structural and dynamic studies and other applications. The technological problems of the third generation of synchrotron radiation facilities are reviewed. These machines are designed to emit radiation of very high intensity, extreme brightness, very short pulses, and partial coherence. These performance goals put severe requirements on the quality of the electron or positron beams. Phenomena affecting the injection process and the beam lifetime are discussed. Gas desorption by synchrotron radiation and collective effects play an important role. Low emittance lattices are more sensitive to quadrupole movements and at the same time, in order not to lose the benefits of high brilliance, require tighter tolerances on the allowed movement of the photon beam source. We discuss some of the ways that should be considered to extend the performance capabilities of the facilities in the future. 14 refs., 1 fig

  3. UV radiation and primary production in the Antarctic waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Krishnakumari, L.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; Chandramohan, D.

    at 683 nm), scalar irradiance (photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), computed primary production (pp), diffuse attenuation coefficient, and UVB (308 and 320 nm) and UVA (340 and 380 nm) radiation and ocean temperature all measured as a function...

  4. Preliminar plan of a machine for the synchrotron radiation production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscati, G.; Takahashi, J.; Miyao, Y.

    1985-01-01

    A preliminar plan, with all the technical specifications, for the construction of a machine for the synchrotron radiation production to be done by the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory in Brazil is presented. (L.C.) [pt

  5. Risks and hazards from conventional and radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, P.S.; Ganguly, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    Beneficial uses of radioisotopes in medicine, industry, agriculture and research are discussed. In absence of adequate safety precautions, uses of radiation may also result in harmful biological effects or genetic effects. Radiation risks and hazards are evaluated by comparing with other risks and hazards which are routinely encountered. The risk of fatality per year by various causes in U.S.A. is given. It is stated with examples and observations that some of the routine habits and necessities and minor luxuries are more risky than radiation risks. Countrywide radiation safety program in India by the Department of Atomic Energy is described in brief. Data are given to show that the risks from radiation are much lower in comparison with many conventional sources. More efficient equipment such as image intensifier is recommended to help to reduce the patient dose. It is stated that caution has to be exercised while handling the X-ray machines which may be harmful not only to patients but to doctors also. As regards, nuclear medicine, it is mentioned that though it is a fast expanding speciality in India, the number of procedures carried out in various centres is small as compared to U.S.A. and France. Some instances are given to show the consequences of the ignorance of the radiation hazards in operating machines in X-ray and gamma ray beam therapy facilities. A survey made by DRP, BARC revealed that some research laboratories lacked basic radiation protection requirements in using X-ray crystallography or analytical equipment. (B.G.W.)

  6. Radiation field calculation in the vicinity of Russian radioisotope generator sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretzsch, Gunter; Hummelsheim, Klemens; Bogorinski, Peter [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Kurfuerstendamm 200, 10719 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Germany supports the Russian Federation in the framework of the G8 Global Partnership programme to secure nuclear and radioactive materials against misuse and proliferation. In this context, GRS, on behalf of the German Foreign Office, is coordinating activities to remove disused radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RITEG) from the Baltic Sea which serve as power supply for marine lighthouses and their replacement by alternative energy sources. Further the planned project includes transportation to an interim storage, the storage equipped with radiation monitoring and physical protection measures, later transportation for reprocessing to the Mayak Production Association, where the RITEG will be dismantled in a hot cell and encapsulated radioactive source will be vitrified and stored as radioactive waste. For the whole project safety analyses are to be performed e.g. to meet radiation protection requirements. In the present paper modelling and calculation of radiation fields in the vicinity of RITEG as a basis for safety analyses is reported. (authors)

  7. The feasibility of 10 keV X-ray as radiation source in total dose response radiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ruoyu; Li Bin; Luo Hongwei; Shi Qian

    2005-01-01

    The standard radiation source utilized in traditional total dose response radiation test is 60 Co, which is environment-threatening. X-rays, as a new radiation source, has the advantages such as safety, precise control of dose rate, strong intensity, possibility of wafer-level test or even on-line test, which greatly reduce cost for package, test and transportation. This paper discussed the feasibility of X-rays replacing 60 Co as the radiation source, based on the radiation mechanism and the effects of radiation on gate oxide. (authors)

  8. Regulatory control of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.T.; Fenton, D.; O'Flaherty, T.

    2001-01-01

    The primary legislation governing safety in uses of ionizing radiation in Ireland is the Radiological Protection Act, 1991. This Act provided for the establishment in 1992 of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, and gives the Institute the functions and powers which enable it to be the regulatory body for all matters relating to ionizing radiation. A Ministerial Order made under the Act in 2000 consolidates previous regulations and, in particular, provides for the implementation in Irish law of the 1996 European Union Directive which lays down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation. Under the legislation, the custody, use and a number of other activities involving radioactive substances and irradiating apparatus require a licence issued by the Institute. Currently some 1260 licences are in force. Of these, some 850 are in respect of irradiating apparatus only and are issued principally to dentists and veterinary surgeons. The remaining licences involve sealed radiation sources and/or unsealed radioactive substances used in medicine, industry or education. A schedule attached to each licence fully lists the sealed sources to which the licence applies, and also the quantities of radioactive substances which may be acquired or held under the licence. It is an offence to dispose of, or otherwise relinquish possession of, any licensable material other than in accordance with terms and conditions of the licence. Disused sources are returned to the original supplier or, where this is not possible, stored under licence by the licensee who used them. Enforcement of the licensing provisions relies primarily on the programme of inspection of licensees, carried out by the Institute's inspectors. The Institute's Regulatory Service has a complement of four inspectors, one of whom is the Manager of the Service. The Manager reports to one of the Institute's Principal

  9. Locating gamma radiation source by self collimating BGO detector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orion, I; Pernick, A; Ilzycer, D; Zafrir, H [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center; Shani, G [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel)

    1996-12-01

    The need for airborne collimated gamma detector system to estimate the radiation released from a nuclear accident has been established. A BGO detector system has been developed as an array of separate seven cylindrical Bismuth Germanate scintillators, one central detector symmetrically surrounded by six detectors. In such an arrangement, each of the detectors reduced the exposure of other detectors in the array to a radiation incident from a possible specific spatial angle, around file array. This shielding property defined as `self-collimation`, differs the point source response function for each of the detectors. The BGO detector system has a high density and atomic number, and therefore provides efficient self-collimation. Using the response functions of the separate detectors enables locating point sources as well as the direction of a nuclear radioactive plume with satisfactory angular resolution, of about 10 degrees. The detector`s point source response, as function of the source direction, in a horizontal plane, has been predicted by analytical calculation, and was verified by Monte-Carlo simulation using the code EGS4. The detector`s response was tested in a laboratory-scale experiment for several gamma ray energies, and the experimental results validated the theoretical (analytical and Monte-Carlo) results. (authors).

  10. Repeated radiation injuries by fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilenko, I.Ya.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to repeated radiation injuries during internal irradiation of theoretical and practical interest, particularly in case of the intake into organism of young products of nuclear fission (PNF). The results of experiments with dogs with repeated radioactive iodine injury the isotopes of which (131-135sub(I)) constitute a considerable part of PNF activity are discussed. The blood reaction and protein metabolism state have been studied. Observations for dogs have been continued for about 4 years. The doses for thyroid, gastrointestinal tract and liver subjected to the most intensive irradiation consituted in the first series of experiments after the first intake about 3;0.3;0.05 Gy, after the second - 5;0.5;0.08 Gy and in the second series of experiments - 3;0.3;0.05 Gy and 0.6;0.06;0.01 Gy, respectively. Hematologic factors,thyroid function, changes in exchange and immunologic reactivity have been studied. The dogs have been under observation for 5 years. It is shown in case of repeated intake of Isup(131) PNF into animals organism in quantity which does not cause during the acute period a clinically outlined sickness, substantial differences in the organism reaction as compared with the first intake of radionuclides have not been found. The presence of residual radiation injuries did not cause charging action during the acute period during PNF and repeated intake which in the author's opinion testifies to perfection of compensator mechanisms in case of intake of such quantities of radioactive products. At the remote periods blastomogenic action manifested which is estimated as a result of general biological action of radionuclides administered to the organism. The necessity in subsequent investigations for obtaining the data on organism reactivity, clinic and pathogenesis with the aim of prophylaxis and treatment of such injuries is indicated

  11. Fabrication of radiation sources for educational purposes from chemical fertilizers using compressing and forming method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Chemical fertilizers contain potassium, which is composed of a small amount of naturally occurring potassium-40. The potassium-40 radionuclide emits beta and gamma radiation. Three brands of chemical fertilizer were used to fabricate disk-shaped radiation sources and the fabricated radiation sources were examined for applicability to an educational radiation course. In the examination, tests to determine dependence of count rate on distance, shielding thickness, and shielding materials were conducted using the radiation sources. Results showed that radiation sources fabricated from the three brands of chemical fertilizer were equivalent for explaining radiation characteristics, particularly those related to the dependence of radiation strength on distance and shielding thickness. The relation between shielding effect and mass density can be explained qualitatively. Thus, chemical fertilizer radiation sources can be a useful teaching aid for educational courses to better promote understanding of radiation characteristics and the principles of radiation protection. (author)

  12. Influence of ionizing radiation on fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.A.S.

    1998-01-01

    Seafood are important sources of nutrients such as proteins of high biological value as well as other important nutrients for human. Common carp fish have a low commercial value due to the presence of fine spines between muscles in addition to the poor yield of fillets. The aim of this investigation was production of fish burger from the common carp fish and studying the possibility of using gamma irradiation doses of 2,4, and 6 kGy for increasing the shelf-life of cold stored fish burger samples as well as improving the hygienic quality of frozen storage ones in comparison with the addition of potassium sorbate as a preservative

  13. Decontamination method and device for radiation contaminated product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Kenji; Ohinata, Hiroshi; Omata, Kazuo; Sato, Toshihiko; Nakajima, Yoshihiko; Ichikawa, Seigo.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, radiation contaminated products generated during shot peening are decontaminated by a chelating agent, and the chelating agent is removed from the radiation contaminated products. Then the temperature of the radiation contaminated products is elevated by hot blowing at a temperature higher than a boiling point of the solvent. Then, a solvent is added to the radiation contaminated products and the solvent is evaporated abruptly. The solution of the chelating agent remained while being deposited thereto is removed by evaporation to remove it from the radiation contaminated products together with the solvent. With such procedures, all of the decontamination steps can be completed in one device without requiring a large space or not moving the radiation contaminated products on every step. (T.M.)

  14. Potential GTCC LLW sealed radiation source recycle initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.

    1992-04-01

    This report suggests 11 actions that have the potential to facilitate the recycling (reuse or radionuclide) of surplus commercial sealed radiation sources that would otherwise be disposed of as greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste. The suggestions serve as a basis for further investigation and discussion between the Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Agreement States, and the commercial sector. Information is also given that describes sealed sources, how they are used, and problems associated with recycling, including legal concerns. To illustrate the nationwide recycling potential, Appendix A gives the estimated quantity and application information for sealed sources that would qualify for disposal in commercial facilities if not recycle. The report recommends that the Department of Energy initiate the organization of a forum to explore the suggested actions and other recycling possibilities

  15. Characterization of the radiation background at the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiJulio, Douglas D.; Cherkashyna, Nataliia; Scherzinger, Julius; Khaplanov, Anton; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Fissum, Kevin G.; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Kirstein, Oliver; Hall-Wilton, Richard J.; Bentley, Phillip M.; Ehlers, Georg; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Hornbach, Donald E.; Iverson, Erik B.; Newby, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a survey of the radiation background at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN, USA during routine daily operation. A broad range of detectors was used to characterize primarily the neutron and photon fields throughout the facility. These include a WENDI-2 extended range dosimeter, a thermoscientific NRD, an Arktis 4 He detector, and a standard NaI photon detector. The information gathered from the detectors was used to map out the neutron dose rates throughout the facility and also the neutron dose rate and flux profiles of several different beamlines. The survey provides detailed information useful for developing future shielding concepts at spallation neutron sources, such as the European Spallation Source (ESS), currently under construction in Lund, Sweden. (paper)

  16. A general description of the Swedish radiation protection regulations of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staalnacke, C.-G.

    2001-01-01

    The regulation of ionizing radiation in Sweden is based on both the Radiation Protection Act and Ordinance from 1998. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) acts as the regulatory authority for radiation safety and issues detailed regulations in specific areas. The report summarizes how the SSI controls radiation sources, including orphan sources for which a process for analyzing their occurrence has started in Sweden. A number of proposed procedures for the control and follow-up of sealed radioactive sources is provided. (author)

  17. Viking observations at the source region of auroral kilometric radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahnsen, A.; Jespersen, M.; Ungstrup, E.; Pedersen, B.M.; Eliasson, L.; Murphree, J.S.; Elphinstone, R.D.; Blomberg, L.; Holmgren, G.; Zanetti, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    The orbit of the Swedish satellite Viking was optimized for in situ observations of auroral particle acceleration and related phenomena. In a large number of the orbits, auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) was observed, and in approximately 35 orbits the satellite passed through AKR source regions as evidenced by very strong signals at the local electron cyclotron frequency f ce . These sources were found at the poleward edge of the auroral oval at altitudes, from 5,000 to 8,000 km, predominantly in the evening sector. The strong AKR signal has a sharp low-frequency cutoff at or very close to f ce in the source. In addition to AKR, strong broadband electrostatic noise is measured during the source crossings. Energetic (1-15 keV) electrons are always present at and around the AKR sources. Upward directed ion beams of several keV are closely correlated with the source as are strong and variable electric fields, indicating that a region of upward pointing electric field below the observation point is a necessary condition for AKR generation. The plasma density is measured by three independent experiments and it is generally found that the density is low across the whole auroral oval. For some source crossings the three methods agree and show a density depletion (but not always confined to the source region itself), but in many cases the three measurements do not yield consistent results. The magnetic projection of the satellite passes through auroral forms during the source crossings, and the strongest AKR events seem to be connected with kinks in an arc or more complicated structures

  18. An inverse source location algorithm for radiation portal monitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Karen A.; Charlton, William S.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation portal monitors are being deployed at border crossings throughout the world to prevent the smuggling of nuclear and radiological materials; however, a tension exists between security and the free-flow of commerce. Delays at ports-of-entry have major economic implications, so it is imperative to minimize portal monitor screening time. We have developed an algorithm to locate a radioactive source using a distributed array of detectors, specifically for use at border crossings. To locate the source, we formulated an optimization problem where the objective function describes the least-squares difference between the actual and predicted detector measurements. The predicted measurements are calculated by solving the 3-D deterministic neutron transport equation given an estimated source position. The source position is updated using the steepest descent method, where the gradient of the objective function with respect to the source position is calculated using adjoint transport calculations. If the objective function is smaller than the convergence criterion, then the source position has been identified. This paper presents the derivation of the underlying equations in the algorithm as well as several computational test cases used to characterize its accuracy.

  19. Productivity of a nuclear chemical reactor with gamma radioisotopic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguis T, C.

    1975-01-01

    According to an established mathematical model of successive Compton interaction processes the made calculations for major distances are extended checking the acceptability of the spheric geometry model for the experimental data for radioisotopic sources of Co-60 and Cs-137. Parameters such as the increasing factor and the absorbed dose served as comparative base. calculations for the case of a punctual source succession inside a determined volume cylinder are made to obtain the total dose, the deposited energy by each photons energetic group and the total absorbed energy inside the reactor. Varying adequately the height/radius relation for different cylinders, the distinct energy depositions are compared in each one of them once a time standardized toward a standard value of energy emitted by the reactor volume. A relation between the quantity of deposited energy in each point of the reactor and the conversion values of chemical species is established. They are induced by electromagnetic radiation and that are reported as ''G'' in the scientific literature (number of molecules formed or disappeared by each 100 e.v. of energy). Once obtained the molecular performance inside the reactor for each type of geometry, it is optimized the height/radius relation according to the maximum production of molecules by unity of time. It is completed a bibliographical review of ''G'' values reported by different types of aqueous solutions with the purpose to determine the maximum performance of molecular hydrogen as a function of pH of the solution and of the used type of solute among other factors. Calculations for the ethyl bromide production as an example of one of the industrial processes which actually work using the gamma radiation as reactions inductor are realized. (Author)

  20. Risk perception in the process of working with radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, J.C.G.; Levy, D.; Sanches, M.P.; Rodrigues, D.L.; Sordi, G.M.A.A.

    2017-01-01

    This study discusses occupational risk under three distinct aspects, which are often interconnected or interdependent in the work environment. These are: environmental risks, human failures and equipment failures. The article addresses the potential exposure in the workplace, caused by the agent's physical radiation risk, resulting from handling with sources of ionizing radiation. Based on the history of accidents occurring in normal operations, the study summarizes the main accidents in various facilities and possible causes involving the three aspects of risk. In its final considerations, it presents the lessons learned and the measures to be taken with the intention of contributing to the prevention and mitigation of risks in the work environment. The analysis of accident cases and their causes provide valuable information to prevent the risk of similar accidents and contribute to the improvement of operational projects and procedures

  1. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoroki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru

    1999-01-01

    Radiation exposure has been paid attention as an alternative technique of methylbromide to protect agricultural products against insects. However, it has been pointed out that radiation at a dose lower than 300-400 Gy necessary for insecticidal effects might produce damages in fresh agricultural products. To reduce such radiation damages, radiation sensitivities of various fresh products were determined to clarify whether sugar treatment is effective for reduction of damages. Further, the timing of the treatment and its influence on the metabolism of agricultural product were investigated. When sucrose was added to a cut flower of chrysanthemum via water before and during irradiation, the withering time of its leaves and flowers was earlier than that of the untreated product, whereas continuous administration of sucrose after radiation exposure caused to lengthen the flower's life and delay the leave's yellowing. Thus, it was indicated that continuous sugar supply after irradiation was effective for prevention of radiation damages. (M.N.)

  2. National system of notification, authorization and inspection for the control of radiation sources in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schandorf, C.; Darko, E.O.; Yeboah, J.; Asiamah, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Board (RPB) was established in 1993 in Ghana as the regulatory authority for radiation protection and safety of radiation sources; its functions are prescribed in the 1993 national radiation protection regulation. The report describes how the country's radiation protection and safety infrastructure have been established, including the RPB's organizational structure, with reference in particular to the main activities carried out by both the Regulatory Control Department and the Radiation and Waste Safety Department. It also briefly mentions the existing RPB human resources; the national system of notification, authorization and inspection of radiation sources; the inventory of radiation sources; and the management of disused radiation sources. Finally, the report identifies the two main problem areas regarding the regulatory control of radiation sources in the country. (author)

  3. The competent person in radiation protection: practical radiation protection for industry and research - unsealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchet, H.

    2009-01-01

    The mission of the competent person in radiation protection has been broadly developed these last years to take an essential function in firm:study of working place, delimitation of regulated areas, monitoring of exposure, relations with authorities. The competent person in radiation protection must follow a training, defined by decree and shared in two parts: a theoretical part used as compulsory subjects and a practical part specific to the different sectors of activity (research, industry, medical centers, nuclear facilities) as well as the radiation use type. This volume corresponds to the practical module devoted to the industrial and research facilities concerned by the possession of management of sealed or unsealed sources. In accordance with the regulations stipulating that this module must allow to apply the theoretical knowledge to concrete situations in work. It includes eight chapters as following: radiation protection in industrial and research facilities, use of sources and associated risks, fitting out professional premises, evaluation of exposure, control of radiation protection; use of detection equipment and radioactive contamination and exposure measurement equipment, associated to methods and calculation tools; radioactive waste management; accidental or damaged situations management; methodology of working place analysis completed by the application to practical cases found in laboratories. (N.C.)

  4. Measurement of radiation skyshine with D-T neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, S.; Nishitani, T. E-mail: nisitani@naka.jaeri.go.jp; Ochiai, K.; Kaneko, J.; Hori, J.; Sato, S.; Yamauchi, M.; Tanaka, R.; Nakao, M.; Wada, M.; Wakisaka, M.; Murata, I.; Kutsukake, C.; Tanaka, S.; Sawamura, T.; Takahashi, A

    2003-09-01

    The D-T neutron skyshine experiments have been carried out at the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) of JAERI with the neutron yield of {approx}1.7x10{sup 11} n/s. The concrete thickness of the roof and the wall of a FNS target room are 1.15 and 2 m, respectively. The FNS skyshine port with a size of 0.9x0.9 m{sup 2} was open during the experimental period. The radiation dose rate outside the target room was measured a maximum distance of 550 m from the D-T target point with a spherical rem-counter. Secondary gamma-rays were measured with high purity Ge detectors and NaI scintillation counters. The highest neutron dose was about 9x10{sup -22} Sv/(source neutron) at a distance of 30 m from the D-T target point and the dose rate was attenuated to 4x10{sup -24} Sv/(source neutron) at a distance of 550 m. The measured neutron dose distribution was analyzed with Monte Carlo code MCNP-4B and a simple line source model. The MCNP calculation overestimates the neutron dose in the distance range larger than 230 m. The line source model agrees well with the experimental results within the distance of 350 m.

  5. Radiation method of sulfide compound transformation in petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, N.K.; Zajkina, R.F.; Zajkin, Yu.A.; Mamonova, T.B.; Bakirova, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    Processes of sulphuric compounds transformation for petroleum and heavy residuals under radiation and thermal treatment action are studied. It is shown that sulphuric compounds are concentrated in heavy fractions as a result of radiation processing. Heavy petroleum products irradiation provokes considerable decrease in the content of mercaptans, disulphides and sulphides, which transfer to sulphoxides and sulphones appearing during radiation-induced oxidation process. (author)

  6. Characterization of Greater-Than-Class C sealed sources. Volume 2, Sealed source characterization and future production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G.; Griffel, A.

    1994-09-01

    Sealed sources are small, relatively high-activity radioactive sources typically encapsulated in a metallic container. The activities can range from less than 1 mCi to over 1,000 Ci. They are used in a variety of industries and are commonly available. Many of the sources will be classified as Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) for the purpose of waste disposal. The US Department of Energy is responsible for disposing of this class of low-level radioactive waste. The characterization of a sealed source is essentially a function of the type of radiation it emits, the principal use for which it is applied, and the activity it contains. The types of radiation of most interest to the GTCC LLW Program are gamma rays and neutrons, since these are emitted by the highest activity sources. The principal uses of most importance are gamma irradiators, medical teletherapy, well logging probes, and other general neutron applications. Current annual production rates of potential Greater-Than-Class C (PGTCC) sources sold to specific licensees were estimated based on data collected from device manufacturers. These estimates were then adjusted for current trends in the industry to estimate future annual production rates. It is expected that there will be approximately 8,000 PGTCC sealed sources produced annually for specific licensees

  7. Freeze drying method for preparing radiation source material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, W.C. Jr.; Smith, P.K.

    1975-01-01

    A solution containing radioisotope and palladium values is atomized into an air flow entering a cryogenically cooled chamber where the solution is deposited on the chamber walls as a thin layer of frozen material. The solvent portion of the frozen material is sublimated into a cold trap by elevating the temperature within the chamber while withdrawing solvent vapors. The residual crystals are heated to provide a uniformly mixed powder of palladium metal and a refractory radioisotope compound. The powder is thereafter consolidated into a pellet and further shaped into rod, wire or sheet form for easy apportionment into individual radiation sources. (U.S.)

  8. Research Activities Using Indus-1 Synchrotron Radiation Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodha, G. S.; Deb, S. K.

    2010-01-01

    Indus-1 is an efficient SR source in the soft x-ray / vacuum ultra violet region of the electromagnetic spectrum. For Indus-1, the higher order energy contamination in soft x-ray region, heat load and radiation safety problems are also significantly low. At present, soft x-ray-VUV reflectivity, angle integrated and angle resolved photo electron spectroscopy (ARPES), photo physics and high resolution vacuum ultra violet spectroscopy, beamlines are operational. The paper presents some of the recent studies carried out using In-dus-1.

  9. Search begins for missing radiation sources in Republic of Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    An international team assembled by the IAEA will begin a search today for two abandoned Strontium 90 generators in a ca. 550 sq. km area of Western Georgia. About 80 people will take part in the two-week search beginning on Monday, 10 June. Radiation experts for the IAEA, India, France, Turkey and the U.S. are also part of the team, which will set out on horseback, foot and by car. The second phase - an aerial and road survey covering different territory - is scheduled to begin in early September. The objective is to locate and recover other known or suspected orphaned radioactive sources in the country

  10. Radiation protection data sheet. Radiation protection data sheets for the use of radionuclides in unsealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    These radiation protection data sheet are devoted to responsible persons and employees of various laboratories or medical, pharmaceutical, university and industrial departments where radionuclides are handled as well as all the persons who attend to satisfy in this field. They contain the essential radiation protection data for the use of unsealed sources: physical characteristics, risk assessment, administrative procedures, recommendations, regulations and bibliography. This new series includes the following radionuclides: californium 252, curium 244, gallium 67, indium 113m, plutonium 238, plutonium 239, polonium 210, potassium 42, radium 226, thorium 232, uranium 238 and zinc 65. (O.M.)

  11. Radiation protection for the illegal governmental use of radiation sources. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    2000-01-01

    Probably for the first time, illegal governmental uses of radiation sources, including the administrative infrastructure such as special radiation protection regulation, an advisory body etc., have been documented by the evaluation of the documents of the Ministry of State Security in the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany). Over a thousand persons, but also documents, money bills etc. were marked with a wide variety of radionuclides and traced with specially developed detectors. Among the many different nuclides provided regularly from the Rossendorf Research Center near Dresden, in particular 46 Sc was popular. (orig.) [de

  12. The adaptive collision source method for discrete ordinates radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, William J.; Haghighat, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new adaptive quadrature method to solve the discrete ordinates transport equation. • The adaptive collision source (ACS) method splits the flux into n’th collided components. • Uncollided flux requires high quadrature; this is lowered with number of collisions. • ACS automatically applies appropriate quadrature order each collided component. • The adaptive quadrature is 1.5–4 times more efficient than uniform quadrature. - Abstract: A novel collision source method has been developed to solve the Linear Boltzmann Equation (LBE) more efficiently by adaptation of the angular quadrature order. The angular adaptation method is unique in that the flux from each scattering source iteration is obtained, with potentially a different quadrature order used for each. Traditionally, the flux from every iteration is combined, with the same quadrature applied to the combined flux. Since the scattering process tends to distribute the radiation more evenly over angles (i.e., make it more isotropic), the quadrature requirements generally decrease with each iteration. This method allows for an optimal use of processing power, by using a high order quadrature for the first iterations that need it, before shifting to lower order quadratures for the remaining iterations. This is essentially an extension of the first collision source method, and is referred to as the adaptive collision source (ACS) method. The ACS methodology has been implemented in the 3-D, parallel, multigroup discrete ordinates code TITAN. This code was tested on a several simple and complex fixed-source problems. The ACS implementation in TITAN has shown a reduction in computation time by a factor of 1.5–4 on the fixed-source test problems, for the same desired level of accuracy, as compared to the standard TITAN code.

  13. Categorization of radioactive sources. Revision of IAEA-TECDOC-1191, Categorization of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    Radioactive sources are used throughout the world for a wide variety of peaceful purposes in industry, medicine, agriculture, research and education; and they are also used in military applications. The International Basic Safety Standards provide an internationally harmonized basis for ensuring the safe and secure use of sources of ionizing radiation. Because of the wide variety of uses and activities of radiation sources, a categorization system is necessary so that the controls that are applied to the sources are commensurate with the radiological risks. In September 1998, following an assessment of the major findings of the first International Conference on the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Materials, held in Dijon, France, from 14 to 18 September 1998 (the Dijon Conference), the IAEA's General Conference (in resolution GC(42)/RES/12), inter alia, encouraged all governments 'to take steps to ensure the existence within their territories of effective national systems of control for ensuring the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials' and requested the Secretariat 'to prepare for the consideration of the Board of Governors a report on: (i) how national systems for ensuring the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials can be operated at a high level of effectiveness; and, (ii) whether international undertakings concerned with the effective operation of such systems and attracting broad adherence could be formulated'. In February 1999, the Secretariat submitted to the IAEA Board of Governors a report prepared in response to the request made of it by the General Conference. The Board took up the report at its March 1999 session and, inter alia, requested the Secretariat to prepare an action plan that took into account the conclusions and recommendations in the report, and the Board's discussion of the report. In August 1999, the Secretariat circulated a proposed Action Plan for

  14. Calculations of radiation damage in target, container and window materials for spallation neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, M.S.; Mansur, L.K.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation damage in target, container, and window materials for spallation neutron sources is am important factor in the design of target stations for accelerator-driver transmutation technologies. Calculations are described that use the LAHET and SPECTER codes to obtain displacement and helium production rates in tungsten, 316 stainless steel, and Inconel 718, which are major target, container, and window materials, respectively. Results are compared for the three materials, based on neutron spectra for NSNS and ATW spallation neutron sources, where the neutron fluxes are normalized to give the same flux of neutrons of all energies

  15. Electromagnetic radiation properties of foods and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsenin, N.N.

    1984-01-01

    In this book, the author examines the effects of the various regions of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum on foods and agricultural products. Among the regions of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum covered are high-energy beta and neutron particles, gamma-rays and X-rays, to lower-energy visible, near infrared, infrared, microwave and low-energy radiowaves and electric currents. Dr. Mohsenin applies these electromagnetic phenomena to food products such as fruits, vegetables, seeds, dairy products, meat and processed foods. Contents: Some Basic Concepts of Electromagnetic Radiation. Basic Instruments for Measurement of Optical Properties. Applications of Radiation in the Visible Spectrum. Color and its Measurement. Sorting for Color and Appearance. Near-Infrared and Infrared Radiation Applications. Applications of High-Energy Radiation. Related Concepts of Microwaves, Radiowaves, and Electric Currents. Measurement of Electrical Properties of Foods and Agricultural Products. Applications of Electrical Properties. Appendix, Cited References. Subject Index

  16. Natural radiation - a perspective to radiological risk factors of nuclear energy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustonen, R.; Christensen, T.; Stranden, E.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation doses from natural radiation and from man-made modifications on natural radiation, and different natural radiological environments in the Nordic countries are summarized and used as a perspective for the radiological consequences of nuclear energy production. The significance of different...... radiation sources can be judged against the total collective effective dose equivalent from natural radiation in the Nordic countries, 92 000 manSv per year. The collective dose from nuclear energy production during normal operation is estimated to 20 manSv per year and from non-nuclear energy production...... to 80 manSv per year. The increase in collective dose due to the conservation of heating energy in Nordic dwellings is estimated to 23 000 manSv per year, from 1973 to 1984. An indirect radiological danger index is defined in order to be able to compare the significance of estimated future releases...

  17. Probable sources of errors in radiation therapy (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, U.H.

    1998-01-01

    It is fact that some errors are always in dose-volume prescription, management of radiation beam, derivation of exposure, planning the treatment and finally the treatment of the patient ( a three dimensional subject). This paper highlights all the sources of error and relevant methods to decrease or eliminate them, thus improving the over-all therapeutic efficiency and accuracy. It is a comprehensive teamwork of the radiotherapist, medical radiation physicist, medical technologist and the patient. All the links, in the whole chain of radiotherapy, are equally important and duly considered in the paper. The decision for Palliative or Radical treatment is based on the nature and extent disease, site, stage, grade, length of the history of condition and biopsy reports etc. This may entail certain uncertainties in Volume of tumor, quality and quantity of radiation and dose fractionation etc, which may be under or over-estimated. An effort has been made to guide the radiotherapist in avoiding the pitfalls in the arena of radiotherapy. (author)

  18. Application of PSA techniques to synchrotron radiation source facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyasi Rao, V.V.S.; Vinod, G.; Vaze, K.K.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources are increasingly being used in research and medical applications. Various instances of overexposure in these facilities have been reported in literature. These instances have lead to the investigation of the risks associated with them with a view to minimise the risks and thereby increasing the level of safety. In nuclear industry, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) methods are widely used to assess the risk from nuclear power plants. PSA presents a systematic methodology to evaluate the likelihood of various accident scenarios and their possible consequences using fault/event tree techniques. It is proposed to extend similar approach to analyse the risk associated with synchrotron radiation sources. First step for such an analysis is establishing the failure criteria, considering the regulatory stipulations on acceptable limits of dose due to ionization radiation from normal as well as beam loss scenarios. Some possible scenarios considered in this study are (1) excessive Bremsstrahlung in the ring due to loss of vacuum, (2) Target failure due to excessively focused beam (3) mis-directed/mis-steered beam (4) beam loss and sky shine. Hazard analysis needs to cover the beam transfer line, storage ring and experimental beam line areas. Various safety provisions are in place to minimize the hazards from these facilities such as access control interlock systems, radiation shielding for storage ring and beam lines and safety shutters (for beam lines). Experimental beam line area is the most vulnerable locations that need to be critically analysed. There are multiple beam lines, that have different safety provisions and consequences from postulated beam strikes will also be different and this increases the complexity of analysis. Similar studies conducted for such experimental facilities have identified that the radiation safety interlock system, used to control access to areas inside ring and the hutches of beamline facilities has an

  19. Borehole disposal of spent radiation sources: 1. Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blerk, J.J. van; Kozak, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Large numbers of spent radiation sources from the medical and other technical professions exist in many countries, even countries that do not possess facilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle, that have to be disposed. This is particularly the case in Africa, South America and some members of the Russian Federation. Since these sources need to be handled separately from the other types of radioactive waste, mainly because of their activity to volume ratio, countries (even those with access to operational repositories) find it difficult to manage and dispose this waste. This has led to the use of boreholes as disposal units for these spent sources by some members of the Russian Federation and in South Africa. However, the relatively shallow boreholes used by these countries are not suitable for the disposal of isotopes with long half-lifes, such as 226 Ra and 241 Am. With this in mind the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa initiated the development of the BOSS disposal concept - an acronym for Borehole disposal Of Spent Sources - as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) AFRA I-14 Technical Corporation (TC) project. In this paper, the principles of this disposal concept, which is still under development, will be discussed. (author)

  20. Insurance of Radioisotopes and Ionizing Radiation Sources in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislas, A.

    2008-01-01

    Since the early sixties, Assuratome has amassed quite a long experience in the insurance of radioisotopes and more generally of ionising radiation sources when they are used transported or stored outside a nuclear installation. Aware of the specific dangers of such devices, and having no experience in this domain French insurers were looking for a pragmatic solution which would permit to continue to provide cover for users or fabricants of small radioactive sources and in the meantime to keep a rigorous control on the claims and on the loss ratio which would be achieved over the years. Hence the decision was taken by the French Insurance market to entrust the French Nuclear Insurance Pool, Assuratome, as the recommended body for delivering specific 'nuclear policies' as an expert for this category of business. The next step was to make sure that the 'conventional policies' would not provide the same cover. Therefore, an appropriate exclusion clause was introduced in all the general conditions of the TPL Policies of the conventional market and consequently in the majority, if not all, the reinsurance treaties. Besides the obvious advantage resulting in the management of this category of business in a centralised body, a major benefit of this situation is based on the strict control by the insurer of the compulsory authorisation delivered by the authorities to the owner of the radioactive source. Unofficial sources having in principal no insurance possibilities in France their use would be virtually impossible.(author)

  1. Building competence in radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources. Safety guide (Spanish ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This Safety Guide makes recommendations concerning the building of competence in protection and safety within a national radiation protection infrastructure and provides guidance for setting up the structure for a national strategy. It relates to the training and assessment of qualification of new personnel and the retraining of existing personnel in order to develop and maintain appropriate levels of competence. It provides the necessary guidance to meet the requirements laid down in Safety Series No. 115, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Responsibilities for building competence in protection and safety; 3. Education, training and work experience; 4. A national strategy for building competence in protection and safety.

  2. Building competence in radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources. Safety guide (Arabic ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Safety Guide makes recommendations concerning the building of competence in protection and safety within a national radiation protection infrastructure and provides guidance for setting up the structure for a national strategy. It relates to the training and assessment of qualification of new personnel and the retraining of existing personnel in order to develop and maintain appropriate levels of competence. It provides the necessary guidance to meet the requirements laid down in Safety Series No. 115, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Responsibilities for building competence in protection and safety; 3. Education, training and work experience; 4. A national strategy for building competence in protection and safety.

  3. Data survey about radiation protection and safety of radiation sources in research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paura, Clayton L.; Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Dantas, Bernardo M.

    2005-01-01

    In Brazil, different types of research using unsealed sources are developed with a variety of radioisotopes. In such activities, professionals and students involved are potentially exposed to internal contamination by 14 C, 45 Ca, 51 Cr, 3 H, 125 I, 32 P, 33 P, 35 S, 90 Sr and 99m Tc. The general objective of this work is to evaluate radiological risks associated to these practices in order to supply information for planning actions aimed to improve radiation protection conditions in research laboratories. The criteria for risk evaluation and the safety aspects adopted in this work were based on CNEN Regulation 6.02 and in IAEA and NRPB publications. The survey of data was carried out during visits to laboratories in public Universities located in the city of Rio de Janeiro where unsealed radioactive sources are used in biochemistry, biophysics and genetic studies. According to the criteria adopted in this work, some practices developed in the laboratories require evaluation of risk of internal contamination depending on the conditions of source manipulation. It was verified the need for training of users of radioactive materials in this type of laboratory. This can be facilitated by the use of basic guides for the classification of areas, radiation protection, safety and source security in research laboratories. It was also observed the need for optimization of such practices in order to minimize the contact with sources. It is recommended to implement more effective source and access controls as a way to reduce risks of individual radiation exposure and loss of radioactive materials (author)

  4. Methods of computer experiment in gamma-radiation technologies using new radiation sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bratchenko, M I; Rozhkov, V V

    2001-01-01

    Presented id the methodology of computer modeling application for physical substantiation of new irradiation technologies and irradiators design work flow. Modeling tasks for irradiation technologies are structured along with computerized methods of their solution and appropriate types of software. Comparative analysis of available packages for Monte-Carlo modeling of electromagnetic processes in media is done concerning their application to irradiation technologies problems. The results of codes approbation and preliminary data on gamma-radiation absorbed dose distributions for nuclides of conventional sources and prospective Europium-based gamma-sources are presented.

  5. The IAEA Regional Training Course on Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Materials of the IAEA Regional Training Course contains 8 presented lectures. Authors deals with regulatory control of radiation sources. The next materials of the IAEA were presented: Organization and implementation of a national regulatory infrastructure governing protection against ionizing radiation and the safety of radiation sources. (IAEA-TECDOC-1067); Safety assessment plants for authorization and inspection of radiation sources (IAEA-TECDOC-1113); Regulatory authority information system RAIS, Version 2.0, Instruction manual

  6. The actuality and discussion for the data management of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yaoyun; Huang Chaoyun; Wang Xiaofeng; Chen Dongliang; Fu Jie

    2008-01-01

    Large amounts of data and information in radiation safety license permits, supervision and inspection have been accumulated in China. Data management of radiation sources is an important aspect of radiation sources security. This paper introduces the main elements, tache and actuality of data management, the strengths and weaknesses of RAIS system in use. This paper analyzes and discusses the approach of establishing radiation sources monitoring information system network. (authors)

  7. Ultraviolet-B radiation enhancement in dielectric barrier discharge based xenon chloride exciplex source by air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, P., E-mail: pgulati1512@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-CEERI), Pilani, Rajasthan-333031 (India); Department of Physics, Banasthali University, P.O. Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan 304022 (India); Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M. [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-CEERI), Pilani, Rajasthan-333031 (India); Vyas, V. [Department of Physics, Banasthali University, P.O. Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan 304022 (India)

    2014-07-07

    A single barrier dielectric barrier discharge tube of quartz with multi-strip Titanium-Gold (Ti-Au) coatings have been developed and utilized for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation production peaking at wavelength 308 nm. The observed radiation at this wavelength has been examined for the mixtures of the Xenon together with chlorine and air admixtures. The gas mixture composition, chlorine gas content, total gas pressure, and air pressure dependency of the UV intensity, has been analyzed. It is found that the larger concentration of Cl{sub 2} deteriorates the performance of the developed source and around 2% Cl{sub 2} in this source produced optimum results. Furthermore, an addition of air in the xenon and chlorine working gas environment leads to achieve same intensity of UV-B light but at lower working gas pressure where significant amount of gas is air.

  8. Ultraviolet-B radiation enhancement in dielectric barrier discharge based xenon chloride exciplex source by air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, P.; Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M.; Vyas, V.

    2014-07-01

    A single barrier dielectric barrier discharge tube of quartz with multi-strip Titanium-Gold (Ti-Au) coatings have been developed and utilized for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation production peaking at wavelength 308 nm. The observed radiation at this wavelength has been examined for the mixtures of the Xenon together with chlorine and air admixtures. The gas mixture composition, chlorine gas content, total gas pressure, and air pressure dependency of the UV intensity, has been analyzed. It is found that the larger concentration of Cl2 deteriorates the performance of the developed source and around 2% Cl2 in this source produced optimum results. Furthermore, an addition of air in the xenon and chlorine working gas environment leads to achieve same intensity of UV-B light but at lower working gas pressure where significant amount of gas is air.

  9. IAEA Conference on Large Radiation Sources in Industry (Warsaw 1959): Which technologies of radiation processing survived and why?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1999-01-01

    The IAEA has organized in Warsaw an International Conference on Large Radiation Sources in Industry from 8 to 12 September 1959. Proceedings of the Conference have been published in two volumes of summary amount of 925 pages. This report presents analysis, which technologies presented at the Conference have survived and why. The analysis is interesting because already in the fifties practically full range of possibilities of radiation processing was explored, and partially implemented. Not many new technologies were presented at the next IAEA Conferences on the same theme. Already at the time of the Warsaw Conference an important role of economy of the technology has recognized. The present report selects the achievements of the Conference into two groups: the first concerns technologies which have not been implemented in the next decades and the second group which is the basis of highly profitable, unsubsidized commercial production. The criterion of belonging of the technology to the second group, is the value of the quotient of the cost of the ready, saleable product diminished by the cost of a raw material before processing, to the expense of radiation processing, being the sum of irradiation cost and such operations as transportation of the object to and from the irradiation facility. Low value of the quotient, as compared to successful technologies is prophesying badly as concerns the future of the commercial proposal. A special position among objects of radiation processing is occupied by radiation processing technologies direct towards the protection or improving of the environment. Market economy does not apply here and the implementation has to be subsidized. (author)

  10. Doses of radiation from natural and artificial radioactive sources. [In German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzen, L F; Myszynski, G; Wiesenack, G

    1957-01-01

    Only since quite recently has man been subjected to irradiation which, as the result of medical and industrial development has been added to the radiation from natural sources. According to the investigations quoted artificial radiation accounts for 20 to 25 per cent of the total radiation level. Atomic test explosions have so far only made an insignificant contribution. The same can still be said of the industrial application of nuclear energy which is still in its infancy. It has been estimated that people living in Europe will over a period of 30 years be subjected to a total dose of radiation from 2500 to 4000 mr. Of this total dose received in 30 years about 750 to 850 mr will be contributed by medical and industrial appurtenances, the overwhelming share of 600 to 700 mr being the result of medical x-ray diagnosis. The atmospheric radioactivity has been estimated (incl. rainfall, etc.) at 20 to 30 mr over a period of 30 years and will therefore not represent any hazards as far as external, direct radiation is concerned. The possible absorption by and accumulation of radiation substances in the body must, however, be carefully studied and special consideration must be given to fission products with a long half-life.

  11. Development of sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir radiation sources for intravascular irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kogure, H; Iwamoto, S; Iwata, K; Kawauchi, Y; Nagata, Y; Sorita, T; Suzuki, K

    2003-01-01

    Intravascular brachytherapy is a novel therapy for preventing the restenosis of coronary artery by use of low-dose irradiation. JAERI and Kyoto University have been developing sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir radiation sources by the cooperative research project entitled as 'The research on safety and effectiveness of the intravascular brachytherapy for preventing restenosis of the coronary artery disease' since 1998. The radiation source was introduced into the stenosis through a catheter (a guide-tube to insert directly into vascular) to irradiate the diseased part. Ten sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir seed sources (phi 0.4 mm x 2.5 mm) were positioned between nylon spacers (phi 0.3 mm x 1.0 mm) in a flexible covering tube and the tube was plugged with a core-wire; the tube was shrunk to fix the inside materials and the size is 0.46 mm in diameter and 3 m in length. The physically optimal design was determined to insert the radiation source easily into vascular and to get the dose uniformity in the diseased part. The production me...

  12. Radiation hygiene of animal production in normal and emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajicj, J.; Petrovicj, B.; Draganovicj, B.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation hazards imposed by contemporary development and peaceful and military uses of nuclear energy have implied the introduction of radiational control in animal production, and radiation-hygienic expertize of animal products and animal foodstuffs. Various treatments in scientific research, education and uses of relevant equipment, undertaken in right time, enabled our Veterinary services to start successfully to solve problems of radiation control and protection of animal production in normal and emergency situations. An important role in this context has the Section of Radiation Hygiene Yugoslav Veterinary Association, as an initiator of many activities that are intended to affirme Radiation Hygiene in the domain of scientific research and in the field of national defence and self-protection

  13. Flux and brightness calculations for various synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.M.; Hulbert, S.L.

    1991-11-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) storage rings are powerful scientific and technological tools. The first generation of storage rings in the US., e.g., SURF (Washington, D.C.), Tantalus (Wisconsin), SSRL (Stanford), and CHESS (Cornell), revolutionized VUV, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray science. The second (present) generation of storage rings, e.g. the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings and Aladdin (Wisconsin), have sustained the revolution by providing higher stored currents and up to a factor of ten smaller electron beam sizes than the first generation sources. This has made possible a large number of experiments that could not performed using first generation sources. In addition, the NSLS XRAY ring design optimizes the performance of wigglers (high field periodic magnetic insertion devices). The third generation storage rings, e.g. ALS (Berkeley) and APS (Argonne), are being designed to optimize the performance of undulators (low field periodic magnetic insertion devices). These extremely high brightness sources will further revolutionize x-ray science by providing diffraction-limited x-ray beams. The output of undulators and wigglers is distinct from that of bending magnets in magnitude, spectral shape, and in spatial and angular size. Using published equations, we have developed computer programs to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness output bending magnets and selected wigglers and undulators of the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings, the Advanced Light Source (ALS), and the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Following is a summary of the equations used, the graphs and data produced, and the computer codes written. These codes, written in the C programming language, can be used to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness curves for bending magnets and insertion devices on any storage ring

  14. Effects of gamma radiation on enzymatic production of lignolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl Mike

    2015-02-18

    Feb 18, 2015 ... major producing sources of enzymes used in industrial society. Attractive .... individually in Petri dishes or flasks penicillin, wrapped in plastic wrap. The samples were subjected to radiation doses of 500, 1000,. 1500 Gray (Gy) ...

  15. Radiation technology for enhancing agriculture productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, S.F.

    2016-01-01

    Radiations and radioisotopes are used in agricultural research to develop improved crop varieties, to manage insect pests, monitor fate of pesticides, to study fertilizer and plant micronutrient uptake and to preserve agricultural produce. This is one of the important fields of peaceful applications of atomic energy for societal benefit. Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) has contributed significantly in this area especially in the development of new mutant crop varieties which are benefitting the farmers in enhancing their productivity. With an effective blend of induced mutagenesis and recombination breeding, 42 new crop varieties developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) have been released and Gazette notified by the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India for commercial cultivation. These include 21 in oilseeds (15-groundnut, 3 mustard , 2 soybean, 1 sunflower), 19 in pulses (8-mungbean, 5-urdbean, 5-pigeonpea, 1-cowpea) and one each in rice and jute. Some of the desirable traits which have been bred through induced mutations in these crops include higher yields, improved quality traits, early maturity and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Several of these varieties have high patronage from the farming community and are grown extensively across the country. Groundnut varieties have given record yields in farmer's fields. Pulses such as mung, urid and tur are popular among farmers in view of their disease resistance and suitability to rice fallow situations. Many of the breeding programmes in national/state systems have been utilizing BARC varieties as parental materials/donors and have developed several other improved varieties using them. (author)

  16. Global source attribution of sulfate aerosol and its radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, H.; Smith, S.; Easter, R. C.; Ma, P. L.; Qian, Y.; Li, C.; Yu, H.; Rasch, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate is an important aerosol that poses health risks and influences climate. Due to long-range atmospheric transport, local sulfate pollution could result from intercontinental influences, making domestic efforts of improving air quality inefficient. Accurate understanding of source attribution of sulfate and its radiative forcing is important for both regional air quality improvement and global climate mitigation. In this study, for the first time, a sulfur source-tagging capability is implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) to quantify the global source-receptor relationships of sulfate and its direct and indirect radiative forcing (DRF and IRF). Near-surface sulfate concentrations are mostly contributed by local emissions in regions with high emissions, while over regions with relatively low SO2 emissions, the near-surface sulfate is primarily attributed to non-local sources from long-range transport. The export of SO2 and sulfate from Europe contributes 20% of sulfate concentrations over North Africa, Russia and Central Asia. Sources from the Middle East account for 20% of sulfate over North Africa, Southern Africa and Central Asia in winter and autumn, and 20% over South Asia in spring. East Asia accounts for about 50% of sulfate over Southeast Asia in winter and autumn, 15% over Russia in summer, and 10% over North America in spring. South Asia contributes to 25% of sulfate over Southeast Asia in spring. Lifetime of aerosols, together with regional export, is found to determine regional air quality. The simulated global total sulfate DRF is -0.42 W m-2, with 75% contributed by anthropogenic sulfate and 25% contributed by natural sulfate. In the Southern Hemisphere tropics, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contributes the most to the total DRF. East Asia has the largest contribution of 20-30% over the Northern Hemisphere mid- and high-latitudes. A 20% perturbation of sulfate and its precursor emissions gives a sulfate IRF of -0.44 W m-2. DMS has the

  17. Immediate Dose Assessment for Radiation Accident in Laboratory Containing Gamma Source and/or Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important safety requirements for any place containing radiation sources is an accurate and fast way to assess the dose rate in both normal and accidental case. In normal case, the source is completely protected inside its surrounded shields in case of non use. In some cases this source may stuck outside its shield. In this case the walls of the place act as a shield. Many studies were carried for obtaining the most appropriate materials that may be used as shielding depending on their efficiency and also their cost. As concrete- with different densities- is the most available constructive material, this study presented a theoretical model using MCNP-4B code, based on Monte Carlo method to estimate the dose rate distribution in a laboratory with concrete walls in case of source stuck accident. The study dealt with Cs-137 as gamma source and Am-Be-241 as neutron source. Two different densities of concrete and also different thicknesses of walls were studied. The used model was verified by comparing the results with a practical study concerning with the effect of adding carbon powder to the concrete. The results showed good agreement

  18. Correlation of radiation dose and heart rate in dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laspas, Fotios; Roussakis, Arkadios; Kritikos, Nikolaos; Efthimiadou, Roxani; Kehagias, Dimitrios; Andreou, John; Tsantioti, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Background: Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) has been widely used since the introduction of 64-slice scanners and dual-source CT technology, but the relatively high radiation dose remains a major concern. Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure and heart rate (HR), in dual-source CTCA. Material and Methods: Data from 218 CTCA examinations, performed with a dual-source 64-slices scanner, were statistically evaluated. Effective radiation dose, expressed in mSv, was calculated as the product of the dose-length product (DLP) times a conversion coefficient for the chest (mSv = DLPx0.017). Heart rate range and mean heart rate, expressed in beats per minute (bpm) of each individual during CTCA, were also provided by the system. Statistical analysis of effective dose and heart rate data was performed by using Pearson correlation coefficient and two-sample t-test. Results: Mean HR and effective dose were found to have a borderline positive relationship. Individuals with a mean HR >65 bpm observed to receive a statistically significant higher effective dose as compared to those with a mean HR =65 bpm. Moreover, a strong correlation between effective dose and variability of HR of more than 20 bpm was observed. Conclusion: Dual-source CT scanners are considered to have the capability to provide diagnostic examinations even with high HR and arrhythmias. However, it is desirable to keep the mean heart rate below 65 bpm and heart rate fluctuation less than 20 bpm in order to reduce the radiation exposure

  19. Safety assessment plans for authorization and inspection of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this TECDOC is to enhance the efficacy, quality and efficiency of the whole regulatory process. It provides advice on good practice administrative procedures for the regulatory process for preparation of applications, granting of authorizations, inspection, and enforcement. It also provides information on the development and use of standard safety assessment plans for authorization and inspection. The plans are intended to be used in conjunction with more detailed advice related to specific practices. In this sense, this TECDOC provides advice on a systematic approach to evaluations of protection and safety while other IAEA Safety Guides assist the user to distinguish between the acceptable and the unacceptable. This TECDOC covers administrative advice to facilitate the regulatory process governing authorization and inspection. It also covers the use of standard assessment and inspection plans and provides simplified plans for the more common, well established uses of radiation sources in medicine and industry, i.e. sources for irradiation facilities, industrial radiography, well logging, industrial gauging, unsealed sources in industry, X ray diagnosis, nuclear medicine, teletherapy and brachytherapy

  20. Safety assessment plans for authorization and inspection of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this TECDOC is to enhance the efficacy, quality and efficiency of the whole regulatory process. It provides advice on good practice administrative procedures for the regulatory process for preparation of applications, granting of authorizations, inspection, and enforcement. It also provides information on the development and use of standard safety assessment plans for authorization and inspection. The plans are intended to be used in conjunction with more detailed advice related to specific practices. In this sense, this TECDOC provides advice on a systematic approach to evaluations of protection and safety while other IAEA Safety Guides assist the user to distinguish between the acceptable and the unacceptable. This TECDOC covers administrative advice to facilitate the regulatory process governing authorization and inspection. It also covers the use of standard assessment and inspection plans and provides simplified plans for the more common, well established uses of radiation sources in medicine and industry, i.e. sources for irradiation facilities, industrial radiography, well logging, industrial gauging, unsealed sources in industry, X ray diagnosis, nuclear medicine, teletherapy and brachytherapy

  1. Shielding technology for high energy radiation production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Heon Il

    2004-06-01

    In order to develop shielding technology for high energy radiation production facility, references and data for high energy neutron shielding are searched and collected, and calculations to obtain the characteristics of neutron shield materials are performed. For the evaluation of characteristics of neutron shield material, it is chosen not only general shield materials such as concrete, polyethylene, etc., but also KAERI developed neutron shields of High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE) mixed with boron compound (B 2 O 3 , H 2 BO 3 , Borax). Neutron attenuation coefficients for these materials are obtained for later use in shielding design. The effect of source shape and source angular distribution on the shielding characteristics for several shield materials is examined. This effect can contribute to create shielding concept in case of no detail source information. It is also evaluated the effect of the arrangement of shield materials using current shield materials. With these results, conceptual shielding design for PET cyclotron is performed. The shielding composite using HDPE and concrete is selected to meet the target dose rate outside the composite, and the dose evaluation is performed by configuring the facility room conceptually. From the result, the proper shield configuration for this PET cyclotron is proposed

  2. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoroki, Setsuko

    1998-01-01

    To establish irradiation technologies as one of alternative technology of methyl bromide fumigation, radiation sensitivities for each kind of fresh agricultural products and reduction of radiation injury were investigated. Fresh vegetables and flowers such as cabbage, sprouts, asparagus, lettuce, chrysanthemum, carnation, rose, etc. were used and irradiated with 750 Gy γ-ray. Flowers received radiation injury were soaked into various kinds of solutions for one night, then they were irradiated with 500 Gy γ-ray. They showed different radiation sensitivities. Cruciferae plant showed radioresistance and Compositae plant radiosensitivity. A keeping quality agent for cut flowers indicated protection effect on radiation injury. (S.Y.)

  3. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoroki, Setsuko [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    To establish irradiation technologies as one of alternative technology of methyl bromide fumigation, radiation sensitivities for each kind of fresh agricultural products and reduction of radiation injury were investigated. Fresh vegetables and flowers such as cabbage, sprouts, asparagus, lettuce, chrysanthemum, carnation, rose, etc. were used and irradiated with 750 Gy {gamma}-ray. Flowers received radiation injury were soaked into various kinds of solutions for one night, then they were irradiated with 500 Gy {gamma}-ray. They showed different radiation sensitivities. Cruciferae plant showed radioresistance and Compositae plant radiosensitivity. A keeping quality agent for cut flowers indicated protection effect on radiation injury. (S.Y.)

  4. Research using synchrotron radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1982-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is now becoming operational with synchrotron radiation experiments beginning on the 700 MeV VUV electron storage ring. Commissioning of the 2.5 GeV x-ray storage ring has also begun with the experimental program expected to begin in 1983. The current status of the experimental program and instrumentation and the plans for future developments, will be discussed. Although some early results have been obtained on VUV beam lines no attempt will be made in this paper to describe them. Instead, an overview of the beam line characteristics will be given, with an indication of those already operational. In the oral presentation some initial experimental results will be discussed

  5. Device for forming the image of a radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosswill, C.H.

    1980-01-01

    An improvement can be made to the space resolution of systems providing the image of a radiation source by means of a slit collimator. In order to do so, a lateral movement of the collimator (with its detectors) is superimposed on the movement of the collimator, in a transversal direction in relation to the transmission direction through the collimator as well as in relation to the walls defining the slits. The total amplitude of the lateral movement is at least equal to the distance between centres of a slit and the following one. In the near field operating system, the lateral movement is a rectilinear movement perpendicular to the walls of the slits. In the distance field operating systems, it is an angular movement about an axis perpendicular to the direction of transmission through the slits [fr

  6. Tabulation of Fundamental Assembly Heat and Radiation Source Files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. deBues; J.C. Ryman

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to tabulate a set of computer files for use as input to the WPLOAD thermal loading software. These files contain details regarding heat and radiation from pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies. The scope of this calculation is limited to rearranging and reducing the existing file information into a more streamlined set of tables for use as input to WPLOAD. The electronic source term files used as input to this calculation were generated from the output files of the SAS2H/ORIGIN-S sequence of the SCALE Version 4.3 modular code system, as documented in References 2.1.1 and 2.1.2, and are included in Attachment II

  7. Energy production from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This table summarizes the electricity and heat produced in France and in overseas departments from renewable energy sources for 1998 (revised), 1999 (temporary) and 2000 (estimated): hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic and thermal, geothermal, solid municipal wastes, wood and wood wastes, biogas, ethanol and ester bio-fuels. (J.S.)

  8. Radiation pretreatment of cellulose for energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rosa, A. M.; Dela Mines, A. S.; Banzon, R. B.; Simbul-Nuguid, Z. F.

    The effect of radiation pretreatment of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated through hydrolytic reactions of cellulose. Gamma irradiation significantly increased the acid hydrolysis of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The yields of reducing sugar were higher with increasing radiation dose in these materials. The observed radiation effect varied with the cellulosic material but it correlated with neither the cellulose content nor the lignin content. Likewise, the radiation pretreatment accelerated the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and rice hull by cellulase. The irradiated rice straw appeared to be a better growth medium for the cellulolytic microorganism, Myrothecium verrucaria, than the non-irradiated material. This was attributed to increased digestibility of the cellulose by the microorganism.

  9. Radiation pretreatment of cellulose for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.M.; Dela Mines, A.S.; Banzon, R.B.; Simbul-Nuguid, Z.F.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of radiation pretreatment of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated through hydrolytic reactions of cellulose. Gamma irradiation significantly increased the acid hydrolysis of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The yields of reducing sugar were higher with increasing radiation dose in these materials. The observed radiation effect varied with the cellulose material but it correlated with neither the cellulose content nor the lignin content. Likewise, the radiation pretreatment accelerated the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and rice hull by cellulase. The irradiated rice straw appeared to be a better growth medium for the cellulolytic microorganism, Myrothecium verrucaria, than the non-irradiated material. This was attributed to increased digestibility of the cellulose by the microorganism. (author)

  10. Production of gravitation waves by electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, K.; Rosca, R.

    1980-01-01

    An exact solution of Einstein's equations is presented that corresponds to an axisymmetric bundle of electromagnetic waves with finite cross section. Outside this bundle, there is gravitational radiation parallel to the electromagnetic radiation. If no static electromagnetic fields are present, the frequency of the gravitational waves is twice the frequency of the electromagnetic waves. Einstein's energy complex vanishes identically. The covariant energy complex, however, yields also a radial momentum. (author)

  11. Ionizing radiations used in medical diagnostics as a source of radiation exposure of the Bulgarian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingilizova, K.; Vasilev, G.

    1998-01-01

    X-ray and radionuclide application in medical diagnosing is the major sources of Bulgarian population exposure to ionizing radiations exceeding the radiation background. The number of X-ray examination on a nationwide scale shows an increase from 1600 thousand annually in 1950 to 10300 thousand in 1980 and decreases to about 4700 thousand annually for the period 1992-1993. The frequency for the above mentioned time intervals varies in the range 0.22 to 1.17 examinations per capita annually and decreases to 0.56. The roentgenoscopy to roentgenography ratio varies from 2.5:1 to 0.9:1 (1975) and increases to 2.0:1 (1993). The number of radioisotope examinations increased from 34 thousand in 1970 to 170 thousand annually in 1985 and decreased to about thousand annually in 1992-1993 with a number of studies per capita varying from 0.004 to 0.020 and decreasing to 0.010. In 1993 the annual collective effective dose due to X-ray diagnostics amounts to about 7000 man-Sv/a which exceeds the radiation background exposure by 76%. Radioisotope diagnostics in the period reviewed accounted for nearly 700 man-Sv/a with an exposure exceeding the radiation background by 7.7%. The major problems relating to patient protection and benefit/risk ratio improvement are discussed. (author)

  12. Disinfection ultraviolet radiation bulk food products

    OpenAIRE

    Семенов, А. А.

    2014-01-01

    В работе представлены результаты обеззараживания сыпучих пищевых продуктов ультрафиолетовым излучением. Предложена технология бактерицидного обеззараживания сыпучих продуктов с размером частиц до 50 мкм. Проведены необходимые расчеты, связанные с дозой облучения, с временем пребывания частиц в зоне облучения и необходимой дозой инактивации в зависимости от вида бактерий. Considered the results of bulk food products disinfection by ultraviolet radiation. The technology bactericidal disinfec...

  13. Synchrotrons: biomedical applications of the most versatile radiation source of all

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.

    2003-01-01

    Synchrotrons are the brightest and most versatile sources of radiation that have ever been devised. The spectrum extends from the infra-red to hard X-rays and the application range is just as wide. Applications range from radiotherapy to archaeology and from genomics to mineral identification. For a property of particle accelerators that was for many years seen as a problem, the transformation has been remarkable. There are now more than 50 synchrotron facilities worldwide and the number is still growing rapidly. Some 25 years after the first dedicated machines came into operation, Australia is about to enter the field with a national facility being built at Monash University in Melbourne. The largest impact of synchrotrons has been in the X-ray region of the spectrum where the performance gain over conventional sources is many orders of magnitude. In fact synchrotrons are the only significant improvement in X-ray production since the rotating anode was first marketed in 1929. The possibilities opened up by the availability of monochromatic, tightly collimated beams of enormous intensity has impacted on practically every area of science. Following a brief overview of synchrotron radiation production, the various prominent techniques that synchrotron radiation has made possible will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be placed on the biomedical applications which include; 1. advanced imaging techniques exploiting X-ray phase contrast 2. radiotherapy using microbeams 3. structural biology 4. elemental, chemical and molecular structure mapping of live wet samples

  14. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources international basic safety standards

    CERN Document Server

    International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna

    2014-01-01

    The Board of Governors of the IAEA first approved Basic Safety Standards in June 1962; they were published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 9. A revised edition was issued in 1967. A third revision was published by the IAEA as the 1982 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 9 ; this edition was jointly sponsored by the IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA and the WHO. The next edition was International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 115 in February 1996, and jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and the WHO.

  15. Krypton gas cylinders as a source of radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Helmut W; Bielefeld, Tom; Hettwig, Bernd

    2010-07-01

    A standard 40 foot shipping container with a cargo of pressurized krypton gas in 159 steel cylinders, which had triggered a radiation alarm, was investigated to address radiation safety and illicit nuclear trafficking concerns. The investigation included contamination and dose rate measurements as well as in situ high resolution gamma spectroscopy. The dose rate measurements gave a maximum value of 0.07 microSv h(-1) above background (0.08 to 0.11 microSv h(-1)) on the cylinder surface and no detectable increase above background at distances of 1 m and higher. Contamination monitor readings showed a similar relative increase (plus 8 cpm) above background (about 12 cpm) to the dose rate readings. Quantitative gamma spectroscopy revealed a contamination of the gas with 85Kr at a level of 3.5 x 10(5) Bq kg(-1). This value was found to be consistent with analytical and numerical estimates based on current data for atmospheric 85Kr, which is captured from ambient air together with stable krypton during the production process. This incident demonstrates an apparent lack of radiation-related knowledge by those who handle krypton gas, as well as by border control personnel and emergency responders. We therefore propose to improve labeling and documentation standards for such shipments. This effort may be facilitated by introducing the new category of "technically enhanced artificial radioactive material," or "TEARM" (similar to the existing "naturally occurring radioactive material" or "NORM" and "technically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material" or "TENORM" categories).

  16. Radiation accident caused by an iridium-192 radiographic source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumatori, T.; Hirashima, K.; Ishihara, T.; Kurisu, A.; Sugiyama, H.; Hashizume, T.

    1977-01-01

    Owing to the carelessness of a radiographer, six construction workers, aged from twenty to thirty, were accidentally exposed to gamma rays of a 192 Ir source for a non-destructive radiography. These exposed persons were not directly involved with radiographic work. One case revealed severe leucopenia and thrombopenia accompanied by moderate anaemia. In three cases including the case considered, skin lesions were observed on hands and hips, arising from close contact with a 192 Ir rod. The effects to the gonads consisted of impaired spermatogenesis in all cases and elevation of follicle-stimulating hormone in the sera of four cases. The ratio of one metabolite to another seemed to be more indicative of the injuries than the level of any given metabolite itself. In the physical estimate of the dose, the thermoluminescence intensity of rubies in the wrist watches of the exposed persons was measured, which was useful for the determination of the location of the source. The mean whole-body absorbed doses ranged from 10 to 133 rads. Local radiation doses were approximately 3000 to 9000 rads to the skin and 175 rads to the gonads of one case, respectively. The biological dose estimates were made by using the dose-response relations for 60 Co gamma rays and for Linac X-rays on the basis of the yields of dicentrics and rings. The doses were in the range of about 10 to 150 rads. Skin lesions and chromosome aberrations are still observed. (author)

  17. Regulation for oil wells logging using ionizing radiation sources. A draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidrowoh, Jacob

    2000-01-01

    A project to regulate logging activities using ionizing radiation sources in oil wells in Ecuador is proposed. Its development is based on basic concepts of energy, radiation protection and characteristics of oil exploitation in Ecuador

  18. Phylogenomics Reveals Three Sources of Adaptive Variation during a Rapid Radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Pease

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Speciation events often occur in rapid bursts of diversification, but the ecological and genetic factors that promote these radiations are still much debated. Using whole transcriptomes from all 13 species in the ecologically and reproductively diverse wild tomato clade (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon, we infer the species phylogeny and patterns of genetic diversity in this group. Despite widespread phylogenetic discordance due to the sorting of ancestral variation, we date the origin of this radiation to approximately 2.5 million years ago and find evidence for at least three sources of adaptive genetic variation that fuel diversification. First, we detect introgression both historically between early-branching lineages and recently between individual populations, at specific loci whose functions indicate likely adaptive benefits. Second, we find evidence of lineage-specific de novo evolution for many genes, including loci involved in the production of red fruit color. Finally, using a "PhyloGWAS" approach, we detect environment-specific sorting of ancestral variation among populations that come from different species but share common environmental conditions. Estimated across the whole clade, small but substantial and approximately equal fractions of the euchromatic portion of the genome are inferred to contribute to each of these three sources of adaptive genetic variation. These results indicate that multiple genetic sources can promote rapid diversification and speciation in response to new ecological opportunity, in agreement with our emerging phylogenomic understanding of the complexity of both ancient and recent species radiations.

  19. Geothermal Energy as source or energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, E.

    1998-01-01

    This article shows the use and utilization of geothermal energy. This calorific energy can be used, through the wells perforation, in generation of electricity and many other tasks. In Colombia is possible the utilization of this energy in the electrical production due to the volcanic presence in the Western and Central mountain chains

  20. Radiological impact of natural and artificial sources of ionizing radiation. Report UNSCEAR 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, D.

    2001-01-01

    The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was established by the General Assembly in 1995. It has the mandate to assess the levels and effects of ionizing radiation. During the last years UNSCEAR has undertaken a broad review of the natural and artificial sources of ionizing radiation. The results of these evaluations have been presented in a Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes including extensive data for the world community (Report UNSCEAR 2000). The greatest contribution to radiation exposure comes from natural background sources. There are considerable variation in the exposures of the population depending on the altitude and latitude, characteristics of the soil and diet and the construction and ventilation features of houses. The global annual average per caput is 2.4 mSv with typical range 1 to 10 mSv. The next largest component comes from medical radiation examinations and treatments with an annual average of 0.4 mSv ranging from 0.04 to 1.0 mSv depending on the level o f medical care. The man-made practices, activities, and events in which radionuclides are released to the environment are always of much concern, but usually they contribute quite low to radiation exposure to humans. Atmospheric testing caused the greatest releases but nowadays very low residual annual levels of exposures persist (0.005 mSv). Nuclear Power production is responsible for only very low exposure and may reach in the future an average annual level of 0.0002 mSv. (Author)

  1. Synchrotron radiation sources and condensers for projection x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.B.; MacDowell, A.A.; White, D.L.; Wood, O.R. II

    1992-01-01

    The design requirements for a compact electron storage ring that could be used as a soft x-ray source for projection lithography are discussed. The design concepts of the x-ray optics that are required to collect and condition the radiation in divergence, uniformity and direction to properly illuminate the mask and the particular x-ray projection camera used are discussed. Preliminary designs for an entire soft x-ray projection lithography system using an electron storage ring as a soft X-ray source are presented. It is shown that by combining the existing technology of storage rings with large collection angle condensers, a powerful and reliable source of 130 Angstrom photons for production line projection x-ray lithography is possible

  2. Antiparticle sources for antihydrogen production and trapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlton, M.; Bruun Andresen, Gorm; Ashkezari, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Sources of positrons and antiprotons that are currently used for the formation of antihydrogen with low kinetic energies are reviewed, mostly in the context of the ALPHA collaboration and its predecessor ATHENA. The experiments were undertaken at the Antiproton Decelerator facility, which...... is located at CERN. Operations performed on the clouds of antiparticles to facilitate their mixing to produce antihydrogen are described. These include accumulation, cooling and manipulation. The formation of antihydrogen and some of the characteristics of the anti-atoms that are created are discussed....... Prospects for trapping antihydrogen in a magnetic minimum trap, as envisaged by the ALPHA collaboration, are reviewed....

  3. Antiparticle sources for antihydrogen production and trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, M; Bertsche, W; Butler, E; Humphries, A J [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Andresen, G B; Bowe, P D; Hangst, J S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M D; Hayden, M E [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bray, C C; Chapman, S; Fajans, J [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Cesar, C L [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Friesen, T; Hydomako, R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hardy, W N [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hayano, R S, E-mail: M.Charlton@Swansea.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    Sources of positrons and antiprotons that are currently used for the formation of antihydrogen with low kinetic energies are reviewed, mostly in the context of the ALPHA collaboration and its predecessor ATHENA. The experiments were undertaken at the Antiproton Decelerator facility, which is located at CERN. Operations performed on the clouds of antiparticles to facilitate their mixing to produce antihydrogen are described. These include accumulation, cooling and manipulation. The formation of antihydrogen and some of the characteristics of the anti-atoms that are created are discussed. Prospects for trapping antihydrogen in a magnetic minimum trap, as envisaged by the ALPHA collaboration, are reviewed.

  4. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2004. Abstract. This study determined the correlation between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from ...

  5. Radiation doses from radiation sources of neutrons and photons by different computer calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siciliano, F.; Lippolis, G.; Bruno, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    In the present paper the calculation technique aspects of dose rate from neutron and photon radiation sources are covered with reference both to the basic theoretical modeling of the MERCURE-4, XSDRNPM-S and MCNP-3A codes and from practical point of view performing safety analyses of irradiation risk of two transportation casks. The input data set of these calculations -regarding the CEN 10/200 HLW container and dry PWR spent fuel assemblies shipping cask- is frequently commented as for as connecting points of input data and understanding theoric background are concerned

  6. Production of jet fuel from alternative source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Zoltan; Papp, Anita; Hancsok, Jenoe [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing

    2013-06-01

    Recent demands for low aromatic content jet fuels have shown significant increase in the last 20 years. This was generated by the growing of aviation. Furthermore, the quality requirements have become more aggravated for jet fuels. Nowadays reduced aromatic hydrocarbon fractions are necessary for the production of jet fuels with good burning properties, which contribute to less harmful material emission. In the recent past the properties of gasolines and diesel gas oils were continuously severed, and the properties of jet fuels will be more severe, too. Furthermore, it can become obligatory to blend alternative components into jet fuels. With the aromatic content reduction there is a possibility to produce high energy content jet fuels with the desirable properties. One of the possibilities is the blending of biocomponents from catalytic hydrogenation of triglycerides. Our aim was to study the possibilities of producing low sulphur and aromatic content jet fuels in a catalytic way. On a CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst we studied the possibilities of quality improving of a kerosene fraction and coconut oil mixture depending on the change of the process parameters (temperature, pressure, liquid hourly space velocity, volume ratio). Based on the quality parameters of the liquid products we found that we made from the feedstock in the adequate technological conditions products which have a high smoke point (> 35 mm) and which have reduced aromatic content and high paraffin content (90%), so these are excellent jet fuels, and their stack gases damage the environment less. (orig.)

  7. The fundamentals of the radiation thermal technology for cement production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, I.G.; Kapralova, R.M.; Nikiforov, Yu.V.; Egorov, G.B.; Vaisman, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    The fundamentals of principally new radiation thermal way of cement production are presented. The peculiarities of qualities and structure of clinker obtained by this way are given. The technical economic advantages of the new technology are shown

  8. Radiation decontamination of meat lyophylized products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for a powder soups and sauces composed with lyophylizated meat. Technology of lyophylization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the meat lyophylization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment

  9. Radiation Processed Materials in Products from Polymers for Agricultural Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-15

    This publication results from a technical meeting on radiation processed materials in products from polymers for agricultural applications, which was held from 8 to 12 July 2013 at the IAEA in Vienna. The meeting provided a forum for the sharing of practical experiences and lessons learned, and reviewed the recent developments in the use of radiation technologies for the preparation of environmental friendly products based on polymers for agricultural applications.

  10. CONDOS methodology for evaluation of radiation exposure from consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, F.R.

    1979-01-01

    The CONDOS methodology is a tool for estimating radiation doses to man from exposures to radionuclides incorporated in consumer products. It consists of two parts: (1) an outline, checklist, and selected data for modeling the life span of a product or the material from which it is made; and (2) a computer code that uses the life-span model to calculate radiation doses to exposed individuals and population groups

  11. Radiation Processed Materials in Products from Polymers for Agricultural Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    This publication results from a technical meeting on radiation processed materials in products from polymers for agricultural applications, which was held from 8 to 12 July 2013 at the IAEA in Vienna. The meeting provided a forum for the sharing of practical experiences and lessons learned, and reviewed the recent developments in the use of radiation technologies for the preparation of environmental friendly products based on polymers for agricultural applications

  12. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jaime; Salazar, Idana; Vargas, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process) considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent.

  13. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gómez

    Full Text Available In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent.

  14. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process) considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent. PMID:27035456

  15. Ozone production at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weilandics, C.; Rohrig, N.; Gmur, N.F.

    1987-01-01

    Ozone production by synchrotron radiation as a function of power density in air was investigated using a white beam at the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) x-ray ring. Power densities were calculated from the energy spectrum at 2.52 GeV. Ozone concentrations in small beam pipes were measured for power densities between I = 10 12 and 10 15 eV . cm -3 . sec -1 . The measured ozone half-life was 37 +- 2 min. The measured G-value was 2.69 +- 0.14 mol/100 eV and the ozone destruction factor k was less than 7 x 10 -19 cm 3 . eV -1 . The random uncertainties stated are approximately one standard error. The large departure of the values for G and k from previous values suggest that some undiscovered systematic error may exist in the experiment. Ozone concentration in excess of the 0.1 ppM ACGIH TLV can be generated in the experimental hutches but can readily be controlled. Industrial hygiene aspects of operation and possible control measures will be discussed. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Primary energy sources for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassmann, K.; Kuehne, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The costs for hydrogen production through water electrolysis are estimated, assuming the electricity is produced from solar, hydro-, fossil, or nuclear power. The costs for hydrogen end-use in the power generation, heat and transportation sectors are also calculated, based on a state of the art technology and a more advanced technology expected to represent the state by the year 2010. The costs for hydrogen utilization (without energy taxes) are shown to be higher than current prices for fossil fuels (including taxes). Without restrictions imposed on fossil fuel consumption, hydrogen shall not gain a significant market share in either of the cases discussed. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 4 refs

  17. Effective sourcing strategies for perishable product supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, W.A.; Rossi, R.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess whether an existing sourcing strategy can effectively supply products of appropriate quality with acceptable levels of product waste if applied to an international perishable product supply chain. The authors also analyse whether the effectiveness of

  18. Processing summary report: Fabrication of cesium and strontium heat and radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, L.K. Jr.; Surma, J.E.; Allen, R.P.

    1989-02-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), has produced 30 isotopic heat sources (canisters) for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) to be used as part of a repository testing program in the Asse Salt Mine. PNL program work involved the filling, closure, and decontamination of the 30 canisters. The canisters were fabricated (filled) in three separate processing campaigns using the radioactive liquid-fed ceramic melter to produce a borosilicate glass. Within the borosilicate glass matrix radiochemical constituents ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) were immobilized to yield a product with a predetermined decay heat and surface radiation exposure rate

  19. Transition radiation in metal-metal multilayer nanostructures as a medical source of hard x-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovsky, A. L.; Kaplan, A. E.; Shkolnikov, P. L.

    2006-01-01

    We show that a periodic metal-metal multilayer nanostructure can serve as an efficient source of hard x-ray transition radiation. Our research effort is aimed at developing an x-ray source for medical applications, which is based on using low-energy relativistic electrons. The approach toward choosing radiator-spacer couples for the generation of hard x-ray resonant transition radiation by few-MeV electrons traversing solid multilayer structures for the energies of interest to medicine (30-50 keV) changes dramatically compared with that for soft x-ray radiation. We show that one of the main factors in achieving the required resonant line is the absence of the contrast of the refractive indices between the spacer and the radiator at the far wings of the radiation line; for that purpose, the optimal spacer, as a rule, should have a higher atomic number than the radiator. Having experimental goals in mind, we have considered also the unwanted effects due to bremsstrahlung radiation, absorption and scattering of radiated photons, detector-related issues, and inhibited coherence of transition radiation due to random deviation of spacing between the layers. Choosing as a model example a Mo-Ag radiator-spacer pair of materials, we demonstrate that the x-ray transition radiation line can be well resolved with the use of spatial and frequency filtering

  20. Radioactivity in consumer products : radiation safety and regulatory appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, B.K.S.; Venkataraman, G.; Subrahmanym, P.

    1993-01-01

    Use of radioactive materials in consumer products is in vogue almost since the discovery of radioactivity. There has been a rapid growth in the use of radioactive material in various consumer products such as Ionization Chamber Smoke Detectors (ICSD), Static eliminators, etc. In addition, there are certain manufacturing processes wherein the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) get incorporated in the consumer products. Certain phosphatic fertilizers, titanium dioxide pigments, phospho gypsum plaster boards are some examples in this category. The manufacture and use of these products result in radiation dose to the public apart from radiation exposure to the personnel involved in the manufacturing process. Appropriate radiation control measures have to be taken in the design, manufacture and use of consumer products to ensure that the radiation doses to the public and the population at large do not exceed the relevant limits. While appropriate regulatory controls and surveillance are established for manufacture and use of certain products, these are still to be recognised and established in respect of certain other processes and products. The current status of radiation safety and regulatory control and the lack of these in respect of some products are discussed in this paper. (author). 5 refs

  1. Non-Ionizing Radiation - sources, exposure and health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietanen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Non-ionizing radiation contains the electromagnetic wavelengths from ultraviolet (UV) radiation to static electric and magnetic fields. Optical radiation consists of UV, visible and infrared (IR) radiation while EM fields include static, extremely low (ELF), low frequency (LF) and radiofrequency (RF) fields. The principal scientific organization on non-ionizing radiation is the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The main activity of ICNIRP is to provide guidance on safe exposure and protection of workers and members of the public by issuing statements and recommendations. (orig.)

  2. Cherenkov Radiation from a Pseudospark-sourced Electron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, A.D.R.; Yin, H.; Cross, A.W.; He, W.; Ronald, K.

    2003-01-01

    Electron beam generation from a multi-gap pseudospark discharge was investigated. A pseudospark-sourced electron beam has two phases, an initial hollow cathode phase (HCP) beam followed by a conductive phase (CP) beam. The beam brightness was measured by a field-free collimator to be 109 and 1011 Am-2rad-2 for the hollow cathode phase (HCP) beam and the conductive phase (CP) beam respectively. The initial HCP beam from an eight-gap pseudospark discharge was applied in a Cherenkov interaction between the electron beam and the TM01 mode of a 60-cm long alumina-lined waveguide. It was found experimentally that significant microwave radiation was generated only when the dielectric was present in the interaction space. If there was no dielectric in the cylindrical waveguide, then a very small background microwave output was detected even when the guide B-field was absent. This demonstrated, in conjunction with the observation that the microwave output signal was independent of the guide magnetic field over the range 0.13 to 0.26 T, that the radiation from the experiment was due to the Cherenkov interaction mechanism. In addition, two components of the microwave pulse were observed corresponding to the two energy components of the electron beam during the pseudospark discharge breakdown. These results demonstrated that the microwave radiation was generated by Cherenkov amplification of the broadband emission from the pseudospark discharge itself. A background signal level of around 100 W was measured in the frequency range 20 - 50 GHz with a percentage of (2.7 ± 0.6)% in the frequency range 25.5 - 28.6 GHz, when the dielectric lining was removed from the maser. The frequency of the microwave output after the Cherenkov maser interaction was measured to be mainly around 25.5 GHz and the dominating mode was identified as being TM01. The duration of the microwave pulse was approximately 80 ns, with a peak power of around 2 ± 0.2 kW. The gain of this amplifier was measured

  3. Radiation protection programme for a radioisotope production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makgato, Thutu Nelson

    2015-02-01

    The present project reviews reactor based radioisotope production facilities. An overview of techniques and methodologies used as well as laboratory facilities necessary for the production process are discussed. Specific details of reactor based production and processing of more commonly used industrial and pharmaceutical radioisotopes are provided. Ultimately, based on facilities and techniques utilized as well as the associated hazard assessment, a proposed radiation protection programme is discussed. Elements of the radiation protection programme will also consider lessons from recent incidents and accidents encountered in radioisotope production facilities. (au)

  4. Brachytherapy with 125-Iodine sources: transport and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Carla D.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Nagatomi, Helio R.; Feher, Anselmo; Hilario, Katia F.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The estimates for the year 2009 show that 466,730 new cancer cases will occur in Brazil. Prostate cancer is the second most incident type. Brachytherapy, a type of radiotherapy, with Iodine-125 sources are an important form of treatment for this kind of cancer. The Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) created a project to develop a national prototype of these sources and is implementing a facility for local production. The seeds manufacture in Brazil will allow to diminish the treatment cost and make it possible for a larger number of patients. While the laboratory is not ready, the IPEN import and it distributes seeds. This work aim is to present and evaluate the transport procedures and the radiological protection applied to imported sources in order to assist the procedures for the new laboratory implementation. Before sending to hospitals, the seeds are packed by a radioprotector supervisor, in accordance with CNEN NE 5.01 standard 'Radioactive Material Transport'. Despite Iodine-125 presents low energy photons, around 29 keV, local and personal dosimeters are used during the transport process, as described in CNEN NN 3.01 standard 'Radiological Protection Basic Guideline'. All the results show no contamination and very low exposure, proving the method to be valid. The transport procedure used is correct, according to the regulations. As an result of this work, a new dosimeter should be installed and evaluate in future study. (author)

  5. Radiation processing of food and allied products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  6. Protection during work with ionizing radiation sources; Ochrana pri praci se zdroji ionizujiciho zareni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The publication has been set up as a textbook for training courses dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation, designed for supervisory staff and persons directly responsible for activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The book consists of a preface and the following chapters: (1) Fundamentals of ionizing radiation physics; (2) Quantities and units used in ionizing radiation protection; (3) Principles of ionizing radiation dosimetry; (4) Biological effects of ionizing radiation; (5) An overview of sources of public irradiation; (6) Principles and methods of health protection against ionizing radiation; (7) Examples of technical applications of sources of ionizing radiation; (8) Personnel and working environment monitoring; (9) Documentation maintained at sites with ionizing radiation sources; (10) Methods of personnel protection against external irradiation and internal radionuclide contamination; (11) Radiation incidents and accidents; (12) Health care of personnel exposed to the ionizing radiation risk; (12) Additional radiation protection requirements in handling radioactive substances other than sealed sources; (13) Measurement and metrology. (P.A.).

  7. Extensive validation of CM SAF surface radiation products over Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urraca, Ruben; Gracia-Amillo, Ana M; Koubli, Elena; Huld, Thomas; Trentmann, Jörg; Riihelä, Aku; Lindfors, Anders V; Palmer, Diane; Gottschalg, Ralph; Antonanzas-Torres, Fernando

    2017-09-15

    This work presents a validation of three satellite-based radiation products over an extensive network of 313 pyranometers across Europe, from 2005 to 2015. The products used have been developed by the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) and are one geostationary climate dataset (SARAH-JRC), one polar-orbiting climate dataset (CLARA-A2) and one geostationary operational product. Further, the ERA-Interim reanalysis is also included in the comparison. The main objective is to determine the quality level of the daily means of CM SAF datasets, identifying their limitations, as well as analyzing the different factors that can interfere in the adequate validation of the products. The quality of the pyranometer was the most critical source of uncertainty identified. In this respect, the use of records from Second Class pyranometers and silicon-based photodiodes increased the absolute error and the bias, as well as the dispersion of both metrics, preventing an adequate validation of the daily means. The best spatial estimates for the three datasets were obtained in Central Europe with a Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) within 8-13 W/m 2 , whereas the MAD always increased at high-latitudes, snow-covered surfaces, high mountain ranges and coastal areas. Overall, the SARAH-JRC's accuracy was demonstrated over a dense network of stations making it the most consistent dataset for climate monitoring applications. The operational dataset was comparable to SARAH-JRC in Central Europe, but lacked of the temporal stability of climate datasets, while CLARA-A2 did not achieve the same level of accuracy despite predictions obtained showed high uniformity with a small negative bias. The ERA-Interim reanalysis shows the by-far largest deviations from the surface reference measurements.

  8. Optimization of prodigiosin production by Serratia marcescens using crude glycerol and enhancing production using gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora M. Elkenawy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prodigiosin is a red pigment produced by Serratia marcescens. Prodigiosin is regarded as a promising drug owing to its reported characteristics of possessing anti-microbial, anti-cancer, and immunosuppressive activity. A factorial design was applied to generate a set of 32 experimental combinations to study the optimal conditions for pigment production using crude glycerol obtained from local biodiesel facility as carbon source for the growth of Serratia marcescens. The maximum production (870 unit/cell was achieved at 22 °C, at pH 9 with the addition of 1% (w/v peptone and 109 cell/ml inoculum size after 6 days of incubation. Gamma radiation at dose 200 Gy was capable of doubling the production of the pigment using the optimized conditions and manipulating production temperature. Our results indicate that we have designed an economic medium supporting enhanced Serratia marcescens MN5 prodigiosin production giving an added value for crude glycerol obtained from biodiesel industry.

  9. Diffraction-enhanced imaging at the UK synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibison, M.; Cheung, K.C.; Siu, K.; Hall, C.J.; Lewis, R.A.; Hufton, A.; Wilkinson, S.J.; Rogers, K.D.; Round, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging (DEI) system, which shares access to Beamline 7.6 on the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS), is now in its third year of existence. The system was developed under a European Commission grant PHase Analyser SYstem (PHASY), won during the Fourth Framework. Typical applications continue to be the imaging of small biological specimens, using a beam of 12-17 keV after monochromation and up to 40 mm in width and 1-2 mm in height, although it is planned to investigate other materials as opportunity permits and time becomes available for more routine scientific use. Recent improvements have been made to the optical alignment procedure for setting up the station before imaging: a small laser device can now be set up to send a beam down the X-ray path through the four crystals, and a small photodiode, which has much better signal-to-noise characteristics than the ion chamber normally used for alignment, has been trailed successfully. A 3-D tomographic reconstruction capability has recently been developed and tested for DEI projection image sets, and will be applied to future imaging work on the SRS, in conjunction with volume visualization software. The next generation of DEI system, planned to operate at up to 60 keV on an SRS wiggler station, is in its design stage; it will feature much improved mechanics and mountings, especially for angular control, and a simplified alignment procedure to facilitate the necessary sharing of the SRS station

  10. Disk shaped radiation sources for education purposes made of chemical fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao

    2008-01-01

    A method for fabricating a disk-shaped radiation source from material containing natural radioisotopes was developed. In this compression and formation method, a certain amount of powdered material is placed in a stainless steel formwork and compressed to form a solid disk. Using this method, educational radiation sources were fabricated using commercially available chemical fertilizers that naturally contain the radionuclide, 40 K, which emits either beta or gamma rays, at each disintegration. The compression and formation method was evaluated by inspecting eleven radiation sources thus fabricated. Then the suitability of the fertilizer radiation source as an education aid was evaluated. The results showed that the method could be used to fabricate radiation sources without the need for learning special skills or techniques. It was also found that the potassium fertilizer radiation source could be used to demonstrate that the inverse-square law can be applied to the distance between the radiation source and detector, and that an exponential relationship can be seen between the shielding effectiveness and the total thickness of the shielding materials. It is concluded that a natural fertilizer radiation source is an appropriate aid for demonstrating the characteristics of radiation. (author)

  11. Bryophytes - an emerging source for herbal remedies and chemical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabovljevic, Marko S.; Sabovljević, Aneta D.; Ikram, Nur Kusaira K.

    2016-01-01

    biomass in various ecosystems, bryophytes are a seldom part of ethnomedicine and rarely subject to medicinal and chemical analyses. Still, hundreds of novel natural products have been isolated from bryophytes. Bryophytes have been shown to contain numerous potentially useful natural products, including...... loss, plant growth regulators and allelopathic activities. Bryophytes also cause allergies and contact dermatitis. All these effects highlight bryophytes as potential source for herbal remedies and production of chemicals to be used in various products....

  12. Radiation sterilization of some pharmaceutical preparations and medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashmetov, M.Yu.; Makhkamov, Sh.M.; Urinov, Sh.S.; Turaev, A.S.; Sultanov, M.S.; Inagomov, Kh.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In connection with intensive development of pharmacology and medical techniques, use of the products contacting to blood, with the internal environment of an organism, with wound surface, with mucous membranes and skin there were high requirements to sterility of pharmaceutical preparations and medical products. Traditional methods of sterilization (heat treatment, gas processing and processing the ferry) have some restrictions in application, and not insufficient degree of sterilization required for pharmaceutical preparations and medical products. Thermal processing can lead to degradation of structure (medicine), mechanical changes and loss of medical properties. Besides, it is impossible to carry out sterilization of many pharmaceutical preparations by a method of heat treatment. Sterilization of products in packing is very complicated, because sterilization temperature of packing and a product is different. Gas processing is basically applied to sterilization of medical products (syringes, bandage, cotton wools, etc.). However, the degree of sterility is low, because of rather low ability and heterogeneity of sterilizing substance. Sterilization in packing represents special difficulty and demands additional charges related with delivery of the purified gas from abroad. Last years alongside with known technological methods of sterilization of medical products and pharmaceutical preparations radiating methods of processing have found wide application. Use of electronic bunches with the moderate energy and various isotopes became a basis for formation and development of a new direction in the medicine, called by 'radiation sterilization'. The radiation technology is highly harmless and economic, not polluting substance and surrounding space. Unlike the specified traditional methods, radiating processing of products by the isotope 60 Co, radiating the gamma quantum, has unique opportunities - high penetrability in substance, providing uniformity of

  13. Sources of Combustion Products: An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to environmental tobacco smoke, other sources of combustion products are unvented kerosene and gas space heaters, woodstoves, fireplaces, and gas stoves. The major pollutants released are carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particles.

  14. The new atomic act. Radiation exposure from radon and natural radiation sources in workplaces and the experience of surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinaglova, R.

    2018-01-01

    In this presentation the new atomic act approved in the Czech republic is analyzed from the point of view of irradiation from radon and natural radiation sources in workplaces. Experience of supervision are also discussed. (authors)

  15. Projection of needs for gamma radiation sources and other radioisotopes and assessment of alternatives for providing radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.A.; Jensen, G.A.; Clark, L.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Jarrett, J.H.; Katayama, Y.B.; McKee, R.W.; Morgan, L.G.; Nealey, S.M.; Platt, A.M.; Tingey, G.L.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the projected uses and demands for a variety of nuclear byproducts. Because the major large-scale near-term demand is for gamma irradiation sources, this report concentrates on the needs for gamma sources and evaluates the options for providing the needed material. Projections of possible growth in the irradiation treatment industry indicate that there will be a need for 180 to 320 MCi of /sup 60/Co (including /sup 137/Cs equivalent) in service in the year 2000. The largest current and projected use of gamma irradiation is for the sterilization of medical devices and disposable medical supplies. Currently, 40% of US disposable medical products are treated by irradiation, and within 10 years it is expected that 90% will be treated in this manner. Irradiation treatment of food for destruction of pathogens or parasites, disinfestation, or extension of allowable storage periods is estimated to require an active inventory of 75 MCi of /sup 60/Co-equivalent gamma source in about a decade. 90 refs., 7 figs., 25 tabs.

  16. Projection of needs for gamma radiation sources and other radioisotopes and assessment of alternatives for providing radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Jensen, G.A.; Clark, L.L.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the projected uses and demands for a variety of nuclear byproducts. Because the major large-scale near-term demand is for gamma irradiation sources, this report concentrates on the needs for gamma sources and evaluates the options for providing the needed material. Projections of possible growth in the irradiation treatment industry indicate that there will be a need for 180 to 320 MCi of 60 Co (including 137 Cs equivalent) in service in the year 2000. The largest current and projected use of gamma irradiation is for the sterilization of medical devices and disposable medical supplies. Currently, 40% of US disposable medical products are treated by irradiation, and within 10 years it is expected that 90% will be treated in this manner. Irradiation treatment of food for destruction of pathogens or parasites, disinfestation, or extension of allowable storage periods is estimated to require an active inventory of 75 MCi of 60 Co-equivalent gamma source in about a decade. 90 refs., 7 figs., 25 tabs

  17. Effect of Different Solar Radiation Data Sources on the Variation of Techno-Economic Feasibility of PV Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Ali, Amer; Kannanaikal, F. V.; Amin, N.; Aljaafar, A. A.; Kadhim, Mohammed; Sopian, K.

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the variation in techno-economic feasibility of PV power system under different data sources of solar radiation. HOMER simulation tool is used to predict the techno-economic feasibility parameters of PV power system in Baghdad city, Iraq located at (33.3128° N, 44.3615° E) as a case study. Four data sources of solar radiation, different annual capacity shortages percentage (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5), and wide range of daily load profile (10-100 kWh/day) are implemented. The analyzed parameters of the techno-economic feasibility are COE (/kWh), PV array power capacity (kW), PV electrical production (kWh/year), No. of batteries and battery lifetime (year). The main results of the study revealed the followings: (1) solar radiation from different data sources caused observed to significant variation in the values of the techno-economic feasibility parameters; therefore, careful attention must be paid to ensure the use of an accurate solar input data; (2) Average solar radiation from different data sources can be recommended as a reasonable input data; (3) it is observed that as the size and of PV power system increases, the effect of different data sources of solar radiation increases and causes significant variation in the values of the techno-economic feasibility parameters.

  18. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed. - Highlights: • The hazards associated to the use of radioactive sources must be taken into account. • Security issues are of paramount importance in the use of radioactive sources. • Radiation sources can be used to perpetrate terrorist acts (RDDs, INDs, REDs). • DSRS and orphan sources trigger radiological protection, safety and security concerns. • Regulatory control, from cradle to grave, of radioactive sources is mandatory.

  19. Comparison and evaluation of gridded radiation products across northern Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troy, T J; Wood, E F

    2009-01-01

    Northern Eurasia is a region experiencing documented changes in temperature and large-scale streamflow, yet little attention has been focused on the large-scale energy budgets over the region. We compare station data and gridded radiation products from reanalysis and remote sensing to evaluate the radiative fluxes across northern Eurasia. On annual timescales, we find that the downward shortwave radiation products, with the exception of those of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, compare well with long-term station observations, but that this agreement breaks down with smaller timescales and for downward longwave and upward shortwave and longwave radiation. Of the six gridded products, the Surface Radiation Budget data set performs the best as compared to observations. Differences in radiative fluxes are on the order of 15-20 W m -2 on seasonal timescales, averaged across the region, with larger variations spatially and at smaller timescales. The resulting uncertainty in net radiation has implications for climate and hydrologic analyses that seek to understand changes in northern Eurasia climate and its hydrologic cycle.

  20. Microbiological problems of radiation sterilization control of disposable medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horakova, V.

    1975-01-01

    Dose-response curves were determined for three strains of cocci and seven strains of aerobic spore-forming rods after irradiation by two different 60 Co sources and Van de Graaff electron accelerator. Besides the test strains Streptococcus faecium A 2 1, Bacillus sphericus Csub(I)A and Bacillus pumilus E601, some strains isolated from irradiated vaccines and animal diets, or found among common air-contaminating bacteria and pathogenic cocci were examined. The efficiency of the used radiation sources was compared. The control of the microbiological efficiency of radiation sterilization is discussed regarding routine practice. (author)

  1. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    G?mez, Jaime; Salazar, Idana; Vargas, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are ...

  2. Radiative corrections to top and bottom production at collider energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, S.

    1988-10-01

    We discuss the results of a full calculation of the QCD O(α 8 /sup s/) radiative corrections to the differential cross section for the production of a heavy quark pair. Numerical results are presented for bottom and top production in p/bar p/ collisions at /square root/s = 1.8 TeV. 2 refs., 2 figs

  3. Meat and meat product preservation by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egginger, R.

    A brief summary is given of experience with the preservation of meat and meat products by ionizing radiation, or by combined methods. The results of the research have proved that hygienically significant microorganisms (mainly salmonellas) are reliably destroyed and that the consumption of thus irradiated meat and meat products presents no danger to human health. (B.S.)

  4. Educational advertising of the public about the use of radiation sources in technology, research and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolar, A.

    2009-01-01

    At the latest since Tschernobyl the use of radiation sources and ionizing radiation is due to missing knowledge of the public not affected by popularity but rather by fear. But the question is, whether it would be necessary on the part of the radiation users, not to conceal or mythologise the use, but to emphasize on educational advertising. (orig.)

  5. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  6. Radiation modification of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Industrial and radiation chemical processes of material modification based on cross-linking of polymers as a result of radiation are considered. Among them are production of cables and rods with irradiated modified insulation, production of hardened and thermo-shrinkaging polymer products (films, tubes, fashioned products), production of radiation cross-linked polyethylene foam, technology of radiation vulcanization of elastomers. Attention is paid to radiation plants on the basis of γ-sources and electron acceleratos as well as to radiation conditions

  7. Trends in use of non-medical radiation sources in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacomelli, M.; Cesarek, J.; Osojnik, I.

    2007-01-01

    Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration is the regulatory authority competent also for administrative control in the fields of radiation practices and use of radiation sources in industry and research, with exception in medicine and veterinary medicine. Prior to the adoption of the Act on Protection against Ionizing Radiation and Nuclear Safety the responsible authority was the Health Inspectorate of Republic of Slovenia. The article presents an overview of the use of radiation sources in Slovenia, in industry, research and education. Analysis of the data from abovementioned regulators shall examine trends in use in recent years as number of sources and organizations, and according to the type of their intended use. (author)

  8. Avoiding radiation exposure while training to locate a radioactive source: a virtual reality exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marins, E.R.; Cotelli do Espírito Santo, A.; Abreu Mól, A. C. de; Cunha, G.; Landau, L.

    2015-01-01

    A technician undergoing radioprotection training must learn to use radiation detectors. Practical exercises involve being near to radiation sources. The work here presented reduces the exposure to individuals using a virtual environment to achieve preliminary apprenticeship prior using real radioactive sources. (authors)

  9. General problems associated with the control and safe use of radiation sources (199)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, J.U.

    1993-01-01

    There are problems at various levels in ensuring safety in the use of radiation sources. A relatively new problem that warrants international action is the smuggling of radioactive material across international borders. An international convention on the control and safe use of radiation sources is essential to provide a universally harmonized mechanism for ensuring safety

  10. The status quo, problems and improvements pertaining to radiation source management in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jiaqi

    1998-01-01

    Early in 1930s, radiation sources were used in medicine in China, and since then their application has been widely extended in a variety of fields. This paper presents a brief outline of the status quo, problems on management for radiation sources, and some relevant improvements as recommended by author are also included in it. (author)

  11. Production of hydrogel wound dressing by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Kazuki

    2008-01-01

    It has been thought that making a dry scab helps to cure a wound faster. However, recently a treatment of a wound according to moist healing theory which cure a wound without making a scab is becoming popular. Accordingly, we prepared a highly stable sheet type hydrogel in a short period by radiating electron beam to an aqueous solution of a polymer. The hydrogel is not soluble in water and keeps suitable moist environment for wound healing. Therefore, a hydrogel a wound dressing, Viewgel R in which represents a registered trademark and is referred to Viewgel hereinafter, is developed and released from July of 2004. In this paper we report the process of the development of Viewgel. (author)

  12. Economic feasibility constraints for renewable energy source power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1992-01-01

    Suitable analysis criteria for use in economic feasibility studies of renewable energy source power plants are examined for various plant types, e.g., pumped storage hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, refuse-fuelled, etc. The paper focusses on the impacts, on operating cost and rate structure, of the necessity, depending on demand characteristics, to integrate renewable energy source power production with conventional power production in order to effectively and economically meet peak power demand. The influence of commercialization and marketing trends on renewable energy source power plant economic feasibility are also taken into consideration

  13. Practices of radiation sterilization of medical products and pharmaceutical preparations: egyptian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation sterilization involves the application of sufficient ionizing energy furnished by either x-rays, gamma-rays or accelerated electron beams, to render an article free of viable micro-organisms. The method offers a number of advantages which makes it an attractive choice in a number of situations: It is a suitable means of sterilizing many many materials.. Radiation causes no significant temperature rise, thus permits sterilization of heat-sensitive drugs and low melting-point plastics. It is certainly the best, and often the only method of sterilizing biological tissues and preparations of biological origin. due to its high penetrating ability, gamma-radiation reaches all parts of the object to be sterilized. The radiation sterilized products are not subjected to touching or exposure to the outside environment except by the and users. The chemical reactivity of radiation is relatively low as compared with the highly reactive gases. Radiation can be easily adapted for continuous processing as compared with batch operations currently in use with gas sterilization. The radiation process is the most reliable of all competing sterilization methods due to the obsolete certainty that the radiation source emits radiation of known energy and power

  14. Practices of radiation sterilization of medical products and pharmaceutical preparations: egyptian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushdy, H M

    1993-12-31

    Radiation sterilization involves the application of sufficient ionizing energy furnished by either x-rays, gamma-rays or accelerated electron beams, to render an article free of viable micro-organisms. The method offers a number of advantages which makes it an attractive choice in a number of situations: It is a suitable means of sterilizing many many materials.. Radiation causes no significant temperature rise, thus permits sterilization of heat-sensitive drugs and low melting-point plastics. It is certainly the best, and often the only method of sterilizing biological tissues and preparations of biological origin. due to its high penetrating ability, gamma-radiation reaches all parts of the object to be sterilized. The radiation sterilized products are not subjected to touching or exposure to the outside environment except by the and users. The chemical reactivity of radiation is relatively low as compared with the highly reactive gases. Radiation can be easily adapted for continuous processing as compared with batch operations currently in use with gas sterilization. The radiation process is the most reliable of all competing sterilization methods due to the obsolete certainty that the radiation source emits radiation of known energy and power.

  15. Tetrode bias power supply for Indus-1, synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, A.; Badapanda, M.K.; Tyagi, R.; Upadhyay, R.; Bohrey, A.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    An AC regulator based 7 kV, 3 A high voltage DC power supply is designed, fabricated and tested on dummy load for BEL make Tetrode type 15000CX, used in the high power RF amplifier at 31.613 MHz employed with INDUS-1, Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS). Various protections features like over voltage, under voltage, over current, phase failure and phase reversal are incorporated in this power supply and presented in this paper. As Tetrode amplifier requires various other power supplies in addition to this bias power supply and they are operated in a particular sequence for its healthy operation, suitable interlock arrangements have been incorporated and also presented in this paper. The reliable operation of protection and interlock features incorporated in this power supply has been checked with dummy load under simulated conditions. Three numbers of series limiting inductors, one in each phase, have been incorporated in this power supply to limit fault currents under unfavourable conditions and there by increasing the overall life of this power supply. It will replace existing 7 kV, 3 A HVDC power supply, which is in operation for more than fifteen years with Indus-1 SRS and is likely to be helpful in reducing the down time of Indus-1 SRS. It has better performance features than the existing power supply. The long term voltage stability better than 0.3 % and output ripple less than 0.3 % have been achieved for this Tetrode bias power supply. This power supply is likely to be integrated with INDUS-1 SRS soon. (author)

  16. Radiation protection programme for LEU miniature source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beinpuo, Ernest Sanyare Warmann

    2015-02-01

    A radiation protection program has been developed to promote radiation dose reduction. It emphasize radiological protection fundamentals geared at reducing radiation from the application of the research reactor at the reactor center of the National Nuclear Research Institute (NNRI) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The objectives of the radiation safety program are both to ensure that nuclear scientists and technicians are exposed to a minimum of ionizing radiation and to protect employees and facility users and surrounding community from any potentially harmful effects of nuclear research reactor at GAEC. The primary purpose of the radiation control program is to assure radiological safety of all personnel and the public to guarantee that ionizing radiation arising out of the operations of the Research Reactor at the Reactor Center does not adversely affect personnel, the general public or the environment. This program sets forth polices, regulations, and procedures approved by the Centers Radiation Control Committee. The regulations and procedures outlined in this program are intended to protect all individuals with a minimum of interference in their activities and are consistent with regulations of the Radiation Protection Board (RPB) applicable to ionizing radioactive producing devices. (au)

  17. Product analysis for polyethylene degradation by radiation and thermal ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Masaki; Shimada, Akihiko; Kudoh, Hisaaki; Tamura, Kiyotoshi; Seguchi, Tadao

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation products in crosslinked polyethylene for cable insulation formed during thermal and radiation ageing were analyzed by FTIR-ATR. The products were composed of carboxylic acid, carboxylic ester, and carboxylic anhydride for all ageing conditions. The relative yields of carboxylic ester and carboxylic anhydride increased with an increase of temperature for radiation and thermal ageing. The carboxylic acid was the primary oxidation product and the ester and anhydride were secondary products formed by the thermally induced reactions of the carboxylic acids. The carboxylic acid could be produced by chain scission at any temperature followed by the oxidation of the free radicals formed in the polyethylene. The results of the analysis led to formulation of a new oxidation mechanism which was different from the chain reactions via peroxy radicals and peroxides. - Highlights: ► Products analysis of polyethylene degradation by radiation and thermal ageing. ► Components of carbonyl compounds produced in polyethylene by thermal and radiation oxidation were determined by FTIR. ► Carbonyl compounds comprised carboxylic acid, carboxylic ester, and carboxylic anhydride. ► Carboxylic acid was the primary oxidation product of chain scission at any oxidation temperature. ► Carboxylic ester and carboxylic anhydride are secondary products formed from carboxylic acid at higher temperature.

  18. Fission product source term research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe some of the research being performed at ORNL in support of the effort to describe, as realistically as possible, fission product source terms for nuclear reactor accidents. In order to make this presentation manageable, only those studies directly concerned with fission product behavior, as opposed to thermal hydraulics, accident sequence progression, etc., will be discussed

  19. Radiation protection for the illegal governmental use of radiation sources. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.

    2000-07-01

    Probably for the first time, illegal governmental uses of radiation sources, including the administrative infrastructure such as special radiation protection regulation, an advisory body etc., have been documented by the evaluation of the documents of the Ministry of State Security in the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany). Over a thousand persons, but also documents, money bills etc. were marked with a wide variety of radionuclides and traced with specially developed detectors. Among the many different nuclides provided regularly from the Rossendorf Research Center near Dresden, in particular {sup 46}Sc was popular. (orig.) [German] 'Regierungskriminalitaet' kann man auch im deutschen Strahlenschutz finden. Anhand neuer Dokumentationen der so genannten Gauckbehoerden, ueber die auch schon fluechtig in der Presse berichtet und spekuliert wurde, lassen sich Einzelheiten ueber die Vorgehensweisen einfallsreicher Stasi-Mitarbeiter, die Stasi-eigene Strahlenschutzverordnung und Strahlenschutz-Kommission usw. rekonstruieren. Ueber 1.000 Personen, aber auch Gegenstaende, Dokumente, Geldscheine etc. wurden markiert, wobei unter einer Vielzahl der regelmaessig aus Rossendorf gelieferten Nukliden {sup 46}Sc besonders gern eingesetzt sowie in Dresden spezielle Nachweisgeraete entwickelt wurden. (orig.)

  20. Medical management of radiation safety and control of ionizing radiation sources in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovhannisyan, N.M.

    1998-01-01

    The events of the last 10 years, Spitak earthquake (1988) and collapse of the former USSR brought forth the changes of the political situation in Armenia and significant disorder in economy, industry, relations, including the radiation safety (RS) and control of the organization of the activities connected with the ionizing radiation sources (IRSs). In 1989 the Armenian Nuclear Power Plant was shut down, and in 1994 it was restarted. In Armenia there are about 750 X-ray rooms, 10 radionuclide diagnostic laboratories, 20 gamma and X-ray units; 95 enterprises in industry, science and technology use the IRSs with different purposes, there are 5 electron particle accelerators of different power capacity. About 6,000 individuals have constant contact to IRS: the roentgenologists, radiologists, the staff of NPP, accelerators, etc. Besides, more than 3,000 liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP disaster live in Armenia. Nowadays, the precise infrastructure of RS is established in Armenia. The regulating body is the 'State Atom Authority', performing the control, coordination and licensing of both enterprises and specialists. Ministry of Health Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Ecology perform the control of IRSs' delivery into the Republic of Armenia and then their proper use and waste disposal in Armenia. (author)

  1. Radiation sources in the EU. A review of steps in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciani, V.

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the role and activities of the European Union concerning safety of radiation sources. A brief presentation is given of the results from a recent study of the management of radiation sources in EU Member Sates. A Number of legal texts which apply to radiation sources are cited as well. In 1998, the EC co-sponsored together with the IAEA, the International Criminal Police Organization and the World Customs Organization, a Conference on the safety of radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Materials in France. Commission supports follow-up actions to that Conference and welcomes the IAEA initiative to develop an action plan that would address the international dimensions of the safety of radiation sources

  2. Track 8: health and radiological applications. Isotopes and radiation: general. 2. Radiation Pasteurization for Diverse Food Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braby, L.A.; Whittaker, A.D.; McLellan, M.; Waltar, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    requiring differential dosing, and many other technical variables. Both the testing of specific products and the basic research on irradiation processing require a fully instrumented irradiation facility and an extensive food safety and quality testing capability. To meet the needs of food processors that wish to consider entering the radiation-pasteurized product market, Texas A and M University (Texas A and M) has initiated a program to develop a comprehensive radiation pasteurization research facility. A 2-MV electrostatic electron accelerator for studying the potential benefits of surface pasteurization of some products is currently being assembled and will probably be the first radiation source to come on-line. A collaboration with Sure Beam Corporation, the major manufacturer of high-energy electron beam and X-ray irradiation equipment, will establish a new Texas A and M research and testing facility with two 20-kW, 10-MeV electron beam accelerators and a 5-MV X-ray source, all of which will be ready for use in 2002. An isotopic source of mono-energetic photons is also being considered. The food irradiation lines will connect directly with a new, 16 000-ft 2 , fully controlled temperature facility that is equipped with a loading ramp that can accommodate 18-wheeler trucks for receiving and delivering test market-sized loads of products. All of these irradiation facilities will be located in close proximity to the extensive food safety and quality testing facilities of Texas A and M, which operates one of the largest agricultural engineering and food sciences programs in American universities. We believe that this combination will provide the research and testing capability needed to support the rapid growth of radiation pasteurization that we expect to occur in the next few years. (authors)

  3. Synchrotron radiation sources: their properties and applications for VUV and X-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E.E.

    1976-09-01

    Synchrotron radiation from accelerators and storage rings offers far reaching possibilities for many fields of basic and applied physics. The properties of synchrotron radiation, existing and planned synchrotron radiation facilities, as well as instrumental aspects are discussed. In order to illustrate the usefulness of the synchrotron radiation sources a few highlights from atomic, molelucar, and solid state spectroscopy are presented and examples from x-ray experiments and from the field of applied physics are given. (orig.) [de

  4. Some aspects of the regulatory control of radiation sources in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kereselidze, Z.

    2001-01-01

    The report refers to the responsibilities of the different governmental bodies in Georgia regarding radiation protection and safety of radiation sources. In particular, it explains the role and main activities that are carried out by the Nuclear and Radiation Safety Service which is subordinated to the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resource Protection. The report emphasizes the important assistance provided by the IAEA in the improvement of the national radiation safety infrastructure. (author)

  5. Industrial open source solutions for product life cycle management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors go through the open source for product life cycle management (PLM and the efforts done from communities such as the open source initiative. The characteristics of the open source solutions are highlighted as well. Next, the authors go through the requirements for PLM. This is an area where more attention has been given as the manufacturers are competing with the quality and life cycle costs of their products. Especially, the need of companies to try to get a strong position in providing services for their products and thus to make themselves less vulnerable to changes in the market has led to high interest in product life cycle simulation. The potential of applying semantic data management to solve these problems discussed in the light of recent developments. In addition, a basic roadmap is presented as to how the above-described problems could be tackled with open software solutions.

  6. Declaration and authorization forms for the fabrication, distribution or use of radioactive sources or electric generators of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document gathers all the forms to be completed when declaring or when asking for an authorization for the fabrication, retailing or use of radioactive sources or electric equipment generating ionizing radiation. These forms can concern all domains (use of sealed radioactive sources, possession and use of a particle accelerator or of radionuclides, import or export of radionuclides or of products containing radionuclides), or the use of such materials or equipment in the medical sector, or the fabrication and use in industry or research, or in user's guides for radioactive sources

  7. Radiation sterilization of medical products- current trends and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, G.

    1997-01-01

    In medical practice use of sterile pharmaceuticals and single use disposable medical devices is steadily increasing. Sterile pharmaceuticals like injections and ophthalmic ointments are required for therapy. Medical devices are employed for diagnostic, drug administration or corrective purposes, and as implants for temporary, short term or long term residence in the human system. All these products are made available in sterile form by treating them to a suitable process of sterilization i.e. dry/wet heat, ethylene oxide (EtO) gas or ionizing radiation. In this paper current trends and future prospects of radiation sterilization of medical products are given in detail. 9 refs., 7 tabs

  8. Potential radiation exposure in emergencies involving neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, P.K.; Bisht, J.S.; Massand, O.P.; Venkataraman, G.; Nandakumar, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Incidents involving neutron sources, particularly in the field of oil well logging, may involve potential hazards by way of source lost above ground, lost under water at a depth or source damaged and spread over an area. While every effort should be made for retrieving a lost source or contain the contamination, there could be occasions when abandonment of the source may be preferable to retrieval. However, the decision to abandon the source needs to be guided primarily by considerations of potential exposure and the cost of retrieval. This report briefly discusses these aspects of such emergencies. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  9. The high pressure xenon lamp as a source of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heerdt, J.A. ter.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of an investigation into the radiation properties of a commercially available high pressure xenon lamp (type XBO 900 W) in the spectral range 0.3 to 3 μm. The purpose of the study was to find out whether such a lamp can serve as a (secondary) standard of radiation in spectroscopic and radiometric measurements. The main advantades of the xenon lamp over other secondary standards such as the tungsten strip lamp and the anode of a carbon arc lamp are the high temperature of its discharge and the resulting strong radiation over a broad spectral range. (Auth.)

  10. Regulatory control and safety of radiation and radioactive sources in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    The application of ionizing radiation and radioactive sources in different fields such as, medicine, industry, agriculture, research and teaching is constantly increasing in Bangladesh. Any system enacted to control exposure to ionizing radiation has as primary objective the protection of health of people against the deleterious effects of radiation. Establishing the appropriate level of radiological protection and safety of radiation sources used in practice or intervention attains this objective. The regulatory program governing the safe use of radioactive and radiation sources in Bangladesh is based on the legislation enacted as Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NSRC) Act-93 and NSRC Rules-97 and its implementation by the competent authority. The radiation control infrastructures and procedure are described as well as their functioning for the implementation of relevant activities such as licensing, regular inspection, personal dose monitoring, emergency preparedness, etc. The issue of security of radiation source is dealt in close relation with the preparation and use of the inventory of all radiation sources in the country

  11. A basic radiation-education method using a handy-type cloud chamber and natural radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushita, K. N.

    2010-10-01

    Nuclear human resources development becomes increasingly important due to the world trend of expanding nuclear energy utilization in this century. At the Nuclear Human Resource Development Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, many kinds of nuclear and radiation education have been conducted consistently and continuously through its half-century history though having several organizational changes. High level education is required for the specialists of nuclear technology including nuclear power plants operators and engineers, while basic knowledge on nuclear energy and, specially, on radiations and radioisotopes should be given to school students and public. Besides lectures on radiation and radioisotopes, some basic experiments are useful to understand what are radiations and radioisotopes. One of such basic experiments is the cloud chamber experiment. It is a great fun and excitement even for small children as one can actually see the radiation tracks by his/her naked eyes at hand. While there are many types of cloud chambers, we have developed a new-type cloud chamber to use for the radiation education and training s. Using the new-type cloud chamber, we have further developed a new method of this experiment so that the participants can more deeply understand the phenomena and the nature of radiation and radioisotopes. In this method, using a radiation source of natural uranium ore and gaseous radiation source containing Rn-220 obtained from thorium-containing material, they not only observe the radiation tracks but also measure the length and count the number of the tracks. Then they can calculate the energy of the radiation (alpha ray) and can estimate the half-life of the radioisotope (Rn-220). This method can be applied for high-school and general university students as well as for the public as a useful and effective method in the radiation education. (Author)

  12. A basic radiation-education method using a handy-type cloud chamber and natural radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushita, K. N., E-mail: Kushita.kouhei@iaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Human Resource Development Center, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 309-1195 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Nuclear human resources development becomes increasingly important due to the world trend of expanding nuclear energy utilization in this century. At the Nuclear Human Resource Development Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, many kinds of nuclear and radiation education have been conducted consistently and continuously through its half-century history though having several organizational changes. High level education is required for the specialists of nuclear technology including nuclear power plants operators and engineers, while basic knowledge on nuclear energy and, specially, on radiations and radioisotopes should be given to school students and public. Besides lectures on radiation and radioisotopes, some basic experiments are useful to understand what are radiations and radioisotopes. One of such basic experiments is the cloud chamber experiment. It is a great fun and excitement even for small children as one can actually see the radiation tracks by his/her naked eyes at hand. While there are many types of cloud chambers, we have developed a new-type cloud chamber to use for the radiation education and training s. Using the new-type cloud chamber, we have further developed a new method of this experiment so that the participants can more deeply understand the phenomena and the nature of radiation and radioisotopes. In this method, using a radiation source of natural uranium ore and gaseous radiation source containing Rn-220 obtained from thorium-containing material, they not only observe the radiation tracks but also measure the length and count the number of the tracks. Then they can calculate the energy of the radiation (alpha ray) and can estimate the half-life of the radioisotope (Rn-220). This method can be applied for high-school and general university students as well as for the public as a useful and effective method in the radiation education. (Author)

  13. Positive effects of radiation on forest production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez J, J.; De la Cruz O, A.; Aguilar, M. A.; Caxnajoy, P. A.; Salceda S, V.

    2009-10-01

    The deforestation is a world problem and due to of increment of seed demand and seedling of good quality, was realized a work about the production improvement on commercial or forest trees for the Mexico State. It was combined the use of two techniques: the plant tissue culture and ionizing application. It was utilized seed of Pinus hartwegii collected and valued previously by ProBosque, with them were formed homogeneous lots that were irradiated to dose of 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 Gy into irradiator Gammacel-220 and later were decontaminated and cultivated in vitro. The seeds-planting were placed in a growth room with temperature and controlled light. After 10 cultivation days was obtained germination among 87-100% without observing the induction of negative changes in none of treatments. After 21 days already developed the embryos completely, modifications were presented in some structures. With these was possible to determine the lethal dose mean that oscillates between 100 and 105 Gy; since to dose bigger than 100 Gy more of 75% of individuals or seedlings present the phenols formation inducing the material lost by oxidation starting from day 32. Also, it is observed that applied doses between the 30 and 90 Gy do not affect or modify the embryogenesis in Pinus hartwegii but if the structures formation and seedling size since after 12 development days it is possible to appreciate to dose of 90, 75 and 45 Gy the presence of a primary radicular system, same that is observed after 22 development days in the witness. Another observation was that to dose of 45 and 90 Gy the leafs presents bigger elongation increasing the seedlings size on 22% in comparison with the witness. We can say that the doses understood between 45 and 90 Gy affect in a positive way the hormonal production of Pinus hartwegii seedlings and that the dose of 90 Gy accelerates the rhizogenes process and it increases the seedling size allowing to diminish the production time of Pinus hartwegii

  14. Production and partial characterization of alkaline protease from bacillus subtilis mutant induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.M.M.; Bashandy, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen bacterial isolates belonging to B.subtilis were locally isolated from soil and screened for alkaline protease production. Only one strain, the highly potent one, was selected as alkaline protease producer and subjected to further studies to optimize its production. Alkaline protease production was maximum at 35 degree C after 72 h of incubation and at ph 10.0. molasses as a carbon source and combination of peptone and yeast extract as a nitrogen source enhanced greatly alkaline protease production. The mutant strain induced by gamma radiation showed higher alkaline protease production by 1.97 fold as compared with the parent strain. The alkaline protease enzyme was active at 40 degree C and ph 10. It was compatible with many commercial detergents and showed high stability (84 %) of its original activity with Ariel detergent. Moreover, alkaline protease enhanced the washing performance, and retained 95 % of its activity in the formulated dry powder.

  15. Terahertz Coherent Synchrotron Radiation from Femtosecond Laser Modulation of the Electron Beam at the Advanced Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Byrd, John; Martin, Michael C; Robin, David; Sannibale, Fernando; Schönlein, Robert W; Zholents, Alexander; Zolotorev, Max S

    2005-01-01

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS), the "femtoslicing" beamline is in operation since 1999 for the production of x-ray synchrotron radiation pulses with femtosecond duration. The mechanism used for generating the short x-ray pulses induces at the same time temporary structures in the electron bunch longitudinal distribution with very short characteristic length. Such structures emit intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency range. This CSR, whose measured intensity is routinely used as a diagnostics for the tune-up of the femtoslicing experiments, represents a potential source of terahertz radiation with very interesting features. Several measurements have been performed for its characterization and in this paper an updated description of the experimental results and of their interpretation is presented.

  16. Radiative corrections for the leptonic pair production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elend, H H

    1971-01-01

    The one-photon bremsstrahlung correction for symmetrical lepton pair production is newly calculated. For this, from all the Feynman diagrams, the subset is picked out for this process which essentially contributes to the symmetrical case. The matrix element square value for the chosen sub-set is expressed by the Bethe-Heitler matrix element square value provided with certain kinematic factors (Huld relationship), where a) a development after the energy of the Bremsquantum, assumed to be small, is carried out and the series is cut off after the second term beyond the infrared section, b) a high-energy approximation is made. Furthermore, c) the structure of the target nucleus and of the recoil transfered to it is neglected, d) the integration on the phase space of the bremsquantitum is carried out with a peaking approximation. All these approximations are individually discussed, and the validity limits which they set for the bremsstrahlung in the result are accurately given.

  17. Loss and recovery of radiation sources in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Pradhan, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    Loss of radioisotope sources occurs as a result of the violation of safe work practices and non-compliance with rules and guidelines. The main causes are human error, negligence in source handling and storage as well as mismanagement and lack of supervision. The failure to adequately supervise and manage leads to a breakdown in communication and differences among workers, supervisors and managers. Recovery of lost sources is generally a tedious task. In India, apart from the efforts of the user institution, a team of scientists from the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) undertakes searches and supervises recovery operations. Sources have been lost in brachytherapy and nuclear medicine departments of hospitals and in industrial institutions. For brachytherapy source losses, hospital garbage, dustbins, passages and lifts were the main targets for searches. While gamma ray and neutron sources could be traced for the most part, pure beta ray sources, such as Sr-90 used in ophthalmic applicators or as check sources, could not be recovered. In industrial radiography, the search for sources was more problematic, especially when the sources were stolen or lost in transport. Lost materials could not be traced in only two out of eleven instances of loss of Ir-192 sources since 1986. In a separate incident, sources which had been stolen were found in a deep river: this necessitated an elaborate fishing operation at a cost of some US$100,000. Each occurrence provided lessons calling for the introduction of new control measures. (author)

  18. A Superpowerful Source of Far-Ultraviolet Monochromatic Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, E.P.; Ivanov, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    In several independent experiments investigating the interaction between the optical field of an intense laser pulse and a xenon cluster beam, we recorded an anomalously high quantum yield of the plasma radiation in the region 10-15 nm. In several cases, the conversion efficiency into the hemisphere reached 10% of the pumping pulse energy. The nature of this phenomenon has not yet been adequately explained. A high conversion efficiency is shown to be possible when producing a plasma with optimal parameters for the amplification of spontaneous radiation on Ni-like xenon transitions to be generated. In a collisional-radiative model, we performed detailed atomic-kinetic calculations of the gains and radiation spectra on the transitions with λ ≅ 4, 10, and 11.3 nm and in the region 13-13.9 nm. For each transition, we determined the time dependences of the gains on plasma parameters. The theoretical and experimental values of the optimal plasma parameters and energy yields of the radiation are in close agreement. Using a theoretical model, we propose possible plasma pumping schemes to achieve the maximum yield of the intense, narrowly beamed soft X-ray radiation. At a pumping pulse repetition rate of 10 4 Hz, the output power for various Ni-like xenon transitions ranges from 100 to 5 x 10 3 W

  19. Fabrication of vitrified isotopic heat and radiation sources for testing in the Asse Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, L.K.; Burkholder, H.C.; McElroy, J.L.; Kahl, L.; Kroebel, R.; Rothfuchs, T.; Strippler, R.

    1989-02-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy, has produced 30 isotopic heat and radiation sources (canisters) for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) to be used as part of a repository testing program in the Asse Salt Mine. PNL was responsible for the fabrication, including filling, closing, decontaminating, and characterizing the canisters. The canisters were fabricated (filled) in three separate processing campaigns using the radioactive liquid-fed ceramic melter to produce a borosilicate glass. Radiochemical constituents ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) were immobilized within the borosilicate glass matrix to yield a product with a predetermined decay heat and surface radiation exposure rate. Canister lid-welding was completed using an autogenous gas tungsten arc welding process. A helium leak test of lid weld tightness verified the leak rate to be no greater than 2.4 /times/ 10/sup /minus/8/ atm-cc/sec, which was less than the criterion of 10/sup /minus/7/ atm-cc/sec. The top, sides, and bottom of the canisters were decontaminated by electropolishing. All canisters were decontaminated to surface smear contamination levels of less than 33 Bq/100 cm 2 beta-gamma radiation. No significant alpha contamination was observed on canister surfaces. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Medicinal herbs as possible sources of anti-inflammatory products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Corciovă

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants constitute an inexhaustible source of bioactive compounds that can be valuable for research in the chemistry field of anti-inflammatory compounds. This review describes several plants from international and national flora that have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in various clinical trials. The paper includes: general aspects regarding the vegetal source, compounds responsible for anti-inflammatory activity, mechanism of action and clinical trials carried out with extracts or products containing standardized extracts.

  1. The LBL [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory] 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornacchia, M.

    1987-03-01

    A description is presented of the conceptual design of the 1 to 2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source proposed for construction at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This facility is designed to produce ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation. The accelerator complex consists of an injection system (linac plus booster synchrotron) and a low-emittance storage ring optimized for insertion devices. Eleven straight sections are available for undulators and wigglers, and up to 48 photon beam lines may ultimately emanate from bending magnets. Design features of the radiation source are the high brightness of the photon beams, the very short pulses (tens of picoseconds), and the tunability of the radiation

  2. Radiation-induced tritium labelling and product analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, C.T. (California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry)

    1993-05-01

    By-products formed in radiation-induced tritium labelling are identified by co-chromatography with authentic samples or by structure prediction using a quantitative structure-retention index relationship. The by-products, formed from labelling of steroids, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, 7-membered heterocyclic ring structures, 1,4-benzodiazepines, 1-haloalkanes, etc. with activated tritium and adsorbed tritium, are shown to be specifically labelled and anticipated products from known chemical reactions. From analyses of the by-products, one can conclude that the hydrogen abstraction by tritium atoms and the substitution by tritium ions are the mechanisms of labelling. Classification of the tritium labelling methods, on the basis of the type of tritium reagent, clearly shows the active role played by tritium atoms and ions in radiation-induced methods. (author).

  3. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao; Ohki, Yumi.

    1991-01-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10 7 - 3x10 8 per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D 10 values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D 10 values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10 -4 per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author)

  4. Institutional and pedagogical criteria for productive open source learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Brian Møller; Ryberg, Thomas; Semey, Ian Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this article we present some institutional and pedagogical criteria for making an informed decision in relation to identifying and choosing a productive open source learning environment. We argue that three concepts (implementation, maintainability and further development) are important when...... considering the sustainability and cost efficiency of an open source system, and we outline a set of key points for evaluating an open source software in terms of cost of system adoption. Furthermore we identify a range of pedagogical concepts and criteria to emphasize the importance of considering...... the relation between the local pedagogical practice and the pedagogical design of the open source learning environment. This we illustrate through an analysis of an open source system and our own pedagogical practice at Aalborg University, Denmark (POPP)....

  5. Can fungi compete with marine sources for chitosan production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghormade, V; Pathan, E K; Deshpande, M V

    2017-11-01

    Chitosan, a β-1,4-linked glucosamine polymer is formed by deacetylation of chitin. It has a wide range of applications from agriculture to human health care products. Chitosan is commercially produced from shellfish, shrimp waste, crab and lobster processing using strong alkalis at high temperatures for long time periods. The production of chitin and chitosan from fungal sources has gained increased attention in recent years due to potential advantages in terms of homogenous polymer length, high degree of deacetylation and solubility over the current marine source. Zygomycetous fungi such as Absidia coerulea, Benjaminiella poitrasii, Cunninghamella elegans, Gongrenella butleri, Mucor rouxii, Mucor racemosus and Rhizopus oryzae have been studied extensively. Isolation of chitosan are reported from few edible basidiomycetous fungi like Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus sajor-caju. Other organisms from mycotech industries explored for chitosan production are Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other wine yeasts. Number of aspects such as value addition to the existing applications of fungi, utilization of waste from agriculture sector, and issues and challenges for the production of fungal chitosan to compete with existing sources, metabolic engineering and novel applications have been discussed to adjudge the potential of fungal sources for commercial chitosan production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Ohki, Yumi

    1991-11-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10{sup 7} - 3x10{sup 8} per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D{sub 10} values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D{sub 10} values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10{sup -4} per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author).

  7. Range of applications of modern superconducting synchrotron radiation sources using the source planned at Karlsruhe (KSSQ) as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.O.

    1989-06-01

    The performance of the Karlsruhe synchrotron radiation source which was designed originally for X-ray deep-etch lithography comes close to that of first and second generation synchrotron radiation sources. The range of applications spanned by KSSQ is therefore quite similar to that of those machines. The present report displays a first collection of topics from the fields of surface analysis, solid state and materials research, and biology which could be investigated using KSSQ by interested groups coming from KfK and its surroundings. (orig.) [de

  8. INFLUENCE OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF VEGETABLES PRODUCTS AND THEIR PRESERVATION LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilevici Constantin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research paper aims to highlight the scientific correlation between the influence of ultraviolet radiation (UV onsensory and microbiological characteristics of plant products in the category of leaves (lettuce and other types ofvegetables or fruit (bananas and their preservation’s duration, through their UV irradiation under certain conditions.The literature indicates a germicidal action of UV (medium UV on micro-organisms, optimal for λ = 254 nm. Theeffectiveness of radiation is influenced by duration of irradiation, the distance between the radiation source and thesample product and radiant power source.The action of microbial cell inactivation or destruction can be explained by changes in cellular structure andpermeability with changes at the level of mitochondria and the genetic material as a result of photochemical effects ofUV products. Research highlights the preservative effect of UV radiation (with λ = 254 nm and also their influence onsensory properties and positive to negative for leafy vegetables and fruits (bananas in our case.

  9. SALTS AND RADIATION PRODUCTS ON THE SURFACE OF EUROPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M. E.; Hand, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    The surface of Europa could contain the compositional imprint of an underlying interior ocean, but competing hypotheses differ over whether spectral observations from the Galileo spacecraft show the signature of ocean evaporates or simply surface radiation products unrelated to the interior. Using adaptive optics at the W. M. Keck Observatory, we have obtained spatially resolved spectra of most of the disk of Europa at a spectral resolution ∼40 times higher than seen by the Galileo spacecraft. These spectra show a previously undetected distinct signature of magnesium sulfate salts on Europa, but the magnesium sulfate is confined to the trailing hemisphere and spatially correlated with the presence of radiation products like sulfuric acid and SO 2 . On the leading, less irradiated, hemisphere, our observations rule out the presence of many of the proposed sulfate salts, but do show the presence of distorted water ice bands. Based on the association of the potential MgSO 4 detection on the trailing side with other radiation products, we conclude that MgSO 4 is also a radiation product, rather than a constituent of a Europa ocean brine. Based on ocean chemistry models, we hypothesize that, prior to irradiation, magnesium is primarily in the form of MgCl 2 , and we predict that NaCl and KCl are even more abundant, and, in fact, dominate the non-ice component of the leading hemisphere. We propose observational tests of this new hypothesis.

  10. Growth, light interception, radiation use efficiency and productivity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of sowing date on growth, light interception, radiation use efficiency and productivity of mungbean cultivars. The experiment comprised four sowing dates at ten days interval, viz. 08, 18, 28 July and 07 August 2006 and two cultivars, viz. Gofa local and MH-97-6.

  11. SALTS AND RADIATION PRODUCTS ON THE SURFACE OF EUROPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M. E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hand, K. P., E-mail: mbrown@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The surface of Europa could contain the compositional imprint of an underlying interior ocean, but competing hypotheses differ over whether spectral observations from the Galileo spacecraft show the signature of ocean evaporates or simply surface radiation products unrelated to the interior. Using adaptive optics at the W. M. Keck Observatory, we have obtained spatially resolved spectra of most of the disk of Europa at a spectral resolution {approx}40 times higher than seen by the Galileo spacecraft. These spectra show a previously undetected distinct signature of magnesium sulfate salts on Europa, but the magnesium sulfate is confined to the trailing hemisphere and spatially correlated with the presence of radiation products like sulfuric acid and SO{sub 2}. On the leading, less irradiated, hemisphere, our observations rule out the presence of many of the proposed sulfate salts, but do show the presence of distorted water ice bands. Based on the association of the potential MgSO{sub 4} detection on the trailing side with other radiation products, we conclude that MgSO{sub 4} is also a radiation product, rather than a constituent of a Europa ocean brine. Based on ocean chemistry models, we hypothesize that, prior to irradiation, magnesium is primarily in the form of MgCl{sub 2}, and we predict that NaCl and KCl are even more abundant, and, in fact, dominate the non-ice component of the leading hemisphere. We propose observational tests of this new hypothesis.

  12. Production of chemical energy carriers by non-expendable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsch, J

    1976-01-01

    The different forms of energy (radiation, high-temperature heat and electricity) arising from non-expendable energy sources like solar energy can be used for the production of chemical energy-carriers. Possible methods are the splitting of water by means of photolysis, thermochemical cycles and electrolysis, as well as the storage of energy in closed loop chemical systems. These methods are described and efficiencies and costs of the production of these energy carriers are specified. Special problems of the long-distance transportation of hydrogen produced by solar energy are described and the resulting costs are estimated.

  13. Current status of control of radiation sources and radioactive materials in the United Republic of Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyaruba, M.M.; Mompome, W.K.

    2001-01-01

    A Protection from Radiation Act was enacted in Tanzania in 1983 to regulate the use of ionizing radiation and protect people against its danger. The Act established a regulatory authority known as National Radiation Commission (NRC), which is the corporate body to enforce the law and regulations. From the beginning of 2000, the NRC has kept inventory of 200 and 324 radiation installations, and radiation sources and radioactive materials in the country, respectively; and has provided personnel monitoring services to 665 radiation workers. However, due to the trade liberalization that is currently being experienced in the country, the increase in the number of radiation practices is observed yearly. To cope with the situation, the whole system of notification, authorization, registration and licensing needs to be improved. The improvement has now started by amending the existing Protection from Radiation Act. (author)

  14. Ion source developments for RNB production at Spiral / GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villari, A.C.C.; Barue, C.; Gaubert, G.; Gibouin, S.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Kandri-Rody, S.; Landre-Pellemoine, F.; Lecesne, N.; Leroy, R.; Lewitowicz, M.; Marry, C.; Maunoury, L.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Rataud, J.P.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Stodel, C.; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Angelique, J.C.; Orr, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    The first on-line production system for SPIRAL/GANIL (Radioactive Ion Production System with Acceleration on-Line) phase-I has been commissioned on the SIRa (Radioactive Ion Separator) test bench. Exotic multicharged noble gas ion beams have been obtained during several days. In parallel, a new ECRIS (Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source) for mono-charged ions has also been developed. Preliminary, off-line results are presented. (authors)

  15. Potential feedstock sources for ethanol production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, Mohammad [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Hodges, Alan [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This study presents information on the potential feedstock sources that may be used for ethanol production in Florida. Several potential feedstocks for fuel ethanol production in Florida are discussed, such as, sugarcane, corn, citrus byproducts and sweet sorghum. Other probable impacts need to be analyzed for sugarcane to ethanol production as alternative uses of sugarcane may affect the quantity of sugar production in Florida. While citrus molasses is converted to ethanol as an established process, the cost of ethanol is higher, and the total amount of citrus molasses per year is insignificant. Sorghum cultivars have the potential for ethanol production. However, the agricultural practices for growing sweet sorghum for ethanol have not been established, and the conversion process must be tested and developed at a more expanded level. So far, only corn shipped from other states to Florida has been considered for ethanol production on a commercial scale. The economic feasibility of each of these crops requires further data and technical analysis.

  16. Noise characteristics of U. S. synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, L.

    1986-01-01

    Noise characteristics of the U. S. x-ray synchrotron sources are compared in the 0--2.5-kHz region. In general, little difference is found in the characteristic frequencies of the noise on focused and unfocused beamlines of a particular source, but the magnitude and white-noise levels differ. The National Synchrotron Light Source shows the least characteristic noise and the noise that is observed is small in magnitude (2--3 times the white-noise level)

  17. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-11-01

    Many studies on the economical aspects of hydrogen energy technologies have been conducted with the increase of the technical and socioeconomic importance of the hydrogen energy. However, there is still no research which evaluates the economy of hydrogen production from the primary energy sources in consideration of Korean situations. In this study, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations such as feedstock price, electricity rate, and load factor. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S. The present study focuses on the possible future technology scenario defined by NAS. The scenario assumes technological improvement that may be achieved if present research and development (R and D) programs are successful. The production costs by the coal and natural gas are 1.1 $/kgH 2 and 1.36 $/kgH 2 , respectively. However, the fossil fuels are susceptible to the price variation depending on the oil and the raw material prices, and the hydrogen production cost also depends on the carbon tax. The economic competitiveness of the renewable energy sources such as the wind, solar, and biomass are relatively low when compared with that of the other energy sources. The estimated hydrogen production costs from the renewable energy sources range from 2.35 $/kgH 2 to 6.03 $/kgH 2 . On the other hand, the production cost by nuclear energy is lower than that of natural gas or coal when the prices of the oil and soft coal are above $50/barrel and 138 $/ton, respectively. Taking into consideration the recent rapid increase of the oil and soft coal prices and the limited fossil resource, the nuclear-hydrogen option appears to be the most economical way in the future

  18. Study of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) radiation produced by consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roha Tukimin; Ahmad Fazli Ahmad Sanusi; Rozaimah Abd Rahim; Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Mohamad Amirul Nizam Mohamad Thari

    2006-01-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field ( ELF EMF) radiation falls under category of non-ionising radiation (NIR).ELF EMF consists of electric and magnetic fields. Excessive exposure to ELF EMF radiation may cause biological and health effects to human beings such as behavioral changes, stochastic and as initiator of cancer. In daily life, the main source of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation are consumer products in our home and office. Due to its ability to cause hazard, a study of ELF EMF radiation produced by consumer product was conducted. For this preliminary study, sample of 20 types electrical appliances were selected. The measurement was covered electric and magnetic field strength produced by the sample. PMM model EHP50A were used for measurement and data analysis. The results were compared with the permissible limits recommended by International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for members of public (1000 mGauss and 5000 V/m). The results showed that all tested sample produced magnetic and electric field but still under the permissible limit recommended by ICNIRP. Besides that we found that field strengths can be very high at closer distance to the sample. (Author)

  19. The IAEA's sub programme on the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, P.; Oresegun, M.; Bilbao, A.; Webb, G.A.M.; Cunninghan, R.

    1998-01-01

    In compliance with its mandate to establish standards of safety and to provide for their application with respect to radiation sources, the International Atomic Energy Agency has developed a subprogramme aimed at providing Member States guidance and assistance on achieving regulatory control and the safe use of the sources. The guidance addresses the establishment of a Regulatory Programme, with focus on a system for notification and authorization (registration and licensing) and inspection of radiation sources, including check lists for review of safety. It also includes methods for assessing its effectiveness of the Regulatory Programme and is complemented with tools for the management of data by the Regulatory Authority and Services to assist Member States in assessment and implementation of the programme. In addition, technical guidance for the safety of radiation sources includes both prospective and retrospective safety assessment. Retrospective methods have been used resulting in the publication and dissemination of information and lessons from accidents, both individual accident reports and lessons from collection of accident for the practices with major sources (industrial radiography, irradiators and radiotherapy). Prospective methods will include guidance on the application of the principles of radiation protection to potential exposure, as well as methods to apply the principles, such as identification and evaluation of scenarios. Practice specific reports will address the major radiation sources. A research programme will be dedicated to apply Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) to radiation sources. (author)

  20. An Investigation of the Radiative Effects and Climate Feedbacks of Sea Ice Sources of Sea Salt Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, H. M.; Alexander, B.; Bitz, C. M.; Jaegle, L.; Burrows, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    In polar regions, sea ice is a major source of sea salt aerosol through lofting of saline frost flowers or blowing saline snow from the sea ice surface. Under continued climate warming, an ice-free Arctic in summer with only first-year, more saline sea ice in winter is likely. Previous work has focused on climate impacts in summer from increasing open ocean sea salt aerosol emissions following complete sea ice loss in the Arctic, with conflicting results suggesting no net radiative effect or a negative climate feedback resulting from a strong first aerosol indirect effect. However, the radiative forcing from changes to the sea ice sources of sea salt aerosol in a future, warmer climate has not previously been explored. Understanding how sea ice loss affects the Arctic climate system requires investigating both open-ocean and sea ice sources of sea-salt aerosol and their potential interactions. Here, we implement a blowing snow source of sea salt aerosol into the Community Earth System Model (CESM) dynamically coupled to the latest version of the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE5). Snow salinity is a key parameter affecting blowing snow sea salt emissions and previous work has assumed constant regional snow salinity over sea ice. We develop a parameterization for dynamic snow salinity in the sea ice model and examine how its spatial and temporal variability impacts the production of sea salt from blowing snow. We evaluate and constrain the snow salinity parameterization using available observations. Present-day coupled CESM-CICE5 simulations of sea salt aerosol concentrations including sea ice sources are evaluated against in situ and satellite (CALIOP) observations in polar regions. We then quantify the present-day radiative forcing from the addition of blowing snow sea salt aerosol with respect to aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions. The relative contributions of sea ice vs. open ocean sources of sea salt aerosol to radiative forcing in polar regions is